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Sample records for lind western jutland

  1. Cannabis plants illicitly grown in Jutland (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Kaa, E

    1989-01-01

    Four hundred forty-nine fresh cannabis plants and 26 fruiting tops harvested in Jutland (Denmark) from July to September 1988 were characterized according to weight, height, marihuana yield, and cannabinoid content. The median weights were 308 g and 584 g for plants grown outdoors (n = 418) and in greenhouses (n = 31), respectively. The average marihuana yield was 8.7% for the plants grown outdoors and slightly lower for the greenhouse plants. Great variations, however, were seen both between and within the individual harvests. The mean concentration of total THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) was 0.87% for the plants grown outdoors. An increase according to the month of harvest was observed. For plants grown in greenhouses the mean value of total THC was 1.35%, while the mean concentration of fruiting tops was 2.13%. All plants contained cannabidiol (CBD), but only negligible concentrations of other cannabinoids. In approximately 80% of the plants the THC content was higher than the CBD content (drug type), while the rest either contained equal concentrations (intermediate type) or most CBD (fiber type).

  2. Remediation and Recycling of Linde FUSRAP Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J. P.; Rehmann, M. R.

    2002-02-27

    During World War II, the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) utilized facilities in the Buffalo, New York area to extract natural uranium from uranium-bearing ores. The Linde property is one of several properties within the Tonawanda, New York Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site, which includes Linde, Ashland 1, Ashland 2, and Seaway. Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division was placed under contract with the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) from 1942 to 1946 to extract uranium from seven different ore sources: four African pitchblende ores and three domestic ores. Over the years, erosion and weathering have spread contamination from the residuals handled and disposed of at Linde to adjacent soils. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) negotiated a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) governing remediation of the Linde property. In Fiscal Year (FY) 1998, Congress transferred cleanup management responsibility for the sites in the FUSRAP program, including the Linde Site, from the DOE to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), with the charge to commence cleanup promptly. All actions by the USACE at the Linde Site are being conducted subject to the administrative, procedural, and regulatory provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the existing FFA. USACE issued a Proposed Plan for the Linde Property in 1999 and a Final Record of Decision (ROD) in 2000. USACE worked with the local community near the Tonawanda site, and after considering public comment, selected the remedy calling for removing soils that exceed the site-specific cleanup standard, and transporting the contaminated material to off-site locations. The selected remedy is protective of human health and the environment, complies with Federal and State requirements, and meets commitments to the community.

  3. Glacial Lake Lind, Wisconsin and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.D.; Addis, K.L.; Ferber, L.R.; Hemstad, C.B.; Meyer, G.N.; Komai, L.T.

    1999-01-01

    Glacial Lake Lind developed in the pre-late Wisconsinan St. Croix River valley, Minnesota and Wisconsin, and lasted more than 1000 yr during the retreat of the Superior lobe at the end of the Wisconsinan glaciation. Lake Lind sediment consists primarily of red varved silt and clay, but also includes mud-flow deposits, nearshore silt (penecontemporaneously deformed in places), nearshore rippled sand, and deltaic sand. Lake Lind varved red clay is not part of glacial Lake Grantsburg, as suggested by earlier authors, because the red varves are separated from overlying glacial Lake Grantsburg silt and clay by a unit of deltaic and fluvial sand. Furthermore, varve correlations indicate that the base of the red varves is younger to the north, showing that the basin expanded as the Superior lobe retreated and was not a lake basin dammed to the southwest by the advancing Grantsburg sublobe. Varve correlations indicate that the Superior lobe retreated at a rate of about 200 m/yr. Uniform winter-clay thickness throughout most of the varve couplets suggests thermal stratification in the lake with clay trapped in the epilimnion; some clay would exit the lake at the outlet prior to winter freeze. Zones of thicker winter-clay layers, in places associated with mud-flow layers, indicate outlet incision, lake-level fall, and shoreline erosion and resuspension of lake clay. The most likely outlet for glacial Lake Lind was in the southwest part of the lake near the present site of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Nearshore sediment indicates that the lake level of glacial Lake Lind was around 280 m. The elevation of the base of the Lake Lind sediments indicates water depth was 20 to 55 m. Evidence in the southern part of the lake basin suggests that the Superior lobe readvanced at least once during the early stages of glacial Lake Lind. Lake Lind ended not by drainage but by being filled in by prograding deltas and outwash plains composed of sand derived from the retreating Superior lobe. It

  4. Low capacity Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedegard, K.; Atkins, E.; Walker, G.

    1990-01-01

    A closed-cycle Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier was developed incorporating a new, non-clogging, demand flow Joule-Thomson nozzle. The flow area of the nozzle, a tapered annular orifice, is regulated by a very rugged load-sensitive differential thermal expansion scheme and by a manually adjustable micrometer mechanism. Labyrinth flow spoilers within the orifice provide turbulent voids which break up and clear contaminants from the flow. The system's four-stage compressor features sealed, oil-free compression spaces and a very compact nested piston configuration with a minimum of moving parts and drive complexity. The drive mechanism is a rolling Scotch yoke which minimizes piston side forces and seal wear for prolonged operating life. The closed-cycled system is controlled by an innovative load-responsive electronic feedback circuit which further reduces wear and input power.

  5. Low capacity Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedegard, K.; Atkins, E.; Walker, G.

    A closed-cycle Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier was developed incorporating a new, non-clogging, demand flow Joule-Thomson nozzle. The flow area of the nozzle, a tapered annular orifice, is regulated by a very rugged load-sensitive differential thermal expansion scheme and by a manually adjustable micrometer mechanism. Labyrinth flow spoilers within the orifice provide turbulent voids which break up and clear contaminants from the flow. The system's four-stage compressor features sealed, oil-free compression spaces and a very compact nested piston configuration with a minimum of moving parts and drive complexity. The drive mechanism is a rolling Scotch yoke which minimizes piston side forces and seal wear for prolonged operating life. The closed-cycled system is controlled by an innovative load-responsive electronic feedback circuit which further reduces wear and input power.

  6. 17. NORTHWEST VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. NORTHWEST VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT SHOWING FRACTIONATING TOWER, NITROGEN REGENERATORS, AND REVERSING HEAT EXCHANGERS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 13. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 16. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT SHOWING THE TWIN OXYGEN FRACTIONATING TOWERS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 12. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOOKING WEST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 10. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 11. VIEW OF THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTH. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Improvement of Linde Kryotechnik's internal purifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Lutz; Meier, Albert; Wilhelm, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    With the recent shortage in supply of helium, recovery solutions have experienced a new focus with a tendency to recover streams with higher impurity content. This development calls for purifier systems operating efficiently and with low impact on liquefaction capacity for helium streams with impurity levels in the percentage range. Linde Kryotechnik has answered this demand by improving the performance of its purifier technology. Since 1983, its standardized helium liquefiers of the L- and former TCF-series type contain an internal purifier which already allows efficient impurity removal with minimized space demand. Along with a line dryer to absorb humidity, it is designed to remove air impurities up to 5 mol%. However, with increasing impurity level, liquefaction capacity reduced significantly being furthermore restricted to an upper level of approx. 180 l/h and continuous purification became limited in time. With the current redesign of this purifier, the impact on liquefaction capacity is now minimized without any limitation within the capacity range of the L-series plants. Continuous purification is hence ensured beyond previous maximum impurity content. This paper provides the key design changes and the achievable performance, which has been verified in the recent L-series plants delivered to customers.

  13. The Pharmacoepidemiologic Prescription Database of North Jutland - a valid tool in pharmacoepidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G L; Sørensen, H T; Zhou, W; Steffensen, F H; Olsen, J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the options of a pharmacoepidemiologic database comprising data on all reimbursed prescriptions taken up at pharmacies in the County of Northern Jutland since 1991 including precise identification of the individual person for whom the medicin was prescribed. The County comprises 487,000 inhabitants equal to approximately 10% of the total Danish population.

  14. Max Linde, MD, a Luebeck ophthalmologist and patron of Edvard Munch.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    1999-01-01

    Ophthalmologist Maximilian Linde (1862-1940) had a passion for contemporary art and owned one of the most important private collections in Europe. He first met little known Norwegian expressionist Edvard Munch in 1903, recognized special talent, and welcomed him into his family. With Linde's encouragement, patronage, and friendship, Munich became one of the most important artists of his time. Many of Munch's works were commissioned by Linde and many featured Linde and his family as subjects.

  15. 15. GENERAL EASTERN VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. GENERAL EASTERN VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT SHOWING TWIN OXYGEN FRACTIONATING TOWER (ON RIGHT), VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWERS (ON LEFT FOREGROUND), AND AN ARGON FRACTIONATING TOWER (BEHIND VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWER). - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 75 FR 4822 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for Linde Ceramics, Tonawanda...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for Linde Ceramics... employees for Linde Ceramics, Tonawanda, New York, to be included in the Special Exposure Cohort under the...: Facility: Linde Ceramics. Location: Tonawanda, New York. Job Titles and/or Job Duties: All employees...

  17. Sailors' scurvy before and after James Lind--a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scurvy is a thousand-year-old stereotypical disease characterized by apathy, weakness, easy bruising with tiny or large skin hemorrhages, friable bleeding gums, and swollen legs. Untreated patients may die. In the last five centuries sailors and some ships' doctors used oranges and lemons to cure and prevent scurvy, yet university-trained European physicians with no experience of either the disease or its cure by citrus fruits persisted in reviews of the extensive but conflicting literature. In the 20(th) century scurvy was shown to be due to a deficiency of the essential food factor ascorbic acid. This vitamin C was synthesized, and in adequate quantities it completely prevents and completely cures the disease, which is now rare. The protagonist of this medical history was James Lind. His report of a prospective controlled therapeutic trial in 1747 preceded by a half-century the British Navy's prevention and cure of scurvy by citrus fruits. After lime-juice was unwittingly substituted for lemon juice in about 1860, the disease returned, especially among sailors on polar explorations. In recent decades revisionist historians have challenged normative accounts, including that of scurvy, and the historicity of Lind's trial. It is therefore timely to reassess systematically the strengths and weaknesses of the canonical saga.

  18. Putrid gums and 'Dead Men's Cloaths': James Lind aboard the Salisbury

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Graham

    2003-01-01

    18th century sailors often suffered from scurvy. In 1747 James Lind conducted his classic experiments aboard the Salisbury, in which he cured scurvy with oranges and lemons. The Royal Navy did not introduce citrus rations until 1795. The original ship's papers allow the circumstances of the experiment to be reconstructed. The relevant patrol began in March 1747, and Lind's experiment began after 8 weeks at sea. The muster roll records almost no sickness aboard until the ship returned to Plymouth in June. This is at odds with Lind's account and suggests an antisickness official culture, which may have contributed to the neglect of his work. PMID:14645616

  19. Variations in chemical composition and particle size of dune sediments along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saye, Samantha E.; Pye, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Geochemical and textural variations in frontal dune sediments along the western coast of Jutland, Denmark, have been investigated in order to identify possible sediment 'provinces' and transport pathways. An understanding of sediment sources and sinks is important for both for an understanding of the nature of sedimentary environments and for applied coastal engineering and management purposes. Four coastal sectors were identified on the basis of geochemical composition. One sector is compositionally different from the other three units, having higher concentrations of the trace elements Ni, Cr, V, Sc, Zn, Pb, Ba, Zr and many rare earth elements. Dune sediments on this section of coast also have higher Al 2O 3 to K 2O ratios and lower Al 2O 3 to Fe 2O 3 ratios, reflecting a lower content of feldspar and higher content of heavy minerals. It is inferred that different, or additional, sediment source(s) have supplied sediment to this section of coast. Beach nourishment has contributed to the observed compositional differences, but previous data obtained from the Lodbjerg area indicate that aeolian sands on this section of coast naturally have a relatively high Si, Fe and Ti content, reflecting high quartz / feldspar ratio and relatively high content of heavy minerals, compared with those on other sections of the coast. Frontal dunes along the most northern section show high abundances of K 2O, Rb and Ba, reflecting a relatively high K-feldspar content derived from local sources. Alongshore trends were also identified in the mean particle size and sorting of the frontal dunes, although there is no direct correspondence with the observed geochemical differences. Three coastal units can be identified on the basis of particle size. Frontal dune sediments in the middle section are relatively coarser and less well-sorted than those to the north and south, probably reflecting both the addition of beach nourishment material and greater exposure to strong westerly winds, which

  20. [Increased frequency of CRD in the broiler production in northern Jutland. II. Influence on production and economy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Haugum, E; Bisgaard, M; Velling, G

    1977-01-01

    The consequences for production and economy caused by an increase in CRD outbreaks in broilers in northern Jutland are estimated by comparing production results from book-keeping farms to the average results of the whole country, where an improvement of 19 gram was found, while a similar increase did not occur in northern Jutland (Table I). The condemnation rate has risen 0.4% in northern Jutland. For the whole country 0.1% rise has been registered. Production results from 6 book-keeping farms with CRD have been compared to the results from all book-keeping farms in the region. It appears from Table III that the 6 farms were lacking 60 gram weight increase and 0.03 in feed conversion. Gross margins for production without problems have been calculated to 0.70 kr. per chicken against 0.42 kr. per chicken in the 71 CRD attacked flocks (Tables IV and V). If in addition also slaughterhouse expenses are added the total loss due to CRD in the 71 flocks sum up to 510.144 kr.

  1. IMPACT EVALUATION OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS PLAN PROJECT AT THE LINDE DIVISION OF UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G. E.; Sullivan, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at the Linde Division of Union Carbide Corporation (Linde) was conducted far the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Linde as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interviews, and submittal reviews (Linde's Completion Report and Abstract). The ECM itself consists of replacing the plant's nitrogen feed compressor with a larger unit, which allows the plant to meet its argon demand using less compressed air and which results in net energy savings. Energy savings resulting from this ECM were 4,376,500 kWh/yr for the first two years after installation, but, because of a change in Linde's market position, long-term savings are expected to be lower at 2,549,200 kWh/yr. Linde considers energy consumption and savings on a per ton basis to be proprietary, so they are not reported here. The ECM cost $361,4.96 to install, and Linde received payment of $161,426 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. This ECM would not have been implemented without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 4.5 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to th.e region will be 5.9 mills/kWh.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE Oxygen Combustion System installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney Farm site in sou...

  3. Post-Remediation Radiological Dose Assessment, Linde Site, Tonawanda, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, Sunita; Durham, Lisa A.

    2014-06-01

    A post-remediation radiological dose assessment was conducted for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Linde Site by using the measured residual concentrations of the radionuclides of concern following the completion of the soils remedial action. The site’s FUSRAP-related contaminants of concern (COCs) are radionuclides associated with uranium processing activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) in support of the Nation’s early atomic energy and weapons program and include radium-226 (Ra-226), thorium-230 (Th-230), and total uranium (Utotal). Remedial actions to address Linde Site soils and structures were conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision for the Linde Site, Tonawanda, New York (ROD) (USACE 2000a). In the ROD, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) determined that the cleanup standards found in Title 40, Part 192 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 192), the standards for cleanup of uranium mill sites designated under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards for decommissioning of licensed uranium and thorium mills, found in 10 CFR Part 40, Appendix A, Criterion 6(6), are Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for cleanup of MED-related contamination at the Linde Site. The major elements of this remedy will involve excavation of the soils with COCs above soil cleanup levels and placement of clean materials to meet the other criteria of 40 CFR Part 192.

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE Oxygen Combustion System installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney Farm site in sou...

  5. Astronauts Don Lind observes growth of crystals in VCGS aboard orbiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-30

    51B-01-007 (30 April 1985) --- Astronaut Don L. Lind, 51-B Spacelab 3 mission specialist, observes the growth of mercuric iodide crystal in the vapor crystal growth system (VCGS) on the Spacelab 3 science module aboard the orbiter Challenger.

  6. Paula Lind Ayers: "song-physician" for troops with shell shock during World War I.

    PubMed

    Reschke-Hernandez, Alaine E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the therapeutic uses of music during the First World War. This historical study provides a biography of Paula Lind Ayers (1891-1974), a vocalist, actress, and YMCA Entertainer who became known as "the girl who could sing away shell shock." The purpose of this study is to describe Paula Lind Ayers' respite services during World War I and provide a contextual biography of her life. The author conducted an exhaustive search regarding Paula Lind Ayers' life and her activities during World War I. Numerous databases were used to locate print sources. Libraries, archives, and organizations were consulted to obtain unpublished primary sources. The author evaluated materials via a recursive process that included corroborating evidence, assessing source reliability, and contextualizing information. Data were synthesized and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings suggest that Paula Lind Ayers developed a systematic approach using familiar, live singing that was effective in alleviating symptoms of shell shock. Her method was replicated by others overseas during World War I. After the war, she returned to a successful performance career until the Great Depression. No information was found about Ayers' life from the year 1929 until her death in 1974. Understanding Paula Lind Ayers' contribution to music therapy provides a deeper awareness of past therapeutic uses of music with soldiers who experienced shell shock. Such understanding helps shape the way we view the present conception of music therapy with veterans and how we might answer questions that will affect the future of the field. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph; Boyle, James D.

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  8. Thick braneworlds and the Gibbons-Kallosh-Linde no-go theorem in the Gauss-Bonnet framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, M.; Hoff da Silva, J. M.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-04-01

    The sum rules related to thick braneworlds are constructed in order to encompass Gauss-Bonnet terms. The generation of thick branes is hence proposed in a periodic extra dimension scenario, which circumvents the Gibbons-Kallosh-Linde no-go theorem in this context.

  9. Research priorities in mesothelioma: A James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R J; Whiting, C; Cowan, K

    2015-08-01

    In the UK, despite the import and use of all forms of asbestos being banned more than 15 years ago, the incidence of mesothelioma continues to rise. Mesothelioma is almost invariably fatal, and more research is required, not only to find more effective treatments, but also to achieve an earlier diagnosis and improve palliative care. Following a debate in the House of Lords in July 2013, a package of measures was agreed, which included a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership, funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The partnership brought together patients, carers, health professionals and support organisations to agree the top 10 research priorities relating to the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients with mesothelioma. Following the established James Lind Alliance priority setting process, mesothelioma patients, current and bereaved carers, and health professionals were surveyed to elicit their concerns regarding diagnosis, treatment and care. Research questions were generated from the survey responses, and following checks that the questions were currently unanswered, an interim prioritisation survey was conducted to identify a shortlist of questions to take to a final consensus meeting. Four hundred and fifty-three initial surveys were returned, which were refined into 52 unique unanswered research questions. The interim prioritisation survey was completed by 202 responders, and the top 30 questions were taken to a final meeting where mesothelioma patients, carers, and health professionals prioritised all the questions, and reached a consensus on the top 10. The top 10 questions cover a wide portfolio of research (including assessing the value of immunotherapy, individualised chemotherapy, second-line treatment and immediate chemotherapy, monitoring patients with pleural thickening, defining the management of ascites in peritoneal mesothelioma, and optimising follow-up strategy). This list is an invaluable resource, which should be

  10. The Battle of Jutland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    would bring them into identical waters late in the afternoon < 10:31). As Jellicoe steamed east towards his rendezvous point with...Luixow (Hipper’s flagship) was so badly damaged, with a heavy list and her bow deep in the water , that as soon as the German admiral could extricate...34"^- ships with their htuvier »rmor pl«t» and wider girth proved extremely resiliant *nd hard to sink. Their extensive water - tight compartment system was

  11. Evolution of clinical research: a history before and beyond james lind.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of clinical research traverses a long and fascinating journey. From the first recorded trial of legumes in biblical times to the first randomized controlled of trial of streptomycin in 1946, the history of clinical trial covers a wide variety of challenges - scientific, ethical and regulatory. The famous 1747 scurvy trial conducted by James Lind contained most elements of a controlled trial. The UK Medical Research Council's (MRC) trial of patulin for common cold in 1943 was the first double blind controlled trial. This paved the way for the first randomized control trial of streptomycin in pulmonary tuberculosis carried out in 1946 by MRC of the UK. This landmark trial was a model of meticulousness in design and implementation, with systematic enrolment criteria and data collection compared with the ad hoc nature of other contemporary research. Over the years, as the discipline of controlled trials grew in sophistication and influence, the streptomycin trial continues to be referred to as ground breaking. The ethical advances in human protection include several milestones - Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, and 1996, International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice guidance. In parallel to ethical guidelines, clinical trials started to become embodied in regulation as government authorities began recognizing a need for controlling medical therapies in the early 20th century. As the scientific advances continue to occur, there will be new ethical and regulatory challenges requiring dynamic updates in ethical and legal framework of clinical trials.

  12. Relocation of on-site spoils pile materials at the Linde Fusrap Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schwippert, M.T.; Boyle, J.D.; Bousquet, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    During the 1940's, the Linde Division of Union Carbide used portions of their property in Tonawanda, New York for processing uranium ores under Federal Manhattan Engineering District (MED) contracts. These activities resulted in radiological contamination on portions of the property. The radionuclides of concern at the site are Radium, Thorium, and Uranium. The site is currently owned and operated by Praxair Inc., an industrial gas company. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) issued a Record of Decision to remediate the radiologically-contaminated materials associated with MED activities in March 2000 under the authority of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The selected remedy is fully protective of human health and the environment and complies with Federal and State requirements that are legally applicable or relevant and appropriate and meets community commitments. The USACE - Buffalo District has been executing remedial activities at the site and has successfully addressed many challenges in a safe and cost effective manner through effective coordination, project management, and partnering with stakeholders. These efforts supported the successful relocation of approximately 29,000 cubic yards of stockpiled material (soils, concrete, steel, asphalt and miscellaneous non-soil) that had been generated by the property owner as a result of ongoing development of the facility. Relocation of the material was necessary to allow safe access to the surface and subsurface soils beneath the pile for sampling and analysis. During relocation operations, materials were evaluated for the presence of radiological contamination. The vast majority of material was relocated onsite and remained the property owner's responsibility. A small portion of the material required off-site disposal at a permitted disposal facility due to radiological contamination that exceeded site criteria. This paper presents details associated with the successful

  13. Research priorities for shoulder surgery: results of the 2015 James Lind Alliance patient and clinician priority setting partnership.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Amar; Upadhaya, Sheela; Regan, Sandra; Toye, Francine; Rees, Jonathan L

    2016-04-11

    To run a UK based James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership for 'Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems'. This was a nationally funded and conducted process. It was organised from a musculoskeletal research centre and Biomedical Research Unit in Oxford. UK shoulder patients, carers and clinicians, involved in treating patients with shoulder pain and shoulder problems that might require surgery. These were national electronic and paper surveys capturing treatment uncertainties that are important to shoulder patients, carers and clinicians. The outcomes relevant to this study were the survey results and rankings. The process took 18 months to complete, with 371 participants contributing 404 in scope questions. The James Lind process then produced a final 10 research priorities and uncertainties that relate to the scope of 'Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems'. The final top 10 UK research priorities have been produced and are now being disseminated to partner organisations and funders to guide funding of shoulder research for the next 5-10 years on topics that are important to patients, their carers and clinicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Research priorities for shoulder surgery: results of the 2015 James Lind Alliance patient and clinician priority setting partnership

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Amar; Upadhaya, Sheela; Regan, Sandra; Toye, Francine; Rees, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To run a UK based James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership for ‘Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems’. Setting This was a nationally funded and conducted process. It was organised from a musculoskeletal research centre and Biomedical Research Unit in Oxford. Participants UK shoulder patients, carers and clinicians, involved in treating patients with shoulder pain and shoulder problems that might require surgery. Interventions These were national electronic and paper surveys capturing treatment uncertainties that are important to shoulder patients, carers and clinicians. Outcome measures The outcomes relevant to this study were the survey results and rankings. Results The process took 18 months to complete, with 371 participants contributing 404 in scope questions. The James Lind process then produced a final 10 research priorities and uncertainties that relate to the scope of ‘Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems’. Conclusions The final top 10 UK research priorities have been produced and are now being disseminated to partner organisations and funders to guide funding of shoulder research for the next 5–10 years on topics that are important to patients, their carers and clinicians. PMID:27067892

  15. D0 Collider Detector LINDE, East Chicago (LAr Contractor) Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.; Krempetz, K.; Mulholland, G.T.; Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-08

    product, pressure transfered directly from the final column to a properly cooled and purged truck backed right up to the column. The high purity product can be as low as 0.3 ppm 02 by proper application of these procedures. Liquid Argon is the only product for which standing, loaded, trailers are provided vent recovery lines. The recovered gas is fed back to the crude Ar stream. The local O2 monitoring equipment is a Teledyne 306WA with ranges of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 PPM full scale. The wet cell unit is available from ENPRO for an estimated $3,500. The N2 in Ar is measured by a special in-house Linde instrument.

  16. Can negative life events and coping style help explain socioeconomic differences in perceived stress among adolescents? A cross-sectional study based on the West Jutland cohort study.

    PubMed

    Glasscock, David J; Andersen, Johan H; Labriola, Merete; Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D

    2013-06-02

    Previous research suggests that perceived stress in adolescence is socially patterned, but that this relationship may depend on the measure of socioeconomic status (SES) used. This study examines if social gradients in perceived stress, negative life events, and coping exist amongst Danish adolescents, and, if life events and coping strategies can partly account for an association between SES and perceived stress. These relationships are studied separately for two different measures of SES. Questionnaire data were collected from 3054 14-15 year old youths (83% response rate) during baseline measurement in the West Jutland birth cohort study. Parents were identified via the Central Office of Civil Registration in which the respondents are linked to their parents or guardians via their CPR-number, a personal identification number given to everyone in Denmark. The study employs data from two independent sources, adolescent self-report data (stress, life events and coping) and national registers (parental educational level, household income and confounder variables). Ordinary Least Squares regression estimated the effects of parental SES, negative life events and coping on perceived stress. Analyses were stratified by gender. Girls reported more perceived stress than boys. SES accounted for a small but significant amount of the variance in perceived stress. Lower parental education and lower household income were associated with higher stress levels irrespective of gender, but the social gradient was strongest amongst girls when parents' education was used to measure SES, and strongest for boys when income was used. Life events and coping were also found to be associated with SES and both mediated part of the SES-perceived stress relationship. In general, the social gradient in perceived stress was accounted for by the study variables to a higher degree among girls than among boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with higher levels of

  17. Fracture toughness testing of Linde 1092 reactor vessel welds in the transition range using Charpy-sized specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Pavinich, W.A.; Yoon, K.K.; Hour, K.Y.; Hoffman, C.L.

