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Sample records for lindane induces testicular

  1. Similarities in lindane induced alterations in protein expression profiling in different brain regions with neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mudawal, Anubha; Singh, Anshuman; Yadav, Sanjay; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Chandravanshi, Lalit Pratap; Mishra, Juhi; Khanna, Vinay K; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Parmar, Devendra

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that lindane, an organochlorine pesticide induces oxidative stress in rat brain that may lead to neurodegeneration. However, as the proteins involved in lindane induced neurodegeneration are yet to be identified, the present study aims to identify the proteins that may regulate lindane induced neurotoxicity. The data showed that repeated exposure of lindane (2.5 mg/kg) for 21 days to adult rats significantly increased the reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in different brain regions. Proteomic study revealed that lindane induces major dysregulation in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Alterations in the expression of molecular chaperones in brain regions and an increase in the expression of α-synuclein in substantia-nigra and corpus-striatum and amyloid precursor protein in hippocampus and frontal-cortex suggests the accumulation of proteins in these brain regions. Western blotting also revealed alterations in the dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in hippocampus and substantia-nigra isolated from lindane treated rats. Neurobehavioural data indicating alterations in learning and working memory, conditioned avoidance response and motor function, supports the proteomic data. The data suggest that repeated exposure of lindane to adult rats induces alterations, which are similar to that seen in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and lindane induce cooperative toxicity in dopaminergic neurons: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Heera; Zhang, Ping; Barber, David S; Liu, Bin

    2010-03-01

    Elevated environmental exposure to pesticides has been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive movement disorder resulted from degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dieldrin and lindane remain ubiquitous in the environment and food supply due to their resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation along the food chain. While prior studies have gained insight into the neurotoxic effects of individual OCPs such as dieldrin, the effect of combinations of coexisting OCPs is lacking. In this study, we determined the combined effect of dieldrin and lindane on DA neurons and potential mechanism of action. Combinations of dieldrin and lindane (5-25 microM) were more effective in causing toxicity in immortalized rat N27 DA neurons than when used alone. Mechanistically, dieldrin and lindane combination induced a rapid increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3/7. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked the effect of dieldrin and lindane on ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential and protected against dieldrin- and lindane-induced neurotoxicity. These results demonstrate that dieldrin and lindane work cooperatively to induce DA neurotoxicity through the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings may advance understanding of the role of pesticides in the multi-factorial etiology of PD. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Lalitha, Gurusamy; Shirony, Nicholson Puthanveedu; Baskaran, Rathinasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane. PMID:23569870

  4. Chlorobenzenes, lindane and dieldrin induce apoptotic alterations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Mokra, Katarzyna; Rosiak, Karolina; Sicińska, Paulina; Bukowska, Bożena

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have assessed apoptotic effect of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and dieldrin on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. We observed an increase in ROS formation and a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in the cells incubated with low concentrations of all compounds studied, in particular lindane and dieldrin. ROS formation and changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential may have influenced caspase-3 activation, a crucial enzyme in the apoptotic process. Moreover, chlorobenzenes, and in particular lindane and dieldrin changed cells' membrane permeability and induced phosphatidylserine translocation, which confirmed that they are capable of inducing apoptosis in human lymphocytes. Apoptotic changes in human lymphocytes provoked by biologically relevant concentrations of these substances suggest that they may disturb function of immunological system especially among people occupationally exposed to their action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic microglial reactive oxygen species generation induced by pesticides lindane and dieldrin.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haoyu; Liu, Bin

    2008-08-27

    Elevated environmental exposure to pesticides is a known risk factor to the development of sporadic Parkinson's disease resulting from the degeneration of nigral dopamine neurons. Among the suspected agents are the highly persistent and bioaccumulative organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs). We report here that lindane and dieldrin, two widely present OCPs that are found enriched in the nigra of postmortem Parkinson's disease brains synergistically induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglia. Inhibitor studies indicated that the lindane and dieldrin-induced ROS generation was mediated by NADPH oxidase. As microglial ROS is a key contributor to the degeneration of the oxidative damage-vulnerable dopamine neurons, our findings shed significant light on the role of OCPs in the development of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Low concentration of lindane plus induced attraction traps mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1976-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles were induced to attack lodgepole pine sprayed with 0.2 percent or 0.3 percent lindane emulsion. Large numbers of beetles were killed and fell into traps at the base of the tree. The few successfully attacking beetles caused the sprayed trees to remain attractive to beetles for about two months. The incidence of attacked trees in the immediate area...

  7. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Croom, Edward L.; Shafer, Timothy J.; Evans, Marina V.; Mundy, William R.; Eklund, Chris R.; Johnstone, Andrew F.M.; Mack, Cina M.; Pegram, Rex A.

    2015-02-15

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC{sub 50} for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC{sub 50} were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC{sub 50} dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC

  8. Partition of the organochlorine insecticide lindane into the human sperm surface induces membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroni, L; Fiorini, R; Palleschi, S

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the insecticide lindane (the gamma-isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane) on membrane potential, cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and surface biophysical properties were studied in human spermatozoa. The insecticide induces rapid, transient and reproducible membrane depolarization and opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels leading to an increase in [Ca2+]i. In contrast with the effect in somatic cells, lindane did not affect gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-linked Cl- currents. Ca2+ and K+ currents were found to drive lindane-induced membrane depolarization and repolarization respectively, whereas Na+ and Cl- fluxes appear not to have a role in the phenomenon. The insecticide was still able to produce membrane depolarization both in the combined absence of extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ and in high-K+ buffer, suggesting that lindane alters the membrane dipole potential. In agreement with this, Laurodan and Prodan fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that lindane partition into the sperm plasma membrane lowers water molecular dynamics in the uppermost region of the membrane external leaflet, probably as the result of reordering of water dipoles. We propose that the first effect of lindane partitioning into the sperm plasma membrane is a change in the membrane dipole potential, which results in the activation of membrane-located Ca2+-influx pathways. PMID:9032455

  9. Alleviation of lindane induced toxicity in testis of Swiss mice (Mus musculus) by combined treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nagda, Girima; Bhatt, Devendra Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Mitigation of lindane induced toxicity in testis of Swiss mice by combined treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid has been evaluated. Male healthy mice (40), 8-10 weeks old were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups, control (C); lindane (L); antioxidant (A) and antioxidant plus lindane (A+L). Group C animals were administered only the vehicle (olive oil); in group L lindane was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg body wt.; in group A combination of antioxidants at a dose of 125 mg/kg body wt.(vitamin C: 50 mg/kg body wt., vitamin E: 50 mg/kg body wt. and alpha-lipoic acid: 25 mg/kg body wt.) was administered orally; in group A+L both antioxidants (125 mg/kg body wt.) and lindane (40 mg/kg body wt.) were administered at their respective doses. In group A+L antioxidants were administered 1 h prior to lindane administration. All treatments were continuously given for 60 days. Histopathological changes due to lindane intoxication indicated shrunken and distorted seminiferous tubules, sparse Leydig cells and blood vessels and atrophy in the tissue. The testis weight also decreased significantly. Lindane treated group showed increased lipid peroxidation, whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and protein were significantly decreased compared to control. Lindane induced damage was minimized by administration of antioxidants. Results suggest that combined pretreatment with antioxidants can alleviate the damage caused to testis by lindane.

  10. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  11. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  12. Effect of treatment of cow's urine "Gomutra" and antioxidants in alleviating the lindane-induced oxidative stress in kidney of Swiss mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Nagda, Girima; Bhatt, Devendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cow urine and combination of antioxidants against lindane induced oxidative stress in Swiss mice. Male healthy mice, 8-10 weeks old, weighing 30 ± 5 g were randomly selected and divided into eight groups, namely, control (C); lindane (L); antioxidant (A), antioxidant+lindane (A+L), cow urine (U), cow urine+lindane (U+L), cow urine+antioxidants (U+A) and cow urine+antioxidants+lindane (U+A+L). Group C animals were administered only the vehicle (olive oil); doses selected for other treatments were: lindane: 40 mg/kg b.w.; antioxidants: 125 mg/kg b.w. (vitamin C: 50 mg/kg b.w., vitamin E: 50 mg/kg b.w., α-lipoic acid: 25 mg/kg b.w.) and cow urine: 0.25 ml/kg b.w. In group A+L and U+L antioxidants and cow urine were administered 1 h prior to lindane administration and in group U+A and U+A+L cow urine was administered 10 min before antioxidants. All treatments were administered orally continuously for 60 days. Lindane treated group showed increased lipid peroxidation, whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, protein and endogenous levels of vitamin C and E were significantly decreased compared to control. Administration of cow urine and antioxidants alleviated the levels of these biochemical parameters.

  13. Cetuximab intensifies cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Popovtzer, Aron; Tzabari, Moran; Mizrachi, Aviram; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proliferative properties in the testis. Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR, is administered together with chemotherapy to patients with various types of cancer. This studies aim was to investigate the effect of cetuximab on testicular function. Adult male mice were injected with cetuximab (10 mg/kg), cisplatin (8 mg/kg) or a combination of both, and killed one week or one month later. The doses were chosen by human equivalent dose calculation. Testicular function was evaluated by epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count and sperm motility, weights of testes and epididymides, and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine germ cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labelling), reserve (DAZL-Deleted in azoospermia-like, Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger), blood vessels (CD34) and Sertoli cells (GATA-4). Administration of cetuximab alone increased testicular apoptosis and decreased epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count over time. When added to cisplatin, cetuximab exacerbated most of the recorded testicular parameters, compared with the effect of cisplatin alone, including testis and epididymis weights, epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count, AMH concentration, meiosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, cetuximab has only a mild effect on testicular reserve, but when added to cisplatin, it exacerbates cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

  14. Similarities in lindane induced alteration in cytochrome P450s and associated signaling events in peripheral blood lymphocytes and brain.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anwar Jamal; Sharma, Amit; Dinesh, K; Parmar, Devendra

    2013-10-01

    Studies were initiated to investigate the similarities in alterations in cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and associated signaling events in brain and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced by lindane, an organochlorine pesticide. Adult male albino wistar rats were treated orally with different doses (2.5- or 5.0- or 10- or 15 mg/kg/body weight) of lindane daily for 4 days. In another experiment, the treatment of low dose (2.5mg/kg) of lindane was continued for 15- and 21 days. A dose- and time-dependent increase was observed in the activity of CYP dependent enzymes in brain microsomes and PBL isolated from the treated rats. However, the magnitude of induction was several folds less in PBL. As observed in brain, RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting demonstrated that increase in CYP enzymes in PBL is due to the increase in the mRNA expression of specific CYP isoenzymes. Similarities were also observed in activation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases and c-jun in PBL or brain isolated from rats treated with lindane. Similarities in the induction of CYPs and activation of MAP kinases in PBL and brain suggest that CYP expression profiles in PBL could be used for monitoring the exposure and toxicity of environmental chemicals.

  15. Enhancement of lindane-induced liver oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity by thyroid hormone is reduced by gadolinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Simon-Giavarotti, Karin A; Giavarotti, Leandro; Gomes, Ligia F; Lima, Alessandra F; Veridiano, Adriano M; Garcia, Eduardo A; Mora, Oswaldo A; Fernández, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virginia B C

    2002-10-01

    The role of Kupffer cells in the hepatocellular injury and oxidative stress induced by lindane (20 mg/kg; 24h) in hyperthyroid rats (daily doses of 0.1 mg L-3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3)/kg for three consecutive days) was assessed by the simultaneous administration of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 2 doses of 10mg/kg on alternate days). Hyperthyroid animals treated with lindane exhibit enhanced liver microsomal superoxide radical (O2.-) production and NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity, with lower levels of cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and glutathione (GSH) content over control values. These changes are paralleled by a substantial increase in the lipid peroxidation potential of the liver and in the O2.- generation/ SOD activity ratio, thus evidencing a higher oxidative stress status that correlates with the development of liver injury characterized by neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Kupffer cell inactivation by GdCl3 suppresses liver injury in lindane/T3-treated rats with normalization of altered oxidative stress-related parameters, excepting the reduction in the content of GSH and in catalase activity. It is concluded that lindane hepatotoxicity in hyperthyroid state, that comprises an enhancement in the oxidative stress status of the liver, is largely dependent on Kupffer cell function, which may involve generation of mediators leading to pro-oxidant and inflammatory processes.

  16. Protective effect of the natural product, chaetoglobosin K, on lindane- and dieldrin-induced changes in astroglia: identification of activated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Tatyana S; Matesic, Diane F

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the biochemical mechanism(s) of the preventative and reversal effects of Chaetoglobosin K (ChK), a bioactive natural product, on inhibition of gap junction-mediated communication and connexin phosphorylation by the tumor promoting organochlorine compounds, lindane, and dieldrin. A fluorescent dye transfer assay was used to quantify gap junction-mediated communication and sensitivity to lindane and dieldrin. Analyses of connexin 43, PKC, ERK, GSK-3beta, Raf, and Akt kinase phosphorylation were performed by Western blotting. Pre-incubation of astroglial cells with 10 microM ChK prevented inhibition of dye transfer by lindane and dieldrin, which correlates with stabilization of the connexin 43 P2 isoform, and addition of ChK after lindane or dieldrin reversed the inhibitory effect, which correlated with re-appearance of the P2 isoform. Using phosphorylation site-specific antibodies, we demonstrated that lindane, dieldrin, and ChK all activated p44/42 ERK, but only ChK activated Akt kinase. ChK also activated a downstream effector of Akt, GSK-3beta, and activation of both kinases was inhibited by Wortmannin. Wortmannin also blocked ChK's ability to prevent dieldrin-induced inhibition of gap junction-mediated communication between RG-2 cells. ChK's protective effects, both preventative and reversal, on lindane and dieldrin inhibition of gap junction-mediated communication are associated with stabilization and reappearance of the connexin 43 P2 phosphoform and may be mediated by the Akt pathway.

  17. Propolis attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Sherine M; Zaki, Hala F; Mina, Mary A M

    2014-05-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an effective anticancer agent, can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of propolis extract on Dox-induced testicular injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n=10). Group I (normal control), group II received propolis extract (200 mg kg(-1); p.o.), for 3 weeks. Group III received 18 mg kg(-1) total cumulative dose of Dox i.p. Group IV received Dox and propolis extract. Serum and testicular samples were collected 48 h after the last treatment. In addition, the effects of propolis extract and Dox on the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice were investigated. Dox reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, steroidogenesis and gene expression of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). In addition, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with propolis extract prevented Dox-induced changes without reducing its antitumor activity. Besides, administration of propolis extract to normal rats increased serum testosterone level coupled by increased activities and gene expression of 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD. Propolis extract may protect the testis from Dox-induced toxicity without reducing its anticancer potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, W. L. N. V. Vara; Srilatha, Ch.; Sailaja, N.; Raju, N. K. B.; Jayasree, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage. PMID:27956790

  19. Low Temperature-Induced Circulating Triiodothyronine Accelerates Seasonal Testicular Regression

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yorinaga, Eriko; Ono, Hiroko; Murayama, Itaru; Nakane, Yusuke; Ota, Wataru; Arai, Natsumi; Tega, Akinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Darras, Veerle M.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Shosei

    2015-01-01

    In temperate zones, animals restrict breeding to specific seasons to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of seasonal regulation, and their testicular mass can change 100-fold within a few weeks. Recent studies on Japanese quail revealed that seasonal gonadal development is regulated by central thyroid hormone activation within the hypothalamus, depending on the photoperiodic changes. By contrast, the mechanisms underlying seasonal testicular regression remain unclear. Here we show the effects of short day and low temperature on testicular regression in quail. Low temperature stimulus accelerated short day-induced testicular regression by shutting down the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and inducing meiotic arrest and germ cell apoptosis. Induction of T3 coincided with the climax of testicular regression. Temporal gene expression analysis over the course of apoptosis revealed the suppression of LH response genes and activation of T3 response genes involved in amphibian metamorphosis within the testis. Daily ip administration of T3 mimicked the effects of low temperature stimulus on germ cell apoptosis and testicular mass. Although type 2 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, in the brown adipose tissue generates circulating T3 under low-temperature conditions in mammals, there is no distinct brown adipose tissue in birds. In birds, type 2 deiodinase is induced by low temperature exclusively in the liver, which appears to be caused by increased food consumption. We conclude that birds use low temperature-induced circulating T3 not only for adaptive thermoregulation but also to trigger apoptosis to accelerate seasonal testicular regression. PMID:25406020

  20. MicroRNA profiles in a monkey testicular injury model induced by testicular hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Mikamoto, Kei; Shirai, Makoto; Iguchi, Takuma; Ito, Kazumi; Takasaki, Wataru; Mori, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To characterize microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in testicular toxicity in cynomolgus monkeys, miRNA profiles were investigated using next‐generation sequencing (NGS), microarray and reverse transcription‐quantitative real‐time‐PCR (RT‐qPCR) methods. First, to identify organ‐specific miRNAs, we compared the expression levels of miRNAs in the testes to those in representative organs (liver, heart, kidney, lung, spleen and small intestine) obtained from naïve mature male and female monkeys (n = 2/sex) using NGS analysis. Consequently, miR‐34c‐5p, miR‐202‐5p, miR‐449a and miR‐508‐3p were identified to be testicular‐specific miRNAs in cynomolgus monkeys. Next, we investigated miRNA profiles after testicular–hyperthermia (TH) treatment to determine which miRNAs are involved in testicular injury. In this experiment, mature male monkeys were divided into groups with or without TH‐treatment (n = 3/group) by immersion of the testes in a water bath at 43 °C for 30 min for 5 consecutive days. As a result, TH treatment induced testicular injury in all animals, which was characterized by decreased numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids. In a microarray analysis of the testis, 11 up‐regulated (>2.0 fold) and 13 down‐regulated (<0.5 fold) miRNAs were detected compared with those in the control animals. Interestingly, down‐regulated miRNAs included two testicular‐specific miRNAs, miR‐34c‐5p and miR‐449a, indicating their potential use as biomarkers for testicular toxicity. Furthermore, RT‐qPCR analysis revealed decreased expression levels of testicular miR‐34b‐5p and miR‐34c‐5p, which are enriched in meiotic cells, reflecting the decrease in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids after TH treatment. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanism of testicular toxicity and potential translational biomarkers for testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology

  1. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced testicular toxicity and differential testicular expression of estrogen receptor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Chun-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Chen, Gang; Qiu, Liang-Lin; Jiang, Jun-Kang; Ben, Shuai; Wang, Yu-Bang; Gu, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, CAS#1763-23-1) causes male reproductive toxicities, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, 0, 0.5 and 10mg/kg/day PFOS were given by oral gavage to adult mice for 5 weeks. In the 10mg/kg group, serum testosterone levels decreased significantly. Sperm counts declined which might be associated with the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells. In relation to increased apoptosis, bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 levels elevated significantly, indicating that PFOS induced germ cell apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the increase in levels of testicular estrogen receptor (ER) β was observed in both 0.5 and 10mg/kg group, whereas a decrease in ERα expression was only observed in 10mg/kg group. These results suggested that the alterations in testicular ERs expression, together with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells, might be involved in PFOS-induced testicular toxicity.

  2. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  3. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  4. Improving In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation by Incorporating Toxicokinetic Measurements: A Case Study of Lindane-Induced Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicit...

  5. Improving In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation by Incorporating Toxicokinetic Measurements: A Case Study of Lindane-Induced Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicit...

  6. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) by incorporation of toxicokinetic measurements: a case study with lindane induced seizures.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro toxicokinetic assessments are needed to maximize the capability of in vitro toxicity assays to predict in vivo outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro distribution of lindane, a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, in rat primary neocortic...

  7. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) by incorporation of toxicokinetic measurements: a case study with lindane induced seizures.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro toxicokinetic assessments are needed to maximize the capability of in vitro toxicity assays to predict in vivo outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro distribution of lindane, a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, in rat primary neocortic...

  8. Thallium-induced testicular toxicity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Formigli, L.; Scelsi, R.; Poggi, P.; Gregotti, C.; Di Nucci, A.; Sabbioni, E.; Gottardi, L.; Manzo, L.

    1986-08-01

    Reproductive tract functions were studied in adult male Wistar rats given 10 ppm thallium as thallium sulfate in the drinking water. After 60 days of treatment, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymides and vas deferens showed reduced motility and immature germ cells were found in the tubular lumen. Histological examination of testes in thallium-treated animals revealed disarrangement of the tubular epithelium and ultrastructural changes in the Sertoli cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation and distension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The activity of testicular ..beta..-glucuronidase was significantly reduced whereas acid phosphatase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were unchanged. Plasma testosterone levels were within normal limits. No abnormalities in testicular morphology and biochemistry were seen in animals sacrificed at the end of the first month of thallium exposure. These findings indicate that the male reproductive system is a susceptible target site to toxic effects of thallium under chronic exposure. They also suggest a major involvement of Sertoli cells in the mechanism underlying thallium-induced testicular damage.

  9. From Tucking to Twisting; A Case of Self-induced Testicular Torsion in a Cross Dressing Male.

    PubMed

    Epps, Thomas; McCormick, Barrett; Ali, Antar; Duboy, Alberto; Gillen, James; Martinez, Daniel; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A self-induced, non-traumatic testicular torsion is a rare entity that to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 28-year-old male who caused a self-induced testicular torsion during acts associated with cross dressing. Differential diagnosis of the acute scrotum in an adult should always include testicular torsion, as outcomes in this population are worse than in younger populations. Additional unusual causes of testicular torsion are reviewed.

  10. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  11. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  12. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of supranutritional selenium on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rungsung, Soya; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Rampal, Satyavan; Singh Saini, Simrat Pal

    2016-05-25

    The study was designed to assess the ameliorative potential of selenium (Se) on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. There was a significant decrease in body weight and non-significant decrease in mean testicular weight of enrofloxacin treated rats. In enrofloxacin treated rats, total sperm count and viability decreased where as sperm abnormalities increased. Testicular histopathology revealed dose dependent dysregulation of spermatogenesis and presence of necrotic debris in seminiferous tubules which was marginally improved with Se. Enrofloxacin also produced a dose dependent decrease in testosterone level. The activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes decreased where as lipid peroxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Se supplementation partially restored oxidative stress and sperm damage and did not affect the plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacain. The results indicate that enrofloxacin produces a dose-dependent testicular toxicity in rats that is moderately ameliorated with supranutritional Se.

  13. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Castilla-Cortázar, Inma; Garcia-Fernandez, Maria; Puche, Juan Enrique; Diaz-Sanchez, Matias; Casares, Amelia Diaz; Aliaga-Montilla, M Aurelia; Rodriguez-Borrajo, Coronación; Gonzalez-Barón, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT) without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week) during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT) were divided into two groups (n = 10 each): untreated rats (AT) receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc.) for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10) were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, plasma IGF-I did not augment in rats with testicular atrophy treated with IGF-I, while IGFBP3 levels, that reduces IGF-I availability, was increased in this group (p < 0.05). Conclusion In testicular atrophy by hypoxia, condition without IGF-I deficiency, IGF-treatment induces only partial effects. These findings suggest that IGF-I therapy appears as an appropriate treatment in hypogonadism only when this is associated to conditions of IGF-I deficiency (such as Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis). PMID:16504030

  14. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Emmanuel O; Adeeyo, Olusola A; Falokun, Olutunde P; Yusuf, Uthman A; Oyerinde, Abiodun; Adeleke, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. AIM: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum: Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyse the results obtained. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life–death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. CONCLUSION: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19562072

  15. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei-Yuan; Tong, Li-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Cao, Yong-Gang; Wang, Gong-Chen; Zhu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg−1) in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg−1), NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg−1), or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl3, but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men. PMID:26387585

  16. A case of testicular infarction from the complications of Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonae; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we reported a case of testicular infarction in a patient with Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis. Acute left epididymitis progressed into testicular infarction requiring orchiectomy in spite of antibiotics treatment. Ordinary urine cultures did not reveal any specific organism, suggesting viable but noncultureable state. We amplified a bacterial 16S ribosomal subunit gene from the urine and orchiectomized samples, and we found K. oxytoca infections from both of them.

  17. Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium-induced testicular damage and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Manar Hamed; Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium is a potential environmental and industrial pollutant affecting human tissues and organs including liver and testes. The protective role of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) was investigated in male rats subjected to cadmium-induced testicular injury and hepatic dysfunction. Testicular damage and hepatotoxicity were induced by oral administration of cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight, once a day) for 7 weeks. FSP was given at 5% w/w in chow diet for 8 weeks, starting 1 week before cadmium administration. FSP intake significantly increased serum testosterone level and testis weight that were reduced by cadmium. FSP also compensated deficits in hepatic and testicular antioxidant defense system, interleukin-4 and nitric oxide levels, reduced serum liver function enzyme activities and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic and testicular tissues resulted from cadmium administration. Additionally, FSP attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in hepatic and testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels as well as cadmium deposition and hydroxyproline content. The protective effect afforded by FSP was mainly due its antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that FSP may represent a promising medicinal herb to protect hepatic and testicular tissues from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  18. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Xin, Ying; Tan, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although angiotensin II (Ang II) was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN) via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2. PMID:28191275

  19. Protective effect of diallyl disulfide on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. DADS was gavaged to rats once daily for 3 days at 100 mg/kg/day. One hour after the final DADS treatment, the rats were given a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg CP. All rats were killed and necropsied on day 56 after CP treatment. Parameters of testicular toxicity included reproductive organ weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility and morphology, epididymal index, and histopathologic examinations. The CP treatment caused a decrease in body weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index. The histopathological examination revealed various morphological alterations, characterized by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, vacuolization, and decreased number of spermatids/spermatocytes in the testis, and cell debris and mild oligospermia in the ductus epididymis. In contrast, DADS pretreatment effectively attenuated the testicular toxicity caused by CP, including decreased sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index and increased histopathological alterations in the testis and epididymis. These results indicate that DADS attenuates testicular toxicity induced by CP in rats.

  20. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression.

    PubMed

    Atta, Mustafa S; Almadaly, Essam A; El-Far, Ali H; Saleh, Rasha M; Assar, Doaa H; Al Jaouni, Soad K; Mousa, Shaker A

    2017-04-27

    Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ) works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60) were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg), Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg) orally once daily), and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ) for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats.

  1. Study of Evanescence Wave Absorption in Lindane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Prasetyo, E.; Gitrin, M. P.; Suryanti, V.

    2017-02-01

    Evanescent wave field has been studied for the purpose of tailoring fiber sensor capable of detecting lindane concentration in a solution. The mounted fiber was optically polished such that part of the fiber clad is stripped off. To study the evanescent wave field absorption in lindane solution, the unclad fiber was immersed in the solution. Light coming out of the fiber was studied at different wavelength each for different lindane concentration. It was shown that evanescent wave field absorption is stronger at wavelength corresponding to lindane absorption band as has been shown from absorption studies lindane in UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer.

  2. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin‑induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-10-01

    Bleomycin is commonly used in the treatment of testicular cancer. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces the oxidative cleavage of DNA strands and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent antioxidant and chief component of the spice turmeric. No study investigating the effects of curcumin on intrinsic and bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors has been reported in the literature. For this reason, the present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and the results were compared with cells treated with H2O2 which directly produces oxidative stress. The protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels and total antioxidant capacity in the two testicular cancer cell lines were determined. Results showed that bleomycin and H2O2 significantly increased protein carbonyl, TBARS, 8-isoprostane and LPO levels in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cell lines. Bleomycin and H2O2 significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in NTera-2 cells. Curcumin significantly decreased LPO, 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content, and TBARS levels increased in cells treated with bleomycin and H2O2. Curcumin enhanced GSH levels and the antioxidant capacity of NTera-2 cells. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits bleomycin and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells.

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashlan, Akram M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Wafaa A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg-1), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300μg kg-1; i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg-1; i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  4. Engineering bacteria for bioremediation of persistent organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Strategies were designed for bioremediation of the highly persistent toxic pesticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) or lindane from the environment. Lindane caused the loss of stress-protective chaperone GroEL, and inhibited photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen-fixation in Anabaena, resulting in growth arrest. To alleviate lindane toxicity, the linA2 gene, encoding HCH dehydrochlorinase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis B90, was knocked-in at an innocuous locus in Anabaena genome and over-expressed from an eco-friendly light-inducible PpsbA1 promoter. The recombinant Anabaena degraded >98% of 10 ppm lindane within 6-10 days. A LinA2 overexpressing Escherichia coli strain could degrade 10 ppm of all the isomers of lindane within 1h and displayed a visual degradation zone on a newly designed histochemical plate containing 50mg lindane within 12h. The study demonstrates (a) bioremediation of traces of lindane prevalent in paddy fields, using bioengineered photoautotrophic Anabaena, and, (b) biodegradation of huge stockpiles of lindane, by employing recombinant live/dead E. coli.

  5. Protective effects of resveratrol against cisplatin-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Pratap; Madhu, P; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the probable protective effect of resveratrol against cisplatin-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats. Body weights of the animals showed no significant changes after cisplatin administration. Conversely, the weights of testis, and accessory sex organs reduced significantly. The daily sperm production and epididymal sperm quantity and quality were decreased in cisplatin treated rats. The circulatory levels of testosterone and activity levels of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly decreased after cisplatin treatment. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were decreased with an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation in the testis and epididymis of cisplatin treated rats, suggesting the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress. The biochemical findings were supplemented by histological examination of testis. Reduced tubular size, decreased spermatogenesis and deterioration in architecture were observed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of resveratrol alone has no significant effect on testicular and epididymal metabolism. On the other hand, administration of resveratrol ameliorated cisplatin-induced alterations in testicular and epididymal oxidative damage, suppressed steroiodgenesis and spermatogenesis and restored testicular architecture. In conclusion, resveratrol possesses multimechanistic protective activity that can be attributed to its steroidogenic and antioxidant actions.

  6. Coenzyme Q10 counteracts testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T

    2011-03-25

    The protective effect of coenzyme Q10 against testicular toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally for two consecutive days) was investigated in rats. Coenzyme Q10 treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for five consecutive days, starting three days before arsenite administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased serum testosterone level which was reduced by sodium arsenite. Coenzyme Q10 significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted antioxidant defenses, and attenuated the increases of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide resulted from arsenic administration. Also, the elevation of arsenic ion, and the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue were mitigated by coenzyme Q10. Histopathological examination showed that testicular injury mediated by arsenic was ameliorated by coenzyme Q10 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of arsenic intoxication.

  7. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, prevents cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lisa Joy; Chen, Haiyan; Liao, Xiaoyan; Allayee, Hooman; Shih, Diana Mouhan; Lee, Grace Sangeun; Hovland, David Norman; Robbins, Wendie Anne; Carnes, Kay; Hess, Rex Allen; Lusis, Aldons Jake; Collins, Michael David

    2007-12-01

    Cadmium, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, damages several major organs in humans and other mammals. The molecular mechanisms for damage are not known. At high doses (5 mg/kg cadmium chloride or higher), testicular damage in mice, rats, and other rodents includes interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and changes in the seminiferous tubules affecting spermatogenesis. Necrosis is evident by 48 h. The goal of this study was to fine map and identify the cdm gene, a gene that when mutated prevents cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mouse strains with a mutation in this gene. A serine-threonine phosphatase, calcineurin (CN), subunit A, alpha isoform (Ppp3ca), was one of the seven candidates in the cdm region that was narrowed from 5.6 to 2.0 Mb on mouse chromosome 3. An inhibitor of CN, the immunosuppressant, FK506, prevented cadmium-induced testicular damage in five pathological categories, including vascular endothelial and seminiferous epithelial endpoints. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry revealed that FK506 protected without lowering the amount of cadmium in the testes. Ppp3ca(-/-) mice were investigated but were found to exhibit endogenous testicular abnormalities, making them an inappropriate model for determining whether the inactivation of the Ppp3ca gene would afford protection from cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. The protection afforded by FK506, found by the current study, indicated that CN is likely to be important in the mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the testis and possibly other organs.

  8. Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li

    2015-03-01

    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dual actions of lindane ({gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane) on calcium homeostasis and exocytosis in rat PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heusinkveld, Harm J.; Thomas, Gareth O.; Lamot, Ischa; Berg, Martin van den; Kroese, Alfons B.A.; Westerink, Remco H.S.

    2010-10-01

    The persistent organochlorine pesticide lindane is still abundantly found in the environment and in human and animal tissue samples. Lindane induces a wide range of adverse health effects, which are at least partially mediated via the known inhibition of GABA{sub A} and glycine receptors. Additionally, lindane has been reported to increase the basal intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). As Ca{sup 2+} triggers many cellular processes, including cell death and vesicular neurotransmitter release (exocytosis), we investigated whether lindane affects exocytosis, Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. Amperometric recordings and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} imaging experiments with fura-2 demonstrated that lindane ({>=} 10 {mu}M) rapidly increases basal exocytosis and basal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Additional imaging and electrophysiological recordings revealed that this increase was largely due to a lindane-induced membrane depolarization and subsequent opening of N- and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca{sup 2+} channels (VGCC). On the other hand, lindane ({>=} 3 {mu}M) induced a concentration-dependent but non-specific inhibition of VGCCs, thereby limiting the lindane-induced increase in basal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and exocytosis. Importantly, the non-specific inhibition of VGCCs also reduced stimulation-evoked exocytosis and Ca{sup 2+} influx. Though lindane exposure concentration-dependently increased ROS production, cell viability was not affected indicating that the used concentrations were not acute cytotoxic. These combined findings indicate that lindane has two, partly counteracting effects. Lindane causes membrane depolarization, thereby increasing basal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and exocytosis. In parallel, lindane inhibits VGCCs, thereby limiting the basal effects and reducing stimulation-evoked [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and exocytosis. This study further underlines the need to consider

  10. Thymoquinone ameliorates testicular tissue inflammation induced by chronic administration of oral sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, A; Al-Gayyar, M M H

    2016-06-01

    Although sodium nitrite has been widely used as food preservative, building bases of scientific evidence about nitrite continues to oppose the general safety in human health. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ) has therapeutic potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both sodium nitrite and TQ on testicular tissues of rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They received either 80 mg kg(-1) sodium nitrite or 50 mg kg(-1) TQ daily for twelve weeks. Serum testosterone was measured. Testis were weighed and the testicular tissue homogenates were used for measurements of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Sodium nitrite resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone concentration and elevation in testis weight and Gonado-Somatic Index. We found significant reduction in testicular tissues levels of IL-4 and IL-10 associated with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, chronic oral sodium nitrite induced changes in the weight of rat testis accompanied by elevation in the testicular tissue level of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. TQ attenuated sodium nitrite-induced testicular tissue damage through blocking oxidative stress, restoration of normal inflammatory cytokines balance and blocking of apoptosis.

  11. Potential new targets involved in 1,3-dinitrobenzene induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Sophie; Tinwell, Helen; Rouquié, David; Schorsch, Frédéric; Pallardy, Marc; Bars, Rémi

    2012-09-03

    1,3-Dinitrobenzene (DNB) causes testicular injury, particularly to Sertoli cells, and induces apoptosis in the surrounding germinal cells in rodents; however, the mechanisms causing this toxicity are poorly understood. Our studies, using standard and molecular tools, were conducted to better understand the pathogenesis of the testicular effects. Four daily oral doses of 0.1-8mg/kg/day caused marked testicular lesions in rats from 4mg/kg/day. Global transcriptomics revealed cell cycle and cell death as the major biological processes affected with the expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression ("mitotic roles of polo-like kinase") being particularly altered. In a single dose time course study (4mg/kg), no adverse changes were recorded; however, in contrast to the data from the multiple dose study, plasma testosterone and testicular steroidogenesis-related gene expression were affected. These steroid hormone effects were confirmed in vitro using the H295R steroidogenesis assay. With this global approach we show that DNB not only induces apoptosis and interferes with cell cycle in the testes but that DNB can also modulate steroid hormone biosynthesis, suggesting an interference with the endocrine system. However, the contribution of the endocrine changes to the severe testicular lesions is presently unknown and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  13. Protection of arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress by arjunolic acid.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic-induced tissue damage is a major concern to the human population. An impaired antioxidant defense mechanism followed by oxidative stress is the major cause of arsenic-induced toxicity, which can lead to reproductive failure. The present study was carried out to investigate the preventive role of arjunolic acid, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, against arsenic-induced testicular damage in mice. Administration of arsenic (in the form of sodium arsenite, NaAsO(2), at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight) for 2 days significantly decreased the intracellular antioxidant power, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as the levels of cellular metabolites. In addition, arsenic intoxication enhanced testicular arsenic content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and the level of glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Exposure to arsenic also caused significant degeneration of the seminiferous tubules with necrosis and defoliation of spermatocytes. Pretreatment with arjunolic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days could prevent the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress and injury to the histological structures of the testes. Arjunolic acid had free radical scavenging activity in a cell-free system and antioxidant power in vivo. In summary, the results suggest that the chemopreventive role of arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced testicular toxicity may be due to its intrinsic antioxidant property.

  14. Mechanism of testicular protection of carvedilol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramzy, Maggie M.; El-Sheikh, Azza A. K.; Kamel, Maha Y.; Abdelwahab, Soha A.; Morsy, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Male sub-fertility and infertility are major complications of diabetes mellitus. The non-selective β-blocker carvedilol has been reported to have favorable effects on some of the diabetic complications based on its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. This study aims to evaluate the possible testicular protective effect of carvedilol in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model and its possible mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. dose of 65 mg/kg of STZ. In parallel groups of diabetic rats, carvedilol in low and high doses (1 and 10 mg/kg/day orally) were administered for 4 weeks. Oxidative stress markers as reduced glutathione (GSH) and the product of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in testicular homogenate. The level of expression of the apoptotic marker; caspase 3, was assessed using western blot, followed by densitometric analysis. Results: Induction of diabetes caused distortion of histological normal testicular structure, with decrease (P < 0.05) in GSH and increase (P < 0.05) in MDA, as well as induction of caspase 3 expression. Carvedilol in low or high doses reverted diabetes-induced histological damage, restored antioxidant activity and ameliorated caspase 3 expression. Conclusion: Carvedilol confers testicular protection against diabetes-induced damage through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:24741186

  15. GENETIC BACKGROUND BUT NOT METALLOTHIONEIN PHENOTYPE DICTATES SENSITIVITY TO CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to
    Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in Mice

    Jie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2
    and Curtis D. Klaassen1

    ABSTRACT

    Parenteral administrati...

  16. GENETIC BACKGROUND BUT NOT METALLOTHIONEIN PHENOTYPE DICTATES SENSITIVITY TO CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to
    Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in Mice

    Jie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2
    and Curtis D. Klaassen1

    ABSTRACT

    Parenteral administrati...

  17. Beneficial role of celery oil in lowering the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Naglaa K

    2014-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate in the environment, is known to be a reproductive toxicant. Considering the therapeutic significance of medicinal plants, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administration of celery oil on DEHP-induced testicular toxicity. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks on 36 male rats that were divided equally into six groups. Group 1 was kept as normal control (given vehicle), while rats of group 2 were administered orally 200 mg/kg/day of celery oil. Groups 3 and 5 were orally given 500 and 1000 mg DEHP/kg/day, respectively. Groups 4 and 6 were treated with similar doses of DEHP as in groups 3 and 5 plus celery oil (200 mg/kg/day). Body and testicular weights, sperm parameters, serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)) and expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) messenger RNA (mRNA) were investigated at the end of 8th week. Treatment with DEHP alone resulted in a significant decrease in body and testicular weights, sperm parameters and serum hormone levels when compared with control. On the other hand, testicular antioxidant enzymes showed a significant dose-dependent increase. The expression of CYP19 mRNA was significantly reduced by increasing the doses of DEHP. Administration of celery oil along with DEHP partially prevented the decrease in body and testicular weights and enhanced epididymal sperm count, serum hormone levels and the expression of CYP19 mRNA along with diminution in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes. The obtained results showed that the celery improved the testicular alterations induced by DEHP in albino rats.

  18. γ-Lindane Increases Microcystin Synthesis in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806.

    PubMed

    Ceballos-Laita, Laura; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Lahoz, Jessica; Bes, María-Teresa; Fillat, María F; Peleato, María-Luisa

    2015-09-03

    HCH factories, and the waste dumpsites associated to its production, have become a global environmental concern, and their runoff could pollute ground and surface waters with high levels of the pollutant. In this study, the influence of lindane (γ-HCH) on microcystin production has been investigated in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. This toxic cyanobacterium is highly tolerant to γ-lindane (20 mg/L), and produces more toxin (microcystin) in the presence of the pollutant. Microcystis degrades γ-lindane and presence of γ-lindane induces genes involved in its own degradation (nirA). RT-PCRsq has been used to monitor changes in levels of transcripts encoded by the mcy operon (mcyD, mcyH and mcyJ), responsible for the microcystin synthesis machinery, as well as other genes involved in its transcriptional regulation, such as ntcA and fur family members. The presence of lindane in the culture media induces mcyD expression, as well as ntcA gene transcription, while other genes, such as mcyH, (putative ABC transporter), are downregulated. The amount of microcystin found in the cells and the culture media is higher when M. aeruginosa is treated with γ-lindane than in control cells. The results suggest that in a lindane polluted environment, Microcystis toxic strains may enhance their microcystin synthesis.

  19. γ-Lindane Increases Microcystin Synthesis in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos-Laita, Laura; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Lahoz, Jessica; Bes, María-Teresa; Fillat, María F.; Peleato, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    HCH factories, and the waste dumpsites associated to its production, have become a global environmental concern, and their runoff could pollute ground and surface waters with high levels of the pollutant. In this study, the influence of lindane (γ-HCH) on microcystin production has been investigated in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. This toxic cyanobacterium is highly tolerant to γ-lindane (20 mg/L), and produces more toxin (microcystin) in the presence of the pollutant. Microcystis degrades γ-lindane and presence of γ-lindane induces genes involved in its own degradation (nirA). RT-PCRsq has been used to monitor changes in levels of transcripts encoded by the mcy operon (mcyD, mcyH and mcyJ), responsible for the microcystin synthesis machinery, as well as other genes involved in its transcriptional regulation, such as ntcA and fur family members. The presence of lindane in the culture media induces mcyD expression, as well as ntcA gene transcription, while other genes, such as mcyH, (putative ABC transporter), are downregulated. The amount of microcystin found in the cells and the culture media is higher when M. aeruginosa is treated with γ-lindane than in control cells. The results suggest that in a lindane polluted environment, Microcystis toxic strains may enhance their microcystin synthesis. PMID:26404326

  20. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rato, L.; Alves, M. G.; Dias, T. R.; Cavaco, J. E.; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  1. Captopril and telmisartan treatments attenuate cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-04-01

    The possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, vs. telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, was investigated in rats with testicular injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Captopril (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were given for five consecutive days, starting 3 days before cadmium administration. Both agents significantly increased serum testosterone level, which was reduced by cadmium, suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted reduced glutathione, decreased the elevations of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cadmium ion levels, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both captopril and telmisartan significantly reduced the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand, and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. The differences between the results obtained with captopril and telmisartan were insignificant, suggesting that both drugs equally protected the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  2. Selenium Nanoparticles Attenuate Oxidative Stress and Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Zrieq, Rafat; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-11-19

    We investigated the protective and antioxidative effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in streptozotocin STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ-diabetic rats were exposed daily to treatments with SeNPs and/or insulin and then the effect of these treatments on the parameters correlated to oxidative damage of the rat testes were assessed. Biochemical analysis revealed that SeNPs are able to ameliorate the reduction in the serum testosterone caused by STZ-induced diabetes. Furthermore, SeNPs could significantly decrease testicular tissue oxidative stress markers, namely lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. In contrast, treatment of the STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs increased the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities in testicular tissues. Moreover, microscopic analysis proved that SeNPs are able to prevent histological damage in the testes of STZ-diabetic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) is significantly upregulated. On the contrary, the mRNA level of Bax (Bcl-2 Associated X Protein) was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs led to an elevation in the expression of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Gene). Interestingly, the insulin treatment also exhibited a significant improvement in the testicular function in STZ-diabetic rats. Collectively, our results demonstrated the possible effects of SeNPs in attenuating diabetes-induced oxidative damage, in particular in testicular tissue.

  3. Protective Effect of Selenium on Aflatoxin B1-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Shao, Bing; Xu, Feibo; Liu, Yunfeng; Li, Yanfei; Zhu, Yanzhu

    2017-03-27

    Aflatoxins have been considered as one of the major risk factors of male infertility, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most highly toxic and prevalent member of the aflatoxins family. Selenium (Se), an essential nutritional trace mineral for normal testicular development and male fertility, has received extensive intensive on protective effects of male reproductive system due to its potential antioxidant and activating testosterone synthesis. To investigate the protective effect of Se on AFB1-induced testicular toxicity, the mice were orally administered with AFB1 (0.75 mg/kg) and Se (0.2 mg/kg or 0.4 mg/kg) for 45 days. We found that that Se elevated testes index, sperm functional parameters (concentration, malformation, and motility), and the level of serum testosterone in AFB1-exposed mice. Moreover, our results showed that Se attenuated the AFB1-induced oxidative stress and the reduction of testicular testosterone synthesis enzyme protein expression such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in AFB1-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that Se conferred protection against AFB1-induced testicular toxicity and can be attributed to its antioxidant and increased testosterone level by stimulating protein expression of StAR and testosterone synthetic enzymes.

  4. Effect of selenium on testicular damage induced by varicocele in adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Leila; Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Rohani, Ali Haeri

    2017-12-01

    Varicocele is an abnormal tortuosity and distension of the veins of the pampiniform plexus in the spermatic cord. It is the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility. Several studies have revealed the effects of increased oxidative stress on serum, semen, and testicular tissues in patients with varicocele or in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium selenite on testicular damage induced by experimental left varicocele in male Wistar rats. In the present study, the effects of oral administration of sodium selenite (at doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mg/kg bw) were assessed in normal and varicocelized rats. The varicocelized control rats showed decrease in sperm quality parameters, decreased activity of testes CAT, GPX and SOD, increased levels of MDA, and damage in testicular architecture. Administration of sodium selenite significantly reduced these changes to nearly normal levels, but did not change these parameters in normal rats. Histopathological studies further confirmed the protective effects of sodium selenite on varicocele-induced testicular damage in rats. Administrations of sodium selenite did not change these parameters in normal rats. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that sodium selenite treatment may have beneficial effect on the testes of varicocelized rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Cimetidine-induced vascular cell apoptosis impairs testicular microvasculature in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Flávia L; Yamauti, Caroline T; Caneguim, Breno H; Cerri, Paulo S; Miraglia, Sandra M; Sasso-Cerri, Estela

    2012-10-01

    Cimetidine, an H₂ receptor antagonist used for treatment of gastric ulcers, exerts antiandrogenic and antiangiogenic effects. In the testes cimetidine impairs spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells and peritubular tissue, inducing apoptosis in the myoid cells. Regarding the importance of histamine and androgens for vascular maintenance, the effect of cimetidine on the structural integrity of the testicular vasculature was evaluated. Adult male rats received cimetidine (CMTG) and saline (CG) for 50 days. The testes were fixed in buffered 4% formaldehyde and embedded in historesin and paraffin. In the PAS-stained sections, the microvascular density (MVD) and the vascular luminal area (VLA) were obtained. TUNEL method was performed for detection of cell death. Testicular fragments embedded in Araldite were analyzed under transmission electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the MVD and VLA and a high number of collapsed blood vessel profiles were observed in CMTG. Endothelial cells and vascular muscle cells were TUNEL-positive and showed ultrastructural features of apoptosis. These results indicate that cimetidine induces apoptosis in vascular cells, leading to testicular vascular atrophy. A possible antagonist effect of cimetidine on the H₂ receptors and/or androgen receptors in the vascular cells may be responsible for the impairment of the testicular microvasculature.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide protects testicular germ cells against heat-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Xie, Zhi-Zhong; Chua, Jason M W; Wong, P C; Bian, Jinsong

    2015-04-30

    The present study was designed to investigate whether H2S can protect testicular germ cells against heat exposure induced injury and the underlying mechanisms. It was found that all three H2S generating enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lysase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3 MST), were expressed in mouse testicular tissue. Three episodes of heat exposure (42 °C, 30 min/day, 3 days) significantly decreased endogenous H2S production and down-regulated the expression of CBS and CSE in testes. In primary cultured testicular germ cells, exogenous application of NaHS (an H2S donor) attenuated heat stress (42 °C, 30 min) induced cell death and apoptosis. This was mediated by the inhibitory effects of H2S on cytochrome C release and the ratio of the Bax/Bcl-2. NaHS also improved mitochondrial function by decreasing oxygen consumption and increasing ATP production. NaHS treatment also stimulated SOD activity and reduced ROS production. Our results revealed both physiological and pharmacological roles of H2S in testicular germ cells. Exogenous application of H2S may protect germ cells by preservation of mitochondrial function and stimulation of anti-oxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Qin; Zheng, Gaoli; Chen, Yunxiang; Huang, Mincong; Zhang, Lijiang; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) would protect mice against cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity. Seventy-two male mice were randomly divided into six groups with twelve mice per group. Four groups were administered orally with cadmium chloride (5.0 mg per kg body weight) for 35 days and treated in combination with LBPs (0, 10.0, 33.3 or 100 mg kg(-1)) from one week before exposure to Cd until the end of the experiment. The other two groups were administered orally with vehicle or LBP (100 mg kg(-1)) only. Pretreatment with LBP ameliorated the Cd-induced reduction in the body weights, sperm motility as well as the level of testosterone in serum. Moreover, Cd-induced increase in the abnormal sperms was reduced and effects of Cd on the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were reversed. Histopathological examination further confirmed that the LBPs effectively attenuated Cd-induced degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Thus, LBPs attenuated Cd-induced testicular injury by improving the activity of antioxidant enzymatic activity and lowering the oxidative stress, so it could be a potential auxiliary therapeutic agent for Cd-induced testicular toxicity.

  8. Protective effects of thymoquinone against methotrexate-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ahmet; Oktar, Suleyman; Koc, Ahmet; Yonden, Zafer

    2011-08-01

    Thymoquinone is the major active component derived from Nigella sativa. Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist widely used in clinic. Aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of thymoquinone on testicular toxicity of methotrexate. Experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice (6 weeks old, 20 ± 2 g). The animals were divided into four groups with six mice in each group. Equivalent volumes of saline were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the control group. In the thymoquinone group, mice received thymoquinone i.p. with a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Mice in the methotrexate group received single dose of methotrexate i.p., with a dose of 20 mg/kg. Finally, in the methotrexate plus thymoquinone group, in the first and the following 3 days after methotrexate administration, thymoquinone was injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, i.p. At the end of the experiment, the left testis was quickly removed and divided into two parts for histological examination and biochemical analysis. Methotrexate alone increased total antioxidant capacity and myeloperoxidase activity compared to the controls. Thymoquinone treatment decreased total antioxidant capacity and prevented the increase in the myeloperoxidase activity. Light microscopy showed in mice that receiving methotrexate resulted in interstitial space dilatation, edema, severe disruption of the seminiferous epithelium and reduced diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Administration of thymoquinone reversed histological changes of methotrexate significantly. We suggest that thymoquinone use may decrease the destructive effects of methotrexate on testicular tissue of patients using this agent.

  9. Responsiveness of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s in rat offspring prenatally exposed to lindane

    SciTech Connect

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2008-08-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to low doses of lindane has been shown to affect the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs), involved in the metabolism and neurobehavioral toxicity of lindane. Attempts were made in the present study to investigate the responsiveness of CYPs in offspring prenatally exposed to lindane (0.25 mg/kg b. wt.; 1/350th of LD{sub 50}; p. o. to mother) when challenged with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital (PB), inducers of CYP1A and 2B families or a sub-convulsant dose of lindane (30 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) later in life. Prenatal exposure to lindane was found to produce an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2 isoforms in brain and liver of the offspring at postnatal day 50. The increased expression of the CYPs in the offspring suggests the sensitivity of the CYPs during postnatal development, possibly, to low levels of lindane, which may partition into mother's milk. A higher increase in expression of CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes and their catalytic activity was observed in animals pretreated prenatally with lindane and challenged with MC (30 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) or PB (80 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) when young at age (approx. 7 weeks) compared to animals exposed to MC or PB alone. Further, challenge of the control and prenatally exposed offspring with a single sub-convulsant dose of lindane resulted in an earlier onset and increased incidence of convulsions in the offspring prenatally exposed to lindane have demonstrated sensitivity of the CYPs in the prenatally exposed offspring. Our data assume significance as the subtle changes in the expression profiles of hepatic and cerebral CYPs in rat offspring during postnatal development could modify the adult response to a later exposure to xenobiotics.

