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Sample records for linear adaptive noise-reduction

  1. Linear adaptive noise-reduction filters for tomographic imaging: Optimizing for minimum mean square error

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W Y

    1993-04-01

    This thesis solves the problem of finding the optimal linear noise-reduction filter for linear tomographic image reconstruction. The optimization is data dependent and results in minimizing the mean-square error of the reconstructed image. The error is defined as the difference between the result and the best possible reconstruction. Applications for the optimal filter include reconstructions of positron emission tomographic (PET), X-ray computed tomographic, single-photon emission tomographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Using high resolution PET as an example, the optimal filter is derived and presented for the convolution backprojection, Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse, and the natural-pixel basis set reconstruction methods. Simulations and experimental results are presented for the convolution backprojection method.

  2. Musical noise reduction using an adaptive filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeshi; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa; Hoya, Tetsuya

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a method for reducing a particular noise (musical noise). The musical noise is artificially produced by Spectral Subtraction (SS), which is one of the most conventional methods for speech enhancement. The musical noise is the tin-like sound and annoying in human auditory. We know that the duration of the musical noise is considerably short in comparison with that of speech, and that the frequency components of the musical noise are random and isolated. In the ordinary SS-based methods, the musical noise is removed by the post-processing. However, the output of the ordinary post-processing is delayed since the post-processing uses the succeeding frames. In order to improve this problem, we propose a novel method using an adaptive filter. In the proposed system, the observed noisy signal is used as the input signal to the adaptive filter and the output of SS is used as the reference signal. In this paper we exploit the normalized LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm for the adaptive filter. Simulation results show that the proposed method has improved the intelligibility of the enhanced speech in comparison with the conventional method.

  3. Adaptive noise reduction circuit for a sound reproduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise reduction circuit for a hearing aid having an adaptive filter for producing a signal which estimates the noise components present in an input signal. The circuit includes a second filter for receiving the noise-estimating signal and modifying it as a function of a user's preference or as a function of an expected noise environment. The circuit also includes a gain control for adjusting the magnitude of the modified noise-estimating signal, thereby allowing for the adjustment of the magnitude of the circuit response. The circuit also includes a signal combiner for combining the input signal with the adjusted noise-estimating signal to produce a noise reduced output signal.

  4. Emergent Adaptive Noise Reduction from Communal Cooperation of Sensor Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas M.; Lodding, Kenneth N.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, the realization of small, inexpensive, and powerful devices with sensors, computers, and wireless communication has promised the development of massive sized sensor networks with dense deployments over large areas capable of high fidelity situational assessments. However, most management models have been based on centralized control and research has concentrated on methods for passing data from sensor devices to the central controller. Most implementations have been small but, as it is not scalable, this methodology is insufficient for massive deployments. Here, a specific application of a large sensor network for adaptive noise reduction demonstrates a new paradigm where communities of sensor/computer devices assess local conditions and make local decisions from which emerges a global behaviour. This approach obviates many of the problems of centralized control as it is not prone to single point of failure and is more scalable, efficient, robust, and fault tolerant

  5. Interior Noise Reduction by Adaptive Feedback Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Tae W.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the possible use of adaptive digital filtering techniques in simultaneous, multiple-mode identification of the modal parameters of a vibrating structure in real-time. It is intended that the results obtained from this project will be used for state estimation needed in adaptive structural acoustics control. The work done in this project is basically an extension of the work on real-time single mode identification, which was performed successfully using a digital signal processor (DSP) at NASA, Langley. Initially, in this investigation the single mode identification work was duplicated on a different processor, namely the Texas Instruments TMS32OC40 DSP. The system identification results for the single mode case were very good. Then an algorithm for simultaneous two mode identification was developed and tested using analytical simulation. When it successfully performed the expected tasks, it was implemented in real-time on the DSP system to identify the first two modes of vibration of a cantilever aluminum beam. The results of the simultaneous two mode case were good but some problems were identified related to frequency warping and spurious mode identification. The frequency warping problem was found to be due to the bilinear transformation used in the algorithm to convert the system transfer function from the continuous-time domain to the discrete-time domain. An alternative approach was developed to rectify the problem. The spurious mode identification problem was found to be associated with high sampling rates. Noise in the signal is suspected to be the cause of this problem but further investigation will be needed to clarify the cause. For simultaneous identification of more than two modes, it was found that theoretically an adaptive digital filter can be designed to identify the required number of modes, but the algebra became very complex which made it impossible to implement in the DSP system used in this study

  6. Effects of directional microphone and adaptive multichannel noise reduction algorithm on cochlear implant performance.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Acker, Kyle N

    2006-10-01

    Although cochlear implant (CI) users have enjoyed good speech recognition in quiet, they still have difficulties understanding speech in noise. We conducted three experiments to determine whether a directional microphone and an adaptive multichannel noise reduction algorithm could enhance CI performance in noise and whether Speech Transmission Index (STI) can be used to predict CI performance in various acoustic and signal processing conditions. In Experiment I, CI users listened to speech in noise processed by 4 hearing aid settings: omni-directional microphone, omni-directional microphone plus noise reduction, directional microphone, and directional microphone plus noise reduction. The directional microphone significantly improved speech recognition in noise. Both directional microphone and noise reduction algorithm improved overall preference. In Experiment II, normal hearing individuals listened to the recorded speech produced by 4- or 8-channel CI simulations. The 8-channel simulation yielded similar speech recognition results as in Experiment I, whereas the 4-channel simulation produced no significant difference among the 4 settings. In Experiment III, we examined the relationship between STIs and speech recognition. The results suggested that STI could predict actual and simulated CI speech intelligibility with acoustic degradation and the directional microphone, but not the noise reduction algorithm. Implications for intelligibility enhancement are discussed.

  7. Adaptive mean filtering for noise reduction in CT polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hilts, Michelle; Jirasek, Andrew

    2008-01-15

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) as a method of extracting 3D dose information from irradiated polymer gel dosimeters is showing potential as a practical means to implement gel dosimetry in a radiation therapy clinic. However, the response of CT contrast to dose is weak and noise reduction is critical in order to achieve adequate dose resolutions with this method. Phantom design and CT imaging technique have both been shown to decrease image noise. In addition, image postprocessing using noise reduction filtering techniques have been proposed. This work evaluates in detail the use of the adaptive mean filter for reducing noise in CT gel dosimetry. Filter performance is systematically tested using both synthetic patterns mimicking a range of clinical dose distribution features as well as actual clinical dose distributions. Both low and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations are examined. For all cases, the effects of filter kernel size and the number of iterations are investigated. Results indicate that adaptive mean filtering is a highly effective tool for noise reduction CT gel dosimetry. The optimum filtering strategy depends on characteristics of the dose distributions and image noise level. For low noise images (SNR {approx}20), the filtered results are excellent and use of adaptive mean filtering is recommended as a standard processing tool. For high noise images (SNR {approx}5) adaptive mean filtering can also produce excellent results, but filtering must be approached with more caution as spatial and dose distortions of the original dose distribution can occur.

  8. Noise reduction in adaptive-optics imagery with the use of support constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Charles L.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1995-02-01

    The use of support constraints for noise reduction in images obtained with telescopes that use adaptive optics for atmospheric correction is discussed. Noise covariances are derived for these type of data, including the effects of photon noise and CCD read noise. The effectiveness of support constraints in achieving noise reduction is discussed in terms of these noise properties and in terms of the types of algorithms used to enforce the support constraint. Both a convex-projections and a cost-function minimization algorithm are used to enforce the support constraints, and it is shown with the use of computer simulations and field data that the cost-function algorithm results in artifacts in the reconstructions. The convex-projections algorithms produced mean-square-error decreases in the image domain of approximately 10% for high light levels but essentially no error decreases for low light levels. We emphasize images that are well resolved by the telescope and adaptive-optics system.

  9. An adaptive way for improving noise reduction using local geometric projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontitsis, Alexandros; Bountis, Tassos; Pagge, Jenny

    2004-03-01

    We propose an adaptive way to improve noise reduction by local geometric projection. From the neighborhood of each candidate point in phase space, we identify the best subspace that the point will be orthogonally projected to. The signal subspace is formed by the most significant eigendirections of the neighborhood, while the less significant ones define the noise subspace. We provide a simple criterion to separate the most significant eigendirections from the less significant ones. This criterion is based on the maximum logarithmic difference between the neighborhood eigendirection lengths, and the assumption that there is at least one eigendirection that corresponds to the noise subspace. In this way, we take into account the special characteristics of each neighborhood and introduce a more successful noise reduction technique. Results are presented for a chaotic time series of the Hénon map and Ikeda map, as well as on the Nasdaq Composite index.

  10. Newly-Developed Adaptive Noise Absorption Control Technology for High Speed Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Koh, Masaharu; Ozaki, Shunichi; Yokochi, Makoto; Sato, Takuo

    The paper describes about a newly-developed adaptive noise absorption control (AAC) technology I for fan noise reduction and about proof test results of the technology. The AAC technology adaptively controls the reactance part of acoustic impedance of duct liners with mobile reflective plates and large acoustic chambers, absorbs fan tones and broadband noise together, and achieves larger overall fan noise reduction over a wide fan speed range. For actual proof of the technology, adaptive duct liner I was made on trial basis and was examined. The test result clarifies that the duct liner I could reduce fan noise larger than O.A. SPL 10dB (A) at max fan speed of 6000rpm, including reduction of low frequency noise and fundamental BPF tone and harmonics of 18dB at maximum. In response to fan speed change, the reflective plate movement control could achieve the large peak frequency shift and peak level increase in the acoustic absorption spectra, and could reduce fan noise larger than O.A. SPL 9dB (A) over the fan speed range from 1000 to 6000rpm.

  11. Global-mode based linear feedback control of a supersonic jet for noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Mahesh; Freund, Jonathan; Bodony, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The loudest source of high-speed jet noise appears to be describable by unsteady wavepackets that resemble instabilities. We seek to reduce their acoustic impact with a control strategy that uses global modes to model their dynamics and structural sensitivity of the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes operator to identify an effective linear feedback control. For a case with co-located actuators and sensors adjacent the nozzle, we demonstrate the method on an axisymmetric Mach 1.5 jet. Direct numerical simulations using this control show significant noise reduction. Eigenanalysis of the controlled mean flows reveal fundamental changes in the spectrum at frequencies lower than that used by the control, with the quieter flows having unstable eigenvalues that correspond to eigenfunctions without significant support in the acoustic field. A specific trend is observed in the mean flow quantities as the flow becomes quieter, with changes in the mean flow becoming significant only further downstream of the nozzle exit. The quieter flows also have a stable shock-cell structure that extends further downstream. A phase plot of the POD coefficients for the flows show that the quieter flows are more regular in time. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-08-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise.

  13. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise. PMID:27570687

  14. Design of a Low-Power VLSI Macrocell for Nonlinear Adaptive Video Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Fanucci, Luca; Terreni, Pierangelo

    2004-12-01

    A VLSI macrocell for edge-preserving video noise reduction is proposed in the paper. It is based on a nonlinear rational filter enhanced by a noise estimator for blind and dynamic adaptation of the filtering parameters to the input signal statistics. The VLSI filter features a modular architecture allowing the extension of both mask size and filtering directions. Both spatial and spatiotemporal algorithms are supported. Simulation results with monochrome test videos prove its efficiency for many noise distributions with PSNR improvements up to 3.8 dB with respect to a nonadaptive solution. The VLSI macrocell has been realized in a 0.18[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m CMOS technology using a standard-cells library; it allows for real-time processing of main video formats, up to 30 fps (frames per second) 4CIF, with a power consumption in the order of few mW.

  15. A Background Noise Reduction Technique Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Microphone Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background noise in wind tunnel environments poses a challenge to acoustic measurements due to possible low or negative Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) present in the testing environment. This paper overviews the application of time domain Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) to microphone array signals with an intended application of background noise reduction in wind tunnels. An experiment was conducted to simulate background noise from a wind tunnel circuit measured by an out-of-flow microphone array in the tunnel test section. A reference microphone was used to acquire a background noise signal which interfered with the desired primary noise source signal at the array. The technique s efficacy was investigated using frequency spectra from the array microphones, array beamforming of the point source region, and subsequent deconvolution using the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm. Comparisons were made with the conventional techniques for improving SNR of spectral and Cross-Spectral Matrix subtraction. The method was seen to recover the primary signal level in SNRs as low as -29 dB and outperform the conventional methods. A second processing approach using the center array microphone as the noise reference was investigated for more general applicability of the ANC technique. It outperformed the conventional methods at the -29 dB SNR but yielded less accurate results when coherence over the array dropped. This approach could possibly improve conventional testing methodology but must be investigated further under more realistic testing conditions.

  16. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-07

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear

  17. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear

  18. Rician noise reduction in magnetic resonance images using adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; Chu, Yeon-Ho; Choi, Young-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a Rician noise reduction method for magnetic resonance (MR) images. The proposed method is based on adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering techniques. In the first phase, a guidance image is obtained from the noisy image through an adaptive non-local mean filter. Sobel operators are applied to compute the strength of edges which is further used to control the spread of the kernel in non-local mean filtering. In the second phase, the noisy and the guidance images are provided to the guided image filter as input to restore the noise-free image. The improved performance of the proposed method is investigated using the simulated and real data sets of MR images. Its performance is also compared with the previously proposed state-of-the art methods. Comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of the proposed scheme over the existing approaches.

  19. Background Noise Reduction Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation Determined by the Cross-Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Background noise due to flow in wind tunnels contaminates desired data by decreasing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The use of Adaptive Noise Cancellation to remove background noise at measurement microphones is compromised when the reference sensor measures both background and desired noise. The technique proposed modifies the classical processing configuration based on the cross-correlation between the reference and primary microphone. Background noise attenuation is achieved using a cross-correlation sample width that encompasses only the background noise and a matched delay for the adaptive processing. A present limitation of the method is that a minimum time delay between the background noise and desired signal must exist in order for the correlated parts of the desired signal to be separated from the background noise in the crosscorrelation. A simulation yields primary signal recovery which can be predicted from the coherence of the background noise between the channels. Results are compared with two existing methods.

  20. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold

  1. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Andreas; Wigström, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu, Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia’s CUDA Interface provided an 8

  2. Speech intelligibility improvements with hearing aids using bilateral and binaural adaptive multichannel Wiener filtering based noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Bram; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates noise reduction techniques in bilateral and binaural hearing aids. Adaptive implementations (on a real-time test platform) of the bilateral and binaural speech distortion weighted multichannel Wiener filter (SDW-MWF) and a competing bilateral fixed beamformer are evaluated. As the SDW-MWF relies on a voice activity detector (VAD), a realistic binaural VAD is also included. The test subjects (both normal hearing subjects and hearing aid users) are tested by an adaptive speech reception threshold (SRT) test in different spatial scenarios, including a realistic cafeteria scenario with nonstationary noise. The main conclusions are: (a) The binaural SDW-MWF can further improve the SRT (up to 2 dB) over the improvements achieved by bilateral algorithms, although a significant difference is only achievable if the binaural SDW-MWF uses a perfect VAD. However, in the cafeteria scenario only the binaural SDW-MWF achieves a significant SRT improvement (2.6 dB with perfect VAD, 2.2 dB with real VAD), for the group of hearing aid users. (b) There is no significant degradation when using a real VAD at the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels where the hearing aid users reach their SRT. (c) The bilateral SDW-MWF achieves no SRT improvements compared to the bilateral fixed beamformer.

  3. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of SMA Enabled Adaptive Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Cano, Roberto J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the status and results from an effort to design, fabricate, and test an adaptive jet engine chevron concept based upon embedding shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in a composite laminate, termed a SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC). The approach for fabricating the adaptive SMAHC chevrons involves embedding prestrained Nitinol actuators on one side of the mid-plane of the composite laminate such that thermal excitation generates a thermal moment and deflects the structure. A glass-epoxy pre-preg/Nitinol ribbon material system and a vacuum hot press consolidation approach are employed. A versatile test system for control and measurement of the chevron deflection performance is described. Projection moire interferometry (PMI) is used for global deformation measurement and infrared (IR) thermography is used for 2-D temperature measurement and feedback control. A recently commercialized constitutive model for SMA and SMAHC materials is used in the finite element code ABAQUS to perform nonlinear static analysis of the chevron prototypes. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured chevron deflection performance, thereby validating the design tool. Although the performance results presented in this paper fall short of the requirement, the concept is proven and an approach for achieving the performance objectives is evident.

  4. Design, fabrication, and testing of SMA-enabled adaptive chevrons for jet noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Cano, Roberto J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2004-07-01

    This study presents the status and results from an effort to design, fabricate, and test an adaptive jet engine chevron concept based upon embedding shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in a composite laminate, termed a SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC). The approach for fabricating the adaptive SMAHC chevrons involves embedding prestrained Nitinol actuators on one side of the mid-plane of the composite laminate such that thermal excitation generates a thermal moment and deflects the structure. A glass-epoxy pre-preg/Nitinol ribbon material system and a vacuum hot press consolidation approach are employed. A versatile test system for control and measurement of the chevron deflection performance is described. Projection moire interferometry (PMI) is used for global deformation measurement and infrared (IR) thermography is used for 2-D temperature measurement and feedback control. A recently commercialized constitutive model for SMA and SMAHC materials is used in the finite element code ABAQUS to perform nonlinear static analysis of the chevron prototypes. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured chevron deflection performance, thereby validating the design tool. Although the performance results presented in this paper fall short of the requirement, the concept is proven and an approach for achieving the performance objectives is evident.

  5. Communal Sensor Network for Adaptive Noise Reduction in Aircraft Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergent behavior, a subject of much research in biology, sociology, and economics, is a foundational element of Complex Systems Science and is apropos in the design of sensor network systems. To demonstrate engineering for emergent behavior, a novel approach in the design of a sensor/actuator network is presented maintaining optimal noise attenuation as an adaptation to changing acoustic conditions. Rather than use the conventional approach where sensors are managed by a central controller, this new paradigm uses a biomimetic model where sensor/actuators cooperate as a community of autonomous organisms, sharing with neighbors to control impedance based on local information. From the combination of all individual actions, an optimal attenuation emerges for the global system.

  6. Development of adaptive noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in a multi-detector CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimaru, Eiji; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Okita, Izumi; Ninomiya, Yuuji; Tomoshige, Yukihiro; Kurokawa, Takehiro; Ono, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yuko; Suzuki, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    Recently, several kinds of post-processing image filters which reduce the noise of computed tomography (CT) images have been proposed. However, these image filters are mostly for adults. Because these are not very effective in small (< 20 cm) display fields of view (FOV), we cannot use them for pediatric body images (e.g., premature babies and infant children). We have developed a new noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body CT images. This algorithm is based on a 3D post-processing in which the output pixel values are calculated by nonlinear interpolation in z-directions on original volumetric-data-sets. This algorithm does not need the in-plane (axial plane) processing, so the spatial resolution does not change. From the phantom studies, our algorithm could reduce SD up to 40% without affecting the spatial resolution of x-y plane and z-axis, and improved the CNR up to 30%. This newly developed filter algorithm will be useful for the diagnosis and radiation dose reduction of the pediatric body CT images.

