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Sample records for lind western jutland

  1. James Lind's Treatise of the Scurvy (1753).

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, M

    2002-11-01

    Lind is revered as the first doctor to conduct systematic clinical trials of potential cures for scurvy-trials in which oranges and lemons came out as decisive winners. The following paper argues that our modern understanding of scurvy and vitamin C has hindered our understanding of Lind's own conception of his work and of the place within it of his clinical trials. Lind conceived of scurvy not as a disease of dietary deficiency, but of faulty digestion. In the full context of his Treatise of the Scurvy, and of his own medical practice, the seeming decisiveness of the trials fades, to be replaced by a sense of Lind's bafflement at the nature of the disease to which he had devoted his career. PMID:12496338

  2. Remediation and Recycling of Linde FUSRAP Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J. P.; Rehmann, M. R.

    2002-02-27

    During World War II, the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) utilized facilities in the Buffalo, New York area to extract natural uranium from uranium-bearing ores. The Linde property is one of several properties within the Tonawanda, New York Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site, which includes Linde, Ashland 1, Ashland 2, and Seaway. Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division was placed under contract with the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) from 1942 to 1946 to extract uranium from seven different ore sources: four African pitchblende ores and three domestic ores. Over the years, erosion and weathering have spread contamination from the residuals handled and disposed of at Linde to adjacent soils. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) negotiated a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) governing remediation of the Linde property. In Fiscal Year (FY) 1998, Congress transferred cleanup management responsibility for the sites in the FUSRAP program, including the Linde Site, from the DOE to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), with the charge to commence cleanup promptly. All actions by the USACE at the Linde Site are being conducted subject to the administrative, procedural, and regulatory provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the existing FFA. USACE issued a Proposed Plan for the Linde Property in 1999 and a Final Record of Decision (ROD) in 2000. USACE worked with the local community near the Tonawanda site, and after considering public comment, selected the remedy calling for removing soils that exceed the site-specific cleanup standard, and transporting the contaminated material to off-site locations. The selected remedy is protective of human health and the environment, complies with Federal and State requirements, and meets commitments to the community.

  3. Low capacity Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedegard, K.; Atkins, E.; Walker, G.

    1990-01-01

    A closed-cycle Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier was developed incorporating a new, non-clogging, demand flow Joule-Thomson nozzle. The flow area of the nozzle, a tapered annular orifice, is regulated by a very rugged load-sensitive differential thermal expansion scheme and by a manually adjustable micrometer mechanism. Labyrinth flow spoilers within the orifice provide turbulent voids which break up and clear contaminants from the flow. The system's four-stage compressor features sealed, oil-free compression spaces and a very compact nested piston configuration with a minimum of moving parts and drive complexity. The drive mechanism is a rolling Scotch yoke which minimizes piston side forces and seal wear for prolonged operating life. The closed-cycled system is controlled by an innovative load-responsive electronic feedback circuit which further reduces wear and input power.

  4. 12. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 11. VIEW OF THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTH. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 10. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 13. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 17. NORTHWEST VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. NORTHWEST VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT SHOWING FRACTIONATING TOWER, NITROGEN REGENERATORS, AND REVERSING HEAT EXCHANGERS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 16. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT SHOWING THE TWIN OXYGEN FRACTIONATING TOWERS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Improvement of Linde Kryotechnik's internal purifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Lutz; Meier, Albert; Wilhelm, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    With the recent shortage in supply of helium, recovery solutions have experienced a new focus with a tendency to recover streams with higher impurity content. This development calls for purifier systems operating efficiently and with low impact on liquefaction capacity for helium streams with impurity levels in the percentage range. Linde Kryotechnik has answered this demand by improving the performance of its purifier technology. Since 1983, its standardized helium liquefiers of the L- and former TCF-series type contain an internal purifier which already allows efficient impurity removal with minimized space demand. Along with a line dryer to absorb humidity, it is designed to remove air impurities up to 5 mol%. However, with increasing impurity level, liquefaction capacity reduced significantly being furthermore restricted to an upper level of approx. 180 l/h and continuous purification became limited in time. With the current redesign of this purifier, the impact on liquefaction capacity is now minimized without any limitation within the capacity range of the L-series plants. Continuous purification is hence ensured beyond previous maximum impurity content. This paper provides the key design changes and the achievable performance, which has been verified in the recent L-series plants delivered to customers.

  11. 15. GENERAL EASTERN VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. GENERAL EASTERN VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT SHOWING TWIN OXYGEN FRACTIONATING TOWER (ON RIGHT), VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWERS (ON LEFT FOREGROUND), AND AN ARGON FRACTIONATING TOWER (BEHIND VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWER). - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 75 FR 4822 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for Linde Ceramics, Tonawanda...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for Linde Ceramics... employees for Linde Ceramics, Tonawanda, New York, to be included in the Special Exposure Cohort under the...: Facility: Linde Ceramics. Location: Tonawanda, New York. Job Titles and/or Job Duties: All employees...

  13. Sailors' scurvy before and after James Lind--a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scurvy is a thousand-year-old stereotypical disease characterized by apathy, weakness, easy bruising with tiny or large skin hemorrhages, friable bleeding gums, and swollen legs. Untreated patients may die. In the last five centuries sailors and some ships' doctors used oranges and lemons to cure and prevent scurvy, yet university-trained European physicians with no experience of either the disease or its cure by citrus fruits persisted in reviews of the extensive but conflicting literature. In the 20(th) century scurvy was shown to be due to a deficiency of the essential food factor ascorbic acid. This vitamin C was synthesized, and in adequate quantities it completely prevents and completely cures the disease, which is now rare. The protagonist of this medical history was James Lind. His report of a prospective controlled therapeutic trial in 1747 preceded by a half-century the British Navy's prevention and cure of scurvy by citrus fruits. After lime-juice was unwittingly substituted for lemon juice in about 1860, the disease returned, especially among sailors on polar explorations. In recent decades revisionist historians have challenged normative accounts, including that of scurvy, and the historicity of Lind's trial. It is therefore timely to reassess systematically the strengths and weaknesses of the canonical saga.

  14. Sailors' scurvy before and after James Lind--a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scurvy is a thousand-year-old stereotypical disease characterized by apathy, weakness, easy bruising with tiny or large skin hemorrhages, friable bleeding gums, and swollen legs. Untreated patients may die. In the last five centuries sailors and some ships' doctors used oranges and lemons to cure and prevent scurvy, yet university-trained European physicians with no experience of either the disease or its cure by citrus fruits persisted in reviews of the extensive but conflicting literature. In the 20(th) century scurvy was shown to be due to a deficiency of the essential food factor ascorbic acid. This vitamin C was synthesized, and in adequate quantities it completely prevents and completely cures the disease, which is now rare. The protagonist of this medical history was James Lind. His report of a prospective controlled therapeutic trial in 1747 preceded by a half-century the British Navy's prevention and cure of scurvy by citrus fruits. After lime-juice was unwittingly substituted for lemon juice in about 1860, the disease returned, especially among sailors on polar explorations. In recent decades revisionist historians have challenged normative accounts, including that of scurvy, and the historicity of Lind's trial. It is therefore timely to reassess systematically the strengths and weaknesses of the canonical saga. PMID:19519673

  15. Putrid gums and 'Dead Men's Cloaths': James Lind aboard the Salisbury

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Graham

    2003-01-01

    18th century sailors often suffered from scurvy. In 1747 James Lind conducted his classic experiments aboard the Salisbury, in which he cured scurvy with oranges and lemons. The Royal Navy did not introduce citrus rations until 1795. The original ship's papers allow the circumstances of the experiment to be reconstructed. The relevant patrol began in March 1747, and Lind's experiment began after 8 weeks at sea. The muster roll records almost no sickness aboard until the ship returned to Plymouth in June. This is at odds with Lind's account and suggests an antisickness official culture, which may have contributed to the neglect of his work. PMID:14645616

  16. Putrid gums and 'dead men's cloaths': James Lind aboard the Salisbury.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Graham

    2003-12-01

    18th century sailors often suffered from scurvy. In 1747 James Lind conducted his classic experiments aboard the Salisbury, in which he cured scurvy with oranges and lemons. The Royal Navy did not introduce citrus rations until 1795. The original ship's papers allow the circumstances of the experiment to be reconstructed. The relevant patrol began in March 1747, and Lind's experiment began after 8 weeks at sea. The muster roll records almost no sickness aboard until the ship returned to Plymouth in June. This is at odds with Lind's account and suggests an antisickness official culture, which may have contributed to the neglect of his work. PMID:14645616

  17. Maximizing production rates of the Linde Hampson machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal, B.-Z.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to the ideal case of unlimited size recuperator, any real Linde-Hampson machine of finite size recuperator can be optimized to reach the extreme rates of performance. The group of cryocoolers sharing the same size recuperator is optimized in a closed form by determining the corresponding flow rate which maximizes its rate of cold production. For a similar group of liquefiers an optimal flow rate is derived to maximize the rate of production of liquid cryogen. The group of cryocoolers sharing a constant and given flow rate is optimized by shortening the recuperator for reaching a maximum compactness measured by the cooling power per unit size of the recuperator. The optimum conditions are developed for nitrogen and argon. The relevance of this analysis is discussed in the context of practice of fast cooldown Joule-Thomson cryocooling.

  18. Structures of the Kplus and NH4 Forms of Linde J

    SciTech Connect

    R Broach; R Kirchner

    2011-12-31

    The aluminosilicate zeolite Linde J has a unique topology. The structures of the K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} forms of Linde J ([X{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)][Si{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8}] where X = K or NH{sub 4}) are identical except for slight cell size and positional differences due to NH{sub 4}{sup +} being larger than K{sup +} cations. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Cell dimensions are: K{sup +} Linde J, a = 9.4577(2) {angstrom}, b = 9.5573(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.9429(2) {angstrom}; NH{sub 4}{sup +} Linde J, a = 9.6324(4) {angstrom}, b = 9.6423(3) {angstrom}, c = 10.0230(3) {angstrom}. Zigzag 8-ring channels intersect giving a 2-D pore system.

  19. [Laparoscopic Galvin-TeLinde hysterectomy for treatment of a microinvasive cervical carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Skret, A; Obrzut, B; Chruściel, A

    1999-01-01

    The original technique of laparoscopical Galvin-TeLinde-hysterectomy in patients with FIGO IA1 cervical cancer is presented. Differences between this technique and classical abdominal procedure are discussed. Based on the presented case the authors discuss the significance of laparoscopy in cervical cancer treatment. PMID:10408079

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE Oxygen Combustion System installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney Farm site in sou...

  1. Spatial patterns in surveillance data during control of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds in Jutland, Denmark 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella Dublin is the most commonly isolated Salmonella serotype in Danish cattle and leads to economic and welfare losses in infected herds. Furthermore, it leads to high mortality in human cases. A national surveillance program for Salmonella Dublin was initiated in Denmark in October 2002. This study aimed at modelling the progress and spatial patterns during the control of Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds in the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, especially differences between regions and years. A total of 6331 dairy herds were included during 2003-2009. Antibody measurements of bulk-tank milk samples were used for testing herd-level Salmonella status in these dairy herds. Risk maps were estimated as prevalence intensity maps. Spatial clustering was analysed using scan statistics and SMR was estimated. In 2003, the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin test-positive dairy herds was 24%. It decreased to 12% in 2009. Prevalence intensity maps showed large differences in the reduction of Salmonella Dublin test-positive herds. The number of clusters reduced during the study period. However, throughout the study period two clusters remained significant. Differences were seen in the progress of the control between regions over the years. The implementation and effectiveness of the control program was different between regions. The progress of control was seen to vary not only between regions, but also over time influencing infection dynamics. Thus, recommendations and regionally targeted efforts during control campaigns are needed.

  2. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph; Boyle, James D.

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  3. Evolution of clinical research: a history before and beyond james lind.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of clinical research traverses a long and fascinating journey. From the first recorded trial of legumes in biblical times to the first randomized controlled of trial of streptomycin in 1946, the history of clinical trial covers a wide variety of challenges - scientific, ethical and regulatory. The famous 1747 scurvy trial conducted by James Lind contained most elements of a controlled trial. The UK Medical Research Council's (MRC) trial of patulin for common cold in 1943 was the first double blind controlled trial. This paved the way for the first randomized control trial of streptomycin in pulmonary tuberculosis carried out in 1946 by MRC of the UK. This landmark trial was a model of meticulousness in design and implementation, with systematic enrolment criteria and data collection compared with the ad hoc nature of other contemporary research. Over the years, as the discipline of controlled trials grew in sophistication and influence, the streptomycin trial continues to be referred to as ground breaking. The ethical advances in human protection include several milestones - Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, and 1996, International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice guidance. In parallel to ethical guidelines, clinical trials started to become embodied in regulation as government authorities began recognizing a need for controlling medical therapies in the early 20th century. As the scientific advances continue to occur, there will be new ethical and regulatory challenges requiring dynamic updates in ethical and legal framework of clinical trials.

  4. Fine structures of zeolite-Linde-L (LTL): surface structures, growth unit and defects.

    PubMed

    Ohsuna, Tetsu; Slater, Ben; Gao, Feifei; Yu, Jihong; Sakamoto, Yasahiro; Zhu, Gaugshan; Terasaki, Osamu; Vaughan, David E W; Qiu, Shilun; Catlow, C Richard A

    2004-10-11

    High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) has been used to image the surface structure of nano- and micrometer-sized synthetic crystals of zeolite-Linde-L (LTL). Columnar holes and rotational, nano-sized, wheel-like defects were observed within the crystals, where the hole has a minimum size equal to that of the rotational defect. Predictions of surface structure from atomistic computer simulation concur with the observations from HREM and provide insight into the crystal growth mechanism of perfect and defective LTL. Analysis of the energetics of the formation of rotational defect structures reveals that the driving force for defect creation is thermodynamic and furthermore, the rotational defects could be created in high concentrations. Formation of a columnar hole is found to be slightly energetically unfavourable and therefore we speculate that the incidence of both rotational and nano-sized vacancy defects is strongly dependent on kinetic factors and reaction conditions. The morphology of nano- and microcrystalline LTL is contradistinct and we use insights from simulation to propose an explanation of the disparity in crystal shape.

  5. Evolution of Clinical Research: A History Before and Beyond James Lind

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of clinical research traverses a long and fascinating journey. From the first recorded trial of legumes in biblical times to the first randomized controlled of trial of streptomycin in 1946, the history of clinical trial covers a wide variety of challenges - scientific, ethical and regulatory. The famous 1747 scurvy trial conducted by James Lind contained most elements of a controlled trial. The UK Medical Research Council's (MRC) trial of patulin for common cold in 1943 was the first double blind controlled trial. This paved the way for the first randomized control trial of streptomycin in pulmonary tuberculosis carried out in 1946 by MRC of the UK. This landmark trial was a model of meticulousness in design and implementation, with systematic enrolment criteria and data collection compared with the ad hoc nature of other contemporary research. Over the years, as the discipline of controlled trials grew in sophistication and influence, the streptomycin trial continues to be referred to as ground breaking. The ethical advances in human protection include several milestones - Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, and 1996, International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice guidance. In parallel to ethical guidelines, clinical trials started to become embodied in regulation as government authorities began recognizing a need for controlling medical therapies in the early 20th century. As the scientific advances continue to occur, there will be new ethical and regulatory challenges requiring dynamic updates in ethical and legal framework of clinical trials. PMID:21829774

  6. [German qualified doctors license to continue practice in south Jutland after the reunion. (Application of danish jus practicandi, process and result)].

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    At the reunion of the southern part of Jutland with Denmark 1920 danish legislation had to be introduced in the new incorporated region. According to a special law doctors educated in Germany could obtain danish medical authorization, if they were born or established in the region before 1.1.1918, under certain circumstances it was possible to dispense from this date. The law meant that all doctors, in the region had to ask for danish authorization. Matrimonial relationship and personal connections were strong arguments for a dispensation, but not always sufficient. In more cases a refusal was given because of a german attitude at the applicant in spite of matrimonial relationship, with the result that the applicant had to leave an established practice and Denmark. 53 doctors were given danish authorization immediately. 8 got an authorization by dispensation and 10 got a refusal. A survey of the applications and the corrected archives shows, that the cases mostly were handled without problems. But the cases, where dispensation and especially refusal were given, were often very complicated and followed by heavy local national reactions. This paper describes the background of the special law and the course of the cases with particular weight on the cases where dispensation or refusal were given.

  7. Research priorities for shoulder surgery: results of the 2015 James Lind Alliance patient and clinician priority setting partnership

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Amar; Upadhaya, Sheela; Regan, Sandra; Toye, Francine; Rees, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To run a UK based James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership for ‘Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems’. Setting This was a nationally funded and conducted process. It was organised from a musculoskeletal research centre and Biomedical Research Unit in Oxford. Participants UK shoulder patients, carers and clinicians, involved in treating patients with shoulder pain and shoulder problems that might require surgery. Interventions These were national electronic and paper surveys capturing treatment uncertainties that are important to shoulder patients, carers and clinicians. Outcome measures The outcomes relevant to this study were the survey results and rankings. Results The process took 18 months to complete, with 371 participants contributing 404 in scope questions. The James Lind process then produced a final 10 research priorities and uncertainties that relate to the scope of ‘Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems’. Conclusions The final top 10 UK research priorities have been produced and are now being disseminated to partner organisations and funders to guide funding of shoulder research for the next 5–10 years on topics that are important to patients, their carers and clinicians. PMID:27067892

  8. Relocation of on-site spoils pile materials at the Linde Fusrap Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schwippert, M.T.; Boyle, J.D.; Bousquet, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    During the 1940's, the Linde Division of Union Carbide used portions of their property in Tonawanda, New York for processing uranium ores under Federal Manhattan Engineering District (MED) contracts. These activities resulted in radiological contamination on portions of the property. The radionuclides of concern at the site are Radium, Thorium, and Uranium. The site is currently owned and operated by Praxair Inc., an industrial gas company. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) issued a Record of Decision to remediate the radiologically-contaminated materials associated with MED activities in March 2000 under the authority of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The selected remedy is fully protective of human health and the environment and complies with Federal and State requirements that are legally applicable or relevant and appropriate and meets community commitments. The USACE - Buffalo District has been executing remedial activities at the site and has successfully addressed many challenges in a safe and cost effective manner through effective coordination, project management, and partnering with stakeholders. These efforts supported the successful relocation of approximately 29,000 cubic yards of stockpiled material (soils, concrete, steel, asphalt and miscellaneous non-soil) that had been generated by the property owner as a result of ongoing development of the facility. Relocation of the material was necessary to allow safe access to the surface and subsurface soils beneath the pile for sampling and analysis. During relocation operations, materials were evaluated for the presence of radiological contamination. The vast majority of material was relocated onsite and remained the property owner's responsibility. A small portion of the material required off-site disposal at a permitted disposal facility due to radiological contamination that exceeded site criteria. This paper presents details associated with the successful

  9. D0 Collider Detector LINDE, East Chicago (LAr Contractor) Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.; Krempetz, K.; Mulholland, G.T.; Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-08

    product, pressure transfered directly from the final column to a properly cooled and purged truck backed right up to the column. The high purity product can be as low as 0.3 ppm 02 by proper application of these procedures. Liquid Argon is the only product for which standing, loaded, trailers are provided vent recovery lines. The recovered gas is fed back to the crude Ar stream. The local O2 monitoring equipment is a Teledyne 306WA with ranges of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 PPM full scale. The wet cell unit is available from ENPRO for an estimated $3,500. The N2 in Ar is measured by a special in-house Linde instrument.

  10. Fracture toughness testing of Linde 1092 reactor vessel welds in the transition range using Charpy-sized specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Pavinich, W.A.; Yoon, K.K.; Hour, K.Y.; Hoffman, C.L.

    1999-10-01

    The present reference toughness method for predicting the change in fracture toughness can provide over estimates of these values because of uncertainties in initial RT{sub NDT} and shift correlations. It would be preferable to directly measure fracture toughness. However, until recently, no standard method was available to characterize fracture toughness in the transition range. ASTM E08 has developed a draft standard that shows promise for providing lower bound transition range fracture toughness using the master curve approach. This method has been successfully implemented using 1T compact fracture specimens. Combustion Engineering reactor vessel surveillance programs do not have compact fracture specimens. Therefore, the CE Owners Group developed a program to validate the master curve method for Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens for future application on irradiated specimens. This method was validated for Linde 1092 welds using unirradiated Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens by comparison of results with those from compact fracture specimens.

  11. Innovative Regulatory and Technical Approaches for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers' Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J. T.; Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J.; Boyle, J. D.; Rogers, B. C.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) created the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 to identify, investigate, and cleanup or control radiological contamination at sites used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the 1940s through the 1960s. The USDOE had identified 46 sites in the program and finished remediation at 24 of the smaller ones before the end of 1997. With the passage of the Energy and Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1998 the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) was designated by Congress with responsibility to manage and execute the FUSRAP. The Linde Site located in Tonawanda, New York was operated by the MED from 1942-1946 to extract uranium from several high-grade ores. This natural uranium was subsequently enriched in U-235 elsewhere in the United States and ultimately used to produce energy or weapons. Though in the process of reviewing alternative disposal options by 1995, the USDOE had operated FUSRAP with a strategy requiring virtually all materials remediated be disposed of at only one Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facility. The change in management of the FUSRAP in 1997 allowed the disposal policy of low levels of radioactively contaminated materials found at the remaining sites to be reexamined. This paper presents some of the innovative regulatory and technical approaches employed at the Linde Site that are resulting in project cost savings while meeting applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements as well as fulfilling commitments made to the local community.

  12. [The war invalid laws of 1920 on support for disabled soldiers and their surviving relatives in the provinces of southern Jutland, and the disabled soldiers' board of Sønderborg].

    PubMed

    Marckmann, A

    1999-01-01

    After the reunion between Denmark and Southern Jutland in 1920, the Danish state took over the obligations towards disabled soldiers and surviving relatives to dead soldiers from this province, serving in the German army during World War I. In 1920, the regulations were fixed by law, giving rise to Invalide-noevnet (disabled soldiers' board) in Sonderborg. The board dealt with altogether 6400 applications for invalidity pension and 4000 applications from surviving relatives. In Sonderborg an institution for disabled soldiers (Krigsinvalideskolen) was founded, including a hospital department and workshops for training and rehabilitation as well as production of bandages. A survey is given of these activities. The author next uncovers the story behind one of 9 names on a war memorial tablet, representing soldiers from the parish of Lebol, Sydals, who died in German war service during World War I. The medical record for this dead soldier is given and the family's fruitless efforts for 18 years to obtain pension are reported in details.

  13. Western Samoa.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  14. Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey of Remediation at Building 31, Former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York (LI001V)

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, S.P.; Uziel, M.S.

    1998-11-01

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progmq a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a radiological veriihtion survey of Building 31 at the former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawau& New York. The purpose of the survey was to ver@ that remedial action completed by the project management contractor had reduced contamination levels to within authorized limits. Prior to remediatioq tied radioactive material was prevalent throughout the building and in some of the ductwork Decontaminadon consisted of removing surfhce contamination from floors, baseboards, and overhead areas; removing some air ducts; and vacuuming dust. Building 31 at the former Linde site in TonawandA New Yorlq was thoroughly investigated inside and outside for radionuclide residues. The verification team discovered previously undetected contaminadon beneath the concrete pad on the first floor and underneath floor tiles on the second floor. All suspect floor tiles were removed and any contamination beneath them cleaned to below guideline levels. The verification team also discovered elevated radiation levels associated with overhead air lines that led to the eventual removal of the entire air lige and a complete investigation of the history of all process piping in the building. Final verification surveys showed that residual surface beta-gamma activity levels were slightly elevated in some places but below U.S. Department of Energy applicable guidelines for protection against radiation (Table 1). Similarly, removable radioactive contamination was also below applicable guidelines. Exposure rates within the building were at typical background levels, and no consistently elevated indoor radon concentrations were measured. However, radionuclide analysis of subsurface soil from beneath the concrete floor on the ground level showed concentrations of `*U and'% that exceeded applicable guidelines. At the time of this survey, there was no measured exposure pathway for this

  15. Mutation in Torenia fournieri Lind. UFO homolog confers loss of TfLFY interaction and results in a petal to sepal transformation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Aida, Ryutaro; Shikata, Masahito; Abe, Tomoko; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY. PMID:22577962

  16. Mutation in Torenia fournieri Lind. UFO homolog confers loss of TfLFY interaction and results in a petal to sepal transformation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Aida, Ryutaro; Shikata, Masahito; Abe, Tomoko; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY.

  17. Western blots.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lita A

    2013-01-01

    Western analysis of apolipoproteins, lipoproteins, and proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism can be challenging due to their size, hydrophobic nature, and, in some cases, low abundance. Here we describe a Western blotting method that has been used successfully for many proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism, as well as intact LDL or HDL particles. Proteins or lipoprotein particles separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a PVDF membrane in a Hoefer TE22 transfer tank with Tris-Glycine-SDS-Methanol transfer buffer. The membrane is blocked with 3 % BSA/5 % milk to prevent nonspecific binding of antibody to the membrane and is then incubated with primary antibody that binds specifically to the protein of interest. After washing away unbound primary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with an HRP-labeled secondary antibody that binds primary antibody. After washing away unbound secondary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with a substrate for HRP, generating a chemiluminescent signal at the location of the protein of interest. The protein is visualized by exposing the membrane to an autoradiography film or an imaging device. Information on the use of several human antibodies, including apoA-I, A-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoD, apoL1, apoM, PON1, SAA, ABCA1, nitrotyrosine, and LCAT, is provided. This method can be used for Western blotting of virtually any protein as well as native lipoprotein particles. PMID:23912997

  18. [Prescription of medicines by two medical officers in Jutland in 1797. An analysis of the prescription practice of C.D. Hahn, Physicus of Aarhus Diocese, and K.N. Carstensen, Physicus of Aalborg Diocese].