    1999-10-01

    The present reference toughness method for predicting the change in fracture toughness can provide over estimates of these values because of uncertainties in initial RT{sub NDT} and shift correlations. It would be preferable to directly measure fracture toughness. However, until recently, no standard method was available to characterize fracture toughness in the transition range. ASTM E08 has developed a draft standard that shows promise for providing lower bound transition range fracture toughness using the master curve approach. This method has been successfully implemented using 1T compact fracture specimens. Combustion Engineering reactor vessel surveillance programs do not have compact fracture specimens. Therefore, the CE Owners Group developed a program to validate the master curve method for Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens for future application on irradiated specimens. This method was validated for Linde 1092 welds using unirradiated Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens by comparison of results with those from compact fracture specimens.

  18. Innovative Regulatory and Technical Approaches for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers' Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J. T.; Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J.; Boyle, J. D.; Rogers, B. C.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) created the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 to identify, investigate, and cleanup or control radiological contamination at sites used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the 1940s through the 1960s. The USDOE had identified 46 sites in the program and finished remediation at 24 of the smaller ones before the end of 1997. With the passage of the Energy and Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1998 the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) was designated by Congress with responsibility to manage and execute the FUSRAP. The Linde Site located in Tonawanda, New York was operated by the MED from 1942-1946 to extract uranium from several high-grade ores. This natural uranium was subsequently enriched in U-235 elsewhere in the United States and ultimately used to produce energy or weapons. Though in the process of reviewing alternative disposal options by 1995, the USDOE had operated FUSRAP with a strategy requiring virtually all materials remediated be disposed of at only one Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facility. The change in management of the FUSRAP in 1997 allowed the disposal policy of low levels of radioactively contaminated materials found at the remaining sites to be reexamined. This paper presents some of the innovative regulatory and technical approaches employed at the Linde Site that are resulting in project cost savings while meeting applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements as well as fulfilling commitments made to the local community.

  19. Can negative life events and coping style help explain socioeconomic differences in perceived stress among adolescents? A cross-sectional study based on the West Jutland cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that perceived stress in adolescence is socially patterned, but that this relationship may depend on the measure of socioeconomic status (SES) used. This study examines if social gradients in perceived stress, negative life events, and coping exist amongst Danish adolescents, and, if life events and coping strategies can partly account for an association between SES and perceived stress. These relationships are studied separately for two different measures of SES. Methods Questionnaire data were collected from 3054 14–15 year old youths (83% response rate) during baseline measurement in the West Jutland birth cohort study. Parents were identified via the Central Office of Civil Registration in which the respondents are linked to their parents or guardians via their CPR-number, a personal identification number given to everyone in Denmark. The study employs data from two independent sources, adolescent self-report data (stress, life events and coping) and national registers (parental educational level, household income and confounder variables). Ordinary Least Squares regression estimated the effects of parental SES, negative life events and coping on perceived stress. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results Girls reported more perceived stress than boys. SES accounted for a small but significant amount of the variance in perceived stress. Lower parental education and lower household income were associated with higher stress levels irrespective of gender, but the social gradient was strongest amongst girls when parents’ education was used to measure SES, and strongest for boys when income was used. Life events and coping were also found to be associated with SES and both mediated part of the SES-perceived stress relationship. In general, the social gradient in perceived stress was accounted for by the study variables to a higher degree among girls than among boys. Conclusions Lower parental education and household

  20. Self-assembly in poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer template directed synthesis of Linde type A zeolite.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Lucio; Calandra, Pietro; Kiselev, Mikhail A; Amenitsch, Heinz; Proverbio, Edoardo; Lombardo, Domenico

    2013-06-11

    We describe the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite Linde type A (LTA) submicrometer particles using a water-soluble amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) as a template. The formation and growth of the intermediate aggregates in the presence of the diblock copolymer have been monitored by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) above the critical micellar concentration at a constant temperature of 45 °C. The early stage of the growth process was characterized by the incorporation of the zeolite LTA components into the surface of the block copolymer micellar aggregates with the formation of primary units of 4.8 nm with a core-shell morphology. During this period, restricted to an initial time of 1-3 h, the core-shell structure of the particles does not show significant changes, while a subsequent aggregation process among these primary units takes place. A shape transition of the SAXS profile at the late stage of the synthesis has been connected with an aggregation process among primary units that leads to the formation of large clusters with fractal characteristics. The formation of large supramolecular assemblies was finally verified by scanning electron microscopy, which evidenced the presence of submicrometer aggregates with size ranging between 100 and 300 nm, while X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of crystalline zeolite LTA. The main finding of our results gives novel insight into the mechanism of formation of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials based on the use of a soft interacting nanotemplate as well as stimulates the investigation of alternative protocols for the synthesis of novel hybrid materials with new characteristics and properties.

  1. What Are the Top 10 Research Questions in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease? A Priority Setting Partnership with the James Lind Alliance

    PubMed Central

    Lomer, Miranda; Verjee, Azmina; Kemp, Karen; Faiz, Omar; Daly, Ann; Solomon, Julie; McLaughlin, John

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Many uncertainties remain regarding optimal therapies and strategies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Setting research priorities addressing therapies requires a partnership between health care professionals, patients and organisations supporting patients. We aimed to use the structure of the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership, which has been used in other disease areas, to identify and prioritise unanswered questions about treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: The James Lind Priority Setting Partnership uses methods agreed and adopted in other disease areas to work with patients and clinicians: to identify uncertainties about treatments; to agree by consensus a prioritised list of uncertainties for research; then to translate these uncertainties into research questions which are amenable to hypothesis testing; and finally to take results to research commissioning bodies to be considered for funding. Results: A total of 1636 uncertainties were collected in the initial survey from 531 respondents, which included 22% health care professionals and 78% patients and carers. Using the rigorously applied processes of the priority setting partnership, this list was distilled down to the top 10 research priorities for inflammatory bowel disease. The top priorities were: identifying treatment strategies to optimise efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness; and stratifying patients with regard to their disease course and treatment response. Diet and symptom control [pain, incontinence and fatigue] were also topics which were prioritised. Conclusions: A partnership involving multidisciplinary clinicians, patients and organisations supporting patients has identified the top 10 research priorities in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27506537

  2. What Are the Top 10 Research Questions in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease? A Priority Setting Partnership with the James Lind Alliance.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ailsa L; Lomer, Miranda; Verjee, Azmina; Kemp, Karen; Faiz, Omar; Daly, Ann; Solomon, Julie; McLaughlin, John

    2017-02-01

    Many uncertainties remain regarding optimal therapies and strategies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Setting research priorities addressing therapies requires a partnership between health care professionals, patients and organisations supporting patients. We aimed to use the structure of the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership, which has been used in other disease areas, to identify and prioritise unanswered questions about treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. The James Lind Priority Setting Partnership uses methods agreed and adopted in other disease areas to work with patients and clinicians: to identify uncertainties about treatments; to agree by consensus a prioritised list of uncertainties for research; then to translate these uncertainties into research questions which are amenable to hypothesis testing; and finally to take results to research commissioning bodies to be considered for funding. A total of 1636 uncertainties were collected in the initial survey from 531 respondents, which included 22% health care professionals and 78% patients and carers. Using the rigorously applied processes of the priority setting partnership, this list was distilled down to the top 10 research priorities for inflammatory bowel disease. The top priorities were: identifying treatment strategies to optimise efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness; and stratifying patients with regard to their disease course and treatment response. Diet and symptom control [pain, incontinence and fatigue] were also topics which were prioritised. A partnership involving multidisciplinary clinicians, patients and organisations supporting patients has identified the top 10 research priorities in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation 2016.

  3. The influence of deformation on zircon and the effect on their isotope system: a case study from the polymetamorphic Lindås Nappe, SW-Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roffeis, Cornelia; Corfu, Fernando; Austrheim, Hâkon; Piazolo, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is considered to be chemically robust under the range of conditions present in the earth's crust. Nevertheless, element mobility in zircon can occur, most importantly Pb-loss related to alteration, leaching by fluids and recrystallization. A recent discussion concerns the role of crystal-plastic deformation and microstructures in zircons and their effect on zircon geochemistry. In this study we have investigated different gabbroic-anorthositic samples from the Lindås Nappe in the Bergen Arcs, an arcuate structure composed of Caledonian thrust sheets. Although the samples stem from the same nappe und should therefore reveal the same geological history, major differences within the isotope system and therefore the measured ages can be observed. This is due to the diverse imprints of various geological mechanisms on the zircons and their isotopic compositions. This consideration can be used to deduce the polymetamorphic history of the Lindås Nappe by choosing samples variously affected by the different events. Zircons from the dominating anorthosite in the nappe give the oldest age of around 970 Ma, regarded to date the intrusive event. They also clearly reveal the HT Sveconorwegian event at 930 Ma, whereas they are less affected by the younger Caledonian event. The metamorphic age of the HP Caledonian event (425 Ma) is constrained by recrystallized zircons in a fluid driven shear zone within the surrounding anorthosites. Within this 2 cm wide shear zone zircons are exceptionally abundant, and are remarkable in terms of size of up to half a mm, the small amount of U and evidence of internal deformation. Extensive Caledonian Pb loss is linked to this deformation. Recrystallization seems to have happened during the Caledonian event since the recrystallized, smaller grains, located mainly in the pressure shadow of the older ones, yield Caledonian ages. Fluid driven mineral reactions and related volume changes are regarded to be the trigger for deforming

  4. What are the dietary treatment research priorities for inflammatory bowel disease? A short report based on a priority setting partnership with the James Lind Alliance.

    PubMed

    Lomer, M C; Hart, A L; Verjee, A; Daly, A; Solomon, J; Mclaughlin, J

    2017-08-10

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a multidisciplinary approach comprising medical management and sometimes surgery. Although diet is central to IBD management, the optimal diet for patients with IBD is uncertain. A UK collaborative partnership within the James Lind Alliance was set up between patients, clinicians and other stakeholders to develop research priorities in IBD. The aim of this short report is to provide a comprehensive summary of the research priority findings relating to diet in the treatment of IBD. The James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership process was used to develop research priorities in IBD. In brief, patients, clinicians and other stakeholders were invited to provide up to five treatment uncertainties in IBD. These uncertainties were collated, revised and ranked, leading to a final top 10 research questions in IBD. A total of 1671 uncertainties from 531 participants were collected and refined to exclude duplicates leaving 1253 uncertainties. Of these, 348 were categorised as diet-related and grouped according to topic. There were 206 uncertainties related to how diet can be used to treat IBD or alleviate symptoms. Seventy-two percent of diet-related questions came from patients. One broadly diet-related and two diet-specific treatment uncertainties were included in the top 10 research priorities for IBD. Dietary treatment options in the management of IBD are important research priorities. Almost three-quarters of diet related questions came from patients, who were particularly interested in how diet can impact disease activity and symptom control. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Western USA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Western United States Beyond the Four Corners     View ... to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice, and life as a total integrated system. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  6. Mutation in Torenia fournieri Lind. UFO homolog confers loss of TfLFY interaction and results in a petal to sepal transformation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Aida, Ryutaro; Shikata, Masahito; Abe, Tomoko; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Zeolite Linde Type L as micro-solid phase extraction sorbent for the high performance liquid chromatography determination of ochratoxin A in coffee and cereal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien Ping; Saad, Bahruddin; Ng, Eng Poh; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2012-05-11

    Zeolite Linde Type L (LTL) crystals with different length, diameter and particle size (nanosized LTL, rod LTL, cylinder LTL and needle LTL) were synthesized, characterized and were used as sorbent in the micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) before the high performance liquid chromatography detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee and cereal were 0.09 ng g(-1) and 0.03 ng g(-1), respectively, while the quantification limits were 0.28 ng g(-1) and 0.08 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA of coffee and cereal spiked at 0.5, 10 and 25 ng g(-1) ranged from 91.7 to 101.0%. The proposed method was applied to forty-five samples of coffee and cereal. The presence of OTA was found in twenty-five samples, ranging from 0.28 to 9.33 ng g(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Western Samoa.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  9. Co-modification of class B genes TfDEF and TfGLO in Torenia fournieri Lind. alters both flower morphology and inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Aida, Ryutaro; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2014-10-01

    The class B genes DEFICIENS (DEF)/APETALA3 (AP3) and GLOBOSA (GLO)/PISTILLATA (PI), encoding MADS-box transcription factors, and their functions in petal and stamen development have been intensely studied in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum. However, the functions of class B genes in other plants, including ornamental species exhibiting floral morphology different from these model plants, have not received nearly as much attention. Here, we examine the cooperative functions of TfDEF and TfGLO on floral organ development in the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.). Torenia plants co-overexpressing TfDEF and TfGLO showed a morphological alteration of sepals to petaloid organs. Phenotypically, these petaloid sepals were nearly identical to petals but had no stamens or yellow patches like those of wild-type petals. Furthermore, the inflorescence architecture in the co-overexpressing torenias showed a characteristic change in which, unlike the wild-types, their flowers developed without peduncles. Evaluation of the petaloid sepals showed that these attained a petal-like nature in terms of floral organ phenotype, cell shape, pigment composition, and the expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. In contrast, torenias in which TfDEF and TfGLO were co-suppressed exhibited sepaloid petals in the second whorl. The sepaloid petals also attained a sepal-like nature, in the same way as the petaloid sepals. The results clearly demonstrate that TfDEF and TfGLO play important cooperative roles in petal development in torenia. Furthermore, the unique transgenic phenotypes produced create a valuable new way through which characteristics of petal development and inflorescence architecture can be investigated in torenia.

  10. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher; Simkiss, Doug; Busk, Mary; Morris, Maureen; Allard, Amanda; Denness, Jacob; Janssens, Astrid; Stimson, Anna; Coghill, Joanna; Robinson, Kelly; Fenton, Mark; Cowan, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To engage young people, parent carers and clinicians in a systematic process to identify and prioritise research questions regarding ways to improve the health and well-being of children and young people with neurodisability. Design British Academy of Childhood Disability (BACD)-James Lind Alliance research priority setting partnership bringing together patients, carers and clinicians as equal stakeholders. Setting UK health service and community. Methods The BACD Strategic Research Group formed the partnership. A Steering Group was established; charity and professional partner organisations were recruited. Suggestions were gathered in an open survey and from research recommendations for statutory guidance. Items were aggregated to formulate indicative research questions and verified as uncertainties from research evidence. An interim survey was used to rank the questions to shortlist topics. A mixed group of stakeholders discussed the top 25 questions at the final priority setting workshop agreeing a final rank order and the top 10 research priorities. Participants Partner organisations were 13 charities and 8 professional societies. 369 people submitted suggestions (40% non-clinicians). 76 people participated in the interim prioritisation (26 parents, 1 young person, 10 charity representatives, 39 clinicians); 22 took part in the final workshop (3 young people, 7 parents, 3 charity representatives, 9 professionals). Results The top three research priorities related to (1) establishing the optimal frequency and intensity (dose) for mainstream therapies, (2) means for selecting and encouraging use of communication strategies and (3) ways to improve children's attitudes towards disability. The top 10 included evaluating interventions to promote mobility, self-efficacy, mental health, continence, physical fitness, educational inclusion and reduce impacts of sleep disturbance. Conclusions The methodology provided a systematic and transparent process to

  11. Dementia priority setting partnership with the James Lind Alliance: using patient and public involvement and the evidence base to inform the research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sarah; Lafortune, Louise; Hart, Nicola; Cowan, Katherine; Fenton, Mark; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: the James Lind Alliance (JLA) created an approach to elicit the views of those under-represented in research priority exercises. Building on this, the JLA Dementia Priority Setting Partnership was set up as an independent and evidence-based project to identify and prioritise unanswered questions (‘uncertainties') about prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care relating to dementia. Methods: a survey was widely disseminated to stakeholders with an interest in the needs of the older population. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the large amount of questions collected from which research questions were developed using PICO framework (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome). Each question was checked against an extensive evidence base of high-quality systematic reviews to verify whether they were true uncertainties. Findings: one thousand five hundred and sixty-three questionnaires were received, from people with dementia, carers/relatives, and health and care professionals; 85 uncertainties were identified from other sources. Questions were refined and formatted iteratively into 146 unique uncertainties. An interim prioritisation process involving diverse organisations identified the top 25 ranked questions. At a final face-to-face prioritisation workshop, 18 people representing the above constituencies arrived by consensus at the top 10 priority questions. The impact of patient and public involvement on the priorities is discussed. Interpretation: the long (146 questions) and top 10 lists of dementia research priorities provide a focus for researchers, funders and commissioners. They highlight a need for more research into care for people with dementia and carers, and a need for high-quality effectiveness trials in all aspects of dementia research. PMID:26504119

  12. Priorities for research in miscarriage: a priority setting partnership between people affected by miscarriage and professionals following the James Lind Alliance methodology.

    PubMed

    Prior, Matthew; Bagness, Carmel; Brewin, Jane; Coomarasamy, Arri; Easthope, Lucy; Hepworth-Jones, Barbara; Hinshaw, Kim; O'Toole, Emily; Orford, Julie; Regan, Lesley; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Shakespeare, Judy; Small, Rachel; Thornton, Jim; Metcalf, Leanne

    2017-08-23

    To identify and prioritise important research questions for miscarriage. A priority setting partnership using prospective surveys and consensus meetings following methods advocated by the James Lind Alliance. UK. Women and those affected by miscarriage working alongside healthcare professionals. In the initial survey, 1093 participants (932 women who have experienced miscarriage, 8 partners, 17 family members, friends or colleagues, 104 healthcare professionals and eight charitable organisations) submitted 3279 questions. A review of existing literature identified a further 64. Non-questions were removed, and the remaining questions were categorised and summarised into 58 questions. In an interim electronic survey, 2122 respondents chose their top 10 priorities from the 58 summary questions. The 25 highest ranked in the survey were prioritised at a final face-to-face workshop. In summary, the top 10 priorities were ranked as follows: research into preventative treatment, emotional aspects in general, investigation, relevance of pre-existing medical conditions, emotional support as a treatment, importance of lifestyle factors, importance of genetic and chromosomal causes, preconception tests, investigation after different numbers of miscarriage and male causal factors. These results should be the focus of future miscarriage research. Presently, studies are being conducted to address the top priority; however, many other priorities, especially psychological and emotional support, are less well researched areas. We hope our results will encourage both researchers and funders to focus on these priorities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Dementia priority setting partnership with the James Lind Alliance: using patient and public involvement and the evidence base to inform the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah; Lafortune, Louise; Hart, Nicola; Cowan, Katherine; Fenton, Mark; Brayne, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The James Lind Alliance (JLA) created an approach to elicit the views of those under-represented in research priority exercises. Building on this, the JLA Dementia Priority Setting Partnership was set up as an independent and evidence-based project to identify and prioritise unanswered questions ('uncertainties') about prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care relating to dementia. A survey was widely disseminated to stakeholders with an interest in the needs of the older population. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the large amount of questions collected from which research questions were developed using PICO framework (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome). Each question was checked against an extensive evidence base of high-quality systematic reviews to verify whether they were true uncertainties. One thousand five hundred and sixty-three questionnaires were received, from people with dementia, carers/relatives, and health and care professionals; 85 uncertainties were identified from other sources. Questions were refined and formatted iteratively into 146 unique uncertainties. An interim prioritisation process involving diverse organisations identified the top 25 ranked questions. At a final face-to-face prioritisation workshop, 18 people representing the above constituencies arrived by consensus at the top 10 priority questions. The impact of patient and public involvement on the priorities is discussed. The long (146 questions) and top 10 lists of dementia research priorities provide a focus for researchers, funders and commissioners. They highlight a need for more research into care for people with dementia and carers, and a need for high-quality effectiveness trials in all aspects of dementia research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  14. Identifying research priorities in anaesthesia and perioperative care: final report of the joint National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia/James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership.

    PubMed

    Boney, Oliver; Bell, Madeline; Bell, Natalie; Conquest, Ann; Cumbers, Marion; Drake, Sharon; Galsworthy, Mike; Gath, Jacqui; Grocott, Michael P W; Harris, Emma; Howell, Simon; Ingold, Anthony; Nathanson, Michael H; Pinkney, Thomas; Metcalf, Leanne

    2015-12-16

    To identify research priorities for Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine. Prospective surveys and consensus meetings guided by an independent adviser. UK. 45 stakeholder organisations (25 professional, 20 patient/carer) affiliated as James Lind Alliance partners. First 'ideas-gathering' survey: Free text research ideas and suggestions. Second 'prioritisation' survey: Shortlist of 'summary' research questions (derived from the first survey) ranked by respondents in order of priority. Final 'top ten': Agreed by consensus at a final prioritisation workshop. First survey: 1420 suggestions received from 623 respondents (49% patients/public) were refined into a shortlist of 92 'summary' questions. Second survey: 1718 respondents each nominated up to 10 questions as research priorities. Top ten: The 25 highest-ranked questions advanced to the final workshop, where 23 stakeholders (13 professional, 10 patient/carer) agreed the 10 most important questions: ▸ What can we do to stop patients developing chronic pain after surgery? ▸ How can patient care around the time of emergency surgery be improved? ▸ What long-term harm may result from anaesthesia, particularly following repeated anaesthetics?▸ What outcomes should we use to measure the 'success' of anaesthesia and perioperative care? ▸ How can we improve recovery from surgery for elderly patients? ▸ For which patients does regional anaesthesia give better outcomes than general anaesthesia? ▸ What are the effects of anaesthesia on the developing brain? ▸ Do enhanced recovery programmes improve short and long-term outcomes? ▸ How can preoperative exercise or fitness training, including physiotherapy, improve outcomes after surgery? ▸ How can we improve communication between the teams looking after patients throughout their surgical journey? Almost 2000 stakeholders contributed their views regarding anaesthetic and perioperative research priorities. This is the largest example of patient and public

  15. Digital-simulation and projection of water-level declines in basalt aquifers of the Odessa-Lind area, east-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luzier, J.E.; Skrivan, James A.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program using finite-difference techniques simulates an intensively pumped, multilayered basalt-aquifer system near Odessa. The aquifers now developed are in the upper 1,000 feet of a regionally extensive series of southwesterly dipping basalt flows of the Columbia River Group. Most of the aquifers are confined. Those in the depth range of about 500 to 1,000 feet are the chief source of ground water pumped from irrigation wells. Transmissivity of these aquifers ranges from less than 2,700 feet squared per day to more than 40,000 feet squared per day, and storage coefficients range from 0.0015 to 0.006. Shallower aquifers are generally much less permeable, but they are a source of recharge to deeper aquifers with lower artesian heads; vertical leakage occurs along joints in the basalt and down uncased wells, which short circuit the aquifer system. For model analysis, the deeper, pumped aquifers were grouped and treated as a single layer with drawdown-dependent leakage from an overlying confining layer. Verification of the model was achieved primarily by closely matching observed pumpage-related head declines ranging from about 10 feet to more than 40 feet over the 4-year period from March 1967 to March 1971. Projected average annual rates of decline in the Odessa-Lind area during the 14-year period from March 1967 to March 1981 are: from 1 to 9 feet per year if pumpage is maintained at the 1970 rate of 117,000 acre-feet per year; or, from 3 to 33 feet per year if 1970 pumpage is increased to 233,000 acre-feet per year, which includes 116,000 acre-feet per year covered by water-right applications held in abeyance. In each case, projected drawdown on the northeast side of a major ground-water barrier is about double that on the southwest side because of differences in transmissivity and storage coefficient and in sources of recharge.

  16. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher; Simkiss, Doug; Busk, Mary; Morris, Maureen; Allard, Amanda; Denness, Jacob; Janssens, Astrid; Stimson, Anna; Coghill, Joanna; Robinson, Kelly; Fenton, Mark; Cowan, Katherine

    2015-01-28

    To engage young people, parent carers and clinicians in a systematic process to identify and prioritise research questions regarding ways to improve the health and well-being of children and young people with neurodisability. British Academy of Childhood Disability (BACD)-James Lind Alliance research priority setting partnership bringing together patients, carers and clinicians as equal stakeholders. UK health service and community. The BACD Strategic Research Group formed the partnership. A Steering Group was established; charity and professional partner organisations were recruited. Suggestions were gathered in an open survey and from research recommendations for statutory guidance. Items were aggregated to formulate indicative research questions and verified as uncertainties from research evidence. An interim survey was used to rank the questions to shortlist topics. A mixed group of stakeholders discussed the top 25 questions at the final priority setting workshop agreeing a final rank order and the top 10 research priorities. Partner organisations were 13 charities and 8 professional societies. 369 people submitted suggestions (40% non-clinicians). 76 people participated in the interim prioritisation (26 parents, 1 young person, 10 charity representatives, 39 clinicians); 22 took part in the final workshop (3 young people, 7 parents, 3 charity representatives, 9 professionals). The top three research priorities related to (1) establishing the optimal frequency and intensity (dose) for mainstream therapies, (2) means for selecting and encouraging use of communication strategies and (3) ways to improve children's attitudes towards disability. The top 10 included evaluating interventions to promote mobility, self-efficacy, mental health, continence, physical fitness, educational inclusion and reduce impacts of sleep disturbance. The methodology provided a systematic and transparent process to identify research priorities that included stakeholders that have

  17. Identifying research priorities in anaesthesia and perioperative care: final report of the joint National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia/James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Boney, Oliver; Bell, Madeline; Bell, Natalie; Conquest, Ann; Cumbers, Marion; Drake, Sharon; Galsworthy, Mike; Gath, Jacqui; Grocott, Michael P W; Harris, Emma; Howell, Simon; Ingold, Anthony; Nathanson, Michael H; Pinkney, Thomas; Metcalf, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify research priorities for Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine. Design Prospective surveys and consensus meetings guided by an independent adviser. Setting UK. Participants 45 stakeholder organisations (25 professional, 20 patient/carer) affiliated as James Lind Alliance partners. Outcomes First ‘ideas-gathering’ survey: Free text research ideas and suggestions. Second ‘prioritisation’ survey: Shortlist of ‘summary’ research questions (derived from the first survey) ranked by respondents in order of priority. Final ‘top ten’: Agreed by consensus at a final prioritisation workshop. Results First survey: 1420 suggestions received from 623 respondents (49% patients/public) were refined into a shortlist of 92 ‘summary’ questions. Second survey: 1718 respondents each nominated up to 10 questions as research priorities. Top ten: The 25 highest-ranked questions advanced to the final workshop, where 23 stakeholders (13 professional, 10 patient/carer) agreed the 10 most important questions: ▸ What can we do to stop patients developing chronic pain after surgery? ▸ How can patient care around the time of emergency surgery be improved? ▸ What long-term harm may result from anaesthesia, particularly following repeated anaesthetics? ▸ What outcomes should we use to measure the ‘success’ of anaesthesia and perioperative care? ▸ How can we improve recovery from surgery for elderly patients? ▸ For which patients does regional anaesthesia give better outcomes than general anaesthesia? ▸ What are the effects of anaesthesia on the developing brain? ▸ Do enhanced recovery programmes improve short and long-term outcomes? ▸ How can preoperative exercise or fitness training, including physiotherapy, improve outcomes after surgery? ▸ How can we improve communication between the teams looking after patients throughout their surgical journey? Conclusions Almost 2000 stakeholders contributed their views

  18. JPL scientist Dr. David Imel and U.S. Air Force Colonel Gwen Linde lead Chilean students on a tour of the DC-8 aircraft in Punta Arenas, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-17

    JPL scientist Dr. David Imel and U.S. Air Force Colonel Gwen Linde, the Defense Department Attache Officer assigned to the Chilean Embassy, lead Chilean students on a tour of the DC-8 aircraft at Carlos Ibanez del Campo International Airport in Punta Arenas, Chile. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) which is located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world including NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are combining ground research done in several areas in Central and South America with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. In South America and Antarctica, AirSAR will collect imagery and data to help determine the contribution of Southern Hemisphere glaciers to sea level rise due to climate change. In Patagonia, researchers found this contribution had more than doubled from 1995 to 2000, compared to the previous 25 years. AirSAR data will make it possible to determine whether that trend is decreasing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  19. Western Spruce Budworm

    Treesearch

    David G. Fellin; Jerald E. Dewey

    1982-01-01

    The western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, is the most widely distributed and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in Western North America. It is one of nearly a dozen Choristoneura species, subspecies, or forms, with a complexity of variation among populations found throughout much of the United States and Canada. It occurs in the Rocky...