  7. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  8. Emerging Community Noise Reduction Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current NASA research portfolio in the area of aircraft noise reduction is presented. The emphasis of the research described herein is on meeting the aggressive near- and mid-term national goals for reducing aircraft noise emissions, which NASA internal studies have shown to be feasible using noise reduction technologies currently being developed in-house or in partnership with NASA s industry and academic partners. While NASA has an active research effort in airframe noise reduction, this overview focuses on propulsion noise reduction only.

  9. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W

    2012-12-01

    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  10. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  11. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  12. Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The Acoustics Branch is responsible for reducing noise levels for jet and fan components on aircraft engines. To do this, data must be measured and calibrated accurately to ensure validity of test results. This noise reduction is accomplished by modifications to hardware such as jet nozzles, and by the use of other experimental hardware such as fluidic chevrons, elliptic cores, and fluidic shields. To insure validity of data calibration, a variety of software is used. This software adjusts the sound amplitude and frequency to be consistent with data taken on another day. Both the software and the hardware help make noise reduction possible. work properly. These software programs were designed to make corrections for atmosphere, shear, attenuation, electronic, and background noise. All data can be converted to a one-foot lossless condition, using the proper software corrections, making a reading independent of weather and distance. Also, data can be transformed from model scale to full scale for noise predictions of a real flight. Other programs included calculations of Over All Sound Pressure Level (OASPL), Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL). OASPL is the integration of sound with respect to frequency, and EPNL is weighted for a human s response to different sound frequencies and integrated with respect to time. With the proper software correction, data taken in the NATR are useful in determining ways to reduce noise. display any difference between two or more data files. Using this program and graphs of the data, the actual and predicted data can be compared. This software was tested on data collected at the Aero Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) using a variety of window types and overlaps. Similarly, short scripts were written to test each individual program in the software suite for verification. Each graph displays both the original points and the adjusted points connected with lines. During this summer, data points were taken during a live experiment

  13. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  14. Fan Noise Reduction: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2001-01-01

    Fan noise reduction technologies developed as part of the engine noise reduction element of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program are reviewed. Developments in low-noise fan stage design, swept and leaned outlet guide vanes, active noise control, fan flow management, and scarfed inlet are discussed. In each case, a description of the method is presented and, where available, representative results and general conclusions are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of the accomplishments of the AST-sponsored fan noise reduction research and a few thoughts on future work.

  15. Noise reduction for vocal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Matassini, L; Manfredi, C

    2002-01-01

    A noise reduction scheme, particularly suited for the correction of vocal pathologies, is proposed. The filter makes use of concepts originated within the theory of dynamical systems and deterministic chaos. In particular, the idea of embedding scalar data in order to reconstruct a phase space is of fundamental importance here. Furthermore, the concept of an attractor as a result of dynamical constraints is exploited. In order to perform noise reduction one needs redundancy and the human voice provides it even within a phoneme, namely the smallest structural unit of speech. Due to several repetitions of a pattern called pitch inside a phoneme, separation between the pure voice signal and the noise is possible, provided the latter is uncorrelated with the former. With a proper parameter tuning, different kinds of noise can be removed. We describe the idea behind the noise reduction algorithm and present applications to vocal pathologies.

  16. Technologies for Turbofan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An overview presentation of NASA's engine noise research since 1992 is given for subsonic commercial aircraft applications. Highlights are included from the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project with emphasis on engine source noise reduction. Noise reduction goals for 10 EPNdB by 207 and 20 EPNdB by 2022 are reviewed. Fan and jet noise technologies are highlighted from the AST program including higher bypass ratio propulsion, scarf inlets, forward-swept fans, swept/leaned stators, chevron nozzles, noise prediction methods, and active noise control for fans. Source diagnostic tests for fans and jets that have been completed over the past few years are presented showing how new flow measurement methods such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have played a key role in understanding turbulence, the noise generation process, and how to improve noise prediction methods. Tests focused on source decomposition have helped identify which engine components need further noise reduction. The role of Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) for fan noise prediction is presented. Advanced noise reduction methods such as Hershel-Quincke tubes and trailing edge blowing for fan noise that are currently being pursued n the QAT program are also presented. Highlights are shown form engine validation and flight demonstrations that were done in the late 1990's with Pratt & Whitney on their PW4098 engine and Honeywell on their TFE-731-60 engine. Finally, future propulsion configurations currently being studied that show promise towards meeting NASA's long term goal of 20 dB noise reduction are shown including a Dual Fan Engine concept on a Blended Wing Body aircraft.

  17. The NIRS Analysis Package: noise reduction and statistical inference.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Tomer; Rubin, Denis; Carlson, Joshua M; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2011-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique that can be used to measure cortical hemodynamic responses to specific stimuli or tasks. While analyses of NIRS data are normally adapted from established fMRI techniques, there are nevertheless substantial differences between the two modalities. Here, we investigate the impact of NIRS-specific noise; e.g., systemic (physiological), motion-related artifacts, and serial autocorrelations, upon the validity of statistical inference within the framework of the general linear model. We present a comprehensive framework for noise reduction and statistical inference, which is custom-tailored to the noise characteristics of NIRS. These methods have been implemented in a public domain Matlab toolbox, the NIRS Analysis Package (NAP). Finally, we validate NAP using both simulated and actual data, showing marked improvement in the detection power and reliability of NIRS.

  18. Digital Noise Reduction: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bentler, Ruth; Chiou, Li-Kuei

    2006-01-01

    Digital noise reduction schemes are being used in most hearing aids currently marketed. Unlike the earlier analog schemes, these manufacturer-specific algorithms are developed to acoustically analyze the incoming signal and alter the gain/output characteristics according to their predetermined rules. Although most are modulation-based schemes (ie, differentiating speech from noise based on temporal characteristics), spectral subtraction techniques are being applied as well. The purpose of this article is to overview these schemes in terms of their differences and similarities. PMID:16959731

  19. The Airframe Noise Reduction Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA goal of reducing external aircraft noise by 10 dB in the near-term presents the acoustics community with an enormous challenge. This report identifies technologies with the greatest potential to reduce airframe noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic effects will be discussed, along with the likelihood of industry accepting and implementing the different technologies. We investigate the lower bound, defined as noise generated by an aircraft modified with a virtual retrofit capable of eliminating all noise associated with the high lift system and landing gear. However, the airframe noise of an aircraft in this 'clean' configuration would only be about 8 dB quieter on approach than current civil transports. To achieve the NASA goal of 10 dB noise reduction will require that additional noise sources be addressed. Research shows that energy in the turbulent boundary layer of a wing is scattered as it crosses trailing edge. Noise generated by scattering is the dominant noise mechanism on an aircraft flying in the clean configuration. Eliminating scattering would require changes to much of the aircraft, and practical reduction devices have yet to receive serious attention. Evidence suggests that to meet NASA goals in civil aviation noise reduction, we need to employ emerging technologies and improve landing procedures; modified landing patterns and zoning restrictions could help alleviate aircraft noise in communities close to airports.

  20. Adaptive modulation of bilateral filtering based on a practical noise model for streaking and noise reduction in multi-slice CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lifeng; Manduca, Armando; Jacobsen, Megan; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Fletcher, Joel G.; DeLone, David R.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-04-01

    We have recently developed a locally-adaptive method for noise control in CT based upon bilateral filtering. Different from the previous adaptive filters, which were locally adaptive by adjusting the filter strength according to local photon statistics, our use of bilateral filtering in projection data incorporates a practical CT noise model and takes into account the local structural characteristics, and thus can preserve edge information in the projection data and maintain the spatial resolution. Despite the incorporation of the CT noise model and local structural characteristics in the bilateral filtering, the noise-resolution properties of the filtered image are still highly dependent on predefined parameters that control the weighting factors in the bilateral filtering. An inappropriate selection of these parameters may result in a loss of spatial resolution or an insufficient reduction of noise. In this work, we employed an adaptive strategy to modulate the bilateral filtering strength according to the noise-equivalent photon numbers determined from each projection measurement. We applied the proposed technique to head/neck angiographic CT exams, which had highly non-uniform attenuation levels during the scan. The results demonstrated that the technique can effectively reduce the noise and streaking artifacts caused by high attenuation, while maintaining the reconstruction accuracy in less attenuating regions.

  1. Supersonic jet shock noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Shock-cell noise is identified to be a potentially significant problem for advanced supersonic aircraft at takeoff. Therefore NASA conducted fundamental studies of the phenomena involved and model-scale experiments aimed at developing means of noise reduction. The results of a series of studies conducted to determine means by which supersonic jet shock noise can be reduced to acceptable levels for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft are reviewed. Theoretical studies were conducted on the shock associated noise of supersonic jets from convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles. Laboratory studies were conducted on the influence of narrowband shock screech on broadband noise and on means of screech reduction. The usefulness of C-D nozzle passages was investigated at model scale for single-stream and dual-stream nozzles. The effect of off-design pressure ratio was determined under static and simulated flight conditions for jet temperatures up to 960 K. Annular and coannular flow passages with center plugs and multi-element suppressor nozzles were evaluated, and the effect of plug tip geometry was established. In addition to the far-field acoustic data, mean and turbulent velocity distributions were measured with a laser velocimeter, and shadowgraph images of the flow field were obtained.

  2. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  3. Improvement of speech recognition by nonlinear noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanowicz, Krzysztof; Kantz, Holger

    2007-06-01

    The success of nonlinear noise reduction applied to a single channel recording of human voice is measured in terms of the recognition rate of a commercial speech recognition program in comparison to the optimal linear filter. The overall performance of the nonlinear method is shown to be superior. We hence demonstrate that an algorithm that has its roots in the theory of nonlinear deterministic dynamics possesses a large potential in a realistic application.

  4. Improvement of speech recognition by nonlinear noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Krzysztof; Kantz, Holger

    2007-06-01

    The success of nonlinear noise reduction applied to a single channel recording of human voice is measured in terms of the recognition rate of a commercial speech recognition program in comparison to the optimal linear filter. The overall performance of the nonlinear method is shown to be superior. We hence demonstrate that an algorithm that has its roots in the theory of nonlinear deterministic dynamics possesses a large potential in a realistic application.

  5. Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into fluidic injection for jet noise reduction began over 50 years ago. Studies have included water and air injection for the reduction of noise in scale model jets and jet engines and water injection for the reduction of excess overpressures on the Space Shuttle at lift-off. Injection systems have included high pressure microjets as well as larger scale injectors operating at pressures that can be achieved in real jet engines. An historical perspective highlighting noise reduction potential is presented for injection concepts investigated over the last 50 years. Results from recent investigations conducted at NASA are presented for supersonic and subsonic dual-stream jets. The noise reduction benefits achieved through fluidic contouring using an azimuthally controlled nozzle will be discussed.

  6. Noise reduction technologies implemented in head-worn preprocessors for improving cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Nelson, Lance; Teske, Melissa

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a multichannel adaptive directional microphone and a modulation-based noise reduction algorithm could enhance cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields. A hearing aid was modified to output electrical signals (ePreprocessor) and a cochlear implant speech processor was modified to receive electrical signals (eProcessor). The ePreprocessor was programmed to flat frequency response and linear amplification. Cochlear implant listeners wore the ePreprocessor-eProcessor system in three reverberant noise fields: 1) one noise source with variable locations; 2) three noise sources with variable locations; and 3) eight evenly spaced noise sources from 0° to 360°. Listeners' speech recognition scores were tested when the ePreprocessor was programmed to omnidirectional microphone (OMNI), omnidirectional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (OMNI + NR), and adaptive directional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (ADM + NR). They were also tested with their own cochlear implant speech processor (CI_OMNI) in the three noise fields. Additionally, listeners rated overall sound quality preferences on recordings made in the noise fields. Results indicated that ADM+NR produced the highest speech recognition scores and the most preferable rating in all noise fields. Factors requiring attention in the hearing aid-cochlear implant integration process are discussed.

  7. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis; Gliebe, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Highlights from NASA-funded research over the past ten years for aircraft engine noise reduction are presented showing overall technical plans, accomplishments, and selected applications to turbofan engines. The work was sponsored by NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Emphasis is given to only the engine noise reduction research and significant accomplishments that were investigated at Technology Readiness Levels ranging from 4 to 6. The Engine Noise Reduction sub-element was divided into four work areas: source noise prediction, model scale tests, engine validation, and active noise control. Highlights from each area include technologies for higher bypass ratio turbofans, scarf inlets, forward-swept fans, swept and leaned stators, chevron/tabbed nozzles, advanced noise prediction analyses, and active noise control for fans. Finally, an industry perspective is given from General Electric Aircraft Engines showing how these technologies are being applied to commercial products. This publication contains only presentation vu-graphs from an invited lecture given at the 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 6-9, 2003.

  8. NASA's Subsonic Jet Transport Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Preisser, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Although new jet transport airplanes in today s fleet are considerably quieter than the first jet transports introduced about 40 years ago, airport community noise continues to be an important environmental issue. NASA s Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction program was begun in 1994 as a seven-year effort to develop technology to reduce jet transport noise 10 dB relative to 1992 technology. This program provides for reductions in engine source noise, improvements in nacelle acoustic treatments, reductions in the noise generated by the airframe, and improvements in the way airplanes are operated in the airport environs. These noise reduction efforts will terminate at the end of 2001 and it appears that the objective will be met. However, because of an anticipated 3-8% growth in passenger and cargo operations well into the 21st Century and the slow introduction of new the noise reduction technology into the fleet, world aircraft noise impact will remain essentially constant until about 2020 to 2030 and thereafter begin to rise. Therefore NASA has begun planning with the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, universities and environmental interest groups in the USA for a new noise reduction initiative to provide technology for significant further reductions.

  9. Noise Reduction Technologies for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress continues to be made with noise reduction for turbofan engines. NASA has conducted and sponsored research aimed at reducing noise from commercial aircraft. Since it takes many years for technologies to be developed and implemented, it is important to have aggressive technology goals that lead the target entry into service dates. Engine noise is one of the major contributors to the overall sound levels as aircraft operate near airports. Turbofan engines are commonly used on commercial transports due to their advantage for higher performance and lower noise. The noise reduction comes from combinations of changes to the engine cycle parameters and low noise design features. In this paper, an overview of major accomplishments from recent NASA research programs for engine noise will be given.

  10. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  11. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  12. Electromagnetic films as lightweight actuators for active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, Delf; Kletschkowski, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The increasing industrialization and markets across the globe do result in noise pollution that affects humans. In order to reduce the sound pressure level (SPL) of disturbing noise active noise control (also known as noise cancellation, active noise reduction (ANR) or anti-noise) is a good option. Herewith unwanted noise from a primary sound source can be reduced significantly by anti-noise generated from a secondary source: At present commercial active noise reduction systems are using moving-coil loudspeakers as actuators. These actuators need a quite large built-in volume and they are not lightweight. Therefore the industrial application of ANR in vehicles is limited. To reduce these difficulties the use of flat loudspeakers made of electromagnetic films seems to be a promising approach. It is a precondition for the use of such new technologies within an ANR- system to have a basic understanding of the dynamic systems behaviour and the sound transmission behaviour of such a lightweight active component: This paper describes the investigation of a flat panel speaker which is based on electrostatic loudspeaker technology. First of all the passive transmission properties have been measured in a test bed. The passive acoustic insulation has been analyzed and weak spots in the frequency response were discovered. Afterwards the flat panel speaker has been used as actuator in an ANR-System to support insulation at those frequencies. An adaptive filter (FxLMS) was adjusted to the panel and the reduction capabilities of a single-output system have been determined.

  13. A beamformer post-filter for cochlear implant noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Hersbach, Adam A; Grayden, David B; Fallon, James B; McDermott, Hugh J

    2013-04-01

    Cochlear implant users have limited ability to understand speech in noisy conditions. Signal processing methods to address this issue that use multiple microphones typically use beamforming to perform noise reduction. However, the effectiveness of the beamformer is diminished as the number of interfering noises increases and the acoustic environment becomes more diffuse. A multi-microphone noise reduction algorithm that aims to address this issue is presented in this study. The algorithm uses spatial filtering to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and attenuates time-frequency elements that have poor SNR. The algorithm was evaluated by measuring intelligibility of speech embedded in 4-talker babble where the interfering talkers were spatially separated and changed location during the test. Twelve cochlear implant users took part in the evaluation, which demonstrated a significant mean improvement of 4.6 dB (standard error 0.4, P < 0.001) in speech reception threshold compared to an adaptive beamformer. The results suggest that a substantial improvement in performance can be gained for cochlear implant users in noisy environments where the noise is spatially separated from the target speech.

  14. Distributed Exhaust Nozzles for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J.; Hellman, B.; Schein, D. B.; Solomon, W. D., Jr.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to validate the jet noise reduction potential of a concept associated with distributed exhaust nozzles. Under this concept the propulsive thrust is generated by a larger number of discrete plumes issuing from an array of small or mini-nozzles. The potential of noise reduction of this concept stems from the fact that a large number of small jets will produce very high frequency noise and also, if spaced suitably, they will coalesce at a smaller velocity to produce low amplitude, low frequency noise. This is accomplished through detailed acoustic and fluid measurements along with a Computational Fluidic Dynamic (CFD) solution of the mean (DE) Distributed Exhaust nozzle flowfield performed by Northrop-Grumman. The acoustic performance is quantified in an anechoic chamber. Farfield acoustic data is acquired for a DE nozzle as well as a round nozzle of the same area. Both these types of nozzles are assessed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques. The CFD analysis ensures that both nozzles issued the same amount of airflow for a given nozzle pressure ratio. Data at a variety of nozzle pressure ratios are acquired at a range of polar and azimuthal angles. Flow visualization of the DE nozzle is used to assess the fluid dynamics of the small jet interactions. Results show that at high subsonic jet velocities, the DE nozzle shifts its frequency of peak amplitude to a higher frequency relative to a round nozzle of equivalent area (from a S(sub tD) = 0.24 to 1. 3). Furthermore, the DE nozzle shows reduced sound pressure levels (as much as 4 - 8 dB) in the low frequency part of the spectrum (less than S(sub tD) = 0.24 ) compared to the round nozzle. At supersonic jet velocities, the DE nozzle does not exhibit the jet screech and the shock-associated broadband noise is reduced by as much as 12 dB.