    PubMed

    Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Wulff, Henrik R; Jungersen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    , electuaries, powders, teas and other herbs. Medicines for external use were usually ointments. In a number of cases Hahn prescribed pills, whereas Carstensen did not do so, although the production of pills at that time was common practice. Carstensen paid greater attention to the durability of the prescribed medicines than Hahn, probably because Carstensen's patients came from all of Northern Jutland. Therefore, it was important in his case that the keeping quality of the medicines permitted a time-consuming transport from pharmacy to patient and storage by the patient during the whole course of treatment. In contrast, most of Hahn's patients lived in Aarhus and surroundings. We compared the 22 substances used most frequently by Hahn and the 22 used most frequently by Carstensen. In both cases these included (in alphabetical order): bitter orange peel, camphor, cinchona, ether, peppermint, potassium carbonate, potassium tartrate and rhubarb roots. 60% of the substances in the preparations by either doctor were herbal drugs and 40% mineral or other chemical substances. Both Hahn and Carstensen favoured "evacuative" treatment, according to the theory of humoral pathology, using laxatives, diuretics and sudorifics. However, their choice of medicines differed, and, in contrast to Carstensen, Hahn also frequently prescribed emetics. The two doctors rarely prescribed the chemical substances recommended by the iatrochemists. PMID:18548942

  19. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher; Simkiss, Doug; Busk, Mary; Morris, Maureen; Allard, Amanda; Denness, Jacob; Janssens, Astrid; Stimson, Anna; Coghill, Joanna; Robinson, Kelly; Fenton, Mark; Cowan, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To engage young people, parent carers and clinicians in a systematic process to identify and prioritise research questions regarding ways to improve the health and well-being of children and young people with neurodisability. Design British Academy of Childhood Disability (BACD)-James Lind Alliance research priority setting partnership bringing together patients, carers and clinicians as equal stakeholders. Setting UK health service and community. Methods The BACD Strategic Research Group formed the partnership. A Steering Group was established; charity and professional partner organisations were recruited. Suggestions were gathered in an open survey and from research recommendations for statutory guidance. Items were aggregated to formulate indicative research questions and verified as uncertainties from research evidence. An interim survey was used to rank the questions to shortlist topics. A mixed group of stakeholders discussed the top 25 questions at the final priority setting workshop agreeing a final rank order and the top 10 research priorities. Participants Partner organisations were 13 charities and 8 professional societies. 369 people submitted suggestions (40% non-clinicians). 76 people participated in the interim prioritisation (26 parents, 1 young person, 10 charity representatives, 39 clinicians); 22 took part in the final workshop (3 young people, 7 parents, 3 charity representatives, 9 professionals). Results The top three research priorities related to (1) establishing the optimal frequency and intensity (dose) for mainstream therapies, (2) means for selecting and encouraging use of communication strategies and (3) ways to improve children's attitudes towards disability. The top 10 included evaluating interventions to promote mobility, self-efficacy, mental health, continence, physical fitness, educational inclusion and reduce impacts of sleep disturbance. Conclusions The methodology provided a systematic and transparent process to

  20. Digital-simulation and projection of water-level declines in basalt aquifers of the Odessa-Lind area, east-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luzier, J.E.; Skrivan, James A.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program using finite-difference techniques simulates an intensively pumped, multilayered basalt-aquifer system near Odessa. The aquifers now developed are in the upper 1,000 feet of a regionally extensive series of southwesterly dipping basalt flows of the Columbia River Group. Most of the aquifers are confined. Those in the depth range of about 500 to 1,000 feet are the chief source of ground water pumped from irrigation wells. Transmissivity of these aquifers ranges from less than 2,700 feet squared per day to more than 40,000 feet squared per day, and storage coefficients range from 0.0015 to 0.006. Shallower aquifers are generally much less permeable, but they are a source of recharge to deeper aquifers with lower artesian heads; vertical leakage occurs along joints in the basalt and down uncased wells, which short circuit the aquifer system. For model analysis, the deeper, pumped aquifers were grouped and treated as a single layer with drawdown-dependent leakage from an overlying confining layer. Verification of the model was achieved primarily by closely matching observed pumpage-related head declines ranging from about 10 feet to more than 40 feet over the 4-year period from March 1967 to March 1971. Projected average annual rates of decline in the Odessa-Lind area during the 14-year period from March 1967 to March 1981 are: from 1 to 9 feet per year if pumpage is maintained at the 1970 rate of 117,000 acre-feet per year; or, from 3 to 33 feet per year if 1970 pumpage is increased to 233,000 acre-feet per year, which includes 116,000 acre-feet per year covered by water-right applications held in abeyance. In each case, projected drawdown on the northeast side of a major ground-water barrier is about double that on the southwest side because of differences in transmissivity and storage coefficient and in sources of recharge.

  1. 76 FR 41147 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chinle, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument... Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, WA 98057... Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group, 1601 Lind Avenue,...

  2. What Is Western Civilization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birken, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…

  3. Violence the Western way.

    PubMed

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  4. Paula Fox's "Western Wind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes the novel, "Western Wind," by Paula Fox, lists 12 discussion questions, describes six activities, and contains an annotated bibliography of seven other novels related to birth, death, and families. (DGM)

  5. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  6. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  7. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  8. Typhoon Odessa, Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This near vertical and detailed view of the eye of Typhoon Odessa was photographed somewhere in the Western Pacific, exact location unknown. The presence of a tight gyre and well formed eye, bordered by a cloud berm in the center, are all indicators of a very powerful and devastating typhoon with very high internal cyclonic wind speeds.

  9. The western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  10. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  11. Western Gas Sands Subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The Western Gas Sands Subprogram (WGSS) is a multidisciplinary research effort within the US Department of Energy program on Unconventional Gas Recovery. The subprogram, managed by DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is directed towards the development of tight (very low permeability) lenticular gas sands in the western United States. The purpose of the subprogram is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. The subprogram has two broad goals: (1) to reduce the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential and (2) to improve the extraction technology. With input from the gas industry, universities, and geologic and engineering consulting firms, the WGSS was broadened to include more fundamental research and development. Consequently, for the last five years it has focused on improving diagnostic instrumentation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of the three priority basins containing tight sands and selected by DOE as research targets have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have evolved: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant amounts of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins are Piceance Basin, 49 tcf., Uinta Basin, 20 tcf., and Greater Green River Basin, 136 tcf. The presence of natural micro-fractures within the production zone of a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically-induced fractures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. 8 figures.

  12. Lewis inverse design code (LINDES): Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1987-01-01

    The method of complex characteristics and hodograph transformation for the design of shockless airfoils was introduced by Bauer, Garabedian, and Korn and has been extended by the author to design subcritical and supercritical cascades with high solidities and large inlet angles. This new capability was achieved by introducing a new conformal mapping of the hodograph domain onto an ellipse and expanding the solution in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. A new computer code, the NASA Lewis inverse design code, was developed based on this idea. This new design code is an efficient method for the design of airfoils in cascade. In particular, the design of subcritical cascades of airfoils is a very fast, robust, and versatile process. The inverse design code can be made to interact with a turbulent boundary layer calculation to obtain airfoils with no separated flows at the design condition. This report is intended to serve as a users manual for this design code. Material previously reported by the author is included here for completeness and quick access to the user. The manual contains a description of the method followed by a discussion of the design procedure and examples. The input parameters necessary to run the code are then described and their default values given. Output listings corresponding to six different blade shapes designed with the code are given, as well as the necessary input data to reproduce the computer runs. The examples have been chosen to show that a wide range of applications can be covered with the code, ranging from supercritical propeller sections to wind tunnel turning vanes that can operate with a large inlet flow angle range.

  13. Lightning in Western Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, René D.; Gabriela Nicora, M.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Ávila, Eldo E.

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of 8 years (2005-2012) of stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network we describe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of lightning activity over Western Patagonia. This region extends from ~40°S to 55°S along the west coast of South America, is limited to the east by the austral Andes, and features a hyper-humid, maritime climate. Stroke density exhibits a sharp maximum along the coast of southern Chile. Although precipitation there is largely produced by cold nimbostratus, days with more than one stroke occur up to a third of the time somewhere along the coastal strip. Disperse strokes are also observed off southern Chile. In contrast, strokes are virtually nonexistent over the austral Andes—where precipitation is maximum—and farther east over the dry lowlands of Argentina. Atmospheric reanalysis and satellite imagery are used to characterize the synoptic environment of lightning-producing storms, exemplified by a case study and generalized by a compositing analysis. Lightning activity tends to occur when Western Patagonia is immersed in a pool of cold air behind a front that has reached the coast at ~40°S. Under these circumstances, midlevel cooling occurs before and is more prominent than near-surface cooling, leading to a weakly unstable postfrontal condition. Forced uplift of the strong westerlies impinging on the coastal mountains can trigger convection and produces significant lightning activity in this zone. Farther offshore, large-scale ascent near the cyclone's center may lift near-surface air parcels, fostering shallow convection and dispersing lightning activity.

  14. Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  15. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  16. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  17. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  18. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  19. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  20. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  1. Western gas sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. Two broad research goals have been defined: (1) reducing the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential, and (2) improving the extraction technology. These goals are being pursued by conducting research and encouraging industrial efforts in developing the necessary technology, including: (1) providing fundamental research into the nature of tight, lenticular gas sands and the technologies for diagnosing and developing them: (2) developing and verifying the technology for effective gas production; and (3) promoting the transfer of research products and technology advances to the gas industry in usable forms. The focus of the research for the last several years has been improving diagnostic instrumentation for reservoir and stimulation performance evaluation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of three basins containing tight lenticular sands, which were selected by DOE as priority research targets, have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have been formed: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant volumes of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins have been estimated - Piceance Basin 49 Tcf.; Greater Green River Basin, 136 Tcf.; Uinta Basin, 20 Tcf. Presence of natural micro-fractures within a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically induced fratures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. Stimulation technology at the present time is insufficient to efficiently recover gas from lenticular tight reservoirs. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Western Disturbances: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  3. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  4. Single-cell western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Spelke, Dawn P.; Xu, Zhuchen; Kang, Chi-Chih; Schaffer, David V.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    To measure cell-to-cell variation in protein-mediated functions — a hallmark of biological processes — we developed an approach to conduct ~103 concurrent single-cell western blots (scWesterns) in ~4 hours. A microscope slide supporting a 30 µm-thick photoactive polyacrylamide gel enables western blotting comprised of: settling of single cells into microwells, lysis in situ, gel electrophoresis, photoinitiated blotting to immobilize proteins, and antibody probing. We apply this scWestern to monitor single rat neural stem cell differentiation and responses to mitogen stimulation. The scWestern quantifies target proteins even with off-target antibody binding, multiplexes to 11 protein targets per single cell with detection thresholds of <30,000 molecules, and supports analyses of low starting cell numbers (~200) when integrated with fluorescence activated cell sorting. The scWestern thus overcomes limitations in single-cell protein analysis (i.e., antibody fidelity, sensitivity, and starting cell number) and constitutes a versatile tool for the study of complex cell populations at single-cell resolution. PMID:24880876

  5. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  6. Takahashi Yoshitoki and Western astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi

    2005-05-01

    When we discuss the achievements of Takahashi Yoshitoki (1764-1804), we must pay attention to the two "Western" astronomical treatises, for they contributed a great deal to the advancement of his astronomical knowledge. They are a sequel to the Li-xiang Kao-cheng, a Sino-Western work by a German Jesuit I. Koegler, et al. and the Dutch version of J. J. de Lalande's Astronomie. Both books introduced the latest astronomical knowledge from the West. This paper traces Yoshitoki's life and achievements, focusing on his encounter with these two works.

  7. NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

  8. Skywatch: The Western Weather Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Richard A.

    The western United States is a region of mountains and valleys with the world's largest ocean next door. Its weather is unique. This book discusses how water, wind, and environmental conditions combine to create the climatic conditions of the region. Included are sections describing: fronts; cyclones; precipitation; storms; tornadoes; hurricanes;…

  9. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…

  10. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  11. Multicultural Education in Western Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A., Ed.; Lynch, James, Ed.

    Western democratic societies share an egalitarian ideology which maintains that a major goal of the state is to protect human rights and promote equality and the structural inclusion of all racial, ethnic, and cultural groups into the fabric of society. Educational initiatives taken to implement reforms that reflect ethnic diversity and promote…

  12. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  13. Race Relations in Western Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Melvin L.

    This report is derived from a community forum held in Scottsbluff (Nebraska) on April 28-29, 1993, by the Nebraska Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Views on race relations in selected areas of western Nebraska were expressed by concerned citizens; community leaders; government officials (federal, state, and…

  14. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  15. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  16. The western Veil nebula (Image)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenny, M.

    2009-12-01

    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  17. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  18. The seismicity of western Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Abrraseys, N.N.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an evaluation of the seismicity of western Scandinavia. Intensities, with reference to the MSK scale, have been assessed for the larger earthquakes, in most cases from primary sources, and isoseismal maps have been constructed for the most important events, while for smaller shocks one or more isoseismal radii were estimated. In all, over 3,200 earthquakes have been retrieved for Northwest Europe, including about 300 artificial events such as chemical explosions, rock-bursts and mine explosions. Of these, 500 events occurred in western Scandinavia. Surface-wave magnitudes were reassessed for 205 events, using surface-wave amplitude-period data, and all earthquakes recorded by more than 6 stations were relocated for the period prior to 1955. A calibration formula, obtained from the combination of macroseismic and instrumental data of the 20th century, has been used to assign magnitudes to all events for which there is macroseismic information available, thus deriving a homogeneous body of data covering a period of 180 years. It is shown that the largest earthquake in the region since 1800 occurred on land and that it had magnitude in excess of 6.0. This is contrary to the current belief, based on short-term data, that the larger events in western Fennoscandia occur offshore in the continental shelf areas.

  19. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    PubMed

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  20. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  1. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  2. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  3. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  4. 75 FR 36585 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at Panguitch Municipal... Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, WA 98057; telephone (425) 203-4537... Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group, 1601 Lind Avenue,...

  5. 76 FR 40295 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tonopah, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... necessary to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, WA 98057... Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group, 1601 Lind Avenue,...

  6. 76 FR 21268 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lincoln, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Samaritan North... Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, WA 98057; telephone (425) 203-4537... Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group, 1601 Lind Avenue,...

  7. Tectonic evolution of the western Kunlun orogenic belt, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihong, Wang

    2004-11-01

    The western Kunlun orogenic belt in western China evolved through the development of a large subduction-accretionary complex, including flysch sediments and granitic plutons, and by collision of three terranes, namely the North and South Kunlun and Karakorum-Qiangtang blocks from the early Paleozoic to the early Mesozoic. North-dipping subduction of the Paleo-Tethys ocean beneath the Kunlun terranes, which may have commenced in the Cambrian, produced an early Paleozoic Andean-type magmatic arc on the South Kunlun, and a marginal back arc basin, represented by the early Paleozoic Oytag-Kudi ophiolite belt, between the North and South Kunlun. A northward subduction zone consumed the basin and the young, hot upper plate lithosphere was obducted southward onto the South Kunlun following closure of the basin. This resulted in collision of the North and South Kunlun in the early Devonian. Continuous northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys resulted in the development of a Carboniferous-Triassic magmatic arc, and a back arc rifting sequence composed of the Carboniferous to Permian carbonates and clastic sediments on the North and South Kunlun terranes. The Paleo-Tethys ocean finally closed in the late Triassic-early Jurassic, when the Kunlun and Karakorum-Qiangtang blocks were accreted, with the Kara-Kunlun accretionary prism marking their suture zone.

  8. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean.

    The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Western grebe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1984-01-01

    The western grebe (Aechmophorus occi denta 1is) "breeds from southeastern Alaska, south-central British Columbia, central Alberta, central Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba south to southern Californi a, north-central Utah, southwestern Colorado, southwest~rn and northeastern New Mexico, western Nebraska, northwestern Iowa, and western Minnesota; and locally in Mexico from Chihuahua and Durango south to northern Guerrero, Puebla and San Luis Potosi" (American Ornithologists' Union 1983:10).

  10. Nodding syndrome, western Uganda, 1994.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George

    2015-07-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208

  11. Lunar western limb pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that the lunar pyroclastic volcanism played an important role in the formation and resurfacing of many areas of the Moon. On-going analysis of lunar Orbiter and Apollo photographs continues to locate and identify pyroclastic deposits and suggests that they just may be more ubiquitous than once thought. Located near mare/highland boundaries, many of these deposits formed contemporaneously with effusive mare volcanism. The mantling deposits formed as products of fire-fountaining. Probable source vents for these deposits include irregular depressions at the head of associated sinuous rilles and/or along irregular fractures in the floors of ancient craters. Here, researchers provide a brief synopsis of the nature of the dark mantling deposits and briefly discuss several newly identified deposits on the western limb.

  12. Prevalence of Eating Disorders: A Comparison of Western and Non-Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Maria; Tsuboi, Koji; Dennerstein, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of eating disorders between Western and non-Western countries. Method Potential references were identified through an English-language literature search using Medline and Medscape articles. Results Prevalence rates in Western countries for anorexia nervosa ranged from 0.1% to 5.7% in female subjects. Prevalence rates for bulimia nervosa ranged from 0% to 2.1% in males and from 0.3% to 7.3% in female subjects in Western countries. Prevalence rates in non-Western countries for bulimia nervosa ranged from 0.46% to 3.2% in female subjects. Studies of eating attitudes indicate abnormal eating attitudes in non-Western countries have been gradually increasing. Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western countries is lower than that of the Western countries but appears to be increasing. PMID:15520673

  13. Endemic goiter in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E

    1983-01-01

    Goiter continues to occur in some areas of western Colombia despite iodine supplementation for 30 years. In 1973-1977, an average goiter prevalence of 15% (range 1-42%) still persisted among schoolchildren of 41 localities. Significant relationships were found between goiter prevalence and both the geological composition of watersheds and bacterial contamination of water supplies. Together, these associations account for 80% of the observed variation in goiter prevalence. The presence of sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (coals, shales, etc.) was the best indicator of disease. The second best indicator, presence of K. pneumoniae in the water source, was associated with lower goiter prevalence but, as in other investigations, contamination of the pipeline system (households and schools) with gram-negative bacteria was associated with higher disease rates. Thus, epidemiological evidence indicates a cause-effect relationship between sources of drinking water and the persistence and development of goiter in this part of the world. Furthermore, identification of resorcinol, phthalate esters, and sulfur-bearing organic compounds, possibly aliphatic disulfides, in the water supplying the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia adds experimental support to this hypothesis. Resorcinol is derived from coal and humic substances, high molecular weight complex polymeric organic compounds present in sedimentary rocks, soils and water. Resorcinol is goitrogenic in man and experimental animals. Phthalate esters, also related to humic materials, undergo biodegradation by gram-negative bacteria with production of intermediate metabolites possessing antithyroid activity. Like phthalates and resorcinol, organic disulfides have also been identified as water contaminants in other parts of the world, and are known to be potent antithyroid compounds. The goitrogenic effect of organic and bacterial pollutants in water supplies is more pronounced in segments of

  14. Ancient Israel in Western Civ Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah is inclined to…

  15. Medusahead management guide for the western states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead is an exotic annual grass that is invading rangelands in the western United States. Its invasion decreases livestock forage production, degrades wildlife habitat, and reduces biodiversity. This is a comprehensive guide for management of medusahead in the western United States. This gui...

  16. Western Undergraduate Exchange: Enrollment Report, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Western Undergraduate Exchange (WUE) is a regional tuition-reciprocity agreement that enables students from WICHE (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) states to enroll in participating two- and four-year public institutions at 150 percent of the enrolling institution's resident tuition. WUE has been operating for more than 20…

  17. Liberty in African and Western Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudimbe, V. Y.

    The theoretical African mode of thinking about liberty seems to stand in contrast to the view of liberty that has dominated Western philosophy. Western philosophy accepts as its starting point the notion of an unconstrained and uncontextualized "I" that is defined in relation to the self and its inner being. Greek, Cartesian, and classical…

  18. Basic Western Lviv Region Conversational Ukrainian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first complete Guide for studying the Western-Ukrainian Dialect and its scientific description of Phonology. Methodology: descriptive, contrastive and analytical methods of defining the peculiarities of the Dialect. Results: the regularities and the laws have been defined as to the specifics of the Western-Ukrainian Dialect…

  19. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainer, Deborah L., Ed.; Kramer, Gene A., Ed.; Smith, Richard M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 12 of the Mid-Western Educational Researcher contains four issues. The first issue includes kick-off, keynote, luncheon, and presidential addresses from the annual meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association (MWERA), held in Chicago, Illinois, in October 1998. Issue 3 is the program for MWERA's annual meeting in Chicago,…

  20. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John

    2011-08-16

    The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  1. Western rangelands: overgrazed and undermanaged

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, D.

    1981-05-01

    Overgrazing and poor management of the western arid lands causes desertification as the levels of water tables and surface waters drop, top soil and surface waters become more saline, soil erodes, and native vegetation disappears. This process had led to severe desertification in an estimated 1.1 million square miles and very severe desertification on 10,500 square miles in the US. The three areas in the very severe category occur in the Navajo Indian reservation in Arizona and New Mexico and on either side of El Paso, Texas. All were subjected to overgrazing. Government policies have only recently tried to bring public land grazing in line with the land's carrying capacity by focusing on long-term productivity. The Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 authorizes better management and multiple use of public lands, but the Bureau of Land Management has not established an effective monitoring system to ensure its implementation or to overcome political constraints against reducing livestock. Ranchers disagree with the assessments made by scientists and support vegetation modification instead of grazing allotments. 58 references, 7 figures. (DCK)

  2. Petroleum systems of western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Passalacqua, H.; Gallango, O.; Capello, M.A.; deToni, B.; Tocco, R.; Truskowski, I.; Loureiro, D.

    1996-08-01

    Integrating multidisciplinary information from western Venezuela Intevep, S.A. developed a comprehensive geological synthesis of the Maracaibo, Barinas and Apure basins which allow the description of 5 petroliferous systems with pods located within the Venezuelan borders: (1) Northeast of Maracaibo Basin, (2) Southwest of Maracaibo Basin, (3) Eastern Zulia, (4) Lara`s Nappes and (5) Barinas Subbasin. These systems comprise different structural styles: (1) basement tectonics, (2) thin-skin tectonics, (3) inversions, (4) triangular zones, (5) {open_quotes}flower and pop-up{close_quotes} structures. The main reservoirs in the region are the fractured Cretaceous limestones (K0 to K5), the Lower to Middle Eocene sandstones (T1 Misoa C and Misoa BC) and the Miocene sandstones of the Lagunillas Formation. Three source rocks were identified: the principal one of Cretaceous age, marine origin and totally located in the Maracaibo Basin (K3-K4-K5, La Luna and Capacho formations) and two located south and southwest of the Maracaibo Basin, with organic material of continental origin, of Paleocene (K7-K8, Orocue and Marcelina formations) and Oligocene age (T4, Carbonera Formation). Three expulsion periods were encountered: (a) Lower to Middle Eocene (52-40 Ma) and (b) Upper Eocene to Lower Miocene (40-21 Ma), with pods located in the northeast region of the Maracaibo Lake and (c) Lower Miocene to Holocene (2 1-0 Ma) with a pod located in the Maracaibo Lake.

  3. 78 FR 65237 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... is necessary to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard... Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057... Aviation Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group,...

  4. 76 FR 21269 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Florence, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Florence Municipal Airport, Florence, OR... INFORMATION CONTACT: Eldon Taylor, Federal Aviation Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service... Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, WA...

  5. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... necessary to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument... Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057... Regional Office of the Federal Aviation Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service...

  6. 76 FR 28382 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System..., Federal Aviation Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW... of the Federal Aviation Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center,...

  7. 76 FR 64041 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS...: Eldon Taylor, Federal Aviation Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601... Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, WA...

  8. 78 FR 65239 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brevig Mission, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    .... Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057... Aviation Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group,...

  9. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  10. [The beginning of western medical education].

    PubMed

    Kee, C D

    1992-01-01

    Our country had quite an advanced system of medical education during the era of the Koryo Kingdom, and during the Choson Dynasty, the Kyong Guk Dae Jon, in which a systematized medical education was clearly described, was compiled in the era of King Sejong. However, the educational system was not for Western medicine. Western medicine was first introduced to our country in the 9th year of King Injo (1631) when Chong Du Won, Yi Yong Jun, etc. returned from Yon Gyong (Beiuin) with Chik Bang Oe Gi. Knowledge of Western medicine was disseminated by Shil Hak (practical learning) scholars who read a translation in Chinese characters, of Chik Bang Oe Gi. Yi Ik (Song Ho), Yi Gyu Gyong (O ju), Choe Han Gi (Hye Gang), Chong Yak Yong (Ta San), etc., read books of Western medicine and introduced in writing the excellent theory of Western medicine. In addition, Yu Hyong Won (Pan Gye), Pak Ji Won (Yon Am), Pak Je Ga (Cho Jong), etc., showed much interest in Western medicine, but no writings by them about western medicine can be found. With the establishment of a treaty of amity with Japan in the 13th year of King Kojong (1876), followed by the succession of amity treaties with Western powers, foreigners including medical doctors were permitted to flow into this country. At that time, doctors Horace N. Allen, W. B. Scranton, John W. Heron, Rosetta Sherwood (Rosetta S. Hall), etc., came to Korea and inaugurated hospitals, where they taught Western medicine to Korean students. Dr. Horace N. Allen, with the permission of king Kojong, established Che Jung Won in April 1885, and in March 1886, he began at the hospital to provide education of Western medicine to Korean students who were recrutied by the Korean Government. However, the education was not conduted on a regular basis, only training them for work as assistants. This is considered to be the pioneer case of Western medical education in this country. Before that time, Japanese medical doctors came to Korea, but there are no

  11. 75 FR 19942 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV86 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery... and Training Program and Western Pacific Community Demonstration Project Program for Council...

  12. Western water and climate change.

    PubMed

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries

  13. Western water and climate change.

    PubMed

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries

  14. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  15. Day Pass through Western United States

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Western United States was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Sept. 24, 2011, from 17:45:14 to 17:54:1...

  16. WESTERN ECOLOGY DIVISION - GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for flyer - general information The Western Ecology Division (WED), part of EPAs National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, provides information to EPA offices and regions nationwide to improve understanding of how human activities affect estuarine,...

  17. 78 FR 30797 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Point Thomson, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The... Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057; telephone (425) 203-4517. SUPPLEMENTARY... Administration, Air Traffic Organization, Western Service Center, Operations Support Group, 1601 Lind Avenue...

  18. Egypt western desert activity hits high gear

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1996-11-04

    Exploration in Egypt`s western desert is turning up large oil and gas reserves in several sub-basins. Though not a threat to the Gulf of Suez`s oil production dominance, the western desert`s output is climbing. And gas production is also set to rise as more pipelines are built. The paper describes the geology, Qarun field production, further exploration at Qarun and the Khalda/Obaiyed gas.

  19. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  20. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  1. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. PMID:26371449

  2. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  3. Micropropagation and organogenesis of Anthurium andreanum Lind cv Rubrun.

    PubMed

    Maira, Oropeza; Alexander, Mejías; Vargas, Teresa Edith

    2010-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques are routinely used for mass propagation and the establishment of disease free stock material. Virtually all pot type Anthuriums available in the market today are produced by tissue culture. In this chapter, we describe an efficient protocol to obtain Anthurium andreanum cv Rubrun vitro plants through micropropagation and organogenesis. Seeds from plant spadixes were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA. Micro-cuttings from in vitro germinated seedlings were subcultured on MS medium containing 2 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA. Four-week-old in vitro plants obtained from microcuttings, showed callus proliferation at the stem base. The development of shoots and plantlets was observed from callus tissue. We also describe a detailed method for the histological analysis of callus tissue and a vitro plants acclimatization protocol.