  10. Lindane in forestry: a continuing controversy

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Koerber

    1976-01-01

    Use of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide lindane to control bark beetles is controversial. Differences of opinion persist, even among knowledgeable entomologists, on whether use is justified in view of potentially harmful side effects. Effectiveness of lindane treatments, as employed in preventing tree mortality from bark beetles, is also in question. In seven...

  11. Influence of injection timing on severity of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Katsumi; Yanagiba, Yukie; Ashimori, Atsushige; Takeuchi, Asuka; Takada, Naoko; Togawa, Masako; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki; Miura, Nobuhiko

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the endocrine disrupter and is a well-known testicular toxicant. Recently, we reported that Cd-induced mortality was markedly different by injection timing. In this report, we investigated whether severity of testicular toxicity was affected by injection timing of Cd. C57BL/6J mice (male, 7 w) were received single intraperitoneal injection of CdCl(2) (4.5 mg/kg) at zeitgeber time 6 (ZT6) or ZT18; these injection timings showed highest (ZT6) or lowest (ZT18) mortality in our previous study (Miura, 2012). After one week of the injection, several parameters for testicular toxicity such as epididymal sperm motility and numbers of sperm head both in cauda epididymidis and testis were measured. At ZT6 injection group, all parameters examined were significantly reduced compared to the control group. However, very interestingly, no significant changes were observed at ZT18 injection group. We obtained similar results by another experiment in which mice were received single subcutaneous injection of CdCl(2) (4 or 6 mg/kg) followed by measuring the parameters ten days after the injection. This diurnal variation was not contradictory to the result of the lethal toxicity which we showed earlier. Therefore, our results indicate that the testicular toxicity of Cd is also influenced by the injection timing.

  12. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals ...

  13. Antioxidant protective effect of honey in cigarette smoke-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) can cause testicular damage and we investigated the possible protective effect of honey against CS-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats. CS exposure (8 min, 3 times daily) and honey supplementation (1.2 g/kg daily) were given for 13 weeks. Rats exposed to CS significantly had smaller seminiferous tubules diameter and epithelial height, lower Leydig cell count and increased percentage of tubules with germ cell loss. CS also produced increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as reduced total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However, supplementation of honey significantly reduced histological changes and TBARS level, increased TAS level, as well as significantly restored activities of GPx, SOD and CAT in rat testis. These findings may suggest that honey has a protective effect against damage and oxidative stress induced by CS in rat testis.

  14. Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular Morphology and Reproductive Function in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function. PMID:23300682

  15. Relation between the testicular sperm assay and sex hormone level in patients with azoospermia induced by mumps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuiwen; An, Yulin; Li, Junguo; Guo, Junhong; Zhou, Guoping; Li, Jianhua; Xu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between the testicular sperm assay (TESA) and sex hormone level or testicular volume in patients with azoospermia induced by mumps. Samples from 52 patients with mumps-induced azoospermia were subjected to TESA, and then the sperm activity was observed microscopically. The sex hormone level was detected with an electrochemical assay, and ultrasound was used to calculate the testicular volume. Of the 52 azoospermia patients, 38 were found to have active sperms through testicular sperm extraction from the opened testis; furthermore, the serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone levels were obviously higher in the non-sperm group than in the sperm group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the testicular volume was smaller in the non-sperm group than in the sperm group; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). With the FSH value as a standard, the quantity of sperms was found to be within two times of, or more than two-fold of the normal range. With the testicular volume as a standard, sperms were found in testes with a volume of > 6 mL or < 6 mL. The FSH value and the testicular volume were indicators of the ability of the TESA to obtain sperms. To allow the performance of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, all patients need to undergo TESA. PMID:26885123

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Green Tea Catechin Against Cadmium Chloride-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of green tea catechin (7500 µg/kg/animal/day) against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress in the testes of mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups: group I, negative control; group II, catechin-treated control; group III, cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated control; group IV, experimental group I; group V, experimental group II; and group VI, experimental group III. Animals from all of these groups were necropsied at various post-treatment intervals between 12 hours and 30 days for various biochemical alterations in the testes. CdCl2 intoxication resulted in a significant decline in testicular total proteins, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase, whereas acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation exhibited a noticeable augmentation as compared to negative control. Catechin treatment effectively protected CdCl2-induced alterations in all such parameters throughout the experiment. Catechin was effective in reducing the CdCl2-induced augmentation of phase I (P450 and CYPB5) as well as phase II (DT-diaphorase and glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes in testes. Furthermore, CdCl2 intoxication was found to attenuate the antioxidant potential of testes, which was however augmented when supplemented with green tea extract. Compared to CdCl2-treated control mice, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in testes. Indeed, green tea catechin significantly increased testicular antioxidant enzymatic activities compared to those given CdCl2 alone. In conclusion, the use of green tea extract appeared to be beneficial to a great extent in inhibiting and restoring the testicular injuries induced by CdCl2 intoxication in mammals.

  17. Lutein dietary supplementation attenuates streptozotocin-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fatani, Amal J; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Al-Assaf, Abdullah; Parmar, Mihir Y; Ahmed, Mohammed M

    2015-06-30

    Diabetes mellitus with the successive generation of reactive oxygen species signifies a major risk factor for testicular dysfunction. Antioxidant supplements are one of the best options to prevent such disorder. In the present study, lutein as dietary supplement has been used to explore its potential protective effects against diabetes-induced oxidative stress in testicular cells. Diabetes was induced using a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Lutein was mixed with rat chow powder and supplemented to diabetic rats for 5 weeks. Serum testosterone levels were estimated. In testicular cells, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl groups (T-GSH), non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Pro-inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were measured in the testis. Nucleic acids and total protein (TP) levels were also estimated in testicular cells. Histopathological changes were evaluated in testis. Serum testosterone level was significantly decreased in diabetic animals compared to controls. Diabetes markedly reduced T-GSH, NP-SH, CAT and SOD, while TBARS, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were increased in the diabetic testis compared to non-diabetic controls. Lutein supplementation, significantly and dose dependently increased the serum testosterone level. The elevated TBARS levels were significantly decreased compared to diabetic group, while the decreased levels of T-GSH and NP-SH and activities of CAT and SOD were found increased by lutein treatments in dose dependent manner. Lutein pretreatment also inhibited the TNF-α and IL-1β levels compared to diabetic group. The decreased values of nucleic acids and total protein in diabetic group were also significantly increased in lutein supplemented groups. The histopathological evaluation revealed protection the damaged testicular cells in the diabetic rats by lutein

  18. Lindane

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your skin should be clean, dry, and free of other oils, lotions, or creams. If you ... Demerol); methocarbamol (Robaxin); neostigmine (Prostigmin); pyridostigmine (Mestinon, Regonol); pyrimethamine (Daraprim); radiographic dyes; sedatives; sleeping pills; tacrine (Cognex); ...

  19. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma testosterone level (ng/ml) while estrogen was not affected. Similarly, BPA caused a significant alteration in the lipid profile. Interestingly, quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity.

  20. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  1. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  2. Carvedilol alleviates testicular and spermatological damage induced by cisplatin in rats via modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ahmed H; Abdelkader, Noha F; Abd El-Raouf, Ola M; Fawzy, Hala M; El-Denshary, Ezz-El-Din S

    2016-12-01

    The clinical application of the anticancer drug cisplatin is limited by its deleterious side effects, including male reproductive toxicity. In this context, the potential protective effect of carvedilol on testicular and spermatological damage induced by cisplatin in male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Carvedilol was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 2 weeks, and cisplatin was given as a single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg on the 12th day to induce toxicity. Cisplatin significantly reduced reproductive organ weight, sperm count and sperm motility, and increased sperm abnormalities and histopathological damage of testicular tissue. In addition, it resulted in a significant decline in serum testosterone as well as levels of testicular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxides, and reduced glutathione). Moreover, cisplatin remarkably augmented malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-kappa B contents in testicular tissue. Conversely, carvedilol administration markedly mitigated cisplatin-induced testicular and spermatological injury as demonstrated by suppression of oxidative/nitrosative and inflammatory burden, amendment of antioxidant defenses, enhancement of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and mitigation of testicular histopathological damage. The current study reveals a promising protective action of carvedilol against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity by virtue of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  3. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  4. Deltamethrin-induced genotoxicity and testicular injury in rats: comparison with biopesticide.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Manal F; Mohamed, Hanaa M

    2012-10-01

    Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used extensively in pest control. Aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of deltamethrin-based commercial formulation to induce genotoxicity and testicular injury in rats in comparison to the use of the biopesticide; Bacillus thuringiensis. Rats were divided into three groups: Group I (DEL) received deltamethrin, 5 mg/kgb.w./day orally, in corn oil. Group II (Biopesticide, B. thuringiensis) received oral suspension of the biopesticide at daily dose of 8400 mg/kgb.w./day. Group III (Control) received appropriate volume of corn oil. After 4 weeks, deltamethrin-treated rats showed decreased serum testosterone, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Testicular total oxidant capacity (TOC), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and DNA damage were significantly increased. Significant increase in bone marrow chromosomal aberrations, induced by deltamethrin, including chromatid breaks, deletions, fragments and gaps was also observed. RT-PCR demonstrated significant up-regulation in testicular mRNA for glutathione-s-transferase and heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) whereas steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA was down-regulated after deltamethrin exposure. Oral administration of the biopesticide, under the condition of our study, was found to be safe when compared to the deleterious effect of deltamethrin in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kolaviron and L-Ascorbic Acid Attenuate Chlorambucil-Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chlorambucil (4-[4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]butanoic acid) is an alkylating agent, indicated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola, and L-ascorbic acid (AA) are known to protect against oxidative damage in vivo. This study evaluates the protective capacity of KV and AA on chlorambucil-induced oxidative stress in the testes of rat. Twenty male Wistar rats (180–200 g) were randomized into four groups: I: control, II: chlorambucil (0.2 mg/kg b.w.), III: 0.2 mg/kg chlorambucil and 100 mg/kg KV, and IV: 0.2 mg/kg chlorambucil and 100 mg/kg AA. After 14 days of treatments, results indicated that chlorambucil caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) in testicular vitamin C and glutathione by 32% and 39%, respectively, relative to control. Similarly, activities of testicular GST, SOD, and CAT reduced significantly by 48%, 47%, and 49%, respectively, in chlorambucil-treated rats relative to control. Testicular MDA and activities of ALP, LDH, and ACP were increased significantly by 53%, 51%, 64%, and 70%, respectively, in the chlorambucil-treated rat. However, cotreatment with KV and AA offered protection and restored the levels of vitamin C, GSH, and MDA as well as SOD, CAT, GST, ACP, ALP, and LDH activities. Overall, kolaviron and L-ascorbic acid protected against chlorambucil-induced damage in the testes of the rat. PMID:25309592

  6. Carnosine mitigates apoptosis and protects testicular seminiferous tubules from gamma-radiation-induced injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Haeri, S A; Rajabi, H; Fazelipour, S; Hosseinimehr, S J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the radioprotective effects of a naturally occurring dipeptide, carnosine, on testicular damage. Carnosine was administered (10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight) to male mice via intraperitoneal injection for 4 days prior to gamma irradiation (2 Gy). Apoptosis with the TUNEL assay and histopathological parameters were evaluated 12-h and 14-day post-irradiation. Pre-treatment with carnosine before irradiation significantly reduced the frequency of TUNEL-positive cells induced by radiation treatment at all doses by reduction factors of 1.8, 2.47 and 2.23 for carnosine at 10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) bw, respectively, unlike that observed in the radiation alone group. Exposure to ionising radiation decreased sperm count and reduced the height and diameter of seminiferous epithelial tubules. Pre-treatment with all doses of carnosine significantly augmented seminiferous epithelial height and tubule diameter and also increased the number of germinal cells in comparison to the group treated with radiation only. These results indicate that carnosine prevents testicular dysfunction induced by gamma-irradiation via an anti-apoptotic effect; this restoration of proper testicular function ultimately leads to the recovery of spermatogenesis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Detection of secreted and temporarily inducible heat shock responsive proteins in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, L; Heinlein, U A

    1991-01-01

    Temperature-induced effects on the synthesis of murine testicular proteins were investigated by one- and two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Newly synthesized proteins were monitored by incorporation of 35S-methionine and autoradiography. Three heat shock responsive proteins, which are differently affected by elevated temperatures, are described. These proteins represent special examples for how testicular cells respond to environmental stress. One of these proteins, HSl36, is synthesized and secreted at 38 degrees C, whereas at lower, scrotal temperatures it is not detectable. HSlD74 protein is synthesized at elevated temperatures, but only in prepuberal testis, not in adult. Synthesis of the third example, HSR28, is decreased within the seminiferous tubules, but only in those regions which bear cell associations of the elongation stage. These results indicate that the use of DNA probes of the 'heat shock'-gene family might not be sufficient to describe the molecular reasons for impaired spermatogenesis following hyperthermia.

  8. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors by polydeoxyribonucleotide increases vascular endothelial growth factor and protects against testicular damage induced by experimental varicocele in rats.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Arena, Salvatore; Bonvissuto, Giulio; Bitto, Alessandra; Polito, Francesca; Irrera, Natasha; Arena, Francesco; Fragalà, Eugenia; Romeo, Carmelo; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Fazzari, Carmine; Marini, Herbert; Implatini, Alessandra; Grimaldi, Silvia; Cantone, Noemi; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2011-03-15

    In rat experimental varicocele, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, thereby enhancing testicular function. This may point to a new therapeutic approach in human varicocele.

  9. Adaptation of microalgae to lindane: a new approach for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    González, Raquel; García-Balboa, Camino; Rouco, Mónica; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Lindane is especially worrisome because its persistence in aquatic ecosystems, tendency to bioaccumulation and toxicity. We studied the adaptation of freshwater cyanobacteria and microalgae to resist lindane using an experimental model to distinguish if lindane-resistant cells had their origin in random spontaneous pre-selective mutations (which occur prior to the lindane exposure), or if lindane-resistant cells arose by a mechanism of physiological acclimation during the exposure to the selective agent. Although further research is needed to determine the different mechanisms contributing to the bio-elimination of lindane, this study, however, provides an approach to the bioremediation abilities of the lindane-resistant cells. Wild type strains of the experimental organisms were exposed to increasing lindane levels to estimate lethal concentrations. Growth of wild-type cells was completely inhibited at 5mg/L concentration of lindane. However, after further incubation in lindane for several weeks, occasionally the growth of rare lindane-resistant cells was found. A fluctuation analysis demonstrated that lindane-resistant cells arise only by rare spontaneous mutations that occur randomly prior to exposure to lindane (lindane-resistance did not occur as a result of physiological mechanisms). The rate of mutation from lindane sensitivity to resistance was between 1.48 × 10(-5) and 2.35 × 10(-7) mutations per cell per generation. Lindane-resistant mutants exhibited a diminished fitness in the absence of lindane, but only these variants were able to grow at lindane concentrations higher than 5mg/L (until concentrations as high as 40 mg/L). Lindane-resistant mutants may be maintained in uncontaminated waters as the result of a balance between new resistant mutants arising from spontaneous mutation and resistant cells eliminated by natural selection waters via clone selection. The lindane-resistant cells were also used to test the potential of microalgae to remove

  10. Modulatory effect of lycopene on deltamethrin-induced testicular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Manal F; Mohamed, Hanaa M

    2013-04-01

    Aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of deltamethrin to induce testicular injury in rats and its possible attenuation with lycopene. Rats were divided into three groups: Group I (DEL) received deltamethrin, 5 mg/kg b.w./day orally, in corn oil. Group II (DEL + Lyc) received oral dose of lycopene (4 mg/kg b.w./day) in corn oil concurrently with deltamethrin following the same regimen as in group I. Group III (Control) received appropriate volume of corn oil. After 4 weeks, deltamethrin-treated rats showed decreased body weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Testicular total oxidant capacity (TOC), nitrite/nitrate (NOx), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and DNA damage were significantly increased. RT-PCR demonstrated significant up-regulation in testicular mRNA for glutathione-S-transferase and heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70), whereas steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein was down-regulated after deltamethrin exposure. Lycopene was able to restore body weight, serum testosterone, StAR mRNA, TOC, NOx levels, and PARP activity with significant decrease in HSP-70 mRNA, and DNA damage. In conclusion, lycopene was able to counteract the deleterious effect of deltamethrin.

  11. Protective effects of quercetin against arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, B B; Uygur, R; Caglar, V; Aktas, C; Aydin, M; Ozen, O A

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of quercetin on changes in testes due to arsenic exposure. Twenty-seven male rats were divided into three groups: control (10 ml kg(-1)  day(-1) saline), arsenic (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) sodium arsenite) and arsenic + quercetin (arsenic + 50 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) quercetin). The rats were sacrificed at the end of 15-day experiment. There was no difference between control group and arsenic group in body weight gain, testicular weight and serum total testosterone level. Quercetin treatment did not cause a significant difference in these parameters. In the arsenic group rats, we determined deterioration in the structure of seminiferous tubules, a decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells, a decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities, and an increase in the MDA level in testicular tissue. In all these changes, arsenic+quercetin group showed an improved compared to arsenic group. The amount of arsenic increased in the arsenic group was compared to the control group, and there was no difference between arsenic group and arsenic + quercetin group in the amount of arsenic. In conclusion, quercetin prevented arsenic-induced testicular damage with its anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects.

  12. Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Adedara, Isaac Adegboyega; Popoola, Bosede; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p < .05) in serum and testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels by 217% and 221%, respectively. Irradiated rats had markedly decreased testicular catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Irradiation resulted in 59% and 40% decreases in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and a 161% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histologically, testes of the irradiated rats showed extensive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes. Supplementation of XA and VC reversed the adverse effects of gamma-radiation on biochemical and histological indices of the rats. These findings demonstrated that Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats.

  13. Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna; Karim, Alias A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. Materials and Methods: The present study evaluated the protective effects of sequential acetone extract of Ficus racemosa bark at two doses (FR250; 250 mg kg-1 and FR500; 500 mg kg-1 p.o.) against doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Results: Doxorubicin administration resulted in significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in total protein and glutathione concentrations, while increased (P ≤ 0.05) serum urea, creatinine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Extract pretreatment restored biochemical parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased serum creatinine levels by 22.5% and 44%, while serum urea levels were decreased by 30.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Extract pretreatment (500 mg kg-1) decreased TBARS and increased glutathione levels in the kidney and testis to control levels. These observations were substantiated by histopathological studies, wherein normal renal and testicular architecture was restored in FR500 group. Conclusion: Doxorubicin exposure results in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of F. racemosa stem bark extract offers significant renal and testicular protection by inhibiting lipidperoxidation-mediated through scavenging free radicals. PMID:23772108

  14. The effect of melatonin on procarbazine induced testicular toxicity on rats.

    PubMed

    Alp, Bilal Fırat; Kesik, Vural; Malkoç, Ercan; Yiğit, Nuri; Saldır, Mehmet; Babacan, Oğuzhan; Akgül, Emin Özgür; Poyrazoglu, Yavuz; Korkmazer, Nadir; Gulgun, Mustafa; Erdem, Onur

    2014-12-01

    Procarbazine (P) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug especially used in lymphoma treatment; however testicular toxicity is a limiting factor. Various ways of treatment were tried to preserve testicular function including hormonal treatment, antioxidant treatment, and sperm cryopreservation but resulted with low rates of satisfaction. Procarbazine is a well known agent causing sterility even in the first doses of chemotherapy. Antioxidants such as N acetylcysteine and ascorbate have been used for protective purposes and were very successful. Melatonin (M) is another powerful antioxidant and we aimed to use M for the protection of P induced testicular toxicity in this study. Procarbazine was given peroral by gavage once a week at a dose of 62.5 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks (total dose: 250 mg/kg) (P group) and in procarbazine + melatonin (PM) group, 10 mg/kg melatonin was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days a week for 4 weeks (total 20 days). The experiment ended at day 90. In the P and PM groups the testicle width, length, and weight, sperm A and sperm AB properties (Sperm A: sperms straight line progressive, Sperm B: sperms straight slow progressive, Sperm AB: Sperm A + Sperm B), spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, seminiferous tubule, and germinative layer thickness were lowered as compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the P and PM groups in regard to these parameters. Melatonin preserved Sertoli cell and spermatogonia function. The testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were also preserved. Melatonin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and preserved the antioxidant enzyme levels such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nitrite nitrate (NO2-/NO3-). Melatonin may protect testicular functions in P treated patients and is open to consideration during chemotherapy since it appears to be without any side effects.

  15. Involvement of testicular DAAM1 expression in zinc protection against cadmium-induced male rat reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chemek, Marouane; Venditti, Massimo; Boughamoura, Sana; Mimouna, Safa B; Messaoudi, Imed; Minucci, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    In order to verify the effects of exposure to Cd and Zn on testicular DAAM1 gene and protein expression and also to ascertain their involvement in the protective role of Zn in prevent the testicular toxicity Cd-induced in male offspring rats at adult age after gestational and lactational exposure, male offspring rats, from mothers receiving either tap water, Cd, Zn, or Cd + Zn during gestation and lactation periods, were scarified on postnatal days (PND) 70. The reproductive organ (testis, epididymis, and vesicle seminal) were collected, weighed, and analyzed. The results showed that exposure to Cd in utero and through lactation decreased the relative reproductive organ weight, altered the testicular histology at the interstitial and tubular levels, and causing a significant reduction in the daily sperm production (DSP) per testis and per gram of testis, and other then altering the epididymal sperm quality. Furthermore, both mRNA and protein expression of rat testicular DAAM1 were also inhibited in Cd-treated group. Zn supply has completely corrected the most of these toxic effects. Our results imply that Zn could prevent Cd-induced testicular toxicity and sperm quality alteration in adult male rat after gestational and lactational exposure, probably via the restoration of the testicular DAAM1 expression inhibited by Cd. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Antioxidants enhance the recovery of three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction, pituitary-testicular axis, and fertility in rats.

    PubMed

    Kilarkaje, Narayana; Mousa, Alyaa M; Al-Bader, Maie M; Khan, Khalid M

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (AC) on bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP)-induced testicular dysfunction. In vivo study. Research laboratory. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were treated with three cycles of 21 days each of therapeutically relevant dose levels of BEP (0.75, 7.5, and 1.5 mg/kg) with or without the AC (a mixture of α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, Zn, and Se). Sperm parameters, fertility, serum hormone levels (ELISA), testicular histopathology, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and transferrin (Western blotting and immunohistochemistry) were evaluated at the end of treatment and a 63-day recovery period. At the end of treatment, the AC improved BEP-induced decrease in sperm motility and increase in abnormality but had no effect on reduced sperm count, fertility, and tubular atrophy, although it up-regulated germ cell proliferation. The AC normalized reduced inhibin B levels, but had no effect on decreased transferrin and testosterone and elevated LH levels. At the end of the recovery period, the AC enhanced the expression of PCNA and transferrin, repopulation of germ cells, LH-testosterone axis, and fertility, but had no effect on reduced FSH and elevated inhibin B levels. The antioxidants protect and then enhance the recovery of testicular and reproductive endocrine functions when administered concomitantly with BEP therapy. The AC may be beneficial to regain testicular functions after chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IL17A impairs blood-testis barrier integrity and induces testicular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cecilia Valeria; Pellizzari, Eliana Herminia; Cigorraga, Selva Beatriz; Galardo, María Noel; Naito, Munekazu; Lustig, Livia; Jacobo, Patricia Verónica

    2014-12-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis is a useful model for studying testicular inflammation and germ/immune cell interactions. Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine IL17A were reported to be involved in the development of autoimmune orchitis. The aim of the present work is to investigate the pathogenic role of IL17A in rat testis. In vitro experiments were performed in order to analyze effects of IL17A on Sertoli cell tight junctions. The addition of IL17A to normal rat Sertoli cell cultures induced a significant decline in transepithelial electrical resistance and a reduction of occludin expression and redistribution of occludin and claudin 11, altering the Sertoli cell tight junction barrier. Intratesticular injection of 1 μg of recombinant rat IL17A to Sprague-Dawley rats induced increased blood-testis barrier permeability, as shown by the presence of biotin tracer in the seminiferous tubule adluminal compartment, and delocalization of occludin and claudin 11. Results showed that IL17A induced focal inflammatory cell infiltration in the interstitium and germ cell sloughing in adjacent seminiferous tubules. Moreover, an increase in TUNEL+ apoptotic germ cells was also observed. Inflammatory ED1+ macrophages were the main population infiltrating the interstitium following IL17A injection. This correlated with an increase in mRNA expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein Ccl2, its receptor Ccr2 and the vascular cell adhesion molecule Vcam1. Overall results suggest a relevant role of IL17A in the development of testicular inflammation, facilitating the recruitment of immune cells to the testicular interstitium and inducing impairment of blood-testis barrier function.

  18. Testicular Exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens, surgery almost always repairs the hernia completely. Testicular Cancer Testicular cancer is unusual in teen guys, but it can happen. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in guys aged ...

  19. Cadmium chloride-induced testicular toxicity in male wistar rats; prophylactic effect of quercetin, and assessment of testicular recovery following cadmium chloride withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Nna, Victor U; Ujah, Godwin A; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Etim, Kingsley B; Igba, Benedict O; Augustine, Ele R; Osim, Eme E

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the effect of quercetin (QE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2) - induced testicular toxicity, as well as the effect of withdrawal of CdCl2 treatment on same. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks old and weighing 270-300g were assigned into 5 groups and used for this study. Rats in groups 1-4 were administered vehicle, CdCl2 (5mg/kg bwt), CdCl2+QE (5mg/kg bwt and 20mg/kg bwt, respectively) or QE (20mg/kg bwt) orally for 4 weeks. Group 5 rats received CdCl2, with 4 weeks recovery period. Results showed that cadmium accumulated in serum, testis and epididymis, decreased body weight, testicular and epididymal weights, sperm count, motility and viability. Cadmium decreased serum concentrations of reproductive hormones, but increased testicular glucose, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Cadmium decreased testicular enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, vitamins C and E) antioxidants, and increased malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide. Cadmium down-regulated Bcl-2 protein, up-regulated Bax protein, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Histopathology of the testis showed decreased Johnsen's score and Leydig cell count. These negative effects were attenuated by QE administration, while withdrawal of CdCl2 did not appreciably reverse toxicity. We conclude that QE better protected the testis from CdCl2 toxicity than withdrawal of CdCl2 administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Quercetin attenuates di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular toxicity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Abd-Ellah, M F; Aly, H A A; Mokhlis, H A M; Abdel-Aziz, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential oxidative damage of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the rat testis and to further elucidate the potential modulatory effect of quercetin. DEHP was diluted in corn oil and given to rats by oral gavage at doses 0, 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg/day (groups I, III, IV, or V, respectively) for 15 consecutive days. Group VI was pretreated with quercetin (90 mg/kg), 24 h before starting the experiment and then treated with DEHP (900 mg/kg/day) for 15 consecutive days. Group II was treated with quercetin (90 mg/kg/day). The relative testes weight and sperm motility were significantly decreased by treatment with 900 mg/kg of DEHP. Both sperm count and daily sperm production were significantly decreased by DEHP treatment at doses of 600 and 900 mg/kg. Serum testosterone level and prostatic acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and testicular lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) activity were significantly decreased in animals treated with 900 mg/kg. Serum total ACP activity was significantly increased in animals treated with 600 and 900 mg/kg of DEHP. DEHP treatment induced oxidative stress and histopathological abnormality. These abnormalities were effectively normalized by pretreatment with quercetin except for LDH-X near normalcy. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrate that DEHP impairs testicular function at least, in part, by inducing oxidative stress and quercetin has a potent protective effect against DEHP-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

  1. Protective effects of ibuprofen on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Dokmeci, Dikmen; Kanter, Mehmet; Inan, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Nurettin; Basaran, Umit Nusret; Yalcin, Omer; Turan, Fatma Nesrin

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of ibuprofen on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. A total of 48 prepubertal male Wistar albino rats were divided into two models: early and late orchiectomy. Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720 degrees in a clockwise direction. The ischemia period was 5 h and orchiectomy was performed after 5 h of detorsion in the early orchiectomy model (EOM). In the late orchiectomy model (LOM), the ischemia period was 5 h and orchiectomy was performed after 7 days of detorsion. In the EOM, ibuprofen (70 mg/kg, po) was administrated only once, 40 min prior to detorsion. In the LOM, ibuprofen (70 mg/kg, po) was administered 40 min before detorsion, once daily for 7 days. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed in all groups to measure the tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and to microscopically investigate light and electrons. The presence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity was shown with immunohistochemical studies. Spermatogenesis and mean seminiferous tubule diameter (MSTD) were significantly decreased in ipsilateral and contralateral testis when both early and late I/R groups were compared to the sham groups. Furthermore, ibuprofen-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance in both models of testicular torsion. Ibuprofen treatment prevented lipid peroxidation resulting in decreased MDA accumulation in the testes of both models. After I/R, eNOS immunoreactivity was increased in the testicular tissues. Ibuprofen treatment decreased eNOS immunoreactivity in the germ cells of the tubules in the contralateral testes, but intense eNOS immunoreactivity was shown in the ipsilateral testes of the LOM. Electron microscopy of the testes of rats demonstrated that ibuprofen pretreatment was particularly effective in preventing the mitochondrial degeneration in both Sertoli and spermatid cells in the LOM. Because of its anti

  2. Plasmatic concentration of organochlorine lindane acts as metabolic disruptors in HepG2 liver cell line by inducing mitochondrial disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Benarbia, Mohammed el Amine; Macherel, David; Faure, Sébastien; Jacques, Caroline; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Malthièry, Yves

    2013-10-15

    Lindane (LD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that has been the subject of several toxicological studies. However, concentrations used in most of the reported studies were relatively higher than those found in the blood of the contaminated area residents and effects of low concentrations remain poorly investigated. Moreover, effects on cell metabolism and mitochondrial function of exposure to LD have received little attention. This study was designed to explore the effects of low concentrations of LD on cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function, using the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Cells were exposed to LD for 24, 48 and 72 h and different parameters linked with mitochondrial regulation and energy metabolism were analyzed. Despite having any impact on cellular viability, exposure to LD at plasmatic concentrations led to an increase of maximal respiratory capacity, complex I activity, intracellular ATP and NO release but decreased uncoupled respiration to ATP synthesis and medium lactate levels. In addition, LD exposure resulted in the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes. We suggest that, at plasmatic concentrations, LD acts as a metabolic disruptor through impaired mitochondrial function and regulation with an impact on cellular energetic metabolism. In addition, we propose that a cellular assay based on the analysis of mitochondria function, such as described here for LD, may be applicable for larger studies on the effects of low concentrations of xenobiotics, because of the exquisite sensitivity of this organelle. - Highlights: Our data clearly demonstrated in HepG2 cells that exposure at plasmatic low concentrations of LD were able to: • Impair mitochondrial function • Caused alteration on nucleo-mitochondrial cross-talk • Increase nitric oxide release and protein nitration • Impair cellular energetic metabolism and lipid accumulation.

  3. Sperm assays in man and other mammals as indicators of chemically induced testicular dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.

    1980-07-31

    Human sperm assays can be effective in identifying chemical agents that alter testicular function. Four human sperm assays are available - sperm density, motility, morphology, and the YFF test. Sperm assays have practical advantages over other approaches for assessing chemically induced changes in human testicular function, and they have been used in more than 60 different occupational, environmental, and drug-related chemical exposures. Studies of chemically induced sperm anomalies in other mammals have provided data on several hundred agents and encompass numerous species. The most widely used animal sperm assay is sperm morphology of mice. It is simple, quantitative, and sensitive to carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens. The availability of both human and animal sperm assays provides a valuable link between human and animal studies which may be of potential benefit in assessing the heritable genetic risk associated with chemically induced sperm defects. Results from sperm assays may be used in conjunction with results from short term mutagenicity assays (those with definitive genetic endpoints) to identify those mutagens that may be active in the mammalian testes.

  4. Apoptosis contributes to testicular toxicity induced by two isomers of bromopropanes.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qian-Qian; Yong Huang; Jie Li; Zhang, Wan-Jun; Tao Yu; Hua Wang; Cheng Zhang; Ye, Dong-Qing; Fen Huang

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the different testicular toxicity and the role of apoptosis in the possible mechanism induced by the two isomers of bromopropanes (BPs) in the same dosage. Following the 14-day treatment with a single dose of 1-BP and 2-BP (1 g/kg), male rats were killed and a series of experiments were performed. 1-BP and 2-BP both significantly decreased the epididymal sperm count, while only 2-BP induced an increase in sperms with abnormal heads. Morphological evaluation showed that 1-BP did not cause morphological changes in seminiferous epithelium, but 2-BP treatment resulted in the disappearance of spermatogonia, atrophy of the seminiferous tubules and degeneration of germ cells. 2-BP significantly increased the TUNEL-positive cells and the activation of caspase-3 and decreased the genes and proteins expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and p53. In contrast, there were no significant changes in the expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins in 1-BP group, though the TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased. Taken together, this study indicated that those two isomers both have toxicity in male rats, however, the testicular toxicity and the role of apoptosis in the toxic mechanism induced by 1-BP and 2-BP may be different.

  5. Tribulus terrestris ameliorates metronidazole-induced spermatogenic inhibition and testicular oxidative stress in the laboratory mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Mrinalini; Singh, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of the fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on the metronidazole (MTZ)-induced alterations in spermatogenesis, sperm count, testicular functions, and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Swiss strain mice were divided into six groups. Animals of Groups I and II served as untreated and vehicle-treated controls, while that of Groups III and IV were administered with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) and TT (200 mg/kg BW/day) alone for 28 days, respectively. Low (100 mg/kg BW/day) and high (200 mg/kg BW/day) doses of TT along with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) were administered for 28 days in the mice of Groups V and VI, respectively. Twenty four hours after the last treatment, all the animals were euthanized to study the histological changes in the testis and sperm count in the epididymis. Testicular functional markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were also assessed in the mice of all the groups. Results: Metronidazole caused marked alterations in the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and the level of LPO. The epididymal sperm count also declined significantly in MTZ-treated group. These changes were partially restored following co-administration of 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 100 mg/kg BW/day of TT. However, in the mice co-administered with 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 200 mg/kg BW/day of TT, the changes reverted back completely, similar to that of the controls. Conclusion: The fruit extract of TT ameliorates the MTZ-induced alterations in the testis. PMID:26069369

  6. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin-induced apoptosis in human malignant testicular germ cells.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Timur, Mujgan; Ozdemir, Evrim; Ozben, Tomris

    2013-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young men of reproductive age. Bleomycin is a frequently used drug for the treatment of several malignancies and is part of the chemotherapy protocols in testicular cancer. Bleomycin causes an increase in oxidative stress which has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active component of the spice turmeric, has attracted interest because of its anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities. However, no study has been carried out so far to elucidate its interaction with bleomycin in testicular cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin and bleomycin on apoptosis signalling pathways and compared the effects of bleomycin with H2O2 which directly produces reactive oxygen species. We measured apoptosis markers such as caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyt-c levels in NCCIT cells incubated with curcumin (5 μM), bleomycin (120 μg/ml), bleomycin + curcumin, H2O2 (35 μM), and H2O2 + curcumin for 72 h. Curcumin, bleomycin, and H2O2 caused apoptosis indicated as increases in caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities and Bax and cytoplasmic Cyt-c levels and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Concurrent use of curcumin with bleomycin decreased caspase activities and Bax and Cyt-c levels compared to their separate effects in NCCIT cells. Our findings suggest that concurrent use of curcumin during chemotherapy in testis cancer should be avoided due to the inhibitory effect of curcumin on bleomycin-induced apoptosis.

  7. Protective effect of thymoquinone against testicular torsion induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Ayan, M; Tas, U; Sogut, E; Caylı, S; Kaya, H; Esen, M; Erdemir, F; Uysal, M

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to determine the protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), against ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the testis tissue of rats. Twenty-seven male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: Group I, sham group; Group II, torsion group; and Group III, torsion + thymoquinone group. The ischaemia period was 2 h, and orchiectomy was performed after 30 min of detorsion. Testis tissue sections were analysed with the terminal transferase mediated dUTP-nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay to determine in situ apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Additionally, Caspase 3 and Bax proteins were analysed immunohistochemically. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity levels in the testis tissue were also measured. The superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde levels in the torsion group were significantly higher than those of the sham group (P < 0.05). Thymoquinone administration significantly reduced these levels. Torsion significantly increased active-Caspase 3 and Bax expression, which was decreased by thymoquinone. The apoptotic index of the torsion group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, thymoquinone significantly reduced the apoptotic index (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that thymoquinone plays a protective role in oxidative stress induced ischaemia-reperfusion in the testis tissue of rats.

  8. Corticosterone inhibits normal and FSH-induced testicular recrudescence in the lizard, Mabuya carinata.

    PubMed

    Yajurvedi, H N; Nijagal, B S

    2000-12-01

    Administration (ip) of 1, 10, or 20 microg corticosterone (alternate days for 30 days) to adult male Mabuya carinata did not affect the seasonal recrudescence of spermatogenesis whereas administration of 40 microg corticosterone did result in inhibition of spermatogenesis. Further, administration of FSH (10 IU/lizard/alternate day for 30 days) during the quiescent phase of the testicular cycle stimulated spermatogenetic and steroidogenic activity of the testis as shown by significant increases in the mean number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids and serum levels of testosterone. In addition there were abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the tubules in FSH-treated lizards. Administration of 10 IU FSH + 40 microg corticosterone (per lizard on alternate days for 30 days) increased the mean number of primary and secondary spermatocytes whereas the mean number of spermatids did not show significant variation compared with that of controls. Further, the mean numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids and serum levels of testosterone were significantly less when compared to those of FSH alone treated lizards. In addition, FSH-induced development of epididymis was also inhibited by corticosterone treatment. The results indicate that corticosterone inhibits FSH-induced testicular recrudescence, possibly by suppressing testosterone secretion in M. carinata.

  9. Protective role of Aloe vera against X-ray induced testicular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bala, S; Chugh, N A; Bansal, S C; Garg, M L; Koul, A

    2017-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the possible radioprotective potential of an Aloe vera extract against whole-body X-ray irradiation-induced testicular alterations in mice. Male balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control, A. vera, X-ray and A. vera pre-treated + X-ray irradiated. Histopathological examination revealed significant structural alterations in testes after X-ray exposure, which was also associated with the presence of apoptotic cells as assessed by TUNEL assay. X-ray irradiation resulted in elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, a reduction in glutathione concentration and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Sperm count/motility and testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the irradiated group. Irradiated animals pre-treated with A. vera extract revealed an improvement in antioxidant status, inhibition of lipid peroxides, apoptotic cell formation and enhanced testicular parameters when compared to the X-ray-exposed group. These findings suggest that A. vera extract could ameliorate X-ray-induced damage due to its free radical scavenging properties and its potential to boost cellular antioxidant defence machinery. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Phytoremedial effect of Withania somnifera against arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in Charles Foster rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Ranjit; Rahman, Mohammad Samuir; Iqubal, Mohammad Asif; Anand, Gautam; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of the current study was to observe the ameliorative effect of Withania somnifera on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity by exploring the crucial parameters such as sperm counts, sperm motility, hormonal assay and lipid peroxidation including histopathology. Materials and Methods: In the present study, arsenic in the form of sodium arsenite was administered orally to male Charles Foster rats for 45 days. Thereafter, ethanolic root extract of Withania somnifera was administered for 30 days to observe its ameliorative effect on male reproductive system. Results: The study revealed that after administration of sodium arsenite, there was a decrease in the sperm counts and sperm motility accompanied by an increased incidence of sperm abnormalities and hormonal imbalance leading to infertility. However, after administration of Withania somnifera, there was significant reversal in the parameters denoting that it not only possesses antioxidant and rejuvenating property but also maintains the cellular integrity of testicular cells leading to normal functioning of it. Conclusion: The study concludes that Withania somnifera possesses phytoremedial effect. It is one of the best antidotes against arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26445714

  11. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:21350610

  12. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P < 0.05) depletion in the total thiol level in testes of treated rats. Conversely, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production were markedly elevated in testes of PCBs-treated rats compared with control. Further, PCBs exposure produced statistically significant increases in DNA tail migration, degraded double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) concentration and histological alterations of testes of the treated rats compared to control. Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats.

  13. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; Ferreira Filho, Moisés Bonifacio Alves; Jimenez, George Chaves; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility is often related to reproductive age couples experiencing fertility-related issues. Men may have fertility problems associated with reversible testicular damage. Considering that men have been increasingly exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields generated by the production, distribution and use of electricity, this study analyzed whether 60 Hz and 1 mT magnetic field exposure may impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat shock using rats as an experimental model. Adult male rats were subjected to a single testicular heat shock (HS, 43 °C for 12 min) and then exposed to the magnetic field for 15, 30 and 60 d after HS. Magnetic field exposure during the spermatogenesis recovery induced changes in testis components volume, cell ultrastructure and histomorphometrical parameters. Control animals had a reestablished and active spermatogenesis at 60 d after heat shock, while animals exposed to magnetic field still showed extensive testicular degeneration. Magnetic field exposure did not change the plasma testosterone. In conclusion, extremely low-frequency magnetic field may be harmful to fertility recovery in males affected by reversible testicular damage.

  14. Lindane toxicity to one year old calves

    SciTech Connect

    Venant, A.; Borrel, S.; Mallet, J. ); Sery, C. )

    1991-05-01

    Lindane (the gamma isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexachlorocyclohexane) is still recommended and used as seed treatment and for control of pests especially against lice and ticks on sheep and cattle (but not on dairy cattle and laying hens). Unlike others organochlorine pesticides, lindane does not persist in the environment or in living animals. Multitest data have established that is not a highly toxic pesticide. About domestic animals toxicity, no exact data is available and LD50 is not exactly known. Values obtained after an accidental intoxication allow the authors to have some data on toxicity levels and on toxic origin symptoms. During the last year, one case of intoxication of calves was investigated on 30 calves (sprayed against ectoparasite with lindane) in which 5 died. Results are reported in the present work.

  15. Vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and its prevention by oral supplementation of zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Ghosh, Rituparna; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transition metal vanadium has been shown to modulate the cellular redox potential and catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Since free radical production and lipid peroxidation are potentially important mediators in testicular physiology and pathophysiology, the present study was conducted to elucidate the vanadium-induced oxidative damages in rat testis and the ameliorative role of zinc sulphate against such adverse effects of vanadium. Adult male rats were dosed for 26 days with daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.4 mg V/kg body weight as sodium metavanadate. One group of rats was treated with zinc sulphate orally simultaneously with vanadium for 26 days, while the other group was treated with zinc sulphate alone. Changes in testicular and accessory sex organ weight, different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenic cycle, epididymal sperm count, and enzymatic (Delta(5)3beta- HSD, 17beta- HSD, SOD, catalase), lipid peroxidation, and hormonal milieu were monitored. Vanadium treatment resulted in a significant increase in the testicular lipid peroxidation and caused a marked inhibition in the activities of antioxidant and steroidogenic enzymes. Histopathological examination revealed inhibition of spermatogenesis and the preferential loss of maturing and elongated spermatids. However, coadministration of zinc sulphate to vanadium-treated animals resulted in normalizing these parameters appreciably, emphasizing the therapeutic potentials of zinc. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in free radical formation relative to loss of the antioxidant defense system during vanadium exposure may render testis more susceptible to oxidative damage, leading to their functional inactivation. However, zinc sulphate supplementation can be an effective antidote in the treatment of vanadium poisoning.

  16. Melatonin and diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats: impact on the hypophysial-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Pablo A Scacchi; Cardoso, Nancy P; Reynoso, Roxana; Scacchi, Pablo; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Combinations of fructose- and fat-rich diets in experimental animals can model the human metabolic syndrome (MS). In rats, the increase in blood pressure (BP) after diet manipulation is sex related and highly dependent on testosterone secretion. However, the extent of the impact of diet on rodent hypophysial-testicular axis remains undefined. In the present study, rats drinking a 10% fructose solution or fed a high-fat (35%) diet for 10 weeks had higher plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and lower plasma levels of testosterone, without significant changes in circulating follicle-stimulating hormone or the weight of most reproductive organs. Diet manipulation brought about a significant increase in body weight, systolic BP, area under the curve (AUC) of glycemia after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid levels. The concomitant administration of melatonin (25 μg/mL of drinking water) normalized the abnormally high LH levels but did not affect the inhibited testosterone secretion found in fructose- or high-fat-fed rats. Rather, melatonin per se inhibited testosterone secretion. Melatonin significantly blunted the body weight and systolic BP increase, the increase in the AUC of glycemia after an IPGTT, and the changes in circulating lipid profile and uric acid found in both MS models. The results are compatible with a primary inhibition of testicular function in diet-induced MS in rats and with the partial effectiveness of melatonin to counteract the metabolic but not the testicular sequelae of rodent MS.

  17. Attenuation of 2-methoxyethanol-induced testicular toxicity in the rat by simple physiological compounds.

    PubMed

    Mebus, C A; Welsch, F; Working, P K

    1989-06-01

    2-Methoxyethanol (2-ME) is an industrial solvent which is toxic to both male and female reproductive systems of laboratory animals. Earlier data have demonstrated that the developmental toxicity of 2-ME can be attenuated by simple physiological compounds such as serine, acetate, sarcosine, glycine, and D-glucose. The present experiments were designed to evaluate the same compounds for their ability to ameliorate the testicular toxicity that occurs in rats after 2-ME exposure. The extent of testicular damage was assessed by quantitating daily sperm production (DSP) on Day 24 following a single dose of 2-ME (6.6 mmol/kg, 500 mg/kg). Serine completely eliminated 2-ME-induced decreases in DSP, while glucose was without effect. Acetate, sarcosine, and glycine were of similar efficacy resulting in DSP that was significantly greater than that observed in rats which received 2-ME alone. Histopathological studies revealed that 2-ME treatment resulted in stage-specific degeneration of late stage pachytene spermatocytes 24 hr after treatment. No apparent degenerative changes occurred after concurrent treatment with serine. Similarly, serine also prevented the decreased number of spermatids in the lumina of the seminiferous tubules on Day 24 after 2-ME exposure alone. All of the compounds utilized in this study are linked to oxidation pathways involving tetrahydrofolic acid as a catalyst for one-carbon moiety transfer into purine and pyrimidine bases which are necessary precursors for DNA and RNA synthesis. The ability of these compounds to attenuate the testicular toxicity of 2-ME may result from their ability to donate one-carbon units which can be used in purine base biosynthesis. Reduced availability of bases would be expected to affect late stage pachytene spermatocytes which are known to be undergoing rapid RNA synthesis.

  18. Diet-induced hypercholesterolemia impaired testicular steroidogenesis in mice through the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martos, José M; Arrazola, Marce; Mayas, María D; Carrera-González, María P; García, María J; Ramírez-Expósito, María J

    2011-08-01

    Hypercholesterolemia and low testosterone concentrations in men are associated with a high risk factor for atherosclerosis. It is known that cholesterol serves as the major precursor for the synthesis of the sex hormones. The bioactive peptides of the renin-angiotensin-system localized in the gonads play a key role in the relation between cholesterol and testosterone by modulating steroidogenesis and inhibiting testosterone production. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia on circulating testosterone levels and its relationship with the testicular RAS-regulating specific aminopeptidase activities in male mouse. A significant decrease in serum circulating levels of testosterone was observed after induced hypercholesterolemia. The changes found in aminopeptidase activities suggest a role of Ang III and Ang IV in the regulation of steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Jegede, A I; Offor, U; Azu, O O; Akinloye, O

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  20. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  1. Beneficial effect of erdosteine on methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Oktar, Süleyman; Gökçe, Ahmet; Aydin, Mehmet; Davarci, Mürsel; Meydan, Sedat; Oztürk, Oktay Hasan; Koç, Ahmet

    2010-08-01

    Methotrexate is used to treat certain types of cancer of the breast, skin, head and neck, or lung. Methotrexate can cause serious or life-threatening side effects on liver, lungs, kidneys, and immune system. Methotrexate chemotherapy causes testicular damage in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of erdosteine on testicular toxicity of methotrexate in mice. Twenty-six male mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, erdosteine-treated; group 3, methotrexate-treated; and group 4, methotrexate + erdosteine treated. On the first day of experiment, a single dose of methotrexate was intraperitoneally administered to groups 3 and 4, although a daily single dose of erdosteine was orally administered to group 2 and 4 for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, the testes of the animals were removed and weighed. The levels of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative stress, and myeloperoxidase activity in the methotrexate group were higher than the control group (p<0.05). Lipid peroxidation levels were not changed in methotrexate group compared with control group. In conclusion, erdosteine could effectively protect the testes in methotrexate-induced toxicity.

  2. Therapeutic effect of ozone and rutin on adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Salem, E A; Salem, N A; Hellstrom, W J

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the cytoprotective effects of rutin, ozone and their combination on adriamycin (ADR)-induced testicular toxicity, 50 male albino rats were classified into five groups of ten animals each as follows: placebo group; ADR group; ADR + rutin group; ADR + ozone group and ADR + rutin + ozone group. Sperm functions, testosterone (T), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular enzymes, oxidant/antioxidant status, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant proteins-1 and leukotriene B4 were determined. After ADR injection, a decline in sperm functions was observed. FSH and LH levels were increased, T level and testicular enzymes were decreased, significant enhancement in oxidative stress with subsequent depletion in antioxidants was detected and inflammatory markers were significantly elevated. Treatment with rutin and/or ozone, however, improved the aforementioned parameters. Ozone therapy alone almost completely reversed the toxic effects of ADR and restored all parameters to normal levels.