  15. Long-range accelerated BOTDA sensor using adaptive linear prediction and cyclic coding.

    PubMed

    Muanenda, Yonas; Taki, Mohammad; Pasquale, Fabrizio Di

    2014-09-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a long-range accelerated Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor that exploits the complementary noise reduction benefits of adaptive linear prediction and optical pulse coding. The combined technique allows using orders of magnitude less the number of averages of the backscattered BOTDA traces compared to a standard single pulse BOTDA, enabling distributed strain measurement over 10 km of a standard single mode fiber with meter-scale spatial resolution and 1.8 MHz Brillouin frequency shift resolution. By optimizing the system parameters, the measurement is achieved with only 20 averages for each Brillouin gain spectrum scanned frequency, allowing for an eight times faster strain measurement compared to the use of cyclic pulse coding alone.

  16. Evaluation of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Noise Reduction Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Rawls, John W., Jr.; Russell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a detailed evaluation of the aircraft noise reduction technology concepts developed during the course of the NASA/FAA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. In 1992, NASA and the FAA initiated a cosponsored, multi-year program with the U.S. aircraft industry focused on achieving significant advances in aircraft noise reduction. The program achieved success through a systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology. Using the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program, the noise reduction benefit of the technologies that reached a NASA technology readiness level of 5 or 6 were applied to each of four classes of aircraft which included a large four engine aircraft, a large twin engine aircraft, a small twin engine aircraft and a business jet. Total aircraft noise reductions resulting from the implementation of the appropriate technologies for each class of aircraft are presented and compared to the AST program goals.

  17. CMOS image sensor noise reduction method for image signal processor in digital cameras and camera phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Youngjin; Lee, SeongDeok; Choe, Wonhee; Kim, Chang-Yong

    2007-02-01

    Digital images captured from CMOS image sensors suffer Gaussian noise and impulsive noise. To efficiently reduce the noise in Image Signal Processor (ISP), we analyze noise feature for imaging pipeline of ISP where noise reduction algorithm is performed. The Gaussian noise reduction and impulsive noise reduction method are proposed for proper ISP implementation in Bayer domain. The proposed method takes advantage of the analyzed noise feature to calculate noise reduction filter coefficients. Thus, noise is adaptively reduced according to the scene environment. Since noise is amplified and characteristic of noise varies while the image sensor signal undergoes several image processing steps, it is better to remove noise in earlier stage on imaging pipeline of ISP. Thus, noise reduction is carried out in Bayer domain on imaging pipeline of ISP. The method is tested on imaging pipeline of ISP and images captured from Samsung 2M CMOS image sensor test module. The experimental results show that the proposed method removes noise while effectively preserves edges.

  18. Local surface plasmon mediated extraordinary optical transmission of multi-spatial-mode quantum noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, Benjamin J; Evans, Philip G; Pooser, Raphael C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent transduction of quantum noise reduction, or squeezed light, by Ag localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Squeezed light, generated through four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor, is coupled to a Ag nanohole array designed to exhibit LSP mediated extraordinary-optical transmission (EOT) spectrally coincident with the squeezed light source at 795 nm. We demonstrate that quantum noise reduction as a function of transmission is found to match closely with linear attenuation models, thus demonstrating that the photon-LSP-photon transduction process is coherent near the LSP resonance.

  19. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways.

  20. Fluidic Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Henderson, Brenda; Whitmire, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Chevron mixing devices are used to reduce noise from commercial separate-flow turbofan engines. Mechanical chevron serrations at the nozzle trailing edge generate axial vorticity that enhances jet plume mixing and consequently reduces far-field noise. Fluidic chevrons generated with air injected near the nozzle trailing edge create a vorticity field similar to that of the mechanical chevrons and allow more flexibility in controlling acoustic and thrust performance than a passive mechanical design. In addition, the design of such a system has the future potential for actively controlling jet noise by pulsing or otherwise optimally distributing the injected air. Scale model jet noise experiments have been performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to investigate the fluidic chevron concept. Acoustic data from different fluidic chevron designs are shown. Varying degrees of noise reduction are achieved depending on the injection pattern and injection flow conditions. CFD results were used to select design concepts that displayed axial vorticity growth similar to that associated with mechanical chevrons and qualitatively describe the air injection flow and the impact on acoustic performance.

  1. Feasibility of noise reduction by a modification in ICU environment.

    PubMed

    Luetz, A; Weiss, B; Penzel, T; Fietze, I; Glos, M; Wernecke, K D; Bluemke, B; Dehn, A M; Willemeit, T; Finke, A; Spies, C

    2016-07-01

    Noise is a proven cause of wakefulness and qualitative sleep disturbance in critically ill patients. A sound pressure level reduction can improve sleep quality, but there are no studies showing the feasibility of such a noise reduction in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Considering all available evidence, we redesigned two ICU rooms with the aim of investigating the physiological and clinical impact of a healing environment, including a noise reduction and day-night variations of sound level. Within an experimental design, we recorded 96 h of sound-pressure levels in standard ICU rooms and the modified ICU rooms. In addition, we performed a sound source observation by human observers. Our results show that we reduced A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels and maximum sound pressure levels with our architectural interventions. During night-time, the modification led to a significant decrease in 50 dB threshold overruns from 65.5% to 39.9% (door side) and from 50% to 10.5% (window side). Sound peaks of more than 60 decibels were significantly reduced from 62.0% to 26.7% (door side) and 59.3% to 30.3% (window side). Time-series analysis of linear trends revealed a significantly more distinct day-night pattern in the modified rooms with lower sound levels during night-times. Observed sound sources during night revealed four times as many talking events in the standard room compared to the modified room. In summary, we show that it is feasible to reduce sound pressure levels using architectural modifications.

  2. Summary of noise reduction characteristics of typical general aviation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Grosveld, F.; Van Aken, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a large number of systematic tests to determine noise reduction characteristics of general aviation materials. Effects of material type (metallic and composite), thickness, panel stiffening, vibration damping materials, sound absorption materials and pressurization on noise reduction are included. Several promising methods for reducing cabin interior noise in light airplanes are discussed based on the results.

  3. High-Speed Jet Noise Reduction NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Handy, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    History shows that the problem of high-speed jet noise reduction is difficult to solve. the good news is that high performance military aircraft noise is dominated by a single source called 'jet noise' (commercial aircraft have several sources). The bad news is that this source has been the subject of research for the past 50 years and progress has been incremental. Major jet noise reduction has been achieved through changing the cycle of the engine to reduce the jet exit velocity. Smaller reductions have been achieved using suppression devices like mixing enhancement and acoustic liners. Significant jet noise reduction without any performance loss is probably not possible! Recent NASA Noise Reduction Research Programs include the High Speed Research Program, Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program, Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program - Fundamental Noise, and Quiet Aircraft Technology Program.

  4. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  5. Simple noise-reduction method based on nonlinear forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, James P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Nonparametric detrending or noise reduction methods are often employed to separate trends from noisy time series when no satisfactory models exist to fit the data. However, conventional noise reduction methods depend on subjective choices of smoothing parameters. Here we present a simple multivariate noise reduction method based on available nonlinear forecasting techniques. These are in turn based on state-space reconstruction for which a strong theoretical justification exists for their use in nonparametric forecasting. The noise reduction method presented here is conceptually similar to Schreiber's noise reduction method using state-space reconstruction. However, we show that Schreiber's method has a minor flaw that can be overcome with forecasting. Furthermore, our method contains a simple but nontrivial extension to multivariate time series. We apply the method to multivariate time series generated from the Van der Pol oscillator, the Lorenz equations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model of neuronal spiking activity, and to two other univariate real-world data sets. It is demonstrated that noise reduction heuristics can be objectively optimized with in-sample forecasting errors that correlate well with actual noise reduction errors.

  6. Noise reduction combining time-frequency epsilon-filter and M-transform.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomomi; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces noise reduction combining time-frequency epsilon-filter (TF epsilon-filter) and time-frequency M-transform (TF M-transform). Musical noise is an offensive noise generated due to noise reduction in the time-frequency domain such as spectral subtraction and TF epsilon-filter. It has a deleterious effect on speech recognition. To solve the problem, M-transform is introduced. M-transform is a linear transform based on M-sequence. The method combining the time-domain epsilon-filter (TD epsilon-filter) and time-domain M-transform (TD M-transform) can reduce not only white noise but also impulse noise. Musical noise is isolated in the time-frequency domain, which is similar to impulse noise in the time domain. On these prospects, this paper aims to reduce musical noise by improving M-transform for the time-frequency domain. Noise reduction by using TD M-transform and the TD epsilon-filter is first explained to clarify its features. Then, an improved method applying M-transform to the time-frequency domain, namely TF M-transform, is described. Noise reduction combining the TF epsilon-filter and TF M-transform is also proposed. The proposed method can reduce not only high-level nonstationary noise but also musical noise. Experimental results are also given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  7. Cascaded systems analysis of noise reduction algorithms in dual-energy imaging.

    PubMed

    Richard, Samuel; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2008-02-01

    An important aspect of dual-energy (DE) x-ray image decomposition is the incorporation of noise reduction techniques to mitigate the amplification of quantum noise. This article extends cascaded systems analysis of imaging performance to DE imaging systems incorporating linear noise reduction algorithms. A general analytical formulation of linear DE decomposition is derived, with weighted log subtraction and several previously reported noise reduction algorithms emerging as special cases. The DE image noise-power spectrum (NPS) and modulation transfer function (MTF) demonstrate that noise reduction algorithms impart significant, nontrivial effects on the spatial-frequency-dependent transfer characteristics which do not cancel out of the noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ). Theoretical predictions were validated in comparison to the measured NPS and MTF. The resulting NEQ was integrated with spatial-frequency-dependent task functions to yield the detectability index, d', for evaluation of DE imaging performance using different decomposition algorithms. For a 3 mm lung nodule detection task, the detectability index varied from d' < 1 (i.e., nodule barely visible) in the absence of noise reduction to d' > 2.5 (i.e., nodule clearly visible) for "anti-correlated noise reduction" (ACNR) or "simple-smoothing of the high-energy image" (SSH) algorithms applied to soft-tissue or bone-only decompositions, respectively. Optimal dose allocation (A*, the fraction of total dose delivered in the low-energy projection) was also found to depend on the choice of noise reduction technique. At fixed total dose, multi-function optimization suggested a significant increase in optimal dose allocation from A* = 0.32 for conventional log subtraction to A* = 0.79 for ACNR and SSH in soft-tissue and bone-only decompositions, respectively. Cascaded systems analysis extended to the general formulation of DE image decomposition provided an objective means of investigating DE imaging performance across

  8. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  9. Smooth local subspace projection for nonlinear noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Chelidze, David

    2014-03-15

    Many nonlinear or chaotic time series exhibit an innate broad spectrum, which makes noise reduction difficult. Local projective noise reduction is one of the most effective tools. It is based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and works for both map-like and continuously sampled time series. However, POD only looks at geometrical or topological properties of data and does not take into account the temporal characteristics of time series. Here, we present a new smooth projective noise reduction method. It uses smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of bundles of reconstructed short-time trajectory strands to identify smooth local subspaces. Restricting trajectories to these subspaces imposes temporal smoothness on the filtered time series. It is shown that SOD-based noise reduction significantly outperforms the POD-based method for continuously sampled noisy time series.

  10. Subjective ratings of noise-reduction hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Kuk, F K; Tyler, R S; Mims, L

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of seven commercially available noise-reduction hearing aids was evaluated using subjective ratings of continuous discourse. Subjective scales of listening comfort, speech quality, speech understanding, noise interference, and overall liking were used. Fifteen experienced hearing-aid users participated. Two hearing aids that used amplitude compression (Audiotone A-54 and Telex 363C), two hearing aids that used the Zeta Noise Blocker (two versions of a Maico SP147), and three hearing aids that proportionally attenuated the low-frequencies (Rion HB-69AS, Richards ASE-B, and Siemens 283 ASP) were evaluated. None of the noise-reduction hearing aids significantly altered group performance on any subjective scale. Individually, however, subjects responded differently to different noise-reduction hearing aids, indicating that some noise-reduction hearing aids may help some hearing-impaired individuals.

  11. Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

    2014-09-01

    Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners.

  12. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  13. Effects of noise reduction on speech intelligibility, perceived listening effort, and personal preference in hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2014-10-13

    This study evaluates the perceptual effects of single-microphone noise reduction in hearing aids. Twenty subjects with moderate sensorineural hearing loss listened to speech in babble noise processed via noise reduction from three different linearly fitted hearing aids. Subjects performed (a) speech-intelligibility tests, (b) listening-effort ratings, and (c) paired-comparison ratings on noise annoyance, speech naturalness, and overall preference. The perceptual effects of noise reduction differ between hearing aids. The results agree well with those of normal-hearing listeners in a previous study. None of the noise-reduction algorithms improved speech intelligibility, but all reduced the annoyance of noise. The noise reduction that scored best with respect to noise annoyance and preference had the worst intelligibility scores. The trade-off between intelligibility and listening comfort shows that preference measurements might be useful in addition to intelligibility measurements in the selection of noise reduction. Additionally, this trade-off should be taken into consideration to create realistic expectations in hearing-aid users.

  14. Low Delay Noise Reduction and Dereverberation for Hearing Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löllmann (Eurasip Member), Heinrich W.; Vary, Peter

    2009-12-01

    A new system for single-channel speech enhancement is proposed which achieves a joint suppression of late reverberant speech and background noise with a low signal delay and low computational complexity. It is based on a generalized spectral subtraction rule which depends on the variances of the late reverberant speech and background noise. The calculation of the spectral variances of the late reverberant speech requires an estimate of the reverberation time (RT) which is accomplished by a maximum likelihood (ML) approach. The enhancement with this blind RT estimation achieves almost the same speech quality as by using the actual RT. In comparison to commonly used post-filters in hearing aids which only perform a noise reduction, a significantly better objective and subjective speech quality is achieved. The proposed system performs time-domain filtering with coefficients adapted in the non-uniform (Bark-scaled) frequency-domain. This allows to achieve a high speech quality with low signal delay which is important for speech enhancement in hearing aids or related applications such as hands-free communication systems.

  15. Noise Reduction for a MEMS-Gyroscope-Based Head Mouse.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiaying; Gerdtman, Christer; Lindén, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different signal processing algorithms which can be applied to reduce the noise from a MEMS-gyroscope-based computer head mouse are presented. MEMS-gyroscopes are small, light, cheap and widely used in many electrical products. MultiPos, a MEMS-gyroscope-based computer head mouse system was designed for persons with movement disorders. Noise such as physiological tremor and electrical noise is a common problem for the MultiPos system. In this study four different signal processing algorithms were applied and evaluated by simulation in MATLAB and implementation in a dsPIC, with aim to minimize the noise in MultiPos. The algorithms were low-pass filter, Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm, Kalman filter and Weighted Fourier Linear Combiner (WFLC) algorithm. Comparisons and system tests show that these signal processing algorithms can be used to improve the MultiPos system. The WFLC algorithm was found the best method for noise reduction in the application of a MEMS-gyroscope-based head mouse.

  16. Recruitment-of-loudness effects of attenuative noise reduction algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmal, Nathaniel; Vosoughi, Azadeh

    2002-05-01

    Hearing-impaired listeners have greater difficulty understanding speech in noise than normal-hearing listeners do. As a result, hearing aid users are often challenged by the inability of their hearing aids to improve intelligibility in noise. Several investigators have addressed this problem by using well-known signal processing methods (e.g., spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering) to enhance noise-corrupted speech. Unfortunately, these methods have failed to provide significant improvements in intelligibility. One possible explanation is the level-dependent nature of the attenuation that the algorithms impose on the speech. In the cases described above, this attenuation resembles the piecewise-linear input-output characteristic observed in certain recruitment-of-loudness simulators. The purpose of this study was to compare the intelligibility of processed speech with that expected for recruitment-of-loudness simulation. Trials of the CUNY Nonsense Syllable Test were conducted with 12 normal-hearing listeners, using syllables that were mixed with additive noise at SNRs of 6, 12, and 18 dB. Input-output characteristics for the signals were measured and used to determine the effective threshold shift imposed by the algorithms. Comparisons of measured intelligibility scores with articulation index-based intelligibility predictions indicate that the behavior of such noise reduction algorithms can be successfully modeled as a form of mild sensorineural hearing loss.

  17. Portal imaging: Performance improvement in noise reduction by means of wavelet processing.

    PubMed

    González-López, Antonio; Morales-Sánchez, Juan; Larrey-Ruiz, Jorge; Bastida-Jumilla, María-Consuelo; Verdú-Monedero, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the suitability, in terms of noise reduction, of various methods which can be applied to an image type often used in radiation therapy: the portal image. Among these methods, the analysis focuses on those operating in the wavelet domain. Wavelet-based methods tested on natural images--such as the thresholding of the wavelet coefficients, the minimization of the Stein unbiased risk estimator on a linear expansion of thresholds (SURE-LET), and the Bayes least-squares method using as a prior a Gaussian scale mixture (BLS-GSM method)--are compared with other methods that operate on the image domain--an adaptive Wiener filter and a nonlocal mean filter (NLM). For the assessment of the performance, the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), the structural similarity index (SSIM), the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Spearman rank correlation (ρ) coefficient are used. The performance of the wavelet filters and the NLM method are similar, but wavelet filters outperform the Wiener filter in terms of portal image denoising. It is shown how BLS-GSM and NLM filters produce the smoothest image, while keeping soft-tissue and bone contrast. As for the computational cost, filters using a decimated wavelet transform (decimated thresholding and SURE-LET) turn out to be the most efficient, with calculation times around 1 s.

  18. Wind Noise Reduction in a Non-Porous Subsurface Windscreen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Shams, Qamar A.; Knight, H. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of wind noise reduction were conducted on a box-shaped, subsurface windscreen made of closed cell polyurethane foam. The windscreen was installed in the ground with the lid flush with the ground surface. The wind was generated by means of a fan, situated on the ground, and the wind speed was measured at the center of the windscreen lid with an ultrasonic anemometer. The wind speed was controlled by moving the fan to selected distances from the windscreen. The wind noise was measured on a PCB Piezotronics 3†electret microphone. Wind noise spectra were measured with the microphone exposed directly to the wind (atop the windscreen lid) and with the microphone installed inside the windscreen. The difference between the two spectra comprises the wind noise reduction. At wind speeds of 3, 5, and 7 m/s, the wind noise reduction is typically 15 dB over the frequency range of 0.1-20 Hz.