  20. Violence the Western way.

    PubMed

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  1. Paula Fox's "Western Wind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes the novel, "Western Wind," by Paula Fox, lists 12 discussion questions, describes six activities, and contains an annotated bibliography of seven other novels related to birth, death, and families. (DGM)

  2. Teaching Western Literature to Non-Western Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.; Chun, Hye Won; Kim, Chung Ah

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which Western literature can be taught to Non-western students. This paper demonstrates that non-western values do not have to be overcome but rather Western values can be highlighted and reinforced to deal with literary complexity. Values and ideals such as freedom, self-identity, religion, feminism, and equality are…

  3. Western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  4. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  5. Western coal marketing days

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, H.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.

  6. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  7. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by NASA's Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00120

  8. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  9. Origins of Western Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    Traces Western conservationism from it roots in colonial exploitation during the mideighteenth century when scientists employed by trading companies voiced concern over large-scale ecological changes. Indicates that our contemporary understanding of the threat to the global environment is a reassertion of ideas that reached maturity over a century…

  10. Western Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In December 2008, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and in partnership with the Data Quality Campaign, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) hosted a meeting of the West's key leaders in building state-wide integrated longitudinal data systems. Such data systems are essential to developing a better…

  11. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  12. Western Europe's America Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  13. Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-19

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey covers a region in western Arabia Terra, which contains two interesting craters. The eastern floor of the largest crater seen in most of this image is bumpy and ridged in places and relatively smooth in regions.

  14. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  15. Western Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Clarence J. Jr. DeMars; Bruce H. Roettgering

    1982-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, can aggressively attack and kill ponderosa and Coulter pine trees of all ages and vigor classes that are 6 inches (15 cm) or larger in diameter, including apparently healthy trees. Group killing of trees is common in dense, overstocked stands of pure, even-aged, young sawtimber (fig. 1), but also occurs among...

  16. The western blot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  17. Western USA groundwater drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  18. Lewis inverse design code (LINDES): Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1987-01-01

    The method of complex characteristics and hodograph transformation for the design of shockless airfoils was introduced by Bauer, Garabedian, and Korn and has been extended by the author to design subcritical and supercritical cascades with high solidities and large inlet angles. This new capability was achieved by introducing a new conformal mapping of the hodograph domain onto an ellipse and expanding the solution in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. A new computer code, the NASA Lewis inverse design code, was developed based on this idea. This new design code is an efficient method for the design of airfoils in cascade. In particular, the design of subcritical cascades of airfoils is a very fast, robust, and versatile process. The inverse design code can be made to interact with a turbulent boundary layer calculation to obtain airfoils with no separated flows at the design condition. This report is intended to serve as a users manual for this design code. Material previously reported by the author is included here for completeness and quick access to the user. The manual contains a description of the method followed by a discussion of the design procedure and examples. The input parameters necessary to run the code are then described and their default values given. Output listings corresponding to six different blade shapes designed with the code are given, as well as the necessary input data to reproduce the computer runs. The examples have been chosen to show that a wide range of applications can be covered with the code, ranging from supercritical propeller sections to wind tunnel turning vanes that can operate with a large inlet flow angle range.

  19. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  20. The Western Blot.

    PubMed

    Hnasko, Thomas S; Hnasko, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibody-antigen interaction and is useful for the qualitative or semiquantitative identification of specific proteins and their molecular weight from a complex mixture. This chapter will outline the requisite steps including gel electrophoresis of a protein sample, transfer of protein from a gel to a membrane support, and immunodetection of a target antigen.

  1. Western habitats - Session summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Determining the status of all habitats in the nine western states considered in this symposium is a difficult task. The authors of habitat status papers commented that the diversity of habitat classification systems limited their ability to relate habitat status to raptors. Differences of scale, objectives and survey design have hindered integration of habitat classification methods used by land managers with the habitat relationships understood by wildlife biologists, but examples now exist for successful integration of these methods. We suggest that land managers and wildlife biologists use common survey and classification schemes so that data can be combined and that results will be applicable over broader areas.

  2. Beyond a western bioethics?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura A

    2004-03-01

    Like theology and ethics generally, bioethics has increasingly developed a global consciousness. Controversies over AIDS research and access to affordable AIDS treatment have generated new awareness about the importance of international collaboration as well as the difficulty of achieving moral consensus across economic, political, and cultural divides. Advances in scientific and medical knowledge through initiatives such as the Human Genome Project invite new questions about the nature of health care as a common good. This budding global consciousness serves as a starting point for examining contemporary challenges to the secular, principle-based Western bioethics that has dominated national and international debate for three decades.

  3. Western Blot Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  4. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  5. Otomycosis in western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fasunla, James; Ibekwe, Titus; Onakoya, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Otomycosis is a recognized clinical entity in the tropical regions of the world. However, there is scanty information on this disease in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of etiological agents of otomycosis in western Nigeria. Medical records of patients with otomycosis seen in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from 1996-2005 were reviewed for all essential clinical data. Of the 5784 patients with ear diseases, 378 (6.54%) had otomycosis which consisted of 145 (38.36%) males and 233 (61.64%) females. Seventeen patients (4.50%) had recurrence within six months of treatment, 4 (1.06%) had poorly controlled plasma glucose. A significant number of our patients, 52 (13.76%), had prior topical aural antibiotic treatment following misdiagnosis. The predominant etiological agents in our series were Aspergillus niger (48.35%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (33.96%).

  6. Western boundary currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Nelson G.; Johns, William E.

    1995-07-01

    The past decade has seen considerable progress toward clarifying the mean circulation of the World's oceans. At the same time we have come to realize that the specification of a mean circulation is difficult as there is energy at all time scales which are quantifiable and the spectrum is usually red. The western boundary currents (WBCs) of the oceans are the principal conduits for communication between the equatorial regions, where heat is added to the oceans and the polar regions where it is removed. Understanding how these current systems work is fundamental to understanding the earth's global climate engine. Several substantial observational programs focussed on WBCs have been undertaken in recent years especially within the North and South Atlantic. These include studies of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence and the South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment (SAVE) within the South Atlantic, the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment (WESTRAX) in the tropics, and the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study (STACS) and Synoptic Ocean Prediction experiment (SYNOP) in the subtropics. We shall concentrate in this review with a summary of the results from these programs but will also briefly cover new findings from other parts of the globe. Efforts connected with programs of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment in the Pacific and the South Atlantic (particularly the Deep Basin Experiment) are still underway and can be expected to make substantial contributions to the knowledge of WBCs in the future. The nature of this review also compells us to emphasize recent U.S. research but we will incorporate results from the international community, as well, especially in regions of the globe where the U.S. has done little. The reader may also wish to consult recent reviews by Ierley [1990] and Huang [1991], which discuss many issues relevant to WBCs in subtropical gyres.

  7. How does western spruce budworm feeding affect western larch?

    Treesearch

    David G. Fellin; Wyman C. Schmidt

    1973-01-01

    This pictorial describes how western spruce budworm larvae feed on young western larch and the trees' responses to this damage. Larvae feed not only on the current year's foliage-their usual diet on most coniferous hosts-but also sever stems of current year's shoots. Multiple-topped, bushlike trees develop in direct response to the amount and type of...

  8. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  9. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  10. Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  11. A Western Pacific Hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

    2003-04-01

    The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea (Johnson et al., 1978; Macpherson et al., 1998). The past influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles ocean island basalts and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The lithosphere lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene was subsequently subducted. During the Oligo-Miocene the hotspot was traversed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, buoyancy

  12. A Western Pacific Hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

    2002-12-01

    The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea [1,2]. The possible influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific [3,4]. During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures in the mantle. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles melts usually found at ocean islands and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The plates lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene were subsequently subducted, but plate reconstruction suggests that during the Oligo-Miocene it was crossed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively. Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, the difference in buoyancy between the IBM

  13. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  14. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  15. Eddies along western boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Wilton Zumpichiatti

    The Ulleung eddy owes its existence to beta and nonlinearities . A nonlinear theory for the Ulleung Warm Eddy (UWE) in the Japan/East Sea is proposed. Using the nonlinear reduced gravity (shallow water) equations, it is shown analytically and numerically that the eddy is established in order to balance the northward momentum flux exerted by the separating western boundary current (WBC). In this scenario the presence of beta produces a southward (eddy) force balancing the northward momentum flux of the separating East Korea Warm Current. In contrast to the familiar idea attributing the formation of eddies to instabilities (i.e., the breakdown of a known steady solution), the UWE is an integral part of the steady stable solution. On an f-plane no eddy is produced. To balance the northward momentum force imparted by the nonlinear WBC the f-plane system moves offshore producing a southward Coriolis force. We also found that the observed UWE scale agrees with the analytical and numerical estimates. The Mindanao and Halmahera eddies are due to the bending of their parent currents, nonlinearities and beta. Starting with the simple case of a northward (southward) WBC flowing along a concave solid boundary with a sharp corner on an beta-plane, it is shown that an anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddy is established to balance the upstream momentum flux. (On an f-plane no eddy is established because a pressure force which balances the WBC momentum flux is generated.) With the aid of the above analysis we then examine the collision of two opposing WBCs on a beta-plane. It is shown that this problem can be conceptually reduced to the above problem of two WBCs turning in a solid corner on a beta-plane where the streamline separating the two colliding currents acts like a "zonal wall." We show that an eddy is established (to balance the momentum flux of the respective WBC) on each side of the dividing streamline. Based on the collision problem, an explanation for the Mindanao and

  16. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  17. Moon - Western Near Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  18. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  19. Is Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  20. Western Disturbances: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  1. Western hemlock lumber recovery at a western Washington sawmill.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1957-01-01

    During April 1956, a study was made at a western Washington sawmill to determine lumber grades that my be expected from old-growth western hemlock timber. Lumber cut at this mill is not seasoned and most of it is sold surfaced-green. It is the practice at this plant to use the band headrig for producing side-cut lumber and to send the large cants—the full...

  2. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  3. 2007 Western States Fire Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    A general overview of the Ikhana Uninhabited Air System (UAS) is presented. The contents include: 1) Ikhana UAS; 2) Ikhana UAS / Ground Control Station (GCS); 3) Ikhana UAS / Antennas; 4) Western States Fire Mission 2007 Partners; 5) FAA Certificate of Authorization (COA); 6) Western States Fire Missions (WSFM) 2007; 7) WSFM 1-4 2007; 8) California Wildfire Emergency Response 2007; 9) WSFM 5-8 Emergency Response 2007; 10) WSFM Achievements; and 11) WSFM Challenges.

  4. Single-cell western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Spelke, Dawn P.; Xu, Zhuchen; Kang, Chi-Chih; Schaffer, David V.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    To measure cell-to-cell variation in protein-mediated functions — a hallmark of biological processes — we developed an approach to conduct ~103 concurrent single-cell western blots (scWesterns) in ~4 hours. A microscope slide supporting a 30 µm-thick photoactive polyacrylamide gel enables western blotting comprised of: settling of single cells into microwells, lysis in situ, gel electrophoresis, photoinitiated blotting to immobilize proteins, and antibody probing. We apply this scWestern to monitor single rat neural stem cell differentiation and responses to mitogen stimulation. The scWestern quantifies target proteins even with off-target antibody binding, multiplexes to 11 protein targets per single cell with detection thresholds of <30,000 molecules, and supports analyses of low starting cell numbers (~200) when integrated with fluorescence activated cell sorting. The scWestern thus overcomes limitations in single-cell protein analysis (i.e., antibody fidelity, sensitivity, and starting cell number) and constitutes a versatile tool for the study of complex cell populations at single-cell resolution. PMID:24880876

  5. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  6. Takahashi Yoshitoki and Western astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi

    2005-05-01

    When we discuss the achievements of Takahashi Yoshitoki (1764-1804), we must pay attention to the two "Western" astronomical treatises, for they contributed a great deal to the advancement of his astronomical knowledge. They are a sequel to the Li-xiang Kao-cheng, a Sino-Western work by a German Jesuit I. Koegler, et al. and the Dutch version of J. J. de Lalande's Astronomie. Both books introduced the latest astronomical knowledge from the West. This paper traces Yoshitoki's life and achievements, focusing on his encounter with these two works.

  7. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  8. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  9. Skywatch: The Western Weather Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Richard A.

    The western United States is a region of mountains and valleys with the world's largest ocean next door. Its weather is unique. This book discusses how water, wind, and environmental conditions combine to create the climatic conditions of the region. Included are sections describing: fronts; cyclones; precipitation; storms; tornadoes; hurricanes;…

  10. Smoke exposure at western wildfires.

    Treesearch

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    2000-01-01

    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not...

  11. Manual for Teaching Western Riding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Elizabeth

    This manual for teaching western riding is divided into two parts. Part one is composed of discussions of general aspects of riding instruction. Included are discussions of the basic goals of riding, characteristics of a basic position, styles of holding reins, standing position, and elementary control. Part two is composed of 20 suggested lesson…

  12. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  13. Race Relations in Western Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Melvin L.

    This report is derived from a community forum held in Scottsbluff (Nebraska) on April 28-29, 1993, by the Nebraska Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Views on race relations in selected areas of western Nebraska were expressed by concerned citizens; community leaders; government officials (federal, state, and…

  14. Reconciling Indigenous and Western Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Neil

    Being able to consider the full range of social and economic issues from different cultural perspectives while maintaining respect and an open mind is a difficult task. The similarities between the latest thinking of Western cosmology and theoretical physics and Indigenous understandings of the bush and its components are striking and provide a…

  15. Skywatch: The Western Weather Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Richard A.

    The western United States is a region of mountains and valleys with the world's largest ocean next door. Its weather is unique. This book discusses how water, wind, and environmental conditions combine to create the climatic conditions of the region. Included are sections describing: fronts; cyclones; precipitation; storms; tornadoes; hurricanes;…

  16. Remaking Education in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

  17. Taper tables for western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    Floyd A. Johnson; Wilbur. Engstrom

    1949-01-01

    In 1947 the West Coast Forestry procedures Committee recommended several mensuration projects, one of which called for the construction of taper tables for Western hemlock. In response the present tables were prepared. Basic data for these tables consist of measurements of 912 trees taken a number of years ago by members of the Pacific Northwest Forest & Range...

  18. Nursery Diseases of Western Conifers

    Treesearch

    Jerry W. Riffle; Richard S. Jr. Smith

    1979-01-01

    Forest tree nurseries in the Western United States, the region immediately west of the Great Plains, currently produce over 250 million trees per year. Recent Federal legislation requires the Forest Service to increase its efforts in reforestation of nonstocked forest land, and some States now require owners of forest land to provide for reforestation immediately...

  19. Remaking Education in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

  20. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…

  1. NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

  2. Forest statistics of western Kentucky

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1950-01-01

    This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area and timber volume for the western region of Kentucky. Similar reports for the remainder of the state will be published as soon as statistical tabulations are completed. Later, an analytical report for the state will be published which will interpret forest area, timber volume,...

  3. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  4. Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.

    2003-04-01

    The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

  5. Western redcedar lumber recovery from a western Washington sawmill.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1957-01-01

    During the summer of 1956 a lumber-recovery study was made at E. C. Miller Lumber Company in Aberdeen, Wash. to determine the grades of lumber that can be expected from western redcedar logs. This sawmill is equipped with a 24-foot carriage, a 10-foot band headrig, a band pony headrig, and an edger. All of the upper grades of lumber are seasoned and then sent to the...

  6. Traditional non-Western diets.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    In traditional cultures, balancing health with a balanced lifestyle was a core belief. The diseases of modern civilization were rare. Indigenous people have patterns of illness very different from Western civilization; yet, they rapidly develop diseases once exposed to Western foods and lifestyles. Food and medicine were interwoven. All cultures used special or functional foods to prevent disease. Food could be used at different times either as food or medicine. Foods, cultivation, and cooking methods maximized community health and well-being. With methods passed down through generations, cooking processes were utilized that enhanced mineral and nutrient bioavailability. This article focuses on what researchers observed about the food traditions of indigenous people, their disease patterns, the use of specific foods, and the environmental factors that affect people who still eat traditional foods.

  7. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  8. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  9. The western Veil nebula (Image)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenny, M.

    2009-12-01

    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  10. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  11. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  12. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  13. Violent Storm Strikes Western Europe

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Image acquired February 27, 2010: An extratropical cyclone named Xynthia brought hurricane-force winds and high waves to Western Europe at the end of February 2010, CNN reported. Winds as fast as 200 kilometers (125 miles) per hour reached as far inland as Paris, and at the storm’s peak, hurricane-force winds extended from Portugal to the Netherlands. Hundreds of people had to take refuge from rising waters on their rooftops. By March 1, at least 58 people had died, some of them struck by falling trees. Most of the deaths occurred in France, but the storm also caused casualties in England, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this image of Western Europe, acquired in two separate overpasses on February 27, 2010. MODIS captured the eastern half of the image around 10:50 UTC, and the western half about 12:30 UTC. Forming a giant comma shape, clouds stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to northern Italy. NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS For more information related to this image go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=42881

  14. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  15. The seismicity of western Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Abrraseys, N.N.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an evaluation of the seismicity of western Scandinavia. Intensities, with reference to the MSK scale, have been assessed for the larger earthquakes, in most cases from primary sources, and isoseismal maps have been constructed for the most important events, while for smaller shocks one or more isoseismal radii were estimated. In all, over 3,200 earthquakes have been retrieved for Northwest Europe, including about 300 artificial events such as chemical explosions, rock-bursts and mine explosions. Of these, 500 events occurred in western Scandinavia. Surface-wave magnitudes were reassessed for 205 events, using surface-wave amplitude-period data, and all earthquakes recorded by more than 6 stations were relocated for the period prior to 1955. A calibration formula, obtained from the combination of macroseismic and instrumental data of the 20th century, has been used to assign magnitudes to all events for which there is macroseismic information available, thus deriving a homogeneous body of data covering a period of 180 years. It is shown that the largest earthquake in the region since 1800 occurred on land and that it had magnitude in excess of 6.0. This is contrary to the current belief, based on short-term data, that the larger events in western Fennoscandia occur offshore in the continental shelf areas.

  16. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    PubMed

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  17. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey...

  18. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey...

  19. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey...

  20. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey...

  1. Annosus Root disease of Western Conifers (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Craig L. Schmitt; John R. Parmeter; John T. Kliejunas

    2000-01-01

    Annosus root disease is found on all western conifer species but is of most concern on true firs, hemlocks, and pines. Incense cedar, coast redwood and sequoia are sometimes infected in California. Western juniper is infected throughout its range. Annosus is common and causes extensive decay in old-growth western and mountain hemlock stands. Many mixed conifer stands...

  2. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section 125.06 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter...

  3. Forests of western Oregon: an overview.

    Treesearch

    Sally Campbell; Dave Azuma; Dale. Weyermann

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides highlights of forest inventories and surveys from 1993 to 2000. It presents both traditional and nontraditional information about western Oregon’s forests.The amount of forest land in western Oregon has changed little since the earliest inventory in 1930. About 80 percent of western Oregon is forested. Fifty tree species were tallied in forest...

  4. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1957.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1957-01-01

    Severity of 1957 fire weather west of the Cascade Range summit in Oregon and Washington was near the average of the previous 10 years. The season (April 1 through October 31) was slightly more severe than 1956 in western Oregon and about the same as 1956 in western Washington. Spring fire weather was near average severity in both western Washington and western Oregon....

  5. Mapping the western pond turtle (Actinemys marmorata) and painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) in western North America

    Treesearch

    Kimberly L. Barela; Deanna H. Olson

    2014-01-01

    We georeferenced Western Pond Turtle (Actinemys marmorata) and Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta) locality records in western North America, compiling diverse institutional data sets, including data from 9 US states and Canadian provinces. For the entire range of the Western Pond Turtle and the western range of the Painted Turtle...

  6. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  7. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean.

    The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean.

    The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Peritoneal Dialysis in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Struijk, Dirk G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and similar results in patient survival between PD and HD, the penetration of PD is decreasing in the Western world. Summary First the major events in the history of the development of PD are described. Then important insights into the physiology of peritoneal transport are discussed and linked to the changes in time observed in biopsies of the peritoneal membrane. Furthermore, the developments in peritoneal access, more biocompatible dialysate solutions, automated PD at home, the establishment of parameters for dialysis adequacy and strategies to prevent infectious complications are mentioned. Finally non-medical issues responsible for the declining penetration in the Western world are analyzed. Key Messages Only after introduction of the concept of continuous ambulatory PD by Moncrief and Popovich has this treatment evolved in time to a renal replacement therapy. Of all structures present in the peritoneal membrane, the capillary endothelium offers the rate-limiting hindrance for solute and water transport for the diffusive and convective transport of solutes and osmosis. The functional and anatomical changes in the peritoneal membrane in time can be monitored by the peritoneal equilibrium test. Peritonitis incidence decreased by introduction of the Y-set and prophylaxis using mupirocin on the exit site. The decrease in the proportion of patients treated with PD in the Western world can be explained by non-medical issues such as inadequate predialysis patient education, physician experience and training, ease of HD initiation, overcapacity of in-center HD, lack of adequate infrastructure for PD treatment, costs and reimbursement issues of the treatment. Facts from

  10. Lunar western limb pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that the lunar pyroclastic volcanism played an important role in the formation and resurfacing of many areas of the Moon. On-going analysis of lunar Orbiter and Apollo photographs continues to locate and identify pyroclastic deposits and suggests that they just may be more ubiquitous than once thought. Located near mare/highland boundaries, many of these deposits formed contemporaneously with effusive mare volcanism. The mantling deposits formed as products of fire-fountaining. Probable source vents for these deposits include irregular depressions at the head of associated sinuous rilles and/or along irregular fractures in the floors of ancient craters. Here, researchers provide a brief synopsis of the nature of the dark mantling deposits and briefly discuss several newly identified deposits on the western limb.

  11. Nodding Syndrome, Western Uganda, 1994

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George

    2015-01-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case–control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Western grebe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1984-01-01

    The western grebe (Aechmophorus occi denta 1is) "breeds from southeastern Alaska, south-central British Columbia, central Alberta, central Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba south to southern Californi a, north-central Utah, southwestern Colorado, southwest~rn and northeastern New Mexico, western Nebraska, northwestern Iowa, and western Minnesota; and locally in Mexico from Chihuahua and Durango south to northern Guerrero, Puebla and San Luis Potosi" (American Ornithologists' Union 1983:10).

  13. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  14. Lessons learned in handling western coals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilks, D.M.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes specific design features and improvements incorporated into the coal handling facility for Roy Tolk Station, a power plant utilizing western coal. Traditionally, western electric generation has been through the use of natural gas as a boiler fuel. Some utilities have selected western coal as an alternative due to high costs and the need to conserve natural gas. Special design considerations are necessary to cope with the friability and propensity for spontaneous combustion found in western coal. As a result of hands-on experience such as the Tolk Station, practices can be developed to reduce dusting, minimize routine clean-up, optimize system design and conserve washdown water.

  15. Western Australian food security project

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality

  16. Western Australian Food Security Project.

    PubMed

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-08-23

    The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality, healthy foods at reasonable cost (food

  17. Endemic goiter in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E

    1983-01-01

    Goiter continues to occur in some areas of western Colombia despite iodine supplementation for 30 years. In 1973-1977, an average goiter prevalence of 15% (range 1-42%) still persisted among schoolchildren of 41 localities. Significant relationships were found between goiter prevalence and both the geological composition of watersheds and bacterial contamination of water supplies. Together, these associations account for 80% of the observed variation in goiter prevalence. The presence of sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (coals, shales, etc.) was the best indicator of disease. The second best indicator, presence of K. pneumoniae in the water source, was associated with lower goiter prevalence but, as in other investigations, contamination of the pipeline system (households and schools) with gram-negative bacteria was associated with higher disease rates. Thus, epidemiological evidence indicates a cause-effect relationship between sources of drinking water and the persistence and development of goiter in this part of the world. Furthermore, identification of resorcinol, phthalate esters, and sulfur-bearing organic compounds, possibly aliphatic disulfides, in the water supplying the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia adds experimental support to this hypothesis. Resorcinol is derived from coal and humic substances, high molecular weight complex polymeric organic compounds present in sedimentary rocks, soils and water. Resorcinol is goitrogenic in man and experimental animals. Phthalate esters, also related to humic materials, undergo biodegradation by gram-negative bacteria with production of intermediate metabolites possessing antithyroid activity. Like phthalates and resorcinol, organic disulfides have also been identified as water contaminants in other parts of the world, and are known to be potent antithyroid compounds. The goitrogenic effect of organic and bacterial pollutants in water supplies is more pronounced in segments of

  18. Calculating moisture content for 1000-hour timelag fuels in western Washington and western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg

    1985-01-01

    A predictive model is presented to calculate moisture content of 1000-hour timelag fuels in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) logging slash in western Washington and western Oregon. The model is a modification of the 1000-hour fuel moisture model of the...

  19. Forest fire weather and computed fire occurrence in western Oregon and western Washington in 1960.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1960-01-01

    Fire season severity in 1960 was about average in western Washington but was very high in western Oregon. Severity of the entire season in both States was slightly greater than in 1959. Although spring was less severe, both summer and fall were slightly more severe than comparable parts of the previous fire season. Spring fire danger in western Washington was as low as...