  3. Patients with Testicular Cancer Undergoing CT Surveillance Demonstrate a Pitfall of Radiation-induced Cancer Risk Estimates: The Timing Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D.; Lee, Richard J.; Gilmore, Michael E.; Turan, Ekin A.; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Kong, Chung Yin; Gazelle, G. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a limitation of lifetime radiation-induced cancer risk metrics in the setting of testicular cancer surveillance—in particular, their failure to capture the delayed timing of radiation-induced cancers over the course of a patient’s lifetime. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for the use of computed tomographic (CT) dosimetry data in this study. Informed consent was waived. This study was HIPAA compliant. A Markov model was developed to project outcomes in patients with testicular cancer who were undergoing CT surveillance in the decade after orchiectomy. To quantify effects of early versus delayed risks, life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to testicular cancer were compared with life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to radiation-induced cancers from CT. Projections of life expectancy loss, unlike lifetime risk estimates, account for the timing of risks over the course of a lifetime, which enabled evaluation of the described limitation of lifetime risk estimates. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty of the results. Results: As an example of evidence yielded, 33-year-old men with stage I seminoma who were undergoing CT surveillance were projected to incur a slightly higher lifetime mortality risk from testicular cancer (598 per 100 000; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 302, 894) than from radiation-induced cancers (505 per 100 000; 95% UI: 280, 730). However, life expectancy loss attributable to testicular cancer (83 days; 95% UI: 42, 124) was more than three times greater than life expectancy loss attributable to radiation-induced cancers (24 days; 95% UI: 13, 35). Trends were consistent across modeled scenarios. Conclusion: Lifetime radiation risk estimates, when used for decision making, may overemphasize radiation-induced cancer risks relative to short-term health risks. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http

  4. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Clitoria ternatea flower extract on testicular damage induced by ketoconazole in rats*

    PubMed Central

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Burawat, Jaturon; Kanla, Pipatpong; Arun, Supatcharee; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Uabundit, Nongnut; Wattathorn, Jintanaporn; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Fongmoon, Duriya; Kondo, Hisatake

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ketoconazole (KET), an antifungal drug, has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Pre-treatments with antioxidant plant against testicular damage induced by KET are required. The flowers of Clitoria ternatea (CT) are proven to have hepatoprotective potential. However, the protective effect on KET-induced testicular damage has not been reported. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of CT flower extracts with antioxidant activity on male reproductive parameters including sperm concentration, serum testosterone level, histopathology of the testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels in rats induced with KET. Methods: The antioxidant activity of CT flower extracts was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Male rats were treated with CT flower extracts (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg BW) or distilled water via a gastric tube for 28 d (preventive period: Days 1–21) and induced by KET (100 mg/kg BW) via intraperitoneal injection for 7 d (induction period: Days 22–28). After the experiment, all animals were examined for the weights of the testis, epididymis plus vas deferens and seminal vesicle, serum testosterone levels, sperm concentration, histological structures and diameter of testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels by immunoblotting. Results: The CT flower extracts had capabilities for DPPH scavenging and high reducing power. At 100 mg/kg BW, the extract had no toxic effects on the male reproductive system. Significantly, in CT+KET groups, CT flower extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) alleviated the reduction of reproductive organ weight parameters, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration. In addition, CT flower extracts gave protection from testicular damage in KET-induced rats. Moreover, in the CT100+KET group, CT flower extracts significantly enhanced the expression of a testicular 50-kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein compared with that of

  5. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; ALSHEHRI, ZAFER SAAD; SABRY, AYMAN; ABDEL-GHAFFAR, TULIP; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; ATTIA, HOSSAM

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2–4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co-treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory

  6. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  7. Analysis of risk factors for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in patients with testicular cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bokemeyer, C.; Berger, C. C.; Hartmann, J. T.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Schmoll, H. J.; Kuczyk, M. A.; Kanz, L.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the degree and relevance of persisting ototoxicity after cisplatin-based standard-dose chemotherapy for testicular cancer, with emphasis on identification of potential factors for an increased risk of this late sequel. Hearing thresholds of 86 patients with a median age of 31 years (range 21-53 years) and a median follow-up time of 58 months (range 15-159 months) were assessed by conventional pure-tone audiometry. Interviews were conducted evaluating the patients' history with special regard to audiological risk factors, as well as circumstances of ototoxic symptoms. Details concerning treatment and patient variables were extracted retrospectively from the patients' charts. An additional screening programme assessed current body functions, blood parameters and other late toxicities. Symptomatic ototoxicity persisted in 20% of patients (59% tinnitus, 18% hearing loss, 23% both), while 10% had experienced completely reversible ototoxic symptoms for a duration of 1-18 months after treatment. Symptoms were bilateral in 81% of patients. Hearing thresholds were compatible with cisplatin-induced hearing loss in 42% of audiograms performed. Subjective (history) and objective (audiogram) findings were not always consistent. The following statistically significant risk factors for ototoxicity were established: high cumulative dose of cisplatin (P < 0.0001); history of noise exposure (P = 0.006). Additionally, high doses of vincristine (P = 0.001) seemed to result in reversible ototoxic symptoms. No other independent risk factors were identified. In conclusion, persisting ototoxicity represents a clinical sequel for approximately 20% of testicular cancer patients treated at standard dose but may affect more than 50% of patients receiving cumulative doses of cisplatin > 400 mg m(-2). Previous noise exposure may also result in a threefold increased risk for cisplatin ototoxicity. Future studies should use these risk factors as important stratification

  8. Potential Novel Biomarkers for Diabetic Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Nerve Growth Factor Beta and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Sisman, Ali Rıza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Evren, Merve; Ates, Mehmet; Aksu, Ilkay; Guvendi, Guven

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is well known that diabetes mellitus may cause testicular damage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) are important neurotrophic factors for male reproductive system. Objective. We aimed to investigate the correlation between testicular damage and testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels in diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg/i.p.) in adult rats. Five weeks later testicular tissue was removed; testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels were measured by ELISA. Testicular damage was detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining, and apoptosis was identified by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Seminiferous tubular sperm formation was evaluated using Johnsen's score. Results. In diabetic rats, seminiferous tubule diameter was found to be decreased; basement membrane was found to be thickened in seminiferous tubules and degenerated germ cells. Additionally, TUNEL-positive cells were increased in number of VEGF+ cells and levels of VEGF and NGF-β were decreased in diabetic testes. Correlation between VEGF and NGF-β levels was strong. Conclusion. These results suggest that the decrease of VEGF and NGF-β levels is associated with the increase of the apoptosis and testicular damage in diabetic rats. Testis VEGF and NGF-β levels could be potential novel biomarkers for diabetes induced testicular damage. PMID:24771956

  9. Dietary resistant maltodextrin ameliorates testicular function and spermatogenesis in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, C-Y; Hsu, Y-J; Chien, Y-W E; Cha, T-L; Tsao, C-W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of resistant maltodextrin (RMD) on reproduction in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats. Forty male rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg kg(-1)) and nicotinamide (100 mg kg(-1)). Five groups were analysed in total: normal, diabetic rats without RMD, diabetic rats with RMD 1.2 g per 100 g diet (1×), with RMD 2.4 g per 100 g (2×), and with RMD 6.0 g per 100 g (5×). The groups of diabetic rats with the RMD supplement, compared to those without supplement, showed improved plasma glucose control, attenuated insulin resistance and recovery of testosterone level and spermatogenesis stage. The STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) caused a significant reduction in serum testosterone, testis androgen receptor (AR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) protein, but a statistical recovery in each of these was observed in the 5× group. TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the diabetic without RMD group, and RMD treatment reduced apoptotic germ cells. The expression of Bax/Bcl2 was induced in the diabetic group and also significantly reduced in the 5× group. Dietary RMD may improve metabolic control in STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and attenuate hyperglycaemia-related impaired male reproduction and testicular function.

  10. The histopathological evaluation of healing effects of vitamin C administered before methotrexate therapy on testicular injury induced by methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Sayılmaz, Aysun; Karabulut, Yasemin Yuyucu; Özgörgülü, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Methotrexate (MTX) leads to acute toxic side effects in tissues or organs containing rapidly dividing cells such as seminiferous tubules. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of vitamin C against MTX-induced injury in rat testis. Material and methods A total of 31 rats were divided into 4 groups, including the control group. The study was completed within 4 weeks and the rats received daily doses of 2 mL/kg SF, 100 mg/kg vitamin C and 10 mg/kg/day MTX i.p according to their groups. The mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score were determined by histologic examination of each group. Results The vitamin C + MTX group showed more similarity with the control group. Statistically significant results were achieved between groups as for mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score. When compared with the group which received vitamin C after MTX therapy, values for mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score were significantly higher in the group which received vitamin C before initiation of MTX therapy. Conclusion Vitamin C decreased MTX-induced testicular histological injuries, especially when used before MTX therapy. PMID:27909615

  11. Potential chemoprotective role of resveratrol against cisplatin induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjeet; Goyal, Yasmeen; Ranawat, Pavitra

    2017-08-01

    Semen banking is often advised to male patients undergoing chemotherapy as the damage induced is profound and often irreversible. However, low success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) using banked semen have led to the quest for alternative methods to treat chemotherapy-induced infertility. The present study therefore aimed to study the role of resveratrol against cisplatin induced testicular damage. Male albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 6 each), viz. normal control, resveratrol vehicle (4% ethanol), Cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg b.wt/week for 4 weeks), Resveratrol (1 mg/kg b.wt./orally for 28 days) and Resveratrol and Cisplatin combination group. Cisplatin treatment led to an increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione levels were found to decrease with a concomitant increase in the levels of oxidized glutathione and altered status of antioxidant enzymes. Increased DNA fragmentation was also evident which was further confirmed by histopathological and FT-IR analysis. Resveratrol treatment in combination with cisplatin showed great promise in bringing down the damage statistics to near normal values in most of the parameters studied. Further studies in this direction are however needed to develop an alternative to current procedures adopted to treat chemotherapy-induced male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin treatment on the pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Valli, G; Julie, P M; Arunakaran, J; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    2000-01-01

    Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes and insulin treatment on the functioning of pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation was studied. Prepubertal (30 days old) and pubertal (50 days old) male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single injection of STZ. A group of diabetic rats was given insulin (3U/100 g b.wt./day in 2 equally divided doses), 3 days after STZ treatment. Prepubertal and pubertal rats of all groups were killed on postnatal days 51 and 71, respectively. STZ-diabetes caused marked reduction in serum LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone as well as the activities of Leydig cellular steroidogenic enzymes (3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases). Insulin treatment to diabetic rats maintained these changes at control range except FSH and prolactin in prepubertal rats. The results indicate that (i) diabetes-induced steroidogenic lesions in Leydig cells represent a direct consequence of dysfunctioning of pituitary-testicular axis, (ii) the adverse effects of diabetes on pituitary-testicular functions are influenced by age of its induction and (iii) optimum insulin level is essential for the acquisition of Leydig cellular steroidogenic efficacy during sexual development.

  13. Protective effect of Eruca sativa seed oil against oral nicotine induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Gamal Said; El-Fark, Magdy Omar; Hamdy, Raid Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    Nicotine is a pharmacologically active component of the tobacco that adversely affects the male reproductive system and fertility. Nicotine administration in experimental animals was found to affect spermatogenesis, epididymal sperm count, motility and the fertilizing potential of sperms. The goal of this work is to assess the protective or ameliorative effect of Eruca Sativa seed oil against testicular damage induced by oral administration of nicotine in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into three groups; control, nicotine treated and nicotine and Eruca seed oil treated groups. After three weeks of treatment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed where testes were removed and weighed then calculating relative testis weights. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining and the sections were examined for different morphometric and histopathological changes. The results show that nicotine administration had an effect on the body and testis weight and various morphometric parameters of the testis. It also induced varying degrees of structural damage to the seminiferous tubules, with shrinkage and absence of mature spermatids. Disorganized, vacuolization and loss of germinal cells were noticed in the basement membrane. The co-administration of Eruca Sativa seed oil led to improvement in the morphometric and histopathological changes of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, Eruca Sativa seed oil treatment in this study had a protective role by reversing, almost completely, all morphometric and histological changes in the testis induced by nicotine administration.

  14. Treatment of Scabies: Comparison of Lindane 1% vs Permethrin 5.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Elham; Goldust, Mohamad; Alipour, Houman

    2015-01-01

    Scabies, whose etiologic agent is Sarcoptes scabiei, is a neglected parasitic disease that is a major public health problem in many resourcepoor regions. Its current therapies include benzyl benzoate, lindane, permethrin, sulfur, crotamiton, monosulfiram, and oral ivermectin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of lindane 1% lotion vs permethrin 5% in the treatment of scabies. A total of 120 patients with scabies attending a dermatology outpatient department were included. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty patients and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other 60 received 1% lindane lotion. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. Permethrin provided improvement in 48 patients (80%) after 2 weeks, whereas lindane was effective in only 28 patients (46.6%). Permethrin (5%) cream was found to be significantly more effective in the treatment of scabies compared with lindane in this study. Adverse effects were rare in both the permethrin and lindane groups.

  15. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Matzkin, María E.; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Vitullo, Alfredo D.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology. PMID:26560700

  16. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System.

    PubMed

    González, Candela R; González, Betina; Matzkin, María E; Muñiz, Javier A; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Vitullo, Alfredo D; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology.

  17. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nooh, Hanna Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  18. Comparative bioremediation potential of four rhizospheric microbial species against lindane.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P C; Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Nandita

    2011-01-01

    Four microbial species (Kocuria rhizophila, Microbacterium resistens, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticus) were isolated from the rhizospheric zone of selected plants growing in a lindane contaminated environment and acclimatized in lindane spiked media (5-100 μg mL⁻¹). The isolated species were inoculated with soil containing 5, 50 and 100 mg kg⁻¹ of lindane and incubated at room temperature. Soil samples were collected periodically to evaluate the microbial dissipation kinetics, dissipation rate, residual lindane concentration and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). There was a marked difference (p < 0.05) in the MBC content and lindane dissipation rate of microbial isolates cultured in three different lindane concentrations. Further, the dissipation rate tended to decrease with increasing lindane concentrations. After 45 d, the residual lindane concentrations in three different spiked soils were reduced to 0%, 41% and 33%, respectively. Among the four species, S. cohnii subspecies urealyticus exhibited maximum dissipation (41.65 mg kg⁻¹) and can be exploited for the in situ remediation of low to medium level lindane contaminated soils.

  19. Phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by Spinacia oleracea L.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Rama Kant; Tripathi, Vishal; Singh, Nandita; Abhilash, P C

    2014-11-01

    Remediation and management of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) contaminated soil is becoming a global priority as they are listed in the Stockholm list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for global elimination. Lindane is a OCPs candidate recently included in the Stockholm list. However, India has an exemption to produce lindane for malaria control. Because of its widespread use during the last few decades, lindane contaminated soils are found in almost all parts of India. Since phytoremediation is widely acknowledged as an innovative strategy for the clean-up of contaminated soils; the present study was aimed to evaluate the phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by a leafy vegetable Spinacia oleracea L (Spinach). The test plant was grown in different concentrations of lindane (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg(-1)) and harvested at 10, 30 and 45 days. At 45 days, the concentrations of lindane in root and leaf of Spinach growing in four different concentrations were reached up to 3.5, 5.4, 7.6 and 12.3 mg kg(-1) and 1.8, 2.2, 3 and 4.9 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the dissipation of lindane in vegetated and non-vegetated soil. Moreover, the residual lindane in four experiments was reduced to 81, 76, 69 and 61 percent, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Spinach can be used for the phytoremediation of lindane. However, more studies are required to prevent the toxicity of harvested parts.

  20. Protective effect of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Gangarapu, Venkatanarayana; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Ramaswamy, Rajendran; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2016-10-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) promotes the oxidative stress formation, which in turn has hazardous effects on reproductive system and fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Caralluma fimbriata on high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in the testis of rat. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control (C), Control treated with CFE (C+ CFE), High fat diet fed (HFD), High fat diet fed treated with CFE (HFD+CFE) and High fat diet fed treated with Metformin (HFD+Met). CFE was orally administered (200mg/kg body weight) for 90days to groups-C+CFE and HFD+CFE rats. The effects of HF-diet on the reproductive organs were determined by measuring relative and absolute testes and epididymal fat pads weights. Regarding testes antioxidant status, high-fat fed rats showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, polyol pathway enzymes and lower GSH levels and lower activities of antioxidants, while CFE treatment prevented all these observed abnormalities. The present study clearly indicates that CFE offers a significant protection against HF-diet induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

  1. Ameliorative potentials of quercetin against lead-induced hematological and testicular alterations in Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Omair, Mohammed A.; Sedky, Azza; Ali, Awatef; Elsawy, Hany

    2017-02-28

    Lead is one of the oldest environmental and occupational toxins. Health hazards from increased lead exposure as a result of industrial and environmental pollution are recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of quercetin as a model of an antioxidant drug against the toxic effects of lead acetate on the blood and the testis of rats. The lead concentrations were determined in blood and the testis. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed in serum. Hemoglobin (Hb) content, packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts were evaluated in the whole blood. Our results showed that administration of lead acetate was associated with an increased lead levels in blood as well as in the testis. Lead acetate administration also caused a decrease in testicular function, Hb content, PCV and RBC count in comparison to the respective mean values of the control. In addition, lead acetate increased WBC count and induced alterations in sperm count, sperm motility and sperm abnormality and histopathology. In the contrary, administration of lead acetate along with quercetin partially restored the studied parameters to normal values. In conclusion, the treatment with quercetin may provide a partial protection against the toxic effects induced by lead acetate in blood and the testis of rats.

  2. Effects of losartan on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bolat, D; Oltulu, F; Uysal, A; Kose, T; Gunlusoy, B; Yigitturk, G; Turk, N S; Turan, T

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential protective effects of losartan on varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis, 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a sham operation was performed in SHAM group, and experimental left varicocele was created in VAR and VAR + LOS groups. Additionally, in VAR + LOS group, losartan was administered for 30 days starting on the day of surgery. At the end of 30 days, all animals were sacrificed and left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular injury and spermatogenesis were evaluated according to Johnsen scoring system. To assess the nitrosative stress, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was used and evaluated by H-score and apoptotic index (AI) of germ cells was analysed by TUNEL method. A significant decrease in the mean Johnsen score (JS) was observed in VAR group compared with SHAM (p < .001). The mean H-score and AI were significantly higher in VAR group compared with SHAM (p < .001). After losartan administration, mean JS was significantly increased (p < .001) and mean H-score and AI were significantly decreased compared with VAR group (p < .001 and .01, respectively). Findings of this suggest that losartan acts as a potent protective agent against varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis.

  3. Genistein alleviates testicular ischemia and reperfusion injury-induced spermatogenic damage and oxidative stress by suppressing abnormal testicular matrix metalloproteinase system via the Notch 2/Jagged 1/Hes-1 and caspase-8 pathways.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrebi, M; Renno, W M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMP) during testicular ischemia/reperfusion (t I/R). The involvement of the Notch pathway, and their modulation by the antioxidant genistein is also studied. Three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: sham rats, t I/R rats, and genistein-treated rats (10 mg/kg). The t I/R rat model underwent testicular artery occlusion of the left testis and was subjected to 60 min ischemia followed by 4 h reperfusion. Protein expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured in testicular tissue. Histological examination was performed to assess spermatogenesis. Protein levels of Notch 2, Jagged 1, and hairy/enhancer of split 1 (hes-1) was quantified. The degree of testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and germ cell apoptosis were also evaluated. T I/R induced severe tubular damage, a significant increase in MMP- 2 and MMP-9 expression and decreased expression TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Genistein treatment normalized the MMP-TIMP imbalance. Rats subjected to t I/R had low total antioxidant capacity of the testis, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, and increased oxidative DNA damage. Enhanced activities of caspase 8, caspase 3 and PARP were also observed during t I/R. Genistein reversed the t I/R-induced suppression of the Notch 2/Jagged 1/hes-1 pathway. Genistein was also able to salvage the testicular structure and function through restoring the MMP-TIMP anti-proteolytic balance, suppressing spermatogenic damage, alleviating oxidative stress and apoptosis. The Notch pathway is partly involved in inhibiting the t I/R-induced testicular impairment.

  4. Cisplatin and bleomycin-induced acute peripheral-vascular stenosis in patient with testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Tayyar Alp; Aydin, Ufuk; Ay, Derih; Cebeci, I. Oguz Ozden

    2016-01-01

    After cisplatin and bleomycin-containing chemotherapy (CTx) for testicular cancer, part of the patients may develop acute or long-term cardiovascular toxicity. In the present case, we reported that a 58-year-old male patient presenting with testicular tumors who developed acute peripheral arterial disease during combination CTx with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Superficial femoral artery occlusion not responded to structure thrombolytic and anticoagulators treatment. Left lower extremity was amputated below knee. In patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease, prophylactic anticoagulation may be recommended. The risk of causing factors of thromboembolism in patients with testicular cancer under cisplatin and bleomycin-containing CTx should be evaluated. PMID:28057998

  5. Oral ivermectin in scabies patients: a comparison with 1% topical lindane lotion.

    PubMed

    Madan, V; Jaskiran, K; Gupta, U; Gupta, D K

    2001-09-01

    Scabies. which constitutes a significant proportion of the outpatient attendance in tropical dermatology clinics, has so far been treated with lindane, crotamiton, sulphur, permethrin, etc. Ivermectin, an orally administered drug, was tried in scabies patients and compared with 1% topical lindane lotion to evaluate its effects and toxicity profile. Two hundred scabies patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. One group received oral invermectin in a single dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight. The other received 1% lindane lotion for topical application overnight. Patients were assessed after 48 hours, two weeks and four weeks. After a period of four weeks, 82.6% of the patients in the ivermectin group showed marked improvement; only 44.44% of the patients in the lindance group showed a similar response. A side effects in the form of severe headache were noted in one patient in group A. Oral ivermectin is an easy drug to administer. It is given as a single oral dose, unlike lindane, which has to be applied topically. The compliance is accordingly increased. Moreover, ivermectin induces an early and effective improvement in signs and symptoms. Thus, it may be a better option for scabies than the traditional topical linlane lotion.

  6. Reversal of alcohol induced testicular hyperlipidemia by supplementation of ascorbic acid and its comparison with abstention in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnakartha, Harikrishnan; Appu, Abhilash Puthuvelvippel; Madambath, Indira

    2014-02-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure causes hyperlipidemia. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid supplementation on ethanol induced hyperlipidemia in testis and to compare it with that of abstinence from taking alcohol. Thirty-six male guinea pigs were divided into two groups and were maintained for 90 days as follows (1) control (C) (2) ethanol treated group (E) (4 g/kg body wt/day). Ethanol was administered for 90 days and on 90th day, alanine amino transaminase (ALT), aspartate amino transaminase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in serum was assayed. The animals in the ethanol group were further divided into an ascorbic acid supplemented group (25 mg/100 g body wt/day) (E+AA) and an ethanol abstention group (EAG) and those in the control group were divided into a control group and a control+ascorbic acid group (C+AA). There was significant increase in levels of testicular cholesterol, free fatty acid, phospholipids and triglycerides in the ethanol group. There was also a significant increase in the activity of HMG CoA reductase and decrease in activity of testicular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and malic enzyme in ethanol-ingested animals that further led to decreased levels of serum testosterone. Alcohol administration also enhanced the activity of testicular alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Ascorbic acid supplementation and abstention altered all these parameters induced by chronic alcohol administration. Histological studies were also in line with the above results. Ascorbic acid was able to reinstate the cholesterol homeostasis in testis which could have further restored the testicular steroidogenesis. The present study demonstrated that ascorbic acid is effective in reducing the hyperlipidemia induced by chronic alcohol administration and produced a better recovery than abstention.

  7. Cisplatin Induces Resistance by Triggering Differentiation of Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abada, Paolo B.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Although testicular germ cell tumors are generally quite responsive to treatment with cisplatin, a small fraction of them acquire resistance during therapy. Even when cisplatin treatment is successful the patient is often left with a residual teratoma at the site of the primary tumor suggesting that cisplatin may trigger differentiation in some tumors. Using the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NTera2/D1, we confirmed that exposure to the differentiating agent retinoic acid produced a reduction in pluripotency markers NANOG and POU5F1 (Oct3/4) and an acute concentration-dependent increase in resistance to both cisplatin and paclitaxel that reached as high as 18-fold for cisplatin and 61-fold for paclitaxel within four days. A two day exposure to cisplatin also produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the expression of the NANOG and POU5F1 and increased expression of three markers whose levels increase with differentiation including Nestin, SCG10 and Fibronectin. In parallel, exposure to cisplatin induced up to 6.2-fold resistance to itself and 104-fold resistance to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel did not induce differentiation or resistance to either itself or cisplatin. Neither retinoic acid nor cisplatin induced resistance in cervical or prostate cancer cell lines or other germ cell tumor lines in which they failed to alter the expression of NANOG and POU5F1. Forced expression of NANOG prevented the induction of resistance to cisplatin by retinoic acid. We conclude that cisplatin can acutely induce resistance to itself and paclitaxel by triggering a differentiation response in pluripotent germ cell tumor cells. PMID:24475288

  8. Cisplatin induces resistance by triggering differentiation of testicular embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Abada, Paolo B; Howell, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Although testicular germ cell tumors are generally quite responsive to treatment with cisplatin, a small fraction of them acquire resistance during therapy. Even when cisplatin treatment is successful the patient is often left with a residual teratoma at the site of the primary tumor suggesting that cisplatin may trigger differentiation in some tumors. Using the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NTera2/D1, we confirmed that exposure to the differentiating agent retinoic acid produced a reduction in pluripotency markers NANOG and POU5F1 (Oct3/4) and an acute concentration-dependent increase in resistance to both cisplatin and paclitaxel that reached as high as 18-fold for cisplatin and 61-fold for paclitaxel within four days. A two day exposure to cisplatin also produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the expression of the NANOG and POU5F1 and increased expression of three markers whose levels increase with differentiation including Nestin, SCG10 and Fibronectin. In parallel, exposure to cisplatin induced up to 6.2-fold resistance to itself and 104-fold resistance to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel did not induce differentiation or resistance to either itself or cisplatin. Neither retinoic acid nor cisplatin induced resistance in cervical or prostate cancer cell lines or other germ cell tumor lines in which they failed to alter the expression of NANOG and POU5F1. Forced expression of NANOG prevented the induction of resistance to cisplatin by retinoic acid. We conclude that cisplatin can acutely induce resistance to itself and paclitaxel by triggering a differentiation response in pluripotent germ cell tumor cells.

  9. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Zowail, Mohamed E.; Marzouk, Amera M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological changes. A significant decrease in seminiferous tubules and their epithelial heights diameters and inhibition of spermatogenesis was recorded. In addition, the number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Biochemical results revealed an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) which is lipid peroxidation marker and a significant decrease in the level of serum antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT) and reducing antioxidant power (RAP). Animals given SVP and saffron showed an improvement in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by SVP. Moreover, MDA decreased and CAT and RAP increased. It is concluded from the present results that the ameliorative effects of saffron extract against SVP-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats may be due to the presence of one or more antioxidant components of saffron. PMID:25276476

  10. Effective attenuation of atrazine-induced histopathological changes in testicular tissue by antioxidant N-phenyl-4-aryl-polyhydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Chandak, Navneet; Bhardwaj, Jitender K; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Kitanov, Gerassim; Sharma, Rajnesh K; Sharma, Pawan K; Saso, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Some of the environmental toxicants acting as endocrine disruptors have been associated with health hazards in human and wildlife by modulating hormonal actions. Atrazine, a strong endocrine disruptor, induces detrimental effects on gonads in male and female, and causes impairment of fertility and developmental problems as well as sex alterations. Atrazine decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thus responsible for oxidative stress. Natural antioxidants have shown ability to reduce/slow down the apoptotic effect of atrazine on testicular tissue. In the present study, some N-phenyl-4-aryl-polyhydroquinolines bearing phenolic or/and alkoxy group(s) (6a-6g) were synthesized and evaluated for antioxidant activity in four different assays. Three best compounds (6e-6g) were studied for their ameliorative effect on testicular tissue supplemented with atrazine in vitro.

  11. Role of oxidative stress in single-dose, cadmium-induced testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, T; Li, Z G

    1992-09-01

    Treatment of rats with a single carcinogenic dose of CdCl2 (i.e., 30 mumol/kg) caused severe hemorrhagic damage in the testis within the first 12 h after the metal. Subsequently, atrophy with calcification developed in the next 2-3 mo. Atrophied tissues regenerated during the 1 yr after exposure. Twelve hours after exposure to the Cd treatment, lipid peroxidation levels, Fe content, and cellular production of H2O2 were remarkably elevated in testicular Leydig cells, the target cell population for Cd carcinogenesis. At the same time, glutathione peroxidase activity rose, glutathione reductase and catalase activities were reduced, and superoxide dismutase activity was unchanged. Xanthine oxidase activity in Leydig cells was also elevated at 6 and 9 h after the Cd treatment. Reduced glutathione in testes was decreased and oxidized glutathione was increased 12 h after exposure to the metal. These facts suggest that the carcinogenic doses of Cd induced oxidative stress while compromising cellular defense mechanisms against such stress. Therefore, active oxygen species such as H2O2 may have an important role in the initiation of carcinogenesis within the target cell population.

  12. Protective effects of carvacrol against methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Daggulli, Mansur; Dede, Onur; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Penbegul, Necmettin; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Türkçü, Gül; Yüksel, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of carvacrol (CAR) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced testis damage in rats. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into three groups: group I control treatment; group II MTX-treated; group III MTX + CAR-treated. A single dose of CAR was administered intraperitoneally to group III on the first day of the experiment and a single dose of MTX was administered intraperitoneally to groups II and III on the second day of the experiment. The total duration of the experiment was 8 days. Blood samples and testis tissue were obtained from each animal for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), Total oxidant status (TOS), Total Antioxidant Status (TAS), and Oxidative stress index (OSI). Light microscopy was used to complete the histopathological examination of testis specimens from each animal. Analysis of serum and testis sampled revealed that MDA, TOS and OSI levels were significantly greater in the group receiving MTX alone relative to the control treated animals while the TAS level was significantly reduced in the MTX group when compared with the control group. The administration of CAR was associated with significantly decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAS levels relative to the rats treated with MTX alone. All of these quantitative values demonstrate that CAR alleviates deleterious effects of MTX on testicular tissue. Use of antioxidants such as CAR may protect germ cells against oxidative stress and apoptosis when used in combination with MTX. PMID:25664063

  13. Effect of exogenous selenium on the testicular toxicity induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Swathy, S S; Panicker, Seema; Indira, M

    2006-01-01

    The effects of supplementation of selenium at a dose of 10 microg/ kg body weight were investigated on ethanol induced testicular toxicity in rats. In the present study, four groups of male albino rats were maintained for 60 days, as follows: (1) Control group (normal diet) (2) Ethanol group (4g/kg body weight) (3) Selenium (10 microg/kg body weight) (4) Ethanol + Selenium (4g/kg body weight + 10 microg/kg body weight). Results revealed that ethanol intake caused drastic changes in the sperm count, sperm motility and sperm morphology. It also reduced the levels of testosterone and fructose. The activities of 3betaHSD, 17betaHSD in the testis and SDH in the seminal plasma were also reduced. Lipid peroxidation was also enhanced as the lipid peroxidation products were increased and the activities of the scavenging enzymes were reduced. But on coadministration of selenium along with alcohol all the biochemical parameters were altered to near normal levels indicating a protective effect of selenium. These results were reinforced by the histopathological studies.

  14. Postinflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis induced by immunization with syngeneic testicular germ cells alone in mice.

    PubMed

    Naito, Munekazu; Hirai, Shuichi; Terayama, Hayato; Qu, Ning; Kuerban, Maimaiti; Musha, Muhetaerjiang; Kitaoka, Miyuki; Ogawa, Yuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    We previously established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), which can be induced by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells on days 0 and 14 in mice without using any adjuvant. In this EAO model, CD4+ T-cell-dependent lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were found with spermatogenic disturbance on day 120. However, the late stage of EAO (= postactive inflammation stage on day 365) has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the histopathological characteristics of the late stage. The results revealed that the lymphocytic infiltration finally resolved; however, the seminiferous epithelium persistently showed maturation arrest and the Sertoli cell-only feature. In the seminiferous tubules showing maturation arrest, both proliferation and apoptosis of germ cells had occurred simultaneously. It was also noted that there were deposits of immunoglobulin G and the third component of complement on the thickened basement membrane of seminiferous tubules in the late stage of EAO. These results indicate that histopathology after active inflammation in EAO comprises persistent damage to the seminiferous epithelium and may resemble the histopathology of "idiopathic disturbance of spermatogenesis" in man.

  15. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; EL-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  16. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-09-25

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity.

  17. MEDIA SERUM LEVELS AND IN VITRO HEPATIC ABSORPTION OF LINDANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High plasma protein binding is known to reduce the tissue uptake of chemicals in vivo, but the extent of its importance in vitro is less clear. Experiments were conducted to determine the cellular uptake of lindane in vitro under different conditions. Lindane was selected because...

  18. Radiolytic degradation of malathion and lindane in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, K. A.; Basfar, A. A.; Al-Kahtani, H. A.; Al-Hamad, K. S.

    2009-11-01

    Degradation of malathion and lindane pesticides present in an aqueous solution was investigated on a laboratory scale upon gamma-irradiation from a 60Co source. The effects of pesticide group, presence of various additives and absorbed dose on efficiency of pesticide degradation were investigated. Gamma-irradiation was carried out in distilled water solutions (malathion and lindane) and in combination with humic solution (HS), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and HS/N 2O (lindane) over the range 0.1-2 kGy (malathion) and 5-30 kGy (lindane). Malathion was easily degraded at low absorbed doses compared to lindane in distilled water solutions. Absorbed doses required to remove 50% and 90% of initial malathion and lindane concentrations in distilled water solutions were 0.53 and 1.77 kGy (malathion) and 17.97 and 28.79 kGy (lindane), respectively. The presence of HS, N 2O and HS/N 2O additives in aqueous solutions, significantly improved the effectiveness of radiolytic degradation of lindane. Chemical analysis of the pesticides and the by-products resulted from the radiolytic degradation were made using a gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the final degradation products of irradiation as detected by ion chromatography (IC) were acetic acid and traces of some anions (phosphate and chloride).

  19. MEDIA SERUM LEVELS AND IN VITRO HEPATIC ABSORPTION OF LINDANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High plasma protein binding is known to reduce the tissue uptake of chemicals in vivo, but the extent of its importance in vitro is less clear. Experiments were conducted to determine the cellular uptake of lindane in vitro under different conditions. Lindane was selected because...

  20. Chemoprotective role of quercetin in manganese-induced toxicity along the brain-pituitary-testicular axis in rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Subair, Temitayo I; Ego, Valerie C; Oyediran, Oluwasetemi; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Reproductive dysfunction in response to manganese exposure has been reported in humans and animals. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and beverages has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in different experimental model systems. However, there is dearth of scientific information on the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced functional alterations along the brain-pituitary- testicular axis in rats. Manganese was administered alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Results indicated that quercetin co-treatment significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited manganese-induced elevation in biomarkers of oxidative stress whereas it increased antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level in the brain, testes and epididymis of the treated rats. Furthermore, quercetin mediated suppression of inflammatory indices and caspase-3 activity was accompanied by preservation of histo-architectures of the brain, testes and epididymis in manganese-treated rats. The significant reversal of manganese-induced decreases in reproductive hormones (i.e. luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone) and testicular activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase by quercetin was complemented by an increase in sperm quality and quantity in the treated rats. Collectively, quercetin modulated manganese-induced toxicity along the brain-pituitary-testicular axis in rats via its intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, and may thus represent a potential pharmacological agent against manganese-induced male reproductive deficits in humans.

  1. Dysregulation of nectin-2 in the testicular cells: an explanation of cadmium-induced male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Nectin-2, a junction molecule, is found at the basal and apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) for the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) (constituted by tight junctions and basal ES) and Sertoli-spermatid adhesion. Loss of nectin-2 causes male infertility, suggesting nectin-2-based ES is crucial for spermatogenesis. Cadmium (Cd) has been known to induce severe testicular injury. Recent evidence has shown that the basal ES at the BTB and apical ES are the targets of Cd, suggesting that unique junction protein at the ES may explain why testis is more susceptible than other tissues. Since nectin-2 is expressed exclusively at the ES, it is highly possible that nectin-2 is the direct target of Cd. In this study, we investigate if nectin-2 is the target protein of Cd toxicity and the mechanism on how Cd down-regulates nectin-2 to achieve ES disruption. Our results revealed that Cd suppresses nectin-2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor and shRNA knockdown have shown that Cd induces nectin-2 protein degradation via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Immunofluorescence staining and endocytosis assays further confirmed that nectin-2 internalization is promoted upon Cd treatment. Besides, Cd directly represses nectin-2 transcription. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that Cd inhibits the binding of positive regulators to nectin-2 promoter. siRNA and overexpression analyses have demonstrated that Cd reduces the expression and binding affinity of positive regulators for transcription. Taken together, nectin-2 is the direct molecular target of Cd and its disruptive effects are mediated via direct repressing nectin-2 transcription and endocytosis of nectin-2 for degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium Selenite Protects Against Silver Nanoparticle-Induced Testicular Toxicity and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Sabah; Abudawood, Manal; Hamed, Sherifa Shaker; Aleem, Mukhtar M

    2017-01-01

    Metal nanomaterials hold great potential and play an important role in consumer products. However, the increasing use of nanomaterials has raised concern over inadvertent exposure and potential risks for human health and the environment. Henceforth, in vivo testing of nanoparticles and protection against its toxicity is required. Using rat as an animal model, effect of sodium selenite (Se), an essential trace element, on rat testes exposed to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated. Male rats were treated with AgNPs (5 mg/kg/b.w) i/p or Se (0.2 mg/kg/b.w) by gavage. AgNP administration decreased Glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). However, treatment with Se increased GSH levels and activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx compared with AgNP-treated group and decreased the level of MDA and inflammatory biomarkers significantly (p < 0.05) as compared with AgNP-treated group. Light microscopic analyses also revealed that AgNP induced histopathological changes in testes tissue. Further, protection by Se on biochemical results was confirmed by alleviation of the histopathological changes in the tissue. Results show the adverse effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive tract, particularly spermatogenesis, and suggest that Se possesses significant potential in reducing AgNP-induced testicular toxicity.

  3. Thymoquinone ameliorated elevated inflammatory cytokines in testicular tissue and sex hormones imbalance induced by oral chronic toxicity with sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, Abdullah; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2016-07-01

    Scientific evidence illustrated the health hazards of exposure to nitrites for prolonged time. Nitrites affected several body organs due to oxidative, inflammatory and apoptosis properties. Furthermore, thymoquinone (TQ) had curative effects against many diseases. We tried to discover the impact of both sodium nitrite and TQ on inflammatory cytokines contents in testicular tissues and hormonal balance both in vivo and in vitro. Fifty adult male SD rats received 80mg/kg sodium nitrite and treated with either 25 or 50mg/kg TQ daily by oral-gavage for twelve weeks. Testis were removed for sperms' count. Testicular tissue homogenates were used for assessment of protein and gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Nrf2 and caspase-3. Serum samples were used for measurement of testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin. Moreover, all the parameters were measured in human normal testis cell-lines, CRL-7002. Sodium nitrite produced significant decrease in serum testosterone associated with raised FSH, LH and prolactin. Moreover, sodium nitrite significantly elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3 and reduced Nrf2. TQ significantly reversed all these effects both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, TQ ameliorated testicular tissue inflammation and restored the normal balance of sex hormones induced by sodium nitrite both in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Neonatal testicular cell transplantation restores murine spermatogenesis damaged in the course of herpes simplex virus-induced orchitis.

    PubMed

    Malolina, Ekaterina A; Kulibin, Andrey Yu; Kushch, Alla A

    2016-04-01

    Genital tract infection and inflammation may affect male fertility, causing germ and Sertoli cell loss. We determined if testicular cell transplantation is effective at repairing testicular injury induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) orchitis. ROSA26 mice were used as donors and the recipients were C57BL/6 mice after HSV testicular inoculation; some of the recipients were treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV). ACV reduced the amount of HSV antigen in testes on Day 3 after transplantation and enhanced the efficacy of transplantation at Day 30. In recipient testes, donor Sertoli cells formed new seminiferous tubules; significantly more new tubules were observed in the testes of ACV-treated mice compared with mice not treated with ACV (17.8% vs 3.6%). Over half (50.4%) of new tubules in ACV-treated testes contained germ cells and round spermatids were detected in 14.2% of new tubules compared with 15.9% and 5.3% in testes not treated with ACV, respectively. At Day 150 the seminiferous epithelium was completely recovered in some donor tubules and elongated spermatids were observed inside it. Thus, our findings reveal the effectiveness of the combination of antiviral therapy with neonatal testis-cell transplantation for the restoration of spermatogenesis damaged by viral infection.

  5. Mechanisms of nanosized titanium dioxide-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in male mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the increased application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in the food industry and daily life, their potential toxic effects in humans and animals have been investigated. However, very few studies have focused on testicular oxidative stress and/or apoptosis. Methods In order to understand the possible molecular mechanisms of testicular lesions following exposure to TiO2 NPs, male mice were exposed to 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight TiO2 NPs for 90 consecutive days. Testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis were then evaluated, and the testicular mRNA expression of several genes and their proteins involved in oxidative stress and/or apoptosis was investigated. Results TiO2 NPs entered Sertoli cells and caused severe testicular oxidative damage and/or apoptosis, accompanied by excessive production of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA as well as a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in the up-regulation of caspase-3, Nrbp2, and cytochrome c expression, and caused down-regulation of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, Cyp1b1, Car3, Bcl-2, Acaa2, and Axud1 expression in mouse testis. Conclusions TiO2 NPs entered Sertoli cells via the blood-testis barrier and were deposited in mouse seminiferous cord and/or Sertoli cells, causing oxidative damage and apoptosis. PMID:25209749

  6. Effects of lindane on lindane-degrading Azotobacter chroococcum; evaluation of toxicity of possible degradation product(s) on plant and insect.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sangeeta; Paul, Bishwajeet; Aslam Khan, Md; Aggarwal, Chetana; Thakur, Jyoti K; Rathi, Maheshwar S

    2013-03-01

    The effects of lindane on growth and plant growth-promoting traits of two lindane-degrading Azotobacter chroococcum strains (JL 15 and JL 104) were determined. The potential of both A. chroococcum strains to degrade lindane was also determined. Lower concentrations of lindane had a stimulatory effect, and higher concentrations generally had an inhibitory effect on growth and plant growth-promoting activities. A high percentage (>90%) of lindane was degraded by both strains at a lindane concentration of 10 ppm. Lindane at 1,000 ppm decreased seed germination and reduced seedling fresh weight. However, the possible degradation products for a starting lindane concentration of 10 ppm was found to be non-phytotoxic. Toxicity studies with larvae of Spilarctia obliqua resulted in an LC50 estimate of 3.41 ppm for lindane solutions into which leaf discs were dipped. No toxicity was observed for possible degradation products.

  7. Protection by sulforaphane from type 1 diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is associated with the up-regulation of Nrf2 expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xin; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xin, Ying; Cai, Lu

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is predominantly due to increased oxidative stress. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), as a master transcription factor in controlling anti-oxidative systems, is able to be induced by sulforaphane (SFN). To examine whether SFN prevents testicular apoptosis, type 1 diabetic mouse model was induced with multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without SFN at 0.5 mg/kg daily in five days of each week for 3 months and then kept until 6 months. Diabetes significantly increased testicular apoptosis that was associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cell death pathways, shown by the increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, Bax to Bcl2 expression ratio, and cleaved caspase-3. Diabetes also significantly increased testicular oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, and decreased germ cell proliferation. All these diabetic effects were significantly prevented by SFN treatment for the first 3 months, and the protective effect could be sustained at 3 months after SFN treatment. SFN was able to up-regulate Nrf2 expression and function. The latter was reflected by the increased phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 and expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants at mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that type 1 diabetes significantly induced testicular apoptosis and damage along with increasing oxidative stress and cell death and suppressing Nrf2 expression and function. SFN is able to prevent testicular oxidative damage and apoptosis in type 1 diabetes mice, which may be associated with the preservation of testicular Nrf2 expression and function under diabetic condition. - Highlights: • Sulforaphane (SFN) could attenuate diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. • SFN could preserve germ cell proliferation under diabetic conditions. • SFN testicular protection was sustained until 3 months after

  8. Coenzyme Q10 and fish oil synergistically alleviate aluminum chloride-induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Arafa, Manar Hamed; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an environmental xenobiotic that stimulates free radical generation and hence reproductive toxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) effectively counteracts free radical-induced tissue damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oil (FO) exert beneficial effects on reproduction in male animals. This study therefore investigated the effects of both agents on testicular dysfunction induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Fifty male rats were gavaged with either 1% gum acacia (control group) or AlCl3 (34 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. Concurrently, AlCl3-treated rats received no treatment, CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and/or FO (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for ten weeks. AlCl3 caused a significant decrease in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as testicular weight, antioxidant enzyme gene expression and activities, reduced glutathione, zinc, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) contents, and number of Leydig cells, along with down-regulation of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) gene expression. However, testicular Al, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were markedly increased. Treatment with CoQ10 and FO, alone or in combined form led to an improvement in the aforementioned biomarkers. Overall, individual or combined treatment with CoQ10 and FO could ameliorate the toxic effects of AlCl3 on testicular tissues by mechanisms related to their potent antioxidant potential and stimulatory effects on steroidogenic enzymes transcription. CoQ10 seems to be better than FO regarding oxidative and nitrosative stress, Zn deficiency, and Al overload. However, FO showed more pronounced effect than CoQ10 on hormones, steroidogenic markers, and cAMP. A cocktail of both demonstrated greater protective effects on testicular tissues than monotherapy.

  9. Lindane removal by pure and mixed cultures of immobilized actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Saez, Juliana M; Benimeli, Claudia S; Amoroso, María J

    2012-11-01

    Lindane (γ-HCH) is an organochlorine insecticide that has been widely used in developing countries. It is known to persist in the environment and can cause serious health problems. One of the strategies adopted to remove lindane from the environment is bioremediation using microorganisms. Immobilized cells present advantages over free suspended cells, like their high degradation efficiency and protection against toxins. The aims of this work were: (1) To evaluate the ability of Streptomyces strains immobilized in four different matrices to remove lindane, (2) To select the support with optimum lindane removal by pure cultures, (3) To assay the selected support with consortia and (4) To evaluate the reusability of the immobilized cells. Four Streptomyces sp. strains had previously shown their ability to grow in the presence of lindane. Lindane removal by microorganisms immobilized was significantly higher than in free cells. Specifically immobilized cells in cloth sachets showed an improvement of around 25% in lindane removal compared to the abiotic control. Three strains showed significantly higher microbial growth when they were entrapped in silicone tubes. Strains immobilized in PVA-alginate demonstrated lowest growth. Mixed cultures immobilized inside cloth sachets showed no significant enhancement compared to pure cultures, reaching a maximum removal of 81% after 96 h for consortium I, consisting of the four immobilized strains together. Nevertheless, the cells could be reused for two additional cycles of 96 h each, obtaining a maximum removal efficiency of 71.5% when each of the four strains was immobilized in a separate bag (consortium III).

  10. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced metabolic stress on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: Role of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The driving force underlying the evolution of reproductive seasonality is the marked seasonal fluctuation in energy availability. It is well established that photoperiod regulates testicular steroidogenesis through modulation of circulatory and local melatonin levels and MT1R expression in golden hamster. However, photoperiodic variation in energy availability and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status has never been investigated for any seasonal breeder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of photoperiod in modulation of metabolic stress induced variation in steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in testes. We experimentally reduced energy availability via administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog, in critical- (CP), long- (LD) and short-day (SD) exposed golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and examined testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Administration of 2-DG decreased testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant enzyme activity in CP and LD experienced hamsters as compared to CP- and LD-control groups. Moreover, a decrease in the plasma- and local-melatonin level and MT1R expression in testes with a simultaneous increase in plasma corticosterone level was noted following 2-DG administration in CP and LD exposed hamsters. In contrast, no significant effect of 2-DG administration was observed on the parameters investigated under SD condition. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reduction in energy availability under CP and LD condition suppressed testicular steroidogenesis and increased oxidative damage in testis whereas SD induced melatonin might have buffered the 2-DG induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and maintained testicular antioxidant status.

  11. Therapeutic effects of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollen extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Neweshy, M S; El-Maddawy, Z K; El-Sayed, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known testicular toxicant. This study was designed to explore the long-term effects of a single low dose of Cd on spermatogenesis, and testicular dysfunction and oxidative stress, and the therapeutic potential of date palm pollen extract (DPP) in averting such reproductive damage. Adult male Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of CdCl2 (0 or 1 mg kg(-1) ). Twenty-four hours later, they started receiving DPP (0 or 40 mg kg(-1) ) orally, once daily for 56 consecutive days. Cd exposure caused significant reproductive damage via reduced weight of the reproductive organs, which includes spermatological damage (decreased sperm count and motility and increased rates of sperm abnormalities), increased oxidative stress (increased malondialdehyde and decreased reduced glutathione levels), histological alterations (necrosis, inefficient to completely arrest spermatogenesis and a reduced Johnsen's score) and decreased serum testosterone level. DPP restored spermatogenesis and attenuated the toxic effects of Cd on the reproductive system to the levels observed in the control animals. These findings support the hypothesis that the testis is particularly sensitive to Cd, which can cause testicular damage and infertility. Treatment with DPP can ameliorate the deleterious effects of Cd, probably by activating testicular endocrine and antioxidant systems. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Candesartan Mediated Amelioration of Cisplatin-Induced Testicular Damage Is Associated with Alterations in Expression Patterns of Nephrin and Podocin

    PubMed Central

    Enatsu, Noritoshi; Miyake, Hideaki; Chiba, Koji; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Nephrin and podocin are known to be closely related to the pharmacological effects of angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB). The objectives of this study were to investigate the role of nephrin and podocin using cisplatin-induced testicular damage and to evaluate the effect of ARB. At first, we evaluated the effects of cisplatin either alone or in combination with ARB candesartan on changes in expression patterns of nephrin and podocin in the rat testes. We then conducted in vitro studies to investigate the effects of angiotensin using cultured Sertoli cells, line TM4. As a result, the expression of nephrin and podocin was shown to localize around the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in a marked decrease in the expression of nephrin and podocin and induced a shift of both proteins from linear to granular expression patterns, accompanying the increased apoptotic index in the testes; these changes were partially restored by the additional administration of candesartan. In vitro studies with TM4 revealed the angiotensin-II mediated expression changes of nephrin and podocin. These findings suggest that candesartan can prevent cisplatin-induced testicular damage by regulating expression patterns of the nephrin-podocin complex in the testes. PMID:26539476

  13. Differential estrogenic effects of the persistent organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, endosulfan, and lindane in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Briz, Víctor; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Sánchez-Redondo, Sara; Fernández, Mariana F; Grimalt, Joan O; Olea, Nicolás; Rodríguez-Farré, Eduard; Suñol, Cristina

    2011-04-01

    The organochlorine chemicals endosulfan, dieldrin, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) are persistent pesticides to which people are exposed mainly via diet. Their antagonism of the γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptor makes them convulsants. They are also endocrine disruptors because of their interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Here, we study the effects of dieldrin, endosulfan, and lindane on ERs in primary cultures of cortical neurons (CN) and cerebellar granule cells (CGC). All the compounds tested inhibited the binding of [(3)H]-estradiol to the ER in both CN and CGC, with dieldrin in CGC showing the highest affinity. We also determined the effects of the pesticides on protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Dieldrin and endosulfan increased Akt phosphorylation in CN, which was inhibited by the ERβ antagonist 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol. Instead, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by dieldrin in CGC was mediated by multiple activation of ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30. Lindane did not activate these pathways, but it inhibited estradiol-mediated Akt and ERK1/2 activation. In CN, all the chemicals activated ERK1/2 through a mechanism involving GABA(A) and glutamate receptors. Long-term exposure to these pesticides reduced the levels of ERα, but not of ERβ. Moreover, extracts of CN treated with endosulfan, dieldrin, or lindane induced cell proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer-derived cells, whereas only extracts of CGC treated with dieldrin induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. Overall, the observed alterations on ER-mediated signaling and ER levels in neurons might contribute to the neurotoxicity of these organochlorine pesticides.

  14. Preventive effect of D-psicose, one of rare ketohexoses, on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)-induced testicular injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Suna, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Kimura, Shoji; Tokuda, Masaaki; Jitsunari, Fumihiko

    2007-09-10

    To investigate the preventive effects of d-psicose, one of rare ketohexoses, on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)-induced testicular injury, prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to DEHP via their diet or orally, while under treatment with d-psicose. The rats given a diet-containing 1% DEHP alone for 7-14 days showed severe testicular atrophy accompanied by aspermatogenesis. On the other hand, those given the diet plus 2% but not 1% d-psicose-supplemented water for 14 days did not develop testicular atrophy, and exhibited an almost complete spermatogenesis. There was no significant difference in plasma mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) levels between the d-psicose-free and d-psicose-treated groups. The testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) level after a single oral administration of 2g/kg of DEHP showed a similar pattern of increase to the plasma MEHP level and peaked in 24h suggesting a close and dose-dependent relation between plasma MEHP and testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Pretreatment with d-psicose at a concentration of 2% and 4% resulted in an almost complete but not absolute suppression of testicular MDA production among rats administered 2g/kg of DEHP. The microarray analysis showed the induction of oxidative stress related genes including the thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2, glutaredoixn 1 after 24h of the DEHP treatment in the testis. These results show that d-psicose prevents DEHP-induced testicular injury by suppressing the generation of ROS in the rat testis. This effect may be due to the direct scavenging by d-psicose of ROS generated in the testis.