  19. Digital Image Processing for Noise Reduction in Medical Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupas, Thanasis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The purpose of this project was to investigate the application of digital image processing techniques as a means of reducing noise in medical ultrasonic imaging. Ultrasonic images suffer primarily from a type of acoustic noise, known as speckle, which is generally regarded as a major source of image quality degradation. The origin of speckle, its statistical properties as well as methods suggested to eliminate this artifact were reviewed. A simple model which can characterize the statistics of speckle on displays was also developed. A large number of digital noise reduction techniques was investigated. These include frame averaging techniques performed by commercially available devices and spatial filters implemented in software. Among the latter, some filters have been proposed in the scientific literature for ultrasonic, laser and microwave speckle or general noise suppression and the rest are original, developed specifically to suppress ultrasonic speckle. Particular emphasis was placed on adaptive techniques which adjust the processing performed at each point according to the local image content. In this way, they manage to suppress speckle with negligible loss of genuine image detail. Apart from preserving the diagnostically significant features of a scan another requirement a technique must satisfy before it is accepted in routine clinical practice is real-time operation. A spatial filter capable of satisfying both these requirements was designed and built in hardware using low-cost and readily available components. The possibility of incorporating all the necessary filter circuitry into a single VLSI chip was also investigated. In order to establish the effectiveness and usefulness of speckle suppression, a representative sample from the techniques examined here was applied to a large number of abdominal scans and their effect on image quality was evaluated. Finally, further

  20. Jet Noise Reduction by Microjets - A Parametric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of injecting tiny secondary jets (microjets ) on the radiated noise from a subsonic primary jet is studied experimentally. The microjets are injected on to the primary jet near the nozzle exit with variable port geometry, working fluid and driving pressure. A clear noise reduction is observed that improves with increasing jet pressure. It is found that smaller diameter ports with higher driving pressure, but involving less thrust and mass fraction, can produce better noise reduction. A collection of data from the present as well as past experiments is examined in an attempt to correlate the noise reduction with the operating parameters. The results indicate that turbulent mixing noise reduction, as monitored by OASPL at a shallow angle, correlates with the ratio of jet to primary jet driving pressures normalized by the ratio of corresponding diameters (p d /pjD). With gaseous injection, the spectral amplitudes decrease at lower frequencies while an increase is noted at higher frequencies. It is apparent that this amplitude crossover is at least partly due to shock-associated noise from the underexpanded jets themselves. Such crossover is not seen with water injection since the flow in that case is incompressible and there is no shock-associated noise. Centerline velocity data show that larger noise reduction is accompanied by faster jet decay as well as significant reduction in turbulence intensities. While a physical understanding of the dependence of noise reduction on p d /pjD remains unclear, given this correlation, an analysis explains the observed dependence of the effect on various other parameters.

  1. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  2. Department of Navy Jet Noise Reduction Project Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Leadership direction, the Office of Naval Research initiated the Jet Noise Reduction (JNR) Project as part of the Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ( NIHL ) Program...Naval Research initiated the Jet Noise Reduction (JNR) Project as part of the Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ( NIHL ) Program. The JNR Project’s over...ONR Code 342 5 2007: ASN(RD&A) request to address hearing loss prevention 2008: ASN(RD&A), ASN(I&E), CNR approval of FY09-17 NIHL roadmap NIHL /JNR

  3. Adaptive Noise Reduction Techniques for Airborne Acoustic Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    25 4.3 Super Kraft Monocoupe 90A RC airplane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.4 Access panel for fuselage of...begin clipping. This is an important consideration for airborne acoustic sensing, as the sound level aboard a UAV must not cause saturation of the...specifications of the Monocoupe used for this experiment are in Table 4.3. 26 Figure 4.3: Super Kraft Monocoupe 90A RC airplane. Figure 4.4: Access panel for

  4. Quantitative evaluation of noise reduction strategies in dual-energy imaging.

    PubMed

    Warp, Richard J; Dobbins, James T

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we describe a quantitative evaluation of the performance of three dual-energy noise reduction algorithms: Kalender's correlated noise reduction (KCNR), noise clipping (NOC), and edge-predictive adaptive smoothing (EPAS). These algorithms were compared to a simple smoothing filter approach, using the variance and noise power spectrum measurements of the residual noise in dual-energy images acquired with an a-Si TFT flat-panel x-ray detector. An estimate of the true noise was made through a new method with subpixel accuracy by subtracting an individual image from an ensemble average image. The results indicate that in the lung regions of the tissue image, all three algorithms reduced the noise by similar percentages at high spatial frequencies (KCNR=88%, NOC=88%, EPAS=84%, NOC/KCNR=88%) and somewhat less at low spatial frequencies (KCNR=45%, NOC=54%, EPAS=52%, NOC/KCNR=55%). At low frequencies, the presence of edge artifacts from KCNR made the performance worse, thus NOC or NOC combined with KCNR performed best. At high frequencies, KCNR performed best in the bone image, yet NOC performed best in the tissue image. Noise reduction strategies in dual-energy imaging can be effective and should focus on blending various algorithms depending on anatomical locations.

  5. An assessment of propeller aircraft noise reduction technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This report is a review of the literature regarding propeller airplane far-field noise reduction. Near-field and cabin noise reduction are not specifically addressed. However, some of the approaches used to reduce far-field noise produce beneficial effects in the near-field and in the cabin. The emphasis is on propeller noise reduction but engine exhaust noise reduction by muffling is also addressed since the engine noise becomes a significant part of the aircraft noise signature when propeller noise is reduced. It is concluded that there is a substantial body of information available that can be used as the basis to reduce propeller airplane noise. The reason that this information is not often used in airplane design is the associated weight, cost, and performance penalties. It is recommended that the highest priority be given to research for reducing the penalties associated with lower operating RPM and propeller diameter while increasing the number of blades. Research to reduce engine noise and explore innovative propeller concepts is also recommended.

  6. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  7. Circular cylinders with soft porous cover for flow noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-03-01

    The use of porous materials is one of several approaches to passively control or minimize the generation of flow noise. In order to investigate the possible reduction of noise from struts and other protruding parts (for example components of the landing gear or pantographs), acoustic measurements were taken in a small aeroacoustic wind tunnel on a set of circular cylinders with a soft porous cover. The aim of this study was to identify those materials that result in the best noise reduction, which refers to both tonal noise and broadband noise. The porous covers were characterized by their air flow resistivity, a parameter describing the permeability of an open-porous material. The results show that materials with low air flow resistivities lead to a noticeable flow noise reduction. Thereby, the main effect of the porous cylinder covers is that the spectral peak of the aeolian tone due to vortex shedding appears much narrower, but is not suppressed completely. Based on the measurement results, a basic model for the estimation of the total peak level of the aeolian tone was derived. In addition to the minimization of the vortex shedding noise, a reduction of broadband noise can be observed, especially at higher Reynolds numbers. The noise reduction increases with decreasing air flow resistivity of the porous covers, which means that materials that are highly permeable to air result in the best noise reduction.

  8. Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Z

    2011-12-22

    Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

  9. SVD-Based Optimal Filtering Technique for Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids Using Two Microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, Jean-Baptiste; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2002-12-01

    We introduce a new SVD-based (Singular value decomposition) strategy for noise reduction in hearing aids. This technique is evaluated for noise reduction in a behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid where two omnidirectional microphones are mounted in an endfire configuration. The behaviour of the SVD-based technique is compared to a two-stage adaptive beamformer for hearing aids developed by Vanden Berghe and Wouters (1998). The evaluation and comparison is done with a performance metric based on the speech intelligibility index (SII). The speech and noise signals are recorded in reverberant conditions with a signal-to-noise ratio of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and the spectrum of the noise signals is similar to the spectrum of the speech signal. The SVD-based technique works without initialization nor assumptions about a look direction, unlike the two-stage adaptive beamformer. Still, for different noise scenarios, the SVD-based technique performs as well as the two-stage adaptive beamformer, for a similar filter length and adaptation time for the filter coefficients. In a diffuse noise scenario, the SVD-based technique performs better than the two-stage adaptive beamformer and hence provides a more flexible and robust solution under speaker position variations and reverberant conditions.

  10. PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION USING ADAPTIVE LINEAR NEURON DEVICES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    adaption by an adaptive linear neuron ( Adaline ), as applied to the pattern recognition and classification problem; (2) Four possible iterative adaption...schemes which may be used to train as Adaline ; (3) Use of Multiple Adalines (Madaline) and two logic layers to increase system capability; and (4) Use...of Adaline in the practical fields of Speech Recognition, Weather Forecasting and Adaptive Control Systems and the possible use of Madaline in the Character Recognition field.

  11. Train noise reduction scenarios for compliance with future noise legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leth, S.

    2003-10-01

    The Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) for high-speed trains on the European market includes limits on noise emission. These and other future restrictions on exterior noise of high-speed and intercity trains will require that train manufacturers implement noise control measures early in the design phase. A fundamental problem faced by manufacturers during the design process is determining how much noise reduction is required for each of the various noise sources on the train in order to achieve an optimal balance. To illustrate this process, estimates are presented of the contributions from different sources on existing Bombardier trains, based on measured data, numerical calculations and empirical formulae. In addition, methods of achieving the required noise reductions for different sources are briefly discussed along with targets for future exterior noise emission. Measurement results presented demonstrate the importance of track quality in noise emission. Noise restrictions, including future legislation, must give proper recognition to this important parameter.

  12. Low-frequency noise reduction of lightweight airframe structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getline, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the noise attenuation characteristics of aircraft type fuselage structural panels were presented. Of particular interest was noise attenuation at low frequencies, below the fundamental resonances of the panels. All panels were flightweight structures for transport type aircraft in the 34,050 to 45,400 kg (75,000 to 100,000 pounds) gross weight range. Test data include the results of vibration and acoustic transmission loss tests on seven types of isotropic and orthotropically stiffened, flat and curved panels. The results show that stiffness controlled acoustically integrated structures can provide very high noise reductions at low frequencies without significantly affecting their high frequency noise reduction capabilities.

  13. Aircraft interior noise reduction by alternate resonance tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Gottwald, James A.; Srinivasan, Ramakrishna; Gustaveson, Mark B.

    1990-01-01

    Existing interior noise reduction techniques for aircraft fuselages perform reasonably well at higher frequencies, but are inadequate at lower frequencies, particularly with respect to the low blade passage harmonics with high forcing levels found in propeller aircraft. A method is being studied which considers aircraft fuselage lined with panels alternately tuned to frequencies above and below the frequency that must be attenuated. Adjacent panels would oscillate at equal amplitude, to give equal source strength, but with opposite phase. Provided these adjacent panels are acoustically compact, the resulting cancellation causes the interior acoustic modes to become cutoff, and therefore be non-propagating and evanescent. This interior noise reduction method, called Alternate Resonance Tuning (ART), is currently being investigated both theoretically and experimentally. This new concept has potential application to reducing interior noise due to the propellers in advanced turboprop aircraft as well as for existing aircraft configurations.

  14. Amplitude Noise Reduction of Ion Lasers with Optical Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in amplitude noise on the output of a multi-mode continuous-wave Ar-ion laser was previously demonstrated when a fraction of the output power was retroreflected back into the laser cavity. This result was reproduced in the present work and a Fabry-Perot etalon was used to monitor the longitudinal mode structure of the laser. A decrease in the number of operating longitudinal cavity modes was observed simultaneously with the introduction of the optical feedback and the onset of the amplitude noise reduction. The noise reduction is a result of a reduced number of lasing modes, resulting in less mode beating and amplitude fluctuations of the laser output power.

  15. Future developments in transport aircraft noise reduction technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pendley, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During the past 13 years, important advances in the technology of aircraft noise control have resulted from industry and government research programs. Quieter commercial transport airplanes have entered the fleet and additional new designs now committed to production will begin service in a few years. This paper indicates the noise reductions that will be achieved by the quieter transports that will replace the older designs and remarks on the outlook for still quieter designs.

  16. Experimental Quiet Sprocket Design and Noise Reduction in Tracked Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Track and Suspension Noise Reduction Statistical Energy Analysis Mechanical Impedance Measurement Finite Element Modal Analysis\\Noise Sources 2...shape and idler attachment are different. These differen- ces were investigated using the concepts of statistical energy analysis for hull generated noise...element r,’calculated from Statistical Energy Analysis . Such an approach will be valid within reasonable limits for frequencies of about 200 Hz and

  17. NASA Noise Reduction Program for Advanced Subsonic Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft noise is an important byproduct of the world's air transportation system. Because of growing public interest and sensitivity to noise, noise reduction technology is becoming increasingly important to the unconstrained growth and utilization of the air transportation system. Unless noise technology keeps pace with public demands, noise restrictions at the international, national and/or local levels may unduly constrain the growth and capacity of the system to serve the public. In recognition of the importance of noise technology to the future of air transportation as well as the viability and competitiveness of the aircraft that operate within the system, NASA, the FAA and the industry have developed noise reduction technology programs having application to virtually all classes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft envisioned to operate far into the 21st century. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scope and focus of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction program with emphasis on the advanced technologies that form the foundation of the program.

  18. Supersonic jet noise reduction by coaxial rectangular nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Manes, J. P.; Massey, K. C.

    1992-01-01

    A physical understanding of noise reduction mechanisms in supersonic, single, and coaxial rectangular jets is quantified and obtained, with emphasis on shock noise reduction. For all conditions, corresponding acoustic measurements for an equivalent round jet are also obtained so that the noise characteristics of the two types of jets can be compared directly to quantify the noise reductions. Comparisons are thus provided for a single rectangular nozzle vs a single equivalent round nozzle, and a coaxial rectangular nozzle vs an equivalent round nozzle. It is shown that different operating conditions and nozzle arrangements for the same thrust, total exit area, and mass flow rate can produce different noise levels. With at least one stream operated supersonically, the coaxial rectangular nozzle operated in the inverted-velocity profile is always quieter than in the normal velocity profile mode for the same thrust, exit area, and mass flow rate. In general, the coaxial rectangular nozzle is shown to be quieter than an equivalent circular nozzle only for those conditions for which both nozzles are operated supersonically.

  19. Revolutionary Concepts for Helicopter Noise Reduction: SILENT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Cox, Charles; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of a NASA initiative to reduce helicopter main rotor noise, a Phase 1 study has been performed of candidate noise reduction concepts. Both conventional and novel design technologies have been analyzed that reduce the community impact of helicopter operations. In this study the noise reduction potential and design implications are assessed for conventional means of noise reduction, e.g., tip speed reduction, tip shapes and airfoil tailoring, and for two innovative design concepts: modulated blade spacing and x-force control. Main rotor designs that incorporate modulated blade spacing are shown to have reduced peak noise levels in most flight operations. X-force control alters the helicopter's force balance whereby the miss distance between main rotor blades and shed vortices can be controlled. This control provides a high potential to mitigate BVI noise radiation. Each concept is evaluated using best practice design and analysis methods, achieving the study's aim to significantly reduce noise with minimal performance degradation and no vibration increase. It is concluded that a SILENT main rotor design, incorporating the modulated blade spacing concept, offers significantly reduced noise levels and the potential of a breakthrough in how a helicopter's sound is perceived and judged. The SILENT rotor represents a definite advancement in the state-of-the-art and is selected as the design concept for demonstration in Phase 2. A Phase 2 Implementation Plan is developed for whirl cage and wind tunnel evaluations of a scaled model SILENT rotor.

  20. Study of noise reduction characteristics of double-wall panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaneethan, R.; Quayle, B.; Stevenson, S.; Graham, M.

    1983-01-01

    The noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type, flat, double-wall structures were investigated. The experimental study was carried out on 20-by-20 inch panels with an exposed area of 18 by 18 inches. A frequency range from 20 to 5000 Hz was covered. The experimental results, in general, follow the expected trends. At low frequencies the double-wall structures are no better than the single-wall structures. However, for depths normally used in the general aviation industry, the double-wall panels are very attractive. The graphite-spoxy skin panels have higher noise reduction at very low frequencies ( 100 Hz) than the Kevlar skin panels. But the aluminum panels have higher noise reduction in the high frequency region, due to their greater mass. Use of fiberglass insulation is not effective in the low frequency region, and at times it is even negative. But the insulation is effective in the high-frequency region. The theoretical model for predicting the transmission loss of these multilayered panels is also discussed.

  1. Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

  2. Single and multiple microphone noise reduction strategies in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R

    2012-06-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow.

  3. Single-channel noise reduction using optimal rectangular filtering matrices.

    PubMed

    Long, Tao; Chen, Jingdong; Benesty, Jacob; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2013-02-01

    This paper studies the problem of single-channel noise reduction in the time domain and presents a block-based approach where a vector of the desired speech signal is recovered by filtering a frame of the noisy signal with a rectangular filtering matrix. With this formulation, the noise reduction problem becomes one of estimating an optimal filtering matrix. To achieve such estimation, a method is introduced to decompose a frame of the clean speech signal into two orthogonal components: One correlated and the other uncorrelated with the current desired speech vector to be estimated. Different optimization cost functions are then formulated from which non-causal optimal filtering matrices are derived. The relationships among these optimal filtering matrices are discussed. In comparison with the classical sample-based technique that uses only forward prediction, the block-based method presented in this paper exploits both the forward and backward prediction as well as the temporal interpolation and, therefore, can improve the noise reduction performance by fully taking advantage of the speech property of self correlation. There is also a side advantage of this block-based method as compared to the sample-based technique, i.e., it is computationally more efficient and, as a result, more suitable for practical implementation.

  4. Azimuthally Varying Noise Reduction Techniques Applied to Supersonic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Nicholas S.

    An experimental investigation into the effect of azimuthal variance of chevrons and fluidically enhanced chevrons applied to supersonic jets is presented. Flow field measurements of streamwise and cross-stream particle imaging velocimetry were employed to determine the causes of noise reduction, which was demonstrated through acoustic measurements. Results were obtained in the over- and under- expanded regimes, and at the design condition, though emphasis was placed on the overexpanded regime due to practical application. Surveys of chevron geometry, number, and arrangement were undertaken in an effort to reduce noise and/or incurred performance penalties. Penetration was found to be positively correlated with noise reduction in the overexpanded regime, and negatively correlated in underexpanded operation due to increased effective penetration and high frequency penalty, respectively. The effect of arrangement indicated the beveled configuration achieved optimal abatement in the ideally and underexpanded regimes due to superior BSAN reduction. The symmetric configuration achieved optimal overexpanded noise reduction due to LSS suppression from improved vortex persistence. Increases in chevron number generally improved reduction of all noise components for lower penetration configurations. Higher penetration configurations reached levels of saturation in the four chevron range, with the potential to introduce secondary shock structures and generate additional noise with higher number. Alternation of penetration generated limited benefit, with slight reduction of the high frequency penalty caused by increased shock spacing. The combination of alternating penetration with beveled and clustered configurations achieved comparable noise reduction to the standard counterparts. Analysis of the entire data set indicated initial improvements with projected area that saturated after a given level and either plateaued or degraded with additional increases. Optimal reductions

  5. Noise reduction by recycling dynamically coupled time series.

    PubMed

    Mera, M Eugenia; Morán, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    We say that several scalar time series are dynamically coupled if they record the values of measurements of the state variables of the same smooth dynamical system. We show that much of the information lost due to measurement noise in a target time series can be recovered with a noise reduction algorithm by crossing the time series with another time series with which it is dynamically coupled. The method is particularly useful for reduction of measurement noise in short length time series with high uncertainties.