  4. Impurities, adulterants and diluents of illicit heroin in Denmark (Jutland and Funen).

    PubMed

    Kaa, E; Bent, K

    1986-07-14

    The contents of impurities, adulterants and diluents in 77 samples of illicit heroin were determined by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The origin of each sample was characterized by calculating the content of the opium alkaloids in relation to the heroin content. The routes of distribution were compared by determination of the contents of caffeine, procaine and sugars. The results were used as a "chemical fingerprint" of each sample. The results indicate that it is difficult to prove, with certainty, that two samples are identical. However, in most cases, by determining the amounts of impurities, adulterants and diluents in heroin samples, it will be possible to ascertain whether two samples are different and, in many cases, to determine with reasonable certainty whether two samples are identical.

  5. 78 FR 55062 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    .... Western Pacific resource agencies c. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council 3. About the Non... Marine Recreational Fisheries Survey b. Western Pacific creel surveys c. Marine Recreational Information... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC858 Western Pacific Fishery Management...

  6. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja...

  7. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja...

  8. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja...

  9. Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)

  10. 2012 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  11. NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posada, Herman A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the objectives of the 2007 Western States Fire Mission (WSFM), which included demonstrating capabilities of the Ikhana unmanned aerial system (UAS) to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout the Western United States, demonstrating long-endurance (20+ hours) mission capabilities, and delivering real-time imagery within 10 minutes of acquisition. Additionally, the operations concept, operational zones, and landing sites are highlighted. Provisions of the certificate of authorization are also addressed. Imagery obtained from the WSFM are included.

  12. Tectonic evolution of the Western Australian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Geological and geochronological studies in the Western Australian Shield were updated. This terrane bears many similarities to the Indian Shield since they were neighboring parts of Gondwanaland. Western Australia consists of two cratons (Pilbara and Yilgarn) and four orogenic belts (Capricorn, Pingarra, Albany-Fraser, and Patterson), as well as some relatively young (1.6 to 0.75 Ga) sedimentary rocks. The two cratonic blocks are both older than about 2.5 Ga, and the orogenic belts range in age from 2.0 to 0.65 Ga.

  13. Charting the course of western coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference examined the future of Powder River Basin coal, the future of other western coal, the status of coal slurry pipelines, western railroad capacity, the rate structure of unit-trains, the potential or growth in the coal industry, the outlook for development of coal on reservations, the policies of the Navajo Tribe for coal development on their lands, the federal leasing program and proposed changes, the reorganization of the Office of Surface Mining, issues of concern related to surface mining regulation, and the status and future trend in severance taxes. Separate abstracts were prepared for the thirteen paers presented at this conference. (CKK)

  14. Bioethical concerns are global, bioethics is Western

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and suggest that global bioethics will succeed only to the extent that it is local. PMID:19593391

  15. Prosody and Intonation of Western Cham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueki, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the prosodic and intonational characteristics of Western Cham (three letter code for International Organization for Standardization's ISO 639-3 code: [iso=cja]), an Austronesian language in the Chamic sub-group. I examine acoustic variables of prominence at word and postlexical levels: syllable duration, pitch…

  16. When science became Western: historiographical reflections.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa

    2010-03-01

    While thinking about the notion of the "global" in the history of the history of science, this essay examines a related but equally basic concept: the idea of "Western science." Tracing its rise in the nineteenth century, it shows how it developed as much outside the Western world as within it. Ironically, while the idea itself was crucial for the disciplinary formation of the history of science, the global history behind this story has not been much attended to. Drawing on examples from nineteenth-century Egypt and China, the essay begins by looking at how international vectors of knowledge production (viz., missionaries and technocrats) created new global histories of science through the construction of novel genealogies and through a process of conceptual syncretism. Turning next to the work of early professional historians of science, it shows how Arabic and Chinese knowledge traditions were similarly reinterpreted in light of the modern sciences, now viewed as part of a diachronic and universalist teleology ending in "Western science." It concludes by arguing that examining the global emergence of the idea of Western science in this way highlights key questions pertaining to the relation of the history of science to knowledge traditions across the world and the continuing search for global histories of science. PMID:20575492

  17. Western Civilization Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    Developed to stress the importance of the study of Western civilization, this Louisiana State high school curriculum guide contains social studies goals, program scopes and sequences, a list of 14 generalizations and related concepts, and a master course content outline. Ten study units teach about: (1) the ancient world; (2) the Middle Ages; (3)…

  18. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock" (1954); and "The Deer Hunter" (1978).…

  19. Western Undergraduate Exchange: Enrollment Report, Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Western Undergraduate Exchange (WUE) is a regional tuition-reciprocity agreement that enables students from WICHE states to enroll in participating two- and four-year public institutions at 150 percent of the enrolling institution's resident tuition. WUE has been operating for almost 25 years and is the largest program of its kind in the…

  20. Wintertime in the Western U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utah's Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. For an interesting contrast, compare this MODIS image to the MISR mosaic image of the Western United States during the summer (See Western United States Beyond the Four Corners). To access this image at a resolution of 500 meters per pixel, click on the image above. To access a full-resolution image at 250 meters per pixel, visit the MODIS Rapidfire Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Western Michigan University Libraries' "Electronic Journal Finder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedeon, Randle; Boston, George

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of the "Electronic Journal Finder," a TDNet installation for the University Libraries of Western Michigan University. Topics covered include: rationale for subscription project timeline, content, product customization, set-up, maintenance issues, reporting functions, directing URL links, searching utility,…

  2. Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

  3. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  4. Earthquake Coverage by the Western Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Gary D.; Tanjong, Enoh

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the type and quantity of Western news coverage of Third World earthquakes. Finds little evidence of geographical bias in coverage studied, and suggests that care must be taken to examine the underlying news events before bias is alleged. (MS)

  5. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  6. Bumble bees of the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bumble bees (genus Bombus) are critical pollinators of flowering plants. Thirty species of bumble bees are native to the western United States and this publication is a guide to the natural history and identification of these species. We present phenology graphs, host-plant associations, detailed ...

  7. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  8. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  9. Western European Art Foundations and Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lindsay M.; Clement, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    Western European art foundations create invaluable opportunities for research and exhibition by artists, curators, and scholars. These activities are often documented and disseminated via high-quality publications. This article highlights an important but under-recognized collecting resource for academic and museum libraries by profiling several…

  10. Capitalism in Six Westerns by John Ford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…

  11. Western Undergraduate Exchange: Enrollment Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Western Undergraduate Exchange (WUE) is a regional tuition-reciprocity agreement that enables students from WICHE states to enroll in participating two- and four-year public institutions at 150 percent of the enrolling institution's resident tuition. WUE was created in 1987 and is now the largest program of its kind in the nation. Since the…

  12. Dust climatology of the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Changery, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Beginning and ending times of dust-caused visibility values were extracted from original records for approximately 180 stations in the western US for the general period of record 1948 to 1977. Maps are presented depicting the annual total number of hours with visibility below specified values, annual number of dust episodes, dust episode durations, season of occurrence, and probability of thunderstorm-inducement.

  13. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Abbey S; Banazis, Michael J; Yang, Rongchang; Reid, Simon A; Fenwick, Stan G

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in the maintenance and transmission of Coxiella burnetii in Western Australia. Sera from 1,017 kangaroos were tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The overall antibody prevalence across 12 locations throughout mid- to southwestern Western Australia was 24.1% (95% CI: 21.6-26.8). Feces from 990 of the same animals were tested using PCR to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 4.1% (95% CI: 3.1-5.6) of samples. Our results suggest that kangaroos are reservoirs for C. burnetii in Western Australia and may contribute to transmission of the organism to domestic livestock and humans.

  14. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  15. [Preliminary practice on education of integrated Chinese and Western medicine in Western medical universities].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ping; Ling, Jiang-Hong

    2008-03-01

    Through the exploration and practice on education of integrated Chinese and Western medicine (ICWM) in Guangxi Medical University, it is elaborated in this paper that to train the compound personnel of ICWM is the demand of society nowadays; to establish the courses of ICWM in Western medical universities has its great advantages, and it is one of the best ways to nurture the top-level personnel in ICWM.

  16. Western Blotting Inaccuracies with Unverified Antibodies: Need for a Western Blotting Minimal Reporting Standard (WBMRS)

    PubMed Central

    Gilda, Jennifer E.; Ghosh, Rajeshwary; Cheah, Jenice X.; West, Toni M.; Bodine, Sue C.; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is a commonly used technique in biological research. A major problem with Western blotting is not the method itself, but the use of poor quality antibodies as well as the use of different experimental conditions that affect the linearity and sensitivity of the Western blot. Investigation of some conditions that are commonly used and often modified in Western blotting, as well as some commercial antibodies, showed that published articles often fail to report critical parameters needed to reproduce the results. These parameters include the amount of protein loaded, the blocking solution and conditions used, the amount of primary and secondary antibodies used, the antibody incubation solutions, the detection method and the quantification method utilized. In the present study, comparison of ubiquitinated proteins in rat heart and liver samples showed different results depending on the antibody utilized. Validation of five commercial ubiquitin antibodies using purified ubiquitinated proteins, ubiquitin chains and free ubiquitin showed that these antibodies differ in their ability to detect free ubiquitin or ubiquitinated proteins. Investigating proteins modified with interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in young and old rat hearts using six commercially available antibodies showed that most antibodies gave different semi-quantitative results, suggesting large variability among antibodies. Evidence showing the importance of the Western blot buffer and the concentration of antibody used is presented. Hence there is a critical need for comprehensive reporting of experimental conditions to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of Western blot analysis. A Western blotting minimal reporting standard (WBMRS) is suggested to improve the reproducibility of Western blot analysis. PMID:26287535

  17. How Western Does Business: An Explanation of Western's Products and Services

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.

  18. Blending Western Biomedicine with Local Healing Practices.

    PubMed

    Chary, Anita; Sargent, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Western allopathic physicians working internationally might encounter allopathic colleagues who endorse local healing practices that are not scientifically supported and, hence, might pose harm to patients. Respect for the autonomy of local physicians and patients thus can conflict with the ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence. In such a situation, it is advisable for Western allopathic physicians to communicate their concerns to local colleagues as equal partners. Making an effort to understand local meanings associated with a traditional therapy demonstrates one's respect for local cultural ideas and practices, even if one disagrees with that therapy, and is crucial to tailoring messages about clinical practice change. A realistic approach to cross-cultural clinical practice change seeks to reduce, rather than eliminate, harm.

  19. Western medicine in a Chinese cultural setting.

    PubMed

    Ho, Faith Chi Suk

    2009-01-01

    Hong Kong's unique medical heritage stems from its development as a city with a predominantly Chinese population and a long history of exposure to the influence of Western cultural and scientific ideas and practices. This heritage is preserved and displayed in the Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, where exhibits of both Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine, particularly those aspects with special relevance to Hong Kong, are featured. This paper also describes the significance of the plague outbreak of 1894 in shaping Hong Kong's medical history, and in bringing about the existence of the building which houses the museum, a 100 year-old protected monument originally named the Bacteriological Institute. The museum's role in society, by providing programmes on health and heritage for the public's education and enjoyment, and the need to preserve and identify both tangible and intangible aspects of our cultural heritage is also briefly explored.

  20. Geographic Research in the USGS Western Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tongue, Mara

    2007-01-01

    The two geography research programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Land Remote Sensing and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, have very strong relevance to the USGS mission and science strategy. In the western United States, the particular niche of these geography programs is in connecting USGS science to people and communities. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and other organizations invariably encourage the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to ensure the quality of its science while finding ways to make it more relevant to important societal issues. Much of the geography research conducted in the USGS Western Region does exactly that. In Menlo Park, California, the geography research team is focused on developing tools and techniques to help people assess risk from natural hazards and environmental impacts. In Flagstaff and Tucson, Arizona, geography scientists explore new ways to use remote sensing to help communities deal with environmental issues.

  1. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A. W.; Shean, R.; Walker, N.; Swanson, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking. Images p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8124149

  2. Clown doctors: shaman healers of Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Blerkom, L M

    1995-12-01

    The Big Apple Circus Clown Care Unit, which entertains children in New York City hospitals, is compared with non-Western healers, especially shamans. There is not only superficial resemblance--weird costumes, music, sleight of hand, puppet/spirit helpers, and ventriloquism--but also similarity in the meanings and functions of their performances. Both clown and shaman violate natural and cultural rules in their performances. Both help patient and family deal with illness. Both use suggestion and manipulation of medical symbols in attempting to alleviate their patients' distress. Just as traditional ethnomedical systems have been integrated with Western medicine in other societies, clown doctors can provide complementary therapy that may enhance the efficacy of medical treatment in developed nations, particularly for children. PMID:8748473

  3. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. [Screening for scoliosis in western Galilee schools].

    PubMed

    David, R; Jamal, A; Soudry, M

    1996-03-01

    Scoliosis screening is still under debate. It is generally agreed that it is not cost-effective, but some still favor it as integral to preventive medicine. Among 2940 school children, aged 9 - 13, from several Moslem-Arab villages in the western Galilee, 55 (1.9%) were found to have some deformity on physical examination and were referred for spinal X-ray. Of these, 24 were X-rayed and in 20 of them there was a scoliosis of more than 7 degrees. The prevalence of in-family marriage in those with deformities was 31%, not significantly different from the 35% found in their communities. Using the worst-case analysis, the Moslem-Arab population of western Galilee cannot be regarded as a population at risk for scoliosis. Considering the poor cooperation of the parents with further investigation, we conclude that scoliosis screening should not be performed in this community.

  5. Legislation for smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Shean, R; Woodward, S

    1985-01-01

    This historical analysis of public issues relating to smoking control in Western Australia examines relevant Western Australian state and Australian federal laws, their introduction, and their consequences. Public and political support and opinion led by the health professions resulted in two attempts to legislate against all forms of cigarette advertising in 1982 and 1983. Both attempts failed, and public support for such measures has been seen to be affected by the campaigns mounted in opposition by the tobacco and advertising industries. Other smoking control measures which have been successfully introduced in 1983 and 1984 are higher tobacco taxes and a comprehensive coordinated public education and information programme. The activities associated with the legislative initiatives resulted in a greatly increased level of community awareness of the dangers of smoking and acceptance of the need for some action on this major health problem. PMID:3924165

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Lynne; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearman, John W.; Christiansen, Keryn; Grubb, Warren B.

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a notable cause of hospital-acquired infections. A statewide screening and control policy was implemented in Western Australia (WA) after an outbreak of epidemic MRSA in a Perth hospital in 1982. We report on statutory notifications from1998 to 2002 and review the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002. The rate of reporting of community-associated Western Australia MRSA (WAMRSA) escalated from 1998 to 2002 but may have peaked in 2001. Several outbreaks were halted, but they resulted in an increase in reports as a result of screening. A notable increase in ciprofloxacin resistance during the study period was observed as a result of more United Kingdom epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) -15 and -16. WA has seen a persistently low incidence of multidrug-resistant MRSA because of the screening and decolonization program. Non–multidrug-resistant, community-associated WAMRSA strains have not established in WA hospitals. PMID:16318700

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those < 20 years versus 76.8% in those ≥ 70 years (p < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in rural areas (76.9%) than in urban regions (55.3%) (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Western Romania.

  8. Clown doctors: shaman healers of Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Blerkom, L M

    1995-12-01

    The Big Apple Circus Clown Care Unit, which entertains children in New York City hospitals, is compared with non-Western healers, especially shamans. There is not only superficial resemblance--weird costumes, music, sleight of hand, puppet/spirit helpers, and ventriloquism--but also similarity in the meanings and functions of their performances. Both clown and shaman violate natural and cultural rules in their performances. Both help patient and family deal with illness. Both use suggestion and manipulation of medical symbols in attempting to alleviate their patients' distress. Just as traditional ethnomedical systems have been integrated with Western medicine in other societies, clown doctors can provide complementary therapy that may enhance the efficacy of medical treatment in developed nations, particularly for children.

  9. View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  10. Curve of Western Maryland Rail Trail west of Hancock, milepost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curve of Western Maryland Rail Trail west of Hancock, milepost 117 vicinity, looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  11. Western Maryland Scenic Railroad tracks on Bridge No. 1655, Tenth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western Maryland Scenic Railroad tracks on Bridge No. 1655, Tenth Potomac Crossing, looking SW toward West Virginia. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  12. Coolerado 5 Ton RTU Performance: Western Cooling Challenge Results (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.

    2010-11-01

    The Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC) developed a set of criteria for test conditions, minimum energy, and water use performance for prototype cooling equipment and identified these conditions as indicative of western state climates.

  13. The Western European Union Satellite Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasani, Bhupendra; Mara, Simon

    1993-06-01

    In January 1993, the FALCON consortium of 13 European companies, led by Cray Systems, won the contract to supply a turnkey satellite image processing facility to the Western European Union. The project started immediately and will be installed at WEU's Data Centre in Torrejon near Madrid in December 1993. This paper discusses the development of an idea for a Regional Satellite Monitoring Agency (RSMA) which will be realized in December 1993 when the Centre becomes fully operational.

  14. Multiplexed Western Blotting Using Microchip Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shi; Furtaw, Michael D; Chen, Huaxian; Lamb, Don T; Ferguson, Stephen A; Arvin, Natalie E; Dawod, Mohamed; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    Western blotting is a commonly used protein assay that combines the selectivity of electrophoretic separation and immunoassay. The technique is limited by long time, manual operation with mediocre reproducibility, and large sample consumption, typically 10-20 μg per assay. Western blots are also usually used to measure only one protein per assay with an additional housekeeping protein for normalization. Measurement of multiple proteins is possible; however, it requires stripping membranes of antibody and then reprobing with a second antibody. Miniaturized alternatives to Western blot based on microfluidic or capillary electrophoresis have been developed that enable higher-throughput, automation, and greater mass sensitivity. In one approach, proteins are separated by electrophoresis on a microchip that is dragged along a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane so that as proteins exit the chip they are captured on the membrane for immunoassay. In this work, we improve this method to allow multiplexed protein detection. Multiple injections made from the same sample can be deposited in separate tracks so that each is probed with a different antibody. To further enhance multiplexing capability, the electrophoresis channel dimensions were optimized for resolution while keeping separation and blotting times to less than 8 min. Using a 15 μm deep × 50 μm wide × 8.6 cm long channel, it is possible to achieve baseline resolution of proteins that differ by 5% in molecular weight, e.g., ERK1 (44 kDa) from ERK2 (42 kDa). This resolution allows similar proteins detected by cross-reactive antibodies in a single track. We demonstrate detection of 11 proteins from 9 injections from a single Jurkat cell lysate sample consisting of 400 ng of total protein using this procedure. Thus, multiplexed Western blots are possible without cumbersome stripping and reprobing steps. PMID:27270033

  15. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.

  16. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bagger, P J

    2004-06-01

    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy. PMID:15242031

  17. New archeomagnetic intensity data from Western Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnaya, Natasha; Gallet, Yves; Akimova, Stanislava; Antipov, Ilya; Glazunova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    We recently started a new archeomagnetism research program for Western Russia. The main objective of this project is to recover the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Russia over the past two millennia, in order to compare these variations with those already known from Western and Eastern Europe. We sampled several ensembles of baked brick fragments precisely dated by historical constraints between the XIIth and XIVth centuries AD from the archeological site of Novgorod, south of St Petersburg, and between the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries AD from the Monastery of New Jerusalem located close to Moscow. Most fragments, with a magnetic mineralogy dominated by magnetite, are suitable for archeointensity experiments. For some fragments from Novgorod, the magnetization is carried by a mixture of magnetite and another mineral of high coercivity and low unblocking temperature. The unblocking temperatures are close to 200°C. This mineral, most probably a form of hematite with Al substitutions, is therefore similar to that previously reported from archeological fired-clay artifacts originating from Europe and South America. Archeointensity experiments were conducted using the experimental protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. We will present our first archeointensity results and a preliminary comparison with available European results, mostly from France and Bulgaria.

  18. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  19. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries?

  20. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  1. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E; Merino, H; Rodriguez, G; Medina, P; Meyer, J D; DeRouen, T A; MacLennan, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia.

  2. 78 FR 40076 - Proposed Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Oakland, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... necessary to accommodate aircraft using the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard... INFORMATION CONTACT: Eldon Taylor, Federal Aviation Administration, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057; telephone (425) 203-4537. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  3. 77 FR 65545 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on August 13, 2012, Western Area Power Administration submitted its revised version of its Western...

  4. Vowel Production in the Speech of Western Armenian Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether the age at which English becomes dominant for Western Armenian bilinguals in the United States affects their vowel production in Western Armenian. Participating in the study were ten Western-Armenian bilinguals who learned English before age 8, ten bilinguals who did not learn English until adulthood, and one…

  5. 75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit... permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in Western Passage, in the vicinity of the City...

  6. Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, passing over MD 51, with "WESTERN MARYLAND RAILWAY" painted on the girder panels, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  7. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  8. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  9. Review of lignite resources of western Tennessee and the Jackson Purchase area, western Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Thomas, Roger E.; Nichols, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This review of the lignite deposits of western Tennessee and the Jackson Purchase area in western Kentucky (Fig. 1) is a preliminary report on part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resource Assessment of the Gulf Coastal Plain Coal Province. Lignite deposits of western Kentucky and Tennessee are an extension of the Gulf Coastal Plain Coal Province (Cushing and others, 1964), and currently are not economic to mine. These deposits have not been extensively investigated or developed as an energy resource. This review includes a description of the geology of the lignite-bearing units, a discussion of the available coal quality data, and information on organic petrology. Palynological data for lignite samples collected in Kentucky and Tennessee as part of this work are presented in an Appendix.

  10. Management of Membranous Nephropathy in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Alfaadhel, Talal; Cattran, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults in Western countries. In 2012, the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) working group published guidelines for the management of glomerulonephritis, thus providing a template for the treatment of this condition. While being aware of the impact of the clinicians' acumen and that patients may choose a different therapeutic option due to the risks of specific drugs and also of the evolving guidelines, this review details our approach to the management of patients with IMN in a Western center (Toronto). Summary Based on studies published in Europe and North America, we included recent advances in the diagnosis and management of patients with membranous nephropathy similar to our practice population. We highlight the importance of establishing the idiopathic nature of this condition before initiating immunosuppressive therapy, which should include the screening for secondary causes, especially malignancy in the elderly population. The expected outcomes with and without treatment for patients with different risks of progression will be discussed to help guide clinicians in choosing the appropriate course of treatment. The role of conservative therapy as well as of established immunosuppressive treatment, such as the combination of cyclophosphamide and prednisone, and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), as well as of newer agents such as rituximab will be reviewed. Key Messages Appropriate assessment is required to exclude secondary conditions causing membranous glomerulonephritis. The role of antibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) in establishing the primary disease is growing, though more data are required. The increase in therapeutic options supports treatment individualization, taking into account the availability, benefits and risks, as well as patient preference. Facts from East and West (1) The prevalence of IMN is increasing worldwide

  11. Management of Membranous Nephropathy in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Alfaadhel, Talal; Cattran, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults in Western countries. In 2012, the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) working group published guidelines for the management of glomerulonephritis, thus providing a template for the treatment of this condition. While being aware of the impact of the clinicians' acumen and that patients may choose a different therapeutic option due to the risks of specific drugs and also of the evolving guidelines, this review details our approach to the management of patients with IMN in a Western center (Toronto). Summary Based on studies published in Europe and North America, we included recent advances in the diagnosis and management of patients with membranous nephropathy similar to our practice population. We highlight the importance of establishing the idiopathic nature of this condition before initiating immunosuppressive therapy, which should include the screening for secondary causes, especially malignancy in the elderly population. The expected outcomes with and without treatment for patients with different risks of progression will be discussed to help guide clinicians in choosing the appropriate course of treatment. The role of conservative therapy as well as of established immunosuppressive treatment, such as the combination of cyclophosphamide and prednisone, and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), as well as of newer agents such as rituximab will be reviewed. Key Messages Appropriate assessment is required to exclude secondary conditions causing membranous glomerulonephritis. The role of antibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) in establishing the primary disease is growing, though more data are required. The increase in therapeutic options supports treatment individualization, taking into account the availability, benefits and risks, as well as patient preference. Facts from East and West (1) The prevalence of IMN is increasing worldwide

  12. The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting was held in Kanazawa, Japan from 15-21 Aug. 1990. This was the first meeting of a new series of meetings for the American Geophysical Union, and it proved to be very successful in terms of the scientific program and attendance, which included over 1,000 participants. The intent of this meeting was an effort on the part of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and several Japanese geophysical societies to gather individual Earth and space scientists at a major scientific meeting to focus on geophysical problems being studied in the western Pacific rim. The meeting was organized along the lines of a typical AGU annual meeting with some invited talks, many contributed talks, poster sessions, and with emphasis on presentations and informal discussions. The program committee consisted of scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. This meeting provided ample opportunities for U.S. and Japanese scientists to get to know each other and their works on a one-to-one basis. It was also a valuable opportunity for students studying geophysics to get together and interact with each other and with scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. There were 939 abstracts submitted to the conference and a total of 102 sessions designed as a result of the abstracts received. The topics of interest are as follows: space geodetic and observatory measurements for earthquake and tectonic studies; gravity, sea level, and vertical motion; variations in earth rotation and earth dynamics; sedimentary magnetism; global processes and precipitation; subsurface contaminant transport; U.S. Western Pacific Rim initiatives in hydrology; shelf and coastal circulation; tectonics, magmatism, and hydrothermal processes; earthquake prediction and hazard assessment; seismic wave propagation in realistic media; and dynamics and structure of plate boundaries and of the Earth's deep interior.

  13. The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting was held in Kanazawa, Japan from 15-21 Aug. 1990. This was the first meeting of a new series of meetings for the American Geophysical Union, and it proved to be very successful in terms of the scientific program and attendance, which included over 1,000 participants. The intent of this meeting was an effort on the part of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and several Japanese geophysical societies to gather individual Earth and space scientists at a major scientific meeting to focus on geophysical problems being studied in the western Pacific rim. The meeting was organized along the lines of a typical AGU annual meeting with some invited talks, many contributed talks, poster sessions, and with emphasis on presentations and informal discussions. The program committee consisted of scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. This meeting provided ample opportunities for U.S. and Japanese scientists to get to know each other and their works on a one-to-one basis. It was also a valuable opportunity for students studying geophysics to get together and interact with each other and with scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. There were 939 abstracts submitted to the conference and a total of 102 sessions designed as a result of the abstracts received. The topics of interest are as follows: space geodetic and observatory measurements for earthquake and tectonic studies; gravity, sea level, and vertical motion; variations in earth rotation and earth dynamics; sedimentary magnetism; global processes and precipitation; subsurface contaminant transport; U.S. Western Pacific Rim initiatives in hydrology; shelf and coastal circulation; tectonics, magmatism, and hydrothermal processes; earthquake prediction and hazard assessment; seismic wave propagation in realistic media; and dynamics and structure of plate boundaries and of the Earth's deep interior.