  15. Resveratrol reverses cadmium chloride-induced testicular damage and subfertility by downregulating p53 and Bax and upregulating gonadotropins and Bcl-2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eleawa, Samy M; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud A; Alhashem, Fahaid H; Bin-Jaliah, Ismaeel; Sakr, Hussein F; Elrefaey, Hesham M; Elkarib, Abbas O; Alessa, Riyad M; Haidara, Mohammad A; Shatoor, Abdullah S; Khalil, Mohammad A

    2014-04-24

    This study was performed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of resveratrol (RES) against CdCl2-induced toxicity in rat testes. Seven experimental groups of adult male rats were formulated as follows: A) controls+NS, B) control+vehicle (saline solution of hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin), C) RES treated, D) CdCl2+NS, E) CdCl2+vehicle, F) RES followed by CdCl2 and M) CdCl2 followed by RES. At the end of the protocol, serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured in all groups, and testicular levels of TBARS and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Epididymal semen analysis was performed, and testicular expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax was assessed by RT-PCR. Also, histopathological changes of the testes were examined microscopically. Administration of RES before or after cadmium chloride in rats improved semen parameters including count, motility, daily sperm production and morphology, increased serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone, decreased testicular lipid peroxidation and increased SOD activity. RES not only attenuated cadmium chloride-induced testicular histopathology but was also able to protect against the onset of cadmium chloride testicular toxicity. Cadmium chloride downregulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. Resveratrol protected against and partially reversed cadmium chloride testicular toxicity via upregulation of Bcl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax gene expression. The antioxidant activity of RES protects against cadmium chloride testicular toxicity and partially reverses its effect via upregulation of BCl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax expression.

  16. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood tests may show a low level of testosterone and high levels of prolactin, FSH , and LH . ... testes will be ordered. Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to diagnose in older ...

  17. Testicular Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, the location of the testicles makes them prime targets to be accidentally struck on the playing ... you might also feel nauseated for a short time. If it's a minor testicular injury, the pain ...

  18. Testicular Torsion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal of Urology. 2011;185:2469. Hittelman AB. Neonatal testicular torsion. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ... 16, 2015. Snyder HM, et al. In utero/neonatal torsion: Observation versus prompt exploration. Journal of Urology. ...

  19. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Screening - testicular cancer - self-exam; Testicular cancer - screening - self-exam ... A testicular self-exam is done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can make ...

  20. Testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Ringdahl, Erika; Teague, Lynn

    2006-11-15

    Each year, testicular torsion affects one in 4,000 males younger than 25 years. Early diagnosis and definitive management are the keys to avoid testicular loss. All prepubertal and young adult males with acute scrotal pain should be considered to have testicular torsion until proven otherwise. The finding of an ipsilateral absent cremasteric reflex is the most accurate sign of testicular torsion. Torsion of the appendix testis is more common in children than testicular torsion and may be diagnosed by the "blue dot sign" (i.e., tender nodule with blue discoloration on the upper pole of the testis). Epididymitis/orchitis is much less common in the prepubertal male, and the diagnosis should be made with caution in this age group. Doppler ultrasonography may be needed for definitive diagnosis; radionuclide scintigraphy is an alternative that may be more accurate but should be ordered only if it can be performed without delay. Diagnosis of testicular torsion is based on the finding of decreased or absent blood flow on the ipsilateral side. Treatment involves rapid restoration of blood flow to the affected testis. The optimal time frame is less than six hours after the onset of symptoms. Manual detorsion by external rotation of the testis can be successful, but restoration of blood flow must be confirmed following the maneuver. Surgical exploration provides definitive treatment for the affected testis by orchiopexy and allows for prophylactic orchiopexy of the contralateral testis. Surgical treatment of torsion of the appendix testis is not mandatory but hastens recovery.

  1. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of vitamin E on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd and Cu)-induced oxidative stress and renal and testicular injuries were evaluated in male mice. Exposure of mice to these heavy metals in drinking water for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations. The levels of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) in kidney and testis tissues were significantly declined. Moreover, the histopathological evaluation of kidney and testis showed severe changes in mice treated with these heavy metals. Administration of vitamin E protected the kidney and testis of mice exposed to heavy metals as evidenced by appearance of normal histological structures, insignificant changes in the values of plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid, and the levels of kidney GSH and SOD, while the levels of testis GSH and SOD were notably decreased. These data suggest that the administration of vitamin E protects against heavy metals-induced renal and testicular oxidative stress and injuries. PMID:23961105

  2. Protective effects of Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, O A; Akanni, O O

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor. We investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) against Cd-induced testicular damage in rats while quercetin (Que) served as standard. The total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TFC and TPC), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals scavenging activities of AA were determined. In vivo, thirty male Wistar rats were assigned to six groups and orally treated with corn oil (control), Cd alone, Cd+Que, Cd+AA, Que and AA alone. Que and AA were given at doses of 25 and 200 mg kg(-1), respectively, for 3 weeks and challenged with two doses of Cd (1.5 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that TFC and TPC of AA increased with increase in concentration. AA scavenged DPPH and OH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Cd significantly increased the relative weight of testis of rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased while antioxidant parameters decreased in testis of Cd-treated rats. Also, Cd-treated rats had significantly reduced sperm count, motility, sialic acid, luteinising hormone and testosterone relative to controls. Pre-treatment with AA or Que significantly attenuated the biochemical alterations observed in Cd-treated rats. Overall, AA protects against Cd-induced testicular damage via antioxidative mechanism. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Protective effects of fish omega-3 fatty acids on doxorubicin-induced testicular apoptosis and oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Uygur, R; Aktas, C; Tulubas, F; Uygur, E; Kanter, M; Erboga, M; Caglar, V; Topcu, B; Ozen, O A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of fish omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on acute doxorubicin (DOX)-induced testicular apoptosis and oxidative damage. 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX-treated and DOX+fish n-3 fatty acids. Fish n-3 fatty acids (400 mg kg(-1) ) were given for 30 days by intragastric gavage. The rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of DOX (30 mg kg(-1) ) and were sacrificed after 48 h. The DOX+fish n-3 fatty acids group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increased activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the DOX-treated group. Acute DOX treatment caused severe damage such as disorganisation and separation of germ cells. The fish n-3 fatty acids-pretreated rats showed an improved histological appearance in the DOX-treated group. Our data indicate a reduction in the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling; there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in testis tissues of the DOX+fish n-3 fatty acids group compared with DOX-treated group. These data suggested that fish n-3 fatty acids pre-treatment may be beneficial for spermatogenesis following acute DOX-induced testicular damage by decreasing germ cell apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  4. Effects of polydeoxyribonucleotide on the histological damage and the altered spermatogenesis induced by testicular ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, L; Antonuccio, P; Squadrito, F; Bitto, A; Nicotina, P A; Fazzari, C; Polito, F; Marini, H; Bonvissuto, G; Arena, S; Morgia, G; Romeo, C; Caputi, A P; Altavilla, D

    2012-04-01

    The effects of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an agonist of the A2A adenosine receptors which when activated positively influences sperm activity, were tested in an experimental testicular ischaemia/reperfusion injury model. Anaesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to testicular torsion-induced ischaemia, followed by reperfusion (TI/R). Immediately after detorsion, randomized animals, including SHAM, received intraperitoneal injections of: (i) vehicle (1 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl solution); (ii) PDRN (8 mg/kg); (iii) DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargilxanthine, 0.1 mg/kg); or (iv) PDRN (8 mg/kg) + DMPX (0.1 mg/kg). Animals were euthanized at 1, 7 and 30 days following reperfusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is normally associated with adenosine A2A receptor stimulation. After treatment, VEGF mRNA/protein expression quantified by qPCR and Western blot, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA measured by qPCR, VEGF and VEGFR1 assessed using immunohistochemical methods, histological staining and spermatogenic activity were all analysed. Testis ischaemia-reperfusion (TI/R) injury caused increases in VEGF mRNA and protein, VEGFR1 and eNOS mRNA, histological damage and reduced spermatogenic activity. Immunostaining showed a lower expression of VEGF in germinal epithelial cells and a strong expression of VEGFR1 in Leydig cells after TI/R. PDRN administration increased significantly VEGF message/protein, VEGFR1 and eNOS message, decreased histological damage and ameliorated spermatogenic activity. PDRN might be useful in the management of testicular torsion.

  5. Camellia sinensis (green tea) extract attenuate acrylamide induced testicular damage in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Refaiy, Abeer El Refaiy M; Moneim, Effat M Abdel

    2014-10-01

    Acrylamide is a proved toxin for testicular function, found in food when heated for long period of time. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a potent antioxidant; the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of green tea extract against the toxic effects of acrylamide in rat testes. acrylamide was administered orally to rats in different doses and also the extract of green tea was administered orally to different groups of animals in combination with the acrylamide. The weight of animals, testosterone hormone level and histopathological effect upon testicles were evaluated. Testosterone hormone level in serum, and histopathological findings were significantly improved with the co-administration of green tea extract with the acrylamide. Green tea extract reversed all the toxic effects of acrylamide even in high dose for long period (90 days). Green tea extract is a potent antioxidant antidote for the acrylamide toxic effects upon testicular function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  6. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  7. Experimentally induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome originates in the masculinization programming window

    PubMed Central

    van den Driesche, Sander; Kilcoyne, Karen R.; Wagner, Ida; Rebourcet, Diane; Mitchell, Rod; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Donat, Roland; Shukla, Chitranjan J.; Jorgensen, Anne; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis, which proposes that common reproductive disorders of newborn and adult human males may have a common fetal origin, is largely untested. We tested this hypothesis using a rat model involving gestational exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which suppresses testosterone production by the fetal testis. We evaluated if induction of TDS via testosterone suppression is restricted to the “masculinization programming window” (MPW), as indicated by reduction in anogenital distance (AGD). We show that DBP suppresses fetal testosterone equally during and after the MPW, but only DBP exposure in the MPW causes reduced AGD, focal testicular dysgenesis, and TDS disorders (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, reduced adult testis size, and compensated adult Leydig cell failure). Focal testicular dysgenesis, reduced size of adult male reproductive organs, and TDS disorders and their severity were all strongly associated with reduced AGD. We related our findings to human TDS cases by demonstrating similar focal dysgenetic changes in testes of men with preinvasive germ cell neoplasia (GCNIS) and in testes of DBP-MPW animals. If our results are translatable to humans, they suggest that identification of potential causes of human TDS disorders should focus on exposures during a human MPW equivalent, especially if negatively associated with offspring AGD. PMID:28352662

  8. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer High-Dose Chemotherapy and ... Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics ...

  9. Attenuating effect of lycopene and ellagic acid on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced spermiotoxicity and testicular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mustafa; Türk, Gaffari; Çeribaşı, Ali Osman; Sakin, Fatih; Ateşşahin, Ahmet

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prophylactic effects of lycopene (LC) and ellagic acid (EA) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced testicular and spermatozoal toxicity. These toxicological changes are associated with the oxidative stress and apoptosis in male rats. Forty-eight male rats were allocated to one of six groups of 8 rats each: control, LC, EA, TCDD, TCDD+LC, and TCDD+EA. The control group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution+0.5 mL/rat corn oil every other day. The LC group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution+0.5 mL/rat corn oil containing 10 mg/kg of LC every other day. The EA group received 0.5 mL/rat corn oil+0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution containing 2 mg/kg of EA every other day. The TCDD group received 0.5 mL/rat corn oil containing 100 ng/kg/day of TCDD+0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution. The TCDD+LC group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat TCDD+0.5 mL/rat LC. The TCDD+EA group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat TCDD+0.5 mL/rat EA. All treatments were made by gavage, and the experimental period was maintained during 8 weeks. Sperm motility, concentration, and abnormal sperm rate in epididymal tissue, testicular tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzyme activity, histopathological changes, and apoptosis (i.e., Bax and Bcl-2 proteins) were determined. TCDD exposure resulted in significant decreases in sperm motility, concentration, testicular superoxide dismutase activity, germinal cell-layer thickness, Johnsen's testicular score, and significant increases in abnormal sperm rate, testicular malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, Bax-positive staining, and Bax-positive apoptotic cell score, along with some testicular histopathological lesions. TCDD treatment did not affect significantly catalase activity. However, combined treatment with LC or EA, in addition to TCDD, prevented the development of TCDD-induced damages in sperm quality, testicular histology

  10. Nortriptyline protects testes against germ cell apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by testicular ischaemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, I; Ghazi-Khansari, M; Saeedi Saravi, S S; Nobakht, M; Majdani, R; Rezayat, S M; Mousavi, S E; Yari, A; Dehpour, A R

    2017-03-01

    We designed this experiment to evaluate the effects of nortriptyline on testicular injury after torsion/detorsion (T/D). Ninety-six adult Wistar rats were divided into six groups 16 each in control group (Group 1), sham operated (Group 2), T/D + saline (Group 3), and in groups 4-6; were administered 2, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) , i.p. of nortriptyline 30 and 90 min after torsion respectively. Testicular torsion was created by twisting the right testis 720° in clockwise direction for 1 h. In six rats of each group, tissue MDA level and caspase-3 activity increased and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in compared with control group 4 h after detorsion (P < 0.001). In six rats of each group 24 h after detorsion, histopathological changes and germ cell apoptosis were significantly deteriorated by measuring mean of seminiferous tubules diameters (MSTD) and TUNEL test. Moreover, 30 days after T/D, sperm concentration and motility were examined in rest of rats. Pre- and post-reperfusion nortriptyline could reduce MDA and caspase-3 levels and normalise antioxidant enzymes activities, dose dependently. Germ cell apoptosis was significantly decreased, and the MSTD, as well as sperm functions, were significantly improved. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore is probably involved in protective effects of nortriptyline against testicular T/D cell damages. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Oral administration of Moringa oleifera oil but not coconut oil prevents mercury-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, S O; Benjamin, S; Ebah, S G; Obilor, G; Agbam, G

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of administration of coconut oil (CO) and Moringa oleifera oil (MO) on testicular oxidative stress, sperm quality and steroidogenesis parameters in rats treated with mercury chloride (HgCl2 ). After 15 days of oral administration of CO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) and MO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) along with intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HgCl2 (5 mg kg(-1) body weight) alone or in combination, we found that CO treatment did not protect against HgCl2 -induced poor sperm quality (motility, count) as well as decreased testosterone level and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity. Treatment with CO alone decreased glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rat's testis, whereas MO did not change these parameters. Cotreatment with MO prevented HgCl2 -induced testicular catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, poor sperm quality and low testosterone level and also blocks the adverse effect of CO+HgCl2 (2 ml kg(-1) body weight + 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) on the investigated endpoints. In conclusion, MO and not CO decreased the deleterious effects of HgCl2 on sperm quality and steroidogenesis in rats and also strengthen the antioxidant defence of the testes. Therefore, MO is beneficial as an antioxidant in HgCl2 -induced oxidative damage.

  12. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maha A E

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Organochlorine insecticides lindane and dieldrin and their binary mixture disturb calcium homeostasis in dopaminergic PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Heusinkveld, Harm J; Westerink, Remco H S

    2012-02-07

    Current hypotheses link long-term environmental exposure of humans to persistent organochlorine (OC) insecticides lindane (HCH) and dieldrin (HEOD) to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Primary adverse neurological effects of these insecticides are directed at inhibition of GABA(A) and glycine receptors, although GABA-independent effects have also been reported. In this paper we describe the effect of dieldrin and a binary mixture of dieldrin and lindane on a critical parameter of neuronal function and survival, i.e., intracellular calcium homeostasis. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) has been monitored using real-time single-cell fluorescence microscopy in dopaminergic PC12 cells loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye Fura-2. The results demonstrate that nanomolar concentrations of dieldrin time- and concentration-dependently inhibit depolarization-evoked influx of Ca(2+). Co-exposure of PC12 cells to a mixture of dieldrin and lindane revealed an additive inhibition of the depolarization-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i), whereas the lindane-induced increase in basal [Ca(2+)](i) is inhibited by dieldrin. The combined findings indicate that dieldrin and binary mixtures of organochlorines affect [Ca(2+)](i) already at concentrations below commonly accepted effect concentrations and close to human internal dose levels. Consequently, current findings illustrate the need to take mixtures of OC insecticides into account in human risk assessment.

  14. Testicular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports. You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It ...

  15. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  16. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials.

    PubMed

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F Handan; Brown, Carl E

    2014-10-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the surrounding air. Vapor concentrations depended upon initial surface concentration, temperature, and type of building material. A time-weighted average (TWA) concentration in the air was used to quantify the health risk associated with the inhalation of lindane vapors. Transformation products of lindane, namely α-hexachlorocyclohexane and pentachlorocyclohexene, were detected in the vapour phase at both temperatures and for all of the test materials. Their formation was greater on glass and ceramic tiles, compared to other building materials. An empiric Sips isotherm model was employed to approximate experimental results and to estimate the release of lindane and its transformation products. This helped determine the extent of decontamination required to reduce the surface concentrations of lindane to the levels corresponding to vapor concentrations below TWA.

  17. Treatment of scabies: comparison of ivermectin vs. lindane lotion 1%.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Saleh, Parviz; Goldust, Mohamad; Amirnia, Mehdi; Zadeh, Yousef Javad; Mohamadi, Ramin Mir; Rezaee, Elham

    2012-01-01

    Topical antiscabietics have poor compliance. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin with topical lindane in treating scabies. In this clinical trial, 248 patients from 2 to 86 years of age were divided into two groups. Oral ivermectin was given to group A in a single dose of 200 μg/kg body weight. Group B received application of lindane lotion 1% twice at one-week interval. When there was no cure in two weeks, 2nd treatment was given with either drug in the respective group. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 58.6% at two-week follow up, which increased to 92.7% with 2 doses at the end of 4-week interval. The application of lindane lotion 1% twice at one-week interval was effective in 44.3% of patients at two-week follow up, which increased to 71.7% after repeating the treatment for another two weeks. Single dose application of oral ivermectin was as effective as twice application of lindane lotion 1% at one-week interval. Two doses of ivermectin proved superior to lindane lotion 1% after repeating the treatment at 4-week follow up.

  18. Ivermectin vs. lindane in the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Scabies is commonly treated with acaricides but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. lindane lotion 1% for the treatment of scabies. Four hundred fourty patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 microg/kg body weight, and the second group were treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Single dose of oral ivermectin provided a cure rate of 63.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 81.8% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 45.4% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 63.6% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Single dose ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow up.

  19. [Prevention of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides for high power microwave radiation induced testicular injury in rats: an experimental research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Sun, Yan-Mei; Yang, Shu-Yan; Shen, Nan; Zhang, Yi-Zhong; Yang, Ning-Jiang; Ren, Kuang; Lu, Shi-Jie

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides on testicular injury induced by exposure to high power microwave (HPM) in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the normal control group, the microwave radiation model group, the treatment group, the new microwave radiation model group, and the prevention group, 6 in each group. All rats, except those in the normal control group, were exposed to microwave at an average power density of 200 mW/cm2 for 6 min. Rats in the control group and the model group were administered with normal saline by gastrogavage, once a day. Rats in the treatment group and the prevention group were given with Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides by gastrogavage, 2 mL each time (400 mg/kg body weight), once a day. All rats were sacrificed on the 11th day.The sperm density and the rate of sperm deformity were determined. Pathological changes of testis were observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Short-term HPM irradiation could significantly reduce the sperm density and increase the sperm deformity rate (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, obvious pathological changes of testes occurred. Compared with the two model groups, the sperm density increased and the sperm deformity rate decreased in the treatment group and the prevention group (P < 0.05). Under the light microscope, injuries of spermatogenic cells and stromal cells, as well as vascular dilatation and congestion were obviously alleviated in the treatment group and the prevention group. Mitochondrial swelling and endoplasmic reticulum expansion shown by ultrastructural observation were also significantly alleviated. Of them, injuries of spermatogenic cells and inflammation response were milder in the treatment group than in the prevention group. Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides had significant protective effect on microwave radiation induced testicular injury. Better effect was obtained by therapeutic medication than

  20. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics (PBPK) Model For Dermal Permeability for Lindane

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lindane is a neurotoxicant used for the treatment of lice and scabies present on human skin. Due to its pharmaceutical application, an extensive pharmacokinetic database exists in humans. Mathematical diffusion models allow for calculation of lindane skin permeability coefficient...

  1. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics (PBPK) Model For Dermal Permeability for Lindane

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lindane is a neurotoxicant used for the treatment of lice and scabies present on human skin. Due to its pharmaceutical application, an extensive pharmacokinetic database exists in humans. Mathematical diffusion models allow for calculation of lindane skin permeability coefficient...

  2. Chronic restraint stress induces sperm acrosome reaction and changes in testicular tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Maneenin, Chanwit; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress is a cause of male infertility. Although sex hormones and sperm quality have been shown to be low in stress, sperm physiology and testicular functional proteins, such as phosphotyrosine proteins, have not been documented. Objective: To investigate the acrosome status and alterations of testicular proteins involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis in chronic stress in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats were divided into 2 groups (control and chronic stress (CS), n=7). CS rats were immobilized (4 hr/day) for 42 consecutive days. The blood glucose level (BGL), corticosterone, testosterone, acrosome status, and histopathology were examined. The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and phosphorylated proteins were analyzed. Results: Results showed that BGL (71.25±2.22 vs. 95.60±3.36 mg/dl), corticosterone level (24.33±4.23 vs. 36.9±2.01 ng/ml), acrosome reacted sperm (3.25±1.55 vs. 17.71±5.03%), and sperm head abnormality (3.29±0.71 vs. 6.21±1.18%) were significantly higher in CS group in comparison with control. In contrast, seminal vesicle (0.41±0.05 vs. 0.24±0.07 g/100g), testosterone level (3.37±0.79 vs. 0.61±0.29 ng/ml), and sperm concentration (115.33±7.70 vs. 79.13±3.65×106 cells/ml) of CS were significantly lower (p<0.05) than controls. Some atrophic seminiferous tubules and low sperm mass were apparent in CS rats. The expression of CYP11A1 except StAR protein was markedly decreased in CS rats. In contrast, a 55 kDa phosphorylated protein was higher in CS testes. Conclusion: CS decreased the expression of CYP11A, resulting in decreased testosterone, and increased acrosome-reacted sperm, assumed to be the result of an increase of 55 kDa phosphorylated protein. PMID:27525328

  3. Zinc protects testicular injury induced by concurrent exposure to cadmium and lead in rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Murthy, R C; Singh, C; Chandra, S V

    1989-05-01

    The effect of coexposure to lead and cadmium (each 50 ppm alone and 25 ppm in combination) on the testes of rats and the preventive role of zinc (50 ppm) was investigated by administering these metals through drinking water. Male weaned albino rats were exposed to these metals for 120 days. Testicular histology, sperm counts and sperm motility were studied in these rats. The animals coexposed to lead and cadmium exhibited much more pronounced pathological changes and reduced sperm counts compared to the animals exposed to either of the metals alone. Zinc supplementation to the lead + cadmium exposed rats revealed the protective effect of zinc on these parameters. The observed higher magnitude of changes in the testes of lead + cadmium exposed group seems to be due to the excessive cadmium accumulation.

  4. Spatial distribution of Lindane concentration in topsoil across France.

    PubMed

    Orton, T G; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D; Jolivet, C C; Villanneau, E J; Marchant, B P; Caria, G; Barriuso, E; Bispo, A; Briand, O

    2013-01-15

    Lindane [γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] is an organochlorine pesticide with toxic effects on humans. It is bioaccumulative and can remain in soils for long periods, and although its use for crop spraying was banned in France in 1998, it is possible that residues from before this time remain in the soil. The RMQS soil monitoring network consists of soil samples from 2200 sites on a 16 km regular grid across France, collected between 2002 and 2009. We use 726 measurements of the Lindane concentration in these samples to (i) investigate the main explanatory factors for its spatial distribution across France, and (ii) map this distribution. Geostatistics provides an appropriate framework to analyze our spatial dataset, though two issues regarding the data are worth special consideration: first, the harmonization of two subsets of the data (which were analyzed using different measurement processes), and second, the large proportion of data from one of these subsets that fell below a limit of quantification. We deal with these issues using recent methodological developments in geostatistics. Results demonstrate the importance of land use and rainfall for explaining part of the variability of Lindane across France: land use due to the past direct input of Lindane on cropland and its subsequent persistence in the soil, and rainfall due to the re-deposition of volatilized Lindane. Maps show the concentrations to be generally largest in the north and northwest of France, areas of more intensive agricultural land. We also compare levels to some contamination thresholds taken from the literature, and present maps showing the probability of Lindane concentrations exceeding these thresholds across France. These maps could be used as guidelines for deciding which areas require further sampling before some possible remediation strategy could be applied.

  5. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replicates in testicular germ cells, alters spermatogenesis, and induces germ cell death by apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sur, J H; Doster, A R; Christian, J S; Galeota, J A; Wills, R W; Zimmerman, J J; Osorio, F A

    1997-01-01

    Like other arteriviruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is shed in semen, a feature that is critical for the venereal transmission of this group of viruses. In spite of its epidemiological importance, little is known of the association of PRRSV or other arteriviruses with gonadal tissues. We experimentally infected a group of boars with PRRSV 12068-96, a virulent field strain. By combined use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected infection by PRRSV in the testes of these boars. The PRRSV testicular replication in testis centers on two types of cells: (i) epithelial germ cells of the seminiferous tubules, primarily spermatids and spermatocytes, and (ii) macrophages, which are located in the interstitium of the testis. Histopathologically, hypospermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), and abundant germ cell depletion and death were observed. We obtained evidence that such germ cell death occurs by apoptosis, as determined by a characteristic histologic pattern and evidence of massive DNA fragmentation detected in situ (TUNEL [terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated digoxigenin-UTP nick end labeling] assay). Simultaneously with these testicular alterations, we observed that there is a significant increase in the number of immature sperm cells (mainly MGCs, spermatids, and spermatocytes) in the ejaculates of the PRRSV-inoculated boars and that these cells are infected with PRRSV. Our results indicate that PRRSV may infect target cells other than macrophages, that these infected cells can be primarily responsible for the excretion of infectious PRRSV in semen, and that PRRSV induces apoptosis in these germ cells in vivo. PMID:9371575

  6. BEX4 upregulation alters Sertoli cell growth properties and protein expression profiles: An explanation for cadmium-induced testicular Sertoli cell injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wu; Yaping, Liu; Mingjun, Wu; Jie, Hao; Xiaogang, Liao; Gang, Li

    2017-03-15

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce testicular dysfunction by targeting genes that are expressed in the testis. Here, we demonstrated that BEX4 is expressed in testis Sertoli cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated by CdCl2 treatment through activating the p38 signaling pathway. To investigate whether augmented BEX4 expression affects Sertoli cell growth and function, BEX4-overexpressing TM4 Sertoli cells were established. Proteomics analysis identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in BEX4-overexpressing cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of the significantly upregulated proteins had functional implications in cellular metabolic processes, whereas those that were downregulated were mostly related to cell cycle and cell communication. Therefore, the present study provides the first evidence that BEX4 upregulation induces alterations in Sertoli cell growth properties and protein expression profiles, which may be an explanation for Cd-induced testicular Sertoli cell injury.

  7. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Maha A.E.

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  8. PHYTO-INDICATORS IN DETECTION OF LINDANE RESIDUES IN WATER.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenac, S; Inđić, D; Vuković, S; Marković, N; Takač, A

    2014-01-01

    Intensive use of pesticides, especially insecticides, in agriculture during the past several decades has already led to contamination of surface and underground waters and sediments in some regions, thus presents a serious problem for the environment. Lindane was one of frequently applied insecticides for soil treatment. In Serbia, it has been in use since 1944, but in the period 2001-2007 its use was restricted only to timber treatments. In 2009 an international ban on the use of lindane in agriculture was implemented under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, due to a long-term use and persistence, its residues can be present in underground water and sediment, thus present a potential risk for incorporation in food chains. According to Directive 2008/105/EC it is listed as one of the priority water pollutants, whose presence is mainly detected by chemical methods. However, biological tests are gaining in importance in the last few years and since some plant species are highly sensitive to certain pollutants. This work aimed to assess potential of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as phyto-indicators of water contamination with lindane. The effect of lindane (rates 0.1 μg a.i./L--maximal allowable concentration (MAC) in water; 0.2; 0.5; 1 and 2 μg a.i./L) was assessed on physiological (germination energy and germination- %) and morphological parameters (root and shoot lengths, fresh and dry weights) of tested species. Assay was carried out using slightly modified filter paper method recommended by ISTA Regulations book (2011). The experiment was set in four replicates. Data were processed using Duncan's multiple range test for determining the differences between treatments for confidence interval 95%. Results of bioassay indicate that germination energy (70.75%) and germination (79.00%) of white mustard were significantly inhibited by lindane applied at MAC rate compared

  9. Bleomycin induced sensitivity to TRAIL/Apo-2L-mediated apoptosis in human seminomatous testicular cancer cells is correlated with upregulation of death receptors.

    PubMed

    Timur, Mujgan; Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Sarikcioglu, Sureyya Bilmen; Sanlioglu, Salih; Sanlioglu, Ahter Dilsad; Ozben, Tomris

    2015-01-01

    The most common solid tumor is testicular cancer among young men. Bleomycin is an antitumor antibiotic used for the therapy of testicular cancer. TRAIL is a proapoptotic cytokine that qualified as an apoptosis inducer in cancer cells. Killing cancer cells selectively via apoptosis induction is an encouraging therapeutic strategy in clinical settings. Combination of TRAIL with chemotherapeutics has been reported to enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of different kinds of cancer cell lines. The molecular ground for sensitization of tumour cells to TRAIL by chemotherapeutics might involve upregulation of TRAIL-R1 (TR/1, DR4) and/or TRAIL-R2 (TR/2, DR5) receptors or activation of proapoptotic proteins including caspases. The curative potential of TRAIL to eradicate cancer cells selectively in testicular cancer has not been studied before. In this study, we investigated apoptotic effects of bleomycin, TRAIL, and their combined application in NTera-2 and NCCIT testicular cancer cell lines. We measured caspase 3 levels as an apoptosis indicator, and TRAIL receptor expressions using flow cytometry. Both NTera-2 and NCCIT cells were fairly resistant to TRAIL's apoptotic effect. Incubation of bleomycin alone caused a significant increase in caspase 3 activity in NCCIT. Combined incubation with bleomycin and TRAIL lead to elevated caspase 3 activity in Ntera-2. Exposure to 72 h of bleomycin increased TR/1, TR/2, and TR/3 cell-surface expressions in NTera-2. Elevation in TR/1 cell-surface expression was evident only at 24 h of bleomycin application in NCCIT. It can be concluded that TRAIL death receptor expressions in particular are increased in testicular cancer cells via bleomycin treatment, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis is initiated.

  10. Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Linn.) Bulbs Ameliorated Pituitary-Testicular Injury and Dysfunction in Wistar Rats with Pb-Induced Reproductive Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Ayoka, Abiodun O.; Ademoye, Aderonke K.; Imafidon, Christian E.; Ojo, Esther O.; Oladele, Ayowole A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs (AEASAB) on pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with lead-induced reproductive disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups such that the control group received propylene glycol at 0.2 ml/100 g intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days, the toxic group received lead (Pb) alone at 15 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 10 days while the treatment groups were pretreated with lead as the toxic group after which they received graded doses of the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day via oral route for 28 days. RESULTS: Pb administration induced significant deleterious alterations in the antioxidant status of the brain and testis, sperm characterization (counts, motility and viability) as well as reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) of exposed rats (p < 0.05). These were significantly reversed in the AEASAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Also, there was marked improvement in the Pb-induced vascular congestion and cellular loss in the pituitary while the observed Pb-induced severe testicular vacuolation was significantly reversed in the representative photomicrographs, following administration of the extract. CONCLUSION: AEASAB treatment ameliorated the pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with Pb-Induced reproductive disturbances. PMID:27335588

  11. Cimetidine-induced Leydig cell apoptosis and reduced EG-VEGF (PK-1) immunoexpression in rats: Evidence for the testicular vasculature atrophy.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Flávia L; Cerri, Paulo S; Sasso-Cerri, Estela

    2015-11-01

    The antiulcer drug cimetidine has shown to cause changes in the testicular microvasculature of adult rats. Since Leydig cells (LCs) produce the pro-angiogenic factor, EG-VEGF (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor), also known as prokineticin 1 (PK-1), this study examined the effect that cimetidine might have on LCs in testes with damaged vasculature. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of 100mg/kg of cimetidine (cimetidine group) or saline vehicle (control group) for 50 days. Serum testosterone levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay and testicular sections were subjected to TUNEL and immunohistochemical reactions for caspase-3, 17β-HSD6, CD163 (ED2 macrophage), PK-1 and androgen receptor (AR). LCs in the cimetidine group showed TUNEL and caspase-3 positive labeling and apoptotic ultrastructural features. Moreover, the presence of 17β-HSD6-positive inclusions inside macrophages and the reduced number of LCs, AR immunoreactivity and serum testosterone levels correlated with a decrease in either the number of PK-1-immunostained LCs or PK-1 immunoreactivity. Although it is not clear which cell type is the primary target of cimetidine in the testicular interstitial compartment, these findings support a direct link between cimetidine-induced testicular vascular atrophy and LCs damage.

  12. Mercuric chloride-induced testicular toxicity in rats and the protective role of sodium selenite and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Suna; Uzun, Fatma Gokce; Demir, Filiz; Uzunhisarcıklı, Meltem; Aslanturk, Ayse

    2013-05-01

    Mercury has been recognized as an environmental pollutant that adversely affects male reproductive systems of animals. This study examined the effects of mercuric chloride on the antioxidant system and histopathological changes and also evaluated the ameliorating effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E in the rat testis tissues. Sexually mature male Wistar rats (weighing 300-320g and each group six animals) were given mercuric chloride (1mg/kg bw) and/or sodium selenite (0.25mg/kg bw)+vitamin E (100mg/kg) daily via gavage for 4weeks. In the present study, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the TBARS level and a decrease in the SOD, CAT, GPx activities, with respect to the control. Further, light microscopic investigation revealed that mercury exposure induced histopathological alterations in the testis tissues. Supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercury-induced groups declined lipid peroxidation, increased SOD, CAT, GPx activities. While some histopathological changes were detected in mercuric chloride treated group, milder histopathological changes were observed in animal co-treated with sodium selenite and/or vitamin E supplementation to mercuric chloride-treated rats. As a result, mercuric chloride induced testicular toxicity is reduced by sodium selenite and/or vitamin E, but not ameliorate completely.

  13. Mitochondrial adaptations evoked with exercise are associated with a reduction in age-induced testicular atrophy in Fischer-344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Welter, A.E.; Dominguez, J.M.; Behnke, B.J.; Adhihetty, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in various tissues has been associated with numerous diseases and conditions including aging. In testes, aging induces atrophy and a decline in male reproductive function but the involvement of mitochondria is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the mitochondrial profile differed with 1) aging, and 2) 10-weeks of treadmill exercise training, in the testes of young (6 month) and old (24 month) Fischer-344 (F344) animals. Old animals exhibited significant atrophy (30% decline; P<0.05) in testes compared to young animals. However, relative mitochondrial content (cytochrome c oxidase activity and cytochrome c levels) was not altered with age and this was consistent with the lack of change in the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator protein, PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha) and its downstream targets NRF-1 (nuclear respiratory factor-1) and Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A). No effect was observed in the pro- or anti-apoptotic proteins, Bax and Bcl-2, respectively, but age increased AIF (apoptosis inducing factor; P<0.05) levels. Endurance training induced beneficial mitochondrial adaptations that were more prominent in old animals including greater increases in relative mitochondrial content, biogenesis/remodeling (mitofusin 2; Mfn-2), and antioxidant capacity (MnSOD-mitochondrial superoxide dismutase; P<0.05). Importantly, these exercise-induced changes were associated with an attenuation of testes atrophy in older sedentary animals (P<0.05). Our results indicate that aging-induced atrophy in testes may not be associated with changes in relative mitochondrial content and key regulatory proteins and that exercise started in late-life elicits beneficial changes in mitochondria that may protect against age-induced testicular atrophy. PMID:25108553

  14. Decreased expression of orexin 1 receptor in adult mice testes during alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus perturbs testicular steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepanshu; Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects male reproductive system and causes infertility. The male reproductive health is largely dependent upon uptake and proper utilization of glucose by testicular cells. Results show involvement of orexin A (OXA) and its receptor (OX1R) in regulation of steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis in adult mice testis. However, the role of OX1R in regulation of testicular functions during hyperglycemia has not been investigated so far. The present study, therefore, examined the role of OX1R in regulation of steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis in testis of adult mice during alloxan-induced type 1 DM. A significant decrease was noted in body weight and testis weight in alloxan-treated mice compared to controls. The blood glucose level, however, was markedly increased in treated animals than in controls. Further, serum and intratesticular level of testosterone, activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes, and expressions of various steroidogenic markers, OX1R, glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) and Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) were downregulated in treated mice. The level of glucose, activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactate concentration in the testes of diabetic mice were also decreased; a significant increase in the number of testicular apoptotic cells with concomitant increase in the expression of caspase-3 was noted in these mice. Furthermore, DM affected germ cell proliferation with decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results thus suggest that type 1 DM impairs testicular steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis through inhibition of OXA/OX1R signaling cascade due to decreased OX1R expression in adult mice, thereby affecting germ cell survival and their proliferation in the testis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PPARα-dependent cholesterol/testosterone disruption in Leydig cells mediates 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yukiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Ichikawa, Motoki; Kamijo, Yuji; Sugiyama, Eiko; Gonzalez, Frank J; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2016-12-01

    It was reported that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a commonly used herbicide and a possible endocrine disruptor, can disturb spermatogenesis, but the precise mechanism is not understood. Since 2,4-D is a weak peroxisome proliferator in hepatocytes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is also expressed in Leydig cells, this study aimed to investigate the link between PPARα and 2,4-D-mediated testicular dysfunction. 2,4-D (130 mg/kg/day) was administered to wild-type and Ppara-null mice for 2 weeks, and the alterations in testis and testosterone/cholesterol metabolism in Leydig cells were examined. Treatment with 2,4-D markedly decreased testicular testosterone in wild-type mice, leading to degeneration of spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. The 2,4-D decreased cholesterol levels in Leydig cells of wild-type mice through down-regulating the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase 1 and reductase, involved in de novo cholesterogenesis. However, the mRNAs encoding the important proteins involved in testosterone synthesis were unchanged by 2,4-D except for CYP17A1, indicating that exhausted cholesterol levels in the cells is a main reason for reduced testicular testosterone. Additionally, pregnancy rate and the number of pups between 2,4-D-treated wild-type male mice and untreated female mice were significantly lower compared with those between untreated couples. These phenomena were not observed in 2,4-D-treated Ppara-null males. Collectively, these results suggest a critical role for PPARα in 2,4-D-induced testicular toxicity due to disruption of cholesterol/testosterone homeostasis in Leydig cells. This study yields novel insights into the possible mechanism of testicular dysfunction and male infertility caused by 2,4-D.

  16. Effect of fluoxetine and resveratrol on testicular functions and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic mild stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Sakr, H F; Abbas, A M; Elsamanoudy, A Z; Ghoneim, F M

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) with or without selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) and anti-oxidant (resveratrol) on testicular functions and oxidative stress in rats. Fifty male rats were divided into 2 groups; control and CUMS. CUMS group was further subdivided into 4 subgroups administered water, fluoxetine, resveratrol and both. Sucrose intake, body weight gain, serum corticosterone, serotonin and testosterone levels, sperm count and motility, testicular malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH), and gene expression of steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were evaluated. CUMS decreased sucrose intake, weight gain, anti-oxidants (SOD, catalase, GSH), testosterone, serotonin, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, sperm count and motility and increased malondialdehyde and corticosterone. Fluoxetine increased malondialdehyde, sucrose intake, weight gain, serotonin and decreased anti-oxidants, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, sperm count and motility, testosterone, corticosterone in stressed rats. Administration of resveratrol increased anti-oxidants, sucrose intake, weight gain, serotonin, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, testosterone, sperm count and motility, and decreased malondialdehyde and corticosterone in stressed rats with or without fluoxetine. In conclusion, CUMS induces testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress. While treatment of CUMS rats with fluoxetine decreases the depressive behavior, it causes further worsening of testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress. Administration of resveratrol improves testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress that are caused by CUMS and further worsened by fluoxetine treatment.

  17. Gravity Vector Changes Induce Alterations in Nervous and Testicular Cells in Cultures and in Testis Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uva, B.; Strollo, F.; Ricci, F.; Masini, M. A.

    Cultured astrocytes, neurons and testicular cells (myoid, germ, Sertoli, Leydig cells) as well as rat testes and testes'slices, were subjected to modeled microgravity using a three dimensional Random Positioning Machine (10-6G) for 5min, 30min, 1h, 24h and 32h. Parallel cell cultures and tissues were submitted to hypergravity using an hyperfuge (2.5G) for the same period of time. At the end of the rotations the cultures and tissues were fixed, the tissue was sectioned (5 micron). All the specimens were processed for immunohistochemical identification of microtubules, mitochondria, 3 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, caspase 7, heat shock proteins and identification of DNA fragmentation. At 5min at modeled microgravity and hypergravity, the histology of the cells in culture and the tissues was altered, microtubules and mitochondria were disorganized. Numerous cells underwent apoptosis. Immunostaining for enzymes involved in ion transmembrane transport, as Na+/K+ATPase and cotransporter proteins, and in steroidogenesis diminished or was abolished. At 1h in modeled microgravity or hypergravity, HSPs were expressed and ion transport enzymes as well as steroidogenic enzymes were again immunostainable. These data show that microgravity and hypergravity cause only transient alterations, and tissues and cells in cultures are able to adapt to different gravity conditions.

  18. 40 CFR 180.133 - Lindane; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lindane; tolerances for residues. 180.133 Section 180.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.133...

  19. 40 CFR 180.133 - Lindane; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lindane; tolerances for residues. 180.133 Section 180.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.133...

  20. 40 CFR 180.133 - Lindane; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lindane; tolerances for residues. 180.133 Section 180.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.133...

  1. Residues of Lindane and Chlorpyrifos in firewood and woodsmoke

    Treesearch

    P.B. Bush; J.W. Taylor; Charles K. McMahon; D.G. Neary

    1987-01-01

    Abstract.Pine bark beetle insecticide treatment plots were established on the Ocala National Forest, in central Florida. Each plot consisted of five sand pine, pinus clausa (Chapm. Ex. Engelm) Vassey ex. Sarg., trees treated with either 0.5% lindane (benzene hexachloride) or 2% chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pgridyl) phosphorothioate...

  2. Effects of quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids on testicular injury induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Uygur, R; Yagmurca, M; Alkoc, O A; Genc, A; Songur, A; Ucok, K; Ozen, O A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids on the changes in testis induced by ethanol. Forty-five rats divided into five groups, control, ethanol, ethanol+quercetin, ethanol+fish n-3 fatty acids and ethanol+quercetin+fish n-3 fatty acids. At the end of 8 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed. Degenerative changes in histopathological analyses, the decreased body weight gain and seminiferous tubule diameters in ethanol group have been observed. TUNEL assay also showed an increase in apoptotic cell number. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), xanthine oxidase (XO) and testosterone levels were decreased as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were increased in ethanol group. Histopathological changes caused by ethanol have been improved by quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids. It was also found that protection was provided by increasing SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in groups administered quercetin, fish n-3 fatty acids and quercetin+fish n-3 fatty acids, and by decreasing the levels of MDA and NO in groups administered both quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids together. These results suggest that quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids are beneficial agents to reduce testicular injury induced by ethanol except for testosterone levels.

  3. Taurine and pioglitazone attenuate diabetes-induced testicular damage by abrogation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Mohamed, Hanaa M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Serum insulin, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in diabetic rats. Taurine and pioglitazone alleviated hyperglycemia, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased circulating levels of insulin, testosterone, LH, and FSH. Gene and protein expression of LH and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) was significantly (P < 0.001) down-regulated in testes of diabetic rats, an effect which was significantly increased after administration of taurine and pioglitazone. In addition, taurine and pioglitazone significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes of diabetic rats. In conclusion, taurine and pioglitazone exerted protective effects against diabetes-induced testicular damage through attenuation of hyperglycemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and up-regulation of the pituitary/gonadal axis.

  4. Augmentation of cholinesterases and ATPase activities in the cerebellum and pons-medulla oblongata, by a combination of antioxidants (resveratrol, ascorbic acid, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E), in acutely lindane intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Bist, Renu; Bhatt, Devendra Kumar

    2010-09-15

    In the present investigation neurotoxic effects of lindane and the protective potential of a combination of antioxidants against lindane-induced toxicity were evaluated in Swiss mice. The investigation was carried out on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities of the cerebellum and pons-medulla oblongata. Healthy mice, 7-8 weeks old were administered acute dose of lindane (40 mg/kg b.w.), antioxidants, both lindane and antioxidants, and vehicle in four separate groups, subcutaneously. Resveratrol (Res), ascorbic acid (C), alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and vitamin E (E) were used in the combination for neuroprotection at the concentration of 5 mg/kg b.w., 50 mg/kg b.w., 20 mg/kg b.w. and 50 mg/kg b.w. respectively. Enzymatic activities were used as biochemical marker for manifestation of lindane-induced acute toxicity. Protective effects of antioxidants were also evaluated using the same parameters. Treatment of lindane to normal control animals resulted in a significant decrease in AChE, BChE and ATPase levels in crude homogenates of cerebellum and pons-medulla. Antioxidants treatment significantly increased the levels of enzymes. Critical difference (CD) of AChE, BChE and ATPase levels in various groups was found significant at 1% in cerebellum and pons-medulla both (i.e. P<0.01).

  5. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between obesity and chronic inflammation has been studied. Diet-induced obesity or chronic inflammation could reduce the testicular functions of males. However, the mechanism underlying the reproductive effects of fattening foods in males with or without chronic inflammation still needs further discussion. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of high-fat, high-protein diet on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice under physiological and chronic inflammatory conditions. Because casein can trigger a non-infectious systemic inflammatory response, we used casein injection to induce chronic inflammation in male adult Kunming mice. Twenty-four mice were randomly and equally divided into four groups: (i) normal diet+saline (Control); (ii) normal diet+casein (ND+CS); (iii) high-fat, high-protein diet+saline (HFPD+SI); (iv) high-fat, high-protein diet+casein (HFPD+CS). After 8weeks, there was a significant increase in body weight for groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS and a decrease in group ND+CS compared with the control. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and lipid profiles were increased markedly in groups ND+CS, HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control. A remarkable reduction of serum adiponectin level occurred in group HFPD+CS compared with group ND+CS. Sperm parameters (sperm count, viability and abnormality) were also adversely affected in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI. Groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI showed severe pathological changes in testicular tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining also showed significant reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control, whereas testicular mRNA and protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS significantly increased. The m

  6. Testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Peckham, M

    1988-01-01

    Testicular cancer, which predominantly occurs in young men, has become increasingly common; it is presently the most common malignancy in men aged 20-34. Despite a lack of knowledge of aetiology, empirical advances, particularly in the management of patients with advanced disease, have been dramatic. Prior to the development of effective chemotherapy in the 1970s, less than 10% of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were cured; nowadays approximately 90% of patients are potentially curable. The introduction of effective chemotherapy has led to a reappraisal of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of early stage disease and the introduction of a policy of surveillance in patients without evidence of metastases at the time of removal of the primary tumour. Following chemotherapy, surgery is required in approximately 25% of patients with advanced disease to excise residual masses, which in one-fifth of cases will show evidence of residual malignancy. In a proportion of patients, testicular cancer develops on a background of long-standing infertility, whereas in many men there is temporary oligospermia, despite a previous history of fertility. The majority of patients with prior evidence of spermatogenesis recover this function following chemotherapy and there is no evidence that children fathered by such patients have an increased risk of malformation. Despite physician optimism and excellent prospects for cure, significant psycho-social morbidity is associated with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. Factors contributing to this are being identified and will lead, hopefully, to the minimisation of such problems by appropriate intervention.

  7. [Segmental testicular infarction].

    PubMed

    Ripa Saldías, L; Guarch Troyas, R; Hualde Alfaro, A; de Pablo Cárdenas, A; Ruiz Ramo, M; Pinós Paul, M

    2006-02-01

    We report the case of a 47 years old man previously diagnosed of left hidrocele. After having a recent mild left testicular pain, an ultrasonografic study revealed a solid hipoecoic testicular lesion rounded by a big hidrocele, suggesting a testicular neoplasm. Radical inguinal orchiectomy was made and pathologic study showed segmental testicular infarction. No malignancy was found. We review the literature of the topic.

  8. Reactive oxygen species mediate Terbufos-induced apoptosis in mouse testicular cell lines via the modulation of cell cycle and pro-apoptotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chen, Chia-Yun; Omar, Hany A; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Tsao, Che-Chia; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chen, Po-Han; Teng, Yen-Ni

    2015-09-15

    Terbufos (S-t-butylthiomethyl-O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate) is a highly toxic organophosphate which is extensively used as an insecticide and nematicide. Chronic exposure to terbufos causes neuronal injury and predisposes to neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence has shown that the exposure to terbufos, as an occupational risk factor, may also cause reproductive disorders. However, the exact mechanisms of reproductive toxicity remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effect of terbufos on testicular cells and to explore the mechanism of toxicity on a cellular level. The cytotoxic effects of terbufos on mouse immortalized spermatogonia (GC-1), spermatocytes (GC-2), Leydig (TM3), and Sertoli (TM4) cell lines were assessed by MTT assays, caspase activation, flow cytometry, TUNEL assay, Western blot, and cell cycle analysis. The exposure to different concentrations of terbufos ranging from 50 to 800 μM for 6 h caused significant death in all the used testicular cell lines. Terbufos increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and initiated apoptosis, which was confirmed by a dose-dependent increase in the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Blocking ROS production by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) protected GC-1 cells from terbufos-induced cell death. The results demonstrated that terbufos induces ROS, apoptosis, and DNA damage in testicular cell lines and it should be considered potentially hazardous to testis. Together, this study provided potential molecular mechanisms of terbufos-induced toxicity in testicular cells and suggests a possible protective measure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.

  9. Low hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in testicular germ cell tumors - a major reason for enhanced chemosensitivity?

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Niraj; Dronca, Roxana; Quevedo, Fernando; Boorjian, Stephen A; Cheville, John; Costello, Brian; Kohli, Manish; Witzig, Thomas; Pagliaro, Lance

    2017-08-01

    The molecular basis for enhanced chemosensitivity of testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) has been an area of great interest, as it could potentially give us therapeutic leads in other resistant malignancies. Thus far, however, the increased sensitivity of GCT has been variously attributed to multiple factors - an inability to detoxify cisplatin, a lack of export pumps, an inability to repair the DNA damage, an intact apoptotic cascade and lack of p53 mutation; but a unifying underlying etiology leading to the aforementioned processes and having a translational implication has so far been elusive. Herein, we offer evidence to support a potential significant role for the previously demonstrated low hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in mediating the general exquisite chemosensitivity of testicular GCT, through the aforementioned processes. This molecular mechanism based hypothesis could have a significant translational implication in platinum refractory GCT as well as other platinum resistant malignancies.