  20. Occurrences of the western skink (Eumeces skiltonianus) in grasslands of western Montana

    Treesearch

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson

    2001-01-01

    The western skink (Eumeces skiltonianus) was recently classified as a Montana Species of Special Concern due to its restricted range in the state (D. P. Hendricks, Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT, pers. comm.). Records of the western skink in Montana are limited to a few, scattered locations on the western edge of the state (Tanner 1988; Reichel...

  1. Western boundary currents and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, Richard; Simpson, Isla R.

    2016-09-01

    A recent paper in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans connects recent changes in atmospheric circulation to poleward movement and intensification of western boundary currents. Causes and characteristics of past and future trends in surface wind stress and western boundary currents are discussed here.

  2. Western Undergraduate Exchange: Enrollment Report, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Western Undergraduate Exchange (WUE) is a regional tuition-reciprocity agreement that enables students from WICHE (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) states to enroll in participating two- and four-year public institutions at 150 percent of the enrolling institution's resident tuition. WUE has been operating for more than 20…

  3. Western medical schools--a breed apart.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, D C

    1989-01-01

    The 16 medical schools in the 13 western states are distinctive from their counterparts nationally in several ways: they are relatively young, enroll a small number of medical students, and tend to be strongly research oriented. The rise of these institutions since Abraham Flexner's visit to all of the western schools in 1909 reflects a truly remarkable development. PMID:2741461

  4. Basic Western Lviv Region Conversational Ukrainian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first complete Guide for studying the Western-Ukrainian Dialect and its scientific description of Phonology. Methodology: descriptive, contrastive and analytical methods of defining the peculiarities of the Dialect. Results: the regularities and the laws have been defined as to the specifics of the Western-Ukrainian Dialect…

  5. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainer, Deborah L., Ed.; Kramer, Gene A., Ed.; Smith, Richard M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 12 of the Mid-Western Educational Researcher contains four issues. The first issue includes kick-off, keynote, luncheon, and presidential addresses from the annual meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association (MWERA), held in Chicago, Illinois, in October 1998. Issue 3 is the program for MWERA's annual meeting in Chicago,…

  6. Western Geography and the Third World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Terence G.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the content and meaning of interaction between Western geography and the Third World and concludes that the relationship has moved from Western domination to Third World challenge. Recommends that the basis of future geography of the Third World be founded on concern and understanding. (Author/DB)

  7. Second-growth western white pine stands

    Treesearch

    Richard F. Watt

    1960-01-01

    The western white pine type is the most valuable timber cover type of the Inland Empire. The large volumes per acre, greater than those found in any associated type, and the high value of the type species, western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), combine to give stumpage returns that greatly exceed those of other regional types, lagging in the mountainous country...

  8. Liberty in African and Western Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudimbe, V. Y.

    The theoretical African mode of thinking about liberty seems to stand in contrast to the view of liberty that has dominated Western philosophy. Western philosophy accepts as its starting point the notion of an unconstrained and uncontextualized "I" that is defined in relation to the self and its inner being. Greek, Cartesian, and…

  9. Medusahead management guide for the western states

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead is an exotic annual grass that is invading rangelands in the western United States. Its invasion decreases livestock forage production, degrades wildlife habitat, and reduces biodiversity. This is a comprehensive guide for management of medusahead in the western United States. This gui...

  10. Liberty in African and Western Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudimbe, V. Y.

    The theoretical African mode of thinking about liberty seems to stand in contrast to the view of liberty that has dominated Western philosophy. Western philosophy accepts as its starting point the notion of an unconstrained and uncontextualized "I" that is defined in relation to the self and its inner being. Greek, Cartesian, and…

  11. Ancient Israel in Western Civ Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah…

  12. Crossing the western pines at Placerville, California

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield; S. L. Krugman

    1967-01-01

    The results of hybridizing the western pine species by the Institute of Forest Genetics are described and discussed. It has been found that the hard, (yellow) pines can generally be crossed successfully only with similar species native to the same part of the world. In contrast, the soft (white) pines of the Western Hemisphere have been crossed successfully with soft...

  13. Management strategies for sustainable western water

    Treesearch

    Scott Tyler; Sudeep Chandra; Gordon Grant

    2017-01-01

    With the effects of the dramatic western US drought still reverberating through the landscape, researchers gathered in advance of the 20th annual Lake Tahoe Summit to discuss western US water issues in the 21st century. This two-day workshop brought together ~40 researchers from universities and agencies (federal and state) to discuss the prospects that...

  14. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  15. Cankers on Western Quaking Aspen (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    David W. Johnson; Jerome S. Beatty; Thomas E. Hinds

    1995-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is one of the most well-known tree species in the western United States (figure 1). It is found from the northern limit of trees in northwestern Alaska through the western United States and into northern Mexico. Quaking aspen is an aggressive pioneer species that frequently colonizes burned sites, making it an important...

  16. Lepidoptera associated with western spruce budworm: introduction

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Stevens; V. M. Carolin; George P. Markin

    1984-01-01

    Field workers doing surveys, control operations, and research on western spruce bud worm often encounter other kinds of foliage-feeding larvae, some of which closely resemble western spruce bud worm , Workers must be able to distinguish between the different species and groups.

  17. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John

    2011-08-16

    The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  18. Internal Waves, Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-12-01

    STS044-79-077 (24 Nov.-1 Dec. 1991) --- This photograph, captured from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis, shows sunglint pattern in the western tropical Indian Ocean. Several large internal waves reflect around a shallow area on the sea floor. NASA scientists studying the STS-44 photography believe the shallow area to be a sediment (a submerged mountain) on top of the Mascarene Plateau, located northeast of Madagascar at approximately 5.6 degrees south latitude and 55.7 degrees east longitude. Internal waves are similar to surface ocean waves, except that they travel inside the water column along the boundary between water layers of different density. At the surface, their passage is marked on the sea surface by bands of smooth and rough water. These bands appear in the sunglint pattern as areas of brighter or darker water. NASA scientists point out that, when the waves encounter an obstacle, such as a near-surface seamount, they bend or refract around the obstacle in the same manner as surface waves bend around an island or headland.

  19. Western rangelands: overgrazed and undermanaged

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, D.

    1981-05-01

    Overgrazing and poor management of the western arid lands causes desertification as the levels of water tables and surface waters drop, top soil and surface waters become more saline, soil erodes, and native vegetation disappears. This process had led to severe desertification in an estimated 1.1 million square miles and very severe desertification on 10,500 square miles in the US. The three areas in the very severe category occur in the Navajo Indian reservation in Arizona and New Mexico and on either side of El Paso, Texas. All were subjected to overgrazing. Government policies have only recently tried to bring public land grazing in line with the land's carrying capacity by focusing on long-term productivity. The Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 authorizes better management and multiple use of public lands, but the Bureau of Land Management has not established an effective monitoring system to ensure its implementation or to overcome political constraints against reducing livestock. Ranchers disagree with the assessments made by scientists and support vegetation modification instead of grazing allotments. 58 references, 7 figures. (DCK)

  20. Schistosoma bovis in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A

    2004-09-01

    During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.

  1. Kazakhstan's potential provides Western opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, R. )

    1993-01-01

    While crude oil production continues to drop in the Russian Federation at a rate of 15% to 20% per year, Kazakhstan's output rose from 440,000 bopd in 1991 to 446,000 bopd, as of November 1992. Much of this increase was exported to the Russian Federation to supplement the latter's declining production. while Kazakhstan received needed Russian goods in exchange for this oil, it isn't getting the hard currency that will be required to upgrade its petroleum industry. This is a serious problem for Kazakh officials, since they are counting on revenues from petroleum exports to invigorate their overall plan for economic growth in this newly independent country. In order to convert Kazakhstan's hydrocarbon potential into economic reality, two critical issues must be addressed immediately. First, Kazakhstan must develop a tax and minerals law that gives multinational petroleum companies an incentive to invest in opening a dedicated crude oil export route through Russia, and at least one alternate export route to the Caspian Sea or Persian Gulf. At present, even the most successful petroleum venture inside Kazakhstan would have to weave its way through the Russian bureaucracy to utilize that existing and inadequate export pipeline system. This quandary, of course, has recently become the undoing of several Western petroleum operations that have managed to actually produce exportable oil inside the Russian Federation itself, but they can't get it out. In addition, three other variables should be considered by any party that is evaluating Kazakhstan as a future area (see map for current fields) of interest for petroleum operations. These are political stability, field operating conditions, and the country's natural gas crisis. Each of these factors, though not as critical as the legal regime and export access, can radically affect how an operator might approach negotiating the terms of its particular project.

  2. Coastal dynamics in western Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown

  3. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  4. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  5. Western blot: technique, theory, and trouble shooting.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tahrin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-01

    Western blotting is an important technique used in cell and molecular biology. By using a western blot, researchers are able to identify specific proteins from a complex mixture of proteins extracted from cells. The technique uses three elements to accomplish this task: (1) separation by size, (2) transfer to a solid support, and (3) marking target protein using a proper primary and secondary antibody to visualize. This paper will attempt to explain the technique and theory behind western blot, and offer some ways to troubleshoot.

  6. Western water and climate change.

    PubMed

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries

  7. Sea ice off western Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On February 4, 2014 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a true-color image of sea ice off of western Alaska. In this true-color image, the snow and ice covered land appears bright white while the floating sea ice appears a duller grayish-white. Snow over the land is drier, and reflects more light back to the instrument, accounting for the very bright color. Ice overlying oceans contains more water, and increasing water decreases reflectivity of ice, resulting in duller colors. Thinner ice is also duller. The ocean waters are tinted with green, likely due to a combination of sediment and phytoplankton. Alaska lies to the east in this image, and Russia to the west. The Bering Strait, covered with ice, lies between to two. South of the Bering Strait, the waters are known as the Bering Sea. To the north lies the Chukchi Sea. The bright white island south of the Bering Strait is St. Lawrence Island. Home to just over 1200 people, the windswept island belongs to the United States, but sits closer to Russia than to Alaska. To the southeast of the island a dark area, loosely covered with floating sea ice, marks a persistent polynya – an area of open water surrounded by more frozen sea ice. Due to the prevailing winds, which blow the sea ice away from the coast in this location, the area rarely completely freezes. The ice-covered areas in this image, as well as the Beaufort Sea, to the north, are critical areas for the survival of the ringed seal, a threatened species. The seals use the sea ice, including ice caves, to rear their young, and use the free-floating sea ice for molting, raising the young and breeding. In December 2014, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) proposed that much of this region be set aside as critical, protected habitat for the ringed seal. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  8. Western redcedar—a forest resource in transition.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1979-01-01

    Available information on inventory, growth, price, and consumption trends for western redcedar in Western United States is compiled. The future of western redcedar as a product resource and component of the forest is discussed.

  9. Red alder harvesting opportunities in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney

    1990-01-01

    This report presents statistics on the present distribution and ownership of merchantable stands of red alder in western Oregon and the character of these stands as they affect harvesting opportunities.

  10. Competitive interstate taxation of western coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

  11. Day Pass through Western United States

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video over the Western United States was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Sept. 24, 2011, from 17:45:14 to 17:54:1...

  12. WESTERN ECOLOGY DIVISION - GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for flyer - general information The Western Ecology Division (WED), part of EPAs National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, provides information to EPA offices and regions nationwide to improve understanding of how human activities affect estuarine,...

  13. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  14. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-06

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from data acquired between April 2000 and September 2001 from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA Terra spacecraft.

  15. Opportunities for silvicultural treatment in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean

    1980-01-01

    A recent Forest Survey inventory of western Oregon has been analyzed to determine the extent of physical opportunities to increase wood production through silvicultural treatment. Results are presented by owner group and by geographic unit.

  16. Community Involvement Plan Presentation in Western Agency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 will host a Community Involvement Plan presentation in the Western Agency chapter to discuss EPA’s outreach plans with community members in uranium impacted areas and answer questions about mine cleanup progress.

  17. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    NASA Terra spacecraft acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004.

  18. Communications Policy Making in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homet, Roland S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the fragmentation, political control, and paternalism involved in communications policy making in Western Europe. These characteristics are evident in broadcasting, the postal service, telecommunications, and the press. (JMF)

  19. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  20. Hurricanes could increase over western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-06-01

    Damaging hurricanes are familiar along the North American East Coast but are relatively rare in western Europe. That could change as Earth's climate warms over the next century, according to a new study. Western European coastal areas do occasionally experience hurricane force storms in the current climate, but these occur mainly in winter and are formed not as tropical cyclones but by the midlatitude atmospheric baroclinic instability, which is driven by the north-south atmospheric temperature gradient.

  1. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  2. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  3. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1956.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1956-01-01

    The 1956 fire season will be remembered for the record number of lightning storms in nearly all parts of the area. In other respects, fire-weather severity was slightly below the average of the previous ten years. In western Oregon, fire weather over the entire season (April through October) was slightly less severe than in 1955, while in western Washington it was...

  4. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying western hemlock in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the degrade (loss in volume and value) of western hemlock lumber cut, kiln-dried, and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice in western Oregon. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming surfaced dry lumber because of sawing, seasoning, and surfacing defects; (2) reduction in grade...

  5. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Treesearch

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  6. A spatial model of land use change for western Oregon and western Washington.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

    2001-01-01

    We developed an empirical model describing the probability that forests and farmland in western Oregon and western Washington were developed for residential, commercial, or industrial uses during a 30-year period, as a function of spatial socioeconomic variables, ownership, and geographic and physical land characteristics. The empirical model is based on a conceptual...

  7. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of western prairie clover collections from the western USA

    Treesearch

    Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Douglas A. Johnson; John G. Carman

    2010-01-01

    Few North American legumes are available for rangeland revegetation in the semiarid western United States. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata [Douglas ex Hook.] Eaton & J. Wright) is a perennial legume with desirable forage characteristics and is distributed in the northern Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plateau. Understanding the...

  8. Predicting duff consumption from prescribed burns on conifer clearcuts in western Oregon and western Washington.

    Treesearch

    Susan N. Little; Roger D. Ottmar; Janet L. Ohmann

    1986-01-01

    Duff consumption by fire was studied on 15 cable-yarded clearcut units in western Oregon and western Washington. Equations are presented that predict duff consumption (in depth reduction and weight loss) from loading, consumption, and moisture of large fuels, and days since significant precipitation. When more than 25 days elapsed since 1.3 cm rainfall, the effect of...

  9. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of western prairie clover collections from the western USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few North American legumes are available for rangeland revegetation in the semi-arid western USA. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata [Douglas] Eaton & Wright) is a perennial legume with desirable characteristics and is distributed in the Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plate...

  10. Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)

  11. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja plicata...

  12. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja plicata...

  13. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja plicata...

  14. 2012 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  15. Sexual maturity in western Atlantic bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Heinisch, Gilad; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Knapp, Jessica M.; Gordin, Hillel; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel endocrine approach for assessing the unresolved matter of the timing of sexual maturation in western Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), a highly migratory population whose status remains uncertain. Ratios of follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone, a sexual maturity indicator, in all ABFT ≥134 cm curved fork length (CFL) were <0.4, similar to Mediterranean spawners, indicating that western ABFT mature at considerably smaller sizes and at a much younger age than currently assumed (≥185 cm CFL). PMID:25431301

  16. Tectonic evolution of the Western Australian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Geological and geochronological studies in the Western Australian Shield were updated. This terrane bears many similarities to the Indian Shield since they were neighboring parts of Gondwanaland. Western Australia consists of two cratons (Pilbara and Yilgarn) and four orogenic belts (Capricorn, Pingarra, Albany-Fraser, and Patterson), as well as some relatively young (1.6 to 0.75 Ga) sedimentary rocks. The two cratonic blocks are both older than about 2.5 Ga, and the orogenic belts range in age from 2.0 to 0.65 Ga.

  17. NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posada, Herman A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the objectives of the 2007 Western States Fire Mission (WSFM), which included demonstrating capabilities of the Ikhana unmanned aerial system (UAS) to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout the Western United States, demonstrating long-endurance (20+ hours) mission capabilities, and delivering real-time imagery within 10 minutes of acquisition. Additionally, the operations concept, operational zones, and landing sites are highlighted. Provisions of the certificate of authorization are also addressed. Imagery obtained from the WSFM are included.

  18. Bioethical concerns are global, bioethics is Western

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and suggest that global bioethics will succeed only to the extent that it is local. PMID:19593391

  19. Geological history of the western North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, A.G.; Heezen, B.C.; Boyce, R.E.; Bukry, D.; Douglas, R.G.; Garrison, R.E.; Kling, S.A.; Krasheninnikov, V.; Lisitzin, A.P.; Pimm, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    A considerable portion of the abyssal floor of the western North Pacific was already receiving pelagic sediment in late Jurassic time. Carbonate sediments were later replaced by abyssal clays as the basin deepened and bottom waters became more aggressive. The resulting facies boundary, which can be recognized on seismic profiles, is broadly transgressive; it ranges in age from mid-Cretaceous in the western Pacific to Oligocene in the central Pacific. Cherts are encountered at and below the major facies boundary and appear to have been formed by postdepositional processes.

  20. Beyond Western Civilization: Rebuilding the Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, William H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Seven college professors give personal views about why courses in Western civilization and national history are declining in popularity. Because students seem to be oriented toward the present and away from foreign affairs, history courses must be relevant to students' lives in order to be of interest. (AV)

  1. Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

  2. Economic management of western white pine forests

    Treesearch

    Kenneth P. Davis

    1942-01-01

    For over a third of a century exploitation of the western white pine forests of northern Idaho has been based upon the harvesting of virgin timber. In recent years, however, with the end of this ready-made crop definitely in sight, interest in the growing of new timber crops has been increasing. Particularly within the last decade, large public investments, including...

  3. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock"…

  4. Studies in western yellow pine nursery practice

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Brewster; J. A. Larsen

    1925-01-01

    In 1912 and 1913, when nursery experiments were started under direction of the then "Priest River'' Forest Experiment Station, at Priest River, Idaho, and elsewhere, western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) was one of the principal species being planted on a large scale in the northern Rocky Mountain region and millions of plants were being raised each year...

  5. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  6. Stumpage market integration in western national forests

    Treesearch

    Jean M. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of statistical tests for stumpage market integration on 62 national forests in the Western United States. Quarterly stumpage prices from 1984 to 2007 obtained from cut and sold reports for USDA Forest Service Regions 1, 4, 5, and 6 (Northern, Intermountain, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest, respectively) were analyzed to establish...

  7. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia

    2016-11-09

    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  8. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock"…

  9. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  10. Medical humanities as expressive of Western culture.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Claire; Noonan, Estelle

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we articulate a growing awareness within the field of the ways in which medical humanities could be deemed expressive of Western cultural values. The authors suggest that medical humanities is culturally limited by a pedagogical and scholarly emphasis on Western cultural artefacts, as well as a tendency to enact an uncritical reliance upon foundational concepts (such as 'patient' and 'experience') within Western medicine. Both these tendencies within the field, we suggest, are underpinned by a humanistic emphasis on appreciative or receptive encounters with 'difference' among patients that may unwittingly contribute to the marginalisation of some patients and healthcare workers. While cultural difference should be acknowledged as a central preoccupation of medical humanities, we argue that the discipline must continue to expand its scholarly and critical engagements with processes of Othering in biomedicine. We suggest that such improvements are necessary in order to reflect the cultural diversification of medical humanities students, and the geographical expansion of the discipline within non-Western and/or non-Anglophone locations.

  11. Timber resource statistics for western Oregon, 1997.

    Treesearch

    David L. Azuma; Larry F. Bednar; Bruce A. Hiserote; Charles F. Veneklase

    2004-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for western Oregon, which includes Benton, Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Hood River, Jackson, Josephine, Lane, Lincoln, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled all...

  12. Indicators of cull in western Oregon conifers.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho

    1982-01-01

    Descriptions and color photographs of important fungal sporophores (conks), other indicators of cull (wounds), and associated decays in western Oregon conifers are provided to aid timber markers, cruisers, and scalers in identifying them. Cull factors are given for the indicators by tree species.

  13. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  14. Western Literature: A Window on America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Paul T.

    This paper describes an elective literature course that examines the cultural and historical context of Western United States literary works for insights into the whole of United States culture. From a definition of the "West" that has both geographical and mythical dimensions, the following major images emerge for study: Eden, El…

  15. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  16. Capitalism in Six Westerns by John Ford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…

  17. Ionospheric observations in Western-Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, F.J.; Soicher, H.

    1990-05-03

    Hourly digital ionograms were taken at two Western European locations: Dourbes, Belgium (50.10 N, 4.60 E) and, Roquetas, Tarragona, Spain (40.80 N, 0.30 E) during Winter through Summer of 1988. Ionospheric parameters were tabulated and compared at the two stations, which were separated by 01000 km, using correlative techniques.

  18. Western European Art Foundations and Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lindsay M.; Clement, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    Western European art foundations create invaluable opportunities for research and exhibition by artists, curators, and scholars. These activities are often documented and disseminated via high-quality publications. This article highlights an important but under-recognized collecting resource for academic and museum libraries by profiling several…

  19. Eastern and Western Approaches to Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tsuei, Julia J.

    1978-01-01

    An objective comparison of Eastern and Western approaches to medicine is necessary to further evaluate the validity of Oriental medical techniques such as acupuncture. The development of medicine in Western nations follows the way of hypothetical deduction and the Eastern approach uses the inductive method. The Western approach clearly divides the health from the disease, yet the Eastern approach considers health as a balanced state versus disease as an unbalanced state. The Western approach tends to change the environment and the Eastern way is to prefer to adapt to the environment. There are numerous difficulties in comparing these two approaches. The same terminology may apply to entirely different facts, the teaching and learning methods are quite different, and the evaluation of the treatment is almost not comparable. In order to help understand the Eastern approach better, an understanding is needed of the basic Chinese concepts: the concept of a small universe living in a large universe; the duality concept of yin and yang; the concept of anatomy; the concept of physiology in Chinese medicine—the state of equilibrium expressed by the five elements; the concept of pathophysiology expressed by the external and internal insults; the concept of maintaining and promoting health expressed by the circulation of chi and hsieh; the therapeutic concept in Chinese medicine—the normalization or reestablishment of balance of the body function; the concept of preventive medicine. PMID:664653

  20. Wintertime in the Western U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utah's Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. For an interesting contrast, compare this MODIS image to the MISR mosaic image of the Western United States during the summer (See Western United States Beyond the Four Corners). To access this image at a resolution of 500 meters per pixel, click on the image above. To access a full-resolution image at 250 meters per pixel, visit the MODIS Rapidfire Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. A Westerner's Thoughts on the Referendum Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the results of the October 26, 1992, national referendum on the Canadian constitution. Describes the impact of the results on the provinces of western Canada. Concludes that a new national election should be called to resolve further the constitutional issues. (CFR)

  2. Bumble bees of the western United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bumble bees (genus Bombus) are critical pollinators of flowering plants. Thirty species of bumble bees are native to the western United States and this publication is a guide to the natural history and identification of these species. We present phenology graphs, host-plant associations, detailed ...

  3. Are western juniper seeds dispersed through diplochory?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed dispersal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) appears to be convergent on a strategy utilized by fruit-bearing trees in that this conifer produces fleshy female cones (a.k.a., juniper “berries”) that are consumed by frugivorous birds, which then disperse the seeds through endozoochory b...

  4. Western Michigan University Libraries' "Electronic Journal Finder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedeon, Randle; Boston, George

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of the "Electronic Journal Finder," a TDNet installation for the University Libraries of Western Michigan University. Topics covered include: rationale for subscription project timeline, content, product customization, set-up, maintenance issues, reporting functions, directing URL links, searching…

  5. The hardwood resource in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John H. Poppino; Donald R. Gedney

    1984-01-01

    The hardwood resource in western Oregon is described by species and ownership. Changes in the private hardwood resource between 1961-62 and 1973-76 are shown. Statistics of size, volume, and ownership by county are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh).

  6. Western redcedar—a literature review.

    Treesearch

    Don. Minore

    1983-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive compilation of information on western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn) - its occurrence and abundance; associated plant species; morphology and anatomy; products; medical aspects; diseases; insect, bird, and mammal. pests; genetics; horticulture; physiology; ecology; mensuration; and silviculture. Management...

  7. Western European Art Foundations and Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lindsay M.; Clement, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    Western European art foundations create invaluable opportunities for research and exhibition by artists, curators, and scholars. These activities are often documented and disseminated via high-quality publications. This article highlights an important but under-recognized collecting resource for academic and museum libraries by profiling several…

  8. Genotype x shade effects for western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson; C. Cartwright

    2005-01-01

    Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) families were grown under different levels of shade for 2 or 3 years at two nursery sites to determine whether families performed differently relative to one another in the different shade environments. Differences were found both for levels of shade and families, but no family x shade interaction...

  9. Western hemlock as a veneer resource.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey; Jr. Woodfin

    1982-01-01

    Presents recovery of veneer grade and volume from western hemlock from Oregon and Washington. Veneer grade recovery varied by grade and size of logs. Veneer volume recovered was about 45 percent of the cubic volume of the log and varied somewhat with log diameter.

  10. Prosody and Intonation of Western Cham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueki, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the prosodic and intonational characteristics of Western Cham (three letter code for International Organization for Standardization's ISO 639-3 code: [iso=cja]), an Austronesian language in the Chamic sub-group. I examine acoustic variables of prominence at word and postlexical levels: syllable duration, pitch…

  11. Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

  12. Western Michigan University Libraries' "Electronic Journal Finder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedeon, Randle; Boston, George

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of the "Electronic Journal Finder," a TDNet installation for the University Libraries of Western Michigan University. Topics covered include: rationale for subscription project timeline, content, product customization, set-up, maintenance issues, reporting functions, directing URL links, searching…

  13. Western Influences on Chinese Educational Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Weihua

    2007-01-01

    China has one of the oldest educational testing systems in the world, yet its modern form was influenced by various western educational modes borrowed during the twentieth century. This essay reviews the history of the Chinese traditional educational testing system: its origin, features, and its past impact on Chinese people's lives as well as on…

  14. Prosody and Intonation of Western Cham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueki, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the prosodic and intonational characteristics of Western Cham (three letter code for International Organization for Standardization's ISO 639-3 code: [iso=cja]), an Austronesian language in the Chamic sub-group. I examine acoustic variables of prominence at word and postlexical levels: syllable duration, pitch…

  15. Migrant Farmworkers in Western New York, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ruth C.; And Others

    To provide current demographic and needs assessment information for public and private agencies serving migrants, a survey was conducted among farmers and the migrant workers they employed. Of 228 migrant labor camps in western and central New York, 57 were selected for study by a stratified random sampling procedure which assured adequate…

  16. Pole blight of western white pine

    Treesearch

    Charles D. Leaphart; Otis L. Copeland; Donald P. Graham

    1957-01-01

    Pole blight is one of the most serious diseases of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) and is restricted to that species. The disease is given this name because it affects pole-size trees primarily, usually those within the 40- to 100-year age class, although trees both younger and older are occasionally affected.