  14. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  15. Fires Across the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  16. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic results from western Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Pszczolkowski, Andrzej; Shipunov, Stanislav V.

    1996-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic rocks from the Sierra de Los Organos and Sierra del Rosario fold belts of western Cuba revealed postfolding magnetisation in diabases of the Late Jurassic El Sábalo Formation and carbonates of the middle Cretaceous Pons and the Late Cretaceous Carmita and Moreno formations. Steep components with inclinations of about 70° were isolated from all three formations; at the same time, postfolding shallow components were also found in a few samples of the Pons limestones. We rule out a possibility to account for these results by either horizontal movements or non-dipole field anomaly. Neither very appealing is a hypothesis of a post-remagnetization tilt of the entire region. All the components appear to be confined to a plane perpendicular to the main structural trends; we hypothesize that the remanences might have been distorted or re-aligned during deformation; this assumption, however, is far from being proven. In contrast, well-defined characteristic components were isolated from basalts of the Aptian-Albian Encrucijada ( {D}/{I} = {247°}/{23°}, K = 14, a95 = 9.0°) and the Late Cretaceous Orozco ( {D}/{I} = {228°}/{22°}, K = 110, a95 = 4.7) formations from the Bahia Honda zone in the north of western Cuba; the remanence in the Encrucijada Formation is shown to predate deformation. Mean inclinations in both formations match those in Cretaceous volcanics from central Cuba, and all the results show lower latitudes than expected from the reference data for the North American plate thus implying that volcanic domains of Cuba were displaced northward by about 1000 km prior to the Middle Eocene. Cretaceous declinations in western and central Cuba differ by about the same amount as the major structural trends of these two areas suggesting oroclinal bending of Cuba. At the same time, both areas are rotated counterclockwise with respect to North America thus implying movements on a broader scale.

  17. Single cell-resolution western blotting.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi-Chih; Yamauchi, Kevin A; Vlassakis, Julea; Sinkala, Elly; Duncombe, Todd A; Herr, Amy E

    2016-08-01

    This protocol describes how to perform western blotting on individual cells to measure cell-to-cell variation in protein expression levels and protein state. Like conventional western blotting, single-cell western blotting (scWB) is particularly useful for protein targets that lack selective antibodies (e.g., isoforms) and in cases in which background signal from intact cells is confounding. scWB is performed on a microdevice that comprises an array of microwells molded in a thin layer of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG). The gel layer functions as both a molecular sieving matrix during PAGE and a blotting scaffold during immunoprobing. scWB involves five main stages: (i) gravity settling of cells into microwells; (ii) chemical lysis of cells in each microwell; (iii) PAGE of each single-cell lysate; (iv) exposure of the gel to UV light to blot (immobilize) proteins to the gel matrix; and (v) in-gel immunoprobing of immobilized proteins. Multiplexing can be achieved by probing with antibody cocktails and using antibody stripping/reprobing techniques, enabling detection of 10+ proteins in each cell. We also describe microdevice fabrication for both uniform and pore-gradient microgels. To extend in-gel immunoprobing to gels of small pore size, we describe an optional gel de-cross-linking protocol for more effective introduction of antibodies into the gel layer. Once the microdevice has been fabricated, the assay can be completed in 4-6 h by microfluidic novices and it generates high-selectivity, multiplexed data from single cells. The technique is relevant when direct measurement of proteins in single cells is needed, with applications spanning the fundamental biosciences to applied biomedicine. PMID:27466711

  18. A Forest Vegetation Database for Western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    Data on forest vegetation in western Oregon were assembled for 2323 ecological survey plots. All data were from fixed-radius plots with the standardized design of the Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) initiated in the early 1990s. For each site, the database includes: 1) live tree density and basal area of common tree species, 2) total live tree density, basal area, estimated biomass, and estimated leaf area; 3) age of the oldest overstory tree examined, 4) geographic coordinates, 5) elevation, 6) interpolated climate variables, and 7) other site variables. The data are ideal for ecoregional analyses of existing vegetation.

  19. Orientations of dolmens in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The communal tombs (`dolmens') constructed through Europe and the Mediterranean region in the late Neolithic nearly always had an entrance to permit the introduction of further bodies, and hence an orientation. Extensive fieldwork shows that the builders always felt constrained to observe a custom of orientation, and in most of Western Europe the custom may well have been to face the rising Sun at some time of year, or the Sun after it had risen. But at Fontvieille near Arles the local custom was quite different, with tombs facing sunset or the Sun when descending. In southwest France and neighbouring parts of Cataluña the two customs are in conflict.

  20. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  1. Sexual networks in contemporary Western societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljeros, Fredrik

    2004-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections continue to be a severe health problem in contemporary Western societies, despite the considerable funds allocated for control programs. In this article, we present and discuss a variety of explanations that have been advanced on why this type of disease is so hard to eradicate, despite the fact that the contact by which it is spread is far less frequent than is the case with most other infectious diseases. We conclude that several processes and mechanisms facilitate the spread of sexually infected diseases, and that both broad and targeted intervention is therefore needed to eradicate such diseases.

  2. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  3. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars. PMID:27019665

  4. PLANT DIVERSITY OF WESTERN CHITWAN FLORISTIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, D. R.; Shivakoti, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies and documents the plant biodiversity of western Chitwan, Nepal. Specifically, our attention was focussed on the plants of forests, grasslands and common lands based on our “Reciprocal Relation of Population and Environment Study Project” conducted during January-April 1996. This species-diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous flora was recorded from 117, 117, and 1049 sampling quadrats of 10×10, 3×3 and 1×1 m2, respectively. The flora of our study plots contains 236 species that belong to 191 genera and 66 families. Of 236 species of plants, 119, 113, 59, 35 and 119 species were recorded from Tikauli forest, National Park forest, forests along the Narayani river, grasslands of National Park and common lands of the western Chitwan, respectively. Dicotyledons represent 184 (77.97%) species of the total flora species followed by monocotyledons (46 spp., 19.49%) and ferns (6 spp., 2.54%), respectively. The five largest families are Leguminosae (38 spp.), Poaceae (27 spp.), Asteraceae (22 spp.), Rubiaceae (10 spp.), and Scrophulariaceae (9 spp.). Hedyotis, Grewia and Lindernia, each with 4 spp., are the most speciose genera in the flora. PMID:22899874

  5. The thrust belts of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  6. Slowness tomography of Pdif beneath Western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

    2014-05-01

    Major earthquakes (M> 6.4) in South America (near Coast of Central Chile) and South Atlantic Ocean (Scotia Sea and Sandwich Islands) routinely display conspicuous Pdif phases as recorded by the Central European and Western Mediterranean seismological networks. The relative arrival times of Pdif at the stations of a certain network are obtained by correlating the individual traces with a template obtained using the corresponding network beam. The slowness values are derived by linear regression together with the 95% errors. A check for the presence of outliers is done using Chauvenet's criterion. Ellipticity corrections are evaluated with the standard tables. Corrections for the diffracted ray path are applied using a global 3-D model and a slightly modified version of the TauP Toolkit. The same procedure is applied to the synthetic seismograms to provide the reference slowness. Using a slowness tomographic approach, the (relative) slowness perturbation values are directly inverted to the velocity perturbations assigned to a set of trapezoidal cells located on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The above 95% errors are used to weight the inversion, which is solved by a Monte Carlo method. Finally, we compare our results to the P-velocity perturbations from several global 3-D models in the same CMB area beneath Western Africa.

  7. NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Western states Fire Missions (WSFM) that occurred in 2007. The objectives of this mission are: (1) Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. (1) Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). (2) Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. (3) Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. (4) Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. (5) Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition). (6) Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).

  8. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico.

  9. Providing Western Regional Climate Services - Perspectives from the Western Regional Climate Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The western United States faces distinct challenges such as persistent drought, dwindling water resources amidst an expanding population, and climate-sensitive alpine environments. The complex terrain of the region compounds these challenges. The Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC), one of six National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) university-based regional climate centers, has been providing climate services since 1986 that support the unique needs of stakeholders in the mountainous region of the western U.S. This includes meteorological data, tools, and products for thousands of stations across the West, and gridded data products, such as based on PRISM for example, that are used for drought assessment among other needs. WRCC and partners have developed numerous web-based tools and products to support decision-making and research pertinent to the West. Changing climate and variability along with the diverse physical and human geographies of the western U.S. require continuous advancements in climate knowledge and applications development. Examples include the need for tools and model downscaling that support and inform adaptation, mitigation and resiliency planning; web-based analytics that would allow users to interact and explore temporal and spatial data and relationships, and products from new satellite sensors that can provide higher resolution information on soil moisture and vegetation health given the sparseness of in-situ observations for the vastness of the West. This presentation provides an overview of some insights, opportunities and challenges of providing current and future climate services in the West.

  10. Alcoholism in the Western Genre: The Portrayal of Alcohol and Alcoholism in the Western Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedding, Danny

    2000-01-01

    Examines the way alcohol use has been portrayed in films with particular emphasis on the western genre. Saloons, bar fights, and town drunks are all staple features of the genre, a genre that has contributed significantly to the prevailing image of masculinity. This paper argues that these images influence and shape contemporary attitudes about…

  11. Stereotypical Role Models in Western and Non-Western Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugino, Toshiko

    A study investigated the portrayal of mothers and fathers in Japanese and non-Japanese children's literature and how stereotypically they are depicted as role models. Japanese public libraries contain many translated foreign books, mostly Western in origin. For this study's purposes, 25 Japanese books, 25 translated books from English-speaking…

  12. Hyperextension in the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica: new observations and U-Pb ages from the Samnanger Complex, Major Bergen Arc, western Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Johannes; Alsaif, Manar; Andersen, Torgeir; Corfu, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The Samnanger Complex (SC) of the Major Bergen Arc in western Norway (Færseth et al., 1977) comprises a thick succession of original fine-grained marine sediments, now mica- and graphitic schists, some fine-grained impure marbles as well as local quartzite, meta-sandstones and meta-fanglomerates of continental affinity. There are also minor meta-igneous rocks including amphibolite, metagabbro as well as felsic and mafic gneisses. The most characteristic rocks in this heterogeneous unit, however, are numerous solitary mantle-peridotites now present as variably altered serpentinites and soapstones with commonly developed ophicarbonate alteration. Detrital serpentinite and soapstone deposits have also been identified in one locality, now mostly removed by quarrying for building and ornamental stones. The SC is continuous with a regional mélange unit, which can be traced across southern Norway towards Røros (Andersen et al., 2012). The mélange is structurally positioned below large crystalline nappes such as the Jotun Nappe and the SC is structurally positioned in-between the underlying Lower Bergsdalen and the overlying Lindås nappes (Færseth et al., 1977). The lithological association of the mélange with its common presence of solitary and detrital meta-peridotites suggests that it was formed by hyperextension in a magma poor margin. After early-Caledonian metamorphism and deformation associated with emplacement of gabbro and granitoids in the early Ordovician it was finally emplaced in the Caledonian nappe stack after the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. Late granitoid dikes cutting most of the deformation fabric are ~420 Ma. New ID-TIMS U-Pb ages of a pegmatitic meta-gabbro (~486 Ma) and a mylonitic granitoid (~476 Ma) indicate magma emplacement, probably related to subduction within distal parts of the hyperextended margin. We suggest that the exhumation and hydration of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in hyperextended basins may lead to a long

  13. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  14. 14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S KYRENE STEAM POWER PLANT, TEMPE. THE WESTERN CANAL BEGINS TO TURN NORTH AT THIS POINT, AND DIVERTS WATER TO THE HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT AND THE KYRENE LATERAL. THE KYRENE PLANT INLET (LEFT-CENTER) ALSO DIVERTS CANAL WATER FOR PLANT OPERATION AND COOLING. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Fertility and family size in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Prioux, F

    1990-01-01

    "It is known that the fertility decline in Western Europe started almost everywhere in the mid-1960s, that the national trends have run in parallel, and that the reason was essentially the decrease in the numbers of large families, or even their complete disappearance. However, for want of comparable data, international comparisons are often limited to annual fertility indices, and do not distinguish changes due to reduced family size from those which are the result of changes in fertility timing....[The author presents,] for a broad range of countries, an analysis by cohort and birth order. This makes it possible to measure the fertility decline in more detail, to compare its amplitude in the various parts of Europe, and to study its mechanisms."

  16. Strategic defense and the Western alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Lakoff, S.; Willoughby, R. )

    1987-01-01

    Strategic defense has again become a major item on the agenda of the Western Alliance. Revived by President Ronald Reagan in his Star Wars speech of March 1983, and implemented in his Strategic Defense Initiative, it has achieved renewed emphasis in military spending, in alliance research efforts, and in arms control negotiations. SDI is packaged in a way that makes it the largest single item in the Department of Defense's annual budget. It engages researchers in industrial and military laboratories on both sides of the Atlantic as well as in Japan and Israel. In the arms control negotiations now under way between the United States and the USSR, the conduct of this research and its implications for the strategic balance and the reduction of offensive weapons are critical considerations. The implications of this largely unexpected development are the subject of this book.

  17. Malaria entomological inoculation rates in western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Wirtz, R A; Curtis, C F

    1992-12-01

    Over 61,000 anophelines collected between January 1988 and October 1989 in three villages in western Venezuela were assayed by ELISA for Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein. The six specimens confirmed positive belonged to three species: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón, 1940, A. albitarsis Arribalzaga, 1878 sensu lato and A. oswaldoi (Peryassu, 1922). The estimated CS protein rate for all species combined was 0.01% (95% confidence limits 0.004-0.02%). This CS protein rate and the mean number of bites received by the collectors indicated a sporozoite inoculation rate of about 10.5 infective bites per person per year. From this value and the number of human malaria cases reported it was estimated that only 0.32% of bites by CS-positive mosquitoes led to a malaria infection. The CS protein rate is so low that this parameter would not be a practical indicator of the efficacy of control campaigns in this area.

  18. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  19. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  20. Coal mine subsidence - western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Subsidence processes above underground mines consist of a gradual down-warping of the overburden into coal extraction panels, causing depressions, or a sudden collapse into individual mine openings, causing pits. Subsidence in surface mining areas is caused by compaction of rehandled overburden material, dewatering of aquifers or stress and strain readjustments. The time between mining and complete subsidence above underground mines in the western US commonly ranges from a few months to a few years, where down-warping occurs above extraction panels, to many years or decades where pillars are not mined. The duration between mining and the occurrence of sinkholes, however, can vary from a few decades to as long as centuries. The time necessary for depressions and pits in surface mining areas apparently depends on such factors as methods of emplacing and grading and rate of wetting the rehandled material, rate of dewatering of aquifers near the mine, and stress-strain readjustments.

  1. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  2. Upwelling in Cretaceous western interior seaway

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.T.; Gautier, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale, usually described as a stagnant-basin deposit, shares more features in common with upwelling zones than with stratified stagnant basins. Specifically, the overall facies distribution of the Sharon Springs includes a basin-ward zone of laminated, highly organic-rich strata bounded on the west by phosphate, which is, in turn, bounded at the western shoreline by glauconitic sandstone. The same facies distribution might be expected on the eastern shoreline, but the Sharon Springs is truncated there by erosion. The organic matter in the Sharon Springs is almost entirely contained in fecal pellets and is predominantly marine in origin. Organic carbon accumulation rates are comparable to those of upwelling zones. Finally, the Sharon Springs is noted for high concentrations of bones of marine reptiles. These bones occur in a band that may mark the zone of highest biologic productivity.

  3. Thickening history of the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Ph.; Choukroune, P.; Ballèvre, M.; Davy, Ph.

    1986-05-01

    A model of evolution for the western segment of the Alpine chain is presented. Available data concerning the structural, metamorphic and geochronological evolution in the majorunits involved in the thickening processes are takeninto account IO constrain the model. The successive stages of the collisional history are correlated with the evolution of thermal structure: the African paleomargin was deformed at the onset of collision just after the abduction of the oceanic crust. After these initial stages, progressive stacking affected more and more external domains of the European plate. Lastly, the deformation of the entire pile is linked IO the thermal reequilibration of the considered thickened crust. The Alpine chain is a good example of a collision zone where the interaction of thermal and mechanical effects can be treated quantitatively.

  4. Mercury deposits of western California: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studemeister, P. A.

    1984-07-01

    Mercury deposits in western California are near a thrust fault that separates two groups of Mesozoic rocks. The Franciscan Assemblage, a metamorphosed melange with serpentine and graywacke, is structurally overlain by the Great Valley Sequence, a sedimentary series resting on oceanic crust. These Mesozoic rocks are partly covered by volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Cenozoic age. Cinnabar with silica minerals, dolomite, native mercury, and bituminous matter occurs around the fractured margins of serpentine bodies and around hot springs that emanate from the Franciscan Assemblage. Fluid inclusions and hot springs suggest that cinnabar precipitated from CO2-H2O fluids with <2 wt% chlorine at T<250 °C. Prograde metamorphism of Mesozoic sediments expulsed mercury-bearing fluids that migrated up serpentine-related fractures and exhaled onto the surface.

  5. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1984-10-01

    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  6. Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43899.

  7. Dengue fever in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Jason S; Mahon, Connie R

    2003-01-01

    Dengue virus, an arthropod-borne viral agent, causes two distinct diseases: classic dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). There are four dengue virus serotypes: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. Although infection with dengue stimulates immunologic response to a serotype, there is no cross-immunity conferred. Hence, a person can potentially be infected with each serotype during his or her lifetime. An infected female Aedes mosquito transmits the virus from person to person while feeding. The disease, now endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific, is spreading to new areas and causing explosive outbreaks. Because of the major impact on lives and local economies epidemics produce, rapid detection of dengue infection has become an important public health research issue. Recently developed serological procedures to detect dengue infections have shown great potential for field use.

  8. Continental Shelf Currents off Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, G. R.

    2007-05-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, ADCP, was moored a few meters above the bottom at the 70 m isobath out from the Perth, Western Australia for a little over a year in 2000/2001. It recorded currents in 4 m depth bins every hour as well as the temperature at the instrument. The ADCP was put at the 70 m isobath so that it would come under the influence of both the wind-driven Capes Current in summer and perhaps incursions by the Leeuwin Current in all seasons. The record shows both these currents and is rich with the effects of other phenomena including upwelling, downwelling, sea/land breezes, summer and winter storms, and the passing of submesoscale eddies on the continental shelf. We discuss the ADCP data and complement them with satellite images, wind and sea level data.

  9. Urban landscapes and the western drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cities in the western U.S. are heavily irrigated and have increasingly been the focus of water conservation measures. Even cities that previously relied only on voluntary reductions in outdoor water use have been employing stricter mandates to limit irrigation. These cities are in a period of transition and the outcomes are far from certain. There are many tradeoffs in the environmental and social consequences of different urban water management strategies. Here we review recent work studying these tradeoffs in cities of southern California and Utah. We have measured the water use of different types of landscapes ranging from turfgrass to urban trees to xeriscapes. Unshaded turfgrass shows evapotranspiration (ET) rates close to potential ET; however, shaded turfgrass uses substantially less water. On the other hand, plants used in xeriscapes may have surprisingly high transpiration rates if they are heavily watered. In addition, unshaded xeriscapes may substantially alter surface energy balance and have unintended consequences for urban climate. Through whole tree sap flux measurements and scaling of ET estimates, we have found that urban trees generally use less water than turfgrass, and provide additional cooling benefits through interception of radiation. Current measures to reduce outdoor water use through irrigation restrictions and turfgrass removal programs do not include safeguards to ensure that urban trees receive adequate irrigation, and the future of urban tree canopies in western cities is highly uncertain. Although trees and other deep-rooted vegetation may require less irrigation than turfgrass and better withstand periods of drought, this vegetation must still be appropriate managed with water inputs informed by an understanding of plant water relations and urban subsurface hydrology. On the current trajectory, cities may see a substantial loss of vegetative cover and leaf area unless an understanding of ecohydrology is better integrated into

  10. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  11. Snowpack regimes of the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Ernesto; Molotch, Noah P.

    2014-07-01

    Snow accumulation and melt patterns play a significant role in the water, energy, carbon, and nutrient cycles in the montane environments of the Western United States. Recent studies have illustrated that changes in the snow/rainfall apportionments and snow accumulation and melt patterns may occur as a consequence of changes in climate in the region. In order to understand how these changes may affect the snow regimes of the region, the current characteristics of the snow accumulation and melt patterns must be identified. Here we characterize the snow water equivalent (SWE) curve formed by the daily SWE values at 766 snow pillow stations in the Western United States, focusing on several metrics of the yearly SWE curves and the relationships between the different metrics. The metrics are the initial snow accumulation and snow disappearance dates, the peak snow accumulation and date of peak, the length of the snow accumulation season, the length of the snowmelt season, and the snow accumulation and snowmelt slopes. Three snow regimes emerge from these results: a maritime, an intermountain, and a continental regime. The maritime regime is characterized by higher maximum snow accumulations reaching 300 cm and shorter accumulation periods of less than 220 days. Conversely, the continental regime is characterized by lower maximum accumulations below 200 cm and longer accumulation periods reaching over 260 days. The intermountain regime lies in between. The regions that show the characteristics of the maritime regime include the Cascade Mountains, the Klamath Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The intermountain regime includes the Eastern Cascades slopes and foothills, the Blue Mountains, Northern and Central basins and ranges, the Columbia Mountains/Northern Rockies, the Idaho Batholith, and the Canadian Rockies. Lastly, the continental regime includes the Middle and Southern Rockies, and the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains. The implications of snow regime

  12. Summit geomorphology of western Pacific guyots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Waasbergen, Robert J.; Winterer, Edward L.

    Bathymetric and seismic reflection data for 21 guyots in the Japanese, Wake and Mid Pacific Mountains seamount groups show that many guyots bear thick shallow-water limestone deposits that represent nearly undeformed Cretaceous rudist-reef-bounded carbonate platforms. Three types of guyot summits are distinguished: those with more than 200 m of shallow-water limestone, sufficient to bury the underlying volcanic relief, follow the same basic morphologic patterns as their coral/algal-dominated modern counterparts. Surface morphology is controlled by the original reef/platform configuration, modified by subaerial erosion and by long-term deformation of the sedimentary deposits and the underlying volcanic edifice. These seamounts range in age from Barremian to Aptian, with Barremian or Aptian to late Albian limestone deposits. Guyots with thin limestone deposits represent reef-bearing volcanic islands at various stages of fringing-reef and barrier-reef development. These edifices and their overlying limestone deposits are of Albian age. Reef growth on these was suddenly halted when regional emergence led to cessation of shallow-water-limestone accumulation on all guyots in the western Pacific, probably during the latest Albian. The karstic surfaces were resubmerged by middle Turonian time and, in latitudes south of about 20°N, blanketed by pelagic ooze. Guyots without reef deposits appear to be products of post-Albian volcanism and erosion at sea level. Among the three types of summit-configurations a range of stages of development of Cretaceous carbonate-platforms can be observed. The exposure of the guyot summits indicated by the occurence of karstic relief of 100-200 m on many of the limestone caps suggests that the sea floor of the western Pacific was raised several hundred meters. The age and platform thickness-relationships among the different types of guyots suggests that this uplift occurred at late Albian time.

  13. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  14. Barcoding Poplars (Populus L.) from Western China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Huiying; Dong, Miao; Wang, Gaini; He, Xinyu; Zhao, Changming; Mao, Kangshan

    2013-01-01

    Background Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS) among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M), trnG-psbK (G) and psbK-psbI (P), and trnH-psbA (H) and rbcL (R); the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I) is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I), and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. Conclusions/Significance In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in plants

  15. 18. Detail of stonework, north side, immediately west of western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detail of stonework, north side, immediately west of western abutment reinforcing, facing south. - Dubbs Bridge, Spinnerstown Road (State Route 2031) spanning Hosensack Creek, Dillingerville, Lehigh County, PA

  16. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  17. Final Report on Transmission Pricing in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Larson; Lawrence Nordell

    2003-06-25

    Under this project, the Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation (CREPC) of the Western Interstate Energy Board developed a ''western pricing and congestion management proposal'' in order to foster efficient wholesale power markets and efficient use and expansion of the transmission grid. Drafts of this paper provided useful information to states/provinces in the Western Interconnection as Western Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission pricing proposals have continued to evolve. Throughout the project there has been a gradual, but incomplete agreement on pricing systems to be used by RTOs in the West.

  18. 4. VIEW EAST, WEST ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, WEST ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  19. 3. VIEW WEST, EAST ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST, EAST ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  6. [John Kerr and the introduction of Western medicine into China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zun-Wang

    2003-04-01

    Being a key figure in the process of introduction of western medicine into China in modern age, John Kerr, an American medical missionary, established the Boji Hospital, one of the most influential hospitals with the longest history in modern China. He carried out medical education by setting up a medical school affiliated to the Boji Hospital, which was the first professional western medical school in China. He compiled medical books and periodicals, playing an important role in the systematic understanding of western medicine by the Chinese medical field at that period. He made contribution to the development of western medicine in China for nearly half a century. PMID:12921586

  7. 12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN MESA, THE LOCATION AT WHICH THE PECK, PINE AND WALLACE FEEDERS FORMERLY JOINED TO FORM THE WESTERN CANAL. THE PECK AND PINE FEEDERS, NOW KNOWN AS LATERAL 9 AND LATERAL 10, AND ALMOST ENTIRELY PIPED, STILL JOIN THE WESTERN CANAL AT THIS POINT, BUT AN EQUALLY IMPORTANT SOURCE OF SUPPLY IS THE NUMEROUS GROUNDWATER PUMPS LOCATED ON THE SYSTEM. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Response of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change: the Western Mountain Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Peterson, Dave; Fagre, Daniel B.; Allen, Craig D.; McKenzie, Donald; Baron, Jill S.; O'Brian, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems within our national parks and other protected areas provide valuable goods and services such as clean water, biodiversity conservation, and recreational opportunities, but their potential responses to expected climatic changes are inadequately understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is a collaboration of scientists whose research focuses on understanding and predicting responses of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. It is a legacy of the Global Change Research Program initiated by the National Park Service (NPS) in 1991 and continued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to this day as part of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (http://www.climatescience.gov/). All WMI scientists are active participants in CIRMOUNT, and seek to further its goals.