  10. Puma and Trail/Dr5 pathways control radiation-induced apoptosis in distinct populations of testicular progenitors.

    PubMed

    Coureuil, Mathieu; Ugolin, Nicolas; Tavernier, Marie; Chevillard, Sylvie; Barroca, Vilma; Fouchet, Pierre; Allemand, Isabelle

    2010-08-12

    Spermatogonia- stem cells and progenitors of adult spermatogenesis- are killed through a p53-regulated apoptotic process after gamma-irradiation but the death effectors are still poorly characterized. Our data demonstrate that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved, and especially that spermatogonia can be split into two main populations, according to apoptotic effectors. Following irradiation both Dr5 and Puma genes are upregulated in the alpha6-integrin-positive Side Population (SP) fraction, which is highly enriched in spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis confirms an increased number of Dr5-expressing SP cells, and Puma-beta isoform accumulates in alpha6-integrin positive cellular extracts, enriched in spermatogonia. Trail-/- or Puma-/- spermatogonia display a reduced sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis. The TUNEL kinetics strongly suggest that the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, via Trail/Dr5 and Puma respectively, could be engaged in distinct subpopulations of spermatogonia. Indeed flow cytometric studies show that Dr5 receptor is constitutively present on more than half of the undifferentiated progenitors (Kit- alpha6+ SP) and half of the differentiated ones (Kit+ alpha6+ SP). In addition after irradiation, Puma is not detected in the Dr5-positive cellular fraction isolated by immunomagnetic purification, while Puma is present in the Dr5-negative cell extracts. In conclusion, adult testicular progenitors are divided into distinct sub-populations by apoptotic effectors, independently of progenitor types (immature Kit-negative versus mature Kit-positive), underscoring differential radiosensitivities characterizing the stem cell/progenitors compartment.

  11. Beneficial role of ascorbic and folic acids antioxidants against thyroxin-induced testicular dysfunction in hyperthyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Beltagy, Doha M; Mohamed, Tarek M; El Said, Ahmed S; Tousson, Ehab

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolism of almost all mammalian tissue including the reproductive system. Hyperthyroidism in early life may cause delayed sexual maturation, although physical development is normal and skeletal growth may be accelerated. Hyperthyroidism after puberty influences reproductive functions and increases testosterone level. The aim of this work is to study the effect of induced hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine sodium administration on the testis of rats and to evaluate the ameliorating role of different antioxidants as ascorbic acid and folic acid on the hyperthyroid state via the assessment of different biochemical markers, histopathological and immunochemical sections. DNA analysis of the D1 deiodinase was performed to determine genetic mutation due to hyperthyroidism. The results showed partially disrupted in the measured biochemical parameters and spermatogenesis in hyperthyroid rats. Post-administration of both folic and ascorbic acids together in hyperthyroid rats showed the best ameliorating effects on the thyroid hormones, testosterone, testicular GGT and ALP, and all oxidative stress markers. There is no genetic mutations that occurred in D1 deiodinase due to hyperthyroidism. These findings were indicated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) studies of testes.

  12. Potential Alleviation of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale on Lead-Induced Testicular Toxicity: an Ultrastructural Study.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hesham Noaman

    2015-01-01

    Natural, products were studied to combat reproductive alterations of lead. The current work aimed to disclose the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale to alleviate lead acetate induced toxicity. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was considered control, group 2 received 200 mg/l PbAc water, group 3 received 50 mg/kg/rat of C. vulgaris extract and 200 mg/l PbAc water, and group 4 received 100 mg/kg/rat of Z. officinale and 200 mg/l PbAc water for 90 days. Testis samples were subjected to ultrastructural examination. It was observed that PbAc caused degenerative alterations in the spermatogenic series in many tubules, with a loss of germ cells and vacuoles inside the cytoplasm and between the germ cells. Mitochondria exhibited ballooning, with lost cristae and widening of the interstitial tissue, while nuclear envelopes of primary spermatocytes were broken up, and axonemes of the mid-pieces of the sperms were distorted. With the treatment with C. vulgaris or Z. officinale, there were noticeable improvements in these modifications. It was concluded that both C. vulgaris and Z. officinale represent convincing medicinal components that may be used to ameliorate testicular toxicity in those exposed to lead in daily life with superior potentials revealed by C. vulgaris due to its chelating action.

  13. A sexual shift induced by silencing of a single insulin-like gene in crayfish: ovarian upregulation and testicular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Gafni, Ohad; Linial, Assaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

    2010-12-09

    In sequential hermaphrodites, intersexuality occurs naturally, usually as a transition state during sexual re-differentiation processes. In crustaceans, male sexual differentiation is controlled by the male-specific androgenic gland (AG). An AG-specific insulin-like gene, previously identified in the red-claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (designated Cq-IAG), was found in this study to be the prominent transcript in an AG cDNA subtractive library. In C. quadricarinatus, sexual plasticity is exhibited by intersex individuals in the form of an active male reproductive system and male secondary sex characters, along with a constantly arrested ovary. This intersexuality was exploited to follow changes caused by single gene silencing, accomplished via dsRNA injection. Cq-IAG silencing induced dramatic sex-related alterations, including male feature feminization, a reduction in sperm production, extensive testicular degeneration, expression of the vitellogenin gene, and accumulation of yolk proteins in the developing oocytes. Upon silencing of the gene, AG cells hypertrophied, possibly to compensate for low hormone levels, as reflected in the poor production of the insulin-like hormone (and revealed by immunohistochemistry). These results demonstrate both the functionality of Cq-IAG as an androgenic hormone-encoding gene and the dependence of male gonad viability on the Cq-IAG product. This study is the first to provide evidence that silencing an insulin-like gene in intersex C. quadricarinatus feminizes male-related phenotypes. These findings, moreover, contribute to the understanding of the regulation of sexual shifts, whether naturally occurring in sequential hermaphrodites or abnormally induced by endocrine disruptors found in the environment, and offer insight into an unusual gender-related link to the evolution of insulins.

  14. Transplanted Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Testicular Dysfunction In A D-Galactose-Induced Aging Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Du, Yi-Kuan; Wang, Jun; Luan, Ping; Yang, Qin-Lao; Huang, Wen-Hua; Yuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Glycation product accumulation during aging of slowly renewing tissues may be an important mechanism underlying aging of the testis. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have shown promise in a novel tissue regenerative technique and may have utility in treating sexual dysfunction. ADSCs have also been found to be effective in antiaging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the anti-aging effect of ADSCs in a D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging animal model and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Randomly selected 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal daily for 8 weeks. Two weeks after completion of treatment, D-gal-induced aging rats were randomized to receive caudal vein injections of 3 × 10(6) 5-bromo 2'deoxy-uridine-labeled ADSCs or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline. Serum testosterone level, steroidogenic enzymes (3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly in aging rats compared with the control group; serum lipid peroxidation, spermatogenic cell apoptosis, and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) expression increased significantly. ADSCs increased the SOD level and reduced the MDA level in the aging animal model and restored levels of serum testosterone, steroidogenic enzymes, and spermatogenic cell apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ADSCs can contribute to testicular regeneration during aging. ADSCs also provide functional benefits through glycation suppression and antioxidant effects in a rat model of aging. Although some ADSCs differentiated into Leydig cells, the paracrine pathway seems to play a main role in this process, resulting in the reduction of apoptosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Short-term Effects of Date Palm Extract (Phoenix dactylifera) on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Induced by Testicular Torsion/Detorsion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Alireza Raayat; Rasooli, Rokhsana; Kamali, Younes; Ahmadi, Nasrollah; Sattari, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants are potent scavengers of free radicals and have beneficial effects on human health. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective antioxidant activity of the edible portion of date fruit extract in an experimental testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) model in rats. Materials and Methods: To investigate the potential protective effects of date palm (DP), 30 male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, T/D, and T/D + DP-treated (500 mg/kg, PO) groups. Testicular ischemia was induced via keeping the left testis under 720° clockwise torsion for 2 h (h), afterward, detorsion was performed. All rats were sacrificed 4 h after detorsion. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and histopathological damage score were evaluated. Results: Serum MDA, TOS, and OSI levels rose significantly in the T/D group. These values were lower in the T/D + DP group. TAS values decreased significantly in T/D group and rose in T/D + DP group. Severe injury was seen in the twisted testes of T/D group. In contrast, ipsilateral-twisted testicular tissue in the DP-treated group showed moderate-to-mild changes. Contralateral testicular tissue in the T/D group had a mild-to-moderate tissue injury; meanwhile, treated group revealed normal-to-mild changes. Spermatogenesis was significantly improved in DP-treated group when compared with the T/D group. Conclusion: The findings suggest a possible protective effect of DP against testicular oxidative damage induced by T/D; however, more detailed studies are warranted. SUMMARY Given the presence of several phenolic compounds possessing high antioxidant activity in DP, it could potentially be used to reduce testis ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage. Abbreviations Used: TAS: Total antioxidant status,TOS: Total oxidative status; OSI: Oxidative stress index; MDA: Malondialdehyde; C

  16. A microcosm study of lindane and naphthalene for model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; Dickson, K.L.; Rodgers, J.H.; Saleh, F.Y.

    1981-10-01

    Lindane and naphthalene were used in a series of flow-through microcosms to validate predictions of two environmental fate models--the exposure analysis modeling system (EXAMS) and simplified lake and stream analysis (SLSA). The microcosms' physical transport characteristics were carefully measured and used as input parameters to the models, along with laboratory data on lindane and naphthalene rate constants and coefficients. The results show that both models accurately predict the chemicals' concentrations in the water compartment. Observed concentrations in the sediments were two to three orders of magnitude lower than the models' predictions, even though the overall mass balance accounted for about 90% of the chemicals' input. Lack of agreement between observed and predicted sediment concentrations may be attributed to the variability of the sediment partition coefficient values, the slow rate of sediment loading, vertical stratification of the chemicals in the sediment, and microbial degradation of the chemicals in the sediment.

  17. [Effects of lindane upon the reproductive function in four generations running in the quail. Studies of gonads and müllerian tract in embryos, one day chicken and adults (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lutz-Ostertag, Y

    1981-01-01

    The effect of lindane commercial solution spraying on quail eggs is studied in four generations running issued from a single parental strain. Observations have been made on fourteen-day embryos, one-day chicken and also two-or eight-month adults quail. The results lead to conclude that pathogenous effects of lindane on gonads and müllerian tract are slowly annuled through successive generations when the experimental procedure consists in treating only the parental eggs. Conversely, following pesticide administration repeated at every generation, the action becomes cumulative and the ratio of aberrations increases. In ovarian and testicular tissues there are cyto-histopathological modifications. Many gonocytes are abnormal and cannot divide. Some of these cells degenerate at the meiotic prophase. Egg production and fertility in adults depend on these phenomenons.

  18. Lindane haematotoxicity confirmed by in vitro tests on human and rat progenitors.

    PubMed

    Parent-Massin, D; Thouvenot, D; Rio, B; Riche, C

    1994-02-01

    Blood dyscrasias such as aplastic anaemia and leukopenia are described following the use of lindane for agricultural purposes or against ectoparasites in animal and human health. In order to determine the involvement of lindane in these effects, an in vitro model of haematotoxicity evaluation has been used. Culture of haematopoietic progenitors, Colony Forming Unit-Granulocyte and Macrophage (CFU-GM), have been performed in the presence of lindane with increasing concentrations. Results showed that lindane was cytotoxic for human progenitors. They were one thousand times more sensitive to the lindane than rat CFU-GM. This cytotoxicity was observed with lindane concentrations similar to those measured in human blood in cases of acute intoxication and in fat tissues of exposed populations.

  19. Roles of oxidative stress in synchrotron radiation X-ray-induced testicular damage of rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingxin; Nie, Hui; Sheng, Caibin; Chen, Heyu; Wang, Ban; Liu, Tengyuan; Shao, Jiaxiang; He, Xin; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Chaobo; Xia, Weiliang; Ying, Weihai

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has characteristic properties such as coherence and high photon flux, which has excellent potential for its applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, there is little information regarding the mechanisms underlying the damaging effects of SR X-ray on biological tissues. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the tissue damage induced by conventional X-ray, while the role of oxidative stress in the tissue injury induced by SR X-ray remains unknown. In this study we used the male gonads of rats as a model to study the roles of oxidative stress in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. Exposures of the testes to SR X-ray at various radiation doses did not significantly increase the lipid peroxidation of the tissues, assessed at one day after the irradiation. No significant decreases in the levels of GSH or total antioxidation capacity were found in the SR X-ray-irradiated testes. However, the SR X-ray at 40 Gy induced a marked increase in phosphorylated H2AX – a marker of double-strand DNA damage, which was significantly decreased by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). NAC also attenuated the SR X-ray-induced decreases in the cell layer number of seminiferous tubules. Collectively, our observations have provided the first characterization of SR X-ray-induced oxidative damage of biological tissues: SR X-ray at high doses can induce DNA damage and certain tissue damage during the acute phase of the irradiation, at least partially by generating oxidative stress. However, SR X-ray of various radiation doses did not increase lipid peroxidation. PMID:22837810

  20. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Berberis integerrima Bunge. root on carbon tetrachloride-induced testicular injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Fereshteh; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza; Ashraf, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue protective effect of compounds with antioxidant properties has been demonstrated. The alkaloids found in barberry root are considered as antioxidants. Objective: According to barberry protective effects in different tissues, in this study, the protective effect of Berberis integerrima Bge. root )MEBIR) was evaluated against CCl4-induced testicular damages in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: 40 mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1: Normal control, 2: Sham: received CCl4 diluted in olive oil (50% v/v; 1ml/kg bw), intraperitoneally, twice a week for 4 weeks, 3 and 4: Sham rats treated with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) for 28 days, 5: Sham rats treated with silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. After 28 days, serum testosterone level, absolute testis weight, catalase activity, malondialdehyde level, and histological parameters were investigated. Results: In the treated rats with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (50 mg/kg bw), there was a significant increase in the absolute testis weight, testosterone level, seminiferous tubules diameter (p<0.001), thickness of the epithelium, tubule differentiation index) p<0.001), spermiogenesis index (p<0.001), the activity of catalase, and a significant decrease in interstitial tissue thickness (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde level in comparison with CCl4-treated group. The effect of the MEBIR at dose of 500 mg/kg bw is more than that of the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg bw). Conclusion: From the results, it is suggested that the protective effects of MEBIR is possibly due to antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds. PMID:27200428

  1. Puma and Trail/Dr5 Pathways Control Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Distinct Populations of Testicular Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Coureuil, Mathieu; Ugolin, Nicolas; Tavernier, Marie; Chevillard, Sylvie; Barroca, Vilma; Fouchet, Pierre; Allemand, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogonia- stem cells and progenitors of adult spermatogenesis- are killed through a p53-regulated apoptotic process after γ-irradiation but the death effectors are still poorly characterized. Our data demonstrate that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved, and especially that spermatogonia can be split into two main populations, according to apoptotic effectors. Following irradiation both Dr5 and Puma genes are upregulated in the α6-integrin-positive Side Population (SP) fraction, which is highly enriched in spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis confirms an increased number of Dr5-expressing SP cells, and Puma-β isoform accumulates in α6-integrin positive cellular extracts, enriched in spermatogonia. Trail−/− or Puma−/− spermatogonia display a reduced sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis. The TUNEL kinetics strongly suggest that the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, via Trail/Dr5 and Puma respectively, could be engaged in distinct subpopulations of spermatogonia. Indeed flow cytometric studies show that Dr5 receptor is constitutively present on more than half of the undifferentiated progenitors (Kit− α6+ SP) and half of the differentiated ones (Kit+ α6+ SP). In addition after irradiation, Puma is not detected in the Dr5-positive cellular fraction isolated by immunomagnetic purification, while Puma is present in the Dr5-negative cell extracts. In conclusion, adult testicular progenitors are divided into distinct sub-populations by apoptotic effectors, independently of progenitor types (immature Kit-negative versus mature Kit-positive), underscoring differential radiosensitivities characterizing the stem cell/progenitors compartment. PMID:20711434

  2. Determination of lindane leachability in soil-biosolid systems and its bioavailability in wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Pamela; Schröder, Andrea; Ulrich, Nadin; Schröter, Uwe; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Ahumada, Inés; Richter, Pablo

    2011-07-01

    The leachability of lindane from different biosolid amended soils was determined and compared to its bioavailability. Sand, soil, and a mixture of soil-sand (1:1 w/w) were spiked with lindane, blended with different amounts of biosolids, and subjected to a leaching process with water that lasted for 1-28 d. This procedure is in accordance with ISO/TS 21268-1: 2007. After these batch tests, lindane was extracted from the leachates using three different solvent-free microextraction techniques, including solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and silicone rod extraction (SRE). The amount of lindane was determined with thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The efficiencies of the three microextraction techniques were statistically different, and the efficiency could be related to the amount of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in each extraction device. However, all of the techniques provide data that shows that the leachability of lindane is dependent on the amount of organic matter contained in the matrix. The results of the lindane leachability assay were compared to the bioavailability of lindane, which was determined by measuring the amount of lindane that accumulated in the roots of wheat plants grown in similar soil-biosolid systems. It was confirmed that the amount of organic matter in the matrix is a determining factor for lindane immobilization. The presence of biosolids decreases the mobility of lindane in all of the systems under study. Similarly, increasing biosolid concentrations in the soil significantly decreased the bioavailability of lindane and, consequently, plant absorption. The good correlation (R(2)=0.997) between the leachability of lindane from the matrix and plant absorption of lindane indicates that the proposed biomimetic methodology can predict the bioavailability of lindane in a time period as short as 7d. The results of this work confirm that amending contaminated soils

  3. Ex situ and in situ biodegradation of lindane by Azotobacter chroococcum.

    PubMed

    Anupama, K S; Paul, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of Azotobacter chroococcum for degrading lindane. Ten cultures were screened for lindane degradation by a chloride estimation method and the best A. chroococcum culture JL 102 was selected for further studies. This strain was subjected to a lindane-tolerance experiment and based on the results obtained, 10 and 100 ppm of lindane were selected to study the potential of the A. chroococcum strain for ex situ and in situ biodegradation of lindane. The organism was grown in 2 different media viz. Jensen's broth and soil extract broth and ex situ lindane degradation was studied for a period of 6 days. Maximum degradation of lindane was recorded at 10 ppm concentration. The degradation was higher in Jensen's medium, compared to the soil extract broth. A pot culture experiment was conducted using both sterile and non-sterile soils supplemented with 10 ppm lindane to study in situ degradation potential of this strain for a period of 8 weeks. In both the conditions (sterile and non-sterile), the organism exhibited increased degradation over the days with maximum degradation observed on the 8th week of incubation. It could degrade most of the applied lindane by the end of the study period.

  4. Altered transport of lindane caused by the retention of natural particles in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngueleu, Stéphane K.; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2014-07-01

    Attachment and straining of colloidal particles in porous media result in their reversible and irreversible retention. The retained particles may either increase the retention of hydrophobic pollutants by sorption onto the particles, or enhance pollutant transport when particles, loaded with the pollutants, are remobilized. The present study examines the effects of retained particles on the transport of the hydrophobic pesticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in saturated porous media. The lignite particles used have median diameters of about 3 μm, 1 μm, 0.8 μm, and 0.2 μm, respectively. Laboratory column experiments were analyzed by numerical modeling in order to identify and understand the processes involved in the transport of the particles and of lindane. Four scenarios were considered in which the solution containing lindane is injected either during or after the elution of the particles. The results show that lignite particles retained in a sandy porous medium alter the transport of the invading lindane. Particle retention was high in all scenarios and increased with increasing particle size. Remobilization of particles occurred due to a change in solution chemistry, and continuous particle detachment was observed over time. Numerical modeling of particle transport suggests that both reversible attachment and irreversible straining affected the transport of the particles. Lindane was retarded in all scenarios due to the strong particle retention in conjunction with the sorption of lindane onto the sand and onto retained particles, and the limited number of mobile particles carrying lindane. Moreover, it was found that intra-particle diffusion limited adsorption/desorption of lindane onto/from both limestone fragments of the sand and lignite particles. We assume that retention of lindane is reversible even though lindane recovery was incomplete over the duration of the experiments. The analysis of the effluent concentration suggests that retained

  5. Protective effect of alpha glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) on chronic vanadium induced testicular toxicity and sperm nuclear DNA damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Bharathi, B; Jaya Prakash, G; Krishna, K M; Ravi Krishna, C H; Sivanarayana, T; Madan, K; Rama Raju, G A; Annapurna, A

    2015-06-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and its effect on sperm parameters, sperm nuclear DNA damage and histological alterations in Sprague Dawley rats and to assess the protective effect of G-hesperidin against this damage. Treatment of rats with vanadium at a dose of 1 mg kg bw(-1) for 90 days resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone levels, sperm count and motility. Further, a parallel increase in abnormal sperm morphology and adverse histopathological changes in testis was also associated with vanadium administration when compared to normal control. Moreover, sperm chromatin dispersion assay revealed that vanadium induces sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation. A marked increase in testicular malondialdehyde levels and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase indicates vanadium-induced oxidative stress. Co-administration of G-hesperidin at a dose of 25 and 50 mg kg bw(-1) significantly attenuated the sperm parameters and histological changes by restoring the antioxidant levels in rat testis. These results suggested that vanadium exposure caused reduced bioavailability of androgens to the tissue and increased free radical formation, thereby causing structural and functional changes in spermatozoa. G-hesperidin exhibited antioxidant effect by protecting the rat testis against vanadium-induced oxidative damage, further ensures antioxidant potential of bioflavonoids. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Quercetin and vitamin E attenuate Bonny Light crude oil-induced alterations in testicular apoptosis, stress proteins and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown the reproductive effects of Bonny Light crude oil (BLCO) via the mechanism of oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis. We investigated the protective role of quercetin and vitamin E on BLCO-induced testicular apoptosis. Experimental rats were divided into four groups of four each. Animals were orally administered 2 ml/kg corn oil (control: group 1), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 10 mg/kg quercetin (group 2), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 50 mg/kg vitamin E (group 3) and BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight only (group 4) for 7 d. Protein levels of caspase 3, FasL, NF-kB, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and stress response proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to quantify the expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB. Apoptosis was quantified by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins by 50% and above after 7 d following BLCO exposure and a concomitant increase in expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB expression by immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis showed a significant increase in TUNEL positive cells. Co-administration with quercetin or vitamin E reversed BLCO-induced apoptosis and levels of stress protein, relative to control. These findings suggest that quercetin and vitamin E may confer protection against BLCO-induced testicular oxidative stress-related apoptosis.

  7. Testicular Sonogram

    PubMed Central

    Devkota, Jagadishwar; White, Sherry

    1980-01-01

    Precise localization, detection, and recognition of minor changes in testicular lesions are important because teratocarcinoma is notorious for manifesting as secondaries at the time the primary site is obvious to the clinician. In the past, questionable enlargement of the testis due to significant pathology required numerous radiographic invasive special procedures to provide a correct diagnosis. Due to the advent of the sophisticated digital ultrasound imager with high frequency quarter wave transducer, it is possible to detect minor changes in the tissue character of the testis, thus enabling the physician to tackle primary neoplasms prior to distant spread. In our case we were able to detect the abnormality in the testis, but unfortunately a large secondary abnormal mass was present. Even at that stage we were able to map out the extent of the lesion which was beneficial to the surgeon and the patient. Ultrasound studies were utilized in serial follow-up studies. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7401191

  8. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  9. Influence of combined therapeutic potential of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and calcium disodium edetate on lead-induced testicular alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, G J; Arora, U; Seth, P K

    1999-12-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a combination of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and calcium disodium EDTA in protecting testicular disorders in chronic lead intoxication was investigated. The results indicate that two five-days courses of the combined therapy produced a more effective recovery in the lead induced biochemical and histopathological disorders compared to conventional single 5 days therapy. No adverse effect of the chelators, when administered individually or in combination, was noticed in the testes of control (without lead exposure) animals.

  10. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

    PubMed Central

    Loch-Caruso, Rita K; Criswell, Kay A; Grindatti, Carmen M; Brant, Kelly A

    2003-01-01

    Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20) rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures. PMID:14567758

  11. Influence of stress on gonadotrophin induced testicular recrudescence in the lizard Mabuya Carinata.

    PubMed

    Yajurvedi, H N; Menon, Sneha

    2005-07-01

    Administration (ip) of FSH (10 IU/0.1 ml distilled water (dw)/lizard/alternate days/30 days) to adult male lizards, Mabuya carinata, during the early recrudescence phase of the reproductive cycle caused activation of spermatogenic and steroidogenic activity of the testis, as shown by a significant increase in mean number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatids, and serum levels of testosterone, as compared to initial controls. In addition, there were abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Interestingly, administration of a similar dosage of FSH to lizards exposed to stressors (handling, chasing, and noise randomly applied, five times a day for 30 days) resulted in a significant increase in mean number of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes over initial control values, whereas the number of secondary spermatocytes and spermatids and serum levels of testosterone did not significantly differ from those of initial controls, and were significantly lower than FSH treated normal lizards. Further, spermatozoa were infrequently found in the seminiferous tubules of these lizards. Treatment controls (receiving 0.1 ml dw/lizard/alternate days for 30 days) did not show significant variation in mean number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, and serum levels of testosterone from initial controls. Another group of lizards was exposed to stressors and did not receive FSH. These lizards showed a significant decrease in mean number of secondary spermatocytes compared to treatment controls and all other parameters did not significantly differ from those of both control groups. The results reveal that gonadotrophin-induced spermatogonial proliferation occurs under stressful conditions, whereas progress of spermatogenesis beyond primary spermatocyte stage is impaired due to inhibition (under stress) of gonadotrophin induced steroidogenic activity in M. carinata.

  12. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on testicular function of mice with chemically and physically induced subfertility.

    PubMed

    Valdivia Cuya, M; Yarasca De La Vega, K; Lévano Sánchez, G; Vásquez Cavero, J; Temoche García, H; Torres Torres, L; Cruz Ornetta, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) in chemically and physically subfertile mice. After 35 days, the following groups of mice were evaluated: control, sham, chemical subfertility, chemical subfertility-maca-supplemented, physical subfertility, physical subfertility-maca-supplemented and maca-supplemented only. Motility (32.36% ± 5.34%) and sperm count (44.4 ± 5.37 × 10(6) /ml) in the chemically and physically subfertile mice (11.81% ± 4.06%, 17.34 ± 13.07 × 10(6) /ml) decreased compared to the control (75.53% ± 2.97% and 57.4 ± 19.6 10(6) /ml) and sham (53.5% ± 7.86% and 58.4 ± 14.10 10(6) /ml). Maca was able to reverse the deleterious effect of motility (76.36 ± 1.97) as well as sperm count (53.5 ± 9.18 × 10(6) /ml) on chemical subfertility. In contrast, maca did not reverse the effects of induced physical subfertility nor motility (18.78% ± 14.41%) or sperm count (20.17 ± 11.20 × 10(6) /ml). The percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation in the physically subfertile mice increased (11.1% ± 19.29%) compared to the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). However, in the physically subfertile group, maca decreased sperm DNA fragmentation (2.29% ± 2.30%) closer to the sham (1.04% ± 0.62%) and the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). The group supplemented only with maca showed 0.54% ± 0.50% of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Yet, the differences observed were statistically not significant. In conclusion, it appears that maca activates the cytochrome P450 system after chemically induced subfertility. However, it does not reverse the low mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa compromised in the physical subfertility group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Pediatric Testicular Torsion.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, Paul R; Gatti, John M; Murphy, J Patrick

    2017-02-01

    The pediatric patient presenting with acute scrotal pain requires prompt evaluation and management given the likelihood of testicular torsion as the underlying cause. Although other diagnoses can present with acute testicular pain, it is important to recognize the possibility of testicular torsion because the best chance of testicular preservation occurs with expeditious management. When testicular torsion is suspected, prompt surgical exploration is warranted. A delay in surgical management should not occur in an effort to obtain confirmatory imaging. When torsion is discovered, the contralateral testicle should undergo fixation to reduce the risk of asynchronous torsion.

  14. Involvement of NRF2 in Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Bei; Wu, Lei; Zou, Weiying; Pan, Xiaoling; Zou, Ting; Liu, Fangming; Xia, Liping; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Dalei

    2015-08-01

    Perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) is a hazardous environmental pollutant that has been reported to exert adverse effects on animal and human health. In this study, male mice were orally administered different concentrations of PFOA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day) to evaluate the reproductive toxicity. Exposure to PFOA for 14 consecutive days obviously disrupted seminiferous tubules and reduced sperm count. The highest concentration of PFOA (10 mg/kg/day) caused growth retardation and diminished absolute testis weight. Furthermore, PFOA treatment significantly increased the generation of oxidative stress indicators malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide, decreased the expression of transcription factor NRF2, and inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the testis. Moreover, PFOA exposure up-regulated p-p53 and BAX expression and down-regulated BCL-2 expression in the testis. These results indicated that PFOA-induced male reproductive disorders might be involved in developmental impairment and inhibition of NRF2-mediated antioxidant response in the testis of mice. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Justin D; Whitney, Katharine M

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. PMID:26413388

  16. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides: Protective effects against heat-induced damage of rat testes and H2O2-induced DNA damage in mouse testicular cells and beneficial effect on sexual behavior and reproductive function of hemicastrated rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiong; Li, Zhuoneng; Huang, Xiaolan; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Shenghua; Cai, Yi-Zhong

    2006-07-10

    Lycium barbarum, a famous Chinese medicinal herb, has a long history of use as a traditional remedy for male infertility. Polysaccharides are the most important functional constituent in L. barbarum fruits. We systematically investigated the effect of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on rat testis damage induced by a physical factor (43 degrees C heat exposure), on DNA damage of mouse testicular cells induced by a chemical factor (H2O2), and on sexual behavior and reproductive function of hemicastrated male rats. The results showed that LBP provided a protective effect against the testicular tissue damage induced by heat exposure. When compared with negative control, a suitable concentration of LBP significantly increased testis and epididymis weights, improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and raised sexual hormone levels in the damaged rat testes. LBP had a dose-dependent protective effect against DNA oxidative damage of mouse testicular cells induced by H2O2. LBP improved the copulatory performance and reproductive function of hemicastrated male rats, such as shortened penis erection latency and mount latency, regulated secretion of sexual hormones and increased hormone levels, raised accessory sexual organ weights, and improved sperm quantity and quality. The present findings support the folk reputation of L. barbarum fruits as an aphrodisiac and fertility-facilitating agent, and provide scientific evidence for a basis for the extensive use of L. barbarum fruits as a traditional remedy for male infertility in China.

  17. The effects of heptachlor and lindane on birds, Columbia Basin, Oregon and Washington, 1976-1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of heptachlor seed treatments on birds in the vicinity of the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon and Washington, were investigated from 1978 to 1981. An egg was collected from each of 60 nests representing six species. Heptachlor epoxide (HE) residues were detected in 35 eggs and were particularly high (8?13 :g g-1) in a few eggs of the black-billed magpie, mallard, and ring-necked pheasant. These residues were within the range that induced reproductive problems in other species in the area. Diagnostically lethal residue levels (> 9 :g g-1) of HE were detected in the brains of nine birds (four species). Most of the avifauna in the area contained residues of HE and related compounds. Lindane, the replacement chemical for heptachlor, did not produce adverse effects in birds, and residues were not detected in either their eggs or brains.

  18. Dysregulated microRNA clusters in response to retinoic acid and CYP26B1 inhibitor induced testicular function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Dernell, William S

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a multistep synchronized process. Diploid spermatogonia differentiate into haploid spermatozoa following mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. Division and differentiation of male germ cells is achieved through the sequential expression of several genes. Numerous mRNAs in the differentiating germ cells undergo post-transcriptional and translational regulation. MiRNAs are powerful negative regulators of mRNA transcription, stability, and translation and recognize their mRNA targets through base-pairing. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is essential for spermatogenesis and testicular function. Testicular RA level is critical for RA signal transduction. This study investigated the miRNAs modulation in an RA- induced testicular environment following the administration of all-trans RA (2 µM) and CYP26B1- inhibitor (1 µM) compared to control. Eighty four canine mature miRNAs were analyzed and their expression signatures were distinguished using real-time PCR based array technology. Of the miRNAs analyzed, miRNA families such as miR-200 (cfa-miR-200a, cfa-miR-200b and cfa-miR-200c), Mirlet-7 (cfa-let-7a, cfa-let-7b, cfa-let-7c, cfa-let-7g and cfa-let-7f), miR-125 (cfa-miR-125a and cfa-miR-125b), miR-146 (cfa-miR-146a and cfa-miR-146b), miR-34 (cfa-miR-34a, cfa-miR-34b and cfa-miR-34c), miR-23 (cfa-miR-23a and cfa-miR-23b), cfa-miR-184, cfa-miR-214 and cfa-miR-141 were significantly up-regulated with testicular RA intervention via administration of CYP26B1 inhibitor and all-trans-RA and species of miRNA such as cfa-miR-19a, cfa-miR-29b, cfa-miR-29c, cfa-miR-101 and cfa-miR-137 were significantly down-regulated. This study explored information regarding chromosome distribution, human orthologous sequences and the interaction of target genes of miRNA families significantly distinguished in this study using prediction algorithms. This study importantly identified dysregulated miRNA species resulting from RA-induced spermatogenesis. The present contribution

  19. Field test of lindane against overwintering broods of the western pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Lyon; Kenneth M. Swain

    1968-01-01

    The insecticide lindane, applied on bark any time of the year, can effectively destroy broods of the western pine beetle. It may also be effective the year round on the mountain pine beetle, the California five-spined ips, and probably other California species of bark beetles. In tests on the Sierra National Forest, lindane sprays formulated at 1.5 percent...

  20. Analytical investigations on the lindane bioremediation capability of the demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis.

    PubMed

    Aresta, Antonella; Nonnis Marzano, Carlotta; Lopane, Chiara; Corriero, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Zambonin, Carlo; Stabili, Loredana

    2015-01-15

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide that has been widely used to treat agricultural pests. It is of particular concern because of its toxicity, persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we investigated the ability of the demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis to bioremediate lindane polluted seawater during in vitro experimentation. Lindane was extracted by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, we assessed the role exerted in lindane degradation by bacteria isolated from the sponge. Sponges showed low mortality in experimental conditions (lindane concentration 1 μg/L) and were able to remove about 50% of the lindane content from seawater in 48 h. Bacteria isolated from sponges showed a remarkable remediating capacity (up to 97% of lindane removed after 8-days). A lindane metabolite was identified, 1,3,4,5,6-pentachloro-cyclohexene. The results obtained are a prelude to the development of future strategies for the in situ bioremediation of this pollutant.

  1. Outcomes of the California Ban on Pharmaceutical Lindane: Clinical and Ecologic Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Elizabeth H.; Janssen, Sarah; Heil, Ann; Hiatt, Patricia; Solomon, Gina; Miller, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction There are increasing concerns over the presence and implications of pharmaceutical agents in water. In 2002, California banned pharmaceutical use of lindane because of concerns about water quality, as lindane treatment for head lice and scabies was found to be a significant factor adversely affecting wastewater quality. Objectives In this article we describe the effects the ban has had on wastewater quality, unintentional exposures, and clinical practice. This is the first time that a pharmaceutical has been outlawed to protect water quality. As such, this ban provides a rare opportunity to evaluate the possible or potential outcomes of future public health interventions aimed at reducing pharmaceutical water contamination. Methods We compiled data on lindane in wastewater treatment plant effluent for several large plants in California and one outside of California. Data on exposures to lindane were obtained from records of the California Poison Control System. We assessed the impact on clinical practice via a survey of 400 pediatricians Results Wastewater treatment plant monitoring showed that lindane declined in California after the ban. Similarly, unintentional exposure calls declined. Most physicians were aware of the ban (81%) and had used lindane previously (61%), but they did not notice any difficulties with the ban (78%). Conclusions The California experience suggests that elimination of pharmaceutical lindane produced environmental benefits, was associated with a reduction in reported unintentional exposures, and did not adversely affect head lice and scabies treatment. This ban serves as a model for governing bodies considering limits on the use of lindane or other pharmaceuticals. PMID:18335094

  2. Lindane Bioremediation Capability of Bacteria Associated with the Demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis

    PubMed Central

    Loredana, Stabili; Graziano, Pizzolante; Antonio, Morgante; Carlotta, Nonnis Marzano; Caterina, Longo; Maria, Aresta Antonella; Carlo, Zambonin; Giuseppe, Corriero; Pietro, Alifano

    2017-01-01

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide belonging to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that has been widely used to treat agricultural pests. It is of particular concern because of its toxicity, persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we assessed the role of bacteria associated with the sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis in lindane degradation. Seven bacteria isolates were characterized and identified. These isolates showed a remarkable capacity to utilize lindane as a sole carbon source leading to a percentage of residual lindane ranging from 3% to 13% after 12 days of incubation with the pesticide. The lindane metabolite, 1,3–6-pentachloro-cyclohexene, was identified as result of lindane degradation and determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The bacteria capable of lindane degradation were identified on the basis of the phenotypic characterization by morphological, biochemical and cultural tests, completed with 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and assigned to Mameliella phaeodactyli, Pseudovibrio ascidiaceicola, Oceanicaulis stylophorae, Ruegeria atlantica and to three new uncharacterized species. The results obtained are a prelude to the development of future strategies for the in situ bioremediation of lindane. PMID:28383507

  3. Lindane Bioremediation Capability of Bacteria Associated with the Demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis.

    PubMed

    Loredana, Stabili; Graziano, Pizzolante; Antonio, Morgante; Carlotta, Nonnis Marzano; Caterina, Longo; Maria, Aresta Antonella; Carlo, Zambonin; Giuseppe, Corriero; Pietro, Alifano

    2017-04-06

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide belonging to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that has been widely used to treat agricultural pests. It is of particular concern because of its toxicity, persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we assessed the role of bacteria associated with the sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis in lindane degradation. Seven bacteria isolates were characterized and identified. These isolates showed a remarkable capacity to utilize lindane as a sole carbon source leading to a percentage of residual lindane ranging from 3% to 13% after 12 days of incubation with the pesticide. The lindane metabolite, 1,3-6-pentachloro-cyclohexene, was identified as result of lindane degradation and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bacteria capable of lindane degradation were identified on the basis of the phenotypic characterization by morphological, biochemical and cultural tests, completed with 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and assigned to Mameliella phaeodactyli, Pseudovibrioascidiaceicola, Oceanicaulis stylophorae, Ruegeria atlantica and to three new uncharacterized species. The results obtained are a prelude to the development of future strategies for the in situ bioremediation of lindane.

  4. Protective effects of grape seed extract on cadmium-induced testicular damage, apoptosis, and endothelial nitric oxide synthases expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Tascioglu, Simge

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular apoptosis, endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) expression, and toxicity in rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, namely, control, Cd (2.5 mg/kg), Cd + GSPE (100 mg/kg/day), and GSPE. Spermatogenesis and mean seminiferous tubule diameter were significantly decreased in the Cd groups. Furthermore, the GSPE-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance in the Cd group. The immunoreactivity of eNOS and the number of apoptotic cells were increased in Cd group. Our data indicate a significant reduction of terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end-labeling staining and a decrease in the expression of eNOS in the testes tissue of the Cd group treated with GSPE therapy. Therefore, our results suggest that GSPE acts as a potent protective agent against Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Spearmint induced hypothalamic oxidative stress and testicular anti-androgenicity in male rats - altered levels of gene expression, enzymes and hormones.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Kural, Mool Raj; Pereira, B M J; Roy, Partha

    2008-12-01

    Mentha spicata Labiatae, commonly known as spearmint, can be used for various kinds of illnesses in herbal medicines and food industries. One of the prominent functions of this plant extract is its anti-androgenic activity. The present study investigated the probable correlation between oxidative stress in hypothalamic region and anti-androgenic action of this plant's aqueous extract on rats. Decreased activities of enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in hypothalamus of treated rats indicated spearmint induced oxidative stress. Further RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis demonstrated the decreased expression of some of the steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450scc, cytochrome P450C17, 3beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), 17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) and other related proteins like, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, androgen receptor and scavenger receptor class B-1. Further, in vitro enzyme assays demonstrated depressed activities of testicular 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD enzymes. Histopathology indicated a decreased sperm density in cauda epididymis and degeneration of ductus deference. Our study suggested that spearmint probably induced oxidative stress in hypothalamus resulting in decreased synthesis of LH and FSH which in turn down-regulated the production of testicular testosterone through the disruption of a number of intermediate cascades.

  6. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  7. Simultaneous Administration of Dexamethasone and Vitamin E Reversed Experimental Varicocele-induced Impact in testicular tissue in Rats; Correlation with Hsp70-2 Chaperone Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khosravanian, Hajar; Razi, Mazdak; Farokhi, Farah; Khosravanian, Narges

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of isolated and co-administration of vitamin E (VitE) and dexamethasone (DEX) on varicocele (VCL)-induced damages in testicular tissue. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6), including; control-sham, non-treated VCL-induced, VitE-treated VCL-induced (VitE, 150 mg/kg, orally), DEX-administrated VCL-induced (DEX, 0.125 mg/kg, i.p.), VitE+DEX-received VCL-induced animals. The antioxidant status analyses, histopathological examinations, hormonal assay and tissue levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed. The germinal epithelium RNA damage and Leydig cells steroidogenesis were analyzed. Moreover, the Hsp70-2 protein expression was examined based on immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The sperm parameters, DNA integrity and chromatin condensation were investigated. Results: VitE and DEX in simultaneous form of administration significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated the tissue ALP level and attenuated the VCL-decreased GSH-px, SOD and TAC levels and remarkably (P<0.05) down-regulated the testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents. The VCL-induced histopathological alterations significantly (P<0.05) improved in VitE and DEX-administrated animals. The VitE and DEX co-administration reduced the VCL-increased RNA damage and elevated the Leydig cells steroidogenic activity. The Hsp70-2 protein level completely (P<0.05) increased in VitE and DEX alone–and-simultaneous-administrated animals. Finally, the VitE and DEX could significantly (P<0.05) improve the VCL-decreased semen quality and improved the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Vit E by up-regulating the antioxidant status and DEX by reducing inflammation-dependent oxidative and nitrosative stresses could improve the VCL-reduced Hsp70-2 chaperone expression and ultimately protected the testicular endocrine activities and promoted

  8. A molecular and phenotypic integrative approach to identify a no-effect dose level for antiandrogen-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Sophie; Tinwell, Helen; Schorsch, Frédéric; Cavaillé, Christel; Pallardy, Marc; Rouquié, David; Bars, Rémi

    2011-07-01

    The safety assessment of chemicals for humans relies on identifying no-observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) in animal toxicity studies using standard methods. With the advent of high information content technologies, especially microarrays, it is pertinent to determine the impact of molecular data on the NOAELs. Consequently, we conducted an integrative study to identify a no-transcriptomic effect dose using microarray analyses coupled with quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and determined how this correlated with the NOAEL. We assessed the testicular effects of the antiandrogen, flutamide (FM), in a rat 28-day toxicity study using doses of 0.2-30 mg/kg/day. Plasma testosterone levels and testicular histopathology indicated a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/day. A no-effect dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day was established based on molecular data relevant to the phenotypic changes. We observed differential gene expression starting from 1 mg/kg/day and a deregulation of more than 1500 genes at 30 mg/kg/day. Dose-related changes were identified for the major pathways (e.g., fatty acid metabolism) associated with the testicular lesion (Leydig cell hyperplasia) that were confirmed by RT-qPCR. These data, along with protein accumulation profiles and FM metabolite concentrations in testis, supported the no-effect dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day. Furthermore, the microarray data indicated a dose-dependent change in the fatty acid catabolism pathway, a biological process described for the first time to be affected by FM in testicular tissue. In conclusion, the present data indicate the existence of a transcriptomic threshold, which must be exceeded to progress from a normal state to an adaptative state and subsequently to adverse toxicity.

  9. Protective effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone against x-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schally, A.V.; Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Schlosser, J.V.; Karashima, T.; Debeljuk, L.; Gandle, B.; Sampson, M.

    1987-02-01

    Possible protective effects of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH and antagonist N-Ac(D-Phe(pCl)/sup 1,2/,D-Trp/sup 3/,D-Arg/sup 6/,D-Ala/sup 10/)LH-RH against testicular damage caused by x-radiation were investigated in rats. Three months after being subjected to x-irradiation of the testes with 415 or 622 rads, control rats showed marked reduction in the weights of the testes and elevated levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), indicating tubular damage. Histological studies demonstrated that, in testes of rats given 415 rads, most seminiferous tubules had only Sertoli cells and no germinal cells, and, in the group give 622 rads, the depression of spermatogenesis was even more marked. Rats pretreated for 50 days with LH-RH antagonist showed a complete recovery of testicular weights and spermatogenesis 3 months after 415 rads and showed partial recovery after 622 rads, and LH and FSH levels returned to normal in both of these groups. Three experiments were also carried out in which the rats were pretreated for 1-2 months with long-acting microcapsules of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH. Some rats were then subjected to gonadal irradiation with 415 or 622 rads and allowed a recovery period of 2-4 months. On the basis of testicular weights, histology, and gonadotropin levels, it could be concluded that the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH did not protect the rat testes exposed to 622 rads and, at most, only partially protected against 415 rads. These results suggest that pretreatment with LH-RH antagonists and possibly agonists, might decrease the testicular damage caused by radiation and accelerate the recovery of reproductive functions.

  10. Spermatotoxicity, biochemical changes and histological alteration induced by gossypol in testicular and hepatic tissues of male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Sharaky, A S; Newairy, A A; Elguindy, N M; Elwafa, A A

    2010-12-01

    Gossypol acetic acid (GAA) displays anti-fertility and antioxidant behavior. The efficacies of different doses of gossypol acetic acid were investigated in male albino rats. Rats were allocated into four groups: control group and three GAA-treated groups (2-4), that were injected with GAA (5, 10, 20mg/kg BW, respectively), through inrtaperitonial injection. Treatment of GAA was found to elicit a significant decrease in sperm counting, sperm motility, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, whereas, the activities of testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-ketosteroid reductase were increased. The activities of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase and hepatic glutathione peroxidase; glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase and the level of hepatic glutathione were elevated. While, the lipid peroxidation end product; malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and lipid profile and the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 were decreased in GAA-treated rats. The histological analysis of liver and testicular tissues showed sever hepatocyte damage in addition to abnormal localization of hepatocytic nuclei. Also, the testicular pathology of GAA-treated rats showed depressed spermatogensis, sertoli cell toxicity and degeneration of seminiferous tubules.

  11. Application of ligninolytic potentials of a white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum for degradation of lindane.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harsimran; Kapoor, Shammi; Kaur, Gaganjyot

    2016-10-01

    Lindane, a broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide, has caused a widespread environmental contamination along with other pesticides due to wrong agricultural practices. The high efficiency, sustainability and eco-friendly nature of the bioremediation process provide an edge over traditional physico-chemical remediation for managing pesticide pollution. In the present study, lindane degradation was studied by using a white-rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum GL-2 strain, grown on rice bran substrate for ligninolytic enzyme induction at 30 °C and pH 5.6 after incorporation of 4 and 40 ppm lindane in liquid as well as solid-state fermentation. The estimation of lindane residue was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode. In liquid-state fermentation, 100.13 U/ml laccase, 50.96 U/ml manganese peroxidase and 17.43 U/ml lignin peroxidase enzymes were obtained with a maximum of 75.50 % lindane degradation on the 28th day of incubation period, whereas under the solid-state fermentation system, 156.82 U/g laccase, 80.11 U/g manganese peroxidase and 18.61 U/g lignin peroxidase enzyme activities with 37.50 % lindane degradation were obtained. The lindane incorporation was inhibitory to the production of ligninolytic enzymes and its own degradation but was stimulatory for extracellular protein production. The dialysed crude enzyme extracts of ligninolytic enzymes were though efficient in lindane degradation during in vitro studies, but their efficiencies tend to decrease with an increase in the incubation period. Hence, lindane-degrading capabilities of G. lucidum GL-2 strain make it a potential candidate for managing lindane bioremediation at contaminated sites.

  12. Lutein modulates transcription dysregulation of adhesion molecules and spermatogenesis transcription factors induced by testicular ischemia reperfusion injury: it could be SAFE.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Renno, Waleed M; Al-Somali, Hoda F; Botras, Marina S; Qadhi, Iman N

    2016-05-01

    Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI) is considered as the underlying mechanism of testicular torsion, which can cause male infertility. tIRI-induced damage was investigated by assessing the gene expression of spermatogenesis master transcription factors (TFs) and that of major adhesion molecules of the blood-testis barrier. The effect of lutein, a hydroxyl carotenoid, in alleviating tIRI-induced damage was also studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + lutein (0.2 mg/kg). tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h, followed by 4 h of reperfusion. Lutein was injected 15 min after the start of ischemia. Histological analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed significant decreases in tissue biopsy scores, reduced seminiferous tubule diameters, and downregulated the mRNA expression of the TFs cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), TATA box-binding protein-related factor 2 (TRF2), and regulatory factor X 2 (RFX2) compared with the sham group. Lutein treatment reversed these effects. The mRNA expression of the adhesion molecules N-cadherin, nectin-2, claudin-11, occludin, and connexin-43 was significantly downregulated during tIRI, but this change was prevented by lutein treatment. In addition, lutein normalized the tIRI-induced increase in total antioxidant capacity, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, augmented number of TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei, and activated caspase-8 pathway. The components of survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE) were also activated during tIRI. Increased tissue expression of TNF-α and its receptor, TNFR1, was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK) and STAT3, which was prevented by lutein treatment. Our findings suggested that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage may involve modulation of the SAFE pathway and could benefit from lutein treatment.

  13. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels.

    PubMed

    Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Travert, Carine; Séralini, Gilles-Éric

    2012-03-01

    The major herbicide used worldwide, Roundup, is a glyphosate-based pesticide with adjuvants. Glyphosate, its active ingredient in plants and its main metabolite (AMPA) are among the first contaminants of surface waters. Roundup is being used increasingly in particular on genetically modified plants grown for food and feed that contain its residues. Here we tested glyphosate and its formulation on mature rat fresh testicular cells from 1 to 10000ppm, thus from the range in some human urine and in environment to agricultural levels. We show that from 1 to 48h of Roundup exposure Leydig cells are damaged. Within 24-48h this formulation is also toxic on the other cells, mainly by necrosis, by contrast to glyphosate alone which is essentially toxic on Sertoli cells. Later, it also induces apoptosis at higher doses in germ cells and in Sertoli/germ cells co-cultures. At lower non toxic concentrations of Roundup and glyphosate (1ppm), the main endocrine disruption is a testosterone decrease by 35%. The pesticide has thus an endocrine impact at very low environmental doses, but only a high contamination appears to provoke an acute rat testicular toxicity. This does not anticipate the chronic toxicity which is insufficiently tested, and only with glyphosate in regulatory tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  16. Early-life exposure to dimethoate-induced reproductive toxicity: evaluation of effects on pituitary-testicular axis of mice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ruchna; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-12-01

    In utero and lactational exposure to organophosphate dimethoate exerted toxic impact on the reproductive system of male mice. Pregnant mice were exposed to 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg of the pesticide, the sublethal doses (2.5, 5, and 10% of Lethal Dose(50) [LD(50)]), via gavaging from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. The effects on the male reproductive system were evaluated at two stages: at prepubertal age (PND 22) and at the postpubertal age of PND 63. Gonadal inhibition was reflected in the significant reduction of weight and distinct histopathological alteration of testis and epididymis as well as in decreased sperm counts, which could be linked to hormonal imbalance caused by dimethoate interference of reproductive axis. Disruption of pituitary-testicular axis was shown in the weak immunointensity of luteinizing hormone (LH) cells, reduction in their size and number, and lowered plasma LH and testosterone levels as observed in the neonates exposed to two higher tested doses. In addition, the direct toxic impact of the pesticide on the testicular Leydig cells and inhibition of steroidogenesis could be suggested. Drastic reduction in the testosterone level (approximately 70%) was suggestive of this effect. The adverse effects were persisted in the young adult mice. Developmental toxicity was evident in the highest dose-exposed (10% LD(50)) group where GD length and stillbirths were significantly increased along with a decrease of body weight and anogenital distance of the fetus. Maternal exposure of pesticide during gestation and lactation periods thus adversely affected the pituitary-testicular axis of mice neonates, which further caused reproductive dysfunctioning of young adult mice.