  17. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Treesearch

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  18. Chip Debarking of Several Western Species

    Treesearch

    William A. Hillstrom

    1974-01-01

    Discusses processing and conditioning treatments before and aftger compression debarking of western hemlock, Douglas fir, red alder, and bigleaf maple. Bark removal and wood recovery from red alder far exceeded the other species tested. Approximately 90 percent of the wood fiber input was recovered at a residual bark content of less than 2 percent by weight.

  19. Capitalism in Six Westerns by John Ford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…

  20. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  1. When science became Western: historiographical reflections.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa

    2010-03-01

    While thinking about the notion of the "global" in the history of the history of science, this essay examines a related but equally basic concept: the idea of "Western science." Tracing its rise in the nineteenth century, it shows how it developed as much outside the Western world as within it. Ironically, while the idea itself was crucial for the disciplinary formation of the history of science, the global history behind this story has not been much attended to. Drawing on examples from nineteenth-century Egypt and China, the essay begins by looking at how international vectors of knowledge production (viz., missionaries and technocrats) created new global histories of science through the construction of novel genealogies and through a process of conceptual syncretism. Turning next to the work of early professional historians of science, it shows how Arabic and Chinese knowledge traditions were similarly reinterpreted in light of the modern sciences, now viewed as part of a diachronic and universalist teleology ending in "Western science." It concludes by arguing that examining the global emergence of the idea of Western science in this way highlights key questions pertaining to the relation of the history of science to knowledge traditions across the world and the continuing search for global histories of science.

  2. Dust climatology of the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Changery, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Beginning and ending times of dust-caused visibility values were extracted from original records for approximately 180 stations in the western US for the general period of record 1948 to 1977. Maps are presented depicting the annual total number of hours with visibility below specified values, annual number of dust episodes, dust episode durations, season of occurrence, and probability of thunderstorm-inducement.

  3. Distinguishing Glyceria Species of Western North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are seven North American and three introduced European Glyceria species growing in western North America, yet distinguihsing among the species is challenging. As contaminants in annual ryegrass grass seed lots, the introduced species G. declinata and G. fluitans are undesirable domestically, ...

  4. Height growth in western white pine progenies

    Treesearch

    G. E. Rehfeldt; R. J. Steinhoff

    1970-01-01

    Heights of 31 progenies of western white pines from four geographic localities and four crosses between localities were assessed on 14-year-old trees at two sites. Differences in height among individual progenies were detected but could not be related to localities or crosses between localities. Although differential effects of sites on tree height became apparent...

  5. Western Undergraduate Exchange: Enrollment Report, Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Western Undergraduate Exchange (WUE) is a regional tuition-reciprocity agreement that enables students from WICHE states to enroll in participating two- and four-year public institutions at 150 percent of the enrolling institution's resident tuition. WUE has been operating for almost 25 years and is the largest program of its kind in the…

  6. Western Undergraduate Exchange: Enrollment Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Western Undergraduate Exchange (WUE) is a regional tuition-reciprocity agreement that enables students from WICHE states to enroll in participating two- and four-year public institutions at 150 percent of the enrolling institution's resident tuition. WUE was created in 1987 and is now the largest program of its kind in the nation. Since the…

  7. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  8. Exchange between Andean and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Bastien, J W

    1982-01-01

    Western medicine has not been functionally incorporated into Andean economic, cultural, and social systems. Evaluation studies show that even though accessibility to Western medicine has increased considerably for rural Andeans, they still rely on traditional medicine. Western medicine has not been able to articulate with Andean ethnomedicine because of different structural relations within each system. Western medicine assumes a mechanistic ideology, chemical-based cures and technology which function efficiently within an urban-industrial framework; whereas Andean medicine assumes a synchronistic ideology, natural-based cures and personal skills which function efficiently within a mountainous rural area with structural components of verticality, specialization and reciprocity. Verticality implies that Andeans specialize in extracting resources from a limited number of zones and then exchange their resources for those produced by people on other zones. Andean ethnomedicine follows principles of verticality in that certain communities specialize in various aspects of Andean medicines, according to the resources available to that community. These medical practitioners travel to other communities providing their services in exchange for services or goods. The author illustrates this from his research among the Qollahuaya Andeans. The community of Kaata specializes in curing by divination and ritual. These diviners are important for community health of Andeans. The communities of Curva and Chajaya specialize in herbal curing: these herbalists are important for treating physical causes. However, the diviners and herbalists complement each other in providing for the total health of Andeans. The final section deals with concrete suggestions of how certain features of Western medicine can functionally fit Andean economic and social structure.

  9. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  10. How Western Does Business: An Explanation of Western's Products and Services

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.

  11. Western Blotting Inaccuracies with Unverified Antibodies: Need for a Western Blotting Minimal Reporting Standard (WBMRS)

    PubMed Central

    Gilda, Jennifer E.; Ghosh, Rajeshwary; Cheah, Jenice X.; West, Toni M.; Bodine, Sue C.; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is a commonly used technique in biological research. A major problem with Western blotting is not the method itself, but the use of poor quality antibodies as well as the use of different experimental conditions that affect the linearity and sensitivity of the Western blot. Investigation of some conditions that are commonly used and often modified in Western blotting, as well as some commercial antibodies, showed that published articles often fail to report critical parameters needed to reproduce the results. These parameters include the amount of protein loaded, the blocking solution and conditions used, the amount of primary and secondary antibodies used, the antibody incubation solutions, the detection method and the quantification method utilized. In the present study, comparison of ubiquitinated proteins in rat heart and liver samples showed different results depending on the antibody utilized. Validation of five commercial ubiquitin antibodies using purified ubiquitinated proteins, ubiquitin chains and free ubiquitin showed that these antibodies differ in their ability to detect free ubiquitin or ubiquitinated proteins. Investigating proteins modified with interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in young and old rat hearts using six commercially available antibodies showed that most antibodies gave different semi-quantitative results, suggesting large variability among antibodies. Evidence showing the importance of the Western blot buffer and the concentration of antibody used is presented. Hence there is a critical need for comprehensive reporting of experimental conditions to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of Western blot analysis. A Western blotting minimal reporting standard (WBMRS) is suggested to improve the reproducibility of Western blot analysis. PMID:26287535

  12. Western Blotting Inaccuracies with Unverified Antibodies: Need for a Western Blotting Minimal Reporting Standard (WBMRS).

    PubMed

    Gilda, Jennifer E; Ghosh, Rajeshwary; Cheah, Jenice X; West, Toni M; Bodine, Sue C; Gomes, Aldrin V

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is a commonly used technique in biological research. A major problem with Western blotting is not the method itself, but the use of poor quality antibodies as well as the use of different experimental conditions that affect the linearity and sensitivity of the Western blot. Investigation of some conditions that are commonly used and often modified in Western blotting, as well as some commercial antibodies, showed that published articles often fail to report critical parameters needed to reproduce the results. These parameters include the amount of protein loaded, the blocking solution and conditions used, the amount of primary and secondary antibodies used, the antibody incubation solutions, the detection method and the quantification method utilized. In the present study, comparison of ubiquitinated proteins in rat heart and liver samples showed different results depending on the antibody utilized. Validation of five commercial ubiquitin antibodies using purified ubiquitinated proteins, ubiquitin chains and free ubiquitin showed that these antibodies differ in their ability to detect free ubiquitin or ubiquitinated proteins. Investigating proteins modified with interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in young and old rat hearts using six commercially available antibodies showed that most antibodies gave different semi-quantitative results, suggesting large variability among antibodies. Evidence showing the importance of the Western blot buffer and the concentration of antibody used is presented. Hence there is a critical need for comprehensive reporting of experimental conditions to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of Western blot analysis. A Western blotting minimal reporting standard (WBMRS) is suggested to improve the reproducibility of Western blot analysis.

  13. The neotectonics of western Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, Juan-Carlos

    1998-12-01

    Puerto Rico is located in a tectonic environment associated with the oblique subduction of a buoyant marine ridge, the Bahama Bank. A reconstruction of the tectonic history of Puerto Rico shows that the effects of this oblique subduction have been complex. In the Eocene to the Middle Oligocene, compression created a suture zone between island blocks and strike-slip faults were also developed in the island. The Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene was a period of quiescence. After this period, from the Late Miocene to the Pliocene, the passage of the Bahama Bank underneath the Puerto Rico microplate induced the island to rotate. It is suggested that during this time, from the Miocene through the Pliocene, Puerto Rico and eastern and central Hispaniola were part of the same microplate. Rotation of this microplate around a single rotation pole, located in the Caribbean Plate south of western Puerto Rico, generated the opening of the Anegada Passage together with a zone of extension in southern Puerto Rico, the formation of the Muertos Trough, and a zone of compression in central Hispaniola. Recent GPS vectors show that Puerto Rico and Hispaniola are now moving apart at about 9 mm/yr. This separation has created a extensional seismotectonic regime, affecting the eastern portion of Hispaniola, the Mona Passage and western Puerto Rico, within a boundary zone between the North American and Caribbean Plates. The zone of extension between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola can be explained by the recent attachment of Puerto Rico to the Caribbean Plate, which is moving to the east at about 23 mm/yr. Thus, the former Puerto Rico microplate has partitioned into two smaller microplates; the new Puerto Rico microplate (Puerto Rico) and the El Seibo microplate (eastern Hispaniola). Their separation has resulted from the release of the Puerto Rico microplate by the Bahama Bank and the recent locking of Hispaniola by this buoyant feature. Paleoseismic information on tsunami deposits and

  14. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Geographic Research in the USGS Western Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tongue, Mara

    2007-01-01

    The two geography research programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Land Remote Sensing and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, have very strong relevance to the USGS mission and science strategy. In the western United States, the particular niche of these geography programs is in connecting USGS science to people and communities. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and other organizations invariably encourage the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to ensure the quality of its science while finding ways to make it more relevant to important societal issues. Much of the geography research conducted in the USGS Western Region does exactly that. In Menlo Park, California, the geography research team is focused on developing tools and techniques to help people assess risk from natural hazards and environmental impacts. In Flagstaff and Tucson, Arizona, geography scientists explore new ways to use remote sensing to help communities deal with environmental issues.

  16. Eghindi among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gabriele; Waldstein, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced radical sociocultural changes, which are reflected in changing explanatory models of eghindi. Older and conservative refugees, attached to traditional Sahrawi culture, have expanded its conceptualization to include new pathogenic factors, while younger and progressive refugees, acculturated with Western culture, began challenging its existence. Eghindi became embodied within a broader process of negotiation of Sahrawi cultural identity. Our findings provide a framework for thinking about the evolution of illness in response to displacement, and highlight that when explanatory models evolve, intracultural tensions can arise within a population.

  17. Probabilistic Seismic Risk Model for Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stejskal, Vladimir; Lorenzo, Francisco; Pousse, Guillaume; Radovanovic, Slavica; Pekevski, Lazo; Dojcinovski, Dragi; Lokin, Petar; Petronijevic, Mira; Sipka, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    A probabilistic seismic risk model for insurance and reinsurance purposes is presented for an area of Western Balkans, covering former Yugoslavia and Albania. This territory experienced many severe earthquakes during past centuries producing significant damage to many population centres in the region. The highest hazard is related to external Dinarides, namely to the collision zone of the Adriatic plate. The model is based on a unified catalogue for the region and a seismic source model consisting of more than 30 zones covering all the three main structural units - Southern Alps, Dinarides and the south-western margin of the Pannonian Basin. A probabilistic methodology using Monte Carlo simulation was applied to generate the hazard component of the model. Unique set of damage functions based on both loss experience and engineering assessments is used to convert the modelled ground motion severity into the monetary loss.

  18. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Musk, A W; Shean, R; Walker, N; Swanson, M

    1994-02-05

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those < 20 years versus 76.8% in those ≥ 70 years (p < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in rural areas (76.9%) than in urban regions (55.3%) (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Western Romania.

  20. Energy options and strategies for Western europe.

    PubMed

    Häfele, W; Sassin, W

    1978-04-14

    Western Europe, now largely dependent on oil imports, has to prepare for strong competition for oil and energy imports in general before the year 2000. The more unlikely it is for Western Europe to secure from outside rich supplies of coal or uranium at readily acceptable economic and political conditions, the more serious this competition becomes. Even exceptionally low projections of economic growth and optimistic assumptions about energy conservation urgently call for vigorous and simultaneous development of indigenous coal and nuclear sources, including the breeder. Long-term contracts for the possession and deployment of foreign oil, gas, and coal deposits are mandatory and should be negotiated in view of the possible aggravation of north-south confrontation.

  1. Clown doctors: shaman healers of Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Blerkom, L M

    1995-12-01

    The Big Apple Circus Clown Care Unit, which entertains children in New York City hospitals, is compared with non-Western healers, especially shamans. There is not only superficial resemblance--weird costumes, music, sleight of hand, puppet/spirit helpers, and ventriloquism--but also similarity in the meanings and functions of their performances. Both clown and shaman violate natural and cultural rules in their performances. Both help patient and family deal with illness. Both use suggestion and manipulation of medical symbols in attempting to alleviate their patients' distress. Just as traditional ethnomedical systems have been integrated with Western medicine in other societies, clown doctors can provide complementary therapy that may enhance the efficacy of medical treatment in developed nations, particularly for children.

  2. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A. W.; Shean, R.; Walker, N.; Swanson, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking. Images p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8124149

  3. Western economies and the Gulf war

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, H.S.

    1980-12-01

    A prolonged Iran/Iraq war could mean economic and even political-military disaster for western countries dependent on Persian Gulf oil. The percentage of gross national product loss that the US, western Europe, and Japan would suffer is estimated for three levels of interruption and illustrates how global effects can be felt even when direct imports are not involved. Although the US has few options for projecting power into the Gulf region, a long-run expansion of military capability is essential. The economic damage of continued disruptions can be eased by using more coal, nuclear power, and natural gas even if it means removing some environmental and economic barriers. A combination of financial incentives and additions to the strategic oil and gas storage would help, but important change will come from a reappraisal of our military position. (DCK)

  4. Old And New Problems of Western Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    understanding of the extent to which demand for OPEC oil during recent months has been depressed by withdrawals from high inventories accumula:.cd during 1979...access to Persian Gulf oil concluded that it was probably hopeless and counterproductive to attempt to involve NATO formally in defending Western... Abramson Natl Institute for Public Policy ATTN: J. Naar ATTN: C. Gray 04M SY Corporation % ORI, Inc ATTN: S. Weiss ATTN: R. Wiles ATTN: B. Buc System

  5. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.

  6. Western Screech-Owl (Megascops kennicottii)

    Treesearch

    Frederick R. Gehlbach; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Western Screech-Owl (Megascops kennicottii) is a permanent resident and the largest of New Mexico's eight small owls. At an average 116 g (4.1 oz), it is 1.3 times more massive than the Whiskered Screech-Owl (M. trichopsis) but similar to the Eastern Screech-Owl (M. asio), the state's other two small owls with dark-streaked, white-flecked gray plumage...

  7. Sunglint in South Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-24

    AST-19-1555 (24 July 1975) --- A sunglint in the South Western Pacific Ocean, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. The island is Bougainville of the Solomon Islands group. The horizon of Earth is in the background. The picture was taken at an altitude of 231 kilometers (143 statute miles), with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film.

  8. Overview: Western Regional applications Program (WRAP) status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Interactions with all 14 of the states in the Western Region over the past three years are reviewed from NASA's perspective. Outreach and training programs using the M mobile analysis and training extension van, the University Program, classes at the Ames Center, demonstration tests with state agencies, and surveying the needs of local governments are highlighted. Planned activities, the continuance of ASVT's, and the impact of the budget cuts on NASA'S technology program are also considered.

  9. Lectin-probed western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Lectin-probed western blot analysis, the so-called lectin blot analysis, is a useful method to yield basic information on the glycan structures of glycoproteins, based on the carbohydrate-binding specificities of lectins. By lectin blot analysis, researchers can directly analyze the glycan structures without releasing the glycans from glycoproteins. Here, the author describes protocols for standard analysis, and applies analysis in combination with glycosidase digestion of blot.

  10. Integration of International Migrants into Western Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    years. Retirees were significantly more likely to have spent over 20 years in-country and less likely to have recently arrived. Sex was not... sex (Kendall’s tau-b 0.144, p=0.07). Notably, women comprised 75% and 90% of the very poor and poor categories, respectively. Country of birth was...respondents. Sex and Country of origin were not associated with the mode of transportation used. The Integration of International Migrants into Western

  11. Glikson, a probable impact structure, western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, E. M.; Schoemaker, C. S.

    1997-03-01

    The Glikson structural anomaly in western Australia is associated with a complex ring magnetic anomaly about 16 km in diameter. It is composed of many smaller anomalies arranged roughly like beads on a necklace. On the basis of reconnaissance observations, the ring anomaly evidently is more or less coincident with the ring structural depression. It is suggested that the magnetic anomaly is due to the presence of dolerite intruded along the axis of the ring structural depression.

  12. Western Pacific Basin: A Climatological Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-29

    Pacific trades and the Indian southwesterlies. (From Estoque , 1956) Figure 2-7. Schematic Representation of the ET over the Western Pacific Basin. (From...13 SEMIPERMANENT CLIMATIC CONTROLS Figure 2-11a. Mean Positions of the Near Equatorial Trade Wind Convergence (NETWC) (From Estoque , 1956...Atkinson and Sadler, 1970). Figure 2-11b. Mean Positions of the Near Equatorial Trade Wind Convergence (NETWC) (From Estoque , 1956: Atkinson and Sadler

  13. A communication infrastructure for South Western Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, J.

    1996-07-01

    In response to deregulation, many UK Regional Electricity Companies (RECs) are currently considering redesigning their communication infrastructure to meet this and other business requirements. This paper presents a proposed communication infrastructure for South Western Electricity plc. The Company services a wide variety of customers in the South West of England. The supporting technology, REC and customer benefits, together with valued added services (VAS) will be addressed.

  14. EPA Provides Brownfields Grants to Western Massachusetts Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency celebrated the recipients of seven Brownfields grants in western Massachusetts. This year, entities in western Massachusetts received $2.4 million for assessment and cleanup of Brownfields sites.

  15. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  18. 4. ELEVATION OF WESTERN ARCHES OVER STATE ROUTE 611 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ELEVATION OF WESTERN ARCHES OVER STATE ROUTE 611 AND RAILROAD TRACKS, FROM SOUTH. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Delaware River Viaduct, Spanning Delaware River, north of Portland-Columbia Bridge, Portland, Northampton County, PA

  19. False Dichotomy? "Western" and "Confucian" Concepts of Scholarship and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Janette; Louie, Kam

    2007-01-01

    Discourses of "internationalisation" of the curriculum of Western universities often describe the philosophies and paradigms of "Western" and "Eastern" scholarship in binary terms, such as "deep/surface", "adversarial/harmonious", and "independent/dependent". In practice, such dichotomies…

  20. Coolerado 5 Ton RTU Performance: Western Cooling Challenge Results (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.

    2010-11-01

    The Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC) developed a set of criteria for test conditions, minimum energy, and water use performance for prototype cooling equipment and identified these conditions as indicative of western state climates.

  1. 3. View from west toward east, showing bridge and western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from west toward east, showing bridge and western side of the southern ramp - Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad, Overhead Highway Bridge, Spanning Twin City & Western Railroad on Trunk Highway 71, Olivia, Renville County, MN

  2. Western crevice and cavity-roosting bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Ellison, Laura E.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Among the 45 species of bats that occur in the United States (U.S.), 34 species regularly occur in western regions of the country. Many of these “western” species choose roost sites in crevices or cavities. Herein we provide an introduction to the biology of bats that roost in cavities and crevices and assess the challenges and opportunities associated with monitoring their populations. We reviewed recent studies and examined the U.S. Geological Survey Bat Population Database (BPD) for records of western bats using crevice and cavity roosts. We found records of 25 species of western bats that use crevice or cavity roosts for at least part of their annual cycle. There were relatively few (n = 92) observations or counts for these species in the BPD, representing only 6% of the observations in the database. This paucity of records likely reflects the difficulty of observing bats in such situations rather than actual use. We found no long-term data adequate for population trend analysis among this group of bats. Since the development of miniaturized radio transmitters, our knowledge about bats that roost in cavities and crevices has increased. Future challenges associated with monitoring these species will include understanding variability in the types of roosts used as well as the roost-switching behavior exhibited by many species.

  3. Epidemiology of obesity in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2008-11-01

    Obesity has emerged as a global public health challenge. The objective of this review was to examine epidemiological aspects of obesity in the Western Hemisphere. Using PubMed, we searched for publications about obesity (prevalence, trends, correlates, economic costs) in countries in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. To the extent possible, we focused on studies that were primarily population based in design and on four countries in the Western Hemisphere: Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Data compiled by the International Obesity Task Force show a substantial level of obesity in all of or selected areas of the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Furthermore, countries such as Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States have experienced increases in the prevalence of obesity. In many countries, the prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men and in urban areas than in rural areas. The relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity depends on the stage of economic transition. Early in the transition, the prevalence of obesity is positively related to income whereas at some point during the transition the prevalence becomes inversely related to income. Like other countries in the Western Hemisphere, the four countries that we focused on have experienced a rising tide of obesity. The high and increasing prevalence of obesity and its attendant comorbidities are likely to pose a serious challenge to the public health and medical care systems in these countries.

  4. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  5. New archeomagnetic intensity data from Western Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnaya, Natasha; Gallet, Yves; Akimova, Stanislava; Antipov, Ilya; Glazunova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    We recently started a new archeomagnetism research program for Western Russia. The main objective of this project is to recover the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Russia over the past two millennia, in order to compare these variations with those already known from Western and Eastern Europe. We sampled several ensembles of baked brick fragments precisely dated by historical constraints between the XIIth and XIVth centuries AD from the archeological site of Novgorod, south of St Petersburg, and between the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries AD from the Monastery of New Jerusalem located close to Moscow. Most fragments, with a magnetic mineralogy dominated by magnetite, are suitable for archeointensity experiments. For some fragments from Novgorod, the magnetization is carried by a mixture of magnetite and another mineral of high coercivity and low unblocking temperature. The unblocking temperatures are close to 200°C. This mineral, most probably a form of hematite with Al substitutions, is therefore similar to that previously reported from archeological fired-clay artifacts originating from Europe and South America. Archeointensity experiments were conducted using the experimental protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. We will present our first archeointensity results and a preliminary comparison with available European results, mostly from France and Bulgaria.

  6. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries?

  7. Late Paleozoic Deglaciation in Western Equatorial Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.; Eble, C. F.; Sweet, D.; Davogustto, O.; Young, R. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    The late Paleozoic icehouse is Earth's best-documented pre-Quaternary icehouse, long thought analogous to our modern world wherein glaciation is confined largely to high-latitude regions. However, emerging data from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, an intraplate orogenic system in western equatorial Pangaea, indicate that glaciation extended to low latitudes as well. Key data exist in the Uncompahgre-uplift - Paradox basin system (western U.S.) in the form of a preserved Permo-Pennsylvanian glacial valley (ancestral Unaweep Canyon) and associated glacial and proglacial strata (proximal Cutler Formation). Within western Colorado, Unaweep Canyon is a deep, enigmatic, Precambrian-cored gorge that orthogonally bisects the western Uncompahgre Plateau, and is occupied by two underfit creeks flowing from a divide in its midst. A Cenozoic origin for the canyon is difficult to reconcile with geologic data; limited outcrop and well data confirm the canyon harbors a thick fill that includes a basal unit of probable late Paleozoic age as inferred by palynomorph, provenance, and preliminary paleomagnetic data. Geomorphologic attributes of the gorge walls together with preliminary results of cross-canyon gravity profiles indicate the canyon shape is best explained by a glacial genesis. Furthermore, the Permo-Pennsylvanian Cutler Formation onlaps Precambrian basement at the western mouth of the gorge, and contains facies of inferred proglacial (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial) origin, including (1) subaqueous sediment gravity flows, dropstones, and large slump blocks of an ice-contact Gilbert-type lacustrine delta, and (2) large-scale, laterally extensive cross-bedded conglomerates that record high-magnitude, outburst-type floods typical of deglaciation. The Cutler facies represent the proximal part of a system that ultimately extended to sea level in the distal Paradox basin. Maximum reasonable depositional gradients on this system yield maximum elevations of 500-1000 m for the

  8. Vowel Production in the Speech of Western Armenian Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether the age at which English becomes dominant for Western Armenian bilinguals in the United States affects their vowel production in Western Armenian. Participating in the study were ten Western-Armenian bilinguals who learned English before age 8, ten bilinguals who did not learn English until adulthood, and one…

  9. Western Education and Political Leadership in Africa: The Ghana Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Felix A.

    Contrary to the conventional notion that the principles of Western higher education were significant factors in predisposing Western educated Africans toward political liberation movements, this paper attempts to demonstrate that factors more complex than the ideals of Western higher education were involved. Specifically, the paper argues that it…

  10. Soviet Acquisition of Militarily Significant Western Technology: An Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    manufacturing equipment and reduce call./v complex sysstems . Western svsteni and equip- any dependency on advanced Western products. ment...missiles reverse- engineer Western integrated circuits. and spacel, Communications Equipment, Radio (ra- dars and large-scale computers),. Medium...other dual-use products were 1980 purchase power equivalentsl, acquired each )ear for copying~embodied designs, reverse- engineering , and probably for

  11. Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, passing over MD 51, with "WESTERN MARYLAND RAILWAY" painted on the girder panels, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  12. Vowel Production in the Speech of Western Armenian Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether the age at which English becomes dominant for Western Armenian bilinguals in the United States affects their vowel production in Western Armenian. Participating in the study were ten Western-Armenian bilinguals who learned English before age 8, ten bilinguals who did not learn English until adulthood, and one…

  13. Vernadsky Meets Yulgok: A Non-Western Dialog on Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyeva, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    This article starts by noting the general lack of acknowledgment of alternative traditions in the dominant western sustainability discourse in education. After critically analyzing the western human-nature relationship in the context of Enlightenment, modernity and colonial expansion, this article introduces two non-western ecological discourses…

  14. Natural regeneration in the western white pine type

    Treesearch

    Irvine T. Haig; Kenneth P. Davis; Robert H. Weidman

    1941-01-01

    The purpose of this bulletin is to bring together the available information on natural regeneration of the western white pine type, based on about 25 years of forest research and 30 years of national-forest timber-cutting experience. Western white pine (Pinus monticola) forms the key species of the valuable western white pine type of northern Idaho and contiguous...