  9. Response of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change: The Western Mountain Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Peterson, David A.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Allen, Craig; McKenzie, Donald; Baron, Jill; O'Brien, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems within our national parks and other protected areas provide valuable goods and services such as clean water, biodiversity conservation, and recreational opportunities, but their potential responses to expected climatic changes are inadequately understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is a collaboration of scientists whose research focuses on understanding and predicting responses of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. It is a legacy of the Global Change Research Program initiated by the National Park Service (NPS) in 1991 and continued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to this day as part of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (http://www.climatescience.gov/). All WMI scientists are active participants in CIRMOUNT, and seek to further its goals.

  10. Geomorphology of Titan's Western Xanadu Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, M. H.; Lunine, J. I.; Mitri, G.

    2011-12-01

    Titan's Xanadu region is one of the most fascinating, continent-sized surface features, hosting many kinds of geologic features, such as craters, channels, candidate paleolakes, mountain chains, and potential cryovolcanic flows. However, the geologic development of this region is still controversially debated. This study aims to verify current concepts about the development of Xanadu, while the main focus will be to test the idea of the genesis of western Xanadu by an ancient impact, proposed by Brown et al. (2011). The outer boundary of the Xanadu Circular Feature (XCF) is obvious through a large circular marking, 1,800 km across, seen in VIMS-data (Brown et al. 2011). According to Brown et al. (2011), radar-SAR data confirm the presence of an inner and outer boundary of that presumptive impact crater through differences in radar brightness. Further arguments supporting an impact origin are (amongst others, from Brown et al. 2011) the low brightness temperature of the region at 2.2 cm wavelength and its low topographic level. This study aims to extend and verify these findings based on current Cassini VIMS-, RADAR-SAR, and SAR-Topo data covering the Xanadu-region. VIMS data obtained at different times and at different viewing and illumination conditions, e.g. Cassini Orbit 22 (March 18, 2006) and Orbit 97 (Dec. 21, 2008), confirm the relative permanence of the outer margins of the XCF. Some parts of its putative outer boundary are visible in Radar-SAR, which confirms a correlation between VIMS and RADAR, possibly due to the presence of an outer boundary of an impact structure. Further, SAR-Topo data partly reproduce the southern (outer) boundary of the XCF and thus its topographic depression. Other confirming structures are the possible remains of radial and concentric features near the outer boundary of the XCF, visible in radar. Potential impact-induced cryovolcanic features are located at southern Xanadu, namely Tui Regio and Hotei Regio (e.g. Soderblom et al

  11. Vegetation response to western juniper slash treatments.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments (P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of

  12. Snowpack Regimes of the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, E.; Molotch, N. P.

    2011-12-01

    Snow accumulation and melt patterns play a significant role in the water, energy, carbon and nutrient cycles in the montane environments of the Western United States. Recent studies have illustrated that changes in the snow/rainfall apportionments, and snow accumulation and melt patterns may occur as a consequence of changes in climate in the region. In order to understand how these changes may affect the snow regimes of the region, the current characteristics of the snow accumulation and melt patterns must be identified. Here, we characterize the snow water equivalent (SWE) curve formed by the daily SWE values at over seven hundred snow pillow stations in the Western U.S., focusing on several metrics of the yearly SWE curves and the cross relationships between the different metrics. The metrics include the initial snow accumulation and meltout dates, the peak accumulation and date of peak, the time from initial accumulation to peak, the time from peak to meltout, the accumulation and melt slopes, and the daily rates of accumulation and melt. Three distinct regimes emerge from these results: a maritime, an intermediate (intercontinental), and a continental regime. The maritime regime is characterized by higher maximum snow accumulations reaching 300 cm and shorter accumulation periods of less than 220 days, while on the other hand; the continental regime is characterized by lower maximum accumulations below 200 cm and longer accumulation periods reaching over 260 days. The intercontinental regime lies in between. Several other differences are identified between the metrics of the SWE curve in these regimes. The regions that show the characteristics of the maritime regime include the Cascade Mountains, the Klamath Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The intercontinental regime includes the Northern and Central basins and ranges, the Idaho Batholith, the Northern Rockies and the Blue Mountains. Lastly, the Continental regime includes the Middle and Southern

  13. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  14. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth

  15. View from Western Avenue looking northwest down curbside walkway. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from Western Avenue looking northwest down curbside walkway. Building 15 in left foreground. Illustration of asymmetrical layout and forty-five degree angle of buildings to public street - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Need 3 Quick Credits to Play Ball? Call Western Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Western Oklahoma State College's name comes up whenever athletes get themselves in a jam: They've failed a class. They've dropped another. Maybe they're just short on credits. But they still want to play. Western Oklahoma gives them a chance, offering three credits in two weeks--and for less than $400. Almost as appealing: The community college…

  17. A Review of Potential Components for the Western Bibliographic Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    Described are existing components that could be linked together to form a Western Bibliographic Network or could provide products and services for Network members. The components reviewed are: (1) state library agencies, research libraries, state and multistate library networks, and other regional organizations in the 17-state western region and…

  18. 78 FR 62014 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 17, 2013, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-1626,...

  19. 76 FR 65718 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 23, 2011, Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-151 concerning...

  20. 75 FR 65624 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Western Area Power Administration submitted a tariff filing...

  1. 76 FR 12957 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 3, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration, submitted its Open Access Transmission...

  2. 76 FR 8726 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 3, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration, pursuant to Order No. 714,\\1\\ and the...

  3. 77 FR 65546 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 14, 2011, Western Area Power Administration submitted its revised version of its Tariff...

  4. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  5. New Bythinella (Gastropoda, Bythinellidae) species from western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Mehmet Zeki; Kebapçı, Ümit; Koca, Seval Bahadır; Yüce, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bythinella anatolica sp. n., Bythinella istanbulensis sp. n., Bythinella magdalenae sp. n., and Bythinella wilkei sp. n. from western Turkey are described herein. Illustrations of the shell and genitalia of the newly described taxa, together with comparisons with previously known Bythinella taxa and a key to the species from western Turkey, are also provided. PMID:25685028

  6. Catalog of Uncommon Facilities in Western Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viehland, Dennis, Comp.

    A list of rare, and often unique, facilities in the western part of the United States is presented that is designed to serve as a resource for researchers. The list of facilities is a guide to what uncommon equipment, centers or institutes, and collections are available at western higher education facilities and what provisions exist for sharing…

  7. The Western River--An Offscale Teaching and Experimental Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John J.; Wilcox, John T.

    1983-01-01

    Sedimentary patterns and hydraulic effects can be studies in model streams which are not to scale. The "Western River" is such a model which is being used effectively at Western Carolina College. Construction of the model, student exercises, and observations made when using the model are discussed. (Author/JN)

  8. A new name for the western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There currently is considerable confusion as to the correct application of the name Choristoneura occidentalis. This name has historically been applied to the western spruce budworm, a serious forest pest in western North America. However, Razowski (2008) transferred Archips occidentalis into Choris...

  9. Camping under Western Stars: Joan Crawford in "Johnny Guitar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian and "butch-femme"…

  10. RESTORATION OF QUAKING ASPEN WOODLANDS INVADED BY WESTERN JUNIPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quaking aspen woodlands are important plant communities in the interior mountains of the western United States, providing essential habitat for many wildlife species and contain a high diversity of understory plants. Western juniper woodlands are rapidly replacing lower elevation (<6800 ft) quaking...

  11. Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

  12. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  13. 76 FR 58805 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-156,...

  14. 76 FR 58805 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-155 and...

  15. 76 FR 9771 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted a notice of complete cancellation of...

  16. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

  17. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  18. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Harold

    This book argues against the politicization of literature and presents a guide to the great works and essential writers of the ages, the "Western Canon." The book studies 26 writers and seeks to isolate the qualities that made these authors canonical, that is, authoritative in Western culture. Noting that although originally the "Canon" meant the…

  19. 5. Photocopy of old exterior photo showing Western Saving Fund ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of old exterior photo showing Western Saving Fund Society before the addition of ca. 1910 building. Original photo, late 19th century, is at the Philadelphia Free Library, Philadelphia Collection, Print and Picture Department. - Western Saving Fund Society of Philadelphia, 1000-1008 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 33 CFR 167.404 - Off San Francisco: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Western approach. 167.404 Section 167.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.404 Off San Francisco: Western...

  1. 33 CFR 167.404 - Off San Francisco: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Western approach. 167.404 Section 167.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.404 Off San Francisco: Western...

  2. Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland Rail Trail (milepost 115), C&O Canal, and Potomac River, looking east. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  3. The Western Maryland Rail Trail passes high above the canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Western Maryland Rail Trail passes high above the canal and behind the surviving remains of the Round Top cement works, milepost 120, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  4. Western Maryland (WM) crossing the Potomac River where it connected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western Maryland (WM) crossing the Potomac River where it connected with the Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) Railroad at Cherry Run, West Virginia, looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  5. The Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2015-09-01

    We developed the Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS) to assess relationship standards that may differ between Chinese and Western partners and may challenge intercultural couples. The scale assesses 4 Western-derived relationship standards (demonstrations of love, demonstrations of caring, intimacy expression, and intimacy responsiveness) and 4 Chinese-derived relationship standards (relations with the extended family, relational harmony, face, and gender roles). We administered the CWICSS to 983 Chinese and Western participants living in Australia to assess the psychometric properties of the scores as measures of respondents' relationship standards. The CWICSS has a 2-level factor structure with the items reflecting the 8 predicted standards. The 4 Western derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of couple bond, and the 4 Chinese derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of family responsibility. The scale scores were structurally equivalent across cultures, genders, and 2 independent samples, and good convergent and discriminant validity was found for the interpretation of scale scores as respondents' endorsement of the predicted standards. Scores on the 8 scales and 2 superordinate scales showed high internal consistency and test-retest coefficients. Chinese endorsed all 4 family responsibility standards more strongly than did Westerners, but Chinese and Western participants were similar in endorsement of couple bond standards. Across both cultures, couple bond standards were endorsed more highly than were family responsibility standards. The CWICSS assesses potential areas of conflict in Chinese-Western relationships. PMID:25751605

  6. Western and Chinese Development Discourses: Education, Growth and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Western and Chinese discourses of education, sustainable growth and development. Education is increasingly considered as a means to fuel economic growth, especially since the 1980s, when conservative economic values became predominant in Western development thought. Despite a discourse on sustainability favouring ecologically…

  7. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  8. Western Grid Can Handle High Renewables in Challenging Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  9. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3: Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  10. Philosophy of Education: Becoming Less Western, More African?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…

  11. 77 FR 34024 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    .... Pelagics and International Fisheries is scheduled on the agenda for the afternoon session of the Council... Longline Quarterly Reports F. International Fisheries Meetings 1. Eighth Regular Session of the Western and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public...

  12. [Compairison between western and Chinese acupuncture and its enlightenment].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Zhu, Bing; Yu, Xiaochun; Liu, Baoyan; Xu, Nenggui; Jing, Xianghong

    2015-02-01

    With the wide application of acupuncture in the world, the research results of neurosciences have made scientific approval on some of efficacy and mechanism of acupuncture, and the concept of western medical acupuricture (WMA) is gradually developed. During the spread of Chinese acupuncture into western countries, WMA is an adaptive improvement when facing basic theories of western medicine including anatomy, physiology and pathology as well as evidence-based medicine system. WMA which is based on theory of muscle trigger point has obvious efficacy on muscular fasciae pain, which attracted wide attention. But when Chinese acupuncture spreads into western world, the theories of Chinese acupuncture such as meridian and specificity of acupoint are questioned due to the results of western clinical study. In this paper, the origin, theory development, stimulating location and method, and categories of diseases of WMA are compared with Chinese acupuncture, and the enlightenment of this difference on Chinese acupuncture research is analyzed.

  13. Pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    A geologic characterization is presented of 17 newly identified localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon. The results show that lunar pyroclastic deposits are more pervasive on the western limb of the moon than once thought. The western limb dark-mantle deposits in the proximal zone are probably related to faults and fractures associated with the Cordillera ring of Orientale Basin. All the localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb for which near-infrared reflectance spectra have been obtained exhibit parameter that allowed them to be assigned to the three spectral groups described elsewhere. Western limb pyroclastic deposits appear to represent various stages in a formational sequence in which an initial explosive phase is followed by varying amounts of mare flooding. In view of their sequential formation, both the pyroclastic and mare materials associated with individual volcanic complexes may be the products of the same parent magmas and have very similar compositions.

  14. Search for uranium in western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

    1953-01-01

    The search for uranium in the United States is one of the most intensive ever made for any metal during our history. The number of prospectors and miners involved is difficult to estimate but some measure of the size of the effort is indicated by the fact that about 500 geologists are employed by government and industry in the work--more than the total number of geologists engaged in the study of all other minerals together except oil. The largest part of the effort has been concentrated in the western states. No single deposit of major importance by world standards has been discovered but the search has led to the discovery of important minable deposits of carnotite and related minerals on the Colorado Plateau; of large, low grade deposits of uranium in phosphates in the northwestern states and in lignites in the Dakotas, Wyoming, Idaho and New Mexico; and of many new and some promising occurrences of uranium in carnotite-like deposits and in vein deposits. Despite the fact that a large number of the districts considered favorable for the occurrence of uranium have already been examined, the outlook for future discoveries is bright, particularly for uranium in vein and in carnotite-like deposits in the Rocky Mountain States.

  15. The rams horn in western history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  16. Epidemiologic trends of sepsis in western countries

    PubMed Central

    Suarez De La Rica, Alejandro; Gilsanz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Since the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Society of Critical care Medicine (SCCM) published the first consensus definition of syndromes related to sepsis in 1992, the knowledge of epidemiology of sepsis has clearly improved, although no prospective studies have been performed to analyse the incidence of sepsis in general population. There are differences in epidemiologic trends in sepsis between western countries and low-income and middle-income countries. In the United States (US), most of epidemiologic studies have been based on large, administrative databases, reporting an increase in the incidence of severe sepsis over years. In general, studies describing epidemiology of sepsis outside the US use clinical definitions and intensive care unit (ICU) observational cohort designs instead of administrative databases and definitions. Incidence of sepsis has increased over years, probably due to progressive aging of population, the existence of more comorbidities and maybe the liberal use of sepsis codification, by including patients with less severity. Notwithstanding, mortality due to sepsis is clearly decreasing over years, probably to improvement in ICU care, although absolute mortality is growing on account of the raise in incidence. Risk factors for sepsis are the two ends of life, male sex, US black race, presence of comorbidities and certain genetic variants. Respiratory tract infections are the most common source of sepsis, and, nowadays, Gram-positive infections are more frequent that Gram-negative sepsis in most prospective studies. PMID:27713883

  17. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control.

    PubMed

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.

  18. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Epidemiology of asthma in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Vervloet, D; Charpin, J

    1988-10-01

    Asthma deaths are uncommon, but have recently increased in some countries due to problems in the management of the disease. Morbidity rates show large variations, which can be attributed to differences in defining the disease, but also to genuine variations, with a trend towards less asthma in northern Europe. It has been suggested that allergic diseases as a whole, and asthma in particular, may exhibit an upward secular trend. Risk factors include a genetic background and environmental triggering factors. The importance of genetic factors is illustrated by family studies and by extreme prevalence rates observed in some communities. Environmental factors include rapid air pollution variations which act as a trigger for asthma attacks. However, at levels currently prevailing in western Europe, air pollutants do not induce a higher incidence of asthma. Altitude generates a gradual decrease in Dermatophagoides, thus explaining both the clinical improvement in asthmatics living in altitude and a lower prevalence of asthma in populations born and living there. Among the other aero-allergens, grass pollens plays a major role in spring, elicitating asthma attacks. Some natural allergens transformed by man (castor bean, soja) can be responsible for asthma epidemics.

  20. Perceptual basis of evolving Western musical styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Shifres, Favio; Cecchi, Guillermo A

    2013-06-11

    The brain processes temporal statistics to predict future events and to categorize perceptual objects. These statistics, called expectancies, are found in music perception, and they span a variety of different features and time scales. Specifically, there is evidence that music perception involves strong expectancies regarding the distribution of a melodic interval, namely, the distance between two consecutive notes within the context of another. The recent availability of a large Western music dataset, consisting of the historical record condensed as melodic interval counts, has opened new possibilities for data-driven analysis of musical perception. In this context, we present an analytical approach that, based on cognitive theories of music expectation and machine learning techniques, recovers a set of factors that accurately identifies historical trends and stylistic transitions between the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Post-Romantic periods. We also offer a plausible musicological and cognitive interpretation of these factors, allowing us to propose them as data-driven principles of melodic expectation. PMID:23716669

  1. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  2. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  3. Fornax A's Western Radio Lobe Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jason J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Kraft, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the western radio lobe of Fornax A based on an XMM-Newton observation. We find little evidence for the inverse-Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background as reported previously. The spectra in the energy range of 0.5-5 keV are well fitted by a thermal plus power law model for every spectral region we extracted. With a fixed photon index of 1.68, the X-ray flux density at 1 keV from the power law fit was measured to be < 28 nJy at the 90% confidence level, leading to a lower limit on the magnetic field in this region of 6 micro-Gauss. Our spectral fits suggest that there is hot gas surrounding the radio lobe. A filament of dense, cool gas extends from the central galaxy in the direction of the radio lobe of Fornax A. Spectral fits give a temperature of kT=0.76 keV over the radio lobe and kT=0.32 keV for the cool filament. The thermal emission from the radio lobe region is best explained as emission from a thin shell of shocked gas swept up by the rapidly expanding lobe. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  4. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  5. The Mount Kozak magmatic complex, Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunkaynak, Ş.; Yılmaz, Y.

    1998-10-01

    The Mount Kozak igneous complex is located close to the towns of Ayvalık, Bergama and Burhaniye in the Western Anatolia, Turkey. Magmatic activity occurred during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, beginning with the emplacement of the Kozak pluton. Sheet intrusive rocks formed around it coevally. They are surrounded by the volcanic rocks, partly contemporaneously with the emplacement of the granitic rocks during the Early Miocene. The Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene magmatic rocks of the Kozak region are represented by a high-K, calc-alkaline suite of predominantly intermediate and acidic composition. Their geochemical characteristics suggest that the magmas are hybrid, and were formed from a similar source, representing mantle-derived magmas, contaminated by crustal materials. The cogenetic plutonic rocks, the hypabyssal rocks and the overlying volcanic associations are related to one another in space and time, and appear to have been connected to a shallow level granitic intrusion in a caldera collapse setting. The calc-alkaline magmatic activity waned during the Middle Miocene. When the volcanism was rejuvenated during the Late Miocene-Pliocene, alkaline basalt lavas were formed as fissure eruptions.

  6. Malaria entomological inoculation rates in western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Wirtz, R A; Curtis, C F

    1992-12-01

    Over 61,000 anophelines collected between January 1988 and October 1989 in three villages in western Venezuela were assayed by ELISA for Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein. The six specimens confirmed positive belonged to three species: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón, 1940, A. albitarsis Arribalzaga, 1878 sensu lato and A. oswaldoi (Peryassu, 1922). The estimated CS protein rate for all species combined was 0.01% (95% confidence limits 0.004-0.02%). This CS protein rate and the mean number of bites received by the collectors indicated a sporozoite inoculation rate of about 10.5 infective bites per person per year. From this value and the number of human malaria cases reported it was estimated that only 0.32% of bites by CS-positive mosquitoes led to a malaria infection. The CS protein rate is so low that this parameter would not be a practical indicator of the efficacy of control campaigns in this area. PMID:1363181

  7. Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-07-15

    Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. PMID:24879053

  8. Age of the Rockland tephra, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Clynne, M.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The age of the Rockland tephra, which includes an ash-flow tuff south and west of Lassen Peak in northern California and a widespread ash-fall deposit that produced a distinct stratigraphic marker in western North America, is constrained to 565,000 to 610,000 yr by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating. 40Ar/39Ar ages on plagioclase from pumice in the Rockland have a weighted mean age of 609,000 ?? 7000 yr. Isotopic ages of spots on individual zircon crystals, analyzed by the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe, range from ???500,000 to ???800,000 yr; a subpopulation representing crystal rims yielded a weighted-mean age of 573,000 ?? 19,000 yr. Overall stratigraphic constraints on the age are provided by two volcanic units, including the underlying tephra of the Lava Creek Tuff erupted within Yellowstone National Park that has an age of 639,000 ?? 2000 yr. The basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch stratigraphically overlies the Rockland in the Lassen Peak area and has 40Ar/39Ar ages of 565,000 ?? 29,000 and 565,000 ?? 12,000 yr for plagioclase and groundmass, respectively. Identification of Rockland tephra in ODP core 1018 offshore of central California is an important stratigraphic age that also constrains the eruption age to between 580,000 and 600,000 yr. ?? 2004 Published by University of Washington.

  9. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

    Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

    The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  10. Volcanic hazard assessment in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David K.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.; Duncan, Angus M.

    2002-06-01

    Volcanology has been in the past and in many respects remains a subject dominated by pure research grounded in the earth sciences. Over the past 30 years a paradigm shift has occurred in hazard assessment which has been aided by significant changes in the social theory of natural hazards and the first-hand experience gained in the 1990s by volcanologists working on projects conceived during the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Today much greater stress is placed on human vulnerability, the potential for marginalisation of disadvantaged individuals and social groups, and the requirement to make applied volcanology sensitive to the characteristics of local demography, economy, culture and politics. During the IDNDR a methodology, broadly similar to environmental impact analysis, has emerged as the preferred method for studying human vulnerability and risk assessment in volcanically active regions. The characteristics of this new methodology are discussed and the progress which has been made in innovating it on the European Union laboratory volcanoes located in western Europe is reviewed. Furnas (São Miguel, Azores) and Vesuvius in Italy are used as detailed case studies.

  11. Preliminary raptor surveys in western Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, M.H.; Tsengeg, P.

    1995-01-01

    Raptors were observed on a 5200 km expedition from Ulaan Baatar through the Hangay Mountains to the Russian Altay Mountains with return through the Gobi Altay Mountains. The focus of the expedition was on nesting ecology of the Saker (Falco cherrug) and Altay falcons (F. altaicus) (25 eyries were located), but nests were also found for seven other species including more than 30 nests found of the upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius). We conducted 21 day-long counts and 10 more formal raptor road counts. Raptors were concentrated in areas where perches were common and where food was most abundant. Western Mongolia remains a vast undeveloped land where camel trains and yak carts are normal. No developed highway network exists. Raptor work in the interior must be supported by four-wheel drive vehicles traveling cross country. Food and fuel for a research team are difficult to procure, but raptor populations are largely unexploited. Raptors frequently nest on the ground or on very low cliffs and tress, and often nest in close proximity of pairs of their own and other species. Several areas of special significance to raptors are discussed including the Taleen Ulaan (Red Steppe) areas of granite dells which we recommend for status as an international reserve.

  12. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-01-01

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  13. Photochemical Production Rates in Western Houston

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, C. W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the instantaneous O3 chemical production rates, NOx (= NO + NO2) loss rates and ozone production efficiency within ozone plumes sampled on the west side of Houston, Texas, during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study. We emphasize days during which rapid increases associated with plume passage were observed in the 15-minute average ozone mixing ratio, O3. The basis for this work will be observations of key nitrogen species and VOCs collected from the top of a sky scraper on the western edge of the city. These observations are used in a 0-dimensional model to quantify the chemical kinetics within parcels of air associated with ozone levels in excess of 100 ppb. We identify the key VOCs affecting ozone production and assess the relative role of anthropogenic versus biogenic VOCs to local ozone production. We also examine how the daily variations in ozone production and ozone production efficiencies are related to differences in VOC/NOx ratios.

  14. Ocean acidification in the Western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, W.; Chen, B.; Chen, L.

    2011-12-01

    We report carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification status in the western Arctic Ocean from 65-88οN based on data collected in summer 2008 and 2010. In the marginal seas, surface waters have high pH and high carbonate saturation state (Ω) due to intensive biological uptake of CO2. In the southern Canada Basin, surface waters have low pH and low Ω due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and sea-ice melt. In the northern Arctic Ocean basin, there is no serious ocean acidification in surface water due to heavy ice-coverage but pH and Ω in the subsurface waters at the oxygen minimum and nutrient maximum zone (at 100-150 m) are low due mostly to respiration-derived CO2 and an increased biological production and export in surface waters. Such multitude responses of ocean carbonate chemistry (northern vs. southern basin, basins vs. margins, and surface vs. subsurface) to climate changes are unique to the Arctic Ocean system. We will explore biogeochemical control mechanisms on carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean environments in the context of recent warming and sea-ice retreat.

  15. Sedimentation and sustainability of western American reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, William L.; Wohl, Ellen; Sinha, Tushar; Sabo, John L.

    2010-12-01

    Reservoirs are sustainable only as long as they offer sufficient water storage space to achieve their design objectives. Life expectancy related to sedimentation is a measure of reservoir sustainability. We used data from the Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Geological Survey (Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System II (RESIS II)) to explore the sustainability of American reservoirs. Sustainability varied by region, with the longest life expectancies in New England and the Tennessee Valley and the shortest in the interior west. In the Missouri and Colorado River basins, sedimentation and rates of loss of reservoir storage capacity were highly variable in time and space. In the Missouri River Basin, the larger reservoirs had the longest life expectancies, with some exceeding 1000 years, while smaller reservoirs in the basin had the shortest life expectancies. In the Colorado River Basin at the site of Glen Canyon Dam, sediment inflow varied with time, declining by half beginning in 1942 because of hydroclimate and upstream geomorphic changes. Because of these changes, the estimated life expectancy of Lake Powell increased from 300 to 700 years. Future surprise changes in sedimentation delivery and reservoir filling area are expected. Even though large western reservoirs were built within a limited period, their demise will not be synchronous because of varying sedimentation rates. Popular literature has incorrectly emphasized the possibility of rapid, synchronous loss of reservoir storage capacity and underestimated the sustainability of the water control infrastructure.