  6. Recent Developments in U.S. Engine Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Envia, Edmane; Huff, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research in the United States has made considerable progress over the past 10 years for both subsonic and supersonic flight applications. The Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program started in 1994 and will be completed in 2001 without major changes to program plans and funding levels. As a result, significant progress has been made toward the goal of reducing engine source noise by 6 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise level in decibels). This paper will summarize some of the significant accomplishments from the subsonic engine noise research performed over the past 10 years. The review is by no means comprehensive and only represents a sample of major accomplishments.

  7. Zwicker Tone Illusion and Noise Reduction in the Auditory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P.; Kempter, Richard; Fastl, Hugo; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2003-05-01

    The Zwicker tone is an auditory aftereffect. For instance, after switching off a broadband noise with a spectral gap, one perceives it as a lingering pure tone with the pitch in the gap. It is a unique illusion in that it cannot be explained by known properties of the auditory periphery alone. Here we introduce a neuronal model explaining the Zwicker tone. We show that a neuronal noise-reduction mechanism in conjunction with dominantly unilateral inhibition explains the effect. A pure tone’s “hole burning” in noisy surroundings is given as an illustration.

  8. Fifty Years of Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews 50 years of research investigating jet noise reduction through fluidic injection. Both aqueous and gaseous injection concepts for supersonic and subsonic jet exhausts are discussed. Aqueous injection reduces jet noise by reducing main jet temperature through evaporation and main jet velocity through momentum transfer between water droplets and the main jet. In the launch vehicle environment where large quantities of fluid do not have to be carried with the vehicle, water injection is very effective at reducing excess overpressures. For in-flight use, aqueous injection is problematic as most studies show that either large quantities of water or high injection pressures are required to achieve noise reduction. The most effective noise reduction injection systems require water pressures above 2000 kPa (290 psi) and water-to-mainjet mass flow rates above 10% to achieve overall sound pressure level reductions of roughly 6 dB in the peak jet noise direction. Injection at lower pressure (roughly 1034 kPa or 150 psi) has resulted in a 1.6 EPNdb reduction in effective perceived noise level. Gaseous injection reduces noise through jet plume modifications resulting from the introduction of streamwise vorticity in the main jet. In subsonic single-stream jets, air injection usually produces the largest overall sound pressure level reductions (roughly 2 dB) in the peak jet noise direction. In dual-stream jets, properly designed injection systems can reduce overall sound pressure levels and effective perceived noise levels but care must be taken to choose injector designs that limit sound pressure level increases at high frequencies. A reduction of 1.0 EPNdB has been achieved with injection into the fan and core streams. However, air injection into dual-stream subsonic jets has received little attention and the potential for noise reduction is uncertain at this time. For dual-stream supersonic jets, additional research needs to be conducted to determine if

  9. Arrhythmia ECG Noise Reduction by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kang-Ming

    2010-01-01

    A novel noise filtering algorithm based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed to remove artifacts in electrocardiogram (ECG) traces. Three noise patterns with different power—50 Hz, EMG, and base line wander – were embedded into simulated and real ECG signals. Traditional IIR filter, Wiener filter, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and EEMD were used to compare filtering performance. Mean square error between clean and filtered ECGs was used as filtering performance indexes. Results showed that high noise reduction is the major advantage of the EEMD based filter, especially on arrhythmia ECGs. PMID:22219702

  10. Survey of inlet noise reduction concepts for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, D. L.; Chestnutt, D.

    1976-01-01

    An overview is given of advanced concepts for the suppression of noise in the inlets of gas turbine engines. Inlet geometric and operating parameters are presented and design criteria for suppression methods are discussed. Noise suppression concepts are described, the directions of current research are reviewed. Problem areas requiring further work are indicated. Well established approaches to inlet noise reduction - namely, acoustic liners and high subsonic Mach number inlets which are the focus of considerable current research activity are considered along with the acoustic absorption and watet vapor injection.

  11. Propeller noise reduction by means of unsymmetrical blade-spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, W.

    1993-05-01

    The noise reduction potential of propellers with circumferentially unsymmetrical blade-spacing is predicted on theoretical grounds and substantiated through both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic full scale wind tunnel experiments. To avoid potential balancing problems such propellers have two (or several) pairs of opposite blades, each such pair constituting a symmetrical two-blade propeller. Spacing angles between these individual blade pairs are optimized towards achieving minimum A-weighted noise radiation in the plane of rotation. The result is then compared with the corresponding noise level from a symmetrical reference propeller with the same total number of geometrically identical blades. The study reveals that the value of the optimum spacing angle depends almost entirely on the operational helical blade-tip Mach number, assuming values of about 40 deg at a Mach number of O.5 and decreasing to 15 deg at a Mach number of 0.8. The noise reduction to be achieved from such unsymmetrical blade-spacing is limited to about 4 dB(A) in the direction of maximum noise radiation since the related acoustic effect is due to interference between the sound pressure signatures of the individual blades. It is found that both the harmonic sound pressure level spectrum and the acoustic directivity pattern is affected.

  12. Computational Evaluation of Airframe Noise Reduction Concepts at Full Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Duda, Benjamin; Hazir, Andreas; Fares, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity simulations focused on full-scale evaluation of new technologies for mitigating flap and landing gear noise are presented. These noise reduction concepts were selected because of their superior acoustic performance, as demonstrated during NASA wind tunnel tests of an 18%-scale, semi-span model of a Gulfstream aircraft. The full-scale, full-aircraft, time-accurate simulations were performed with the lattice Boltzmann PowerFLOW(Registered Trademark) solver for free air at a Mach number of 0.2. Three aircraft configurations (flaps deflected at 39? without and with main gear deployed, and 0? flaps with main gear extended) were used to determine the aero-acoustic performance of the concepts on component-level (individually) and system-level (concurrent applica-tion) bases. Farfield noise spectra were obtained using a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Comparison of the predicted spectra without (baseline) and with the noise treatments applied showed that noise reduction benefits between 2-3 dB for the flap and 1.3-1.7 dB for the main landing gear are obtained. It was also found that the full extent of the benefits is being masked by the noise generated from the flap brackets and main gear cavities, which act as prominent secondary sources.

  13. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    PubMed Central

    Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-01-01

    Here we characterize the low noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: there exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction. PMID:25768447

  14. Aeroacoustic Evaluation of Flap and Landing Gear Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Ravetta, Patricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements for a semi-span, 18% scale, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The model was used as a test bed to conduct detailed studies of flap and main landing gear noise sources and to determine the effectiveness of numerous noise mitigation concepts. Using a traversing microphone array in the flyover direction, an extensive set of acoustic data was obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the information was acquired with the model in a landing configuration with the flap deflected 39 deg and the main landing gear alternately installed and removed. Data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24 over directivity angles between 56 deg and 116 deg, with 90 deg representing the overhead direction. Measured acoustic spectra showed that several of the tested flap noise reduction concepts decrease the sound pressure levels by 2 - 4 dB over the entire frequency range at all directivity angles. Slightly lower levels of noise reduction from the main landing gear were obtained through the simultaneous application of various gear devices. Measured aerodynamic forces indicated that the tested gear/flap noise abatement technologies have a negligible impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  15. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  16. An assessment of psychological noise reduction by landscape plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Bao, Zhi Yi; Zhu, Zhu Jun

    2011-04-01

    The emphasis in the term 'Green Transportation' is on the word 'green'. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space that is full of landscape plants. This trip environment encourages residents to make trip choices that reduce fuel consumption and pollution and is one of the most important ways of popularizing green transportation. To study the psychological benefits provided by urban parks and other landscape environments, we combined a subjective approach (a questionnaire) with an objective quantitative approach (emotional tests using an electroencephalogram; EEG). Using a questionnaire survey, we found that 90% of the subjects believed that landscape plants contribute to noise reduction and that 55% overrated the plants' actual ability to attenuate noise. Two videos (showing a traffic scene and a plant scene) were shown to 40 participants on video glasses. We detected and recorded EEG values with a portable electroencephalograph, and a comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that there was a highly significant asymmetry between the EEG activity of the vegetation scene and traffic scene groups. The results suggest that the emotions aroused by noise and visual stimuli are manifested in the synchronization of beta frequency band and the desynchronization of alpha frequency band, indicating that landscape plants can moderate or buffer the effects of noise. These findings indicate that landscape plants provide excess noise attenuating effects through subjects' emotional processing, which we term 'psychological noise reduction'.

  17. Serration Design Methodology for Wind Turbine Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, J.; Singh, A.; Madsen, J.; Arce León, C.

    2016-09-01

    Trailing edge serrations are today an established method to reduce the aeroacoustic noise from wind turbine blades. In this paper, a brief introduction to the aerodynamic and acoustic design procedure used at LM Wind Power is given. Early field tests on serrations, retrofitted to the turbine blades, gave preliminary indication of their noise reduction potential. However, a multitude of challenges stand in the way of any proof of concept and a viable commercial product. LM undertook a methodical test and validation procedure to understand the impact of design parameters on serration performance, and quantify the uncertainties associated with the proposed designs. Aerodynamic and acoustic validation tests were carried out in number of wind tunnel facilities. Models were written to predict the aerodynamic, acoustic and structural performance of the serrations. LM serration designs have evolved over the period of time to address constraints imposed by aero performance, structural reliability, manufacturing and installation. The latest LM serration offering was tested in the field on three different wind turbines. A consistent noise reduction in excess of 1.5 dB was achieved in the field for all three turbines.

  18. Potential for Landing Gear Noise Reduction on Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Nickol, Craig L.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The potential of significantly reducing aircraft landing gear noise is explored for aircraft configurations with engines installed above the wings or the fuselage. An innovative concept is studied that does not alter the main gear assembly itself but does shorten the main strut and integrates the gear in pods whose interior surfaces are treated with acoustic liner. The concept is meant to achieve maximum noise reduction so that main landing gears can be eliminated as a major source of airframe noise. By applying this concept to an aircraft configuration with 2025 entry-into-service technology levels, it is shown that compared to noise levels of current technology, the main gear noise can be reduced by 10 EPNL dB, bringing the main gear noise close to a floor established by other components such as the nose gear. The assessment of the noise reduction potential accounts for design features for the advanced aircraft configuration and includes the effects of local flow velocity in and around the pods, gear noise reflection from the airframe, and reflection and attenuation from acoustic liner treatment on pod surfaces and doors. A technical roadmap for maturing this concept is discussed, and the possible drag increase at cruise due to the addition of the pods is identified as a challenge, which needs to be quantified and minimized possibly with the combination of detailed design and application of drag reduction technologies.

  19. A novel approach to fast noise reduction of infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Lai, Chih-Chin; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Chang, Yuan-Chang; Cheng, Hsu-Yung

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop a fast noise reduction (FNR) approach to infrared (IR) images. The IR images usually have noise, edges, text information and small objects of interest. The well known standard median filter (MF) is not suitable to process these IR images. The main characteristics of the proposed approach are that no prior knowledge about the IR image noise is necessary and no parameters must be preset. It is developed based on IR imaging mechanism to detect the noisy pixels and on modified median-based filter to remove the noisy pixels in IR images. The FSN approach has the advantage of low computation load. In addition, it can retain reasonably good edges, details and texture information even if the size of the filter window increases. The goal of the proposed approach is feasible for an effective process for reducing noise of IR images, regardless of the filter windows' and objects' sizes. It also significantly speeds up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time video processing. FNR approach will extend the IR image applications of medicine.

  20. Aircraft interior noise reduction by alternate resonance tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottwald, James A.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    The focus is on a noise control method which considers aircraft fuselages lined with panels alternately tuned to frequencies above and below the frequency that must be attenuated. An interior noise reduction called alternate resonance tuning (ART) is described both theoretically and experimentally. Problems dealing with tuning single paneled wall structures for optimum noise reduction using the ART methodology are presented, and three theoretical problems are analyzed. The first analysis is a three dimensional, full acoustic solution for tuning a panel wall composed of repeating sections with four different panel tunings within that section, where the panels are modeled as idealized spring-mass-damper systems. The second analysis is a two dimensional, full acoustic solution for a panel geometry influenced by the effect of a propagating external pressure field such as that which might be associated with propeller passage by a fuselage. To reduce the analysis complexity, idealized spring-mass-damper panels are again employed. The final theoretical analysis presents the general four panel problem with real panel sections, where the effect of higher structural modes is discussed. Results from an experimental program highlight real applications of the ART concept and show the effectiveness of the tuning on real structures.

  1. Noise reduction using a multimicrophone array for automatic speech recognition on a handheld computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Scott T.; Larow, Andrew J.; Schoenborn, William E.; Rodriguez, Jason; Gibian, Gary L.

    2004-05-01

    A four-microphone array and signal-processing card have been integrated with a handheld computer such that the integrated device can be carried in and operated with one hand. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) was added to the USAMRMC/TATRCs Battlefield Medical Information System (BMIST) software using an approach that does not require modifying the original code, to produce a Speech-Capable Personal Digital Assistant (SCPDA). Noise reduction was added to allow operation in noisier environments, using the previously reported Hybrid Adaptive Beamformer (HAB) algorithm. Tests demonstrated benefits of the array over the HP/COMPAQ-iPAQ built-in shielded microphone for noise reduction and automatic speech recognition. In electroacoustic and human testing including voice control and voice annotation, the array provided substantial benefit over the built-in microphone. The benefit varied from about 5 dB (worst-case scenario, diffuse noise) to about 20 dB (best-case scenario, directional noise). Future work is expected to produce more rugged SCPDA prototypes for user evaluations, revise the design based on user feedback and real-world testing, and possibly to allow hands-free use by using ASR to replace the push-to-talk switch, providing feedback aurally and/or via a head-up display. [Work supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), Contract No. DAMD17-02-C-0112.

  2. Transient noise reduction in speech signal with a modified long-term predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Kang, Hong-Goo

    2011-12-01

    This article proposes an efficient median filter based algorithm to remove transient noise in a speech signal. The proposed algorithm adopts a modified long-term predictor (LTP) as the pre-processor of the noise reduction process to reduce speech distortion caused by the nonlinear nature of the median filter. This article shows that the LTP analysis does not modify to the characteristic of transient noise during the speech modeling process. Oppositely, if a short-term linear prediction (STP) filter is employed as a pre-processor, the enhanced output includes residual noise because the STP analysis and synthesis process keeps and restores transient noise components. To minimize residual noise and speech distortion after the transient noise reduction, a modified LTP method is proposed which estimates the characteristic of speech more accurately. By ignoring transient noise presence regions in the pitch lag detection step, the modified LTP successfully avoids being affected by transient noise. A backward pitch prediction algorithm is also adopted to reduce speech distortion in the onset regions. Experimental results verify that the proposed system efficiently eliminates transient noise while preserving desired speech signal.

  3. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Peter J.; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2008-01-01

    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM.

  4. Dual-microphone and binaural noise reduction techniques for improved speech intelligibility by hearing aid users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian Jazi, Nima

    Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the

  5. Noise reduction techniques for the restoration of musical recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappe, Olivier

    The evaluation of short time spectral attenuation techniques using a simplified model of standard noise suppression rules and with elementary test signals is assessed. Signal distortions induced by the restoration process are evaluated analytically, and their audibility is addressed by use of classic psychoacoustics results. Phenomena observed experimentally in previous studies, such as the modification of timbre, the appearance of modulations, and the spreading of transients, are brought to light. Drawing from these results, a noise reduction technique intended for enhancing musical signals is described. In the first step, the noisy signal is analyzed by use of a medium frequency resolution short time transform. The restoration then takes place in each subband in two different ways according to the nature of the subband signal: the processing is carried out block by block when steady signal components are detected, or locally otherwise. This approach was successfully applied to several musical recordings yielding promising results.

  6. Computational Analyses of Offset Stream Nozzles for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance, III; Foster, Lancert; Wiese,Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Wind computational fluid dynamics code was used to perform a series of simulations on two offset stream nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction. The first concept used an S-duct to direct the secondary stream to the lower side of the nozzle. The second concept used vanes to turn the secondary flow downward. The analyses were completed in preparation of tests conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The offset stream nozzles demonstrated good performance and reduced the amount of turbulence on the lower side of the jet plume. The computer analyses proved instrumental in guiding the development of the final test configurations and giving insight into the flow mechanics of offset stream nozzles. The computational predictions were compared with flowfield results from the jet rig testing and showed excellent agreement.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Structural Acousticcontrol Interior Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Bevan, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    The research results contained in this technical report were performed under the NASA grant entitled "Experimental and Numerical Structural Acoustic Control for Interior Noise Reduction". The report is based essentially on partial progress of the Ph.D. dissertation prepared by Jeffrey S. Bevan under direct guidance of Dr. Chuh Mei. The document presents a finite element formulation and control of sound radiated from cylindrical panels embedded with piezoceramic actuators. The extended MIN6 shallow shell element is fully electrical-structural coupled. A piezoelectric modal actuator participation (PMAP) is defined which indicates the actuator performance to each of the offending modes. Genetic algorithm is also employed to validate the sensor and actuator locations determined by the PMAP criteria. The work was conducted at the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University. Mr. Travis L. Turner, Structural Acoustics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center is the technical monitor.

  8. Airframe Noise Reduction Studies and Clean-Airframe Noise Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.; Bailey, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic wind tunnel tests were conducted of a wing model with modified leading edge slat and trailing edge flap. The modifications were intended to reduce the surface pressure response to convected turbulence and thereby reduce the airframe noise without changing the lift at constant incidence. Tests were conducted at 70.7 and 100 m/sec airspeeds, with Reynolds numbers 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power and 2.1 x 10 to the 6th power. Considerable reduction of noise radiation from the side edges of a 40 deflection single slotted flap was achieved by modification to the side edge regions or the leading edge region of the flap panel. Total far field noise was reduced 2 to 3 dB over several octaves of frequency. When these panels were installed as the aft panel of a 40 deg deflection double slotted flap, 2 dB noise reduction was achieved.

  9. Jet-noise reduction through liquid-base foam injection.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, L.; Burge, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made of the sound-absorbing properties of liquid-base foams and of their ability to reduce jet noise. Protein, detergent, and polymer foaming agents were used in water solutions. A method of foam generation was developed to permit systematic variation of the foam density. The investigation included measurements of sound-absorption coefficents for both plane normal incidence waves and diffuse sound fields. The intrinsic acoustic properties of foam, e.g., the characteristic impedance and the propagation constant, were also determined. The sound emitted by a 1-in.-diam cold nitrogen jet was measured for subsonic (300 m/sec) and supersonic (422 m/sec) jets, with and without foam injection. Noise reductions up to 10 PNdB were measured.