  15. 77 FR 65545 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on August 13, 2012, Western Area Power Administration submitted its revised version of its Western...

  16. 50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Western Pacific Community Development... PACIFIC General § 665.20 Western Pacific Community Development Program. (a) General. In accordance with.... (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development program...

  17. Regionally Specific Tasks of Non-Western English Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanteigne, Betty

    2006-01-01

    Many English tests based on Western culture are inappropriate for regions where English use differs from that of Europe and North America. In these non-Western settings, it is desirable that English assessments be based on real-world English use. Therefore, identifying tasks of non-Western English language use is a beginning step in developing…

  18. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  19. The fastest Western in town: a contemporary twist on the classic Western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jillian M; McMahon, Martin

    2014-02-05

    The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the conventional Laemmli system, generates better protein separation and resolution, maintains protein integrity, and reduces electrophoresis to a 35 min run time. Moreover, the iBlot dry blotting system, dramatically improves the efficacy and speed of protein transfer to the membrane in 7 min, which is in contrast to the traditional protein transfer methods that are often more inefficient with lengthy transfer times. In combination with these highly innovative modifications, protein detection using infrared fluorescent imaging results in higher-quality, more accurate and consistent data compared to the standard Western blotting technique of chemiluminescence. This technology can simultaneously detect two different antigens on the same membrane by utilizing two-color near-infrared dyes that are visualized in different fluorescent channels. Furthermore, the linearity and broad dynamic range of fluorescent imaging allows for the precise quantification of both strong and weak protein bands. Thus, this protocol describes the key improvements to the classic Western blotting method, in which these advancements significantly increase the quality of data while greatly reducing the performance time of this experiment.

  20. Eight-year tree growth following prescribed underburning in a western Montana Douglas-fir/western larch stand

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Kevin C. Ryan

    1988-01-01

    Eight-year tree growth of western larch (Larix occidentalis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was measured following prescribed underburning on burned and control plots in western Montana. Western larch on bun.ed plots had reduced radial growth in the first year following fire but increased growth in the next 7 years....

  1. Duff mound consumption and cambium injury for centuries-old western larch from prescribed burning in western Montana

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...

  2. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  3. Review of lignite resources of western Tennessee and the Jackson Purchase area, western Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Thomas, Roger E.; Nichols, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This review of the lignite deposits of western Tennessee and the Jackson Purchase area in western Kentucky (Fig. 1) is a preliminary report on part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resource Assessment of the Gulf Coastal Plain Coal Province. Lignite deposits of western Kentucky and Tennessee are an extension of the Gulf Coastal Plain Coal Province (Cushing and others, 1964), and currently are not economic to mine. These deposits have not been extensively investigated or developed as an energy resource. This review includes a description of the geology of the lignite-bearing units, a discussion of the available coal quality data, and information on organic petrology. Palynological data for lignite samples collected in Kentucky and Tennessee as part of this work are presented in an Appendix.

  4. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  5. Fires Across the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children’s Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai® assay. RESULTS HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. CONCLUSION Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity. PMID:27956810

  7. Single cell–resolution western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chi-Chih; Yamauchi, Kevin A; Vlassakis, Julea; Sinkala, Elly; Duncombe, Todd A; Herr, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    This protocol describes how to perform western blotting on individual cells to measure cell-to-cell variation in protein expression levels and protein state. like conventional western blotting, single-cell western blotting (scWB) is particularly useful for protein targets that lack selective antibodies (e.g., isoforms) and in cases in which background signal from intact cells is confounding. scWB is performed on a microdevice that comprises an array of microwells molded in a thin layer of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG). the gel layer functions as both a molecular sieving matrix during PAGE and a blotting scaffold during immunoprobing. scWB involves five main stages: (i) gravity settling of cells into microwells; (ii) chemical lysis of cells in each microwell; (iii) PAGE of each single-cell lysate; (iv) exposure of the gel to UV light to blot (immobilize) proteins to the gel matrix; and (v) in-gel immunoprobing of immobilized proteins. Multiplexing can be achieved by probing with antibody cocktails and using antibody stripping/reprobing techniques, enabling detection of 10+ proteins in each cell. We also describe microdevice fabrication for both uniform and pore-gradient microgels. to extend in-gel immunoprobing to gels of small pore size, we describe an optional gel de-cross-linking protocol for more effective introduction of antibodies into the gel layer. once the microdevice has been fabricated, the assay can be completed in 4–6 h by microfluidic novices and it generates high-selectivity, multiplexed data from single cells. the technique is relevant when direct measurement of proteins in single cells is needed, with applications spanning the fundamental biosciences to applied biomedicine. PMID:27466711

  8. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  9. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-11-28

    To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children's Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai(®) assay. HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity.

  10. The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting was held in Kanazawa, Japan from 15-21 Aug. 1990. This was the first meeting of a new series of meetings for the American Geophysical Union, and it proved to be very successful in terms of the scientific program and attendance, which included over 1,000 participants. The intent of this meeting was an effort on the part of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and several Japanese geophysical societies to gather individual Earth and space scientists at a major scientific meeting to focus on geophysical problems being studied in the western Pacific rim. The meeting was organized along the lines of a typical AGU annual meeting with some invited talks, many contributed talks, poster sessions, and with emphasis on presentations and informal discussions. The program committee consisted of scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. This meeting provided ample opportunities for U.S. and Japanese scientists to get to know each other and their works on a one-to-one basis. It was also a valuable opportunity for students studying geophysics to get together and interact with each other and with scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. There were 939 abstracts submitted to the conference and a total of 102 sessions designed as a result of the abstracts received. The topics of interest are as follows: space geodetic and observatory measurements for earthquake and tectonic studies; gravity, sea level, and vertical motion; variations in earth rotation and earth dynamics; sedimentary magnetism; global processes and precipitation; subsurface contaminant transport; U.S. Western Pacific Rim initiatives in hydrology; shelf and coastal circulation; tectonics, magmatism, and hydrothermal processes; earthquake prediction and hazard assessment; seismic wave propagation in realistic media; and dynamics and structure of plate boundaries and of the Earth's deep interior.

  11. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gaitan, E.; Merino, H.; Rodriguez, G.; Medina, P.; Meyer, J. D.; DeRouen, T. A.; MacLennan, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia. PMID:80287

  12. The Tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical warm pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere warm pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes warm the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large warm pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial warming of warm pool. Associated with the warm SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.

  13. Fires Across the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  14. Malaria in south-western and north-western Nigerian communities

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, H. Munro

    1956-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the comparative epidemiology of malaria in representative communities of south-western and north-western Nigeria. The climates of the two areas are contrasted and their influence on the seasonal densities and infectivities of the local vectors, Anopheles gambiae and A. funestus, is shown. Malaria occurs in holoendemic proportions in both areas and its effect on local mortality and morbidity is examined, with special reference to children in the pre-school age-groups. PMID:13404444

  15. Orientations of dolmens in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The communal tombs (`dolmens') constructed through Europe and the Mediterranean region in the late Neolithic nearly always had an entrance to permit the introduction of further bodies, and hence an orientation. Extensive fieldwork shows that the builders always felt constrained to observe a custom of orientation, and in most of Western Europe the custom may well have been to face the rising Sun at some time of year, or the Sun after it had risen. But at Fontvieille near Arles the local custom was quite different, with tombs facing sunset or the Sun when descending. In southwest France and neighbouring parts of Cataluña the two customs are in conflict.

  16. Carrion insects of the Egyptian western desert.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, E M; Shaaban, M A; Sabry, E

    1991-09-01

    A general survey was made on the zoosaprophagous insects and their associates in a natural ecosystem in the Egyptian western desert (80 km west of Alexandria, 12 km from the Mediterranean Sea shore). Two types of traps were used, one for flying insects and the other for soil-burrowing insects. Two types of decaying media were used as baits: the common freshwater fish (Tilapia zilii Gerv.) and the desert snail (Eremina desertorum). More than 30 insect species were trapped. The following orders and families were represented: Diptera (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae); Coleoptera (Histeridae, Scarabaeidae, Dermestidae, Tenebrionidae); Hymenoptera (Chalcididae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae). Monthly totals of numbers trapped in each of these groups are presented.

  17. Typhoon Ioke in the Western Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-29

    This infrared image shows Typhoon Ioke in the Western Pacific, from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder AIRS on NASA Aqua satellite in August, 2006. Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00511

  18. A Forest Vegetation Database for Western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    Data on forest vegetation in western Oregon were assembled for 2323 ecological survey plots. All data were from fixed-radius plots with the standardized design of the Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) initiated in the early 1990s. For each site, the database includes: 1) live tree density and basal area of common tree species, 2) total live tree density, basal area, estimated biomass, and estimated leaf area; 3) age of the oldest overstory tree examined, 4) geographic coordinates, 5) elevation, 6) interpolated climate variables, and 7) other site variables. The data are ideal for ecoregional analyses of existing vegetation.

  19. Western Great Plains, Badlands, SD, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-81-162 (22 June 1973) --- The most striking feature of this scene of the western Great Plains and the Badlands of SD (43.5N, 101.0W) is the rugged topography of the landscape. Over eons of time, the White River has carved out a badlands topography of steep gullies, irregular winding ridges and isolated buttes. The barren wasteland of badlands light toned rock surfaces contrast sharply with the adjacent vegetated landscape of native grasslands and cultivated fields. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Southern Illinois and Western Kentucky, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-81-194 (22 June 1973) --- This view of southern Illinois and Western Kentucky (37.0N, 88.5W), with the winding Ohio River in between also illustrates the rich agriculture potential of the flood plains in the river bottom lands. To the east are the waters of Lake Kentucky and Lake Barkley which flow into the Ohio at Paducah, KY and may be seen stretching for several miles. Except for the Land Between the Lakes State Park, Extensive agriculture may be seen throughout the area. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  2. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  3. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia.

    PubMed

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-03-15

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars.

  4. NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Western states Fire Missions (WSFM) that occurred in 2007. The objectives of this mission are: (1) Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. (1) Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). (2) Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. (3) Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. (4) Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. (5) Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition). (6) Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).

  5. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Hydrocarbon exploration in Western Oregon and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.; Suek, D.H.

    1985-04-01

    Continuing development of the Mist gas field and stepout discovery wells affirm the hydrocarbon prospectivity of western Oregon and Washington. Reservoir sandstones in the Mist area are in the Cowlitz Formation of middle to late Eocene age. Reservoir-quality sandstones have average porosities of 25% and average permeabilities of 200 md. The reservoir sands are wellsorted feldspathic-quartzose sandstones and are less susceptible to diagenetically formed pore-filling authigenic minerals than are the more lithic sandstones of other horizons and less well-sorted depositional environments. Potential hydrocarbon source rocks consist of marine shale to coaly facies. Organic matter is predominately terrestrially derived. Mist gas field pools are small and have variable gas types, suggesting to some workers that the gas is generated from rocks immediately adjacent to the reservoir. Gas wetness and delta/sup 13/C values indicate that gas from the Bruer, Flora, and Newton pools is probably thermally generated. Shales encasing the Mist gas field sandstone reservoirs are thermally immature, having vitrinite reflectance values less than 0.4%. Thermal gas most likely would have been generated downdip within nearby depocenters and migrated into the reservoir. The integration of paleogeographic models for mineralogic provenance, well-sorted sand accumulation, and thermal maturation within Cenozoic depocenters provides an exploration strategy for defining areas of highest hydrocarbon potential in western Oregon and Washington.

  7. Tactical defense initiative for Western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Daalder, I.H.

    1987-05-01

    This article shows while the ABM Treaty does not address defensive systems capable of intercepting tactical ballistic missiles, the treaty's provisions if adhered to, would affect the capability of such an ABM system in important way. It is clear that some proposed systems, if deployed in an ATBM role, would violate the treaty. In essence, these systems include most of the SDI technologies with ATBM applications. If the ABM Treaty is to remain one of the sacred symbols of arms control - as most allies believe it should - then a European SDI is out of the question. Such a system should also be rejected on other grounds. No European missile-defense system will be 100% effective in defending against a Soviet nuclear attack, for the myriad of nuclear threats facing Western Europe - ranging from nuclear artillery, through air-delivered nuclear bombs and cruise missiles, to the SS-20 - is so vast that some nuclear weapons would inevitably get through. In densely populated Western Europe, a few such nuclear bombs would wreak untold destruction. 16 references, 3 figures.

  8. Upwelling off western Iberia (two case study).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, J.

    2003-04-01

    The occurrence of a seasonal (summer) upwelling regime characterises the oceanography of the western Iberian margin. Surface manifestations of this process, in the form of cold filaments and eddies, are well documented in satelite imagery. In this contribution, observations and numerical modelling tools are combined to provide two contrasting views of the western Iberian upwelling. The first case study adresses the summer upwelling regime offshore the northern Portuguese coast. The study area is characterised by a rather regular coastline and shelf topography. Data from a program of observations conducted by Instituto Hidrografico, from May to October 1987, which included two hydrographic surveys and an array of three currentmeter moorings, is used to characterise the evolution of shelf and upper slope conditions along the complete upwelling season. The second case study will focus the developpment of an upwelling filament off Cape S. Vicent, in the southwestern tip of Portugal, during a period of sustained northerly winds in April 2001. The area is characterised by abrupt changes in coastline orientation and a complex topography (e.g Gorringe seamount). The dominant aspects of both the filament dynamics and shelf circulation are studied using a primitive equation model (Harvard Ocean Prediction System - HOPS) with assimilation of data collected during a hydrographic surveys conducted during April 2001.

  9. The thrust belts of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  10. Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization.

    PubMed

    Cordain, Loren; Lindeberg, Staffan; Hurtado, Magdalena; Hill, Kim; Eaton, S Boyd; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2002-12-01

    In westernized societies, acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79% to 95% of the adolescent population. In men and women older than 25 years, 40% to 54% have some degree of facial acne, and clinical facial acne persists into middle age in 12% of women and 3% of men. Epidemiological evidence suggests that acne incidence rates are considerably lower in nonwesternized societies. Herein we report the prevalence of acne in 2 nonwesternized populations: the Kitavan Islanders of Papua New Guinea and the Aché hunter-gatherers of Paraguay. Additionally, we analyze how elements in nonwesternized environments may influence the development of acne. Of 1200 Kitavan subjects examined (including 300 aged 15-25 years), no case of acne (grade 1 with multiple comedones or grades 2-4) was observed. Of 115 Aché subjects examined (including 15 aged 15-25 years) over 843 days, no case of active acne (grades 1-4) was observed. The astonishing difference in acne incidence rates between nonwesternized and fully modernized societies cannot be solely attributed to genetic differences among populations but likely results from differing environmental factors. Identification of these factors may be useful in the treatment of acne in Western populations.

  11. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars. PMID:27019665

  12. PLANT DIVERSITY OF WESTERN CHITWAN FLORISTIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, D. R.; Shivakoti, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies and documents the plant biodiversity of western Chitwan, Nepal. Specifically, our attention was focussed on the plants of forests, grasslands and common lands based on our “Reciprocal Relation of Population and Environment Study Project” conducted during January-April 1996. This species-diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous flora was recorded from 117, 117, and 1049 sampling quadrats of 10×10, 3×3 and 1×1 m2, respectively. The flora of our study plots contains 236 species that belong to 191 genera and 66 families. Of 236 species of plants, 119, 113, 59, 35 and 119 species were recorded from Tikauli forest, National Park forest, forests along the Narayani river, grasslands of National Park and common lands of the western Chitwan, respectively. Dicotyledons represent 184 (77.97%) species of the total flora species followed by monocotyledons (46 spp., 19.49%) and ferns (6 spp., 2.54%), respectively. The five largest families are Leguminosae (38 spp.), Poaceae (27 spp.), Asteraceae (22 spp.), Rubiaceae (10 spp.), and Scrophulariaceae (9 spp.). Hedyotis, Grewia and Lindernia, each with 4 spp., are the most speciose genera in the flora. PMID:22899874

  13. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines.

  14. Hyperextension in the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica: new observations and U-Pb ages from the Samnanger Complex, Major Bergen Arc, western Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Johannes; Alsaif, Manar; Andersen, Torgeir; Corfu, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The Samnanger Complex (SC) of the Major Bergen Arc in western Norway (Færseth et al., 1977) comprises a thick succession of original fine-grained marine sediments, now mica- and graphitic schists, some fine-grained impure marbles as well as local quartzite, meta-sandstones and meta-fanglomerates of continental affinity. There are also minor meta-igneous rocks including amphibolite, metagabbro as well as felsic and mafic gneisses. The most characteristic rocks in this heterogeneous unit, however, are numerous solitary mantle-peridotites now present as variably altered serpentinites and soapstones with commonly developed ophicarbonate alteration. Detrital serpentinite and soapstone deposits have also been identified in one locality, now mostly removed by quarrying for building and ornamental stones. The SC is continuous with a regional mélange unit, which can be traced across southern Norway towards Røros (Andersen et al., 2012). The mélange is structurally positioned below large crystalline nappes such as the Jotun Nappe and the SC is structurally positioned in-between the underlying Lower Bergsdalen and the overlying Lindås nappes (Færseth et al., 1977). The lithological association of the mélange with its common presence of solitary and detrital meta-peridotites suggests that it was formed by hyperextension in a magma poor margin. After early-Caledonian metamorphism and deformation associated with emplacement of gabbro and granitoids in the early Ordovician it was finally emplaced in the Caledonian nappe stack after the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. Late granitoid dikes cutting most of the deformation fabric are ~420 Ma. New ID-TIMS U-Pb ages of a pegmatitic meta-gabbro (~486 Ma) and a mylonitic granitoid (~476 Ma) indicate magma emplacement, probably related to subduction within distal parts of the hyperextended margin. We suggest that the exhumation and hydration of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in hyperextended basins may lead to a long

  15. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1958.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1958-01-01

    In terms of general weather, the 1958 fire season will be classed as one of the hottest on record and as having unusually frequent spring and summer lightning storms. It was also unusual in that spring and most of the summer were less rainy in western Washington than in normally dry southwestern Oregon. Thus, until late August, cumulative fire-season rainfall ranged...

  16. Alcoholism in the Western Genre: The Portrayal of Alcohol and Alcoholism in the Western Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedding, Danny

    2000-01-01

    Examines the way alcohol use has been portrayed in films with particular emphasis on the western genre. Saloons, bar fights, and town drunks are all staple features of the genre, a genre that has contributed significantly to the prevailing image of masculinity. This paper argues that these images influence and shape contemporary attitudes about…

  17. Forest fire weather and computed fire occurrence in western Oregon and western Washington.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1959-01-01

    Severity of the 1959 fire season varied from well below normal in western Washington to a record-setting high in southwestern Oregon. The season was characterized by well-distributed, short rainy periods separated by comparatively short dry spells that frequently included days of high fire danger. July was the only month with markedly above-normal temperatures, and...

  18. Alcoholism in the Western Genre: The Portrayal of Alcohol and Alcoholism in the Western Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedding, Danny

    2000-01-01

    Examines the way alcohol use has been portrayed in films with particular emphasis on the western genre. Saloons, bar fights, and town drunks are all staple features of the genre, a genre that has contributed significantly to the prevailing image of masculinity. This paper argues that these images influence and shape contemporary attitudes about…

  19. Bark beetle conditions in western forests and formation of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...

  20. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  1. Heat Flow Investigations in Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, C.; Salk, M.

    2003-04-01

    The purposes of geothermic researches are to find out the temperature distribution in the lithosphere-astenosphere system, the structure of possible heat cells, and especially the deep lateral and vertical changes within the crust by making heat flow measurements. Some local investigations showed that Turkey was placed in a high-heat-flow region in Europe. Unfortunately, a detailed heat-flow map could not be prepared for our country due to the absence of systematical temperature logs and especially the lack of knowledge on the heat conductivity coefficients and lithology of log samples taken from the deep wells drilled for oil exploration purposes. To determine the shallow and deep subsurface temperature conditions more accurately in the Western Anatolia, it is essential to have a new and detailed Heat Flow Data Base and based on that it is necessary to investigate the lateral changes of vertical geothermal gradient in the lithosphere. The investigations for these purposes were done by Istanbul University, Istanbul Technical University, and Dokuz Eylul University under a consortium sponsored by TUBITAK and MTA. It is quite important to make measurements for heat conductivity coefficients of some rock units and to investigate its changes due to some physical effects to determine and interpret the heat-flow accurately. For this purpose, measurements were made for the heat conductivity coefficients of some well samples and surface rock samples in a research program started at Western Anatolia. Furthermore, quite few geothermal gradient measurements were made in Western Anatolia. Quite number of the wells, where the investigations were done, were drilled to supply drinking water to some local small towns. The effects of ground water and heat circulation could be seen quite often in these shallow-deep wells. In these geothermal investigations, proper temperature data were observed only in a few wells in surrounding mountains near by Gokova, Mugla. The circulation of

  2. Variations of deep western boundary currents in the Melanesian Basin in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Masaki; Yanagimoto, Daigo; Kitagawa, Shoji

    2006-06-01

    Five moorings ML1-ML5 were deployed on the slope of the Solomon Rise in the Melanesian Basin in the western North Pacific, northeastward at increasing water depths. We measured the velocities of the western branch current of the deep western boundary current (DWBC) and the upper deep current carrying the Lower and Upper Circumpolar Waters (LCPW, UCPW), respectively. The daily mean velocity data from 1-3 February 1999 to 24-26 February 2000 were analyzed, and variability of the DWBCs was clarified. Although the current meters did not entirely cover the western branch current of the DWBC composed of two or three streams, a stream of the western branch current was observed at a depth of 4700 m at ML4 or 4260 m at ML5 for more than half of the observation period. The stream had a mean velocity of 3.7 cm s -1 and alternated between ML4 and ML5 at 20- to 40-day intervals without occupying both of ML4 and ML5 simultaneously. This shows that the width of the stream is less than 120 km (distance between ML4 and ML5), and the position changes in a similar range. In contrast to the velocity of the eastern branch current of the DWBC, that of the western branch current did not decrease with decreasing depths to 4000 m. This reflects the vertical division into the branch currents by the bifurcation of the DWBC. The western branch current of the DWBC is located at the deep side of the countercurrent which was almost always observed at depths of 3880 and 4080 m at ML3. The countercurrent was thought to be the return flow of the western branch current that is partly reversed in the East Mariana Basin. The previous estimate of geostrophic transport of LCPW at the time of the mooring deployment was corrected to 1.4 Sv (10 6 m 3 s -1) in the western branch current, 1.7 Sv in the countercurrent, and 1.1 Sv in the inflow to the East Caroline Basin. The upper deep current was located over the slope of the Solomon Rise with water depth less than 4500 m including ML1-ML3. It flowed at

  3. Mercury deposits of western California: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studemeister, P. A.

    1984-07-01

    Mercury deposits in western California are near a thrust fault that separates two groups of Mesozoic rocks. The Franciscan Assemblage, a metamorphosed melange with serpentine and graywacke, is structurally overlain by the Great Valley Sequence, a sedimentary series resting on oceanic crust. These Mesozoic rocks are partly covered by volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Cenozoic age. Cinnabar with silica minerals, dolomite, native mercury, and bituminous matter occurs around the fractured margins of serpentine bodies and around hot springs that emanate from the Franciscan Assemblage. Fluid inclusions and hot springs suggest that cinnabar precipitated from CO2-H2O fluids with <2 wt% chlorine at T<250 °C. Prograde metamorphism of Mesozoic sediments expulsed mercury-bearing fluids that migrated up serpentine-related fractures and exhaled onto the surface.

  4. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  5. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  6. [Early Western observations of moxibustion and acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Michel, W

    1993-01-01

    Earlier research has maintained that the earliest passage of written information about acupuncture and moxibustion to Western Europe took place around the middle of the 17th century. But an investigation into the letters, 'historias', dictionaries, grammars, etc. of the Jesuit mission in Japan, which started in 1549, shows that the missionaries there already enjoyed a considerable knowledge of both methods of treatment. These sources also reveal indications of the use of needles and moxa on horses as well as the use of 'hammer-needles', a Japanese invention which was later described in detail by Willem ten Rhijne and Engelbert Kaempfer. Furthermore some central Sinojapanese terms of anatomy, physiology and pulse diagnosis in the light of their European interpretations, and a hitherto unknown outline of Japanese medicine found in an early French book on Chinese sphygmology are presented.

  7. Upwelling in Cretaceous western interior seaway

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.T.; Gautier, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale, usually described as a stagnant-basin deposit, shares more features in common with upwelling zones than with stratified stagnant basins. Specifically, the overall facies distribution of the Sharon Springs includes a basin-ward zone of laminated, highly organic-rich strata bounded on the west by phosphate, which is, in turn, bounded at the western shoreline by glauconitic sandstone. The same facies distribution might be expected on the eastern shoreline, but the Sharon Springs is truncated there by erosion. The organic matter in the Sharon Springs is almost entirely contained in fecal pellets and is predominantly marine in origin. Organic carbon accumulation rates are comparable to those of upwelling zones. Finally, the Sharon Springs is noted for high concentrations of bones of marine reptiles. These bones occur in a band that may mark the zone of highest biologic productivity.

  8. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, F. G.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1977-01-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence. PMID:20473

  9. Microwave responses of the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Girard, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Features and objects in the Western North Atlantic Ocean - the Eastern Seaboard of the United States - are observed from Earth orbit by passive microwaves. The intensities of their radiated flux signatures are measured and displayed in color as a microwave flux image. The features of flux emitting objects such as the course of the Gulf Stream and the occurrence of cold eddies near the Gulf Stream are identified by contoured patterns of relative flux intensities. The flux signatures of ships and their wakes are displayed and discussed. Metal data buoys and aircraft are detected. Signal to clutter ratios and probabilities of detection are computed from their measured irradiances. Theoretical models and the range equations that explain passive microwave detection using the irradiances of natural sources are summarized.

  10. Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43899.

  11. Thickening history of the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Ph.; Choukroune, P.; Ballèvre, M.; Davy, Ph.

    1986-05-01

    A model of evolution for the western segment of the Alpine chain is presented. Available data concerning the structural, metamorphic and geochronological evolution in the majorunits involved in the thickening processes are takeninto account IO constrain the model. The successive stages of the collisional history are correlated with the evolution of thermal structure: the African paleomargin was deformed at the onset of collision just after the abduction of the oceanic crust. After these initial stages, progressive stacking affected more and more external domains of the European plate. Lastly, the deformation of the entire pile is linked IO the thermal reequilibration of the considered thickened crust. The Alpine chain is a good example of a collision zone where the interaction of thermal and mechanical effects can be treated quantitatively.