  16. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-01-01

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence. PMID:25748943

  17. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalimi, A; Motamedi, Gh; Hosseini, M; Mohammadian, B; Malaki, H; Ghamari, Z; Ghaffari Far, F

    2002-04-30

    In the present study, 115 stray dogs (56 males and 59 females, mixed breed), 86 golden jackal (Canis aureus, 42 males and 44 females), 60 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, 33 males and 27 females), and three female wolves (Canis lupus) were examined for Echinococcus granulosus infection, as well as, 32,898 sheep, 10,691 goats, 15,779 cattle and 659 buffaloes for hydatid infection from five provinces in western Iran during 3 years (1997-2000). Meanwhile fertility rates of different types and forms of cysts isolated from infected animals and the viability of protoscolices were also determined. Results indicated that 19.1% of the dogs, 2.3% of the golden jackals and 5% of the red foxes were infected with Echinococcus granulosus. 11.1% of the sheep, 6.3% of the goats, 16.4% of the cattle and 12.4% of the buffaloes were also found to be infected with hydatid cyst. The cysts isolated from liver and lungs of the sheep show higher fertility rate than the cysts of liver and lungs of goats, cattle and buffaloes. PMID:11900930

  18. A newly discovered Pliocene volcanic field on the western Sardinia continental margin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island

  19. Public water supplies in western Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Sundstrom, R.W.; Weaver, D.E.

    1951-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in a region comprising 81 counties of western Texas and lying generally west of the hundredth meridian. It is the fourth and last of this series of reports concerning the public water supplies of the State. It gives the available data for each of 142 communities, as follows: The population of the community; the name of the official from whom the information was obtained; the ownership of the waterworks, whether private or municipal; the source of supply, whether ground water or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment of the water, if any; and the chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used the following also are given. Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; and yield of the wells and water-level records where they are available. Of the 142 public supplies, 133 are obtained from ground water, 5 from surface water, and 4 from a combination of both. The total amount of water . used for public supply in the region averages about 78,000,000 gallons a day. Of this about 61,000,000 gallons a day is ground water and about 17,000,000 gallons a day is surface water. The ground-water resources of the region from which public water supplies are drawn are in rocks that range in age from Permian to Quaternary. The Ogallala formation of Tertiary age (Pliocene), which covers about 35,000 square miles of the High Plains in Texas, is the most important ground-water reservoir in the region. The formation furnishes water for 78 public supplies and for irrigating about 1,000,000 acres of land. The amount of water used for irrigating amounted to about 1,000,000 acre-feet in 1948. The Trinity and Fredericksburg groups of Lower Cretaceous age supply ground water in the western part of the Edwards Plateau, which constitutes an area of more than 22

  20. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  1. Lg Attenuation of the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, A. C.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Ni, J.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Lg waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) are used to estimate Lg Q in the Western United States (WUS). Attenuation is calculated based on Lg spectral amplitudes filtered at a narrow band from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz with a central frequency of 1 Hz. The two-station and reverse two-station techniques were used to calculate Qo values. 398 events occurring from 2005 to 2009 and ranging from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 were used in this study. The geometric spreading term can be determined by using a three-dimensional linear fit of the amplitude ratios versus epicentral distances to two stations. The slope of this line provides the geometric spreading term we use to calculate Lg Qo values of WUS. The results show high Q regions (low attenuation) corresponding to the Colorado Plateau (CP), the Rocky Mountains (RM), the Columbia Plateau (COP), and the Sierra Nevada Mountains (SNM). Regions of low Q (high attenuation) are seen along the Snake River Plain (SRP), the Rio Grande Rift (RGR), the Cascade Mountains (CM), and in east and west of the Basin and Range (BR) where tectonic activity is more active than the central part of the BR. A positive correlation between high heat flow, recent tectonic activity and Q was observed. Areas with low heat flow, thin sediment cover, and no recent tectonic activity were observed to have consistently high Q. These new models use two-station and reversed two-station methods and provide a comparison with previous studies and better constrain regions with high attenuation. This increase in detail can improve high frequency ground motion predictions of future large earthquakes for more accurate hazard assessment and improve overall understanding of the structure and assemblage of the WUS.

  2. Novel fen ecosystems in western North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Western North Carolina is mountainous, and groundwater flows from hillslope recharge zones to valley stream and spring discharge zones. Depending on surface topography and geologic conditions, the water table may approach or intersect the ground surface to form seepage wetlands, or fens. Fen ecosystems can be very sensitive to changes in land use, groundwater pumping, and upslope development. This presentation will focus on two sites where historical land use and human activity played important roles in creating or preserving fen ecosystems. Both sites now support—and are being managed to protect—federally endangered flora and fauna. The first site is home to Sarracenia oreophilia, an endangered pitcher plant that thrives on saturated soils with low nutrient content. The site's early history includes tree clearing, drain tile installation, and cattle grazing, while more recent management activities have included drain tile excavation, manual invasive removal, and prescribed burns. A 15-year water-level record indicates seasonal artesian conditions wet a 3m clay unit (K=2E-5 cm/sec) beneath the site, which is able to retain moisture during drier periods. Shorter "clay wetting periods" during drought years (1999-2000; 2007-2008) correspond to reduced clump counts in pitcher-plant surveys. The second site is a former aggregate quarry that now supports over 60 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). The biggest threat to this site is encroachment of non-native and invasive multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) and other large woody species. Management activities include manual removal and prescribed goat herbivory. Current efforts to characterize the springs, water-table, and surface-water flows will be used to detect changes in the future to the hydrologic regime in the fen.

  3. Water supplies in western Kentucky during 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sholar, C.J.; Wood, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    An inventory was conducted between April and October 1985 of 101 major public supply systems and of self-supplied commercial and industrial water systems in a 27-county area in western Kentucky. These systems, because they withdraw at least 10,000 gal/day (gpd), are regulated by the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Projection Cabinet (Division of Water) through a permitting program. The major purpose of the inventory was to evaluate the adequacy of these water systems to meet demands during times of drought. The inventory indicated that these systems withdrew 116.3 million gpd in 1984. The study showed that public facilities supplied 33.1 mil gpd to 471,500 people. Bowling Green Municipal Utilities in the Green River basin was the largest single public supplier. It supplied 5.05 million gpd to 48,000 people, and also sold over 1.7 million gpd to about 30 ,000 people through the Warren County Water System. Comparisons of ground- and surface-water use indicated the Lower Ohio River basin had the highest percentage of surface-water use at 97%, and the Mississippi River basin had the highest percentage of groundwater use at 41%. Sources of water were generally adequate throughout the study area. Sources for two industries, also in the Green River basin, are inadequate. Six systems may have potential problems with their treatment plant capacities because they are operating at > 80% of design capacity. Three of these systems are in the Green River basin, two are in the Lower Cumberland River basin, and one is in the Tennessee River basin. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Nocturnal flow on a western Colorado slope

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1990-04-01

    The Department of Energy sponsored Atomspheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program has conducted a research program designed to increase our knowledge and understanding of terrain-dominated flows with specific emphasis on nocturnal flows within mountain valleys. ASCOT has sponsored both field studies and numerical modeling efforts to improve our understanding of the wind, temperature and turbulence structure of nocturnal drainage flows. One of the most recent ASCOT sponsored field studies involves a study within the Mesa Creek Basin in western Colorado to investigate the seasonal frequency of occurrence of drainage flows along the sloped surfaces and within the basin, and to evaluate the effect of the ambient meteorology on their development. The Mesa Creek Basin, situated on the north slope of the Grand Mesa, encompasses a roughly 10 {times} 20 km area that is approximately 30 km east of Grand Junction. The observational segment of the study was undertaken jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, and involved the operation of network of eight meteorological towers and a monostatic sodar within the Mesa Creek study area over a period of one year that extended from December 1988 through November 1989. These measurements were augmented by tethersonde observations to define the vertical wind and temperature structure during a few nights. The modeling portion of the study is being undertaken by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory using a three-dimensional prognostic boundary layer model to gain further insight into the dynamics of the seasonal variations and the effect of cloud cover on the development of the drainage flows. It is the purpose of this paper to present preliminary results form a numerical simulation done as part of this study. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Structural profiles of Ouachita Mountains, western Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Blythe, A.E.; Sugar, A.; Phipps, S.P.

    1988-07-01

    The Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas are the largest exposure of the Pennsylvania-age orogen rimming the southern margin of North America. The exposure consists of a thick Carboniferous flysch sequence overlying a thin early Paleozoic deep-water sequence and is generally interpreted to have been deformed in a south-dipping subduction zone. Two balanced cross sections (/approximately/ 40 km apart) of the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas are presented here, illustrating the regional structural style. Major features of the cross sections include (from north to south) (1) triangle zones along the northern border of the frontal thrust zone produced by imbrication at depth, (2) large-scale (/approximately/ 10-km wavelength) fault-propagation folds in the frontal thrust zone, formed primarily above normal faults that offset the basement and act as buttresses at depth, (3) a late-stage basement uplift along the reactivated Johns Valley normal fault system, resulting in the antiformal structure of the Benton uplift and backthrusts in the northern Benton uplift, and (4) small-scale (1-3 km) heavily faulted folds in the early paleozoic deepwater rocks exposed in the Benton uplift. Greenschist metamorphism in these rocks is attributed to the estimated 13 km of Carboniferous overburden, which was later eroded. Reconstructions of the late Paleozoic continental margin are made from the two cross sections. The reconstructed shelf-to-slope transition is interpreted to underlie the southern flank of the Benton uplift. Using modern analogs for the across-strike width of the shelf-to-slope transition, a minimum regional shortening estimate of 30-50% (110-155 km) is obtained for deep-water rocks currently exposed in the Benton uplift. 6 figures.

  6. Western Boundary of the Seattle Uplift, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Hughes, J. F.; Anderson, M. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2008-12-01

    Lidar topographic scarps and aeromagnetic anomalies define a northeast-striking, en echelon sequence of faults along the southeastern Olympic Peninsula of Washington, all active in Holocene time and possibly linked kinematically with the Seattle fault. The northeast-striking Saddle Mountain fault, the northernmost fault in the sequence, was first recognized in the early 1970s and is now well mapped in the Hoodsport area on the basis of lidar surveys, aerial photography, and trench excavations. Drowned trees and trench excavations demonstrate Holocene deformation on the Saddle Mountain fault approximately contemporaneous with the MW 7.5 Seattle fault earthquake 1100 years ago and with a wide variety of other fault and landslide activity observed over much of the eastern Olympic Peninsula and central and southern Puget Lowland. The northwest-striking Frigid Creek and Canyon River faults, lying 4 km and 27 km to the southwest of Saddle Mountain, respectively, also show evidence of late Holocene deformation. A detailed analysis of aeromagnetic data suggests that the Saddle Mountain fault extends at least 35 km, from 6 km southwest of Lake Cushman to the latitude of the Seattle fault as mapped east of Hood Canal. Regional aeromagnetic data also indicate that the Seattle fault may extend westward across Hood Canal and into the Olympic Mountains, where it terminates near the magnetically inferred northern end of the Saddle Mountain fault. The en echelon alignment of the Saddle Mountain, Frigid Creek, and Canyon River faults, all active in late Holocene time, reflects a >45-km-long, northeast-trending zone of deformation that may accommodate the northward shortening of Puget Lowland crust inboard of the Olympic massif. In this model, the Seattle fault and Saddle Mountain deformation zone form the northern and western boundaries of the northward advancing Seattle uplift.

  7. Obstetrical events that shaped Western European history.

    PubMed

    Ober, W B

    1992-01-01

    Taking into account that marriage, the family as a social unit, and concepts of legitimacy developed to ensure the devolution of property and that, when these concepts apply in a society based on hierarchically organized monarchies, they also involve the devolution of power, this essay furnishes examples of dislocations in such devolutions, in terms of familiar incidents in western European history. That Jane Seymour died in childbirth but her son Edward VI survived long enough to ensure the stability of the Church of England is the first example. The infertility of Mary Tudor, when married to Philip II of Spain, prevented the formation of an Anglo-Spanish dynasty that would have been Roman Catholic is the second example of such a dislocation. Likewise, the infertility of Charles II's wife, Catherine of Braganza, led to the succession of James II, a practicing Roman Catholic, whose attempts to undermine the Church of England led to the Glorious Revolution of 1788 and the preservation of English Protestantism. Another example is the death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte, in childbirth, which led to the scramble of George III's aging sons to marry and beget an heir to the throne. The only success led to the birth of the future Queen Victoria, whose dynastic competence remains unquestionable, but who herself had some passing involvement with obstetrical developments. Finally, the delivery of Kaiser Wilhelm II, who sustained a brachial plexus injury that produced Erb's palsy of the left arm, is considered, and the question of intrapartum fetal hypoxia is raised as a hypothesis, in addition to the mechanical trauma and its effect on his personality.

  8. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  9. Groundwater sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; El Alfy, Z.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. Scallop-shaped escarpment edges and stubby-looking channels that cut into the plateau units are suggestive of slumping of limestones by ground-water sapping at the limestone-shale interfaces, removal of slump blocks by weathering and fluvial erosion, and consequent scarp retreat. Spring-derived tufa deposits found near the limestone escarpments provide additional evidence for possible ground-water sapping during previous wet periods. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. The {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years, as northeastern Africa became hyperarid. The model thus provides a promising predictive tool for studying long

  10. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  11. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriyani, Caroline; Prijatna, Kosasih; Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  12. Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H.

    2012-01-01

    A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation (40Ar/39Ar dates of 122–129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon (40Ar/39Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree. PMID:22411790

  13. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, C. ); Estevez, R. ); Henneberg, H.G. )

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  14. Quantification of Knickpoint Migration in Western Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. G.; Thomas, J. T.; Papanicolaou, T.; Elhakeem, M.

    2009-12-01

    Knickpoints threaten the stability of bridge structures in Western Iowa, thus the overarching goal of this research was to provide a predictive tool for knickpoint propagation. The study involved detailed field investigations over two years in order to monitor the upstream migration of a knickpoint on Mud Creek in Mills County, IA and identify the key mechanisms triggering knickpoint propagation. A state-of-the-art laser level system mounted on a movable truss provided continuous measurements of the knickpoint front for different flow conditions. A pressure transducer in proximity of the truss provided simultaneous flow depth measurements. The laser and pressure transducer measurements led to the identification of the conditions, at which the knickpoint migration commenced. It is suggested that negative pressures developed by the reverse roller flow near the toe of the knickpoint face triggered undercutting of the knickpoint at this location. The pressure differential between the negative pressure and the atmospheric pressure also pulled the impinging jet closer to the knickpoint face producing scour. In addition, the pressure differential may have induced suction of sediment from the face. Other contributing factors included slump failure, seepage effects, and local fluvial erosion due to the exerted fluid shear. The prevailing flow conditions and soil information along with the channel cross-sectional geometry and gradient were used as inputs to a transcritical, one dimensional, hydraulic/geomorphic numerical model, which was used to map the flow characteristics and shear stress conditions near the knickpoint. Such detailed flow calculations do not exist in the published literature. The coupling of field and modeling work resulted in the development of a blueprint methodology, which can be adopted in different parts of the country for evaluating knickpoint evolution. This information will assist local government agencies in better understanding the principal

  15. Paleogene depositional framework of western Transverse ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, W.R.

    1988-03-01

    In the western Transverse Ranges, widespread Paleogene sequences (mid-Paleocene to mid-Oligocene) accumulated to thicknesses locally in excess of 5000 m. The Paleogene basin occupied a complex forearc setting located near the offshore Franciscan trench, but distant from the inland Laramide orogenic system, where magmatism was quiescent during the interval of most rapid sedimentation. The pre-Tertiary substratum, largely masked by its Paleogene cover, was probably disrupted by transpressional and/or transtensional tectonics associated with separate episodes of mid-Cretaceous sinistral and Late Cretaceous (to Paleocene.) dextral dislocation of the continental margin. Paleogene strata include diachronous facies of intertonguing deep-marine, shallow-marine, marginal-marine, and nonmarine clastic strata representing varied depositional systems. Turbidite assemblages include both progradational and retrogradational phases of canyon-fed submarine fans and delta-fed submarine ramps. Exposed shelf-break successions were deposited offshore from strandline complexes fringing delta margins and broad coastal plains. Sparse but diagnostic nonclastic facies include local algal carbonate edifices built on isolated submarine banks, and minor lagoonal beds of algal carbonates and gypsiferous evaporites associated with emergent delta platforms. The complex Paleogene forearc basin was flanked on the northeast by Salinian basement rocks and on the southwest by a tectonic ridge of subduction complex uplifted along the Paleogene trench-slope break. The present geographic distribution of Paleogene facies tracts is fully compatible with proposed Neogene tectonic rotations of panel-like basin segments, bounded by antithetic sinistral faults within the dextral San Andreas system, as detected by recent paleomagetic investigations.

  16. Bilharziasis survey in south-western Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Azim, M.; Gismann, Anne

    1956-01-01

    This paper describes a limited survey of bilharziasis and its vectors carried out during 1950 and 1951 in some countries of south-western Asia. Lack of time and of full facilities prevented the survey from being as comprehensive and systematic as would have been wished, but enough data were obtained to provide a general estimate of the situation. Information already available from the literature was supplemented by collecting unpublished records, questioning the inhabitants, examining random samples of stools and urine, and investigating rivers, wells, and springs. Bilharziasis haematobia is already heavily endemic in the irrigated areas of Iraq and is also present, in comparatively smaller foci, in northern Syria, Israel, and Sa'udi Arabia. In the opinion of the senior author (M. A. A.), the envisaged extension of irrigation is likely to create a serious health problem in Mesopotamia and to introduce the disease into the Jordan region unless the spread of the molluscan vector, Bulinus sp., is checked. Intensification of infection and further spread are possible in Israel and in the Syrian Jezire, while the remainder of Syria and Lebanon are not considered to be endangered. Bilharziasis mansoni is widespread in the fertile areas of Sa'udi Arabia and also occurs in one minor focus in Israel. The industrialization of Sa'udi Arabia which is planned to exploit its oil resources, with its inevitable concentration of population, equally presents a danger in the intensification of bilharziasis. It is considered that, unless prompt measures are undertaken to break the link between the agricultural and industrial expansion and the spread of the disease, the debilitation of large groups of the population and the economic loss which may well result over most of the inhabited parts of the area discussed will be significant. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13342925

  17. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  18. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  19. Influence of the Western Pacific teleconnection pattern on Western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Moon, Il-Ju

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of Western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) activity and large-scale environments according to the Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern in summer. In the positive WP phase, an anomalous cyclone and an anomalous anticyclone develop in the low and middle latitudes of the East Asia area, respectively. As a result, southeasterlies are reinforced in the northeast area of East Asia (including Korea and Japan), which facilitates the movement of TC to this area, whereas northwesterlies are reinforced in the southwest area of East Asia (including southern China and the Indochina Peninsula) which blocks the movement of TC to that area. Due to the spatial distribution of this reinforced pressure system, TCs that develop during the positive WP phase move and turn more to the northeast of the WNP than TCs which develop during the negative WP phase. The characteristics of this TC activity during the positive WP phase are associated with the upper tropospheric jet being located farther to the northeast. TCs during the negative WP phase mainly move to the west from the Philippines toward southern China and the Indochina Peninsula. Due to the terrain effect caused by the passage of TCs in mainland China, the intensity of TCs during the negative WP phase is weaker than those during the positive WP phase.

  20. Late Tertiary and Quaternary landscape development in the western Grand Canyon and western Arizona strip

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, G.H. ); Wenrich, K.J. . Federal Center); Blackerby, B. )

    1993-04-01

    New geologic mapping of the western Grand Canyon and the Arizona Strip region, northwest Arizona, reveals young fault scarps on all faults, horsts, and graben structures. Tectonic activity here was previously thought to be at least Miocene age and older. New K-Ar age data for basalt flows in this region provide a basis for determining the age of surficial deposits in relation to elevated structural landforms. The basalts range in age from middle Miocene to late Pleistocene (17 Ma to 0.14 Ma). The Miocene basalts are found in the western Grand Canyon area and are progressively younger in a northeast direction onto the Shivwits and Uinkaret Plateaus, a distance of about 100 km. The older basalts are generally petrographically and chemically distinct from younger basalts. Those younger than one million years have less olivine and are chemically more iron- and titanium-rich suggesting they are from less primitive magmas. Basalt flows in this region older than 1 million years, are cut by faults showing equal displacement of the underlying strata and the flows. Basalt flows younger than 1 million years show offsets as much as 12 to 100 m, less than two-thirds the offset of underlying strata, implying that most tectonic activity occurred within the last 1 to 2 million years. Late Pliocene and Pleistocene faulting has extensively modified the landscape by elevated parts of the terrain resulting in young surficial deposits in lowland areas and rejuvenation of drainages in upthrown fault blocks.

  1. Biomass Distribution in Western Hemlock, Douglas-Fir and Western Redcedar.

    SciTech Connect

    Pong, W.Y.; Waddell, Dale R.; Biomass and Energy Project

    1986-05-30

    This report presents results from a study characterizing the weight and volume of trees from overstocked (doghair) mixed conifer stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) located on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest. There are approximately 20,000 acres classed as doghair on the Quilcene District. In order to evaluate their harvesting and utilization potential accurate estimates of volume and weight of entire trees and stands are needed. The objective of this study was to characterize the biomass of the three major tree species located in overstocked stands by providing estimators to predict the green and dry weight of the total tree, as well as separate predictions for the components of stem and crown. Additional objectives included estimates for the weight of the 'standing dead', the weight of the dead material on the forest floor, and estimators to predict the cubic volume of the wood and bark in the stems. 11 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. 77 FR 74500 - Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Western Butte County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... (Phrynosoma blainvillii), Western pond turtle (Actinemys marmorata), foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii... blackbird (Agelaius tricolor), yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), bank swallow (Riparia riparia), Western burrowing owl (Athene ] cunicularia hypugea), western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus...

  3. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (<-1 °C), salty (>34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This

  4. Pioneer dendroclimatological research in the Western Turkmenistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikova, Alina; Matskovsky, Vladimir; Kurbanov, Redzhep

    2016-04-01

    Turkmenistan is a very special region in Central Asia where the desert covers 80% of the territory. Water supply is a subject of state importance in Turkmenistan. To understand the mechanisms that affect the amount of precipitation in the region on decadal and centennial time scales long records of atmospheric precipitation are necessary. Unfortunately such records are sparse and short in the region. Tree rings are natural archive that store information about environmental conditions of the past. Previously tree rings have been successfully used for hydroclimate reconstructions covering the last millennium. Such reconstructions uncovered possible climatic causes of many social cataclysms in human history. In arid regions tree rings are especially useful for hydroclimate reconstructions, explaining around 60-80% of variability of instrumental records. Paleogeographic reconstructions for the Late Holocene based on dendroclimatology can reveal the climatic characteristics of periods when Aral Sea basin was connected with the Caspian sea. The other possible perspective of our research is revealing the paleoclimate characteristics for Western Turkmenistan describing evaporation and precipitation - the basic indicators for understanding Caspian sea-level change. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of dendroclimatological method in Turkmenistan for the purpose of hydroclimatological reconstructions. These reconstructions may significantly extend the existing instrumental records of atmospheric precipitation in the region. Study region is situated along the southwestern border of the Turkmenistan, in northern piedmont of the Kopetdag range. We sampled several species: turkman juniper (Juniperus turcomanica), black pine (Pinus nigra), oriental plane (Platanus orientalis), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) and osage orange (Maclura pomifera), but only juniper chronology has been constructed and analyzed so far. Although old trees are rare in Turkmenistan

  5. Weathering along a periglacial stream, Western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M.; Beal, S.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical weathering of Ca-Mg silicate minerals followed by marine carbonate precipitation is the fundamental sink for atmospheric CO2 in the long-term carbon cycle. Weathering of silicates along the margins of large ice sheets has been implicated in reducing atmospheric CO2 and impacting global climate despite low temperatures and a lack of significant soil cover; conditions not traditionally considered conducive to high reaction rates. Most glacial weathering studies have focused on valley glacier settings, where high water flux and an abundance of clay to silt sized sediments speed the breakdown of silicate minerals. However, little is known about these processes in the marginal zones of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), where recent warming and accelerated melt may lead to profound shifts in hydrology and biogeochemistry. Continued melting should increase water flux and eventually expose additional margin land-surface. It is unclear however if these changing conditions will lead to increased chemical denudation along the margin. An examination of the current weathering regime along the GIS margin is necessary to better constrain estimates of the impacts of changing conditions on future chemical weathering fluxes and related CO2 drawdown. Water, suspended load, and bedload samples were collected in July 2008 along a 6 km stretch of stream exiting the western side of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Waters and sediments were analyzed for major ions, alkalinity and Sr isotopes to determine the character and extent of weathering. Major ion concentrations in the stream waters are very low (0-45 μM HCO3- and 2-26 μM for individual salts) with significant dilution by superglacial ice melt. There are no systematic down-stream trends in ion concentrations. Silicate-derived ions make up most of the stream alkalinity indicating little to no carbonate weathering. K+ contributes up to 40% of the cation load and K+/Σcation ratios in streams far exceed those in bedload samples. This

  6. Humus in some soils from Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    Soils of Antarctica are well known as a thick profile soils with low amounts of humus concentrated in the upper layers - O or A horizons. Also there are specific soils of seashore landscapes which affected by penguins guano accumulation and, therefore characterized by high stocks of organic matter in solum. These two types of soils were studied during the Western Antarctica part of 53th Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2008 International Polar Year. These rote of expedition was on Polar stations "Russkaya", "Leningradskaya" and "Bellinsgausen" and also two places, not affected by polar men's - Lindsey Island and Hudson mountains (Ross Sea). Typical soils of "Russkaya" and "Leningradskaya" stations was a Cryosoils with low humus content (0,02 - 0,20 %) which was a product of lichens decaying and further humification. The humus profile was not deep and humic substances migration stopped on the 30 cm deeps maximally. Soils of Sub-Antarctica (Bellinsgausen station, King-George Island) show higher portions of humus which maximum was 3,00 % under the mosses. Humus distribution was more gradual through profile due to the higher thickness of active layer and longer period of biological activity. Soils under the penguin's beaches shows big portions of organic matter, in some cases more than 50 % to total soil mass. Humification starts in first years in cases of Sub-Antarctic guano soils and only after 3-7 years of leaching in seashore Antarctic guano-soils. Soils under the guano layers were extremely reached by nitrogen, and in some cases there were not any plants there due to toxicity of guano. This event was more typical for cold seashore soils of Antarctica. In all cases humus consists mostly of fulvic acids and low molecular non-specific organic acids. The CHA/CFA ratio in all cases were lesser than 1,0 and in more that 50 % of cases it was lesser than 0,5. The investigations conducted shows that the stocks of humus in soil of Antarctica are not estimated and till now we

  7. Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gullström, Martin; de la Torre Castro, Maricela; Bandeira, Salomão; Björk, Mats; Dahlberg, Mattis; Kautsky, Nils; Rönnbäck, Patrik; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms widely distributed in both tropical and temperate coastal waters creating one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, with its 13 reported seagrass species, these ecosystems cover wide areas of near-shore soft bottoms through the 12 000 km coastline. Seagrass beds are found intertidally as well as subtidally, sometimes down to about 40 m, and do often occur in close connection to coral reefs and mangroves. Due to the high primary production and a complex habitat structure, seagrass beds support a variety of benthic, demersal and pelagic organisms. Many fish and shellfish species, including those of commercial interest, are attracted to seagrass habitats for foraging and shelter, especially during their juvenile life stages. Examples of abundant and widespread fish species associated to seagrass beds in the WIO belong to the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Centriscidae, Gerreidae, Gobiidae, Labridae, Lethrinidae Lutjanidae, Monacanthidae, Scaridae, Scorpaenidae, Siganidae, Syngnathidae and Teraponidae. Consequently, seagrass ecosystems in the WIO are valuable resources for fisheries at both local and regional scales. Still, seagrass research in the WIO is scarce compared to other regions and it is mainly focusing on botanic diversity and ecology. This article reviews the research status of seagrass beds in the WIO with particular emphasis on fish and fisheries. Most research on this topic has been conducted along the East African coast, i.e. in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and eastern South Africa, while less research was carried out in Somalia and the Island States of the WIO (Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion (France), Mauritius and Madagascar). Published papers on seagrass fish ecology in the region are few and mainly descriptive. Hence, there is a need of more scientific knowledge in the form of describing patterns and processes through both field and experimental work

  8. Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A pall of smoke and dust largely obscured the nations of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso and southern Mali on January 12, 2004. The poor air quality in the region was a combined result of the hundreds of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been influenced by a Saharan dust storm that occurred several days earlier. These image data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate the abundance of atmospheric particulate matter across the region.