  10. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part I. Speech Understanding in Noise, Microphone Technologies and Noise Reduction Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the challenges in hearing aid design and fitting and the recent developments in advanced signal processing technologies to meet these challenges. The first part of the review discusses the basic concepts and the building blocks of digital signal processing algorithms, namely, the signal detection and analysis unit, the decision rules, and the time constants involved in the execution of the decision. In addition, mechanisms and the differences in the implementation of various strategies used to reduce the negative effects of noise are discussed. These technologies include the microphone technologies that take advantage of the spatial differences between speech and noise and the noise reduction algorithms that take advantage of the spectral difference and temporal separation between speech and noise. The specific technologies discussed in this paper include first-order directional microphones, adaptive directional microphones, second-order directional microphones, microphone matching algorithms, array microphones, multichannel adaptive noise reduction algorithms, and synchrony detection noise reduction algorithms. Verification data for these technologies, if available, are also summarized. PMID:15678225

  11. Fast HDR image upscaling using locally adapted linear filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi, Hossein; Su, Guan-Ming; Yin, Peng

    2015-02-01

    A new method for upscaling high dynamic range (HDR) images is introduced in this paper. Overshooting artifact is the common problem when using linear filters such as bicubic interpolation. This problem is visually more noticeable while working on HDR images where there exist more transitions from dark to bright. Our proposed method is capable of handling these artifacts by computing a simple gradient map which enables the filter to be locally adapted to the image content. This adaptation consists of first, clustering pixels into regions with similar edge structures and second, learning the shape and length of our symmetric linear filter for each of these pixel groups. This new filter can be implemented in a separable fashion which perfectly fits hardware implementations. Our experimental results show that training our filter with HDR images can effectively reduce the overshooting artifacts and improve upon the visual quality of the existing linear upscaling approaches.

  12. Linear adaptive control of a single-tether system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, M. E.; Carter, J. T.; Walls, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A control law for a single-tether orbiting satellite system based on a reduced order linear adaptive control technique is presented. The main advantages of this technique are its design simplicity and the facts that specific system parameters and model linearization are not required when designing the controller. Two controllers are developed: one which uses only tension in the tether as control actuation and one which uses both tension and in-plane thrusters as control actuation. Both a sixth-order nonlinear and an 11th-order bead model of a tethered satellite system are used for simulation purposes, demonstrating the ability of the controller to manage an uncertain system. Retrieval and stationkeeping results using these nonlinear models and the linear adaptive controller demonstrate the feasibility of the method. The robustness of the controller with respect to parameter uncertainties is also demonstrated by changing the nonlinear model and parameters within the model without redesigning the controller.

  13. Gabor-based anisotropic diffusion for speckle noise reduction in medical ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Han, Hong; Ji, Chunhong; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenping

    2014-06-01

    In ultrasound (US), optical coherence tomography, synthetic aperture radar, and other coherent imaging systems, images are corrupted by multiplicative speckle noise that obscures image interpretation. An anisotropic diffusion (AD) method based on the Gabor transform, named Gabor-based anisotropic diffusion (GAD), is presented to suppress speckle in medical ultrasonography. First, an edge detector using the Gabor transform is proposed to capture directionality of tissue edges and discriminate edges from noise. Then the edge detector is embedded into the partial differential equation of AD to guide the diffusion process and iteratively denoise images. To enhance GAD's adaptability, parameters controlling diffusion are determined from a fully formed speckle region that is automatically detected. We evaluate the GAD on synthetic US images simulated with three models and clinical images acquired in vivo. Compared with seven existing speckle reduction methods, the GAD is superior to other methods in terms of noise reduction and detail preservation.

  14. In vivo evaluation of mastication noise reduction for dual channel implantable microphone.

    PubMed

    Woo, SeongTak; Jung, EuiSung; Lim, HyungGyu; Lee, Jang Woo; Seong, Ki Woong; Won, Chul Ho; Kim, Myoung Nam; Cho, Jin Ho; Lee, Jyung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Input for fully implantable hearing devices (FIHDs) is provided by an implantable microphone under the skin of the temporal bone. However, the implanted microphone can be affected when the FIHDs user chews. In this paper, a dual implantable microphone was designed that can filter out the noise from mastication. For the in vivo experiment, a fabricated microphone was implanted in a rabbit. Pure-tone sounds of 1 kHz through a standard speaker were applied to the rabbit, which was given food simultaneously. To evaluate noise reduction, the measured signals were processed using a MATLAB program based adaptive filter. To verify the proposed method, the correlation coefficients and signal to-noise ratio before and after signal processing were calculated. By comparing the results, signal-to-noise ratio and correlation coefficients are enhanced by 6.07dB and 0.529 respectively.

  15. Visual discrimination and adaptation using non-linear unsupervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Sandra; Laparra, Valero; Malo, Jesus

    2013-03-01

    Understanding human vision not only involves empirical descriptions of how it works, but also organization principles that explain why it does so. Identifying the guiding principles of visual phenomena requires learning algorithms to optimize specific goals. Moreover, these algorithms have to be flexible enough to account for the non-linear and adaptive behavior of the system. For instance, linear redundancy reduction transforms certainly explain a wide range of visual phenomena. However, the generality of this organization principle is still in question:10 it is not only that and additional constraints such as energy cost may be relevant as well, but also, statistical independence may not be the better solution to make optimal inferences in squared error terms. Moreover, linear methods cannot account for the non-uniform discrimination in different regions of the image and color space: linear learning methods necessarily disregard the non-linear nature of the system. Therefore, in order to account for the non-linear behavior, principled approaches commonly apply the trick of using (already non-linear) parametric expressions taken from empirical models. Therefore these approaches are not actually explaining the non-linear behavior, but just fitting it to image statistics. In summary, a proper explanation of the behavior of the system requires flexible unsupervised learning algorithms that (1) are tunable to different, perceptually meaningful, goals; and (2) make no assumption on the non-linearity. Over the last years we have worked on these kind of learning algorithms based on non-linear ICA,18 Gaussianization, 19 and principal curves. In this work we stress the fact that these methods can be tuned to optimize different design strategies, namely statistical independence, error minimization under quantization, and error minimization under truncation. Then, we show (1) how to apply these techniques to explain a number of visual phenomena, and (2) suggest the

  16. Local-geometric-projection method for noise reduction in chaotic maps and flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawley, Robert; Hsu, Guan-Hsong

    1992-09-01

    We describe a method for noise reduction in chaotic systems that is based on projection of the set of points comprising an embedded noisy orbit in openRd toward a finite patchwork of best-fit local approximations to an m-dimensional surface M'⊂openRd, m<=d. We generate the orbits by the delay coordinate construction of Ruelle and Takens [N. H. Packard et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 712 (1980); F. Takens, in Dynamical Systems and Turbulence, Warwick, 1980, edited by D. A. Rand and L.-S. Young (Springer, Berlin, 1981)] from time series v(t), which in an experimental situation we would assume to have come, together with additional high-dimensional background noise, from an underlying dynamical system ft: M-->M existing on some low m-dimensional manifold M. The surface M' in openRd is the assumed embedded image of M. We give results of systematic studies of linear (tangent plane) projection schemes. We describe in detail the basic algorithm for implementing these schemes. We apply the algorithm iteratively to known map and flow time series to which white noise has been added. In controlled studies, we measure the signal-to-noise ratio improvements, iterating nM times until a stable maximum δM is achieved. We present extensive results for δM and nM for a wide range of values of embedding trial dimension d, projection dimension k, number of nearest-neighbor points for local approximation ν, embedding delay Δ, sampling interval ΔT, initial noise amplitude scrN, and trajectory length N. We give results for very low and very high noise amplitudes 0%<=scrN<=100%. We develop an empirical method for estimating the initial noise level for a given experimental time series, and for the optimal choice of algorithm parameters to achieve peak reduction. We present interesting results of application of the noise-reduction algorithm to a chaotic time series produced from a periodically driven magnetoelastic ribbon experiment on the control of chaos. Two noteworthy elements of the

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of active noise reduction in flight helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forshaw, S. E.; Rylands, J. M.; Crabtree, R. B.

    1988-08-01

    The advent of high powered fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft and tracked armoured fighting vehicles has increased the level of noise to which crews are exposed. Active noise reduction (ANR) offers a means of increasing the attenuation at low and mid frequencies. It relies on sensing the sound inside a circumaural device and cancelling it by means of negative feedback through a miniature speaker inside the enclosed volume. This study was carried out to investigate laboratory procedures appropriate for measuring the effectiveness of ANR devices. The procedures were: ear-canal measurements using an acoustic test fixture (an objective procedure), and masked threshold and loudness balance tests (psycho-physical procedures). In addition, the effect of ANR on signal detection and speech reception was investigated. The results do not clearly permit one procedure to be recommended for the evaluation of ANR systems. Signal detection performance and speech intelligibility may be used, but the results are specific to the acoustic environment of the listener and the detection task or speech-system parameters of the evaluation. When the attenuation of the ANR system is measured objectively with a transducer inside the earmuff/ear-canal volume, the location of the transducer affects the observed ANR attenuations.

  18. Evaluation of a Noise Reduction Procedure for Chest Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Ryohei; Ishii, Rie; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Suyama, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masanari; Nakamoto, Masaki; Fukuoka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of noise reduction procedure (NRP), a function in the new image processing for chest radiography. Methods A CXDI-50G Portable Digital Radiography System (Canon) was used for X-ray detection. Image noise was analyzed with a noise power spectrum (NPS) and a burger phantom was used for evaluation of density resolution. The usefulness of NRP was evaluated by chest phantom images and clinical chest radiography. We employed the Bureau of Radiological Health Method for scoring chest images while carrying out our observations. Results NPS through the use of NRP was improved compared with conventional image processing (CIP). The results in image quality showed high-density resolution through the use of NRP, so that chest radiography examination can be performed with a low dose of radiation. Scores were significantly higher than for CIP. Conclusion In this study, use of NRP led to a high evaluation in these so we are able to confirm the usefulness of NRP for clinical chest radiography. PMID:24574577

  19. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  20. A new noise reduction method for airborne gravity gradient data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirigalatu; Ebbing, Jörg; Sebera, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Airborne gravity gradient (AGG) measurements offer an increased resolution and accuracy compared to terrestrial measurements. But interpretation and processing of AGG data are often challenging as levelling errors and survey noise affect the data, and these effects are not easily recognised in the gradient components. We adopted the classic method of upward continuation in the noise reduction using the noise level estimates by the AGG system. By iteratively projecting the survey data to a lower level and upward continuing the data back to the survey height, parts of the high-frequency signal are suppressed. The filter, which is defined by this approach, is directly dependent on the noise level of the AGG data, the maximum number of iterations and the iterative step. We demonstrate the method by applying it to both synthetic data and real AGG data over Karasjok, Norway, and compare the results to the directional filtering method. The results show that the iterative filter can effectively reduce high-frequency noise in the data.

  1. Tanlock loop noise reduction using an optimised phase detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-kharji Al-Ali, Omar; Anani, Nader; Al-Qutayri, Mahmoud; Al-Araji, Saleh

    2013-06-01

    This article proposes a time-delay digital tanlock loop (TDTL), which uses a new phase detector (PD) design that is optimised for noise reduction making it amenable for applications that require wide lock range without sacrificing the level of noise immunity. The proposed system uses an improved phase detector design which uses two phase detectors; one PD is used to optimise the noise immunity whilst the other is used to control the acquisition time of the TDTL system. Using the modified phase detector it is possible to reduce the second- and higher-order harmonics by at least 50% compared with the conventional TDTL system. The proposed system was simulated and tested using MATLAB/Simulink using frequency step inputs and inputs corrupted with varying levels of harmonic distortion. A hardware prototype of the system was implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The practical and simulation results indicate considerable improvement in the noise performance of the proposed system over the conventional TDTL architecture.

  2. Noise reduction studies for the U-10 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Connor, A. B.; Hubbard, H. H.; Dingeldein, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken by the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the noise reduction potential of the U-10 airplane in order to reduce its aural detection distance. Static and flyover noise measurements were made to document the basic airplane noise signature. Two modifications to the airplane configuration are suggested as having the best potential for substantially reducing aural detection distance with small penalty to airplane performance or stability and control. These modifications include changing the present 3-blade propeller to a 5-blade propeller, changing the propeller diameter, and changing the propeller gear ratio, along with the use of an engine exhaust muffler. The aural detection distance corresponding to normal cruising flight at an altitude of 1,000 ft over grassy terrain is reduced from 28,000 ft (5.3 miles) to about 50 percent of that value for modification 1, and to about 25 percent for modification 2. For the aircraft operating at an altitude of 300 ft, the analysis indicates that relatively straightforward modifications could reduce the aural detection distance to approximately 0.9 mile. Operation of the aircraft at greatly reduced engine speed (1650 rpm) with a 1.3-cu-ft muffler provides aural detection distances slightly lower than modification 1.

  3. A dual-cable noise reduction method for Langmuir probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. F.; Zu, Q. X.; Liu, Ping

    1995-07-01

    To obtain fast time response plasma properties, electron density and electron temperature, with a Langmuir probe, the applied probe voltage has to be swept at high frequency. Due to the RC characteristics of coaxial cables, an induced noise of a square-wave form will appear when a sawtooth voltage is applied to the probe. Such a noise is very annoying and difficult to remove, particularly when the probe signal is weak. This paper discusses a noise reduction method using a dual-cable circuit. One of the cables is active and the other is a dummy. Both of them are of equal length and are laid parallel to each other. The active cable carries the applied probe voltage and the probe current signal. The dummy one is not connected to the probe. After being carefully tuned, the induced noises from both cables are nearly identical and therefore can be effectively eliminated with the use of a differential amplifier. A clean I-V characteristic curve can thus be obtained. This greatly improves the accuracy and the time resolution of the values of ne and Te.

  4. A Landing Gear Noise Reduction Study Based on Computational Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    Landing gear is one of the more prominent airframe noise sources. Techniques that diminish gear noise and suppress its radiation to the ground are highly desirable. Using a hybrid computational approach, this paper investigates the noise reduction potential of devices added to a simplified main landing gear model without small scale geometric details. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from surface pressure data provided by unsteady CFD calculations. Because of the simplified nature of the model, most of the flow unsteadiness is restricted to low frequencies. The wheels, gear boxes, and oleo appear to be the primary sources of unsteadiness at these frequencies. The addition of fairings around the gear boxes and wheels, and the attachment of a splitter plate on the downstream side of the oleo significantly reduces the noise over a wide range of frequencies, but a dramatic increase in noise is observed at one frequency. The increased flow velocities, a consequence of the more streamlined bodies, appear to generate extra unsteadiness around other parts giving rise to the additional noise. Nonetheless, the calculations demonstrate the capability of the devices to improve overall landing gear noise.

  5. A complex noise reduction method for improving visualization of SD-OCT skin biomedical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myakinin, Oleg O.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Khramov, Alexander G.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we consider the original method of solving noise reduction problem for visualization's quality improvement of SD-OCT skin and tumors biomedical images. The principal advantages of OCT are high resolution and possibility of in vivo analysis. We propose a two-stage algorithm: 1) process of raw one-dimensional A-scans of SD-OCT and 2) remove a noise from the resulting B(C)-scans. The general mathematical methods of SD-OCT are unstable: if the noise of the CCD is 1.6% of the dynamic range then result distortions are already 25-40% of the dynamic range. We use at the first stage a resampling of A-scans and simple linear filters to reduce the amount of data and remove the noise of the CCD camera. The efficiency, improving productivity and conservation of the axial resolution when using this approach are showed. At the second stage we use an effective algorithms based on Hilbert-Huang Transform for more accurately noise peaks removal. The effectiveness of the proposed approach for visualization of malignant and benign skin tumors (melanoma, BCC etc.) and a significant improvement of SNR level for different methods of noise reduction are showed. Also in this study we consider a modification of this method depending of a specific hardware and software features of used OCT setup. The basic version does not require any hardware modifications of existing equipment. The effectiveness of proposed method for 3D visualization of tissues can simplify medical diagnosis in oncology.

  6. Acoustical and Perceptual Comparison of Noise Reduction and Compression in Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Noise reduction and dynamic-range compression are generally applied together in hearing aids but may have opposite effects on amplification. This study evaluated the acoustical and perceptual effects of separate and combined processing of noise reduction and compression. Design: Recordings of the output of 4 hearing aids for speech in…

  7. Structural parameters that influence the noise reduction characteristics of typical general aviation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Grosveld, F.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of panel curvature and oblique angle of sound incidence on noise reduction characteristics of an aluminum panel are experimentally investigated. Panel curvature results show significant increase in stiffness with comparable decrease of sound transmission through the panel in the frequency region below the panel/cavity resonance frequency. Noise reduction data have been achieved for aluminum panels with clamped, bonded and riveted edge conditions. These edge conditions are shown to influence noise reduction characteristics of aluminum panels. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial and biaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. Results indicate important improvement in noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity resonance frequency.

  8. SVD-based optimal filtering for noise reduction in dual microphone hearing aids: a real time implementation and perceptual evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maj, Jean-Baptiste; Royackers, Liesbeth; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the first real-time implementation and perceptual evaluation of a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based optimal filtering technique for noise reduction in a dual microphone behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid is presented. This evaluation was carried out for a speech weighted noise and multitalker babble, for single and multiple jammer sound source scenarios. Two basic microphone configurations in the hearing aid were used. The SVD-based optimal filtering technique was compared against an adaptive beamformer, which is known to give significant improvements in speech intelligibility in noisy environment. The optimal filtering technique works without assumptions about a speaker position, unlike the two-stage adaptive beamformer. However this strategy needs a robust voice activity detector (VAD). A method to improve the performance of the VAD was presented and evaluated physically. By connecting the VAD to the output of the noise reduction algorithms, a good discrimination between the speech-and-noise periods and the noise-only periods of the signals was obtained. The perceptual experiments demonstrated that the SVD-based optimal filtering technique could perform as well as the adaptive beamformer in a single noise source scenario, i.e., the ideal scenario for the latter technique, and could outperform the adaptive beamformer in multiple noise source scenarios.

  9. Prediction of Landing Gear Noise Reduction and Comparison to Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    2010-01-01

    Noise continues to be an ongoing problem for existing aircraft in flight and is projected to be a concern for next generation designs. During landing, when the engines are operating at reduced power, the noise from the airframe, of which landing gear noise is an important part, is equal to the engine noise. There are several methods of predicting landing gear noise, but none have been applied to predict the change in noise due to a change in landing gear design. The current effort uses the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP) code, developed at The Pennsylvania State University to predict the noise from landing gear. These predictions include the influence of noise reduction concepts on the landing gear noise. LGMAP is compared to wind tunnel experiments of a 6.3%-scale Boeing 777 main gear performed in the Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley. The geometries tested in the QFF include the landing gear with and without a toboggan fairing and the door. It is shown that LGMAP is able to predict the noise directives and spectra from the model-scale test for the baseline configuration as accurately as current gear prediction methods. However, LGMAP is also able to predict the difference in noise caused by the toboggan fairing and by removing the landing gear door. LGMAP is also compared to far-field ground-based flush-mounted microphone measurements from the 2005 Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2 (QTD 2) flight test. These comparisons include a Boeing 777-300ER with and without a toboggan fairing that demonstrate that LGMAP can be applied to full-scale flyover measurements. LGMAP predictions of the noise generated by the nose gear on the main gear measurements are also shown.