  12. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  13. Acute melioidosis outbreak in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Inglis, T J; Garrow, S C; Adams, C; Henderson, M; Mayo, M; Currie, B J

    1999-12-01

    A cluster of acute melioidosis cases occurred in a remote, coastal community in tropical Western Australia. Molecular typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from culture-confirmed cases and suspected environmental sources by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI chromosomal DNA digests showed that a single PFGE type was responsible for five cases of acute infection in a community of around 300 during a 5 week period. This temporal and geographical clustering of acute melioidosis cases provided a unique opportunity to investigate the environmental factors contributing to this disease. B. pseudomallei isolated from a domestic tap at the home of an asymptomatic seroconverter was indistinguishable by PFGE. Possible contributing environmental factors included an unusually acid communal water supply, unrecordable chlorine levels during the probable exposure period, a nearby earth tremor, and gusting winds during the installation of new water and electricity supplies. The possible role of the potable water supply as a source of B. pseudomallei was investigated further.

  14. Malaria entomological inoculation rates in western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Wirtz, R A; Curtis, C F

    1992-12-01

    Over 61,000 anophelines collected between January 1988 and October 1989 in three villages in western Venezuela were assayed by ELISA for Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein. The six specimens confirmed positive belonged to three species: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón, 1940, A. albitarsis Arribalzaga, 1878 sensu lato and A. oswaldoi (Peryassu, 1922). The estimated CS protein rate for all species combined was 0.01% (95% confidence limits 0.004-0.02%). This CS protein rate and the mean number of bites received by the collectors indicated a sporozoite inoculation rate of about 10.5 infective bites per person per year. From this value and the number of human malaria cases reported it was estimated that only 0.32% of bites by CS-positive mosquitoes led to a malaria infection. The CS protein rate is so low that this parameter would not be a practical indicator of the efficacy of control campaigns in this area.

  15. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    PubMed

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  16. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1984-10-01

    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  17. 14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S KYRENE STEAM POWER PLANT, TEMPE. THE WESTERN CANAL BEGINS TO TURN NORTH AT THIS POINT, AND DIVERTS WATER TO THE HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT AND THE KYRENE LATERAL. THE KYRENE PLANT INLET (LEFT-CENTER) ALSO DIVERTS CANAL WATER FOR PLANT OPERATION AND COOLING. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Airborne Expendable Bathythermogragh Surveys, 1981, Western Tasman Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    No. 2/82 AIRBORNE EXPENDABLE BATHYTHERMOGRAGH SURVEYS, 1981, WESTERN TASMAN SEA BY P.J. MULHEARN APPROVED DTIC ELECTE FOR PUTBLI I ~LT -i~ COPY• N. 7...NO. 2/82 AIRBORNE EXPENDABLE BATHYTHERMOGRAPH SURVEYS, 1981, WESTERN TASMAN SEA P.J. MULHEARN ABSTRACT On four occasions in 1981 AXBT surveys were...conducted in the western Tasman Sea in support of the RAN’s ocean analysis scheme. The results of these surveys show that the limited number of probes

  19. Anemia in pregnancy in Western Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Saidah; Earland, Dominique; Sakhuja, Swati; Junkins, Anna; Franklin, Sarah; Padilla, Luz; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E

    2017-01-01

    Background Anemia is one of the most prevalent problems in pregnancy. In 2011, 29.9% of all pregnant women in Jamaica were diagnosed with anemia. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of anemia in pregnancy in Western Jamaica. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 mothers attending post-natal clinics in Western Jamaica. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers, and an abstraction form was used to collect clinical data from the mothers’ records. Results The prevalence of anemia among the women was 37.6%. Younger mothers (aged 18–24 years) were more likely to be anemic compared to those ≥35 years (odds ratio [OR]: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.07–11.06). Mothers who reported not always washing their hands after using the toilet were almost 10 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 9.7, 95% CI: 1.72–54.78) compared to those who reported always washing their hands. Mothers who attended a public facility for antenatal care were 2.3 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.03–5.18) compared to those who obtained care at a private facility, and mothers who reported being told that they were anemic by a health care provider (HCP) were almost six times more likely to be anemic compared with those who were not told (OR: 5.58, 95% CI: 1.73–17.93). Conclusion The results of the study indicate that early identification and treatment of anemia, especially among younger pregnant women, should be a priority. HCP should ensure that women understand the need to be cured of their anemia and to adhere to preventive hygienic practices. PMID:28652822

  20. Climatology and the problems of western grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Sprague, Howard B.

    1959-01-01

    Sixty years after Coronado, Don Juan de Onate wrote the first reasonably good description of the High Plains. He was near the present site of Wichita, Kansas, in 1601, when he arrived a t a large rancheria, or temporary Indian camp, containing more than 5000 souls. Onate's account expressed wonderment at the great extent of the level land, a t the numerous small streams bordered with luxuriant groves of trees, and, of course, at the large number of buffalo.We shall never see the wonderland of the blossoming prairie which he described as follows: Grazing for the horses "had been lacking for several days, as there had been none for many leagues, for the fields there were covered with flowers of a thousand different kinds, so thick that they choked the pasture " (1, p. 256).We who fly from Chicago to Denver in a few hours cannot get the same view of the western grasslands as those who, with rifle or sword in hand, moved at the rate of 10 to 15 miles a day.The tall- and short-grass prairies of the West comprise more than 700,000 square miles in the United States alone, not to mention the great prong extending northward into Canada. Such an area represents nearly a quarter of the United States. There are areas other than prairie where grass is an important natural resource. Among these should be mentioned the grass openings in woodland and along the borders of desert shrub associations in the plateau and basin-and-range provinces. So considered, the western grassed areas constitute even a larger proportion of our country.This vast domain has problems commensurate in complexity with its geographic scope, and these are in part related to the changes which have occurred since settlement. I shall attempt to state the most important current problems as I see them, and then will discuss briefly the role of the climatologist in their solution.

  1. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  2. Urban landscapes and the western drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cities in the western U.S. are heavily irrigated and have increasingly been the focus of water conservation measures. Even cities that previously relied only on voluntary reductions in outdoor water use have been employing stricter mandates to limit irrigation. These cities are in a period of transition and the outcomes are far from certain. There are many tradeoffs in the environmental and social consequences of different urban water management strategies. Here we review recent work studying these tradeoffs in cities of southern California and Utah. We have measured the water use of different types of landscapes ranging from turfgrass to urban trees to xeriscapes. Unshaded turfgrass shows evapotranspiration (ET) rates close to potential ET; however, shaded turfgrass uses substantially less water. On the other hand, plants used in xeriscapes may have surprisingly high transpiration rates if they are heavily watered. In addition, unshaded xeriscapes may substantially alter surface energy balance and have unintended consequences for urban climate. Through whole tree sap flux measurements and scaling of ET estimates, we have found that urban trees generally use less water than turfgrass, and provide additional cooling benefits through interception of radiation. Current measures to reduce outdoor water use through irrigation restrictions and turfgrass removal programs do not include safeguards to ensure that urban trees receive adequate irrigation, and the future of urban tree canopies in western cities is highly uncertain. Although trees and other deep-rooted vegetation may require less irrigation than turfgrass and better withstand periods of drought, this vegetation must still be appropriate managed with water inputs informed by an understanding of plant water relations and urban subsurface hydrology. On the current trajectory, cities may see a substantial loss of vegetative cover and leaf area unless an understanding of ecohydrology is better integrated into

  3. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  4. Barcoding poplars (Populus L.) from western China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianju; Jiang, Dechun; Shang, Huiying; Dong, Miao; Wang, Gaini; He, Xinyu; Zhao, Changming; Mao, Kangshan

    2013-01-01

    Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS) among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M), trnG-psbK (G) and psbK-psbI (P), and trnH-psbA (H) and rbcL (R); the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I) is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I), and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in plants, especially for taxonomic groups that have complex evolutionary histories

  5. Coherence of surface western boundary currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, Joel; Barnier, Bernard; Biastoch, Arne; Coward, Andrew; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Fransner, Filippa

    2013-04-01

    Surface western boundary currents (WBCs) like the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio or the Agulhas Current are among the strongest ocean currents. They account for a large fraction of the eastern branch of horizontal ocean gyres. In the North Atlantic the Gulf Stream also accounts for a large part of the northward branch of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Since 1982 the Gulf Stream transport across the Straits of Florida at 26°N has been observed. This provides us with a unique 30-year long timeseries of a WBC which is central for studying both the MOC and North Atlantic subpolar Gyre at 26°N. However, how representative are such local observations for the wider ocean circulation? Is e.g. a peak/trough in the transport trough Florida Straits at 26°N representative for transports further north or south? Here we study the spatial coherence of WBCs using output from a series of 1/12° eddy-resolving runs performed with the NEMO ocean model in the framework of the DRAKKAR project. The simulations cover the period from 1978 to 2007. Using composite analysis we find a large spatial coherence for the major WBCs. On interannual timescales weak/strong WBC transports coincide with a poleward/equatorward shift in the position of the eastward extensions once the WBCs have separated from the continents. In the North Atlantic increased/decreased WBC transport and southward/northward shifts of the eastward extension coincide with anticyclonic/cyclonic wind stress anomalies over the western North Atlantic. Using the observed transports through Florida Straits and geostrophic surface velocities derived from satellite altimetry reveals spatial WBC coherence patterns similar those simulated in the eddy-resolving ocean model.

  6. Summit geomorphology of western Pacific guyots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Waasbergen, Robert J.; Winterer, Edward L.

    Bathymetric and seismic reflection data for 21 guyots in the Japanese, Wake and Mid Pacific Mountains seamount groups show that many guyots bear thick shallow-water limestone deposits that represent nearly undeformed Cretaceous rudist-reef-bounded carbonate platforms. Three types of guyot summits are distinguished: those with more than 200 m of shallow-water limestone, sufficient to bury the underlying volcanic relief, follow the same basic morphologic patterns as their coral/algal-dominated modern counterparts. Surface morphology is controlled by the original reef/platform configuration, modified by subaerial erosion and by long-term deformation of the sedimentary deposits and the underlying volcanic edifice. These seamounts range in age from Barremian to Aptian, with Barremian or Aptian to late Albian limestone deposits. Guyots with thin limestone deposits represent reef-bearing volcanic islands at various stages of fringing-reef and barrier-reef development. These edifices and their overlying limestone deposits are of Albian age. Reef growth on these was suddenly halted when regional emergence led to cessation of shallow-water-limestone accumulation on all guyots in the western Pacific, probably during the latest Albian. The karstic surfaces were resubmerged by middle Turonian time and, in latitudes south of about 20°N, blanketed by pelagic ooze. Guyots without reef deposits appear to be products of post-Albian volcanism and erosion at sea level. Among the three types of summit-configurations a range of stages of development of Cretaceous carbonate-platforms can be observed. The exposure of the guyot summits indicated by the occurence of karstic relief of 100-200 m on many of the limestone caps suggests that the sea floor of the western Pacific was raised several hundred meters. The age and platform thickness-relationships among the different types of guyots suggests that this uplift occurred at late Albian time.

  7. Modes of continental decretion in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Between the Archean Slave Province and the Pacific Ocean, the North American continent in Canada appears to have ‘grown’ westward during Paleoproterozoic (Wopmay) and Paleozoic-Mesozoic (Cordilleran) orogenesis. However, results from geological observations combined with regional geophysical surveys lead to interpretations in which pre-orogenic basement in both the Wopmay and the Cordillera projects far beneath proposed ‘accreted’ terranes. In the Wopmay orogen (1.89-1.84 Ga), deep geophysical images indicate that Archean Slave basement projects in the subsurface up to 50 km west of the Medial zone (formerly Wopmay fault), a boundary that was previously interpreted as the transition from Slave basement to accreted terrane basement. The Slave basement appears as a west-tapering tectonic wedge into accreted(?) rocks, consistent with an interpretation by Hildebrand and Bowring (Geology, 1999) that the Archean lithosphere that was formerly west of the wedge broke off and was recycled. In the Cordillera, cross sections of the lithosphere illustrate that lower crustal and upper mantle rocks as much as 2/3 of the distance across the orogen can be stratigraphically, geologically and seismically correlated to the ancient cratonic margin. Retrodeformation of rocks that were deposited on or adjacent to the craton leads to the conclusion that, prior to the onset of terrane accretion, the North American margin and associated rocks projected even farther west (today’s coordinates) - at least as far as the modern margin. Apparently, as flakes of terranes were added to the surface in the western regions of the Cordillera, the North American lithosphere, which may have been foreshortened during contraction, was tectonically and/or thermally eroded from below. As a result, terrane accretion in the Cordillera apparently resulted in a net decretion of continental lithosphere. Together, these observations lead to the interpretation that the processes responsible for

  8. 12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN MESA, THE LOCATION AT WHICH THE PECK, PINE AND WALLACE FEEDERS FORMERLY JOINED TO FORM THE WESTERN CANAL. THE PECK AND PINE FEEDERS, NOW KNOWN AS LATERAL 9 AND LATERAL 10, AND ALMOST ENTIRELY PIPED, STILL JOIN THE WESTERN CANAL AT THIS POINT, BUT AN EQUALLY IMPORTANT SOURCE OF SUPPLY IS THE NUMEROUS GROUNDWATER PUMPS LOCATED ON THE SYSTEM. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 18. Detail of stonework, north side, immediately west of western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detail of stonework, north side, immediately west of western abutment reinforcing, facing south. - Dubbs Bridge, Spinnerstown Road (State Route 2031) spanning Hosensack Creek, Dillingerville, Lehigh County, PA

  10. 2. Signal Tower, looking east. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Signal Tower, looking east. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. 3. VIEW WEST, EAST ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST, EAST ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  13. 18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  14. 4. VIEW EAST, WEST ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, WEST ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  18. 22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  19. Response of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change: The Western Mountain Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Peterson, David A.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Allen, Craig; McKenzie, Donald; Baron, Jill; O'Brien, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems within our national parks and other protected areas provide valuable goods and services such as clean water, biodiversity conservation, and recreational opportunities, but their potential responses to expected climatic changes are inadequately understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is a collaboration of scientists whose research focuses on understanding and predicting responses of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. It is a legacy of the Global Change Research Program initiated by the National Park Service (NPS) in 1991 and continued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to this day as part of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (http://www.climatescience.gov/). All WMI scientists are active participants in CIRMOUNT, and seek to further its goals.

  20. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

  1. Role of Western Hemisphere Warm Pool in Rapid Climate Changes over the Western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic states over the western North Pacific (WNP), which is surrounded by heavily populated countries, are closely tied to the lives of the people in East Asia in regards to both climate and socioeconomics. As global warming continues, remarkable increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) have been observed in the WNP in recent decades. Here, we show that the SST increase in the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP), which is the second largest warm pool on the globe, has contributed considerably to the rapid surface warming and sea level rise in the WNP via its remote teleconnection along the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). State-of-the-art climate models strongly support the role of the WHWP not only on interannual time sales but also in long-term climate projections. We expect that understanding the processes initiated by the WHWP-SST could permit better forecasts of western North Pacific climate and the further development of the socioeconomics of East Asia.

  2. Geomorphology of Titan's Western Xanadu Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, M. H.; Lunine, J. I.; Mitri, G.

    2011-12-01

    Titan's Xanadu region is one of the most fascinating, continent-sized surface features, hosting many kinds of geologic features, such as craters, channels, candidate paleolakes, mountain chains, and potential cryovolcanic flows. However, the geologic development of this region is still controversially debated. This study aims to verify current concepts about the development of Xanadu, while the main focus will be to test the idea of the genesis of western Xanadu by an ancient impact, proposed by Brown et al. (2011). The outer boundary of the Xanadu Circular Feature (XCF) is obvious through a large circular marking, 1,800 km across, seen in VIMS-data (Brown et al. 2011). According to Brown et al. (2011), radar-SAR data confirm the presence of an inner and outer boundary of that presumptive impact crater through differences in radar brightness. Further arguments supporting an impact origin are (amongst others, from Brown et al. 2011) the low brightness temperature of the region at 2.2 cm wavelength and its low topographic level. This study aims to extend and verify these findings based on current Cassini VIMS-, RADAR-SAR, and SAR-Topo data covering the Xanadu-region. VIMS data obtained at different times and at different viewing and illumination conditions, e.g. Cassini Orbit 22 (March 18, 2006) and Orbit 97 (Dec. 21, 2008), confirm the relative permanence of the outer margins of the XCF. Some parts of its putative outer boundary are visible in Radar-SAR, which confirms a correlation between VIMS and RADAR, possibly due to the presence of an outer boundary of an impact structure. Further, SAR-Topo data partly reproduce the southern (outer) boundary of the XCF and thus its topographic depression. Other confirming structures are the possible remains of radial and concentric features near the outer boundary of the XCF, visible in radar. Potential impact-induced cryovolcanic features are located at southern Xanadu, namely Tui Regio and Hotei Regio (e.g. Soderblom et al

  3. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth

  4. Shear wave splitting survey of Western Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhnovich, M.; Levin, V. L.; Cao, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of our study is to investigate the distribution of seismic anisotropy beneath the western part of the Tibetan plateau to better understand the tectonic processes dominating it. We used new data from 29 portable seismic stations in the Western Tibet that operated from 2007 to 2011. The network covered an approximately triangular area between the Karakorum fault (KF) in the south and the Banggong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) in the north, between longitudes of 79.5 and 83.5 east. In our study we used the data covering approximately two and a half years, from July 2007 to December 2009. Ten stations were operating from 2007, and additional 19 were introduced in 2009. We used earthquakes with magnitudes over 5.5, and picked and analyzed 130 well-recorded SKS phases. We employed three different algorithms of shear wave splitting estimation (cross-correlation, minimization of transverse component and an eigenvalue minimization technique) and used agreement in their respective results to assess the relative quality of our measurements. Observations that yielded radical disagreement in results from different algorithms were designated as NULLs. For a subset of NULLs we verified the absence of shear wave birefringence by visual inspection of particle motion. We report a set of 231 nulls and 310 splitting measurements, of which 128 we deem to be good (i.e., three techniques yield consistent results), and 182 are fair (two out of three methods agree). The delay time in good splitting observation varied from as little as 0.3s to 2.2s, with majority of measurements falling below 1 s. Fast polarizations display directional variability at individual observing sites, and also change laterally. We can identify four regions with distinct patterns of splitting. In the area between the KF and the BNS, fast direction of 40-65SE dominates, and most good splitting measurements yield delays ~1s. At most sites here we also see minor changes in fast direction with backazimuth. Two sites

  5. Vegetation Response to Western Juniper Slash Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany ( Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue ( Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass ( Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments ( P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of pre-treatment tree

  6. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  7. Tectonics of Western Canada From GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Flueck, P.; Hyndman, R. D.; Dragert, H.; Craymer, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2002-12-01

    Western Canada can be divided into three main current tectonic domains: The Cascadia subduction zone, the Queen Charlotte transform margin, and the Yukon intraplate deformation region. Well-developed GPS monitoring of present-day deformation has contributed substantially to our knowledge of the dynamics of the Cascadia margin. To the north, although seismicity and plate tectonics model indicate significant deformation, our understanding of the detailed tectonics is still sparse. We present a summary of GPS measurements obtained in western Canada and adjacent regions over the last 10 years that allow us to better apprehend these three tectonic systems. Along the Cascadia margin, the Juan de Fuca (JF) plate subducts beneath North America (NA). The crustal velocity field is well constrained by continuous and campaign GPS data that show a northeastward motion that decreases landward from ~10 to ~5 mm/yr. This deformation pattern indicates significant elastic shortening of the forearc due to the locking of the subduction thrust. The northernmost Cascadia region corresponds to a transition between subduction and transform regimes. GPS campaign data suggest that this transition is accommodated by internal deformation and underthrusting of the Explorer plate beneath the NA margin. Further to the north, the Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) accommodates the strike-slip motion between the Pacific (PA) and the NA plates. The slight obliquity of the PA/NA motion relative to the QCF direction implies some convergence along this margin. GPS campaign data in the Queen Charlotte Islands indicate velocities of 5-15 mm/yr northward with respect to NA. These results suggest a complex interaction between strain loading along the locked QCF, strain loading along a subduction thrust just offshore, and potential long-term deformation of the NA margin up to the Alaska Panhandle. The PA/NA transform margin changes to a convergence system in the Gulf of Alaska, where the Yakutat Terrane is

  8. The chaotic properties of western mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Lluch, M.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.

    2009-04-01

    The behaviour of rainfall in the Mediterranean region has been target of multiple studies because of its social economic and environmental implications. Mediterranean rainfalls are characterized by great variability between years combined whit recurrent drought periods and highly intense rain events. These circumstances favour the intensification of erosion processes and the incidence of landslides, floods, etc. Western Mediterranean zones show these facts more acute, which could become more critical in a near future according to climate change scenarios. Within such environments, see facing lands of Spain present most contrasting rainfall regimes within the western Mediterranean climates. Under such conditions, it is of paramount importance to determine rainfall behaviour according not only to general climate trends but also to specific microscale, or local, conditions -such as topograpy- that could be reflected in a random behaviour of rainfall. The objective of this work is to establish rainfall characteristics due to local topographic conditions according to the possible existence of chaotic dynamics. The methodology applies the correlation dimension method to analyse the presence of chaotic dynamics to rainfall time serie. This technique allows calculating the necessary variables to explain the rain behaviour and to establish suitable models that assume their complexity. The methodology have been applied to two monthly rainfall series (1950-1990) belonging to neighbouring stations with different topographic locations. Both rainfall stations, Elche and Novelda, are located in Alicante, eastern Spain, along the littoral mountain system. Elche with a SE orientation has a major marine influence, while Novelda, with a NW orientation, presents different local conditions with less Mediterranean sea influences. Results show a chaotic trend of low dimensionality in the two series analysed, having a clear saturation of correlation exponent for Elche rainfall records

  9. Why are rings regularly shed in the western equatorial Atlantic but not in the western Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, Doron

    The western equatorial Atlantic is characterized by the formation and shedding of 3-4 large anticyclonic rings per year. These rings originate from the North Brazil Current which, in response to the vanishing wind stress curl (over the ocean interior), retroflects and turns eastward at around 4°N. After their formation and shedding the rings propagate toward the northwest along the South American coast carrying an annual average of about 4Sv. As such, the rings constitute an important part of the meridional heat flux in the Atlantic. The same cannot be said, however, of the western equatorial Pacific. Here, the situation is entirely different even though the South Equatorial Current retroflects at roughly the same latitude as its Atlantic counterpart, the North Brazil Current. Although the South Equatorial Current retroflection is flanked by two quasi-permanent eddies (the so-called Halmahera and the Mindanao eddies), these eddies are an integral part of the current itself and are not shed. Consequently, they are not associated with any meridional heat flux. An important question is, then, why the two oceans behave in such a fundamentally different way even though the source of the rings, the retroflected currents, are very similar in the two oceans. To answer this question, the two oceans are compared using recently developed analytical and numerical models for the western equatorial oceans. It is first pointed out that, according to recent developments in the modelling of the western equatorial Atlantic, the North Brazil Current retroflection rings are formed, shed and drift to the west because, in the Atlantic, this is the only way by which the momentum flux of the approaching and retroflecting current can be balanced. In this scenario, the northwestward flow force exerted by the approaching and retroflecting North Brazil Current (analogous to the force created by a rocket) is balanced by the southwestward force exerted by the rings as they are formed

  10. Timber resources of western Oregon—highlights and statistics.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of a timber resource inventory of western Oregon made between 1973 and 1976. Detailed tables give land and forest area, timber volume, growth, and mortality for western Oregon and for southwest Oregon, west-central Oregon, and northwest Oregon.

  11. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

  12. Western European Studies in the United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Stephen

    The task of this survey was to measure the relative scale of interest in Western European Studies in the United States. Doctoral dissertations and mainstream academic journals in political science, economics, anthropology, geography, sociology, and history were examined for topics dealing with Western Europe. In addition, programs and…

  13. The Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2015-09-01

    We developed the Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS) to assess relationship standards that may differ between Chinese and Western partners and may challenge intercultural couples. The scale assesses 4 Western-derived relationship standards (demonstrations of love, demonstrations of caring, intimacy expression, and intimacy responsiveness) and 4 Chinese-derived relationship standards (relations with the extended family, relational harmony, face, and gender roles). We administered the CWICSS to 983 Chinese and Western participants living in Australia to assess the psychometric properties of the scores as measures of respondents' relationship standards. The CWICSS has a 2-level factor structure with the items reflecting the 8 predicted standards. The 4 Western derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of couple bond, and the 4 Chinese derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of family responsibility. The scale scores were structurally equivalent across cultures, genders, and 2 independent samples, and good convergent and discriminant validity was found for the interpretation of scale scores as respondents' endorsement of the predicted standards. Scores on the 8 scales and 2 superordinate scales showed high internal consistency and test-retest coefficients. Chinese endorsed all 4 family responsibility standards more strongly than did Westerners, but Chinese and Western participants were similar in endorsement of couple bond standards. Across both cultures, couple bond standards were endorsed more highly than were family responsibility standards. The CWICSS assesses potential areas of conflict in Chinese-Western relationships.

  14. Container configuration influences western larch and big sagebrush seedling development

    Treesearch

    Matthew Mehdi. Aghai

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.), a woody shrub, and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.), a deciduous conifer, are among many western North American species that have suffered a decline in presence and natural regeneration across their native ranges. These species are economically, ecologically, and intrinsically valuable, therefore many current...

  15. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3: Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  16. Western Grid Can Handle High Renewables in Challenging Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  17. 76 FR 58805 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-155 and certain...

  18. 76 FR 9771 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted a notice of complete cancellation of its...

  19. 76 FR 58805 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-156, concerning...

  20. When Distance Education Crosses State Boundaries: Western States' Policies. 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. Western Cooperative for Educational Communications.

    This report summarizes western states' policies and regulations governing the approval of higher education programs electronically delivered across state lines by institutions in other states. It caps the first year's activities in a 3-year Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications project, "Balancing Quality and Access: Reducing…

  1. Catalog of Uncommon Facilities in Western Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viehland, Dennis, Comp.

    A list of rare, and often unique, facilities in the western part of the United States is presented that is designed to serve as a resource for researchers. The list of facilities is a guide to what uncommon equipment, centers or institutes, and collections are available at western higher education facilities and what provisions exist for sharing…

  2. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  3. Effects of land use practices on western riparian ecosystems

    Treesearch

    David J. Krueper

    1993-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems are among the rarest and most sensitive habitat types in the western United States. Riparian habitat is critical for up to 80% of terrestrial vertebrate species, and is especially important in the arid West. Estimates have placed riparian habitat loss at greater than 95% in most western states. Impacts to riparian ecosystems are reviewed along with...