    The left-hand panels are natural-color views from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) and most obliquely forward-pointing cameras. At the nadir view, the shoreline of the Cote d'Ivoire and many other surface features are apparent, and the haze across the region is noticeable. The distinctive area of dark green vegetation (apparent below and left of image center) is situated in the Cote d'Ivoire, near the border with Ghana, to the east of the Komoe River and southwest of the Comoe National Park. At the oblique view the aerosol appears so thick that the coastline is completely obscured, but this region of dark vegetation and hilly terrain can still be discerned.

    The right-hand panel is generated through automated processing of data from multiple MISR cameras, and utilizes the change in scene brightness and contrast at different view angles to retrieve aerosol amounts, expressed as optical depth. The aerosol map indicates an optically thick atmosphere by the orange or yellow pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by blue pixels. Places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval are shown in dark gray. Aerosol properties are retrieved at a coarse spatial resolution of 17.6 kilometers.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were

  9. Western United States and Southwestern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captures the beauty of the western United States and Canada. Data from 45 swaths from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free mosaic. The image extends from 48o N 128o W in the northwest, to 32oN, 104o W in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

    The image area includes much of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan in the north, and extends southward to California, Arizona and New Mexico. The snow-capped Rocky Mountains are a prominent feature extending through British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Many major rivers originate in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The Colorado Plateau region is characterized by the vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert in Utah and Arizona, and in New Mexico, White Sands National Park is the large white feature in the Southeast corner of the image with the Malpais lava flow just to its North. The southwest is dominated by the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada, California's San Joaquin Valley, the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. The panels utilize data from blocks 45 to 65 within World Reference System-2 paths 31 to 53.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  11. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Psychopharmacology: Building Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Edward; Segesser, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, there are striking similarities between the mechanisms of psychoactive agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and those of western psychopharmacology. While western researchers search for new treatments and novel mechanisms of action, investigators in Asia are analyzing traditional remedies in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for their effectiveness. A review of contemporary pharmacologic studies of agents used in TCM for psychiatric indications reveals that virtually all of the active principles of drug action established in 20th century psychopharmacology were encountered empirically in Chinese herbal medicine over the past 2000 years. Building bridges between these two traditions may thus be of benefit to both cultures. In addition to providing western patients with a wider selection of treatment options, the effort may help Asian clinicians and researchers avoid some of the errors that have troubled their western counterparts. PMID:23418138

  12. 5. Building I interior, third floor, western portion looking southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Building I interior, third floor, western portion looking southwest, showing evidence of altered roofline. - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building I, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Will Worsening 'Smoke Waves' Threaten Western U.S.?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Will Worsening 'Smoke Waves' Threaten Western U.S.? Climate change tied to warmer summers, more wildfires, affecting ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Sept. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change, and the warmer summers it will bring, ...

  14. 72. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE WESTERN WALL OF THE BLOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE WESTERN WALL OF THE BLOWERS CONTROL HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 74. VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL ON THE WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL ON THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE EAST SERVICE BUILDING OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 31. INTERIOR VIEW OF PLATFORM ALONG WESTERN WALL OF CLEAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. INTERIOR VIEW OF PLATFORM ALONG WESTERN WALL OF CLEAN STEEL PRODUCTION BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 20. 175 TON CAPACITY TEEMING LADLES ON THE NEAR WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 175 TON CAPACITY TEEMING LADLES ON THE NEAR WESTERN TEEMING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. HISTORIAN FOR SCALE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 24. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF LADLE REPAIR PIT ON THE WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF LADLE REPAIR PIT ON THE WESTERN TEEMING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 21. 175 TON CAPACITY TEEMING LADLES ON THE NEAR WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. 175 TON CAPACITY TEEMING LADLES ON THE NEAR WESTERN TEEMING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  1. INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 10. Bent under temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Bent under temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad over Erie at west end of old Bergen Tunnel, taken May 19, 1906 - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 9. Temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad over Erie at west end of old Bergen Tunnel, taken May 19, 1906 - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  5. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  6. Western end of viaduct, looking south at crossing of amtrak ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western end of viaduct, looking south at crossing of amtrak tracks. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  7. 2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated CHILDREN POISED AT EDGE OF FILLED SWIMMING POOL - Faraway Ranch, Swimming Pool, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  8. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  9. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  10. 8. INTERIOR, LUMBER SHED, FROM CENTER OF WESTERN WALL, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, LUMBER SHED, FROM CENTER OF WESTERN WALL, LOOKING EAST, WITH WEST SIDE OF 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' AT RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. EVIDENCE OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINATION OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is emerging evidence that mountain ecosystems in the western USA are receiving deposition of persistent bioaccumulative toxicants with origins in North America and elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere. The toxic materials include metals and organic compounds. Of particula...

  12. 25. Spans 25, underview of Span 4 and western elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Spans 2-5, underview of Span 4 and western elevation of Pier 4; view to northeast. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  13. Baseline Susceptibility of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Clothianidin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, neonate susceptibility to clothianidin, a highly effective contact and systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, was determined from both laboratory and field collected populations. Neonates were exposed to filter paper treated with increasing...

  14. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  15. 4. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, c.1920's RARE VIEW OF BUNKHOUSE LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Faraway Ranch, Guest Quarters-Bunkhouse, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  16. 4. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated NEIL ERICKSON WORKING OUTSIDE OFFICE/GARAGE WHEN IT WAS NEW - Faraway Ranch, Office-Garage, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  17. 34. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center, (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, c.1910 MAIN HOUSE - Faraway Ranch, Erickson-Riggs Ranch House, State Highway 181, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  18. 5. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated BARN AND CORRAL LOOKING NORTHEAST - Faraway Ranch, Barn & Tool Shed, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  19. 6. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Western Archaeologial and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated AERIAL VIEW OF FARAWAY RANCH AND VICINITY - Faraway Ranch, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  20. THE WESTERN EMAP APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL ECOLOGICAL CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Western Coastal Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (WEMAP) is the assessment of ecological condition of the coastal systems of Washington, Oregon, and California. WEMAP also includes two associated pilot projects to demonstrate feasibili...

  1. IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINING RANGELAND STRESSORS TO WESTERN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency is developing rangeland ecological indicators in twelve western states using advanced remote sensing techniques. Fine spectral resolution (hyperspectral) sensors, or imaging spectrometers, can detect the subtle spectral features that make veget...

  2. IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINING RANGELAND STRESSORS TO WESTERN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency is developing rangeland ecological indicators in eleven western states using advanced remote sensing systems. Fine spectral resolution (hyperspemal) sensors, or imaging spectrometers, can detect the subtle spectral features that makes vegetatio...

  3. Traditional Chinese medicine and Western psychopharmacology: building bridges.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Edward; Segesser, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, there are striking similarities between the mechanisms of psychoactive agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and those of western psychopharmacology. While western researchers search for new treatments and novel mechanisms of action, investigators in Asia are analyzing traditional remedies in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for their effectiveness. A review of contemporary pharmacologic studies of agents used in TCM for psychiatric indications reveals that virtually all of the active principles of drug action established in 20th century psychopharmacology were encountered empirically in Chinese herbal medicine over the past 2000 years. Building bridges between these two traditions may thus be of benefit to both cultures. In addition to providing western patients with a wider selection of treatment options, the effort may help Asian clinicians and researchers avoid some of the errors that have troubled their western counterparts.

  4. Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail spur and dumping location. Concrete vault foundation in foreground. Stone foundation and wood foundation in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  5. Episodic water chemistry changes in a western Maryland watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.P.; Murray, C.K.; Eshleman, K.N.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the project was to obtain water chemistry data for the Big Run watershed located in Garrett County, Maryland in order to evaluate the impact of acidification on streams in western Maryland.

  6. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING EAST WITH WESTERN QUARRY WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING EAST WITH WESTERN QUARRY WALL IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  7. 9. WESTERN PORTAL OF COOPER RIVER THROUGH TRUSS. FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WESTERN PORTAL OF COOPER RIVER THROUGH TRUSS. FACING EAST INTO SPAN TOWARDS MOUNT PLEASANT - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  8. The Humanist Bias in Western Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the bias in Western philosophy is tied to its humanist ideology that pictures itself as central to the natural history of humanity and is historically linked to the emergence of humanism as pedagogy.

  9. 15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  13. FIXED END OF MIDDLE SPAN. WESTERN SIDE SHOWING WELDING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIXED END OF MIDDLE SPAN. WESTERN SIDE SHOWING WELDING OF TOP PLATE ADDED TO STRENGTHEN THE BRIDGE. - Spile Bridge Road Bridge, Spanning Black Lake Outlie at Spile Bridge Road, Oswegatchie, St. Lawrence County, NY

  14. 77 FR 19647 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Through Competing Acts/ Authorities. 15. Communities and Indigenous Issues. 16. International Fisheries... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB128 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  15. 78 FR 6810 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Group. C. American Samoa and Hawaii Longline Quarterly Reports. D. International Fisheries Meetings. 1... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC473 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  16. 75 FR 12733 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... shares, ecosystem changes and impacts on longline fisheries, and emerging international fishery... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV25 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  17. Taking WGU Seriously: Implications of the Western Governors University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial Western Governors University, a competency-based distance education institution, as a new model with potential implications for accreditation policies, organizational models, and faculty roles. (EV)

  18. GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO RIGHT) BETHLEHEM RAIL MILL, GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING, MACHINE SHOP, BAR MILL, BLOOMING MILL & OPEN HEARTH PLANT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. 8. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING WITH A DRAGLINE ON THE WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING WITH A DRAGLINE ON THE WESTERN CANAL. THE WEEDS WERE LOOSENED UPSTREAM BY PULLING A CHAIN OR CABLE CROSSWAYS DOWN THE CANAL BED. THE LOOSENED WEEDS THEN FLOATED DOWN TO A GRATE, WHERE THEY ACCUMULATED INTO THE SOLID MASS WHICH WAS REMOVED BY DRAGLINE BUCKET. Photographer: Unknown. July 30, 1947 - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy

  1. Management and Development of the Western Resources Project

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-09

    The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.

  2. The diatom genus Actinocyclus in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt; Krebs, William N.

    1995-01-01

    Ten new and four known taxa of the diatom genus Actinocyclus are described, illustrated, and (or) noted from middle Miocene lake deposits in the Western United States. A key is presented to help separate the taxa based on morphological criteria visible in the light microscope. The geologic ranges of Actinocyclus species in the Western United States are discussed based on examination of over 100 localities of diatomaceous lacustrine deposits.

  3. 13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN TEMPE, SHOWING DROP STRUCTURE AND GROUNDWATER PUMP. THIS IS THE LAST OF FOUR PUMPS WHICH FEED DIRECTLY INTO THE CANAL BETWEEN ALMA SCHOOL ROAD AND PRICE ROAD. ON THIS DAY, ALL FOUR PUMPS, OPERATING AT FULL OUTPUT, HAVE CONSIDERABLY SWELLED THE FLOW TO THE CANAL. NOTE THE OLD FASHIONED BRICKWORK ON THE NORTH BANK. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Evaluating oil, gas opportunities in western Siberia; Reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, W. ); Krug, J.A. )

    1992-12-07

    In this article, the authors discuss how to use the subsurface data to describe hydrocarbon reservoirs and estimate the original oil in place (OOIP) in western Siberia. The methodology for describing a reservoir and estimating the OOIP in western Siberia is similar to the approach for most reservoirs: Establish stratigraphic correlations across the field; Construct structure maps on key horizons; Construct porosity isopach maps for significant reservoirs; Construct net pay maps; Determine reservoir parameters; and Calculate pore-volume estimates of OOIP.

  5. Paleoproterozoic gold deposits in the Bald Hill and Coyote areas, Western Tanami, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagas, Leon; Huston, David L.; Anderson, James; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2007-01-01

    Significant gold deposits in the western Tanami region of Western Australia include deposits in the Bald Hill and Coyote areas. The ca. 1,864 Ma Bald Hill sequence of turbiditic and mafic volcanic rocks hosts the Kookaburra and Sandpiper deposits and a number of smaller prospects. The ca. 1,835 Ma turbiditic Killi Killi Formation hosts the Coyote deposit and several nearby prospects. The Kookaburra deposit forms as a saddle reef within a syncline, and the Sandpiper deposit is localized within graphitic metasedimentary rocks along a limb of an anticline. Gold in these deposits is hosted by anastomosing quartz-(-pyrite-arsenopyrite) veins within quartz-sericite schist with disseminated arsenopyrite, pyrite, and marcasite (after pyrrhotite). Based on relative timing relationships with structural elements, the auriferous veins are interpreted to have been emplaced before or during the ca. 1,835-1,825 Ma Tanami Orogeny (regional D1). Gold deposition is thought to have been caused by pressure drops associated with saddle reef formation (Kookaburra) and chemical reactions with graphitic rocks (Sandpiper). The Coyote deposit, the largest in the western Tanami region, consists of a number of ore lenses localized along the limbs of the Coyote Anticline, which formed during the Tanami Orogeny. The largest lenses are associated with the Gonzalez Fault, which is located along the steeply dipping southern limb of this fold. Gold was introduced at ca. 1,790 Ma into dilatant zones that formed in local perturbations along this fault during later reactivation (regional D5) towards the end of a period of granite emplacement. Gold is associated with quartz-chlorite-pyrite-(arsenopyrite-galena-sphalerite) veins with narrow (< 5 mm) chloritic selvages. A quartz-muscovite-biotite-K-feldspar-(tourmaline-actinolite-arsenopyrite) assemblage, which is interpreted to relate to granite emplacement, overprints the regional greenschist facies metamorphic assemblage. The mineralogical similarity

  6. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  7. Population models of burrowing mayfly recolonization in Western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schloesser, D.W.; Krieger, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies, Hexagenia spp. (H. limbata and H. rigida), began recolonizing western Lake Erie during the 1990s. Survey data for mayfly nymph densities indicated that the population experienced exponential growth between 1991 and 1997. To predict the time to full recovery of the mayfly population, we fitted logistic models, ranging in carrying capacity from 600 to 2000 nymphs/m2, to these survey data. Based on the fitted logistic curves, we forecast that the mayfly population in western Lake Erie would achieve full recovery between years 1998 and 2000, depending on the carrying capacity of the western basin. Additionally, we estimated the mortality rate of nymphs in western Lake Erie during 1994 and then applied an age-based matrix model to the mayfly population. The results of the matrix population modeling corroborated the exponential growth model application in that both methods yielded an estimate of the population growth rate, r, in excess of 0.8 yr-1. This was the first evidence that mayfly populations are capable of recolonizing large aquatic ecosystems at rates comparable with those observed in much smaller lentic ecosystems. Our model predictions should prove valuable to managers of power plant facilities along the western basin in planning for mayfly emergences and to managers of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) fishery in western Lake Erie.

  8. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    , suggesting that direct temperature stress might be a factor in some species. Since warm growing seasons are also typically dry growing seasons, direct temperature stress and moisture stress could occur simultaneously. For example, 2004 was the warmest summer in over 200 years in boreal Alaska (Barber et al 2004) but it was also during a drought with less than 50 mm of summer precipitation recorded in Fairbanks. In Fairbanks, the length of the growing season, as defined as the period above freezing, has increased by 45 per cent over the past 100 years, with no significant increase in precipitation (Wendler and Shulski 2009). Regional winter runoff has increased, likely associated with permafrost thawing (Brabets and Walvoord 2009), while surface water has decreased, likely associated with increased evapotranspiration (Riordan et al 2006, Anderson et al 2007, Berg et al 2009). The mean annual air temperature in boreal Alaska has increased by over 1.5 °C during the past 50 years (Stafford et al 2000), and is projected to increase by 3-7 °C by end of this century (Walsh et al 2008). Thus, it would be surprising if a declining NDVI trend was not occurring in the western boreal region of North America as the climate continues to warm. Insects and disease in the North American boreal forest may also affect the NDVI browning trends (Malmström and Raffa 2000), as the life histories of damaging insects may be linked to a warming boreal climate. For example, warmer temperatures contributed to the spruce beetle outbreaks in Alaska with a reduction in the beetle life cycle from two years to one year (Berg et al 2006). Thus, as the boreal climate continues to warm, tree growth reduction and mortality from insects and diseases may become more substantial. In boreal Alaska, recent alder dieback and mortality is likely to be related to alder's susceptibility to a canker-causing fungus in drought years (Ruess et al 2009). Recent widespread and prolonged outbreaks of aspen leaf miner and a

  9. Paleozoic plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim and western Tianshan regions, western China

    SciTech Connect

    Yangshen, S.; Huafu, L.; Dong, J.

    1994-11-01

    The plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim basin and nearby western Tianshan region during Paleozoic time is reconstructed in an effort to further constrain the tectonic evolution of Central Asia, providing insights into the formation and distribution of oil and gas resources. The Tarim plate developed from continental rifting that progressed during early Paleozoic time into a passive continental margin. The Yili terrane (central Tianshan) broke away from the present eastern part of Tarim and became a microcontinent located somewhere between the Junggar ocean and the southern Tianshan ocean. The southern Tianshan ocean, between the Tarim craton and the Yili terrane, was subducting beneath the Yili terrane from Silurian to Devonian time. During the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, the Tarim plate collided with the Yili terrane by sinistral accretional docking that resulted in a late Paleozoic deformational episode. Intracontinental shortening (A-type subduction) continued through the Permian with the creation of a magmatic belt. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Westernalization in the mirror: on the cultural reception of western psychology.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jorge; Lafuente, Enrique

    2007-03-01

    Miki Takasuna's paper on "Proliferation of Western Methodological Thought in Psychology in Japan: Ways of Objectification" offers many significant clues for reconsidering the history and unity of psychology. Its treatment of the reception of psychology in Japan hints at the relevance of the models of the subject for psychology--including the allegedly "official" psychology. The aim of this paper is to suggest such reconsideration, on the basis of a distinction between psychology-importing and psychology-exporting countries, and provide a reflection on the cultural problems of assimilation by the latter of a discipline advanced by the former. This perspective leads us to acknowledge the existence of a variety of psychological programs corresponding to the transformation and modernization of different social realities. Also, an indication is offered of several possible levels of analysis of such programs, which are seen to be related with the emergence of psychology as the science of modernity. PMID:17992875

  11. Circulation of Surface Water And Groundwater. Geophysical approach (electrical tomography). Western Haouz plain. Western Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ibtissam, Chouikri; Mandour Abdennabi, El; Mohammed, Jeffal; Mahjoub, Himi; Rochdane, Samia; Karroum, Morad; Elgettafi, Mohammed; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The Western Haouz plain and the Mejjate plain constitute a vast alluvial plain of about 2800 km2. The area is located between 30 and 80 km south-west of Marrakech city and it is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The morphology of the plain is known by a flat topography, monotone and it is drained by three wadis: Nfis wadi, Assif El Mal wadi and Chichaoua wadi. The compilation of Geological, Geophysical and hydrogeological data shows that the Western Haouz plain is divided into two parts, it is a synclinal form separated by Marmouta horst and Guemassa horst. In the southern part, the Mejjate syncline is subsiding and shows a several formations from the shales of the Paleozoic to the alluvium of the quaternary. In the northern part, the syncline is less developed and it is formed by the conglomerates of the Mio-Pliocene and the alluvium of the Quaternary. The gravity map established shows positive anomalies due to the outcrop of the basement, and negative anomalies in the subsiding basins. Hydrogeologically, the geometry of the reservoirs and the groundwater circulation are controlled by geology (Rifts, flexure, anticline and syncline). The southern part of the plain between the Marmouta anticline and the piedmont of the High Atlas Mountains shows two aquifers; the unconfined aquifer housed in thick formations of Quaternary and Mio-Pliocene; and the confined aquifer housed in dolomitic limestones of the Cenomanian-Turonian. The confined aquifer is fed at the northern flank of the High Atlas showing karts morphology and high cliff of limestone slab of the Turonian. The outlet of the deep confined aquifer is shown by Abainou source with a variation between 300 and 600 l/s south of the Marmouta anticline and constitutes a barrier for the deep waters flow circulations.

  12. Lagrangian mixed layer modeling of the western equatorial Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.

  13. A right to health: medicine as Western cultural imperialism?

    PubMed

    Matheson, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Western medicine is intrinsically tied with modern Western culture, and as such is foreign to many African cultures. Relying on personal observations from working in Angola as a physiotherapist as well as secondary research, the author explores the divide between Angolan culture and medical practices which are deeply rooted in scientific research. Most strikingly, the author finds that concepts of evidence-based medicine as well as individual human or patients' rights contain aspects foreign to Angolan culture. Illustrative examples are given of differences in attitudes towards finances and religion in relation to medicine. Finally, the author proposes that factors such as poverty and illiteracy can play an important role in differences in practices and customs commonly seen as being strictly tied to culture. Although medicine does carry with it components of Western culture, there may be positive components of medicine that non-Westerners would like to adopt. This article suggests that Westerners and Angolans can combine beneficial aspects of Angolan culture with medicine to improve health care for the people of Angola.

  14. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pletka, R.; Finn, J.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.

  15. Upper Paleozoic stratigraphic sequences in the Western Interior, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, E.K.; Macke, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    Major depositional sequences in the upper Paleozoic (Mississippian through Permian) of the Western Interior reflect either tectonism, eustatic sea-level change, or both. The stratigraphic sequences approximate (1) the Lower Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone of the Madison Group, (2) the Lower and Upper Mississippian Mission Canyon Limestone in the Madison Group, (3) the Upper Mississippian Big Snowy Group, (4) the Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Amsden Group, (5) the Middle Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Minnelusa Group, and (6) the Middle and Upper Permian Park City Group. These upper Paleozoic sequences in the Western Interior seem to be intricately related to similar, third-order transgressive-regressive cycles in the Cordilleran region, but precise relationships of some sequence boundaries remain to be determined. Parasequence sets evidence minor eustatic oscillations within these six major Western Interior sequences. The widespread paraconformable contact between Permian and overlying Triassic strata on the Wyoming shelf indicates that this sequence boundary resulted primarily from eustatic marine regression. Overall, the upper Paleozoic sequences of the Western Interior were deposited in a stable epeirogenic framework that succeeded Devonian tectonism but were diastrophically affected again during the Pennsylvanian. The timing of these diastrophic events in the Western Interior seem to coincide with plate collision events along the eastern and southern margins of North America, but eustatic changes may be related to other causes.

  16. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  17. [The first western style doctor in modern China - Guan Tao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    2000-04-01

    Guan Tao (Guan Yadu, Kuan A - To) is the first western style doctor and the first military western style doctor in the medical history of China. He was from the generations of the business painter in Shi San Hang (Thirteen Factories) of Guangzhou, in which the culture environment exerted a great influence on him. His uncle Guan Qiaochang (Lam Qua) and Guan Lianchang (Tin Qua) were famous business painters of Guangdong in 19th century. Guan Qiaochang set up a workshop in Shi San Hang and had extensive contact with various foreigners from Europe and North America. He followed the western style of the paintings from George Chinney who was a famous painter of England, settled down in Macao for the rest of his life during this period. Under the guidance of Guan Qiaochang, Guan Tao studied western medicine under the instruction of Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary in China, at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Shi San Hang in 1837, Guan Tao became a western style doctor with excellent character, skill and devotion. Chinese people remember his name forever.

  18. [The first western style doctor in modern China - Guan Tao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    2000-04-01

    Guan Tao (Guan Yadu, Kuan A - To) is the first western style doctor and the first military western style doctor in the medical history of China. He was from the generations of the business painter in Shi San Hang (Thirteen Factories) of Guangzhou, in which the culture environment exerted a great influence on him. His uncle Guan Qiaochang (Lam Qua) and Guan Lianchang (Tin Qua) were famous business painters of Guangdong in 19th century. Guan Qiaochang set up a workshop in Shi San Hang and had extensive contact with various foreigners from Europe and North America. He followed the western style of the paintings from George Chinney who was a famous painter of England, settled down in Macao for the rest of his life during this period. Under the guidance of Guan Qiaochang, Guan Tao studied western medicine under the instruction of Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary in China, at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Shi San Hang in 1837, Guan Tao became a western style doctor with excellent character, skill and devotion. Chinese people remember his name forever. PMID:11624648

  19. Check Your Orientalism at the Door: Edward Said, Sanjay Seth, and the Adequacy of Western Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschyn, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Western pedagogy and its preconceived notions of the non-Western world can limit scholars from developing accurate understandings of culturally different societies. Western academics teaching at foreign and Western institutions abroad must be mindful of how ingrained and subconscious Orientalist thinking can distort and hinder their interactions…

  20. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at

  1. Paleogene post-collisional lamprophyres in western Yunnan, western Yangtze Craton: Mantle source and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong-Jun; Campbell McCuaig, T.; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Jourdan, Fred; Hart, Craig J. R.; Hou, Zeng-Qian; Tang, Suo-Han

    2015-09-01

    A suite of lamprophyres, spatially associated with mafic lavas and potassic felsic intrusive rocks, was emplaced between 36.5 ± 0.2 and 33.7 ± 0.5 Ma (based on phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar dating) on the eastern side of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in the western Yangtze Craton. These shoshonitic and ultrapotassic intrusive rocks post-date the ~ 60-55 Ma collisional event between the Indian and the Asian continents. They are characterized by: (1) enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements and light rare-earth elements with (La/Sm)n = 3.15-7.15; (2) strong positive Pb spikes; (3) depletion in high-field-strength elements (e.g. Nb/La = 0.08-0.98); (4) high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.706-0.709) with negative εNd(t) values of - 10.5 to - 0.9; (5) old Nd model ages of 1542-945 Ma; and (6) radiogenic (207Pb/204Pb)i of 15.57-15.70 and (208Pb/204Pb)i (38.70-39.06). These features suggest that the mantle source was metasomatized by Proterozoic subduction beneath the Yangtze Craton. The lamprophyres have similar trace element patterns, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions, as coeval mafic lava, indicating a common source of metasomatized veined continental lithospheric mantle (CLM). Lower degree partial melting of metasomatic veins likely generated the lamprophyres, whereas the coeval mafic lava was likely derived from melting of phlogopite harzburgite. The lamprophyres and mafic lava have similar Sr-Nd isotope systematics as CLM-derived Neoproterozoic mafic rocks and Late Permian Emeishan low-Ti basalt in the region, indicating that they share the same Proterozoic source. We envisage that mantle plumes thermally eroded the Proterozoic metasomatized CLM beneath the western part of the Yangtze Craton during 825-750 Ma and 260-250 Ma, although residual metasomatized domains remained before being tapped by delamination after the India-Asia continental collision during the Paleogene period.