  17. Comparative trial of permethrin 5% versus lindane 1% for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Babae Nejad, Shahla; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin

    2013-01-20

    Objective: Treatment of scabies is an important issue in infectious dermatology. The aim of this study was to specify whether permethrin is effective for the treatment of human scabies and to compare its effectiveness with that of 1% lindane by topical application. Methods: 220 patients with scabies with the mean age of 44 ± 12/24 attended the study. Patients were divided into two groups randomly. The first group and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other received 1% lindane lotion. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. Results: Of 254 patients, 220 completed the study. 110 in the group treated with lindane and 110 in the group treated with permethrin. Permethrin provided an improvement rate of 92 (83.6%) after 2 weeks, whereas lindane was effective only in 54 (49%) of patients. After 4 weeks improvement rate was 96.3% (106 of 110) in permethrin group since it was only 69.1% (76 of 110) in lindane group. Conclusion: Permethrin (5%) cream was found to be significantly more effective in the treatment of scabies in comparison with lindane in this study. There were no adverse effects with either permethrin or lindane.

  18. Melatonin and vitamin C exacerbate Cannabis sativa-induced testicular damage when administered separately but ameliorate it when combined in rats.

    PubMed

    Alagbonsi, Isiaka A; Olayaki, Luqman A; Salman, Toyin M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms involved in the spermatotoxic effect of Cannabis sativa are inconclusive. The involvement of oxidative stress in male factor infertility has been well documented, and the antioxidative potential of melatonin and vitamin C in many oxidative stress conditions has been well reported. This study sought to investigate whether melatonin and vitamin C will ameliorate C. sativa-induced spermatotoxicity or not. Fifty-five (55) male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided in a blinded fashion into five oral treatment groups as follows: group I (control, n=5) received 1 mL/kg of 10% ethanol for 30 days; groups IIa, IIb, and IIc (n=5 each) received 2 mg/kg C. sativa for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; groups IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc (n=5 each) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa and 4 mg/kg melatonin for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; groups IVa, IVb, and IVc (n=5 each) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa and 1.25 g/kg vitamin C for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; group V (n=5) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa, 4 mg/kg melatonin, and 1.25 g/kg vitamin C for 30 days. Cannabis treatments reduced the Johnsen score, sperm count, motility, morphology, paired testicular/body weight ratio, and total antioxidant capacity, but increased lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition, supplementation of cannabis-treated rats with either melatonin or vitamin C exacerbates the effect of cannabis on those parameters, whereas combination of melatonin and vitamin C reversed the trend to the level comparable to control. This study further showed the gonadotoxic effect of C. sativa, which could be mediated by oxidative stress. It also showed that melatonin and vitamin C exacerbate C. sativa-induced testicular damage when administered separately but ameliorate it when combined in rats.

  19. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  20. Placental transport of lindane during early and late stages of gestation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, R.N.; Kunwar, K.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, G.S.D. )

    1991-10-01

    Lindane (gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-HCH), an organochlorine pesticide, is widely used as an agricultural pesticide especially in developing countries. Human exposure is likely because of its use in some pharmaceutical preparations and in public health for pest control purpose. It has been detected in human milk and fat samples in India and in many developed countries. The accumulation of lindane over a long period in fat samples and its presence in milk suggests that the human fetus may be exposed to lindane at some time during gestation from the maternal tissue stores. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the placental transfer of lindane in rats during early and late stages of gestation.

  1. Remediation of soils polluted with lindane using surfactant-aided soil washing and electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Morales, M; Braojos, M; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-10-05

    In this work the complete treatment of soil spiked with lindane is studied using surfactant-aided soil-washing (SASW) to exhaust lindane from soil and electrolysis with diamond anodes to mineralize lindane from the soil washing fluid (SWF) waste. Results demonstrated that this technological approach is efficient and allow to remove this hazardous pollutant from soil. They also pointed out the significance of the ratio surfactant/soil in the efficiency of the SASW process and in the performance of the later electrolysis used to mineralize the pollutant. Larger values of this parameter lead to effluents that undergo a very efficient treatment which allows the depletion of lindane for applied charges lower than 15AhL(-1) and the recovery of more than 70% of the surfactant for the regeneration of the SWF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanomicelle curcumin-induced DNA fragmentation in testicular tissue; Correlation between mitochondria dependent apoptosis and failed PCNA-related hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Moshari, Sana; Nejati, Vahid; Najafi, Gholamreza; Razi, Mazdak

    2017-04-03

    Current study was done to assess possible anti-proliferative effect of nanomicelle curcumin (NMCM) against germ cells in testicular tissue. For this purpose, 24 mature male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups. The animals in test groups received 7.5mg/kg, 15mg/kg and 30mg/kg of NMC (NO=6 rats in each group). Following 48days, the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, P53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated by using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Histological changes, tubular differentiation index (TDI), tissue cellularity and serum level of testosterone were analyzed. Finally, the DNA laddering test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation as hallmark for apoptosis. The NMCM significantly (P<0.05) diminished the Bcl-2, p53 and PCNA and enhanced the Bax and caspase-3 mRNA levels. The NMCM significantly (P<0.05) elevated the percentage of Bax and caspase-3-positive tubules and remarkably reduced the percentage of tubules with positive reaction for Bcl-2, p53 and PCNA. The NCMN-received animals exhibited remarkable (P<0.05) reduction in cell population, TDI ratio and serum level of testosterone. Severe DNA fragmentation was observed in 30mg/kg NMCM-received group. In conclusion, the NMCM by reducing the testicular endocrine status, down-regulating Bcl-2 expression and by enhancing the Bax and caspase-3 expression initiates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. On the other hand, inhibited expression of p53 and PCNA (at dose level of 30mg/kg) suppresses the p53 and PCNA-related hemostasis/preservative reactions. All these alterations adversely affect the spermatogenesis.

  3. Testosterone induces testicular development but reduces GnRH-I fiber density in the brain of the House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Deviche, Pierre; Martin, Russell K; Small, Thomas; Sharp, Peter J

    2006-06-01

    Testosterone (T) in male birds generally inhibits the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, but the androgen can also be gonadostimulatory. The mechanisms responsible for this stimulation are unknown. To address this question, adult male House Finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, held on short day length to inhibit reproductive function, received 20-mm long T-filled Silastic capsules either for 74 days (T+; n=5; Day 1-74) or for 66 days followed by eight days without capsules (T-; n=5), or empty capsules for 74 days (controls, C, n=10). At sacrifice on Day 74, plasma T concentrations were elevated in T+ males and low, and similar in T- and C males. Testes were enlarged in T+ males (136.5+/-57.2mg), small in T- males (16.2+/-9.5 mg), and undeveloped in C males (5.4+/-3.6 mg). The three groups had similar numbers and sizes of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I immunoreactive (GnRH-I ir) perikarya, but perikaryon GnRH-I ir labelling was lighter in T+ than C males. T+ males also had lower density of GnRH-immunolabelled fibers in the preoptic area and lower intensity of GnRH immunolabelling in the median eminence than C males, suggesting an inhibition of GnRH-I neuronal activity. Plasma luteinizing hormone in the three experimental groups was uniformly low and did not differ. Thus, T administration-induced testicular development was associated with an inhibition of the reproductive neuroendocrine system, demonstrating a direct stimulatory effect of T on testes. Stimulation of testicular function by endogenous T in seasonal breeders may contribute to the rapid gonadal maturation that takes place in response to photostimulation.

  4. Nigerian bonny-light crude oil induces alteration in testicular stress response proteins and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; D'Cruz, Cynthia S; Jubendradass, R; Amala Rani, Judith S; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-02-01

    In the past few decades, there has been much concern about the adverse health effects of environmental contaminants in general and Crude Oil in particular around the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where all the crude Oil exploration is taking place. Studies have shown the repro-toxic effects of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO). However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by BLCO is not well known. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism(s) underpinning the gonadal effects within hours of exposure to BLCO. Experimental rats were divided into five groups of four each. Animals were orally administered with a single dose of BLCO (800 mg/kg body weight) and killed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h post-treatment. The levels and time-course of induction of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins like cytochorome C, caspase 3 and procaspase 9, Fas-FasL, NF-kB and TNF-α were determined to assess sequential induction of apoptosis in the rat testis. DNA damage was assessed by TUNEL assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptotis- related proteins as early as 6 h following exposure. Time-dependent elevations in the levels of the proteins were observed. The DNA damage was measured and showed time-dependent increase in the TUNEL positive cells of testicular cells. The study demonstrates induction of testicular apoptosis in adult rats following exposure to a single dose of BLCO. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Biodegradation of lindane using a novel yeast strain, Rhodotorula sp. VITJzN03 isolated from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Abdul Salam, Jaseetha; Lakshmi, V; Das, Devlina; Das, Nilanjana

    2013-03-01

    Lindane is a notorious organochlorine pesticide due to its high toxicity, persistence in the environment and its tendency to bioaccumulate. A yeast strain isolated from sorghum cultivation field was able to use lindane as carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. With molecular techniques, it was identified and named as Rhodotorula strain VITJzN03. The effects of nutritional and environmental factors on yeast growth and the biodegradation of lindane was investigated. The maximum production of yeast biomass along with 100 % lindane mineralization was noted at an initial lindane concentration of 600 mg l(-1) within a period of 10 days. Lindane concentration above 600 mg l(-1) inhibited the growth of yeast in liquid medium. A positive relationship was noted between the release of chloride ions and the increase of yeast biomass as well as degradation of lindane. The calculated degradation rate and half life of lindane were found to be 0.416 day(-1) and 1.66 days, respectively. The analysis of the metabolites using GC-MS identified the formation of seven intermediates including γ-pentachlorocyclohexane(γ-PCCH), 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-1,4-cyclohexadiene(1,4-TCCHdiene), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4 TCB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4 DCB), chloro-cis-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexadiene (CDCHdiene), 3-chlorocatechol (3-CC) and maleylacetate (MA) derivatives indicating that lindane degradation follows successive dechlorination and oxido-reduction. Based on the results of the present study, the possible pathway for lindane degradation by Rhodotorula sp. VITJzN03 has been proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on lindane degradation by yeast which can serve as a potential agent for in situ bioremediation of medium to high level lindane-contaminated sites.

  6. Testicular Cancer Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... my what?! Cancer AGAIN?! --- Our comments on the report linking testicular cancer treatments to secondary cancers... Faith and Spirituality --- Not carrying the load alone... Alternative Treatments? --- When all else fails? Spread the Word --- We have even created a, ...

  7. Dichlorvos-induced testicular toxicity in male rats and the protective role of vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Enver Kerem; Kalender, Yusuf

    2012-11-01

    Dichlorvos is an organophosphorus insecticide that is used worldwide for pest control in agriculture and household use. Vitamins C and E are potential antioxidants protecting cells from oxidative stress. Vitamin C+vitamin E, dichlorvos, a combination of vitamin C+vitamin E+dichlorvos, or corn oil (control) were given to rats via oral gavage for 7 weeks. Body and testis weights, sperm parameters, hormone levels, histo- and cytopathological changes in testes were investigated at the end of 24 h and the 4th and 7th weeks comparatively with the control group. Body and testis weights, sperm morphology, FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly at the end of 4th and 7th weeks in the dichlorvos- and vitamins+dichlorvos-treated groups. A statistically significant decline in sperm motility and testosterone levels occurred by the end of 7th week in the dichlorvos- and vitamins+dichlorvos-treated groups. Light and electron microscopy revealed necrosis, edema and cellular damage in testicular tissues of the dichlorvos- and vitamins+dichlorvos-treated rats at the end of 4th and 7th weeks. In conclusion, dichlorvos caused subacute and subchronic reproductive toxicity, but vitamins did not confer protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of lindane removal by Streptomyces sp. M7 by using stable microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Saez, Juliana Maria; Casillas García, Verena; Benimeli, Claudia Susana

    2017-10-01

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide which persists in the environment and can cause serious health problems due to its chlorinated and hydrophobic nature. Microemulsions are isotropic and macroscopically homogeneous systems with high solubilization capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of high concentrations of lindane by the actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. M7 in aqueous and soil systems in the presence of stable microemulsions. Three stable microemulsions were successfully formed with Tween 80, 1-pentanol and three vegetable oils. In most cases, an increase in the cosurfactant/surfactant ratio in the microemulsions favored the solubilization of lindane, while an increase in the oil/surfactant ratio negatively affected the stability of the system. The microemulsion prepared with soybean oil allowed the solubilization of 66% of lindane added to the aqueous medium and 4.5 times more than the surfactant solution at the same concentration. This microemulsion increased the bioavailability of lindane in the aqueous medium and hence enhanced its removal by Streptomyces sp. M7 almost two times respect to the achieved with the surfactant solution. In loam soil system, the addition of the microemulsion allowed an 87% of lindane removal by Streptomyces sp. M7, increasing almost 50% the removal respect to the obtained without the addition of surfactant agents, although it did not present significant difference respect to the obtained with the surfactant solution. This is the first report on enhanced lindane removal by actinobacteria by using direct microemulsions as bioremediation tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosed during a testicular ultrasound — in which small clusters of calcium form in the testicles. A number ... 48:1079. Wang T, et al. A meta-analysis of the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and incidence ...

  10. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell tumors (FTGCT) — Overview of a multidisciplinary etiologic study. Andrology. 2015;3:47. Pedersen MR, et al. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer: Review of the literature. International Urology and Nephrology. 2016;48:1079. Wang T, ...

  11. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils. PMID:26087302

  12. Biodegradation of lindane, methyl parathion and carbofuran by various enriched bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K Rama; Philip, Ligy

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), methyl parathion (O-dimethylO-(4-nitro-phenyl) phosphorothioate) and carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) degradation potential of different enriched bacterial cultures were evaluated under various environmental conditions. Enriched cultures behaved differently with different pesticides. Degradation was more in a facultative anaerobic condition as compared to that in aerobic condition. A specific pesticide enriched culture showed maximum degradation of that pesticide irrespective of pesticides and environmental conditions. Lindane and endosulfan enriched cultures behaved almost similarly. Degradation of lindane by lindane enriched cultures was 75 +/- 3% in aerobic co-metabolic process whereas 78 +/- 5% of lindane degradation occurred in anaerobic co-metabolic process. Degradation of methyl parathion by methyl parathion enriched culture was 87 +/- 1% in facultative anaerobic condition. In almost all the cases, many intermediate metabolites were observed. However, many of these metabolites disappeared after 4-6 weeks of incubation. Mixed pesticide-enriched culture degraded all the three pesticides more effectively as compared to specific pesticide- enriched cultures. It can be inferred from the results that a bacterial consortium enriched with a mixture of all the possible pesticides that are present in the site seems to be a better option for the effective bioremediation of multi-pesticide contaminated site.

  13. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  14. Testicular calculus: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

  15. Reproductive Cytotoxicity Is Predicted by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and Confirmed by Ubiquitin Proteasome Immunohistochemistry in a Theophylline-Induced Model of Rat Testicular and Epididymal Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengowski, M. W.; Sutovsky, P.; Hedlund, L. W.; Guyot, D. J.; Burkhardt, J. E.; Thompson, W. E.; Sutovsky, M.; Johnson, G. A.

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the testicular changes in the rat induced by the nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and ubiquitin immunostaining techniques. In vivo T1- and T2-weighted images were acquired at 2 T under anesthesia. Increased signal observed in the theophylline-treated rats suggests that leakage of MRM contrast was occurring. In vivo MRM results indicate that day 16 testis displayed an increased T1-weighted water signal in the area of the seminiferous tubule that decreased by day 32. These findings were validated by histopathology, suggesting that in vivo MRM has the sensitivity to predict changes in testis and epididymal tissues. The participation of the ubiquitin system was investigated, using probes for various markers of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. MRM can be used to detect subtle changes in the vascular perfusion of organ systems, and the up-regulation/mobilization of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be one of the mechanisms used in theophylline-treated epididymis to remove damaged cells before storage in the cauda epididymis. The combined use of in vivo MRM and subsequent tissue or seminal analysis for the presence of ubiquitin in longitudinal studies may become an important biomarker for assessing testis toxicities drug studies.

  16. Increased 21-hydroxylase and shutdown of C(17,20) lyase activities in testicular tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced sex inversion.

    PubMed

    Lee, S T; Lam, T J; Tan, C H

    2002-05-01

    The metabolism in vitro of [(3)H]17-hydroxyprogesterone by gonadal tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced female-to-male sex inversion was examined. In the female phase, C(17,20) lyase, 5beta-reductase, 3alpha/beta-HSD, 20beta-HSD, and 17beta-HSD activities resulted in the biosynthesis of 5beta-pregnans and 5beta-androstanes (including 5beta-androstane-3alpha/beta, 17beta-diol, 3alpha/beta, 17alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-pregnen-20-one, and 5beta-androstane-3,17-dione). In the MT-induced male phase, however, the abrogation of C(17,20) lyase activity and the concomitant activation of 21alpha-hydroxylase/11beta-hydroxylase resulted in the preferential synthesis of polar 21alpha-hydroxlyated 5beta-pregnans (5beta-pregnan-3beta,17alpha,20beta,21alpha-tetrol and 3beta,20beta,21alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-pregnan-3-one) and corticosteroids (11-deoxycortisol and cortisol). Interestingly, synthesis of these 21alpha-hydroxylated 5beta-pregnans and corticosteroids was uniquely compartmentalized in only testicular tissues of the MT-induced males. This study shows that there is selective activation of specific steroidogenic enzymes in the different sexual phases leading to the synthesis of metabolites that may be involved in regulating sex inversion of the grouper. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  17. Treatment Options for Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer High-Dose Chemotherapy ... Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics ...

  18. Scabies in a 2-month-old Infant Successfully Treated with Lindane

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seon Pil; Choi, Ji Eun; Won, Chong-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of scabies in young children can be challenging since the morphology and distribution of skin lesions may differ from adults. Therefore, clinicians should keep scabies in mind in their differential diagnosis in a child who presents with severe pruritic, polymorphic skin lesions. Regarding the treatment of scabies, the reported clinical experience with gamma benzene hexachloride (lindane) in young children is quite limited because of its neurotoxicity. However, a recent review suggests that lindane is an excellent alternative drug with minimal risk. We report the case of a 2-month-old male infant with pruritic, erythematous macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and pustules from the top of the head to the tip of the toes. Initially, he was thought to have impetigo and antibiotics were prescribed. After obtaining a careful history and with the use of skin scraping, he was diagnosed with scabies. He was successfully treated with lindane with no adverse reactions. PMID:20523787

  19. Lindane residues in cultivated cucumber and in the most consumed fish in Caspian Sea (Iran).

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, M; Saeedi Saravi, S S; Zehtab Yazdi, Y

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the concentrations of lindane residues (organochlorine pesticides) were analyzed in samples of cultivated cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) and four species of most consumed fish (Sefid, Koli, Kilca and Kafal fish). Samples of cucumber were collected from five sites in Sari city (north, south, east, west and central areas) and samples of fish were caught using electric fishing from four major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities, Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in Mazandaran province of Iran. Quantitative determination of the lindane content was performed by gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentration of lindane in cucumber samples and in the dorsal muscle of the selected fish were less than the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) recommended intake.

  20. Comparative study of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo for the treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, J G; Gomez, M P; Austin, R D; Wold, D E

    1987-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo were compared for the treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis). A total of 1040 patients in the Nezahualcoyotl community of Mexico City representing 296 family groups were enrolled and randomized to treatment, with one patient in each family designated as the index patient. Among index patients 98% treated with permethrin and 76% treated with lindane were louse-free 2 weeks after treatment (P less than 0.001). Comparable results were found with nonindex patients as well. Mild dermal reactions, such as pruritus or erythema, occurred in 1.2% of permethrin-treated patients and 2.6% of lindane-treated patients. There were no reports of central nervous system adverse effects or conjunctivitis.

  1. Effects of lindane on the glucose metabolism in rat brain cortex cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pulido, J.A.; del Hoyo, N.; Perez-Albarsanz, M.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The influence of 0.5 mM {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane) on glucose transport has been investigated using the analog 3-O-methyl-D(U-{sup 14}C) glucose. The glucose uptake was lineal for at least 10 sec. Preincubation of dissociated brain cortex cells with lindane decreased the transport of glucose with respect to the controls. The treatment of brain cortex cells with other organochlorine compounds indicated that the {alpha}-, {delta}-HCH isomers and dieldrin reproduced the same inhibitory pattern, while {beta}-HCH and endrin were inactive. The total radioactivity incorporated into CO{sub 2} from (U-{sup 14}C) glucose in the cerebral cortex is also inhibited by lindane in a time dependent manner.

  2. Comparison of oral ivermectin vs. lindane lotion 1% for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour, A; Saleh, P; Goldust, M; Amirnia, M; Zadeh, Y J; Mohamad, R M; Rezaee, E

    2013-10-01

    Scabies is a common parasitic infestation that is an important public-health problem in many resource-poor regions. It is commonly treated with the insecticides ivermectin and permethrin. To compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs. lindane lotion 1% for the treatment of scabies. In total, 148 patients with scabies were enrolled, and were randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight, and the second group were treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between applications. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 60.8% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.1% at the 4-week follow-up. after crossing over to the lindane lotion 1% group. Treatment with two applications of lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 47.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 72.9% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Spin on perinatal testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Samnakay, Naeem; Tudehope, David; Walker, Rosslyn

    2006-11-01

    We describe a recent case of perinatal testicular torsion at our institution. The presentation, management and outcome of perinatal testicular torsion are quite different to testicular torsion in the general paediatric population. The literature describes a variety of management options for perinatal testicular torsion and these are briefly reviewed. In cases of unilateral perinatal testicular torsin, there is controversy over whether surgery to fix the contralateral testis is required, and if so, the appropriate timing for the surgery. A good understanding of the issues unique to perinatal torsion will facilitate appropriate counseling of parents of affected neonates.

  4. Testicular cancer and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Darius A

    2006-11-01

    Testicular cancer and infertility affect a similar age group of patients and have common biologic, epidemiologic, and environmental backgrounds. In this review, we provide current literature on links between infertility and testicular cancer, and new developments in the management of testicular cancer aimed at improving quality of life in men with testicular cancer. In-utero environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors modulates the genetically determined fate of primitive gonad and results in testicular dysgenesis syndrome, which may result in infertility and testicular cancer. Excellent response of testicular cancer to radiation and chemotherapy results in over 90% of survival and quality of life--fertility and sexual function--is of significant concern to patients and clinicians. The testicular-sparing management of testicular masses emerges as a sound alternative to radical orchiectomy and allows for preservation of spermatogenesis and hormonal function, and at the same time achieving similar survival rates. Secondary malignancies, pulmonary, and cardiovascular complications are recognized as late complications of treatment for testicular cancer. Better understanding of common mechanisms involved in infertility and testicular cancer, and scientifically driven evidence-based treatment options should improve quality of life in young men faced with this potentially life-threatening disease.

  5. Testicular Cancer and Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lydia; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of testicular descent or cryptorchidism is the most common defect in newborn boys. The descent of the testes during development is controlled by insulin-like 3 peptide and steroid hormones produced in testicular Leydig cells, as well as by various genetic and developmental factors. While in some cases the association with genetic abnormalities and environmental causes has been shown, the etiology of cryptorchidism remains uncertain. Cryptorchidism is an established risk factor for infertility and testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Experimental animal models suggest a causative role for an abnormal testicular position on the disruption of spermatogenesis however the link between cryptorchidism and TGCT is less clear. The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchid testes is seminoma, believed to be derived from pluripotent prenatal germ cells. Recent studies have shown that seminoma cells and their precursor carcinoma in situ cells express a number of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers suggesting that TGCTs might originate from adult stem cells. We review here the data on changes in the SSC somatic cell niche observed in cryptorchid testes of mouse models and in human patients. We propose that the misregulation of growth factors’ expression may alter the balance between SSC self-renewal and differentiation and shift stem cells toward neoplastic transformation. PMID:23519268

  6. Primary testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S S; Idris, S F; Follows, G A; Williams, M V

    2012-06-01

    Primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTL) comprises around 9% of testicular cancers and 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Its incidence is increasing and it primarily affects older men, with a median age at presentation of around 67 years. By far the most common histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, accounting for 80-90% of PTLs. Most patients present with a unilateral testicular mass or swelling. Up to 90% of patients have stage I or II disease at diagnosis (60 and 30%, respectively) and bilateral testicular involvement is seen in around 35% of patients. PTL demonstrates a continuous pattern of relapse and propensity for extra-nodal sites such as the central nervous system and contralateral testis. Retrospective data have emphasised the importance of prophylactic radiotherapy in reducing recurrence rates within the contralateral testis. Recent outcome data from the prospective IELSG-10 trial have shown far better progression-free and overall survival than historical outcomes. This supports the use of orchidectomy followed by Rituximab- cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP), central nervous system prophylaxis and prophylactic radiotherapy to the contralateral testis with or without nodal radiotherapy in patients with limited disease. Central nervous system relapse remains a significant issue and future research should focus on identifying the best strategy to reduce its occurrence. Here we discuss the evidence supporting combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy in PTL.

  7. Research Article Flavocoxid Protects Against Cadmium-Induced Disruption of the Blood-Testis Barrier and Improves Testicular Damage and Germ Cell Impairment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Micali, Antonio; Pisani, Antonina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Bitto, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Pizzino, Gabriele; Irrera, Natasha; Galfo, Federica; Arena, Salvatore; Pallio, Giovanni; Mecchio, Anna; Germanà, Antonino; Bruschetta, Daniele; Laurà, Rosaria; Magno, Carlo; Marini, Herbert; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) causes male infertility. There is the need to identify safe treatments counteracting this toxicity. Flavocoxid is a flavonoid that induces a balanced inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 peroxidase moieties and of 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) and has efficacy in the male genitourinary system. We investigated flavocoxid effects on Cd-induced testicular toxicity in mice. Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: 2 control groups received 0.9% NaCl (vehicle; 1 ml/kg/day) or flavocoxid (20 mg/kg/day ip); 2 groups were challenged with cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 2 mg/kg/day ip) and administered with vehicle or flavocoxid. The treatment lasted for 1 or 2 weeks. The testes were processed for biochemical and morphological studies. CdCl2 increased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) 1/2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, COX-2, 5-LOX, malondialdehyde (MDA), B-cell-lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein (Bax), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), transforming growth factor (TGF) -β3, decreased Bcl-2, testosterone, inhibin-B, occludin, N-Cadherin, induced structural damages in the testis and disrupted the blood-testis barrier. Many TUNEL-positive germ cells and changes in claudin-11, occludin, and N-cadherin localization were present. Flavocoxid administration reduced, in a time-dependent way, p-ERK 1/2, TNF-α, COX-2, 5-LOX, MDA, Bax, FSH, LH, TGF-β3, augmented Bcl-2, testosterone, inhibin B, occludin, N-Cadherin, and improved the structural organization of the testis and the blood-testis barrier. Few TUNEL-positive germ cells were present and a morphological retrieval of the intercellular junctions was observed. In conclusion, flavocoxid has a protective anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic function against Cd-induced toxicity in mice testis. We suggest that flavocoxid may play a relevant positive role against environmental levels of Cd, otherwise deleterious to gametogenesis and tubular integrity.

  8. Relationships of testicular iron and ferritin concentrations with testicular weight and sperm production in boars.

    PubMed

    Wise, T; Lunstra, D D; Rohrer, G A; Ford, J J

    2003-02-01

    The inverse relationship of testicular size and circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations has been documented, and accompanying this relationship is the change in color of the parenchymal tissue of the testes. Large testes (300 to 400 g) are pink to light red and small testes (100 g) are dark maroon with color gradations for weights in between. It was hypothesized that this color most likely represented an iron protein. Chromatographic analysis of testicular tissue indicated that the Fe was associated primarily with ferritin, and immunohistochemistry showed that Leydig cells were the primary location of ferritin storage within the testes. Concentrations of Fe and ferritin were higher in small testes and decreased as testes weight increased (P < 0.05). As testicular Fe concentrations increased, daily sperm production (DSP) and total DSP declined (P < 0.05). Genotyping six generations of Meishan x White composite boars (n = 288) for a quantitative trait locus that is indicative of elevated FSH and small testes in boars indicated that the Meishan genotype had elevated testicular iron concentrations and darker color in conjunction with reduced total DSP (P < 0.01). It is not thought the elevated iron concentrations affect testicular weights but are probably a result of elevated FSH and FSH inducement of Fe transport. The storage of Fe in Leydig cells may provide a reservoir of Fe for easy access by Sertoli and germ cells, but still provide a degree of protection to germ cells from ionic iron.

  9. Early Life Inorganic Lead Exposure Induces Testicular Teratoma and Renal and Urinary Bladder Preneoplasia in Adult Metallothionein-Knockout Mice but Not in Wild Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Erik J.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic lead compounds are carcinogenic in animals and have carcinogenic potential in humans. In mice, lead (Pb) is a transplacental carcinogen in the kidney. Metallothionein (MT) is a metal-binding protein that can reduce the toxicity of various metals, including Pb, either by direct sequestration or as an antioxidant for metals that generate reactive oxygen species. Although MT appears to reduce Pb carcinogenicity in adult mice it is unknown how MT deficiency may affect Pb carcinogenicity from early life exposure. Thus, groups (n = 10) of pregnant MT-I/II double knockout (MT-null) or 129/SVJ MT wild type (WT) mice were exposed to Pb acetate in the drinking water (0, 2000, 4000 ppm Pb) from gestation day 8 through birth and during lactation. Maternal drinking water Pb exposure continued to weaning at 4 weeks of age and the male offspring were then directly exposed to Pb until 8 weeks of age and observed until 2 years old. High dose (4000 ppm) but not low dose (2000 ppm) Pb reduced survival in the latter part of the study in both MT-null and WT mice. In MT-null mice, but not WT, early life Pb exposure caused a dose-related increase in testicular teratomas, to a maximum incidence of 28% compared to control (4%). Pb-induced renal cystic hyperplasia, considered preneoplastic, were a prominent occurrence in MT-null mice but nearly absent in WT mice. Pb dose-related increases in renal cystic hyperplasia occurred in adult MT-null with early life exposure with maximal incidence of 52%. Pb-treated MT-null mice also showed dose-related increases in urinary bladder hyperplasia with occasional papilloma that were absent in WT mice. Thus, MT deficiency made mice more sensitive to early life Pb exposure with regard to testes tumors, and renal and urinary bladder preneoplastic lesions. PMID:20600549

  10. [Intracerebral distribution of lindane in rats: short term observation after administration of a single dose].

    PubMed

    Lièvremont, M; Potus, J

    1981-06-22

    Residual radioactivity in Rat brain structures is studied after single dose 14C Lindane administration. Short time after injection, at the onset of convulsions, white matter and myelinated structures show important retention, nucleated cells do not. This heterogeneous distribution agrees with the lipophilic behaviour of the pesticide.

  11. Synergistic rhizosphere degradation of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) through the combinatorial plant-fungal action

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are usually involved in degradation/deterioration of many anthropogenic wastes due to their verse enzyme secretions and adaptive capabilities. In this study, five dominant fungal strains were isolated from an aged lindane polluted site, they were all mixed (100 mg each) together with pent mushroom compost (SMC) and applied to lindane polluted soil (5 kg) at 10, 20, 30, 40% and control 0% (soil with no treatment), these were used to grow M. maximus Jacq for 3 months. To establish lindane degradation, deductions such as Degradation rate (K1), Half-life (t1/2) and Degradation efficiency (DE) were made based on the analyzed lindane concentrations before and after the experiment. We also tested the presence and expressions of phosphoesterases (mpd and opd-A) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenases (efk2 and efk4) genes in the strains. The stains were identified as Aspergillus niger (KY693970); Talaromyces atroroseus (KY488464), Talaromyces purpurogenus (KY488468), Yarrowia lipolytica (KY488469) and Aspergillus flavus (KY693973) through morphological and molecular methods. Combined rhizospheric action of M. maximus and fungi speed up lindane degradation rate, initially detected lindane concentration of 45 mg/kg was reduced to 11.26, 9.34 and 11.23 mg/kg in 20, 30 and 40% treatments respectively making 79.76, 85.93 and 88.67% degradation efficiencies. K1 of 1.29 was recorded in control while higher K1 of 1.60, 1.96 and 2.18 /day were recorded in 20, 30 and 40% treatments respectively. The best t1/2 of 0.32 and 0.35 /day were recorded in 40 and 30% compared to control (0.54 /day). All the strains were also affirmed to possess the tested genes; opd was overexpressed in all the strains except KY693973 while mpd was overexpressed in KY693970, KY488464 but moderately expressed in KY488468, KY488469 and KY693973. However, efk genes were under-expressed in most of the strains except KY488469 and KY693973 which showed moderate expression of efk4. This work suggests that the

  12. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  13. Interdependence of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and Estrogen-Signaling Pathways in Inducing Neonatal Rat Testicular Gonocytes Proliferation1

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, Raphael; Mazer, Monty; Manku, Gurpreet; Boisvert, Annie; Wang, Yan; Culty, Martine

    2010-01-01

    We previously found that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and 17beta-estradiol stimulate gonocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, nonadditive manner. In the present study, we report that gonocytes express RAF1, MAP2K1, and MAPK1/3. Inhibition of RAF1 and MAP2K1/2, but not phosphoinositide-3-kinase, blocked PDGF-induced proliferation. AG-370, an inhibitor of PDGF receptor kinase activity, suppressed not only PDGF-induced proliferation but also that induced by 17beta-estradiol. In addition, RAF1 and MAP2K1/2 inhibitors blocked 17beta-estradiol-activated proliferation. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 inhibited both the effects of 17beta-estradiol and PDGF. PDGF lost its stimulatory effect when steroid-depleted serum or no serum was used. Similarly, 17beta-estradiol did not induce gonocyte proliferation in the absence of PDGF. The xenoestrogens genistein, bisphenol A, and DES, but not coumestrol, stimulated gonocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent and PDGF-dependent manner similarly to 17beta-estradiol. Their effects were blocked by ICI 182780, suggesting that they act via the estrogen receptor. AG-370 blocked genistein and bisphenol A effects, demonstrating their requirement of PDGF receptor activation in a manner similar to 17beta-estradiol. These results demonstrate the interdependence of PDGF and estrogen pathways in stimulating in vitro gonocyte proliferation, suggesting that this critical step in gonocyte development might be regulated in vivo by the coordinated action of PDGF and estrogen. Thus, the inappropriate exposure of gonocytes to xenoestrogens might disrupt the crosstalk between the two pathways and potentially interfere with gonocyte development. PMID:20089883

  14. Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 Protects the Oropharyngeal Mucosal Layer and the Testicular Tubules against Drug-induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Wijnholds, Jan; Scheffer, George L.; van der  Valk, Martin; van der  Valk, Paul; Beijnen, Jos H.; Scheper, Rik J.; Borst, Piet

    1998-01-01

    The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) gene encodes a transporter protein that helps to protect cells against xenobiotics. Elevated levels of MRP1 in tumor cells can result in active extrusion of a wide range of (anticancer) drugs with different cellular targets, a phenomenon called multidrug resistance (MDR). To explore the protective function of the mouse mrp1 protein during drug treatment, we investigated the toxicity caused by the anticancer drug etoposide-phosphate (ETOPOPHOS) in mice lacking the mrp1 gene (mrp1−/− mice). We show here that the lack of mrp1 protein results in increased etoposide-induced damage to the mucosa of the oropharyngeal cavity and to the seminiferous tubules of the testis. The high concentrations of mrp1 that we find in the basal layers of the oropharyngeal mucosa and in the basal membrane of the Sertoli cells in the testis apparently protect wild-type mice against this tissue damage. We also find drug-induced polyuria in mrp1−/− mice, which correlates with the presence of mrp1 protein in the urinary collecting tubules, the major site of kidney water reabsorption. Our results indicate that specific inhibitors of MRP1 used to reverse MDR, in combination with carcinostatic drugs transported by MRP1, might lead to drug-induced mucositis, (temporary) infertility, and diabetes insipidus. PMID:9730882

  15. Dose-dependent protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A A; Qutub, H O; Jresat, I

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion induces oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and apoptosis of testicular tissues. Baicalin exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the possible protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion injury in rats. Surgical testicular torsion was induced for 2 h, followed by detorsion which was continued for 24 h. Baicalin was administered in three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) , by intraperitoneal injection). Each dose was given twice, the first 30 min before and the second 12 h after testicular detorsion. Baicalin, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased the torsion/detorsion-induced elevations of testicular malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-α, BCL2-associated X protein (Bax), cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Baicalin, dose dependently, attenuated the reductions of B-cell leucemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in testicular tissues resulted from torsion/detorsion. In addition, baicalin ameliorated the histopathological testicular tissue damage and reduced the expression of Fas ligand in rat testes exposed to torsion/detorsion in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that baicalin, dose dependently, ameliorated testicular injury induced by torsion/detorsion via its antioxidant, antinitrosative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

  16. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    PubMed Central

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes. PMID:22892924

  17. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  18. Disruption of LH-induced testosterone biosynthesis in testicular Leydig cells by triclosan: probable mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Balomajumder, Chandrajeet; Roy, Partha

    2008-09-04

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial chemical widely used in different commercial preparations. The present study demonstrated the mechanism of action of TCS-induced anti-androgenicity in rat Leydig cells. Treatment of purified cells with increasing concentrations of TCS (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microM) resulted in a significantly decreased activity of adenylyl cyclase enzyme which was followed by a decreased synthesis of cAMP. This decreased cAMP level resulted in the disruption of entire steroidogenic cascade causing a depressed synthesis of testosterone. However, TCS-induced decrease in the production of testosterone returned to normalcy when cells were treated with forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator). Transcription followed by translational of four prominent steroidogenic enzyme/proteins, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, also decreased in a dose-dependent manner in TCS-treated Leydig cells as determined by RT-PCR, enzyme assay and Western blot. These results suggested that the disruption of the activity of adenylyl cyclase enzyme by TCS in turn leads to the disruption of intermediate steroidogenic cascade causing a depressed testosterone production. The study further confirmed the anti-androgenic activity of TCS in Leydig cells with highest effective concentration at 1 microM.

  19. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis.

  20. Liver growth factor induces testicular regeneration in EDS-treated rats and increases protein levels of class B scavenger receptors.

    PubMed

    Lobo, M V T; Arenas, M I; Huerta, L; Sacristán, S; Pérez-Crespo, M; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Díaz-Gil, J J; Lasunción, M A; Martín-Hidalgo, A

    2015-01-15

    The aim of the present work was to determine the effects of liver growth factor (LGF) on the regeneration process of rat testes after chemical castration induced by ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) by analyzing some of the most relevant proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), scavenger receptor SR-BI, and other components of the SR family that could contribute to the recovery of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis. Sixty male rats were randomized to nontreated (controls) and LGF-treated, EDS-treated, and EDS + LGF-treated groups. Testes were obtained on days 10 (T1), 21 (T2), and 35 (T3) after EDS treatment, embedded in paraffin, and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. LGF improved the recovery of the seminiferous epithelia, the appearance of the mature pattern of Leydig cell interstitial distribution, and the expression of mature SR-BI. Moreover, LGF treatment resulted in partial recovery of HSL expression in Leydig cells and spermatogonia. No changes in serum testosterone were observed in control or LGF-treated rats, but in EDS-castrated animals LGF treatment induced a progressive increase in serum testosterone levels and 3β-HSD expression. Based on the pivotal role of SR-BI in the uptake of cholesteryl esters from HDL, it is suggested that the observed effects of LGF would facilitate the provision of cholesterol for sperm cell growth and Leydig cell recovery. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Testicular cancer in cryptorchids.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Whitmore, W F; Golbey, R B

    1982-03-01

    One-hundred thirty-seven patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor were treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1976. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 93 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 2 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (24 patients), by orchiopexy (58 patients), or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-four cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) had either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), or abdominal (14 patients), or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (six patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 56 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 41, teratocarcinoma in 37, and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The five-year survival rates were similar in the corrected (61%) and uncorrected (63%) cases, and they were higher in patients with pure seminoma (79%) than in patients with germinal carcinomas (50%). The majority (64 of 80) of five-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation in 41 patients with pure seminoma and/or systemic chemotherapy in 23 patients with other germinomas. Since the testicular tumors that developed despite correction of the cryptorchid state were predominantly (72%) germinal carcinomas, unilateral cryptorchidism, which usually is associated with testicular atrophy, should be treated by orchiectomy instead of orchiopexy to prevent ipsilateral carcinogenesis. Cryptorchid patients with testicles that descended late should be observed periodically, especially after the 20-year latent period, for early detection of cancer.

  2. In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces testicular effects in neonatal rats that are antagonized by genistein cotreatment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Steven; Boisvert, Annie; Francois, Sade; Zhang, Liandong; Culty, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) is believed to predispose males to reproductive abnormalities. Although males are exposed to combinations of chemicals, few studies have evaluated the effects of ED mixtures at environmentally relevant doses. Our previous work showed that fetal exposure to a mixture of the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) and the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced unique alterations in adult testis. In this follow-up study, we examined Postnatal Day 3 (PND3) and PND6 male offspring exposed from Gestational Day 14 to parturition to corn oil, 10mg/kg GEN, DEHP, or their combination, to gain insight into the early molecular events driving long-term alterations. DEHP stimulated the mRNA and protein expression of the steroidogenic enzyme HSD3B, uniquely at PND3. DEHP also increased the mRNA expression of Nestin, a Leydig progenitor/Sertoli cell marker, and markers of Sertoli cell (Wt1), gonocyte (Plzf, Foxo1), and proliferation (Pcna) at PND3, while these genes were unchanged by the mixture. Redox (Nqo1, Sod2, Sod3, Trx, Gst, Cat) and xenobiotic transporter (Abcb1b, Abcg2) gene expression was also increased by DEHP at PND3, while attenuated when combined with GEN, suggesting the involvement of cellular stress in short-term DEHP effects and a protective effect of GEN. The direct effects of GEN and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, the principal bioactive metabolite of DEHP, on testis were investigated in PND3 organ cultures, showing a stimulatory effect of 10 μM mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on basal testosterone production that was normalized by GEN. These effects contrasted with previous reports of androgen suppression and decreased gene expression in perinatal rat testis by high DEHP doses, implying that neonatal effects are not predictive of adult effects. We propose that GEN, through an antioxidant action, normalizes reactive oxygen species-induced neonatal effects of DEHP. The notion that these EDs do not follow classical

  3. Proteomic analysis of mouse testis reveals perfluorooctanoic acid-induced reproductive dysfunction via direct disturbance of testicular steroidogenic machinery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxia; Lu, Yin; Luo, Bin; Yan, Shengmin; Guo, Xuejiang; Dai, Jiayin

    2014-07-03

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant suspected of being an endocrine disruptor; however, mechanisms of male reproductive disorders induced by PFOA are poorly understood. In this study, male mice were exposed to 0, 0.31, 1.25, 5, and 20 mg PFOA/kg/day by oral gavage for 28 days. PFOA significantly damaged the seminiferous tubules and reduced testosterone and progesterone levels in the testis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PFOA exposure reduced sperm quality. We identified 93 differentially expressed proteins between the control and the 5 mg/kg/d PFOA treated mice using a quantitative proteomic approach. Among them, insulin like-factor 3 (INSL3) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) as Leydig-cell-specific markers were significantly decreased. We examined in detail the expression patterns of CYP11A1 and associated genes involved in steroidogenesis in the mouse testis. PFOA inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of CYP11A1 and the mRNA levels of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in vitro study showed the reduction in progesterone levels was accompanied by decreased expression of CYP11A1 in cAMP-stimulated mLTC-1 cells. Our findings indicate that PFOA exposure can impair male reproductive function, possibly by disturbing testosterone levels, and CPY11A1 may be a major steroidogenic enzyme targeted by PFOA.

  4. Protective effect of pentoxifylline on male Wistar rat testicular germ cell apoptosis induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymeth amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mahnaz; Movassaghi, Shabnam; foroumadi, Alireza; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Sharifi, Zahra Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) one of the methamphetamine derivatives that affect the reproductive system, has not been well understood. Many young people are consumers of drugs such as MDMA that can affect their reproductive capability. Apoptosis is the main mechanism for male infertility. Pentoxifylline (PTX) increases cAMP intracellularly and reduces tumor necrosis factor-α. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PTX administration in MDMA-induced apoptosis in testes of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into five groups: control group (without any intervention), group receiving 7.5 mg/kg MDMA three times every two hours for one day, first experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX just at the time of third injection of MDMA, second experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX a week before MDMA administration, and the vehicle group, which received MDMA+saline. Two weeks later, testes were removed and prepared for H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blot techniques. Results: There was a significant decrease of the score in the MDMA group compared with the control group. In first and second experimental groups, the quality of seminiferous epithelium was improved compared with the MDMA group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells/tubule increased in MDMA and vehicle groups, which is decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Expression of active caspase-3 significantly increased in MDMA group, which is significantly decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Conclusion: PTX can significantly reduce the severity of lesions in the testes following administration of MDMA. PMID:27482346

  5. Nicotine-induced damages in testicular tissue of rats; evidences for bcl-2, p53 and caspase-3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Mosadegh, Maryam; Hasanzadeh, Shapour; Razi, Mazdak

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Present study was performed in order to uncover new aspects for nicotine-induced damages on spermatogenesis cell lineage. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 36 mature male Wistar rats were divided into three groups as; control-sham (0.2 ml, saline normal, IP), low dose (0.2 mg/kg BW-1, IP) nicotine-received and high dose (0.4 mg/kg BW-1, IP) nicotine-received groups. Following 7 weeks, the expression of bcl-2, p53 and caspase-3 at mRNA and protein levels were investigated by using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses, respectively. Moreover, the serum level of FSH, LH and testosterone were evaluated. Finally, the mRNA damage was analyzed by using special fluorescent staining. Results: Nicotine, at both dose levels, decreased tubular differentiation, spermiogenesis and repopulation indices and enhanced cellular depletion. Animals in nicotine-received groups exhibited a significant (P<0.05) reduction at mRNA and protein levels of bcl-2. More analyses revealed a remarkable (P<0.05) enhancement in expression of p53 and caspase-3 in comparison to control-sham animals. Finally, nicotine resulted in a significant (P<0.05) reduction in serum level of testosterone and elevated mRNA damage. Conclusion: Our data showed that, nicotine by suppressing the testosterone biosynthesis, reducing mRNA and protein levels of bcl-2 and up regulating the p53 and caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels adversely affects the spermatogenesis and results in cellular depletion. PMID:28293398

  6. Behaviour and spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyls and lindane in the urban atmosphere of the Paris area, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil Granier, Laurent; Chevreuil, Marc

    This paper presents the results of a five year study (1986-1991) of the contamination of the Paris area atmosphere by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lindane. The main processes affecting their behaviour and fate such as vapour/particle partitioning and washout are described and modelled. The spatial and temporal variations of the concentrations of the compounds are assessed. PCBs did not exhibit a clear seasonal cycle, whilst lindane showed systematically higher concentrations in Spring, reflecting the agricultural use of this pesticide. The mean annual concentration of lindane in the atmosphere was stable during the period of study. PCBs concentrations showed a twofold decrease since 1986, presumably in part because of the effectiveness of pollution prevention measures. Recent spatial variations in PCBs or lindane were not very important and the most recent concentrations recorded (2-6 ng m -3 for PCBs and 1.5 ngm -3 for lindane) were in line with levels commonly reported in the literature. PCBs as a whole were predominantly in the vapour phase (78% on top of the St Jacques Tower in 1989-1990). The amount associated with the particle phase was linked to temperature and increased during winter. The behaviour of individual components showed wide differences reflecting their varying physico-chemical properties: IUPAC no. 18 was not detectable in the particle phase whilst no. 180 was for 70% in the particle phase. Lindane was found only in the vapour phase. The overall washout ratio W (ng m -3 rain/ngm -3 air) was 34 × 10 3 for total PCBs and 79 × 10 3 for lindane. It varied between 21 × 10 3 for component IUPAC no. 28 to 235 × 10 3 for n 180. Dry deposition amounted to 35% of the total deposition for PCBs and 1 % for lindane. The associated deposition velocity for Aroclor 1254 was 0.12 cm s -1.

  7. Degradation of lindane and hexachlorobenzene in supercritical carbon dioxide using palladium nanoparticles stabilized in microcellular high-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei-Zen; Chen, GuanYu; Yak, HwaKwang; Liao, Weisheng; Chiu, KongHwa; Peng, Shie-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Palladium nanoparticles stabilized in microcellular high-density polyethylene prepared through supercritical foaming, supercritical impregnation, and H2 reduction are used for the hydrodechlorination of lindane and hexachlorobenzene in supercritical carbon dioxide below 100 °C. Both lindane and hexachlorobenzene can be almost 100% transformed to cyclohexane in 1 h. Reaction intermediates, such as lower chlorinated products or benzene, are not observed or exist in trace amount indicating that most of them may undergo reactions without leaving the metal surface.

  8. Role of zinc in regulating the testicular function. Part 3. Histopathological changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency in testes of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hafiez, A A; el-Kirdassy, Z H; el-Malkh, N M; el-Zayat, E M

    1990-01-01

    Zinc deficiency affects the testicular tissues adversely. The testes of zinc-deficient rats showed variable degrees of degeneration compared to both control and zinc-supplemented ones. Initially, there was an early pronounced spermatic arrest followed by a series of degeneration of the cellular layers constituting the seminiferous tubules in the zinc-deficient rats. Degenerative changes were additionally demonstrated in the interstitial tissue cells of the zinc-deficient rats. These histopathological observations in testes of zinc-deficient rats run in parallel provide an additional support to our previous publications in which we recorded a significant reduction in both serum and testicular levels of testosterone in the same group of animals, since spermatogenesis in rodents appeared to depend primarily on testosterone level.

  9. Aromatase activity modulation by lindane and bisphenol-A in human placental JEG-3 and transfected kidney E293 cells.

    PubMed

    Nativelle-Serpentini, C; Richard, S; Séralini, G-E; Sourdaine, P

    2003-08-01

    Aromatase is the cytochrome P-450 involved in converting androgens to estrogens. The cytochrome P-450 family plays a central role in the oxidative metabolism of compounds including environmental pollutants. Since lindane and bisphenol-A (BPA) are two well-characterized endocrine disruptors that have been detected in animals and humans, it was important to learn whether they could affect aromatase activity and consequently estrogen biosynthesis. The present study investigates the effects of BPA and lindane on cytotoxicity, aromatase activity and mRNA levels in human placental JEG-3 cells and transfected human embryonal kidney 293 cells. Both cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of lindane (25, 50 and 75 microM) and bisphenol-A (25, 50 and 100 microM) over different time periods (10 min-18 h). As a result, none of these concentrations showed cytotoxicity. After short pre-incubation times (10 min-6 h), aromatase activity was enhanced by both compounds. Longer time incubation (18 h), however, produced dose-related inhibition. Lindane and BPA had no significant effects on CYP19 mRNA levels. Therefore, lindane and BPA modulate aromatase activity suggesting an interaction with the cytochrome P-450 aromatase. This study highlights the endocrine-modulating properties of lindane and bisphenol-A.

  10. Effect of natural particles on the transport of lindane in saturated porous media: Laboratory experiments and model-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngueleu, Stéphane K.; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2013-06-01

    Colloidal particles can act as carriers for adsorbing pollutants, such as hydrophobic organic pollutants, and enhance their mobility in the subsurface. In this study, we investigate the influence of colloidal particles on the transport of pesticides through saturated porous media by column experiments. We also investigate the effect of particle size on this transport. The model pesticide is lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), a representative hydrophobic insecticide which has been banned in 2009 but is still used in many developing countries. The breakthrough curves are analyzed with the help of numerical modeling, in which we examine the minimum model complexity needed to simulate such transport. The transport of lindane without particles can be described by advective-dispersive transport coupled to linear three-site sorption, one site being in local equilibrium and the others undergoing first-order kinetic sorption. In the presence of mobile particles, the total concentration of mobile lindane is increased, that is, lindane is transported not only in aqueous solution but also sorbed onto the smallest, mobile particles. The models developed to simulate separate and associated transport of lindane and the particles reproduced the measurements very well and showed that the adsorption/desorption of lindane to the particles could be expressed by a common first-order rate law, regardless whether the particles are mobile, attached, or strained.