  10. Low-Speed Fan Noise Reduction With Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Tweedt, Daniel L.; Fite, E. Brian; Envia, Edmane

    2002-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a trailing edge slot. Composite hollow rotor blades with internal flow passages were designed based on analytical codes modeling the internal flow. The hollow blade with interior guide vanes creates flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the root of the blade to the trailing edge. The impact of the rotor wake-stator interaction on the acoustics was also predicted analytically. The Active Noise Control Fan, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof- of-concept test bed. In-duct mode and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates (defined as mass supplied to trailing edge blowing system divided by fan mass flow) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 percent. The first three blade passing frequency harmonics at fan rotational speeds of 1700 to 1900 rpm were analyzed. The acoustic tone power levels (PWL) in the inlet and exhaust were reduced 11.5 and -0.1, 7.2 and 11.4, 11.8 and 19.4 PWL dB, respectively. The farfield tone power levels at the first three harmonics were reduced 5.4, 10.6, and 12.4 dB PWL. At selected conditions, two-component hotwire and stator vane unsteady surface pressures were acquired. These measurements illustrate the physics behind the noise reduction.

  11. Effects of noise reduction on AM and FM perception.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Calcus, Axelle; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Lorenzi, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The goal of noise reduction (NR) algorithms in digital hearing aid devices is to reduce background noise whilst preserving as much of the original signal as possible. These algorithms may increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an ideal case, but they generally fail to improve speech intelligibility. However, due to the complex nature of speech, it is difficult to disentangle the numerous low- and high-level effects of NR that may underlie the lack of speech perception benefits. The goal of this study was to better understand why NR algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility by investigating the effects of NR on the ability to discriminate two basic acoustic features, namely amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) cues, known to be crucial for speech identification in quiet and in noise. Here, discrimination of complex, non-linguistic AM and FM patterns was measured for normal hearing listeners using a same/different task. The stimuli were generated by modulating 1-kHz pure tones by either a two-component AM or FM modulator with patterns changed by manipulating component phases. Modulation rates were centered on 3 Hz. Discrimination of AM and FM patterns was measured in quiet and in the presence of a white noise that had been passed through a gammatone filter centered on 1 kHz. The noise was presented at SNRs ranging from -6 to +12 dB. Stimuli were left as such or processed via an NR algorithm based on the spectral subtraction method. NR was found to yield small but systematic improvements in discrimination for the AM conditions at favorable SNRs but had little effect, if any, on FM discrimination. A computational model of early auditory processing was developed to quantify the fidelity of AM and FM transmission. The model captured the improvement in discrimination performance for AM stimuli at high SNRs with NR. However, the model also predicted a relatively small detrimental effect of NR for FM stimuli in contrast with the average

  12. Adaptive local linear regression with application to printer color management.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maya R; Garcia, Eric K; Chin, Erika

    2008-06-01

    Local learning methods, such as local linear regression and nearest neighbor classifiers, base estimates on nearby training samples, neighbors. Usually, the number of neighbors used in estimation is fixed to be a global "optimal" value, chosen by cross validation. This paper proposes adapting the number of neighbors used for estimation to the local geometry of the data, without need for cross validation. The term enclosing neighborhood is introduced to describe a set of neighbors whose convex hull contains the test point when possible. It is proven that enclosing neighborhoods yield bounded estimation variance under some assumptions. Three such enclosing neighborhood definitions are presented: natural neighbors, natural neighbors inclusive, and enclosing k-NN. The effectiveness of these neighborhood definitions with local linear regression is tested for estimating lookup tables for color management. Significant improvements in error metrics are shown, indicating that enclosing neighborhoods may be a promising adaptive neighborhood definition for other local learning tasks as well, depending on the density of training samples.

  13. Perceptually optimized gain function for cochlear implant signal-to-noise ratio based noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Dawson, Pam W; Hersbach, Adam A

    2012-01-01

    Noise reduction in cochlear implants has achieved significant speech perception improvements through spectral subtraction and signal-to-noise ratio based noise reduction techniques. Current methods use gain functions derived through mathematical optimization or motivated by normal listening psychoacoustic experiments. Although these gain functions have been able to improve speech perception, recent studies have indicated that they are not optimal for cochlear implant noise reduction. This study systematically investigates cochlear implant recipients' speech perception and listening preference of noise reduction with a range of gain functions. Results suggest an advantageous gain function and show that gain functions currently used for noise reduction are not optimal for cochlear implant recipients. Using the cochlear implant optimised gain function, a 27% improvement over the current advanced combination encoder (ACE) stimulation strategy in speech weighted noise and a 7% improvement over current noise reduction strategies were observed in babble noise conditions. The optimized gain function was also most preferred by cochlear implant recipients. The CI specific gain function derived from this study can be easily incorporated into existing noise reduction strategies, to further improve listening performance for CI recipients in challenging environments.

  14. High-Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    One of key NASA goals is to develop and integrate noise reduction technology to enable unrestricted air transportation service to all communities. One of the technical priorities of this activity has been to account for and reduce noise via propulsion/airframe interactions, identifying advanced concepts to be integrated with the airframe to mitigate these noise-producing mechanisms. An adaptive geometry chevron using embedded smart structures technology offers the possibility of maximizing engine performance while retaining and possibly enhancing the favorable noise characteristics of current designs. New high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) materials technology enables the devices to operate in both low-temperature (fan) and high-temperature (core) exhaust flows. Chevron-equipped engines have demonstrated reduced noise in testing and operational use. It is desirable to have the noise benefits of chevrons in takeoff/landing conditions, but have them deployed into a minimum drag position for cruise flight. The central feature of the innovation was building on rapidly maturing HTSMA technology to implement a next-generation aircraft noise mitigation system centered on adaptive chevron flow control surfaces. In general, SMA-actuated devices have the potential to enhance the demonstrated noise reduction effectiveness of chevron systems while eliminating the associated performance penalty. The use of structurally integrated smart devices will minimize the mechanical and subsystem complexity of this implementation. The central innovations of the effort entail the modification of prior chevron designs to include a small cut that relaxes structural stiffness without compromising the desired flow characteristics over the surface; the reorientation of SMA actuation devices to apply forces to deflect the chevron tip, exploiting this relaxed stiffness; and the use of high-temperature SMA (HTSMA) materials to enable operation in the demanding core chevron environment

  15. A note on the low-frequency noise reduction of cylindrical capsules (L).

    PubMed

    Ungar, Eric E

    2006-12-01

    The noise reductions provided by capsules consisting of uniform cylindrical shells whose two ends are closed off by like circular plates are analyzed for the low-frequency regime in which a capsule acts quasi-statically, much like a pressure vessel. The change in the confined volume is determined from the structural deflections produced by a net pressure difference, taking account of the interactions of the shell and end plates. Expressions for the noise reduction of a single capsule and of two nested capsules are derived. Some insights into the noise reduction effects of interaction between the shell and end plates are discussed, as are the contributions of these components.

  16. Evaluation of the noise reduction system in a commercial digital hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, José L; Moore, Brian C J; Kühnel, Volker; Launer, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a noise reduction system implemented in a commercial digital multichannel compression hearing aid. Eight experienced hearing aid wearers with moderate sensorineural hearing loss were fitted bilaterally according to the manufacturer's fitting guidelines. After a 3-month period of regular use of two programs, one with and one without the noise reduction system, speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) were measured in four types of background noise, including steady noise, and noises with spectral and/or temporal dips. SRTs were very similar with and without the noise reduction system; in both cases, SRTs were markedly lower than for unaided listening. SRTs were lower for the noises with dips than for the steady noise, especially for the aided conditions, indicating that amplification can help to 'listen in the dips'. Ratings of sound quality and listening comfort in the aided conditions were uniformly high and very similar with and without the noise reduction system.

  17. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  18. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  19. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  20. New noise reduction method for reducing CT scan dose: Combining Wiener filtering and edge detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anam, Choirul; Haryanto, Freddy; Widita, Rena; Arif, Idam

    2015-09-01

    New noise reduction method for reducing dose of CT scans has been proposed. The new method is expected to address the major problems in the noise reduction algorithm, i.e. the decreasing in the spatial resolution of the image. The proposed method was developed by combining adaptive Wiener filtering and edge detection algorithms. The first step, the image was filtered with a Wiener filter. Separately, edge detection operation performed on the original image using the Prewitt method. The next step, a new image was generated based on the edge detection operation. At the edge area, the image was taken from the original image, while at the non-edge area, the image was taken from the image that had been filtered with a Wiener filter. The new method was tested on a CT image of the spatial resolution phantom, which was scanned by different current-time multiplication, namely 80, 130 and 200 mAs, while other exposure factors were kept in constant conditions. The spatial resolution phantom consists of six sets of bar pattern made of plexi-glass and separated at some distance by water. The new image quality assessed from the amount of noise and the magnitude of spatial resolution. Noise was calculated by determining the standard deviation of the homogeneous regions, while the spatial resolution was assessed by observation of the area sets of the bar pattern. In addition, to evaluate the performance of this new method has also been tested on patient CT images. From the measurements, the new method can reduce the noise to an average 64.85%, with a spatial resolution does not decrease significantly. Visually, the third set bar on the image phantom (the distance between the bar 1.0 mm) can still be distinguished, as well as on the original image. Meanwhile, if the image is only processed using Wiener filter, the second set bar (the distance between the bar 1.3 mm) are distinguishable. Testing this new method to patient image, its results in relatively the same. Thus, using this

  1. High-quality three-dimensional reconstruction and noise reduction of multifocal images from oversized samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Procházková, Jana; Ficker, Tomáš

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction is an indispensable tool in areas such as biology, chemistry, medicine, material sciences, etc. The sample can be reconstructed using confocal or nonconfocal mode of a microscope. The limitation of the confocal approach is the sample size. Currently used devices work mostly with sample surface area up to 1 cm2. We suggest a three-step method that creates 3-D reconstruction from multifocal images in nonconfocal mode that is qualitatively comparable to the confocal results. Our method, thus, takes advantage of both microscope modes-high-quality results without sample size limitation. The preprocessing step eliminates the additive noise with Linderberg-Lévi theorem. The main focus criterion is based on adjusted Fourier transform. In the final step, we eliminate the defective clusters using the adaptive pixel neighborhood algorithm. We proved the effectiveness of our noise reduction and 3-D reconstruction method by the statistical comparisons; the correlation coefficients average 0.987 for all types of Fourier transforms.

  2. Comparative intelligibility investigation of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms for Chinese, Japanese, and Englisha

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jianping; Yan, Yonghong; Hu, Yi; Akagi, Masato; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms have been proposed based largely on mathematical principles. Most of these algorithms, however, have been evaluated with English speech. Given the different perceptual cues used by native listeners of different languages including tonal languages, it is of interest to examine whether there are any language effects when the same noise-reduction algorithm is used to process noisy speech in different languages. A comparative evaluation and investigation is taken in this study of various single-channel noise-reduction algorithms applied to noisy speech taken from three languages: Chinese, Japanese, and English. Clean speech signals (Chinese words and Japanese words) were first corrupted by three types of noise at two signal-to-noise ratios and then processed by five single-channel noise-reduction algorithms. The processed signals were finally presented to normal-hearing listeners for recognition. Intelligibility evaluation showed that the majority of noise-reduction algorithms did not improve speech intelligibility. Consistent with a previous study with the English language, the Wiener filtering algorithm produced small, but statistically significant, improvements in intelligibility for car and white noise conditions. Significant differences between the performances of noise-reduction algorithms across the three languages were observed. PMID:21568430

  3. Comparative intelligibility investigation of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms for Chinese, Japanese, and English.

    PubMed

    Li, Junfeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jianping; Yan, Yonghong; Hu, Yi; Akagi, Masato; Loizou, Philipos C

    2011-05-01

    A large number of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms have been proposed based largely on mathematical principles. Most of these algorithms, however, have been evaluated with English speech. Given the different perceptual cues used by native listeners of different languages including tonal languages, it is of interest to examine whether there are any language effects when the same noise-reduction algorithm is used to process noisy speech in different languages. A comparative evaluation and investigation is taken in this study of various single-channel noise-reduction algorithms applied to noisy speech taken from three languages: Chinese, Japanese, and English. Clean speech signals (Chinese words and Japanese words) were first corrupted by three types of noise at two signal-to-noise ratios and then processed by five single-channel noise-reduction algorithms. The processed signals were finally presented to normal-hearing listeners for recognition. Intelligibility evaluation showed that the majority of noise-reduction algorithms did not improve speech intelligibility. Consistent with a previous study with the English language, the Wiener filtering algorithm produced small, but statistically significant, improvements in intelligibility for car and white noise conditions. Significant differences between the performances of noise-reduction algorithms across the three languages were observed.

  4. Clutter noise reduction for phased array imaging using frequency-spatial polarity coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony; Xiao, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A number of materials used in industry exhibit highly-scattering properties which can reduce the performance of conventional ultrasonic NDE approaches. Moving Bandwidth Polarity Thresholding (MBPT) is a robust frequency diversity based algorithm for scatter noise reduction in single A-scan waveforms, using sign coherence across a range of frequency bands to reduce grain noise and improve Signal to Noise Ratio. Importantly, for this approach to be extended to array applications, spatial variation of noise characteristics must also be considered. This paper presents a new spatial-frequency diversity based algorithm for array imaging, extended from MBPT. Each A-scan in the full matrix capture array dataset is partitioned into a serial of overlapped frequency bands and then undergoes polarity thresholding to generate sign-only coefficients indicating possible flaw locations within each selected band. These coefficients are synthesized to form a coefficient matrix using a delay and sum approach in each frequency band. Matrices produced across the frequency bands are then summed to generate a weighting matrix, which can be applied on any conventional image. A 5MHz linear array has been used to acquire data from both austenitic steel and high nickel alloy (HNA) samples to validate the proposed algorithm. Background noise is significantly suppressed for both samples after applying this approach. Importantly, three side drilled holes and the back wall of the HNA sample are clearly enhanced in the processed image, with a mean 133% Contrast to Noise Ratio improvement when compared to a conventional TFM image.

  5. Optimum Noise Reduction Methods for the Interior of Vehicles and Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavossi, Ph. D., Hasson M.

    The most effective methods of noise reduction in vehicles and Aircraft cabins are investigated. The first goal is to determine the optimal means of noise mitigation without change in external shape of the vehicle, or aircraft cabin exterior such as jet engine or fuselage design, with no significant added weight. The second goal is to arrive at interior designs that can be retrofitted to the existing interiors, to reduce overall noise level for the passengers. The physical phenomena considered are; relaxation oscillations, forced vibrations with non-linear damping and sub-harmonic resonances. The negative and positive damping coefficients and active noise cancelations methods are discussed. From noise power-spectrum for a prototype experimental setup, the most energetic vibration modes are determined, that require the highest damping. The proposed technique will utilize the arrangement of uniformly distributed open Helmholtz resonators, with sound absorbing surface. They are tuned to the frequencies that correspond to the most energetic noise levels. The resonators dissipate noise energy inside the vehicle, or aircraft cabin, at the peak frequencies of the noise spectrum, determined for different vehicle or aircraft cabin, interior design models.

  6. Decoherence, Two-Mode Squeezing and Quantum Noise Reduction in a Cavity Raman Laser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windenberger, Claude

    In this dissertation, we study squeezing for the Stokes and Anti-Stokes fields generated in a model of a single-mode Raman laser in a loss-less cavity with classical pump and unsaturated medium, for arbitrary homogeneous broadening and dispersion. Generalizing the notion of two-mode squeezing to allow for arbitrary linear combinations of the two modes in the definition of the quadrature variables, we find that the two output modes, for this general notion, always exhibit quadrature squeezing with noise reduction below the vacuum level. We also discuss our results and the general area of quantum optics in terms of the structures of intelligence as presented in Maharishi's Vedic Science. Finally, we report on a practical aspect of our dissertation research, the "European Alliance with Natural Law Project", whose purpose was to introduce Maharishi's programs, as presented in "Maharishi's Master Plan to Create Heaven on Earth", to our hometown Strasbourg, France, and in particular to the European Parliament located there.

  7. Improvements to local projective noise reduction through higher order and multiscale refinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jack Murdoch; Small, Michael; Karrech, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The broad spectrum characteristic of signals from nonlinear systems obstructs noise reduction techniques developed for linear systems. Local projection was developed to reduce noise while preserving nonlinear deterministic structures, and a second order refinement to local projection which was proposed ten years ago does so particularly effectively. It involves adjusting the origin of the projection subspace to better accommodate the geometry of the attractor. This paper describes an analytic motivation for the enhancement from which follows further higher order and multiple scale refinements. However, the established enhancement is frequently as or more effective than the new filters arising from solely geometric considerations. Investigation of the way that measurement errors reinforce or cancel throughout the refined local projection procedure explains the special efficacy of the existing enhancement, and leads to a new second order refinement offering widespread gains. Different local projective filters are found to be best suited to different noise levels. At low noise levels, the optimal order increases as noise increases. At intermediate levels second order tends to be optimal, while at high noise levels prototypical local projection is most effective. The new higher order filters perform better relative to established filters for longer signals or signals corresponding to higher dimensional attractors.

  8. Optimal design of minimum mean-square error noise reduction algorithms using the simulated annealing technique.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hsieh, Ping-Ju; Hur, Kur-Nan

    2009-02-01

    The performance of the minimum mean-square error noise reduction (MMSE-NR) algorithm in conjunction with time-recursive averaging (TRA) for noise estimation is found to be very sensitive to the choice of two recursion parameters. To address this problem in a more systematic manner, this paper proposes an optimization method to efficiently search the optimal parameters of the MMSE-TRA-NR algorithms. The objective function is based on a regression model, whereas the optimization process is carried out with the simulated annealing algorithm that is well suited for problems with many local optima. Another NR algorithm proposed in the paper employs linear prediction coding as a preprocessor for extracting the correlated portion of human speech. Objective and subjective tests were undertaken to compare the optimized MMSE-TRA-NR algorithm with several conventional NR algorithms. The results of subjective tests were processed by using analysis of variance to justify the statistic significance. A post hoc test, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference, was conducted to further assess the pairwise difference between the NR algorithms.

  9. Algorithm for image registration and clutter and jitter noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an analytical, computational method whereby two-dimensional images of an optical source represented in terms of a set of detector array signals can be registered with respect to a reference set of detector array signals. The detector image is recovered from the detector array signals and represented over a local region by a fourth order, two-dimensional taylor series. This local detector image can then be registered by a general linear transformation with respect to a reference detector image. The detector signal in the reference frame is reconstructed by integrating this detector image over the respective reference pixel. For cases in which the general linear transformation is uncertain by up to plus-or-minus two pixels, the general linear transformation can be determined by least squares fitting the detector image to the reference detector image. This registration process reduces clutter and jitter noise to a level comparable to the electronic noise level of the detector system. Test results with and without electronic noise using an analytical test function are presented.