  2. The Western Airborne Contaminant Assessment Project (WACAP): An interdisciplinary evaluation of the impacts of airborne contaminants in Western U.S. National Parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) was initiated in 2002 by the National Park Service to determine if airborne contaminants were having an impact on remote western ecosystems. Multiple sample media (snow, water, sediment, fish and terrestrial vegetation...

  3. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

  4. Improved semiquantitative Western blot technique with increased quantification range.

    PubMed

    Heidebrecht, F; Heidebrecht, A; Schulz, I; Behrens, S-E; Bader, A

    2009-06-30

    With the development of new interdisciplinary fields such as systems biology, the quantitative analysis of protein expression in biological samples gains more and more importance. Although the most common method for this is ELISA, Western blot also has advantages: The separation of proteins by size allows the evaluation of only specifically bound protein. This work examines the Western blot signal chain, determines some of the parameters relevant for quantitative analysis and proposes a mathematical model of the reaction kinetics. Using this model, a semiquantitative Western blot method for simultaneous quantification of different proteins using a hyperbolic calibration curve was developed. A program was written for the purpose of hyperbolic regression that allows quick determination of the calibration curve coefficients. This program can be used also for approximation of calibration curves in other applications such as ELISA, BCA or Bradford assays. PMID:19351538

  5. Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing.

    PubMed

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid.

  6. Commerical harvest of western juniper and habitat improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Nader, G.; Young, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Western juniper makes excellent stove wood, but the woodlands are located to far from population centers to make shipment of the relatively low density wood economically feasible. The fibers of juniper wood have been shown in laboratory tests to possess excellent characteristics for the manufacture of molded wood fiber products. The size and growth form of the trees precludes the large scale production of dimensional lumber. The abundant essential oils in the foliage may have commercial value. Certainly the waste from any harvesting and manufacturing process with western juniper would be rich in potential energy. What is proposed is the development of a manufacturing process from western juniper biomass, and using the monetary value of this material to pay for the cost of range improvement on the harvested woodlands. The development of such a commercial operation is venture capitalism at its highest level. The potential rewards are the solving of a major environmental problem while providing jobs in rural areas.

  7. Assisted infant toilet training in a Western family setting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Rugolotto, Simone

    2004-04-01

    In the Western world, independent toilet training usually starts at age 18 months or later. In Asia and Africa, assisted toilet training traditionally starts between one and three months and is completed within approximately one year. This article reports a male infant who started caregiver-assisted toilet training at age 33 days in a Western family setting. During the first days, the caregiver made observations of the infant's bowel movement schedule and the cues he provided, from which she learned when to assist him to eliminate in the bathroom. During the elimination process, the infant was held in an "in-arms" position, with close contact between the infant's back and the caregiver's chest. Meanwhile, the caregiver gave vocal signals to prompt the infant to eliminate. Successful bowel training was completed at five months. This case report shows that early infant toilet training is possible in a Western family setting if the caregiver properly learns the infant's natural elimination timing and signals.

  8. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping, earth-surface process investigations, and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2006 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau region of northern Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. This compilation gives the bibliographical citations for 123 new publications, most of which are available online using the hyperlinks provided.

  9. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  10. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus

    2002-01-01

    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  11. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Adapting Western Research Methods to Indigenous Ways of Knowing

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid. PMID:23678897

  13. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  14. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  15. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

  16. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands: Abortion risk of western juniper trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...

  17. Hesperian age for western Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars.

    PubMed

    Zimbelman, James R; Scheidt, Stephen P

    2012-06-29

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars is an intensely eroded deposit north of the cratered highlands. It is widely thought that MFF materials were emplaced through ignimbrite eruptions. Recent geologic mapping of western MFF identified outliers of MFF materials well beyond the previously mapped western extent for the deposit, including outliers close to Gale crater. We report counts of impact craters on the MFF units that have implications for our understanding of the general history of MFF and the uppermost layered materials on the Gale crater mound. PMID:22628559

  18. Wilson's disease: update on integrated Chinese and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Jie; Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-03-01

    Wilson's disease (WD), or hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive inheritance disorder of copper metabolism caused by ATP7B gene mutation. As WD is an inherited disease of the nervous system that is not curable; early diagnosis with early and life-long treatment leads to better prognoses. Currently, the recommended treatment for WD is integrated Chinese and Western medicine. A number of studies indicate that treatment of integrative medicine can not only enforce the de-copper effect but also improve liver function, intelligence, and other factors. This article reviewed in detail the advantages of WD treated with Chinese and Western medicine together.

  19. Hesperian age for western Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars.

    PubMed

    Zimbelman, James R; Scheidt, Stephen P

    2012-06-29

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars is an intensely eroded deposit north of the cratered highlands. It is widely thought that MFF materials were emplaced through ignimbrite eruptions. Recent geologic mapping of western MFF identified outliers of MFF materials well beyond the previously mapped western extent for the deposit, including outliers close to Gale crater. We report counts of impact craters on the MFF units that have implications for our understanding of the general history of MFF and the uppermost layered materials on the Gale crater mound.

  20. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  1. Water year 2004: Western water managers feel the heat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Thomas; Pasteris, Phil; Dettinger, Michael; Cayan, Daniel; Redmond, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    With much of the western U.S. already in its fifth year of drought, an above-average western snowpack on 1 March 2004 provided hope for much-needed abundant runoff. Unfortunately snowmelt began far earlier than anticipated, resulting in dramatic declines in seasonal spring-summer streamflow forecasts as the month proceeded, declines more rapid by some measures than ever before in the past 75 years. With reservoirs near historic lows, many water users have been hard pressed to deal with the continuing drought.

  2. Parapsyche species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae) of western North America.

    PubMed

    Givens, Donald R

    2015-12-14

    The adult female, pupa, and larva of the 5 western North American species of the arctopsychine genus Parapsyche-P. almota Ross 1938, P. elsis Milne 1936, P. extensa Denning 1949a, P. spinata Denning 1949b, and P. turbinata Schmid 1968-are reviewed. The female and larva of P. extensa are described for the first time. The larvae of P. spinata and P. turbinata are described for the first time. The chaetotaxy of the larval forms of western North American Parapsyche is discussed and scanning electron micrographs are presented. Keys to the females, known pupae, and larvae are provided. Distributional and biological data are also included.

  3. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  4. Freshwater diatomite deposits in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.; Frank, David G.; Founie, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States are found in lake beds that formed millions of years ago. These diatom-rich sediments are among the Nation's largest commercial diatomite deposits. Each deposit contains billions of tiny diatom skeletons, which are widely used for filtration, absorption, and abrasives. New studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are revealing how ancient lakes in the Western States produced such large numbers of diatoms. These findings can be used by both land-use managers and mining companies to better evaluate diatomite resources in the region.

  5. Periorbital Dirofilariasis: A Rare Case from Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic disease caused commonly by Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitus. The definitive hosts are domestic dogs and cats. Human beings are accidental dead end hosts, and acquire infestation through mosquito bites. So far, very few cases have been reported from western India. We report a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with preseptal cellulitis right eye and a firm mass in the lower lid. Histopathological examination after surgical excision of the mass revealed a diagnosis of dirofilariasis. Although rare in Western India a diagnosis of dirofilariasis should be considered in cases of preseptal cellulitis associated with a periorbital mass. PMID:27134918

  6. Forage quality of western wheatgrass exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Milchunas, D.G.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Dodd, J.L.

    1981-07-01

    Effects of three exposure levels of SO/sub 2/ (55, 100, and 170 ..mu..m/sup -3/) on the nutritive value of western wheatgrass were investigated. Significant increases in plant sulfur content were observed, both with time and level of SO/sub 2/ exposure. Plant ash content paralled the trends observed for sulfur concentrations. Nitrogen concentrations in western wheatgrass were not affected by SO/sub 2/ treatments. The increased plant sulfur content and decreased N:S ratios across treatments did not significantly affect forage digestibility as measured by in vitro digestible dry matter.

  7. Westernization of diet and serum lipids in Ethiopians.

    PubMed

    Ostwald, R; Gebre-Medhin, M

    1978-06-01

    The dietary pattern, physical work output, and blood lipids were studied in three groups of healthy, young, urban Ethiopian men differing in the degree of "Westernization." The results showed striking increases in serum lipids that were associated with the degree of Westernization of the diet. These changes could not be accounted for by differences in other group characteristics such as age, weight, smoking, or length of residence in Addis Ababa. The effects of the level of physical work output on serum lipids were equivocal because the methods used for the assessment of energy output yielded crude approximations only.

  8. Cerebral melioidosis for the first time in the western hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Vestal, Matthew L.; Wong, Emily B.; Milner, Dan A.; Gormley, William B.; Dunn, Ian F.

    2015-01-01

    This report is the first published case of cerebral melioidosis in the western hemisphere. In this paper the authors review the literature on neurological melioidosis and its presentation and treatment in endemic areas, describe the clinical course of this unique case of a presentation of the disease with cranial abscess in the US, review the pathological and radiological findings associated with this seminal case, and put forth recommendations for recognizing and treating possible future instances of the disease within the western hemisphere. PMID:23767895

  9. Parapsyche species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae) of western North America.

    PubMed

    Givens, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    The adult female, pupa, and larva of the 5 western North American species of the arctopsychine genus Parapsyche-P. almota Ross 1938, P. elsis Milne 1936, P. extensa Denning 1949a, P. spinata Denning 1949b, and P. turbinata Schmid 1968-are reviewed. The female and larva of P. extensa are described for the first time. The larvae of P. spinata and P. turbinata are described for the first time. The chaetotaxy of the larval forms of western North American Parapsyche is discussed and scanning electron micrographs are presented. Keys to the females, known pupae, and larvae are provided. Distributional and biological data are also included. PMID:26701494

  10. Western teachers of science or teachers of Western science: On the influence of Western modern science in a post-colonial context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Lydia E. Carol-Ann

    An expanding body of research explores the social, political, cultural and personal challenges presented by the Western emphasis of curricula around the world. The aim of my study is to advance this field of inquiry by gaining insight into perceptions of Western modern science presented by students, teachers and administrators in a given Caribbean setting. Through this study I asked how my research participants described the nature of scientific knowledge, how they related scientific knowledge to other culturally-valued knowledges and the meanings they attached to the geographic origins of science teachers. Situating this work firmly within the practice of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis, I have utilised a conceptual framework defined by the power/knowledge and complicity/resistance themes of post-colonial theory to support my interpretation of participant commentary in an overall quest that is concerned about the ways in which Western modern science might be exerting a colonising influence. Fourteen students, nine teachers (both expatriate and local) and three administrators participated in the study. I combined a semi-structured question and answer interview format with a card sort activity. I used a procedure based on my own adaptation of Stephenson's Q methodology, where the respondents placed 24 statements hierarchically along a continuum of increasing strength of agreement, presenting their rationalisations, personal stories and illustrations as they sorted. I used an inverse factor analysis, in combination with the interview transcripts, to assist me in the identification of three discourse positions described by my research participants: The truth value of scientific knowledge, The pragmatic use of science to promote progress, and The priority of cultural preservation. The interview transcripts were also analysed for emergent themes, providing an additional layer of data interpretation. The research findings raise concerns regarding the hegemonic

  11. Gulf Stream eddies - Recent observations in the western Sargasso Sea.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, P. L.; Knauss, J. A.; Strong, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    A cyclonic Gulf Stream eddy was observed in the western Sargasso Sea by satellite infrared measurements and later confirmed by ship measurements. Fourteen months of observations indicate that the eddy moved southwestward at an average rate of 1 mile per day. The evidence suggests that the eddy was absorbed by the Gulf Stream off Florida.

  12. Gut Microbiome: Westernization and the Disappearance of Intestinal Diversity.

    PubMed

    Segata, Nicola

    2015-07-20

    The environment shapes our intestinal microbiome. By contrasting the gut microbiomes of African hunter-gatherer and European subjects, a new study reveals that urbanization is associated with a loss of microbial organisms and genes. What will be the consequences of the lost biodiversity in the sanitized, western-diet world? PMID:26196489

  13. RIPARIAN AREAS OF AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Willamette Valley is a productive, diversified agricultural area in western Oregon. Pastureland and grass seed fields, mostly located on poorly drained soils, account for 60% of the agricultural land in the valley. The size and character of Willamette Valley streams and ass...

  14. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  15. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  16. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  17. Decolonizing Conflict Resolution: Addressing the Ontological Violence of Westernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Polly O.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the impact of worldview on a people's approach to dealing with conflict and compare the worldviews underlying specific Western and Indigenous approaches to dealing with conflict. It suggests that power imbalances in conflict resolution research and practice perpetuate colonization through ontological violence, marginalizing…

  18. Collection Policy of the Libraries of Western Washington University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna; And Others

    This collection development policy provides a framework within which library faculty subject specialists at Western Washington University make library material acquisition decisions. The collection policies address aspects of collection scope and collection intensity, current needs and long-term goals of the university's academic program and…

  19. "Vraisemblance" and the Western Setting in Contemporary Science Fiction Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lane

    Analyzing the setting of six recent "blockbuster" films, this study outlines numerous instances of the Western's influence on several contemporary science fiction films, "Star Wars,""Battlestar Galactica,""Star Trek: The Motion Picture,""The Black Hole,""The Empire Strikes Back," and "Battle beyond the Stars." The correspondence of this phenomenon…

  20. Retroperitoneal abscesses in two western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Hahn, Alicia; D'Agostino, Jennifer; Cole, Gretchen A; Raines, Jan

    2014-03-01

    This report describes two cases of retroperitoneal abscesses in female western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Clinical symptoms included perivulvar discharge, lameness, hindlimb paresis, and general malaise. Retroperitoneal abscesses should be considered as part of a complete differential list in female gorillas with similar clinical signs.

  1. 75 FR 1052 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 23, 2009, the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy submitted Rate...

  2. 78 FR 25433 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on... concerning extension of Washoe Project, Stampede Division, Non-Firm Power Formula Rate for confirmation...

  3. 75 FR 1050 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take... P-SED-F11 for firm power service from the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division (PSMBP--ED) and Rate Schedule P-SED-FP- 11 for firm peaking power from the P-SMBP--ED, and under...

  4. 75 FR 62531 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 1, 2010. Take notice that on September 16, 2010, the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy, under the...

  5. 75 FR 1050 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 16, 2009, the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy submitted Rate...

  6. 78 FR 25434 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 4, 2013, the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy submitted its Rate Order No....

  7. 75 FR 9202 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing February 19, 2010. Take... Order No. WAPA-149, the power rate formula for the Provo River Project, for confirmation and...

  8. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  9. The ontological status of western science and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the revolutionary changes that have transformed the ontological status of western physics and biology over the last thirty years, so as to show in detail how they have moved towards the perspective of the Vedic sciences. From this it appears that Ayurveda's more holistic approach is no longer in opposition to the views of physics and biology. In physics, experimental verification of phenomena associated with quantum correlations have forced scientists to accept that the macroscopic world is not strongly objective: traditional western scientific ontology stands rejected. One consequence is that the world is not necessarily reductionist i.e. based solely on the properties of its tiniest constituents. In biology, the 1930's discovery of homeostasis has reached a natural climax: the feedback instabilities, identified by Norbert Wiener as inevitably accompanying control processes, are now recognized to be states of optimal regulation, where organisms centre their function. The non-reductive properties of these states clearly distinguish the theory of control from previous physical theories; they now occupy the centre-stage of life. Possibly against expectation, their non-reductive nature makes their physics holistic: western biology seems to have broken free of reductionist physics. When Ayurveda and bioscience are compared in light of these little appreciated advances in fundamental science, the supposed differences between them are vastly reduced – they practically dissolve. Instead of being poles apart, the ontologies of western science and Ayurveda seem to have become almost identical. PMID:23125507

  10. Oil and gas developments in western Canada in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.C.

    1986-10-01

    Western Canadian petroleum industry activity soared to record levels in 1985, exceeding the 1980 record by 25%. This was the third successive annual increase following the 1981-1982 slump. The signing of the Western Accord by the federal government and the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan brought oil-price decontrol and numerous incentives in the form of tax relief and new marketing strategies for oil and gas throughout western Canada. Provincial government incentives and new royalty holidays bolstered western Canada drilling activity. Total number of wells drilled increased 26% in 1985, to 11,071 wells. Exploratory drilling rose 15% to 3293 wells, while development drilling reached a record level of 7778 wells, up 32% from 1984. Exploratory success rate dropped from 60% to 57%, with 1250 oil discoveries and 620 gas discoveries. Development success rate remained constant at 89%, with 5044 oil completions and 1900 gas completions. Exploratory drilling activity rose in every area, while development drilling increased in all areas but Manitoba and the Northwest Territories - Arctic region. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    For additional information on the hydrology and geology of western Cape Cod, the reader is referred to the following reports: LeBlanc and others (1986), Barlow and Hess (1993), Masterson and others (1997a), Masterson and others (1997b), Masterson and others (1998), Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc. (1998) and Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (1999).

  12. Interlibrary Loan Time and Motion Study, Colorado Western Slope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sharon D.

    This report, which investigates turnaround time for interlibrary loans, presents a 1-month study of the interlibrary loan (ILL) process operating in the Western Slope areas of Colorado during 1980. It comprises introductory material presenting the importance, scope and limitations of the study, problem statement, hypothesis and term definitions; a…

  13. A perspective on livestock-wolf interactions on western rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reintroduction of wolves into their historical ranges in western North America is possibly one of the most ambitious ecosystem restoration efforts of the recent past. This initiative has been controversial and has stimulated considerable debate among concerned stakeholders about the feasibility ...

  14. Sceloporus occidentalis: Preferred Body Temperature of the Western Fence Lizard.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, S M

    1966-05-20

    Given equal thermal opportunities during four seasonal test periods, western fence lizards active above ground preferred constant body temperature throughout the year. Lizards recovered from subsurface retreats in the fall exhibited a mean body temperature significantly lower than that for sequestered lizards recorded during winter, spring, and summer. PMID:17754818

  15. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WALL OF THE WESTERN STOREROOM. THE MASONRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, WEST WALL OF THE WESTERN STOREROOM. THE MASONRY HEARTH SUPPORT AND RELIEVING ARCH FOR A CHIMNEY MASS PROBABLY NEVER FUNCTIONED AS ENVISIONED, RATHER THEY ARE LIKELY A REMNANT OF A BUILDING SCHEME ABANDONED DURING THE HOUSE’S INITIAL CONSTRUCTION - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  17. Parents' Expectations and Students' Achievement in Two Western Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Markus P.; Vida, Mina; Garrett, Jessica L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study compares the relations of family SES and parents' educational expectations during early adolescence with students' self-concept of ability and academic achievement in mathematics and language in two western countries, Switzerland and USA Participants were drawn from two US longitudinal samples, The Michigan Study of Adolescent…

  18. 27. WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS 346 AND 347 AT WESTERN EDGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS 346 AND 347 AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTH PLANT, WITH SOUTH RAILROAD SPUR IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. Enacting the Independent Public Schools Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobby, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The Independent Public Schools (IPS) program began to be implemented in some Western Australian schools in 2010. The IPS program devolves a number of responsibilities to principals and is part of the political objective of removing the constraints of the education bureaucracy by fostering school level decision-making, problem-solving and…

  20. INTERIOR OF WESTERN SECTION, SHOWING WALL OF COLD STORAGE ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WESTERN SECTION, SHOWING WALL OF COLD STORAGE ROOM (IN BAYS 32 TO 34) AND ROLLING DOORS AT WEST END, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

  2. 30. Photograph looking north from western pool, along the cribs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photograph looking north from western pool, along the cribs and channel toward the east forebay. U.S. 24 is on the left, the archaeological overburden windrow is on the right. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  3. A Cross Generational Dialect Study in Western North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the relationship between African American English and White Vernacular English as spoken in a small rural town in western North Carolina for consistencies in vowel production by group membership and for participation in the Southern Vowel Shift (SVS), a vowel rotation currently occurring in the Southern United States. A…

  4. Leading for Sustainability in Western Australian Regional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Coral

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I report on leadership for sustainability in regional schools in Western Australia (WA) in the context of the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI-WA). Case studies are developed to examine leading cultural change in eight WA regional schools with data presented in three representative narrative accounts. Consistency is…

  5. Western Australian High School Students' Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    This study reports on the attitudes towards biotechnology of 905, 15-16 year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools. Students were asked to read 15 statements about biotechnology processes and to draw a line to separate what they considered "acceptable" statements from those they considered "unacceptable". Overall, the students hold a…

  6. Economic Crisis, Universities and Students in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forstenzer, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    Characterizes influences of the economic and political climate on universities and students in western Europe. As a result of university budget cuts, unemployment among educated youth, and increases in the cost of living, university students are experiencing a sense of uselessness, lost status, and confused identity. (Author/DB)

  7. Undergraduate Non-Music Major Preferences for Western Art Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hash, Phillip M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate non-music major (N = 95) preferences for Western art music. A survey of 15 musical examples was assembled consisting of five subtests, each with three excerpts from the Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, or Twentieth Century. The mean preference rating of all excerpts combined was 4.68…

  8. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, 1900 STAFFORD SHINGLING THE ROOF WITH FOUR CHILDREN STANDING BESIDE BOARD AND BATTEN LEAN-TO - Faraway Ranch, Stafford-Riggs Cabin, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  9. Classifications of bog peat sensitivity to anthropogenic impact (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarenko, V. V.; Matveenko, I. A.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Molokov, V. Y.; Khoroshko, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with strength parameters of peats in Western Siberia, evaluates their transformations under the anthropogenic mechanical impact, presents peat classification in terms of sensitivity allowing the forecast of strength loss when destructing their structure in the process of building roads, pipelines. Sensitivity classification also permits predicting roadability for construction design.

  10. Findings of 4-H Impact Studies in Six Western States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda S.; Hodnett, Frank; Van Leeuwen, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, six western states conducted individual impact studies using public school youth in grades five, seven, and nine. Common areas of study included: risk behaviors, leadership positions held, helping others, close relationships with adults, self-identity, character, self-confidence, and empowerment. The purpose of the study was…

  11. Continental margin of Western europe: slope progradation and erosion.

    PubMed

    Curray, J R; Moore, D G; Belderson, R H; Stride, A H

    1966-10-14

    Reflection profiling of the continental margin off western Europe shows seaward-dipping continental-slope deposits that have been dissected by submarine canyons west of the English Channel. These records refute previous interpretation of structural benches of older, nearly horizontal strata outcropping on the slope face.

  12. 1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT LEFT AND THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP AT RIGHT. VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Watergate & Bridge Plaza, Adjacent to Arlington Memorial Bridge & Lincoln Memorial, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT LEFT AND THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP AT RIGHT. VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Boundary Channel Extension, Spanning Mount Vernon Memorial Highway & Boundary Channel, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. The Mesothelioma epidemic in Western Europe: an update.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, C; Malvezzi, M; La Vecchia, C; Levi, F; Decarli, A; Negri, E

    2004-03-01

    The number of male deaths from pleural cancer in France, Germany and Italy increased from about 8750 in 1990-1994 to 9550 in 1995-1999, suggesting that mesothelioma deaths in males may be levelling off in most of Western Europe.

  15. Continental margin of Western europe: slope progradation and erosion.

    PubMed

    Curray, J R; Moore, D G; Belderson, R H; Stride, A H

    1966-10-14

    Reflection profiling of the continental margin off western Europe shows seaward-dipping continental-slope deposits that have been dissected by submarine canyons west of the English Channel. These records refute previous interpretation of structural benches of older, nearly horizontal strata outcropping on the slope face. PMID:17810307

  16. THE WESTERN ECOLOGY DIVISION STUDENT INTERN PROGRAM VIDEO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Western Ecology Division of the National Health & Environmental Effects Research Laboratory has produced a 15 minute video documenting the internship program at the Division. The video highlights various CWEST student interns reporting on their experiences at an end-of-the-s...

  17. Localism in Western European Radio Broadcasting: Untangling the Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Thomas A.; Lowe, G. Ferrell

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of the local radio phenomenon in Western European countries. Examines opportunities for access, control, and economic realities for three types of local radio (national, independent, and community), each of which was influenced in some fashion by illegal pirate stations. (KEH)

  18. Area contingency plan Western Lake Erie. (COTP Toledo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-31

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Erie Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Toledo Coastal Zone.

  19. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  20. Schooling in western culture promotes context-free processing.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Paulo; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Fernandes, Tânia; Klein, Olivier; Morais, José; Kolinsky, Régine

    2008-06-01

    Culture has been shown to influence the way people apprehend their physical environment. Cognitive orientation is more holistic in East Asian cultures, which emphasize relationships and connectedness among objects in the field, than in Western cultures, which are more prone to focus exclusively on the object and its attributes. We investigated whether, beyond, or in conjunction with culture, literacy and/or schooling may also have an influence on this cognitive orientation. Using the Framed-Line Test both in Portugal and in Thailand, we compared literate schooled adults with two groups of unschooled adults: one of illiterates and one of ex-illiterates. As in former studies on Western people, Portuguese-schooled literates were more accurate in the absolute task than in the relative task. In contrast, Portuguese illiterates and ex-illiterates were more accurate in the relative task than in the absolute task. Such an effect of schooling was not observed in the Thai groups, all of whom performed better on the relative task. Thus, the capacity to abstract from contextual information does not stem only from passive exposure to the culture or the physical environment of Western countries. Western schooling, as part of or in addition to culture, is a crucial factor. PMID:18343399