  4. Observation: Leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Kirby; Rodney G. Lym; John J. Sterling; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2003-01-01

    The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbiaes esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The obiectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge...

  5. 1955 forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1955-01-01

    While fire-weather severity remained low for the third successive year in western Washington, 1955 brought near normal fire weather to western Oregon for the first time since 1952. Temperatures were cooler than normal throughout the season in both half States, with record or near record lows for April, May, and July. April, July, and October were unusually rainy while...

  6. Ecological effects of nitrogen deposition in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Fenn; Jill S. Baron; Edith B. Allen; Heather M. Rueth; Koren R. Nydick; Linda Geiser; William D. Bowman; James O. Sickman; Thomas Meixner; Dale W. Johnson; Peter Neitlich

    2003-01-01

    In the western United States vast acreages of land are exposed to low levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, with interspersed hotspots of elevated N deposition downwind of large, expanding metropolitan centers or large agricultural operations. Biological response studies in western North America demonstrate that some aquatic and terrestrial plant and microbial...

  7. The Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT)

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    2004-01-01

    I represent a nascent effort in western North America that is committed to improving integration of climate-related research and its societal implications. We go under the name of CIRMOUNT, that is, Consortium for Integrated Climate-Related Research in Western North American Mountains. In a sense, CIRMOUNT is a North American answer (in the affirmative) to Thomas...

  8. 5. Photocopy of old exterior photo showing Western Saving Fund ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of old exterior photo showing Western Saving Fund Society before the addition of ca. 1910 building. Original photo, late 19th century, is at the Philadelphia Free Library, Philadelphia Collection, Print and Picture Department. - Western Saving Fund Society of Philadelphia, 1000-1008 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  10. 14 CFR 95.15 - Western United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Western United States Mountainous Area. 95... Western United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding that portion specified in the exceptions: (a) Area. From the Pacific coastline of the United States, eastward along the Canadian...

  11. 14 CFR 95.15 - Western United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Western United States Mountainous Area. 95... Western United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding that portion specified in the exceptions: (a) Area. From the Pacific coastline of the United States, eastward along the Canadian...

  12. 14 CFR 95.15 - Western United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Western United States Mountainous Area. 95... Western United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding that portion specified in the exceptions: (a) Area. From the Pacific coastline of the United States, eastward along the Canadian...

  13. Breeding frequency of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregeon

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Cynthia Carey

    2008-01-01

    Many species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the western toad (Bufo boreas), are declining in-the western United States. The ability of this species to recover from declines depends, in part, on its reproductive success. This study examined the breeding frequency in both sexes of B. borelis in northeastern Oregon compared to...

  14. New Bythinella (Gastropoda, Bythinellidae) species from western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Mehmet Zeki; Kebapçı, Ümit; Koca, Seval Bahadır; Yüce, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bythinella anatolica sp. n., Bythinella istanbulensis sp. n., Bythinella magdalenae sp. n., and Bythinella wilkei sp. n. from western Turkey are described herein. Illustrations of the shell and genitalia of the newly described taxa, together with comparisons with previously known Bythinella taxa and a key to the species from western Turkey, are also provided. PMID:25685028

  15. Western and Chinese Development Discourses: Education, Growth and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Western and Chinese discourses of education, sustainable growth and development. Education is increasingly considered as a means to fuel economic growth, especially since the 1980s, when conservative economic values became predominant in Western development thought. Despite a discourse on sustainability favouring ecologically…

  16. Early effect of two successive thinnings in western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1957-01-01

    The Hemlock Experimental Forest near Grays Harbor in western Washington was established in 1949 in cooperation with the St. Regis Paper Company. A major effort in this cooperative research program is a study of commercial thinning in a stand of nearly pure, well stocked, even-aged western hemlock that originated in 1903, after logging.

  17. Camping under Western Stars: Joan Crawford in "Johnny Guitar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian…

  18. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  19. The Western River--An Offscale Teaching and Experimental Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John J.; Wilcox, John T.

    1983-01-01

    Sedimentary patterns and hydraulic effects can be studies in model streams which are not to scale. The "Western River" is such a model which is being used effectively at Western Carolina College. Construction of the model, student exercises, and observations made when using the model are discussed. (Author/JN)

  20. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  1. Fall sowing and delayed germination of western white pine seed

    Treesearch

    W. G. Wahlenberg

    1924-01-01

    Experiments to determine the best time to sow seed of western white pine (Pinus monticola) have been under way in the northern Rocky Mountain region since 1912, partly in northern Idaho at the Priest River Forest Experiment Station, but mainly at the Savenac nursery on the Lolo National Forest in western Montana. Climate and soil combine to make the problem essentially...

  2. Treatment of understory hemlock in the western white pine type

    Treesearch

    I. T. Haig

    1933-01-01

    Silvicultural practice for the national forests in the mixed western white pine stands of northern Idaho has long been complicated by the economic problems arising from the presence of aggressive, tolerant, low-value species, such as western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and lowland white fir (Abies grandis), in association with the less tolerant, faster-growing, high-...

  3. Western white pine growth relative to forest openings

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; Penelope Morgan

    2004-01-01

    In northern Rocky Mountains moist forests, timber harvesting, fire exclusion, and an introduced stem disease have contributed to the decline in western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) abundance (from 90% to 10% of the area). Relations between canopy openings (0.1-15 ha) and western white pine growth within different physical settings are identified....

  4. Book review: Understanding human development in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane

    2008-01-01

    Isn't that development new?" is perhaps the phrase most frequently uttered by people who live in the western US. The West, it seems, is sucking Americans into its precious places at a rate that is unparalleled in recent US history. As humans continue to diffuse into the western landscape, they bring their corresponding demands for energy, transportation,...

  5. History of Heterobasidion annosum in Western United States

    Treesearch

    Richard S. Smith Jr.

    1989-01-01

    H. annosum was first discovered as a root pathogen of pine in western United States by E. P. Meinecke in 1909. Other early researchers reported it as a root and butt decay of nonresinous conifers in the west. Olson demonstrated its pathogenicity to western conifers and Wagener and Cave described its occurrence and role in the eastside pine forests....

  6. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Harold

    This book argues against the politicization of literature and presents a guide to the great works and essential writers of the ages, the "Western Canon." The book studies 26 writers and seeks to isolate the qualities that made these authors canonical, that is, authoritative in Western culture. Noting that although originally the…

  7. Western Massachusetts Five College/Public School Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mary Alice B.

    The Western Massachusetts Five College/Public School Partnership was organized to strengthen communication and share resources among the schools in western Massachusetts and the members of a higher education consortium called Five Colleges, Inc. (comprising Amherst, Hampshire, Mount Holyoke, and Smith Colleges and the University of Massachusetts…

  8. Assessing the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington

    Treesearch

    Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The production structure of the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington was investigated using a translog cost function with capital. labor, and sawlog inputs. Analyses were performed with a panel data set of biennial observations from 1972 to 2002 on a cross section of 16 western Washington counties. Production structure was examined using Allen and...

  9. The Western Apache home: landscape management and failing ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Seth Pilsk; Jeanette C. Cassa

    2005-01-01

    The traditional Western Apache home lies largely within the Madrean Archipelago. The natural resources of the region make up the basis of the Apache home and culture. Profound landscape changes in the region have occurred over the past 150 years. A survey of traditional Western Apache place names documents many of these changes. An analysis of the history and Apache...

  10. 76 FR 8726 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 3, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration, pursuant to Order No. 714,\\1\\ and the...

  11. 75 FR 65624 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Western Area Power Administration submitted a tariff filing...

  12. 77 FR 65546 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 14, 2011, Western Area Power Administration submitted its revised version of its Tariff...

  13. 78 FR 62014 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 17, 2013, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-1626,...

  14. 76 FR 65718 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 23, 2011, Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-151 concerning...

  15. A strategic assessment of biofuels development in the Western States

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert Rummer; Bryan Jenkins; Nathan Parker; Peter Tittman; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ed Gray; Anneliese Schmidt; Marcia Patton-Mallory; Gordon Gayle

    2009-01-01

    The Western Governors' Association assessment of biofuels potential in western states estimated the location and capacity of biofuels plants that could potentially be built for selected gasoline prices in 2015 using a mixed integer programming model. The model included information on forest biomass supply curves by county (developed using Forest Service FIA data...

  16. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  17. A new name for the western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There currently is considerable confusion as to the correct application of the name Choristoneura occidentalis. This name has historically been applied to the western spruce budworm, a serious forest pest in western North America. However, Razowski (2008) transferred Archips occidentalis into Choris...

  18. Philosophy of Education: Becoming Less Western, More African?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…

  19. Western juniper drying project summaries, 1993-96.

    Treesearch

    Scott Leavengood; Larry. Swan

    1999-01-01

    Drying tests and trials for western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) were conducted between 1993 and 1996 to (1) test and refine existing dry kiln schedules; (2) develop moisture meter correction factors; (3) test dry western juniper in different types of kilns, both by itself and with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  20. Philosophy of Education: Becoming Less Western, More African?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…

  1. Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

  2. Attitudes of International Students toward the Western News Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbor, Kingsley O.

    A study employed Q-methodology to determine the attitudinal structure of international (Third World) students in regard to the western news model (defined as the criteria for news evaluation and selection adopted by the western democracies). Thirty-two respondents were purposively selected, eight each from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the…

  3. Population structures of Astragalus filipes collections from western North America

    Treesearch

    B. Shaun Bushman; Kishor Bhattarai; Douglas A. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    The majority of species used for revegetation in semi-arid western rangelands of North America are grasses, with few forbs and nearly no legumes. Astragalus filipes (Torr. Ex A. Gray) is a western North American legume and a promising candidate for use in rangeland revegetation, but assessments of plant species diversity and structure are necessary to determine which...

  4. The western arctic linkage experiment (WALE): overview and synthesis

    Treesearch

    A.D. McGuire; J. Walsh; J.S. Kimball; J.S. Clein; S.E. Euskirdhen; S. Drobot; U.C. Herzfeld; J. Maslanik; R.B. Lammers; M.A. Rawlins; C.J. Vorosmarty; T.S. Rupp; W. Wu; M. Calef

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of the Western Arctic Linkage Experiment (WALE) was to better understand uncertainties of simulated hydrologic and ecosystem dynamics of the western Arctic in the context of 1) uncertainties in the data available to drive the models and 2) different approaches to simulating regional hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Analyses of datasets on climate...

  5. Intermarriages between Western Women and Palestinian Men: Multidirectional Adaptation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roer-Strier, Dorit; Ezra, Dina Ben

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses cultural adaptation of Western-Palestinian intermarried couples. Using in-depth interviews, information was gathered from 16 participants, 7 Western women and 9 Palestinian men, living in Palestinian cities in the West Bank. Adaptation strategies are typified by the extent to which each spouse embraces the partner's culture.…

  6. Western yellow pine in Arizona and New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Theodore S. Woolsey

    1911-01-01

    Western yellow pine is to the Southwest what white pine is to the Northeast, or longleaf pine to the Southeast. The commercial forests of Arizona and New Mexico are three-fourths western yellow pine, which furnishes by far the greater part of the lumber used locally as well as that shipped to outside markets. To describe the characteristics of the species and to...

  7. View from Western Avenue looking northwest down curbside walkway. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from Western Avenue looking northwest down curbside walkway. Building 15 in left foreground. Illustration of asymmetrical layout and forty-five degree angle of buildings to public street - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Deployment of deer-resistant western redcedar (Thuja plicata)

    Treesearch

    John Russell

    2008-01-01

    Protecting planted western redcedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings from deer browse in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia is estimated to cost up to CAN$ 25 million annually. Recent studies linking deer browse and needle monoterpenes has resulted in the initiation of a breeding program for deer-resistant western redcedar at Cowichan Lake Research...

  9. Western Scientific Thought and African Traditional Beliefs and Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuah, Isaac

    This paper explores features that are common to both modern Western scientific thought and traditional African thought. The differences between the two are enumerated. In the Western scheme of knowledge, there is a continuous quest for explanatory theory for every phenomenon investigated. The paper notes that atoms, molecules, gods, and spirits…

  10. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Harold

    This book argues against the politicization of literature and presents a guide to the great works and essential writers of the ages, the "Western Canon." The book studies 26 writers and seeks to isolate the qualities that made these authors canonical, that is, authoritative in Western culture. Noting that although originally the…

  11. Systemic Change in Higher Education. Western Policy Exchange Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    The Western Policy Exchange Project is designed to help states assess the implications of environmental changes on their own higher education system. In roundtables and policy workshops, six Western states--Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, Arizona, and Washington--looked for evidence of systemic change and proposed the following five…

  12. A coarse wood dynamics model for the Western Cascades.

    Treesearch

    K. Mellen; A. Ager

    2002-01-01

    The Coarse Wood Dynamics Model (CWDM) analyzes the dynamics (fall, fragmentation, and decomposition) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) snags and down logs in forested ecosystems of the western Cascades of Oregon and Washington. The model predicts snag fall, height loss and decay,...

  13. Need 3 Quick Credits to Play Ball? Call Western Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Western Oklahoma State College's name comes up whenever athletes get themselves in a jam: They've failed a class. They've dropped another. Maybe they're just short on credits. But they still want to play. Western Oklahoma gives them a chance, offering three credits in two weeks--and for less than $400. Almost as appealing: The community college…

  14. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  15. Need 3 Quick Credits to Play Ball? Call Western Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Western Oklahoma State College's name comes up whenever athletes get themselves in a jam: They've failed a class. They've dropped another. Maybe they're just short on credits. But they still want to play. Western Oklahoma gives them a chance, offering three credits in two weeks--and for less than $400. Almost as appealing: The community college…

  16. Western Scientific Thought and African Traditional Beliefs and Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuah, Isaac

    This paper explores features that are common to both modern Western scientific thought and traditional African thought. The differences between the two are enumerated. In the Western scheme of knowledge, there is a continuous quest for explanatory theory for every phenomenon investigated. The paper notes that atoms, molecules, gods, and spirits…

  17. Independence and Choice: Western Impacts on Japanese Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    A brief history of the Japanese higher education system chronicles its two principal phases since the mid-nineteenth century. In the first, "window-shopping" mode, many Western models were explored and some partially adopted. In the "involvement" mode, specific Western models were adopted. The uniqueness of the Japanese…

  18. 76 FR 12957 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 3, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration, submitted its Open Access Transmission Tariff...

  19. 77 FR 65188 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 12, 2012, Western Area Power Administration submitted revisions to its Open Access Transmission...

  20. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

  1. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  2. A Review of Potential Components for the Western Bibliographic Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    Described are existing components that could be linked together to form a Western Bibliographic Network or could provide products and services for Network members. The components reviewed are: (1) state library agencies, research libraries, state and multistate library networks, and other regional organizations in the 17-state western region and…

  3. Plant Guide: Western Prairie Clover [Dalea Ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright] is a perennial North American legume that is non-toxic to livestock and wildlife. It can be found in Idaho, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, and California. Western prairie is tap-rooted and reaches a height of 30 to 61 cm. A cluster of st...

  4. Western and Chinese Development Discourses: Education, Growth and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Western and Chinese discourses of education, sustainable growth and development. Education is increasingly considered as a means to fuel economic growth, especially since the 1980s, when conservative economic values became predominant in Western development thought. Despite a discourse on sustainability favouring ecologically…

  5. Pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    A geologic characterization is presented of 17 newly identified localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon. The results show that lunar pyroclastic deposits are more pervasive on the western limb of the moon than once thought. The western limb dark-mantle deposits in the proximal zone are probably related to faults and fractures associated with the Cordillera ring of Orientale Basin. All the localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb for which near-infrared reflectance spectra have been obtained exhibit parameter that allowed them to be assigned to the three spectral groups described elsewhere. Western limb pyroclastic deposits appear to represent various stages in a formational sequence in which an initial explosive phase is followed by varying amounts of mare flooding. In view of their sequential formation, both the pyroclastic and mare materials associated with individual volcanic complexes may be the products of the same parent magmas and have very similar compositions.

  6. Pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    A geologic characterization is presented of 17 newly identified localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon. The results show that lunar pyroclastic deposits are more pervasive on the western limb of the moon than once thought. The western limb dark-mantle deposits in the proximal zone are probably related to faults and fractures associated with the Cordillera ring of Orientale Basin. All the localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb for which near-infrared reflectance spectra have been obtained exhibit parameter that allowed them to be assigned to the three spectral groups described elsewhere. Western limb pyroclastic deposits appear to represent various stages in a formational sequence in which an initial explosive phase is followed by varying amounts of mare flooding. In view of their sequential formation, both the pyroclastic and mare materials associated with individual volcanic complexes may be the products of the same parent magmas and have very similar compositions.

  7. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

    Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

    The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  8. Sedimentation and sustainability of western American reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, William L.; Wohl, Ellen; Sinha, Tushar; Sabo, John L.

    2010-12-01

    Reservoirs are sustainable only as long as they offer sufficient water storage space to achieve their design objectives. Life expectancy related to sedimentation is a measure of reservoir sustainability. We used data from the Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Geological Survey (Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System II (RESIS II)) to explore the sustainability of American reservoirs. Sustainability varied by region, with the longest life expectancies in New England and the Tennessee Valley and the shortest in the interior west. In the Missouri and Colorado River basins, sedimentation and rates of loss of reservoir storage capacity were highly variable in time and space. In the Missouri River Basin, the larger reservoirs had the longest life expectancies, with some exceeding 1000 years, while smaller reservoirs in the basin had the shortest life expectancies. In the Colorado River Basin at the site of Glen Canyon Dam, sediment inflow varied with time, declining by half beginning in 1942 because of hydroclimate and upstream geomorphic changes. Because of these changes, the estimated life expectancy of Lake Powell increased from 300 to 700 years. Future surprise changes in sedimentation delivery and reservoir filling area are expected. Even though large western reservoirs were built within a limited period, their demise will not be synchronous because of varying sedimentation rates. Popular literature has incorrectly emphasized the possibility of rapid, synchronous loss of reservoir storage capacity and underestimated the sustainability of the water control infrastructure.

  9. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  10. Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-07-15

    Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century.

  11. Perceptual basis of evolving Western musical styles

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H.; Shifres, Favio; Cecchi, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    The brain processes temporal statistics to predict future events and to categorize perceptual objects. These statistics, called expectancies, are found in music perception, and they span a variety of different features and time scales. Specifically, there is evidence that music perception involves strong expectancies regarding the distribution of a melodic interval, namely, the distance between two consecutive notes within the context of another. The recent availability of a large Western music dataset, consisting of the historical record condensed as melodic interval counts, has opened new possibilities for data-driven analysis of musical perception. In this context, we present an analytical approach that, based on cognitive theories of music expectation and machine learning techniques, recovers a set of factors that accurately identifies historical trends and stylistic transitions between the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Post-Romantic periods. We also offer a plausible musicological and cognitive interpretation of these factors, allowing us to propose them as data-driven principles of melodic expectation. PMID:23716669

  12. Is human fecundity declining in Western countries?

    PubMed

    te Velde, Egbert; Burdorf, Alex; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Eijkemans, René; Kremer, Jan A M; Roeleveld, Nel; Habbema, Dik

    2010-06-01

    Since Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by several re-analyses of their data set and by many studies on time trends in sperm quality and on secular trends in fecundity. However, the results of these studies were diverse, complex, difficult to interpret and, therefore, less straightforward than the Carlsen report suggested. The claims that population fecundity is declining and that environmental pollutants are involved, can neither be confirmed nor rejected, in our opinion. However, it is of great importance to find out because the possible influence of widespread environmental pollution, which would adversely affect human reproduction, should be a matter of great concern triggering large-scale studies into its causes and possibilities for prevention. The fundamental reason we still do not know whether population fecundity is declining is the lack of an appropriate surveillance system. Is such a system possible? In our opinion, determining total sperm counts (as a measure of male reproductive health) in combination with time to pregnancy (as a measure of couple fecundity) in carefully selected populations is a feasible option for such a monitoring system. If we want to find out whether or not population fecundity will be declining within the following 20-30 years, we must start monitoring now.

  13. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

    Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

    The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  14. Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rar, Vera A.; Fomenko, Natalia V.; Dobrotvorsky, Andrey K.; Livanova, Natalya N.; Rudakova, Svetlana A.; Fedorov, Evgeniy G.; Astanin, Vadim B.

    2005-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, were tested for infection with Borrelia, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. I. persulcatus ticks were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% ± 4.3% [standard deviation]), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% ± 1.4%), Ehrlichia muris (8.8% ± 2.5%), and Bartonella spp. (37.6% ± 4.3%). D. reticulatus ticks contained DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (3.6% ± 2.0%), Bartonella spp. (21.4% ± 4.5%), and Babesia canis canis (3.6% ± 2.0%). Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and their mixed infections were observed among I. persulcatus, whereas B. garinii NT29 DNA was seen in samples from D. reticulatus. Among the I. persulcatus ticks studied, no Babesia spp. were observed, whereas B. canis canis was the single subspecies found in D. reticulatus. PMID:16318722

  15. Crustal attenuation characteristics in western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtulmuş, Tevfik Özgür; Akyol, Nihal

    2013-11-01

    We analysed 1764 records produced by 322 micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes in western Turkey to estimate crustal attenuation characteristics in the frequency range of 1.0 ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz. In the first step, we obtained non-parametric attenuation functions and they show that seismic recordings of transverse and radial S waves exhibit different characteristics at short and long hypocentral distances. Applying a two-step inversion, we parametrized Q( f ) and geometrical spreading exponent b( f ) for the entire distance range between 10 and 200 km and then we estimated separately Q and b values for short (10-70 km) and large (120-200 km) distance ranges. We could not observe significant frequency dependencies of b for short distance range, whereas the significant frequency dependence of b was observed for large distances. Low Q0 values (˜60) with strong frequency dependence of Q (˜1.4) for short distances suggest that scattering might be an important factor contributing to the attenuation of body waves in the region, which could be associated to a high degree of fracturing, fluid filled cracks, young volcanism and geothermal activity in the crust. Weak Q frequency dependence and higher Q0 values for large distances manifest more homogenous medium because of increasing pressure and enhanced healing of cracks with increasing temperature and depth. Q anisotropy was also observed for large hypocentral distance ranges.

  16. Age of the Rockland tephra, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Clynne, M.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The age of the Rockland tephra, which includes an ash-flow tuff south and west of Lassen Peak in northern California and a widespread ash-fall deposit that produced a distinct stratigraphic marker in western North America, is constrained to 565,000 to 610,000 yr by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating. 40Ar/39Ar ages on plagioclase from pumice in the Rockland have a weighted mean age of 609,000 ?? 7000 yr. Isotopic ages of spots on individual zircon crystals, analyzed by the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe, range from ???500,000 to ???800,000 yr; a subpopulation representing crystal rims yielded a weighted-mean age of 573,000 ?? 19,000 yr. Overall stratigraphic constraints on the age are provided by two volcanic units, including the underlying tephra of the Lava Creek Tuff erupted within Yellowstone National Park that has an age of 639,000 ?? 2000 yr. The basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch stratigraphically overlies the Rockland in the Lassen Peak area and has 40Ar/39Ar ages of 565,000 ?? 29,000 and 565,000 ?? 12,000 yr for plagioclase and groundmass, respectively. Identification of Rockland tephra in ODP core 1018 offshore of central California is an important stratigraphic age that also constrains the eruption age to between 580,000 and 600,000 yr. ?? 2004 Published by University of Washington.

  17. The rams horn in western history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  18. Oral health of schoolchildren in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Arrow, P

    2016-09-01

    The West Australian School Dental Service (SDS) provides free, statewide, primary dental care to schoolchildren aged 5-17 years. This study reports on an evaluation of the oral health of children examined during the 2014 calendar year. Children were sampled, based on their date of birth, and SDS clinicians collected the clinical information. Weighted mean values of caries experience were presented. Negative binomial regression modelling was undertaken to test for factors of significance in the rate of caries occurrence. Data from children aged 5-15 years were used (girls = 4616, boys = 4900). Mean dmft (5-10-year-olds), 1.42 SE 0.03; mean DMFT (6-15-year-olds), 0.51 SE 0.01. Negative binomial regression model of permanent tooth caries found higher rates of caries in children who were from non-fluoridated areas (RR 2.1); Aboriginal (RR 2.4); had gingival inflammation (RR 1.5); lower ICSEA level (RR 1.4); and recalled at more than 24-month interval (RR 1.8). The study highlighted poor dental health associated with living in non-fluoridated areas, Aboriginal identity, poor oral hygiene, lower socioeconomic level and having extended intervals between dental checkups. Timely assessments and preventive measures targeted at groups, including extending community water fluoridation, may assist in further improving the oral health of children in Western Australia. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy from Western Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, John M.; He, Ruoying; Muglia, Michael; Lowcher, Caroline F.; Gong, Yanlin; Haines, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model–based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500–1,000 W m‑2. Significant fluctuations occur with periods of 3–20 days (Gulf Stream meanders) and weeks to months (Gulf Stream path shifts). Interannual variations in annual average power occur because of year-to-year changes in these WBC motions. No large-scale turbines presently exist, and the road to establishing MHK facilities in WBCs will encounter challenges that are similar in many aspects to those associated with the development of offshore wind power.

  20. [Western Galilee Hospital in Nahariya--50+ years].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2006-12-01

    Initially beginning as a small birthing center, the Western Galilee Hospital (WGH) in Nahariya is now the largest hospital in Galilee. It serves a demographically mixed Israeli population of more then 400,000, the Galilee's mosaic of Jews, Moslems, Christians, Druze and large immigrant populations from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia. The hospital is also a treatment center for IDF and UN soldiers. The staff, which reflects the ethnically mixed population of the region, is a long-standing model of cooperation and peaceful coexistence. Doctors and nurses of different faiths and cultural backgrounds work together in harmony and with respect to achieve a mutual goal: to provide the best and finest medical treatment to all in need. The hospital's proximity to the Lebanese border, together with its previous experience as the target of Katyusha rocket fire, has forced management to construct underground facilities for emergency situations. Five-hundred beds and eight modern operating rooms that are fully protected from conventional, biological and chemical warfare are an integral part of the preparedness program. The entire staff participates in preparatory drills for mass casualty events. WGH is a forerunner in quality of medical care. To date it is the only Israeli hospital to meet the demanding standards for ISO 9000 2000 certification for quality management, and has now adopted the standards of the European Federation of Quality Management (EFQM). The hospital won the Rabin National Award for Quality in 1995.