  11. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  12. Protective effects of udenafil citrate, piracetam and dexmedetomidine treatment on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tuglu, D; Yuvanc, E; Ozan, T; Bal, F; Yilmaz, E; Atasoy, P; Kisa, U; Batislam, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of udenafil citrate (1.4 mg kg(-1) -2.8 mg kg(-1) ), dexmedetomidine 25 μg kg(-1) and piracetam 200 mg kg(-1) administered on ipsilateral/contralateral testes after ischaemia in a rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) and define its protective effect histologically. Fifty-six Wistar albino rats were included and randomly assigned into 6 groups. No intervention was performed in control group (Group 1, n = 8) and in torsion/detorsion group, (Group 2, n = 8). Udenafil 1.4 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 3, n = 10), udenafil 2.8 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 4, n = 10), piracetam 200 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 5, n = 10) and dexmedetomidine 25 μg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 6, n = 10) intraperitoneally after 60 mins of testicular torsion. Biochemical and histopathological testicular injury were evaluated. When the tissue was examined by TOS values, Group 3, Group 4 and Group 5 were significantly lower than Group 2. In contrary Group 6 values were significantly higher than Group 2. The increasing doses of udenafil demonstrated antioxidant properties on the testis tissue and histopathological that protects the testicles. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Tributyltin chloride induced testicular toxicity by JNK and p38 activation, redox imbalance and cell death in sertoli-germ cell co-culture.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sumonto; Srivastava, Ankit; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2013-12-06

    The widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) as biocides in antifouling paints and agricultural chemicals has led to environmental and marine pollution. Human exposure occurs mainly through TBT contaminated seafood and drinking water. It is a well known endocrine disruptor in mammals, but its molecular mechanism in testicular damage is largely unexplored. This study was therefore, designed to ascertain effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) on sertoli-germ cell co-culture in ex-vivo and in the testicular tissue in-vivo conditions. An initial Ca(2+) rise followed by ROS generation and glutathione depletion resulted in oxidative damage and cell death. We observed p38 and JNK phosphorylation, stress proteins (Nrf2, MT and GST) induction and mitochondrial depolarization leading to caspase-3 activation. Prevention of TBTC reduced cell survival and cell death by Ca(2+) inhibitors and free radical scavengers specify definitive role of Ca(2+) and ROS. Sertoli cells were found to be more severely affected which in turn can hamper germ cells functionality. TBTC exposure in-vivo resulted in increased tin content in the testis with enhanced Evans blue leakage into the testicular tissue indicating blood-testis barrier disruption. Tesmin levels were significantly diminished and histopathological studies revealed marked tissue damage. Our data collectively indicates the toxic manifestations of TBTC on the male reproductive system and the mechanisms involved.

  14. Evaluation of hexachlorocyclohexane contamination from the last lindane production plant operating in India.

    PubMed

    Jit, Simran; Dadhwal, Mandeep; Kumari, Hansi; Jindal, Swati; Kaur, Jasvinder; Lata, Pushp; Niharika, Neha; Lal, Devi; Garg, Nidhi; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Sharma, Pooja; Bala, Kiran; Singh, Ajaib; Vijgen, John; Weber, Roland; Lal, Rup

    2011-05-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and lindane (γ-HCH) were listed as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and hence must be phased out and their wastes/stockpiles eliminated. At the last operating lindane manufacturing unit, we conducted a preliminary evaluation of HCH contamination levels in soil and water samples collected around the production area and the vicinity of a major dumpsite to inform the design of processes for an appropriate implementation of the Convention. Soil and water samples on and around the production site and a major waste dumpsite were measured for HCH levels. All soil samples taken at the lindane production facility and dumpsite and in their vicinity were contaminated with an isomer pattern characteristic of HCH production waste. At the dumpsite surface samples contained up to 450 g kg(-1) Σ HCH suggesting that the waste HCH isomers were simply dumped at this location. Ground water in the vicinity and river water was found to be contaminated with 0.2 to 0.4 mg l(-1) of HCH waste isomers. The total quantity of deposited HCH wastes from the lindane production unit was estimated at between 36,000 and 54,000 t. The contamination levels in ground and river water suggest significant run-off from the dumped HCH wastes and contamination of drinking water resources. The extent of dumping urgently needs to be assessed regarding the risks to human and ecosystem health. A plan for securing the waste isomers needs to be developed and implemented together with a plan for their final elimination. As part of the assessment, any polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) generated during HCH recycling operations need to be monitored.

  15. Lindane toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning acute and long-term biochemical effects of the pesticide, lindane. Topics include case studies of human and animal poisonings, metabolism of the compound, effects on enzyme activity, dosage effects, liver carcinoma development, and synergistic effects with other pesticides. Reports pertaining to occupational exposure, and detection methods are also referenced. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immunological response to chemical pollution exposure: The case of lindane.

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Pagliara, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    In the marine environment organochlorine insecticides can be broadly detected in water, sediments, and biota. These pollutants may have major ecological consequences since they may affect marine organisms and endanger organismal growth, reproduction or survival. In this study we investigated the modification of some sea urchin immunological parameters in response to subchronic lindane (γ-HCH) exposure. Adult specimens of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were exposed to two different concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 mg L(-1)) of lindane. After 24 and 48h of treatment, we examined the lindane influence on coelomocytes vitality and enumeration as well on some humoral parameters. Our results showed that the presence of the pesticide affected both cellular and humoral components of the immune system. In particular, P. lividus coelomocytes vitality did not change but a decrease of the total cell number and an increase of the red cells was recorded. Haemolytic and lysozyme-like activities as well as antibacterial activity on Vibrio alginolyticus of treated animals decreased. Sea urchin immunological competence modifications might represent a tool for monitoring disease susceptibility thus providing biological criteria for the implementation of water quality standards to protect marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel non-enzymatic lindane sensor based on CuO-MnO2 hierarchical nano-microstructures for enhanced sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anu Prathap, M U; Sun, Shengnan; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2015-03-14

    In this work, we present new results about the non-enzymatic detection of lindane by using CuO-MnO2 hierarchical nano-microstructures. The linear range for the determination of lindane is up to 700 μM with a limit of detection of 4.8 nM, which is much lower than for other non-enzymatic lindane sensors.

  18. Non-GABA(A)-mediated effects of lindane on neurite development and intracellular free calcium ion concentration in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, C A; Audesirk, G

    1995-04-01

    Changes in transmembrane Ca(2+) fluxes and intracellular free Ca(2+) ion concentrations ([Ca(2+)](in)) regulate many aspects of neurite development in cultured neurons. Lindane has been shown to increase [Ca(2+)](in) in several cell types. It was therefore hypothesized that lindane exposure would increase [Ca(2+)](in) and thereby alter neurite development in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The study reported here showed that lindane (50-100 muM) increased [Ca(2+)](in) during short-term exposure (up to 4 hr); in contrast, with long-term exposure (24-48 hr) lindane (1-50 mum) decreased [Ca(2+)](in) significantly below control levels. Lindane decreased neurite initiation at high concentrations (25 mum or above). Lindane increased dendrite number at low concentrations (0.5-1 muM), but decreased dendrite number at high concentrations (50 mum or above). Lindane decreased axon and dendrite elongation and branching at 50 mum. Loading neurons with 1 mum 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), a calcium chelator that partially 'clamps' [Ca(2+)](in), eliminated the effects of 50 mum lindane on [Ca(2+)](in) in short-term exposures. BAPTA did not significantly reverse the inhibition of neurite initiation or axonal elongation caused by 50 mum lindane. However, BAPTA partially reversed the inhibition of dendrite elongation and completely reversed the inhibition of axon and dendrite branching caused by 50 mum lindane. Therefore, some, but not all, of lindane's effects on neurite development may be due to changes in [Ca(2+)](in). Picrotoxin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A))-associated chloride channel antagonist, had no effect on [Ca(2+)](in) or any parameters of neurite growth, suggesting that the effects of lindane on neurite development and [Ca(2+)](in) were not mediated through actions on GABA(A)-associated chloride channels.

  19. Increased expression of dermatopontin and its implications for testicular dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    CAI, JUN; LIU, WEIJIA; HAO, JIE; CHEN, MAOXIN; LI, GANG

    2016-01-01

    An array of specific and non-specific molecules, which are expressed in the testis, have been demonstrated to be responsible for testicular function. Our previous study revealed that dermatopontin (DPT) is expressed in Sertoli cells of the testis, however, its roles in testicular function remains somewhat elusive. In the present study, CdCl2- and busulfan-induced testicular dysfunction models were used to investigate the implications of DPT expression for testicular function. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DPT were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between testicular damage and the expression of DPT, which suggested that an increase in DPT expression may be a marker for testicular dysfunction. This result was corroborated by the finding that transgenic mice exhibiting Sertoli cell-specific overexpression of DPT exhibited damage to their testicular morphology. Additionally, DPT overexpression in the testis affected the expression levels of claudin-11 and zonula occludens-1, which indicated that DPT may affect testicular function by affecting the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence to suggest that DPT may be indicative of mouse testicular dysfunction, since increased expression may be associated with damage to the BTB. PMID:26861869

  20. Primary testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Filiz; Cagirgan, Seckin; Saydam, Guray; Hekimgil, Mine; Soyer, Nur Akad; Tombuloglu, Murat

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated clinical features, management and survival of 12 patients with primary testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented to our hematology unit between January 1992 and July 2006, retrospectively. The median age of patients was 47 years at presentation (range 29-78 years) and > 80% of them were < 50 years old. In the majority of cases, orchidectomy was performed as diagnostic and first-line therapeutic procedures. Dominant histological subtype was diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Seven patients out of 12 (58%) were Ann Arbor stages I and II, and the remaining five patients (42%) were stages III and IV. All the patients received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and achieved complete remission. The addition of rituximab and central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal combined chemotherapy containing methotrexate, cytarabine and dexametasone were applied to three patients who were recently admitted. The rate of relapse was 8% and progression-free survival (PFS) at 10 years was 88%. Median duration of response was 84 months (range 14-173 months), median 97.5 months of follow-up. All patients are alive and in case remission. Because of the spreading nature and relapse probability at different sites, including central nervous system and contralateral testis, systemic treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with or without prophylaxis for contralateral testis and the central nervous system seems to improve the outcome of primary testicular lymphoma. PMID:18020104

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Kaipia, A; Ryymin, P; Mäkelä, E; Aaltonen, M; Kähärä, V; Kangasniemi, M

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of contrast enhanced (CE)-dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of testicular torsion induced hypoperfusion in an experimental rat model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral testicular torsion of 360 or 720 degrees. After 1 h, the tail veins of the anaesthetized rats were cannulated and T2 -, diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted CE-dynamic MRI were subsequently performed by a 1.5 T MRI scanner. On apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images, the region of interest values of the ischaemic and control testes was compared. From CE-dynamic MR images, the maximal slopes of contrast enhancement were calculated and compared. In testicular torsion of 360 degrees, the maximal slope of contrast enhancement was 0.072%/s vs. 0.47%/s in the contralateral control testis (p < 0.001). A torsion of 720 degrees diminished the slope of contrast enhancement to 0.046%/s vs. 0.37%/s in the contralateral testis (p < 0.001). Diminished blood flow during torsion also followed in decreased ADC values in both 360 degrees (12.4% decrease; p < 0.05) and 720 degrees (10.8% decrease; p < 0.001) of torsion. Torsion of the testis causes ipsilateral hypoperfusion and decreased gadolinium uptake in a rat model that can be easily detected and quantified by CE-dynamic MRI. In diffusion-weighted MRI images, acute hypoperfusion results in a slight decrease of ADC values. Our results suggest that CE-dynamic MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to detect compromised blood flow due to acute testicular torsion.

  2. Microbial-enhanced lindane removal by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in doped soil-applications in phytoremediation and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Salam, Jaseetha Abdul; Hatha, Mohammed A A; Das, Nilanjana

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lindane-degrading yeast on the growth and lindane uptake by Saccharum sp., in doped garden soils. The rhizosphere of Saccharum plant was amended with yeast Candida VITJzN04 by root-inoculation. The bio-augment yeast was applied in two different forms viz., planktonic form and cells immobilized on sugarcane-bagasse, in the pot experiments. Garden soils (lindane∼100 mg/kg) exposed to various treatments were monitored for a period of 30 days, for residual lindane by gas-chromatography analysis. The lindane-removal rates in soil were expressed in terms of half-life period and were recorded as 13.3 days (yeast), 43.3 days (Saccharum), 9.8 days (free yeast-plant) and 7.1 days (immobilized yeast-plant). Additionally, Candida sp., was also identified as a plant growth promoting yeast due to its ability to produce growth hormone and solubilize insoluble phosphates in the soil for better uptake by the plant species. Bio-stimulation of the soil with yeast immobilized on sugarcane bagasse further enhanced the total yeast activity in the soil which in turn had a positive influence on lindane-removal. Combined treatment with bagasse immobilized yeast and plant showed the best lindane degradation. Results suggested that the synergistic activity of plant and yeast resulted in fast and efficient degradation of lindane. Thus, it can be concluded that Saccharum plant in combination with Candida VITJzN04 is an effective alternative for the conventional remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants that affect various tissues and organs including testis. Harmful effect of cadmium on testis is known to be germ cell degeneration and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. In the present study, the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a sulfur-containing volatile compound present in garlic, and zinc (Zn) was investigated on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Male adult Wistar rats treated with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg body wt, five times a week for 4 weeks) showed decreased body weight, paired testicular weight, relative testicular weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein levels. Testicular steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and marker enzymes, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), showed a significant decrease in activities whereas that of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly increased after cadmium exposure. The results have revealed that concurrent treatment with DAS or zinc restored key steroidogenic enzymes, SDH, LDH, and G6PD and increased testicular weight significantly. DAS restored the TAC level and increased testosterone level and relative testicular weight significantly. Zinc restored testicular protein level and body weight. It can be concluded that cadmium causes testicular toxicity and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins and that concurrent administration of DAS or zinc provides protection against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity.

  4. Variation in testicular histology of the spiny tailed lizard Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis during hibernation and active periods.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2008-06-15

    The testicular histology of the lizard, Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis were varied considerably during hibernation and activity periods, reaching maximum values in summer. The onset of winter induces testicular regression, reduced testis size, testis diameter, diameter and epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules and epididymal epithelial height. Animals exhibit testicular recrudescence during late winter (February and March) and maximum testicular volume occurred during June. The period of maximal testicular volume was positively correlated with increasing ambient temperature. The summer season induces the testicular activity in contrast with the winter season in which the activity decreased and the testes were collapsed. Spermatocytogenesis is active in early spring and the major portion of the seminiferous epithelium comprises spermatids in various stages of maturation and their luminae were filled with spermatozoa. The size of the interstitial cells is direct correlated with changes occurring in epididymis and seminiferous epithelium. Most interstitial cell nuclei show clear regression when spermatocytogenesis were diminishes.

  5. Protective effects of vitamin E on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity, testicular measurements and histopathological studies of testes in Teddy goat bucks.

    PubMed

    Zubair, M; Ahmad, M; Saleemi, M K; Gul, S T; Ahmad, N; Umar, S

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of arsenic on testicular measurements and histology of adult Teddy goats bucks and to examine whether these toxic effects are scavenged by vitamin E. Twelve adult Teddy goat bucks were divided randomly into three groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, the B was given sodium arsenite 5 mg/kg BW per day, and group C was fed with vitamin E 200 mg/kg BW per day + arsenic 5 mg/kg BW per day. This treatment was continued for 84 days. Analysis of data revealed that the testicular measurements (scrotal circumference, width, length and weight) were significantly reduced in arsenic-treated animals, whereas there were ameliorating effects of vitamin E on these parameters. The major histopathological changes were present in the form of loss of germinal epithelium, atrophy of Leydig cells and vacuolations. Vitamin E in combination with sodium arsenite increased the active spermatogenesis as well as restoration of germinal epithelium. It can be concluded from the present findings that sodium arsenite causes toxicity in the male reproductive system of Teddy goat bucks with major changes in parenchyma of testes. Supplementation of vitamin E has protective effects on the toxicity of sodium arsenite on the reproductive system of male Teddy goat bucks. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Sequential depletion of rat testicular lipids with long-chain and very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids after X-ray-induced interruption of spermatogenesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Oresti, Gerardo M.; Ayuza Aresti, Pablo L.; Gigola, Graciela; Reyes, Luis E.; Aveldaño, Marta I.

    2010-01-01

    When a single dose of X-rays is applied to the adult rat testis, stem spermatogonia are damaged, and spermatogenesis is interrupted. Supported by Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells that endure irradiation complete their differentiation and gradually leave the testis as spermatozoa. In this study, the in vivo changes taking place a number of weeks after irradiation revealed cell-specific features of testicular lipid classes. A linear drop, taking about six weeks, in testis weight, nonlipid materials, free cholesterol, and 22:5n-6-rich glycerophospholipids took place with germ cell depletion. Sphingomyelins and ceramides with nonhydroxy very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids (n-VLCPUFA) disappeared in four weeks, together with the last spermatocytes, whereas species with 2-hydroxy VLCPUFA lasted for six weeks, disappearing with the last spermatids and spermatozoa. The amount per testis of 22:5n-6-rich triacylglycerols, unchanged for four weeks, fell between weeks 4 and 6, associating these lipids with spermatids and their residual bodies, detected as small, bright lipid droplets. In contrast, 22:5n-6-rich species of cholesterol esters and large lipid droplets increased in seminiferous tubules up to week 6, revealing they are Sertoli cell products. At week 30, the lipid and fatty acid profiles reflected the resulting permanent testicular involution. Our data highlight the importance of Sertoli cells in maintaining lipid homeostasis during normal spermatogenesis. PMID:20529883

  7. Aquaporin-11 control of testicular fertility markers in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; Urbanski, Henryk F; Woo, Shih-Lung; Fong, Li An; Goddard, Scott D; Lucas, William F; Jones, Edward R; Wu, Chaodong; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-25

    The present study sought novel changes to the hamster testicular transcriptome during modulation of fertility by well-characterized photoperiodic stimuli. Transition from long days (LD, 14 h light/day) to short days (SD, 10h light/day) triggered testicular regression (61% reduction of testis weight, relative to LD) in SD-sensitive (SD-S) hamsters within 16 weeks. After 22 weeks of SD exposure, a third cohort of hamsters became SD-refractory (SD-R), and exhibited testicular recrudescence (137% testis weight gain, relative to SD-S). Partial interrogation of the testicular transcriptome by annealing-control-primer-modified differential display PCR provided several candidates for regulation of testicular functions. Multiple linear regression modeling indicated the best correlation for aquaporin 11 (Aqp11) with changes in testis weight. Correlations were also strongest for Aqp11 with expression levels of reference cDNAs that control spermatogenesis (Hspa2 and Tnp2), steroidogenesis (Cox2, 3βHsd, and Srebp2), sperm motility (Catsper1, Pgk2, and Tnp2), inflammation (Cox2), and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2). Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of testicular Aqp11 mRNA and protein reduced Hspa2 and Tnp2 mRNA levels, and it increased 3βHsd mRNA levels. It also reduced mRNA levels for Sept12, which is a testis-specific inducer of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a central role for testicular Aqp11 signaling in the coordinate regulation of crucial components of fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  9. Micropsia and testicular retractions.

    PubMed

    Myers, W A

    1977-01-01

    Five episodes of micropsia, which were precipitated by oedipal masturbatory fantasies, are described in the analysis of an adult male. Traumatic visual events and testicular retractions during the oedipal and latency years predisposed the ego functions concerned with visual perception to later involvement in conflict. The micropsia itself is seen as defending against castration anxiety by means of a series of unconscious fantasies of denial. These fantasies cause a regression to an earlier mode of visual perception (and to micropsia) characteristic of latency. The defensive modifications of the functions of the ego itself seen in micropsia are closely allied to those seen in the dèjá vu experience and in depersonalization.

  10. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 tumor markers are used in staging testicular cancer : Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Tumor marker levels are measured again, ...

  11. Testicular Cancer Treatments: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alphafetoprotein (AFP), beta-hCG (b-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP and b-hCG are proteins ... Our recommendations are divided by type of testicular cancer, stage, and treatment given. Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma - ...

  12. How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness How to Do a Testicular ... autoexamen testicular Testicular self-exams (TSE) can help you check for things like cancer. Although testicular cancer is rare in teenage guys, ...

  13. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  14. Versatility of Streptomyces sp. M7 to bioremediate soils co-contaminated with Cr(VI) and lindane.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, JuanDaniel; Solá, María Zoleica Simón; Benimeli, Claudia Susana; Amoroso, María Julia; Polti, Marta Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of environmental factors on the bioremediation of Cr(VI) and lindane contaminated soil, by an actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M7, in order to optimize the process. Soil samples were contaminated with 25 µg kg(-1) of lindane and 50 mg kg(-1) of Cr(VI) and inoculated with Streptomyces sp. M7. The lowest inoculum concentration which simultaneously produced highest removal of Cr(VI) and lindane was 1 g kg(-1). The influence of physical and chemical parameters was assessed using a full factorial design. The factors and levels tested were: Temperature: 25, 30, 35°C; Humidity: 10%, 20%, 30%; Initial Cr(VI) concentration: 20, 50, 80 mg kg(-1); Initial lindane concentration: 10, 25, 40 µg kg(-1). Streptomyces sp. M7 exhibited strong versatility, showing the ability to bioremediate co-contaminated soil samples at several physicochemical conditions. Streptomyces sp. M7 inoculum size was optimized. Also, it was fitted a model to study this process, and it was possible to predict the system performance, knowing the initial conditions. Moreover, optimum temperature and humidity conditions for the bioremediation of soil with different concentrations of Cr(VI) and lindane were determined. Lettuce seedlings were a suitable biomarker to evaluate the contaminants mixture toxicity. Streptomyces sp. M7 carried out a successful bioremediation, which was demonstrated through ecotoxicity test with Lactuca sativa.

  15. Neonatal Testicular Torsion; a Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Riaz-Ul-haq, Muhammad; Mahdi, Diaa Eldin Abdelhamid; Elhassan, Elbagir Uthman

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal testicular torsion, also known as perinatal testicular torsion is a subject of debate among surgeons. Neonatal testicular torsion either intrauterine or postnatal results into extravaginal torsion which is a different entity than intravaginal type but has the same devastating consequences if not diagnosed and managed well in time. Testicular torsion results into acute ischemia with its resultant sequelae such as abnormality of testicular function and fertility. Urgent surgical exploration and fixation of the other testis are the key points in the management. General anesthesia is not a contraindication for exploration as thought before. Diagnosis and controversies on management of testicular torsion are discussed in this review. PMID:23400637

  16. Reversibility of the inhibitory effect of atrazine and lindane on cytosol 5. alpha. -dihydrotestosterone receptor complex formation in rat prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Simic, B.; Kniewald, Z.; Kniewald, J. ); Davies, J.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Once entering the bloodstream, most toxic substances, including pesticides, can reach organs involved in the reproductive system. They can cross the placenta, as well as the brain barrier, posing various risks to the reproductive processes. The organochlorine insecticide lindane and the s-triazine herbicide atrazine produce changes in hormone-dependent reactions in the rat hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and prostate. Lindane also causes histological and biochemical alterations in the rat testis. In vivo treatment with atrazine produces a markedly inhibitory influence of 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone - receptor complex formation in rat prostate cytosol. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether such changes in the crucial step in the reproductive process are reversible. A parallel investigation using lindane was also undertaken.

  17. Impairment of spermatogenesis and enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis induced by exogenous all-trans-retinoic acid in adult lizard Podarcis sicula.

    PubMed

    Comitato, Raffaella; Esposito, Teresa; Cerbo, Giovanna; Angelini, Francesco; Varriale, Bruno; Cardone, Anna

    2006-03-01

    In mammals, retinoic acid is involved in the regulation of testicular function by interaction with two families of nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). Among RAR isoforms, the testicular cells of the lizard were found to express only RARalpha (3.7 kb) and RARbeta (3.4 kb) mRNAs, as reported here. In this study, the effects of exogenous all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) on spermatogenesis of a non-mammalian seasonal reproducer were investigated. Daily intraperitoneal injections of atRA or atRA plus testosterone (atRA+T) were given for 2 weeks to adult males of the lizard Podarcis sicula. In animals treated with atRA, the seminiferous tubules were markedly reduced in cross-area. The seminiferous epithelium collapse was responsible for a sensible reduction in the number of germ cells and disruption in normal epithelial organization. In comparison, in atRA+T-treated lizards the loss of germinal cells was significantly less. The loss of germ cells observed in both experimental groups results from an induction of apoptotic process, as revealed by TUNEL analysis. Although low in number, apoptotic germ cells were also observed in the control groups (saline- and T-treated lizard), where the main germ cells undergoing apoptosis are primary spermatocytes (most frequently) and some spermatogonia. In conclusion, it is shown here that retinoic acid has deleterious effects on lizard spermatogenesis, causing a severe depletion of seminiferous epithelium, probably via induction of apoptotic processes. These effects are not completely inhibited by simultaneous administration of testosterone, although this hormone, once injected, is able to stimulate spermatogenesis and protect germinal cells from apoptotic cell death.

  18. 15-Deoxy-delta 12-14-prostaglandin-J2 induces hypertrophy and loss of contractility in human testicular peritubular cells: implications for human male fertility.

    PubMed

    Schell, C; Albrecht, M; Spillner, S; Mayer, C; Kunz, L; Köhn, F M; Schwarzer, U; Mayerhofer, A

    2010-03-01

    The wall of the seminiferous tubules contains contractile smooth-muscle-like peritubular cells, thought to be important for sperm transport. Impaired spermatogenesis in men typically involves remodeling of this wall, and we now found that smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers, namely myosin heavy chain (MYH11) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) are often lost or diminished in peritubular cells of testes of men with impaired spermatogenesis. This suggests reduced contractility of the peritubular wall, which may contribute to sub- or infertility. In these cases, testicular expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) implies formation of prostaglandins (PGs). When screening different PGs for their ability to target human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), only a PG metabolite, 15-deoxy-Delta(12-14)-prostaglandin-J2 (15dPGJ2), was effective. In primary cultures of HTPCs, 15dPGJ2 increased cell size in a reversible manner. Importantly, 15dPGJ2 treatment resulted in a loss of typical differentiation markers for SMCs, namely MYH11, calponin, and SMA, whereas fibroblast markers were unchanged. Collagen gel contraction assays revealed that this loss correlates with a reduced ability to contract. Experiments with an antagonist (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) and agonist (troglitazone) for a cognate 15dPGJ2 receptor (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) indicated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is not directly involved. Rather, the mode of action of 15dPGJ2 involves reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine not only blocked ROS formation but also prevented the increase in cell size and the loss of contractility in HTPCs challenged with 15dPGJ2. We conclude that 15dPGJ2, via reactive oxygen species, influences SMC phenotype and contractility of human peritubular cells and possibly is involved in the development of human male sub-/infertility.

  19. Testicular cancer and antecedent diseases.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, A J; Huttly, S R; Smith, P G

    1987-01-01

    A case-control study of the aetiology of testicular cancer was conducted using information obtained by interview and from case-notes of 259 cases with testicular cancer and two sets of control patients -238 men with diagnoses other than testicular cancer attending the same radiotherapy centres as those attended by the cases, and 251 hospital in-patients not attending radiotherapy departments. Logistic regression analyses were performed, after stratifying by age and region of residence, to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with various aspects of prior medical history. The risk of testicular cancer was found to be raised for men with a history of cryptorchidism (RR based on comparison with all controls = 6.3; P less than 0.001), inguinal hernia (RR = 1.6; P = 0.14), mumps orchitis (RR = 12.7; P = 0.006), atopy (RR = 1.8; P = 0.03), and meningitis (RR = 3.0; P = 0.21). Inguinal herniorrhaphy before the age of 15 years was particularly a risk factor for seminoma, whereas the relative risks were similar for seminoma and teratoma for the other factors. The results add to the growing evidence that congenital abnormalities involving the process of testicular descent and closure of the processus vaginalis are risk factors for testicular cancer, and that some types of testicular damage later in life may also be important. The findings of associations with previous atopy and certain infections suggest a possible second aetiological mechanism - that immunological abnormalities may be associated with an increased risk of testis cancer.

  20. How to Do a Testicular Self Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... of good testicular self exam sites on the internet A good article on several testicular problems, including illustrations Information on a variety of health issues affecting Men Click on this to go back ...

  1. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer diagnosed? ). This is an easy and painless way of finding a tumor. If you choose ... editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing. See all references for Testicular Cancer Last Medical ...

  2. Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Testicular Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Loh, J; Grabstald, H; Golbey, R

    1980-09-01

    An analysis of 125 patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1975 is presented. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 83 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 4 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (21 patients), by orchiopexy (51 patients) or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-two cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) presented with either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), abdominal (14 patients) or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (4 patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 54 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 35, teratocarcinoma in 33 and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The 5-year survival rates were 60 per cent for the corrected cases and 63 per cent for the uncorrected cases according to cryptorchid state, and they were 78 per cent in patients with pure seminoma and 48 per cent in patients with other germinomas according to histologic type. The majority (58 of 73) of 5-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation, in 39 patients with pure seminoma, and/or systemic chemotherapy, in 19 patients with germinal carcinomas, with or without regional lymphadenectomy.

  4. [Epididymal and testicular chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Sibert, L; Safsaf, A; Rigaud, J; Delavierre, D; Labat, J-J

    2010-11-01

    To list clinical and ethiopathogenical elements relevant to the analysis of an epididymal and testicular pain. Review of published articles on the subject in the Medline(®) (PubMed(®)) database, selected according to their scientific relevance. Assessment of a chronic epididymal and testicular pain is mostly clinical and should: (1) eliminate local urological disorder; (2) suggest a neurological problem, based on signs and semiology; (3) suggest injury of nervous truncus according to medical history and scars; (4) detect referred pains, primarily back and thoracolumbar pains. The causal link between epididymal cysts, surgical aftereffect, local infection and chronic epididymal and testicular pain is not established with certainty. Spermatic cord nerve block, as a diagnostic test, should be done before undergoing any invasive procedure. The fundamental notion is being able to distinguish epididymal and testicular pain and scrotal pain, because the testis has an abdominal origin, and therefore a sympathetic instead of sacral innervation. An absence evident somatic or iatrogenous cause should suggest hypersensibility to pain. Assessment of an epididymal and testicular pain requires a global clinical examination, which should take into account every aspect of the pain, including its functional and emotional components. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Testicular torsion: A case report].

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gustavo; Bravo-Hernández, Alberto; Bautista-Cruz, Raúl

    2016-07-13

    The acute scrotum is an emergency. Testicular torsion represents approximately 25% of the causes. The annual incidence of testicular torsion is approximately 1/4,000 persons under 25 years, with highest prevalence between 12 and 18 years old. It usually occurs without apparent cause, but it has been associated with anatomical, traumatic, and environmental factors, among others. A male 15 year-old male, with no history of importance, was seen in the Emergency Department, presenting with a sudden and continuous pain in the left testicle. It was accompanied by a pain that radiated to the abdomen and left inguinal area, with nausea and vomiting of more than 12h onset. Doppler ultrasound showed changes suggestive of testicular torsion. Surgery was performed that showed findings of a necrotic left testicle with rotation of the spermatic cord of 360°. A left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular torsion should always be considered one of the leading causes of acute scrotal pain. Delays in diagnosis should be avoided as this is directly related to the percentage of testicular salvage or loss. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  7. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  8. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  9. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlund, E.J.; Brunborg, G.; Omichinski, J.G.; Holme, J.A.; Dahl, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Dybing, E.

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death.

  10. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  11. The effects of adjuvants on autoimmune responses against testicular antigens in mice.

    PubMed

    Musha, Muhetaerjiang; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of immunologic male infertility and pathologically characterized by lymphocytic inflammation, which causes breakdown of the testicular immune privilege with spermatogenic disturbance. Generally, murine EAO is induced by immunization with testicular homogenate (TH) from the testes of donor mice + complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) + Bordetella pertussigens (BP), and it has been considered that treatment with these two adjuvants is required to enhance the immune response against testicular antigens. However, there remains a possibility that CFA and BP may affect autoimmune responses against the testicular antigens without TH. In the present study, we examined this possibility using real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The results demonstrated that immunization with TH in combination with CFA and BP evoked more severe EAO than that with only TH. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that Fas mRNA expression in TH+CFA+BP-induced EAO was significantly higher than that in TH-induced EAO. Interestingly, IL-6 mRNA expression dramatically increased in TH+CFA+BP-induced EAO; however, no apparent change in IL-6 mRNA expression occurred in TH-induced EAO. It was also noted that treatment with CFA and BP alone augmented autoimmune reactions against some testicular autoantigens. These results indicates that these adjuvants are helpful in evoking severe EAO, and treatment with the adjuvants alone can evoke autoimmune reactions against some testicular autoantigens despite the use of no TH.

  12. A persistent problem with scabies in and outside a nursing home in Amsterdam: indications for resistance to lindane and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    van den Hoek, J A; van de Weerd, J A; Baayen, T D; Molenaar, P M; Sonder, G J; van Ouwerkerk, I M; de Vries, H J

    2008-11-27

    An ongoing outbreak of scabies in and outside a nursing home in Amsterdam is described. Despite standard treatment with lindane and ivermectin, many recurrences were observed which suggested resistance to these drugs. After treatment with 5% permethrine, the patients were finally cured.

  13. Custom human endogenous retroviruses dedicated microarray identifies self-induced HERV-W family elements reactivated in testicular cancer upon methylation control

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Juliette; Montgiraud, Cécile; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Arsac, Maud; Ruel, Karine; Bouton, Olivier; Mallet, François

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are an inherited part of the eukaryotic genomes, and represent ∼400 000 loci in the human genome. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) can be divided into distinct families, composed of phylogenetically related but structurally heterogeneous elements. The majority of HERVs are silent in most physiological contexts, whereas a significant expression is observed in pathological contexts, such as cancers. Owing to their repetitive nature, few of the active HERV elements have been accurately identified. In addition, there are no criteria defining the active promoters among HERV long-terminal repeats (LTRs). Hence, it is difficult to understand the HERV (de)regulation mechanisms and their implication on the physiopathology of the host. We developed a microarray to specifically detect the LTR-containing transcripts from the HERV-H, HERV-E, HERV-W and HERV-K(HML-2) families. HERV transcriptome was analyzed in the placenta and seven normal/tumoral match-pair samples. We identified six HERV-W loci overexpressed in testicular cancer, including a usually placenta-restricted transcript of ERVWE1. For each locus, specific overexpression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and comparison of the activity of U3 versus U5 regions suggested a U3-promoted transcription coupled with 5′R initiation. The analysis of DNA from tumoral versus normal tissue revealed that hypomethylation of U3 promoters in tumors is a prerequisite for their activation. PMID:20053729

  14. Immunohistochemical characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in canine normal testis and testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, M; Kabak, Y B; Gulbahar, M Y; Gacar, A; Karayigit, M O; Guvenc, T; Yarim, M

    2013-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPARs regulate lipid metabolism and are expressed in various cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of PPAR-α, -β and -γ in normal canine testicular tissue and canine testicular tumours (CTTs). Expression of PPAR-α, -β and -γ was greater (P <0.05) than in normal testicular tissue. PPARs were therefore induced in CTTs and they may play a role in the biology of these tumours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound demonstration of testicular microlithiasis in pediatric patients: is there an association with testicular germ cell tumors?

    PubMed

    Volokhina, Yulia V; Oyoyo, Udochukwu E; Miller, John H

    2014-01-01

    There is suggestion that testicular microlithiasis predicts risk of testicular malignancy, especially testicular germ cell tumors. This association remains uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed testicular germ cell tumor occurrence in patients with testicular microlithiasis to assess this association and determined the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in symptomatic boys. This study was IRB and HIPAA compliant. Two-thousand six-hundred twenty-five testicular US exams performed on 2,266 children (younger than 19 years of age) in our institution from 2000 through 2011 were reviewed for presence of testicular microlithiasis and masses. Testicular microlithiasis was defined as presence of five or more testicular microcalcifications on a single US image. Incidence of testicular germ cell tumors was calculated in a group of patients with testicular microlithiasis and in a control group without testicular microlithiasis. Relative risk, odds ratio, 90% and 95%CI were calculated. Eighty-seven patients out of 2,266 had testicular microlithiasis. One child was found to have both testicular germ cell tumor and testicular microlithiasis. In 2,179 children without testicular microlithiasis, 8 had testicular germ cell tumors. Incidence of testicular microlithiasis was 3.8%. Incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in testicular microlithiasis patients was 1.2%, and 0.38% in non-testicular microlithiasis patients. Relative risk of testicular germ cell tumors in testicular microlithiasis patients vs. non-testicular microlithiasis patients was 3.13 (90%CI: 0.55-17.76; 95%CI: 0.40-24.76), odds ratio 3.16 (90%CI: 0.55-18.32; 95%CI: 0.39-25.5). There is no association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular germ cell tumors. We had hoped to do a meta-analysis, but only two studies had a sufficient case control group of non-testicular microlithiasis patients.

  16. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Modelling of lindane transport in groundwater of metropolitan city Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M K; Jain, C K; Rao, G Tamma; Rao, V V S Gurunadha

    2015-05-01

    Migration pattern of organochloro pesticide lindane has been studied in groundwater of metropolitan city Vadodara. Groundwater flow was simulated using the groundwater flow model constructed up to a depth of 60 m considering a three-layer structure with grid size of 40 × 40 × 40 m(3). The general groundwater flow direction is from northeast to south and southwest. The river Vishwamitri and river Jambua form natural hydrologic boundary. The constant head in the north and south end of the study area is taken as another boundary condition in the model. The hydraulic head distribution in the multilayer aquifer has been computed from the visual MODFLOW groundwater flow model. TDS has been computed though MT3D mass transport model starting with a background concentration of 500 mg/l and using a porosity value of 0.3. Simulated TDS values from the model matches well with the observed data. Model MT3D was run for lindane pesticide with a background concentration of 0.5 μg/l. The predictions of the mass transport model for next 50 years indicate that advancement of containment of plume size in the aquifer system both spatially and depth wise as a result of increasing level of pesticide in river Vishwamitri. The restoration of the aquifer system may take a very long time as seen from slow improvement in the groundwater quality from the predicted scenarios, thereby, indicating alarming situation of groundwater quality deterioration in different layers. It is recommended that all the industries operating in the region should install efficient effluent treatment plants to abate the pollution problem.

  19. Effect of unilateral testicular rupture on histopathology and germ cell delayed-type hypersensitivity in C3H/He and A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Naito, Munekazu; Sakamoto, Yasuki; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Ning, Qu; Aota, Yoichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    Contralateral orchitis induced by unilateral testicular injury has been reported as sympathetic orchitis in men and experimental animals. In mice, experimental sympathetic orchitis (ESO) was first demonstrated in the C3H/He strain after experimental testicular trauma. Delayed-typed hypersensitivity (DTH) to testicular germ cells is induced by testicular trauma and treatment with cyclophosphamide before the trauma further enhances anti-testicular germ cell DTH. In the present study we investigated ESO induction with or without cyclophosphamide pretreatment in two murine strains, C3H/He and A/J mice, that are susceptible to testicular autoimmunity. The results show that traumatized testes undergo early degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium followed by neutrophilic inflammation and later fibrosis with little lymphocytic infiltration, in both murine strains. In the contralateral testes, ESO characterized by both lymphocytic inflammation and spermatogenic disturbance was induced in both strains. However, the incidence and severity of ESO in A/J mice tended to be higher than in C3H/He mice. In contrast, cyclophosphamide pretreatment significantly augmented both pathological stages of ESO and anti-testicular germ cell DTH in C3H/He mice, while those in A/J mice were fully developed by testicular rupture alone and were not further augmented by cyclophosphamide pretreatment. We conclude that A/J mice are more sensitive to trauma-induced testicular autoimmunity than C3H/He mice.

  20. Optical monitoring of testicular torsion using a miniaturized near infrared spectroscopy sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Nigro, Mark; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.; Macnab, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Background: Testicular torsion is an acute urological emergency occurring in children and adolescents. Accurate and fast diagnosis is important as the resulting ischemia can destroy the testis. Currently, Doppler ultrasound is the preferred diagnostic method. Ultrasound is not readily available in all centers which may delay surgical treatment. In this study, a rat model was used to examine the feasibility and sensitivity of using spatially-resolved near infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) with a custom-made miniaturized optical sensor probe to detect and study changes in testicular hemodynamics and oxygenation during three degrees of induced testicular torsion, and after detorsion. Methods: Eight anesthetized rats (16 testes) were studied using SR-NIRS with the miniaturized optical probe applied directly onto the surface of the surgically exposed testis during 360, 720 and 1080 degrees of torsion followed by detorsion. Oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and TOI% were studied pre-and post-manipulations. Results: NIRS monitoring reflected acute testicular ischemia and hypoxia on induction of torsion, and tissue reperfusionreoxygenation after detorsion. Testicular torsion at 720 degrees induced the maximum observed degree of hypoxic changes. In all cases, rhythmic changes were observed in the NIRS signals before inducing torsion; these disappeared after applying 360 degrees of torsion and did not reappear after detorsion. Conclusion: This animal study indicates that SR-NIRS monitoring of the testes using a directly applied miniature sensor is a feasible and sensitive method to detect testicular ischemia and hypoxia immediately after torsion occurs, and testicular reperfusion upon detorsion. This study offers the potential for a SR-NIRS system with a miniaturized sensor to be explored further as a rapid, noninvasive, optical method for detecting testicular torsion in children.

  1. What Are the Key Statistics about Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Testicular Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates ... you would like to know more about survival statistics, see Testicular cancer survival rates . Visit the American ...

  2. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Breikaa, Randa M; Mosli, Hisham A; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Timely diagnosis of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Moul, Judd W

    2007-05-01

    Early detection of testicular tumors has been touted as beneficial for more than 100 years. In earlier eras, early detection was virtually the only way to improve outcomes. According to statistics that have been tracked in the literature, however, the delay from initial symptoms to definitive diagnosis by radical orchiectomy has averaged 4 to 5 months. In the modern era of effective chemotherapy, the effects of a delayed diagnosis on survival can be overcome but at the cost of a more morbid treatment regimen. Although screening on a population basis is not currently recommended by the National Cancer Institute, teaching testicular self examination to young men, particularly those who have risk factors, is reasonable.

  4. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    PubMed

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  5. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  6. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  7. Testicular cancer health education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Rosella, J D

    1994-10-01

    Cancer of the testis is the most common malignancy in men between the ages of 15 and 35, yet it is one of the most curable cancers. The optimistic prognosis that results from early detection and treatment of testicular cancer underscores the critical need for teaching testicular self-examination (TSE). However, an integrative review of the health education literature suggests that the men most susceptible are virtually unaware of the symptoms of testicular cancer and how to detect them. Although educational materials have been available, very little intervention research has been published on testicular cancer. The literature to date has focused on the pyschosocial factors associated with the practice of TSE and increasing knowledge of testicular cancer. Although an important beginning step, knowledge of testicular cancer alone as a preventive health behaviour is not sufficient if young men either do not know how to do the examination on their own testicles or do not believe it is important to them. Nurses should incorporate health education for testicular cancer and TSE in the delivery of routine primary health care. Furthermore, future research should aim to (a) increase knowledge through the educational curricula of high schools and colleges by use of video presentations, (b) examine the efficacy of using silicone models to ensure that men can be trained to detect the symptoms of testicular cancer, and (c) study compliance with recommendations to perform TSE.

  8. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  9. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a...

  11. [Isolated testicular tuberculosis: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Rabii, R; Guessous, H; Benjelloun, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, a case has been reported involving a 66-year old male who was admitted for scrotal pain on the right side with possible testicular involvement, but with no associated urinary disorder. At physical examination, the right testicle was found to have increased in volume: this was further confirmed by ultrasonography, but the findings were insufficient to exclude the hypothesis of testicular cancer. An exploratory orchidectomy by upper inguinal route was therefore carried out, and histopathological examination showed the destruction of testicular tissue by several granulomas, and caseous necrosis with giant cells. Antibacterial chemotherapy was administered after an i.v. urography found no evidence of abnormality or urinary disorder, thereby eliminating an active site of genitourinary tuberculosis. This case shows the importance of considering testicular tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of testicular enlargement in a region where this disease is endemic, despite the absence of systemic pulmonary and urinary signs of tuberculosis.

  12. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS ASSOCIATED WITH TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN THE RAT: A ROLE FOR ESTRADIOL?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research has been devoted to studying phthalate-induced alterations in male reproductive development. In fact, studies in rodents have served to support the notion that a syndrome exists in the human male which captures phenotypic alterations such as hypo...

  13. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS ASSOCIATED WITH TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN THE RAT: A ROLE FOR ESTRADIOL?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research has been devoted to studying phthalate-induced alterations in male reproductive development. In fact, studies in rodents have served to support the notion that a syndrome exists in the human male which captures phenotypic alterations such as hypo...

  14. Blood perfusion of the contralateral testis evaluated with contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rabbits with unilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhan, Wei-Wei; Shen, Zhou-Jun; Rui, Wen-Bin; Lv, Chen; Chen, Man; Zhou, Jian-Qiao; Zhou, Ping; Zhou, Mi; Zhu, Ying

    2009-03-01

    The changes of blood perfusion of contralateral testis after unilateral testicular torsion remain controversial. In this study, 28 New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Group A (n = 8), the control group, underwent a sham operation on the unilateral testis without inducing testicular torsion. In groups B, C, and D (n = 5 each), unilateral testicular torsion was induced, and, after 3, 6 or 24 h, respectively, detorsion was performed. In group E (n = 5), permanent unilateral testicular torsion was applied. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was used to observe the blood perfusion of the contralateral testis at the following stages: pre-torsion (preopration), immediately post-torsion (postopration), pre-detorsion, immediately post-detorsion, and late-stage post-detorsion (6-12 h post-detorsion in groups B-D) or at a similar time point (15-21 h post-torsion in group E). Time-intensity curves were generated, and the following parameters were derived and analyzed: arrival time, time to peak intensity, peak intensity, and half-time of the descending peak intensity. The analysis revealed that blood perfusion of the contralateral testis increased immediately after testicular torsion on the opposite side (P < 0.05), which increased with prolonged testicular torsion of the other testis. This research demonstrated that contrast-enhanced ultrasound was valuable in evaluating blood perfusion of the contralateral testis after unilateral testicular torsion.

  15. Pectinase-treated Panax ginseng ameliorates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in GC-2 sperm cells and modulates testicular gene expression in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Kopalli, Spandana Rajendra; Cha, Kyu-Min; Jeong, Min-Sik; Lee, Sang-Ho; Sung, Jong-Hwan; Seo, Seok-Kyo; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of pectinase-treated Panax ginseng (GINST) in cellular and male subfertility animal models. Methods Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced mouse spermatocyte GC-2spd cells were used as an in vitro model. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. For the in vivo study, GINST (200 mg/kg) mixed with a regular pellet diet was administered orally for 4 mo, and the changes in the mRNA and protein expression level of antioxidative and spermatogenic genes in young and aged control rats were compared using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Results GINST treatment (50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the H2O2-induced (200 μM) cytotoxicity in GC-2spd cells. Furthermore, GINST (50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated the H2O2-induced decrease in the expression level of antioxidant enzymes (peroxiredoxin 3 and 4, glutathione S-transferase m5, and glutathione peroxidase 4), spermatogenesis-related protein such as inhibin-α, and specific sex hormone receptors (androgen receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor) in GC-2spd cells. Similarly, the altered expression level of the above mentioned genes and of spermatogenesis-related nectin-2 and cAMP response element-binding protein in aged rat testes was ameliorated with GINST (200 mg/kg) treatment. Taken together, GINST attenuated H2O2-induced oxidative stress in GC-2 cells and modulated the expression of antioxidant-related genes and of spermatogenic-related proteins and sex hormone receptors in aged rats. Conclusion GINST may be a potential natural agent for the protection against or treatment of oxidative stress-induced male subfertility and aging-induced male subfertility. PMID:27158240

  16. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients.

  17. Testicular apoptosis is down-regulated during spontaneous recrudescence in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Young, K A; Zirkin, B R; Nelson, R J

    2001-10-01

    Among individuals of many nontropical species, seasonal breeding is timed by tracking changes in the daily photoperiod. Transfer of rodents to short (< 12 h of light/day) day lengths for 6 to 14 weeks can induce regression of the testes mediated by apoptosis. After 16 to 20 weeks of short day exposure, reproductive function is "spontaneously" initiated, and testicular recrudescence is observed. The gonadal mechanisms that underlie testicular recrudescence are not fully understood. If the onset of testicular regrowth that occurs during spontaneous recrudescence reflects a down-regulation of apoptotic signals, then a decline in apoptosis should be noted concurrent with increased testis mass. This experiment sought to assess the role of apoptosis in the restoration of reproductive capacity to photoperiod-inhibited white-footed mice. Males were assigned to long (16:8 LD) or short (8:16 LD) photoperiods for 0, 14, 18, 22, 26, or 30 weeks. At each of these time points, testis mass and testosterone concentrations were assessed. In addition, apoptotic activity was measured using both in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dNTP end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA laddering. Short photoperiod exposure induced maximal decreases in testicular parameters after 14 weeks (p < 0.05). After 26 weeks of short days, testis mass was no longer different between males housed in long days and those housed in short days. In contrast, the high incidence of apoptotic TUNEL labeling and DNA laddering observed at 14 weeks was reduced to long day values after 22 weeks of short day exposure. Together, our results establish that a decrease in testicular apoptosis coincides with testicular recrudescence in white-footed mice. The current study demonstrates a decline in the incidence of testicular cell death concomitant with changes in testis mass or length, elucidating a timeline of changes at the cellular level related to the onset of recrudescence.

  18. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  19. Testicular conditions in athletes: torsion, tumors, and epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Sandella, Bradley; Hartmann, Brett; Berkson, David; Hong, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Individuals involved in sports are at risk for sustaining various injuries. In addition to musculoskeletal complaints, male athletes are at risk of incurring testicular injuries. These issues can range from an acute emergency such as testicular torsion to indolent testicular tumors. In contrast, epididymitis can present in stages. Presentation and management of testicular complaints can vary depending on the condition. Physicians who provide medical care to athletes need to be competent in diagnosing and managing testicular injuries.

  20. Gridded usage inventories of technical hexachlorocyclohexane and lindane for China with 1/6 degrees latitude by 1/4 degrees longitude resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Y F; Cai, D J; Shan, Z J; Zhu, Z L

    2001-10-01

    China banned the use of technical HCH (BHC: 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane) in 1983; lindane has been used in this country since 1991. The total production was around 4 million t for technical HCH from 1952 to 1984, and 11,400 t for lindane between 1991 and 2000. Though the total produced technical HCH was considered to be used in China, only 3,200 t of lindane were used between 1991 and 2000 with the rest for export or on unused stack. Annual usage of these two compounds was located into each province first and then broken for different crops. Inventories of gridded usage of both technical HCH and lindane with 1/6 degrees by 1/4 degrees latitude/longitude resolution have been created by different gridded cropland data sets as surrogate data. The intensive use of technical HCH on croplands was concentrated in the southeastern part of China, but the use of lindane was concentrated in the northern part of China.

  1. [Verification of testicular cancer guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Norio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease that affects 1-2 in 100,000 people in Japan ; however, it is a very significant disease in that it has a high prevalence amongst young adults aged in their 20s and 30s and it brings about metastasis from a relatively early stage. The 2009 edition of the Testicular Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines sets out a detailed summary of 32 clinical questions (CQ) considered necessary in routine clinical practice across the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, etc, in the form of recommendations and commentary. These CQs are considered extremely important in understanding the foundation of future testicular cancer treatment guidelines. In this symposium, five doctors gave lectures consisting of the following contents in which they validated the guidelines and gave concrete clinical practice examples through cases they had experienced themselves with regards to the treatment strategies for (1) stage I patients, (2) patients with advanced cancer and (3) patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (1) Stage I patients : In seminoma cases, the doctors focused on the relapse prevention effect provided by single-agent carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. In non-seminoma cases, treatment options were considered according to risk based on the presence or absence of vascular invasion, a prognostic factor. (2) Patients with advanced cancer : 30% of testicular cancers are metastatic and progress to advanced cancer. In refractory cases resistant to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, etoposide ifosfamide, and cisplatin therapy and vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin therapy have been used, but without satisfactory results and the development of new salvage chemotherapy is an important issue. The therapeutic strategies against advanced testicular cancer were narrowed down to (2) -1) therapeutic effects from ultra-high-dose chemotherapy, (2) -2) salvage chemotherapy in cases where residual tumors are observed in induction

  2. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak K; Roy, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum), the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or) drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  3. Causes, effects and molecular mechanisms of testicular heat stress.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    The process of spermatogenesis is temperature-dependent and occurs optimally at temperatures slightly lower than that of the body. Adequate thermoregulation is imperative to maintain testicular temperatures at levels lower than that of the body core. Raised testicular temperature has a detrimental effect on mammalian spermatogenesis and the resultant spermatozoa. Therefore, thermoregulatory failure leading to heat stress can compromise sperm quality and increase the risk of infertility. In this paper, several different types of external and internal factors that may contribute towards testicular heat stress are reviewed. The effects of heat stress on the process of spermatogenesis, the resultant epididymal spermatozoa and on germ cells, and the consequent changes in the testis are elaborated upon. We also discuss the molecular response of germ cells to heat exposure and the possible mechanisms involved in heat-induced germ cell damage, including apoptosis, DNA damage and autophagy. Further, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that are involved in the intricate mechanism of germ cell apoptosis are explained. Ultimately, these complex mechanisms of apoptosis lead to germ cell death. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CPU86017-RS attenuate hypoxia-induced testicular dysfunction in mice by normalizing androgen biosynthesis genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-lin; Yu, Feng; Dai, De-zai; Cheng, Yu-si; Zhang, Can; Dai, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Downregulation of androgen biosynthesis genes StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) and 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) contributes to low testosterone levels in hypoxic mice and is possibly related to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the testis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of CPU86017-RS that block Ca2+ influx on hypoxia-induced testis insult in mice. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into 5 groups: control group, hypoxia group, hypoxia group treated with nifedipine (10 mg/kg), hypoxia groups treated with CPU86017-RS (60 or 80 mg/kg). Hypoxia was induced by placing the mice in a chamber under 10%±0.5% O2 for 28 d (8 h per day). The mice were orally administered with drug in the last 14 d. At the end of experiment the testes of the mice were harvested. The mRNA and protein levels of StAR, 3β-HSD, connexin 43 (Cx43), matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9), endothelin receptor A (ETAR) and leptin receptor (OBRb) were analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) levels were measured using biochemical kits. Serum testosterone concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay. Results: Hypoxia significantly increased the MDA level, and decreased the LDH, ACP and SDH activities in testes. Meanwhile, hypoxia induced significant downregulation of StAR and 3β-HSD in testes responsible for reduced testosterone biosynthesis. It decreased the expression of Cx43, and increased the expression of MMP9, ETAR and OBRb, leading to abnormal testis function and structure. These changes were effectively diminished by CPU86017-RS (80 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg). Conclusion: Low plasma testosterone level caused by hypoxia was due to downregulation of StAR and 3β-HSD genes, in association with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These changes can be alleviated by CPU86017-RS or

  5. Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Alterations in Testicular Tissue and Sperm Quality in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Ebrahim; Golkar, Alireza; Roshanaei, Kambiz; Alani, Behrang

    2017-10-01

    Reproductive toxicity is a major challenge associated with aluminum (Al) exposure. No studies have evaluated the possible effects of curcumin (CUR) on Al-induced reproductive dysfunction. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of CUR treatment on Al-induced reproductive damage. In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were allocated to the five groups (n=8) based on the treatment they received: no treatment (control), solvent [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or distilled water], CUR 10 mg/kg body weight (BW), Al chloride 10 mg/kg BW, and CUR+Al chloride (10 mg/kg BW/each alone). Treatments were performed by intraperitoneal (IP) injections for 28 days. The left testis was assessed for histopathological analysis as well as the incidence of germ cell apoptosis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's test was used. P<0.05 was considered significant. Significant reductions in body and testis weight; plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels; sperm count, motility, morphology, and viability; germinal epithelium thickness; seminiferous tubules diameter; as well as, superoxide dismutase activity were observed in rats treated with Al. Moreover, Al exposure caused significant increments in the lumen diameter of tubules, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels compared to the control group. However, in rats receiving CUR+Al, CUR significantly reversed the adverse effects of Al on testis and sperm quality. No significant differences in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and nuclear diameter of spermatogonia were detected among all groups. It can be concluded that Al causes reproductive dysfunction by creating oxidative damage. CUR, on the other hand, reduces the toxic effects of Al and improves the antioxidant status and sperm quality in male rats.

  6. Tessaracoccus flavus sp. nov., isolated from the drainage system of a lindane-producing factory.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Schumann, Peter; Lal, Rup

    2016-04-01

    Strain RP1T, a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccus-shaped bacterium, was isolated from drainage of India Pesticides Limited, a lindane-producing unit situated at Chinhat, Lucknow, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain RP1T belongs to the family Propionibacteriaceae and was closely related to the members of the genus Tessaracoccus with a similarity range of 95.4-97.6%. Strain RP1T was facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and capable of nitrate reduction. Strain RP1T contained peptidoglycan type A3γ', with ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and glycine at position 1 of the peptide subunit. The major cellular fatty acid of strain RP1T was anteiso-C15 : 0 but a significant amount of iso-C14:0 was also detected. MK-9(H4) was the major respiratory quinone and polyamines detected were spermine and spermidine. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 66.7 mol%. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between RP1T and Tessaracoccus lubricantis KSS-17SeT, Tessaracoccus oleiagri SL014B-20A1T and Tessaracoccus flavescens SST-39T were 49.8, 34.8 and 23.5%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data presented, strain RP1T can be differentiated from previously described species of the genus Tessaracoccus, and thus represents a novel species, for which the name Tessaracoccus flavus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RP1T (=DSM 100159T=MCC 2769T=KCTC 39686T).

  7. Effects of heptachlor- and lindane-treated seed on Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Lenhart, D.J.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    A study of Canada geese (B. canadensis) was conducted in the Pacific Northwest from 1978 through 1981. Lowered reproductive success, mortality of adults, and a population decline of resident western Canada geese (B. c. moffitti) at the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla NWR) Oregon and Washington [USA] were associated with the use of heptachlor-treated wheat. Analyses of eggs and tissues from dead geese provided strong evidence that heptachlor was responsible for the mortality and decreased production. Residues of heptachlor epoxide (HE) in brains of B. c. moffitti found dead in 1978 and 1979 equalled or exceeded the lethal hazard zone of 8-9 .mu.g/g in experimental passerine birds; HE residues of > 10 .mu.g/g in sample eggs were associated with low nest success. The breeding population of Canada geese at Umatilla decreased from 129 pairs in 1974 to about 100 pairs in 1979. The heptachlor problem was restricted to the Umatilla area; HE residues were low in tissues and eggs collected at other sites in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. In Sept., 1979, the use of heptachlor-treated seed was banned in a 1700-km2 area that encompassed both sides of the Columbia River near Umatilla. Lindane was substituted for heptachlor in the restricted area in 1979, and its use was extended to much of the Columbia Basin in 1981. Concurrently, reproductive success of geese increased, mortality decreased, and the nesting population increased to 170 pairs by 1983. There was no evidence for either biomagnification of lindance residues from treated seed to goose tissues or eggs or for induction of adverse effects by this compound.

  8. [Exposure to lindane, other pesticides and organochlorines in the general population Barakaldo, Spain].

    PubMed

    Aurrekoetxea Agirre, Juan J; Zubero, M Begoña; Jiménez García, Cristina; Goñi Irigoyen, Fernando; Cambra Contín, Koldo; Alonso Fustel, Eva; Cadiñanos Díaz-Tejeiro, M Concepción

    2011-01-01

    A plant of lindane in Barakaldo produced discharges of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Closed in 1987 leaving inside 4500Tm; the problem was not solved until 2002. A judicial process required an epidemiological assessment of the possible contamination The aim of this study is to measure the degree of impregnation of the POPs in the nearby population. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, 154 volunteers from three health centres in Barakaldo and 270 controls from Bilbao, Alonsotegi and Balmaseda. We measured serum levels of eight organochlorine pesticides, and seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We used the χ² test to study the association between categorical variables and t test of Student to compare geometric means. Confounding factors were adjusted using a linear regression model. There was a detectable compound average of 6.3 per person. PCBs 52 and 101, α -HCH, β-endosulfan and heptachlor epoxide could not be quantified; PCB 28, γ-HCH and p, p'-DDT were detected in 6.6, 0.9 and 8.05 % of subjects respectively and the β-HCH, HCB, p, p'-DDE, and PCBs 118, 138, 153 and 180 in the 73.8, 87.3, 98.6, 59.2, 97.6, 98.6 y 98.6 % respectively. After adjusting for age, there were no higher levels of β-HCH in Barakaldo than in controls, (beta = 0.02, SE = 0.07), or HCB, p, p'-DDE, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. Six years after having solved the problem near to the factory and storage of HCH, there was no significantly higher levels of HCH, after adjustment for age.

  9. Scrotal/testicular thermoregulation and the effects of increased testicular temperature in the bull.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, J P; Cook, R B; Coulter, G H

    1997-07-01

    Scrotal/testicular thermoregulation is a complex process controlled by numerous local mechanisms that attempt to maintain the testes at conditions ideal for spermatogenesis. This article provides a background of the anatomy and physiology of the bovine scrotum and its contents with emphasis on thermoregulation. Experiments are cited that demonstrate scrotal/testicular thermoregulation mechanisms and the effect that changes in ambient temperature have on internal testicular temperature and subsequent seminal quality.

  10. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    PubMed

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  11. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S; Paltiel, Harriet J; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  12. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  13. Testicular thermoregulation in Bos indicus, crossbred and Bos taurus bulls: relationship with scrotal, testicular vascular cone and testicular morphology, and effects on semen quality and sperm production.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Silva, Antonio E D F; Barbosa, Rogerio T; Kastelic, John P

    2004-01-15

    Mechanisms of testicular thermoregulation, the relationship of scrotal, testicular vascular cone (TVC), and testicular morphology with thermoregulatory capability, and their effects on semen quality and sperm production were studied in 20 Bos indicus, 28 crossbred, and 26 Bos taurus bulls. The ratio of testicular artery length and volume to testicular volume were larger (P<0.05) in B. indicus and crossbred bulls than in B. taurus bulls (1.03 and 0.94 cm/cm3 versus 0.48 cm/cm3; 0.034 and 0.047 ml/cm3 versus 0.017 ml/cm3, respectively). Testicular artery wall thickness (average 192.5, 229.0, and 290.0 microm, respectively) and arterial-venous blood distance in the TVC (average 330.5, 373.7, and 609.4 microm, respectively) were smallest in B. indicus, intermediary in crossbred, and greatest in B. taurus bulls (P<0.05); the proximity between arterial and venous blood was consistent with the estimated decrease in arterial blood temperature after passage through the TVC (5.9, 5.0, and 2.9 degrees C, in B. indicus, crossbred, and B. taurus bulls, respectively). In crossbred and B. taurus bulls, there was a positive top-to-bottom scrotal temperature gradient and a negative testicular subtunic temperature gradient. However, in B. indicus bulls, both scrotal and testicular subtunic temperatures gradients were positive. Differences in the vascular arrangement, characteristics of the artery (e.g. wall thickness) or thickness of the tunica albuginea may have affected the testicular arterial blood and subtunic temperatures in B. indicus bulls. Better testicular thermoregulatory capability was associated with increased scrotal shape (pendulosity), testicular artery length and volume, and top-to-bottom gradient of the distance between the artery wall and the veins in the TVC. Increased semen quality was associated with increased testicular volume and scrotal subcutaneous (SQT) temperature gradient, and with decreased scrotal surface and testicular temperatures. Increased sperm

  14. In Utero Exposure to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Induces Testicular Effects in Neonatal Rats That Are Antagonized by Genistein Cotreatment1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Steven; Boisvert, Annie; Francois, Sade; Zhang, Liandong; Culty, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) is believed to predispose males to reproductive abnormalities. Although males are exposed to combinations of chemicals, few studies have evaluated the effects of ED mixtures at environmentally relevant doses. Our previous work showed that fetal exposure to a mixture of the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) and the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced unique alterations in adult testis. In this follow-up study, we examined Postnatal Day 3 (PND3) and PND6 male offspring exposed from Gestational Day 14 to parturition to corn oil, 10mg/kg GEN, DEHP, or their combination, to gain insight into the early molecular events driving long-term alterations. DEHP stimulated the mRNA and protein expression of the steroidogenic enzyme HSD3B, uniquely at PND3. DEHP also increased the mRNA expression of Nestin, a Leydig progenitor/Sertoli cell marker, and markers of Sertoli cell (Wt1), gonocyte (Plzf, Foxo1), and proliferation (Pcna) at PND3, while these genes were unchanged by the mixture. Redox (Nqo1, Sod2, Sod3, Trx, Gst, Cat) and xenobiotic transporter (Abcb1b, Abcg2) gene expression was also increased by DEHP at PND3, while attenuated when combined with GEN, suggesting the involvement of cellular stress in short-term DEHP effects and a protective effect of GEN. The direct effects of GEN and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, the principal bioactive metabolite of DEHP, on testis were investigated in PND3 organ cultures, showing a stimulatory effect of 10 μM mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on basal testosterone production that was normalized by GEN. These effects contrasted with previous reports of androgen suppression and decreased gene expression in perinatal rat testis by high DEHP doses, implying that neonatal effects are not predictive of adult effects. We propose that GEN, through an antioxidant action, normalizes reactive oxygen species-induced neonatal effects of DEHP. The notion that these EDs do not follow classical

  15. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    PubMed

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group.

  16. Effects of a mixture of two insecticides in freshwater microcosms: I. Fate of chlorpyrifos and lindane and responses of macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cuppen, Jan G M; Crum, Steven J H; Van den Heuvel, Harry H; Smidt, Rob A; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2002-06-01

    Effects of chronic application of a mixture of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and lindane were studied in indoor freshwater microcosms. The exposure concentrations (based on 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 times the LC50 of the most sensitive standard test organism for each compound) were kept at a constant level for four weeks. The calculated mean concentrations for chlorpyrifos were found to be almost at their corresponding nominal level during the treatment period. The mean calculated lindane concentrations, however, were found to be 15-40% higher than intended. In the post treatment period both insecticides dissipated fast (t 1/2: chlorpyrifos 9 days, lindane 22 days) from the water phase. The concentrations of the mixture at the highest treatment level corresponded to 0.53 toxic units (TU) for Daphnia magna and 0.61 TU for the most sensitive fish. The decomposition of Populus leaves in litter bags was significantly lower at the three highest insecticide concentrations. The macroinvertebrate community was seriously affected at the three highest treatment levels, with Crustacea and the Chironomidae Corynoneura proving to be the most sensitive groups. Gastropoda and Oligochaeta were relatively insensitive and some taxa (e.g. Valvata piscinalis, juvenile Physa fontinalis, Nemertea and Stylaria lacustris) increased in numbers. The observed effects could be explained from the individual toxicity of the insecticides to the invertebrates, and did not indicate synergistic effects. A second paper (Van den Brink et al., 2002) addresses the effects on other endpoints, as well as the overall risk assessment of the insecticide mixture.

  17. Testicular development and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in the male tammar, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P; Fletcher, T P; Renfree, M B

    1990-03-01

    Testicular growth and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis were assessed in male tammars from 12 to 25 months of age to establish the time of sexual maturity. The testicular dimensions and body weights of 20 male tammars, approximately 12 months of age at the beginning of the study, were measured monthly for 1 year. Groups of 3 animals were castrated at 13, 19 and 25 months of age and their testes sectioned for histological examination. Testicular volume increased between 12 and 24 months of age and was highly correlated with body weight (r = 0.91). In the 13-month group the seminiferous tubules were closed with few mitotic figures. Spermatogenesis had begun in 2 of the 19-month animals. All stages of spermatogenesis were present in the other 19-month male, and in all of the 25-month males. Basal FSH concentrations increased with the age of the animal (21.0 +/- 32.48, 94.40 +/- 55.18 and 193.05 +/- 40.21 ng/ml (mean +/- s.d.) at 19, 20 and 25 months respectively) while basal LH concentrations were similar at 20 months and 25 months (0.43 +/- 0.18 and 0.58 +/- 0.25 ng/ml respectively). Basal testosterone concentrations were also similar 0.11 +/- 0.04, 0.35 +/- 0.16 and 0.22 +/- 0.10 ng/ml in 13-, 19- and 25-month-old animals. LHRH injection in tammars at 13, 19 and 25 months of age induced release of both LH and testosterone 10-30 min after injection. The hormone concentrations increased in both magnitude and duration with increasing age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Possible modulation of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid induced prolactin release by testicular steroids in the adult male rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Rizvi, S.S.R.; Jahan, S.; Zaidi, P.; Shahab, M. )

    1991-01-01

    N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), an agonist of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to acutely stimulate the release of prolactin (PRL) in intact rats and monkeys. To further investigate the role of neuroexcitatory amino acids in PRL secretion, the effects of NMA administration were examined on PRL release in long term orchidectomized adult rhesus monkeys, in both the absence and presence of testosterone. Intact and long term castrated adult male monkeys weighing between 8-13 kg, were implanted with a catheter via the saphenous vein for blood withdrawal and drug infusion. Blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals for 50 min before and 70 min after administration of the drug or vehicle. Plasma PRL concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Whereas a single iv injection of NMA induced a prompt discharge of PRL in intact monkeys, an identical dose had surprisingly no effect on PRL secretion in orchidectomized animals. On the other hand, plasma PRL increases in response to a challenge dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone were similar in magnitude in the two groups of monkeys. Testosterone replacement in orchidectomized animals by parenteral administration of testosterone enanthate reinitiated the PRL responsiveness to acute NMA stimulation. These results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) dependent drive to PRL release in the adult male rhesus monkey may be overtly influenced by the sex steroid milieu.

  19. The response of soil organism communities to the application of the insecticide lindane in terrestrial model ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Scholz-Starke, B; Beylich, A; Moser, T; Nikolakis, A; Rumpler, N; Schäffer, A; Theißen, B; Toschki, A; Roß-Nickoll, M

    2013-03-01

    The EU plant protection regulation 1107/2009/EC defines the requirements for active ingredients to be approved, specifically including the assessment of effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. According to that, semi-field methods are expected to be more important in the near future. Therefore, a higher-tier experiment suitable to assess the risk for soil organisms was conducted to further develop the TME (terrestrial model ecosystems) methodology in a dose-response design with the persistent insecticidal model compound lindane (gamma-HCH). The effects of lindane on soil communities such as collembolans, oribatid mites, nematodes, soil fungi and plant biomass were determined in 42 TME. Intact TME-soil cores (diameter 300 mm, height 400 mm) from undisturbed grassland were stored outdoor under natural climatic conditions. Lindane was applied in five concentrations between 0.032 mg active ingredients (ai)/kg dry soil and 3.2 mg ai/kg dry weight soil, six-fold replicated each. Twelve TME served as untreated controls. Abundance and community structures of oribatids, collembolans, enchytraeids, nematodes and fungi were recorded. Oribatid mites' community responded 3 months after treatment, although they were not significantly affected by the overall treatment regimen. Collembolans in total and species-specific abundance as well as the community endpoints (principal response curves, diversity measures) were adversely affected by moderate dosages of lindane. Effects were transient between 3 and 5 months after treatment with a recovery within 1 year. No significant effects could be detected for enchytraeids, nematodes and fungi. The study design and the obtained results allow for calculations of no observed effect concentrations below the highest treatment level for populations and for soil communities as defined entities, as well as effective concentrations. The paper discusses the limits of effect detection in the light of achievable coefficients of variation and by means

  20. Comparative effects of disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate against testicular toxicity in rats caused by acute exposure to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Hiroshige; Funakoshi, Takayuki; Shimada, Hideaki; Kojima, Shoji

    1997-03-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DED) were compared for their protective effects against the testicular toxicity induced by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd) in rats. Rats were injected subcutaneously with CdCl{sub 2} [26.7 {mu}mol (3 mg) Cd/kg], and 30 min later they were injected intraperitoneally with DSF (0.05-0.5 mmol/kg) or DED (0.1-1 mmol/kg). The treatment with DSF at dose levels of 0.1-0.5 mmol/kg prevented the increases in testicular lipid peroxidation and calcium (Ca) concentrations and the decreases in testicular weight that were observed at 7 d after Cd injection. DED at dosage levels of 0.2-1 mmol/kg likewise reduced Cd-induced testicular toxicity. An increase in testicular iron (Fe) concentrations at 7 d and sterility at 59 d after Cd injection were almost completely blocked by treatment with DSF or DED at the highest doses, but lower doses of DSF or DED were ineffective. These results indicated that DSF, which is metabolized to DED, had a protective effect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity nearly equivalent to DED at approximately one-half the dose. 37 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antônio Alexandre Lisbôa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started. PMID:23580888

  2. Scrotal reconstruction and testicular prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jacob W; Lester, Kyle M; Chen, Andrew; Simhan, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Scrotal surgery encompasses a wide-variety of surgical techniques for an even wider variety of indications. In this manuscript, we review our indications, techniques, and pit-falls for various reconstructive scrotal surgeries as-well-as surgical tips for placement of testicular prostheses. Penoscrotal webbing (PSW) is an abnormal, often-problematic distal insertion of scrotal skin onto the ventral penile shaft. There are several effective and straightforward techniques used to revise this condition, which include simple scrotoplasty, single- or double-Z-plasty, or the VY-flap scrotoplasty. Reconstruction is also commonly indicated following scrotal skin loss caused by infection, trauma, lymphedema, hidradenitis, and cancer. Although initial management of these conditions often involves scrotal skin removal, repair of expansive scrotal skin loss can be technically difficult and can be accomplished by using one of several skin flaps or skin grafting. Split-thickness skin grafting of scrotal defects can be accomplished easily, and provides durable results.

  3. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  4. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (<167 cm or less), the OR of testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (<174 cm) subjects was 3.47 (95% CI: 1.60-7.51). These results suggest that the association between height and testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence.

  6. The protective effect of dexpanthenol on testicular atrophy at 60th day following experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Serbest, Yeşim Aksu; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-03-01

    Despite the prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion (TT), there are problems with fertility and atrophy after testicular salvage. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid (PA). Dxp is converted to PA in tissues. PA increases the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), Coenzyme A and ATP synthesis in cells. GSH and glutathione-dependent peroxidases (GPX) are the major defense systems against oxidative stress. GPX-4 is the major antioxidant in testicular tissue. However, the activity of GPX-4 appeared and increased only after puberty. We investigated the effect of Dxp on testicular atrophy after TT at the 60th day. Rats were separated randomly into four groups. Group C: control group, group Td: torsion + detorsion, group Sal: torsion + saline + detorsion, group Dxp: torsion + Dxp + detorsion. The left testis was rotated 720 degrees for 2 h. In group Sal, normal saline and in group Dxp, Dexpanthenol were injected intraperitonally, 30 min before detorsion. After 60 days, the testicular weights and volumes were measured. Histopathology of the left testis was evaluated with mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS). The left (torsed) testicular weight and volume of groups Td and Sal were significantly lower compared to group Dxp. The MSTD and MTBS of group Td and Sal were significantly lower than group Dxp. Contralateral testicular weight and volume of groups Td, Sal and Dxp had no significant difference compared to the control group. Dxp significantly prevented testicular atrophy after 60 days of TT. Dxp has FDA approval, is safe, cost effective and readily available. Its relevance for clinical trials may especially be for the problem of testicular atrophy catastrophe, seen very frequently following testicular salvage.

  7. Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Leodoro, B.M.; Beasley, S.W.; Stringer, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Polyorchidism was first described by Blasius in 16701 during a routine autopsy. We report a child with unilateral polyorchidism and a contralateral absent testis, a combination not reported previously. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 2-year-old boy was referred to the outpatient clinic with an impalpable left testis. At laparoscopy, the left vas deferens and testicular vessels ended blindly proximal to a closed internal ring. No gonadal tissue was identified. On the right side, a single vas deferens and testicular vessels were seen entering the internal ring as normal. The right side of the scrotum was explored and two testes were identified within a single tunica vaginalis. DISCUSSION Polyorchidism is rare with a literature search identifying approximately 230 reported cases. Whilst prenatal testicular torsion is increasing being recognized and treated as a surgical emergency,9 prenatal testicular torsion in association with polyorchidism has not been previously reported. CONCLUSION We describe a unique case of a 2-year-old boy with right-sided polyorchidism and an absent left testis associated with a blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels, presumed secondary to intrauterine testicular torsion. PMID:25462053

  8. Clusterin expression and human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Li, Jie; Liu, Bianjiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Yin, Changjun

    2013-10-01

    Clusterin expression has a positive correlation with the occurrence and progression of various types of tumors from different genetic backgrounds. Clusterin overexpression may protect tumor cells from apoptosis and damage caused by autoimmunity or anti-tumor therapy. Using immunohistochemisty, one previous study showed that clusterin protein expression is downregulated in human testicular seminoma, which is highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We thus postulate that clusterin expression in human testicular seminoma differs from clusterin expression in other tumors. It may be the cause of the treatable characteristics of testicular seminoma. In the present preliminary study, we detected the abundance of clusterin mRNA in human testicular seminoma and normal testis. The results showed decreased clusterin expression in seminoma at the gene transcription level. Our primary data and summarized previous literature suggest that the downregulation of clusterin expression may be the cause of the high sensitivity of testicular seminoma to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It may be that the scarcity of clusterin leaves tumor cells with insufficient protection from treatment. This is the first study to focus on the relationship between clusterin expression and human testicular cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyperprolactinemia does not promote testicular recrudescence in photoregressed Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Whitten, R D; Youngstrom, T G; Bartness, T J

    1993-07-01

    Serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations, as well as body, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and testes weights, decrease in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) following short-photoperiod exposure. Previously, we have shown that lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCNx) block regression of the testes and decreases in body weight and EWAT caused by short day-like, timed daily subcutaneous melatonin infusions in pinealectomized Siberian hamsters and elevate dramatically serum PRL concentrations. We also have shown that SCNx, as well as lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNx) and an area immediately ventral to the PVN (subPVN), promote accelerated testicular recrudescence, increases in EWAT and body weights, and increases in serum PRL concentrations, in short-day (SD)-housed, photoregressed Siberian hamsters. The stimulation of the testes seen in these previous studies could have been due to the lesion-induced increases in serum PRL concentrations. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to test whether experimentally induced hyperprolactinemia could stimulate testicular recrudescence. This was accomplished by giving photoregressed, SD-housed Siberian hamsters chronic subcutaneous infusions of ovine PRL (oPRL) to mimic either long-day- or lesion-induced serum concentrations of hamster prolactin (hPRL). No increase in testes, body, or EWAT weights were observed following 5 weeks of oPRL infusions in either group compared with their vehicle-infused counterparts. These data suggest that hyperprolactinemia was not solely responsible for the stimulation of testicular recrudescence in SCNx or PVNx photoregressed, or SCNx pinealectomized hamsters receiving timed melatonin infusions seen previously.

  10. White tea consumption restores sperm quality in prediabetic rats preventing testicular oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro F; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Dias, Tânia R; Martins, Ana D; Rato, Luís; Alves, Marco G; Silva, Branca M

    2015-10-01

    Prediabetes represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It encompasses some, but not all, T2DM diagnostic criteria. Prediabetes has been recently associated with altered testicular function and increased testicular oxidative stress (OS). Tea is widely consumed and its anti-hyperglycaemic/antioxidant properties are known. This study aimed to evaluate whether white tea (WTEA) consumption by prediabetic rats could prevent testicular OS, preserving sperm quality. For that purpose, WTEA (presenting a high catechin content) was given to 30-day-old streptozotocin-induced prediabetic rats for 2 months. Testicular antioxidant potential and OS were evaluated, as well as sperm parameters, by standard techniques. WTEA consumption improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic rats. Testicular antioxidant potential was increased by WTEA consumption, restoring protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, although glutathione content and redox state were not altered. WTEA consumption improved sperm concentration and sperm quality (motility, viability and abnormality) was restored. Overall, WTEA consumption improved reproductive health of male prediabetic rats. Based on the study results, WTEA consumption appears to be a natural, economical and effective strategy to counteract the deleterious effects of prediabetes on male reproductive health, but further studies will be needed before a definitive recommendation is made. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular changes in the hamster testicular interstitium with ageing and after exposure to short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Madrid, J F; Sáez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular changes that occur in the hamster testicular interstitium in two very different physiological situations involving testicular involution: ageing and exposure to a short photoperiod. The animals were divided into an 'age group' with three subgroups - young, adult and old animals - and a 'regressed group' with animals subjected to a short photoperiod. The testicular interstitium was characterised by light and electron microscopy. Interstitial cells were studied histochemically with regard to their proliferation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling (TUNEL+) and testosterone synthetic activity. We identified two types of Leydig cell: Type A cells showed a normal morphology, while Type B cells appeared necrotic. With ageing, pericyte proliferation decreased but there was no variation in the index of TUNEL-positive Leydig cells. In the regressed group, pericyte proliferation was greater and TUNEL-positive cells were not observed in the interstitium. The testicular interstitium suffered few ultrastructural changes during ageing and necrotic Leydig cells were observed. In contrast, an ultrastructural involution of Leydig cells with no necrosis was observed in the regressed group. In conclusion, the testicular interstitium of Mesocricetus auratus showed different cellular changes in the two groups (age and regressed), probably due to the irreversible nature of ageing and the reversible character of changes induced by short photoperiod.

  12. Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

    2006-07-01

    Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD.

  13. Induction of metallothionein synthesis with preservation of testicular function in rats following long term renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Deng, D X; Jiang, J; Chen, S; Zhong, R; Cherian, M G; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-04-01

    Metallothionein (MT), as an acute phase or stress-response protein and free radical scavenger, is related to inflammation and cellular protection from oxidative damage. In order to evaluate long-term testicular damage and the role of MT following renal transplant, nine allogenic (Fisher 344 --> Lewis) and seven isogenic (Lewis --> Lewis) renal transplants were performed and the recipient rats were followed for 140 days when allografts develop chronic transplant rejection. Testicular weight, light microscopic morphology, and lactate dehydrogenase-X enzyme activity were assessed. Testicular MT was determined by Cd-heme assay, and was localized immunocytochemically using a polyclonal rabbit antibody. No differences in testis weight, morphology, or LDH-X enzyme activity were found between allograft and isograft recipients. Testicular MT level was significantly increased in the testis of allograft recipients. Testicular zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) levels, but not iron (Fe) level, were significantly higher in testis with allograft kidney than that with isograft kidney. In addition, Cu/Zn ratio was also significantly high in the allograft group. However, the MT level did not show any significant correlation either with Cu and Zn alone or with Cu/Zn and Fe/Zn ratios. These data suggest that allogenic stimuli may induce MT synthesis in the recipient testis. The increased MT level in an allograft may offer a protective action from oxidative damage in the testis.

  14. Photoperiodic regulation of seasonal testicular regression in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Boyd, I L

    1986-07-01

    Adult male wild rabbits were exposed to artificial daylengths of 8L:16D, 13L:11D or 20L:4D after being taken from the wild during September, when testicular size was minimal. In all groups the testes grew and those in 20L:4D grew more quickly than did those in 8L:16D or 13L:11D. Rabbits kept in the 3 daylength treatments for the whole study maintained enlarged testes after the initial growth phase. The testes of rabbits transferred to 13L:11D after 8 weeks in 20L:4D did not regress. A similar transfer after 16 weeks in 20L:4D resulted in testicular regression (P less than 0.01) followed by moult, and then testicular regrowth 9 weeks after the change of daylength. No regression occurred at this time in the control group kept in 20L:4D throughout the study. Plasma FSH concentration increased at the beginning of the study and was elevated during the initial period of testicular growth. Values then declined after the asymptote of testicular weight was reached. Plasma testosterone and LH concentrations did not change significantly throughout the study. The results showed that reproductive regression in wild rabbits can be induced by a reduction in the daylength, but that the potency of this reduction is dependent upon previous experience of daylength.

  15. Determination of atrazine, lindane, pentachlorophenol, and diazinon in water and soil by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Avila, V.; Hirata, P.; Kraska, S.; Flanagan, M.; Taylor, J.H. Jr.; Hern, S.C.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes an isotope dilution GC/MS technique for the analysis of low-parts-per-billion concentrations of atrazine, lindane, pentachlorophenol, and diazinon in water and soil. Known amounts of stable-labeled isotopes such as atrazine-d/sub 5/, lindane-d/sub 6/, pentachlorophenol-/sup 13/C/sub 6/, and diazinon-d/sub 10/ are spiked into each sample prior to extraction. Water samples are extracted with methylene chloride; soil samples are extracted with acetone/hexane. Analysis is performed by high-resolution GC/MS with the mass spectrometer operated in the selected ion monitoring mode. Accuracy greater than 86% and precision better than 8% were demonstrated by use of spiked samples. This technique has been used successfully in the analysis of over 300 water and 300 soil samples. Detection limits of 0.1-1.0 ppb were achieved for the test compounds by selected ion monitoring GC/MS. 8 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Study on the vrsya property (testicular regenerative potential) of vanga bhasma.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, V; Joshi, D; Aryya, N C

    1985-07-01

    Vanga bhasma, a popular Ayurvedic Medicine is prepared from Tin metal. This drug is claimed to have 'Sukrala' (Semenaugmentator), 'vrsya' (good for testis) properties in the literature and is widely in vogue for genito - urinary disorders in Ayurvedic practice. An experimental evaluation of the claim has been undertaken and the results have been presented in this paper. The drug in reference is found to have testicular regenerative potential on cadmium induced testicular degeneration in albino tats, when administered orally. This effect on 'Sukravaha Srotomula' (testis) appears to corroborate "Sukrala" and "Vrsya" properties attributed to the drug in Ayuredic literature.

  17. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Ugboma, Henry A A; Aburoma, H L S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18–50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were “ever taught about testicular self-examination.” CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes. PMID:21876962

  18. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sex development 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Close All Description 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a condition in which individuals with ...

  19. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation.

  1. Fate of invading bacteria in soil and survival of transformants after simulated uptake of transgenes, as evaluated by a model system based on lindane degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Nesme, Joseph; Simonet, Pascal; Frostegård, Asa

    2012-04-01

    Emergence of bacteria carrying new traits resulting from mutations, gene synthesis by gene-shuffling or acquisition of exogenous DNA underpins the need to better understand factors influencing their spread and establishment. Studies of soils may be difficult, since the gene of interest is often already present in high numbers. The gene linA, responsible for the first dechlorination steps during degradation of lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane), has low background levels in soil and is simple to detect. Development of transgenic plants containing linA and newly proposed approaches to bioremediation by in situ electrotransformation after addition of a vector carrying this gene call for documentation on the fate of bacteria that incorporate it. We inserted linA into the broad-host-range conjugative RP4-plasmid and transferred it to different soil bacteria which were inoculated into soil microcosms in the presence/absence of lindane. Similar experiments were performed using Sphingobium francense Sp+, which carries all genes for complete lindane degradation. This strain increased in numbers during lindane mineralization, but other bacteria increased more, resulting in a modified bacterial community structure. The engineered strains decreased below the detection limit, but rose in numbers after nutrient addition, demonstrating that new invading bacteria may persist in soil in the form of small populations over extended time periods.

  2. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1−/− mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males. PMID:28261663

  3. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J; Hastings, Andrew K; Homer, Robert J; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1(-/-) mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males.

  4. Management of non-germinal testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Risk, Michael C; Porter, Christopher R

    2009-08-01

    Non-germinal tumors account for less than 10% of all testicular tumors and consist of a wide array of benign and malignant lesions. Due to their rarity, little is known about the appropriate management of malignant non-germinal testicular tumors. A literature review directed at the variety of non-germinal testicular tumors using the Medline/PubMed database was performed. Our review was focused on the natural history of these diseases, the treatment regimens utilized, and the outcomes of the various treatments. The majority of data on the treatment of non-germinal testicular tumors comes from case series and retrospective reviews; thus the management of many of these diseases is a matter of debate. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with these rare diseases are made based on available data. For many of these diseases, radical inguinal orchiectomy is the initial treatment of choice, and further treatment differs based on pathology and staging studies. Non-germinal testicular tumors are a diverse group of rare lesions, and as a result their management is often difficult. A multi-disciplinary approach to management is needed in these patients; however, efficacious chemotherapeutic regimens are often lacking. Due to poor alternatives, patients may benefit from early surgical intervention, including RPLND.

  5. Overexpression of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s alters behavioral activity of rat offspring following prenatal exposure to lindane

    SciTech Connect

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2007-12-15

    Oral administration of different doses (0.0625, 0.125 or 0.25 mg/kg corresponding to 1/1400th, 1/700th or 1/350th of LD{sub 50}) of lindane to the pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 were found to produce a dose-dependent increase in the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-d) in brain and liver of offspring postnatally at 3 weeks. The increase in the activity of CYP monooxygenases was found to be associated with the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYP1A, 2B and 2E1 isoenzymes in the brain and liver of offspring. Dose-dependent alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 3 weeks have suggested that increase in CYP activity may possibly lead to the formation of metabolites to the levels that may be sufficient to alter the behavioral activity of the offspring. Interestingly, the inductive effect on cerebral and hepatic CYPs was found to persist postnatally up to 6 weeks in the offspring at the relatively higher doses (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) of lindane and up to 9 weeks at the highest dose (0.25 mg/kg), though the magnitude of induction was less than that observed at 3 weeks. Alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 6 and 9 weeks, though significant only in the offspring at 3 and 6-week of age, have further indicated that due to the reduced activity of the CYPs during the ontogeny, lindane and its metabolites may not be effectively cleared from the brain. The data suggest that low dose prenatal exposure to the pesticide has the potential to produce overexpression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs in brain and liver of the offspring which may account for the behavioral changes observed in the offspring.

  6. Tissue Engineered Testicular Prostheses With Prolonged Testosterone Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    and Hospital Infantil de Mexico “Federico Gomez”, Mexico City, Mexico* ABSTRACT Young soldiers with testicular tissue injury may require...Rustin, 2001: Testicular implants and patient satisfaction: a questionnaire-based study of men after orchidectomy for testicular cancer .[see comment

  7. Dose-dependent protective effect of sildenafil citrate on testicular injury after torsion/detorsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, H; Durmus, A S; Şimşek, H; Yaman, M

    2012-05-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate on testicular injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D). Thirty-seven adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: sham operated group (group 1), T/D+ saline (group 2), T/D+ 0.7 mg sildenafil citrate (group 3) and T/D+ 1.4 mg sildenafil citrate (group 4). Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. The level of GSH (P < 0.05) in the testis in the group 2 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and the levels of MDA and NO (P < 0.01 for both) in the testis were significantly higher when compared with those of the group 1. Administration of low dose sildenafil citrate prevented the increases in MDA and NO levels and decreases in GSH values induced by testicular torsion. However, administration of high dose sildenafil citrate did not have any effect on these testicular tissue parameters (P > 0.05). Also, mean values of seminiferous tubules diameters, germinal cell layer thicknesses and mean testicular biopsy score were significantly better in group 3 than groups 2 and 4. These results suggest that T/D injury occurred in testis after unilateral testicular T/D and that administration of low dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular torsion. Sildenafil citrate probably acts through reduction of reactive oxygen species and support antioxidant enzyme systems.

  8. Methylene blue increases contralateral testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury after unilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mustafa; Basaran, Umit N; Dokmeci, Dikmen; Yalcin, Omer; Aydogdu, Nurettin; Turan, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    1. Testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury is commonly seen in childhood. Infertility occurs in 25% of patients after unilateral testicular ischaemia. It is has been reported that methylene blue has a positive effect in the reparation of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in different tissues. Therefore, we hypothesized that methylene blue may prevent the hazardous effects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in testicular tissue after unilateral testicular torsion. 2. Thirty-two prepubertal Wistar-albino rats were divided into four groups. Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720 degrees in a clockwise direction for 5 h in all groups except for Group C, which was the sham control group. In Group T, bilateral orchiectomy was performed following the torsion period. In Group TD, both testes were removed 5 days after the torsion period. In Group MB, methylene blue (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 40 min before detorsion and once daily over 5 days; then, both testes were harvested. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS) and mean seminifer tubule diameter (MSTD) were determined. 3. There was a significant difference in MTBS between Groups T and TD (P < 0.05) in both ipsilateral and contralateral testes. In the contralateral testis, treatment with methylene blue decreased MTBS and MSTD (P < 0.05) and increased MDA levels (P < 0.05). In Group T, mean serum CK concentrations were higher than in any of the other groups (P < 0.05). 4. After 5 h of unilateral testicular torsion and a 5 day reperfusion period, serious tissue damage occurred on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. Serum CK concentrations may be an indicator for ischaemia, but not for ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Contrary to our hypothesis, methylene blue increased contralateral testicular damage after unilateral testicular torsion and exacerbated oxidative events.

  9. [Multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis].

    PubMed

    Rosales Leal, José Luis; Tallada Buñuel, Miguel; Espejo Maldonado, Eduardo; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel; Vicente Prados, Francisco Javier; Martínez Morcillo, Antonio; Buitragosivianes, Soledad; Rodríguez Herrera, Francisco; Ortiz Gorráiz, Manuel; Zilbermman Morales, Sonia; Chamorro Santos, Clara

    2003-12-01

    To report an exceptional case of multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis. A 72-year-old male was referred for study of a scrotal mass. Physical examination, blood tests, and ultrasound were performed prior to surgical excision and pathologic study of the lesion. The ultrasound study showed a multilobar cystic lesion near the spermatic cord. Pathology reported multiple 3-4 mm cystic formations, with rudimentary papillae covered by a hyperchromatic epithelium and vimentin (+), CD 34 (+) immunophenotype. Multicystic mesothelioma is a rare form of mesothelioma, easy to recognize but infrequent. This tumor generally affects the peritoneal surface of the pelvis and abdomen; although other less frequent locations have been described testicular location is exceptional. We report the case of a patient presenting with a multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis and review the diagnosis, pathology and treatment options for this type of tumor.

  10. Testicular atrophy as a risk inguinal hernioplasty.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1982-04-01

    In my experience, the complication of testicular atrophy after primary hernioplasty occurred only in patients in whom a complete indirect inguinal hernia sac was dissected from the spermatic cord. Avoiding this dissection by leaving the distal part of the sac in place reduces the incidence of the complication. All patients with scrotal inguinal hernias and all patients with recurrent inguinal hernias should have the complications of ischemic orchitis and testicular atrophy explained to them in depth because of the litigious nature of some of the men in whom this condition occurs. Patients who had undergone two or more operations for inguinal hernia should give prior written permission for orchiectomy even though this procedure is rarely necessary. In these patients, the performance of preperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty will permit the surgeon to avoid dissecting previously mobilized spermatic cords and should reduce the incidence of testicular atrophy in men fearful of this complication.

  11. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  12. Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Opot, E N; Magoha, G A

    2000-02-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed. The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. About 10.26% of patients had history of cryptochirdism. The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%). On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass. More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%. The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%). No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used. 18 patients were followed up, of whom 7 were alive after 5 years. Prognosis with current regimens was poor, with a 38.89% survival ratio in 5 years. Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.

  13. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  14. Influence of suspended solids on bioavailability of hexachlorobenzene and lindane to the deposit-feeding marine bivalve, Abra nitida (Mueller)

    SciTech Connect

    Ekelund, R.; Granmo, A.; Berggren, M.; Renberg, L.; Wahlberg, C.

    1987-03-01

    It is well-known that suspended solids in water adsorb hydrophobic pollutants, thereby decreasing the bioavailability of the compounds to aquatic organisms which do not use the particles as food. It is also known that hydrophobic pollutants deposited in sediments usually have a low bioavailability. The relative contribution of water and sediment respectively to bioaccumulation of hydrophobic pollutants has been discussed in many papers based on field data, but the conclusions are uncertain. However, very few studies have been performed under controlled conditions in the laboratory on how the bioaccumulation of such compounds dissolved in the water is changed by adsorption to particles when these particles are used as food by the organism. This has now been investigated using the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra nitida which was exposed to hexachlorobenzene and lindane by means of a new method for dosing of hydrophobic compounds to a continuous flow system in long term tests.

  15. [Light- and electron-microscopic changes in liver cells of a patient with acute liver damage caused by Lindane].

    PubMed

    Gábor, K; Barnabás, L; Dezsö, H

    1975-07-01

    Acute liver-lesion was observed in a 77 years old women, using a preparate "Hungaria L. 7" consisting 7,8 percent of Lindan, without keeping directions for use. In 24 hours onset of toxic exanthema, lack of appetite, and abdominal pains were seen. After a longlasting discomfort and loss of weight on the 4th week jaundice have occurred. In the liver biopsy specimen microscopically centrolobular necrosis of lytic type, steatosis and a moderate periportal inflammatory reaction was revealed. On the electron micrographs steatosis and paralelly arranged osmiophilic inclusions in the mitochondria seemed to the most characteristic feature. Authors stress that in cases of acute liver lesions careful analysis of the history may evidence a toxic origin of the lesion, and the latter morfologically--as it is demonstrated in the presented case--can be distinguished from the acute virus-hepatitis.

  16. Colon cancer presenting as a testicular metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Majid; Sharif, Asma

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old male who initially presented with intermittent testicular pain as the first sign of metastatic stage IV colon cancer. Physical examination revealed a normal penis, scrotum and testes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pelvis showed an irregular 3 cm mass of the spermatic cord and right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was metastatic adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, even though metastases to the testes are rare, they should be considered in clinical practice especially in older men who present with a testicular mass or discomfort. PMID:28138654

  17. Etiologic factors in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Cook, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, testicular cancer incidence is highest among men of northern European ancestry and lowest among men of Asian and African descent. Incidence rates have been increasing around the world for at least 50 years, but mortality rates, at least in developed countries, have been declining. While reasons for the decreases in mortality are related to improvements in therapeutic regimes introduced in the late 1970s, reasons for the increase in incidence are less well understood. An accumulating body of evidence suggests, however, that testicular cancer arises in fetal life. Perinatal factors, including exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, have been suggested to be related to risk. PMID:19903067

  18. Intracardiac metastasis from germ cell testicular tumor.

    PubMed

    Jonjev, Z S; Rajić, J; Majin, M; Donat, D

    2012-09-01

    Intracardiac metastases of germ cell testicular tumors are not commonly seen in clinical practice. The clinical presentation of right-sided heart metastases ranges widely. Depending upon its size and intracardiac location, it could be highly symptomatic, leading to a congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and death, or completely asymptomatic. Improved imaging techniques and treatment strategies demonstrate that right-sided heart metastasis should be considered a potentially dangerous but treatable disease. Presented is the case of a 24-year-old man with a testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor, which after metastasizing in the right atrium differentiated into a teratoma and resulted in an inflow obstruction of the right ventricle.

  19. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials.

  20. Co-operative effect of glutathione depletion and selenium induced oxidative stress on API and NFkB expression in testicular cells in vitro: insights to regulation of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shalini, Sonia; Bansal, Mohinder P

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, API and NFkB exert important roles in the process by which selenium regulates spermatogenesis. Glutathione, an intracellular thiol, acts as a source of reducing power and aids in maintenance of the cellular redox status. The activities of selenium are closely related to the availability of glutathione. Presently, mouse testicular cells were cultured in the presence of BSO, a known glutathione depletor, to generate oxidative stress. Selenium (Se) was added as sodium selenite to these cells at concentrations of 0.5 microM and 1.5 microM. It was observed that at 1.5 microM, Se acted as a pro-oxidant and significantly decreased the redox ratio. RT PCR analysis revealed that cjun, cfos expression increased in testicular cells cultured with Se compared to control. However, the major outcome was that the combined effect of Se supplementation and GSH depletion resulted in reduced expression of cjun and cfos while p65 expression increased. This suggests that selenium affects both these transcription factors differently. Our study indicates that though low levels of oxidative stress generated by moderate doses of selenium augments the expression of cjun and cfos, a robust increase in the ROS generation caused by the dual effect high levels of selenium and glutathione depletion leads to decrease in the expression of these genes. The present work substantiates our in vivo experiments and indicates the detrimental effect of excess selenium supplementation on male fertility.

  1. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna.

  3. Grayscale and Color Doppler Features of Testicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E.; Secil, Mustafa; Dogra, Vikram; Sidhu, Paul S.; Clements, Richard; Freeman, Simon; Grenier, Nicolas; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ramchandani, Parvati; Cicero, Calogero; Abete, Luca; Bussani, Rossana; Rocher, Laurence; Spencer, John; Tsili, Athina; Valentino, Massimo; Pavlica, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Pooled data from 16 radiology centers were retrospectively analyzed to seek patients with pathologically proven testicular lymphoma and grayscale and color Doppler images available for review. Forty-three cases were found: 36 (84%) primary and 7 (16%) secondary testicular lymphoma. With unilateral primary lymphoma, involvement was unifocal (n = 10), multifocal (n = 11), or diffuse (n = 11). Synchronous bilateral involvement occurred in 6 patients. Color Doppler sonography showed normal testicular vessels within the tumor in 31 of 43 lymphomas (72%). Testicular lymphoma infiltrates through the tubules, preserving the normal vascular architecture of the testis. Depiction of normal testicular vessels crossing the lesion is a useful adjunctive diagnostic criterion. PMID:26014335

  4. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer.

  5. Testicular Cancer and Genetics Knowledge Among Familial Testicular Cancer Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Beckjord, Ellen B.; Banda Ryan, Deliya R.; Carr, Ann G.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Korde, Larissa; Greene, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose It was our aim to determine baseline levels of testicular cancer and genetics knowledge among members of families with Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC). Methods This is a sub-study of an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional study of FTC. We evaluated 258 male and female participants including testicular cancer (TC) survivors, blood relatives and spouses to assess factors associated with a Genetic Knowledge Scale (GKS) and Testicular Cancer Knowledge Scale (TCKS). Results Knowledge levels were generally low, with genetic knowledge lower than TC knowledge (p<0.01). Men with a personal TC history scored highest on TC knowledge, while gender, age and education differentially influenced knowledge levels, particularly among unaffected relatives. Conclusions Prior to identifying FTC susceptibility genes, we recommend tailoring FTC genetic education to the different informational needs of TC survivors, their spouses and relatives, in preparation for the day when clinical susceptibility testing may be available. PMID:18481162

  6. Fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A; Gil-Salom, M

    1996-04-01

    To assess the possibility of cryopreserving testicular tissue extracted sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A report of two cases. Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Two azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure but with focal spermatogenesis on testicular biopsies. In both cases, a first ICSI attempt with fresh testicular biopsy extracted sperm was unsuccessful. Cryopreservation of testicular spermatozoa in 100-micro L "pills." Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with thawed testicular spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy. Fertilization rates were 36 percent and 100 percent after ICSI with fresh testicular spermatozoa, and 63 percent and 57 percent after ICSI with cryopreserved testicular sperm. In both cases, cleavage rates and embryo quality were similar when using fresh and cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa. No clinical pregnancies were achieved. High fertilization rates can be obtained after ICSI with frozen-thawed testicular tissue extracted spermatozoa. Cryopreservation of testicular sperm may avoid repetition of testicular biopsies in azoospermic patients in whom the only source of spermatozoa is the testicle.

  7. The clinical utility of testicular prosthesis placement in children with genital and testicular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Testicular prosthesis placement is a useful important adjunctive reconstructive therapy for managing children with testicular loss or absence. Though these prostheses are functionless, experience has shown that they are extremely helpful in creating a more normal male body image and in preventing/relieving psychological stress in males with a missing testicle. With attention to details of implant technique, excellent cosmetic results can be anticipated in simulating a normal appearing scrotum. PMID:26816795

  8. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United Sta