  10. Adaptive Error Estimation in Linearized Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chechelnitsky, Michael Y.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods are routinely used in oceanography. The statistics of the model and measurement errors need to be specified a priori. This study addresses the problem of estimating model and measurement error statistics from observations. We start by testing innovation based methods of adaptive error estimation with low-dimensional models in the North Pacific (5-60 deg N, 132-252 deg E) to TOPEX/POSEIDON (TIP) sea level anomaly data, acoustic tomography data from the ATOC project, and the MIT General Circulation Model (GCM). A reduced state linear model that describes large scale internal (baroclinic) error dynamics is used. The methods are shown to be sensitive to the initial guess for the error statistics and the type of observations. A new off-line approach is developed, the covariance matching approach (CMA), where covariance matrices of model-data residuals are "matched" to their theoretical expectations using familiar least squares methods. This method uses observations directly instead of the innovations sequence and is shown to be related to the MT method and the method of Fu et al. (1993). Twin experiments using the same linearized MIT GCM suggest that altimetric data are ill-suited to the estimation of internal GCM errors, but that such estimates can in theory be obtained using acoustic data. The CMA is then applied to T/P sea level anomaly data and a linearization of a global GFDL GCM which uses two vertical modes. We show that the CMA method can be used with a global model and a global data set, and that the estimates of the error statistics are robust. We show that the fraction of the GCM-T/P residual variance explained by the model error is larger than that derived in Fukumori et al.(1999) with the method of Fu et al.(1993). Most of the model error is explained by the barotropic mode. However, we find that impact of the change in the error statistics on the data assimilation estimates is very small. This is explained by the large

  11. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

  12. Statistical Analysis of speckle noise reduction techniques for echocardiographic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M. L.; Rohit, Manojkumar

    2011-12-01

    Echocardiography is the safe, easy and fast technology for diagnosing the cardiac diseases. As in other ultrasound images these images also contain speckle noise. In some cases this speckle noise is useful such as in motion detection. But in general noise removal is required for better analysis of the image and proper diagnosis. Different Adaptive and anisotropic filters are included for statistical analysis. Statistical parameters such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) calculated for performance measurement. One more important aspect that there may be blurring during speckle noise removal. So it is prefered that filter should be able to enhance edges during noise removal.

  13. Development of an acoustic actuator for launch vehicle noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Benjamin K; Lane, Steven A; Gussy, Joel; Griffin, Steve; Farinholt, Kevin M

    2002-01-01

    In many active noise control applications, it is necessary that acoustic actuators be mounted in small enclosures due to volume constraints and in order to remain unobtrusive. However, the air spring of the enclosure is detrimental to the low-frequency performance of the actuator. For launch vehicle noise control applications, mass and volume constraints are very limiting, but the low-frequency performance of the actuator is critical. This work presents a novel approach that uses a nonlinear buckling suspension system and partial evacuation of the air within the enclosure to yield a compact, sealed acoustic driver that exhibits a very low natural frequency. Linear models of the device are presented and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the advantages of this design concept. An experimental prototype was built and measurements indicate that this design can significantly improve the low-frequency response of compact acoustic actuators.

  14. Experiments to Determine Neighborhood Reactions to Light Airplanes With and Without External Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elwell, Fred S

    1953-01-01

    The work reported was part of a program of experimentation with external noise reduction on light airplanes. This particular study was in effect a byproduct survey conceived to utilize already available equipment and personnel to further the findings of the original research and to determine reactions in populated neighborhoods to light aircraft with and without noise-reduction equipment. The findings indicate that at the 10 sites within and about metropolitan Boston the degree of noise reduction previously found to be aerodynamically and structurally feasible did eliminate substantially all neighborhood objections to noise per se. The evidence clearly suggests that, when the noise nuisance is minimized to the extent found feasible, the number and severity of other objections also diminish -- evidently because the flight operations are noticed less when heard less.

  15. Noise reduction evaluation of grids in a supersonic air stream with application to Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, J. M.; Manning, J. C.; Nystrom, P.; Pao, S. P.

    1977-01-01

    Near field acoustic measurements were obtained for a model supersonic air jet perturbed by a screen. Noise reduction potential in the vicinity of the space shuttle vehicle during ground launch when the rocket exhaust flow is perturbed by a grid was determined. Both 10 and 12 mesh screens were utilized for this experiment, and each exhibited a noise reduction only at very low frequencies in the near field forward arc. A power spectrum analysis revealed that a modest reduction of from 3 to 5 decibels exists below a Strouhal number S sub t = 0.11. Above S sub t = 0.11 screen harmonics increased the observed sound pressure level. The favorable noise reductions obtained with screens for S sub t 0.11 may be of substantial interest for the space shuttle at ground launch.

  16. Noise reduction of a composite cylinder subjected to random acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Beyer, T.

    1989-01-01

    Interior and exterior noise measurements were conducted on a stiffened composite floor-equipped cylinder, with and without an interior trim installed. Noise reduction was obtained for the case of random acoustic excitation in a diffuse field; the frequency range of interest was 100-800-Hz one-third octave bands. The measured data were compared with noise reduction predictions from the Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise (PAIN) program and from a statistical energy analysis. Structural model parameters were not predicted well by the PAIN program for the given input parameters; this resulted in incorrect noise reduction predictions for the lower one-third octave bands where the power flow into the interior of the cylinder was predicted on a mode-per-mode basis.

  17. Flight-test measurement of the noise reduction of a jet transport delayed flap approach procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. D.; Lasagna, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    A delayed flap approach procedure was flight tested using the NASA CV-990 airplane to measure and analyze the noise produced beneath the flight path. Three other types of landing approaches were also flight tested to provide a comparison of the noise reduction benefits to the delayed flap approach. The conventional type of approach was used as a baseline to compare the effectiveness of the other approaches. The decelerating approach is a variation of the delayed flap approach. A detailed comparison of the ground perceived noise generated during the approaches is presented. For this comparison, the measured noise data were normalized to compensate for variations in aircraft weight and winds that occurred during the flight tests. The data show that the reduced flap approach offers some noise reduction, while the delayed flap and decelerating approaches offer significant noise reductions over the conventional approach.

  18. Temporal image stacking for noise reduction and dynamic range improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio; Ramachandra, Vikas; Siddiqui, Hasib

    2013-03-01

    The dynamic range of an imager is determined by the ratio of the pixel well capacity to the noise floor. As the scene dynamic range becomes larger than the imager dynamic range, the choices are to saturate some parts of the scene or "bury" others in noise. In this paper we propose an algorithm that produces high dynamic range images by "stacking" sequentially captured frames which reduces the noise and creates additional bits. The frame stacking is done by frame alignment subject to a projective transform and temporal anisotropic diffusion. The noise sources contributing to the noise floor are the sensor heat noise, the quantization noise, and the sensor fixed pattern noise. We demonstrate that by stacking images the quantization and heat noise are reduced and the decrease is limited only by the fixed pattern noise. As the noise is reduced, the resulting cleaner image enables the use of adaptive tone mapping algorithms which render HDR images in an 8-bit container without significant noise increase.

  19. Wavelet-based pavement image compression and noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Peisen S.; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2005-08-01

    For any automated distress inspection system, typically a huge number of pavement images are collected. Use of an appropriate image compression algorithm can save disk space, reduce the saving time, increase the inspection distance, and increase the processing speed. In this research, a modified EZW (Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet) coding method, which is an improved version of the widely used EZW coding method, is proposed. This method, unlike the two-pass approach used in the original EZW method, uses only one pass to encode both the coordinates and magnitudes of wavelet coefficients. An adaptive arithmetic encoding method is also implemented to encode four symbols assigned by the modified EZW into binary bits. By applying a thresholding technique to terminate the coding process, the modified EZW coding method can compress the image and reduce noise simultaneously. The new method is much simpler and faster. Experimental results also show that the compression ratio was increased one and one-half times compared to the EZW coding method. The compressed and de-noised data can be used to reconstruct wavelet coefficients for off-line pavement image processing such as distress classification and quantification.

  20. Noise reduction in long‐period seismograms by way of array summing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David; Storm, Tyler; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Holland, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Long‐period (>100  s period) seismic data can often be dominated by instrumental noise as well as local site noise. When multiple collocated sensors are installed at a single site, it is possible to improve the overall station noise levels by applying stacking methods to their traces. We look at the noise reduction in long‐period seismic data by applying the time–frequency phase‐weighted stacking method of Schimmel and Gallart (2007) as well as the phase‐weighted stacking (PWS) method of Schimmel and Paulssen (1997) to four collocated broadband sensors installed in the quiet Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory underground vault. We show that such stacking methods can improve vertical noise levels by as much as 10 dB over the mean background noise levels at 400 s period, suggesting that greater improvements could be achieved with an array involving multiple sensors. We also apply this method to reduce local incoherent noise on horizontal seismic records of the 2 March 2016 Mw 7.8 Sumatra earthquake, where the incoherent noise levels at very long periods are similar in amplitude to the earthquake signal. To maximize the coherency, we apply the PWS method to horizontal data where relative azimuths between collocated sensors are estimated and compared with a simpler linear stack with no azimuthal rotation. Such methods could help reduce noise levels at various seismic stations where multiple high‐quality sensors have been deployed. Such small arrays may also provide a solution to improving long‐period noise levels at Global Seismographic Network stations.

  1. Noise-reduction measurements of stiffened and unstiffened cylindrical models of an airplane fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Noise-reduction measurements are presented for a stiffened and an unstiffened model of an airplane fuselage. The cylindrical models were tested in a reverberant-field noise environment over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 6 kHz. An unstiffened metal fuselage provided more noise reduction than a fuselage having the same sidewall weight divided between skin and stiffening stringers and ring frames. The addition of acoustic insulation to the models tended to smooth out the interior-noise spectrum by reducing or masking the noise associated with the structural response at some of the resonant frequencies.

  2. Critical Propulsion and Noise reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines. Area of Interest 14.3: Separate Flow Exhaust System Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Brausch, J. F.; Gliebe, P. R.; Coffin, R. S.; Martens, S.; Delaney, B. R.; Dalton, W. N.; Mengle, V. G.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discusses: Project Objectives, Approach and Goal; Baseline Nozzles and Test Cycle Definition; Repeatability and Baseline Nozzle Results; Noise Reduction Concepts; Noise Reduction Tests Configurations of BPR=5 Internal Plug Nozzle adn Acoustic Results; Noise Reduction Test Configurations of BPR=5 External Plug Nozzle and Acoustic Results; and Noise Reduction Tests Configurations of BPR=8 External Plug Nozzle and Acoustic Results.

  3. Asymptotic Linearity of Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Law with Analytical Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal control modification has been developed to improve robustness to model-reference adaptive control. For systems with linear matched uncertainty, optimal control modification adaptive law can be shown by a singular perturbation argument to possess an outer solution that exhibits a linear asymptotic property. Analytical expressions of phase and time delay margins for the outer solution can be obtained. Using the gradient projection operator, a free design parameter of the adaptive law can be selected to satisfy stability margins.

  4. 40 CFR 211.207 - Computation of the noise -reduction rating (NRR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of the noise -reduction rating (NRR). 211.207 Section 211.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.207...

  5. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques from 2 MHz to 200 MHz -- Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K., III; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the second part of a two-paper series. The first paper discussed cable types and shield connections. In this second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. <50 KHz) or high frequencies (>100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz.

  6. A simulation study of harmonics regeneration in noise reduction for electric and acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Recent research results show that combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) significantly improves speech recognition in noise, and it is generally established that access to the improved F0 representation of target speech, along with the glimpse cues, provide the EAS benefits. Under noisy listening conditions, noise signals degrade these important cues by introducing undesired temporal-frequency components and corrupting harmonics structure. In this study, the potential of combining noise reduction and harmonics regeneration techniques was investigated to further improve speech intelligibility in noise by providing improved beneficial cues for EAS. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) noise reduction methods can improve speech intelligibility in noise for EAS; (2) harmonics regeneration after noise reduction can further improve speech intelligibility in noise for EAS; and (3) harmonics sideband constraints in frequency domain (or equivalently, amplitude modulation in temporal domain), even deterministic ones, can provide additional benefits. Test results demonstrate that combining noise reduction and harmonics regeneration can significantly improve speech recognition in noise for EAS, and it is also beneficial to preserve the harmonics sidebands under adverse listening conditions. This finding warrants further work into the development of algorithms that regenerate harmonics and the related sidebands for EAS processing under noisy conditions. PMID:21117763

  7. Children's Performance in Complex Listening Conditions: Effects of Hearing Loss and Digital Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of hearing loss (HL) on children's performance for an auditory task under demanding listening conditions and to determine the effect of digital noise reduction (DNR) on that performance. Method: Fifty children with normal hearing (NH) and 30 children with HL (8-12 years of age) categorized words in the presence of…

  8. Noise reduction in rhythmic and multitrial biosignals with applications to event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Celka, Patrick; Le, Khoa N; Cutmore, Timothy R H

    2008-07-01

    A new noise reduction algorithm is presented for signals displaying repeated patterns or multiple trials. Each pattern is stored in a matrix, forming a set of events, which is termed multievent signal. Each event is considered as an affine transform of a basic template signal that allows for time scaling and shifting. Wavelet transforms, decimated and undecimated, are applied to each event. Noise reduction on the set of coefficients of the transformed events is applied using either wavelet denoising or principal component analysis (PCA) noise reduction methodologies. The method does not require any manual selection of coefficients. Nonstationary multievent synthetic signals are employed to demonstrate the performance of the method using normalized mean square error against classical wavelet and PCA based algorithms. The new method shows a significant improvement in low SNRs (typically 0 dB). On the experimental side, evoked potentials in a visual oddball paradigm are used. The reduced-noise visual oddball event-related potentials reveal gradual changes in morphology from trial to trial (especially for N1-P2 and N2-P3 waves at Fz), which can be hypothetically linked to attention or decision processes. The new noise reduction method is, thus, shown to be particularly suited for recovering single-event features in nonstationary low SNR multievent contexts.

  9. Helicopter Non-Unique Trim Strategies for Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-22

    1 Helicopter Non-Unique Trim Strategies for Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise Reduction Carlos Malpica Aerospace Engineer NASA Ames...34 global " effect of fuselage drag on BVI noise is illustrated in Figure 8 and Figure 9. Figure 8 highlights the effect of decreasing and increasing

  10. A Wavelet-Based Noise Reduction Algorithm and Its Clinical Evaluation in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hua; Deng, Guang; Mauger, Stefan J.; Hersbach, Adam A.; Dawson, Pam W.; Heasman, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Noise reduction is often essential for cochlear implant (CI) recipients to achieve acceptable speech perception in noisy environments. Most noise reduction algorithms applied to audio signals are based on time-frequency representations of the input, such as the Fourier transform. Algorithms based on other representations may also be able to provide comparable or improved speech perception and listening quality improvements. In this paper, a noise reduction algorithm for CI sound processing is proposed based on the wavelet transform. The algorithm uses a dual-tree complex discrete wavelet transform followed by shrinkage of the wavelet coefficients based on a statistical estimation of the variance of the noise. The proposed noise reduction algorithm was evaluated by comparing its performance to those of many existing wavelet-based algorithms. The speech transmission index (STI) of the proposed algorithm is significantly better than other tested algorithms for the speech-weighted noise of different levels of signal to noise ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed system was clinically evaluated with CI recipients. A significant improvement in speech perception of 1.9 dB was found on average in speech weighted noise. PMID:24086605

  11. Objective Measures of Listening Effort: Effects of Background Noise and Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent; Hafter, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This work is aimed at addressing a seeming contradiction related to the use of noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in hearing aids. The problem is that although some listeners claim a subjective improvement from NR, it has not been shown to improve speech intelligibility, often even making it worse. Method: To address this, the hypothesis…

  12. Perceptual effects of noise reduction by time-frequency masking of noisy speech.

    PubMed

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2012-10-01

    Time-frequency masking is a method for noise reduction that is based on the time-frequency representation of a speech in noise signal. Depending on the estimated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), each time-frequency unit is either attenuated or not. A special type of a time-frequency mask is the ideal binary mask (IBM), which has access to the real SNR (ideal). The IBM either retains or removes each time-frequency unit (binary mask). The IBM provides large improvements in speech intelligibility and is a valuable tool for investigating how different factors influence intelligibility. This study extends the standard outcome measure (speech intelligibility) with additional perceptual measures relevant for noise reduction: listening effort, noise annoyance, speech naturalness, and overall preference. Four types of time-frequency masking were evaluated: the original IBM, a tempered version of the IBM (called ITM) which applies limited and non-binary attenuation, and non-ideal masking (also tempered) with two different types of noise-estimation algorithms. The results from ideal masking imply that there is a trade-off between intelligibility and sound quality, which depends on the attenuation strength. Additionally, the results for non-ideal masking suggest that subjective measures can show effects of noise reduction even if noise reduction does not lead to differences in intelligibility.

  13. A simulation study of harmonics regeneration in noise reduction for electric and acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi

    2010-05-01

    Recent research results show that combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) significantly improves speech recognition in noise, and it is generally established that access to the improved F0 representation of target speech, along with the glimpse cues, provide the EAS benefits. Under noisy listening conditions, noise signals degrade these important cues by introducing undesired temporal-frequency components and corrupting harmonics structure. In this study, the potential of combining noise reduction and harmonics regeneration techniques was investigated to further improve speech intelligibility in noise by providing improved beneficial cues for EAS. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) noise reduction methods can improve speech intelligibility in noise for EAS; (2) harmonics regeneration after noise reduction can further improve speech intelligibility in noise for EAS; and (3) harmonics sideband constraints in frequency domain (or equivalently, amplitude modulation in temporal domain), even deterministic ones, can provide additional benefits. Test results demonstrate that combining noise reduction and harmonics regeneration can significantly improve speech recognition in noise for EAS, and it is also beneficial to preserve the harmonics sidebands under adverse listening conditions. This finding warrants further work into the development of algorithms that regenerate harmonics and the related sidebands for EAS processing under noisy conditions.

  14. Noise reduction for curve-linear structures in real time fluoroscopy applications using directional binary masks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Martin; Yang, Pengfei; Schafer, Sebastian; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recent efforts in the reconstruction of interventional devices from two distinct views require the segmentation of the object in both fluoroscopic images. Noise might decrease the quality of the segmentation and cause artifacts in the reconstruction. The noise level depends on the x-ray dose the patient is exposed to. The proposed algorithm reduces the noise and enhances the separability of curvilinear devices in background subtracted fluoroscopic images to allow a more accurate segmentation. Methods: The algorithm uses a set of binary masks to estimate a line conformity measure that determines the best direction for a directional filter kernel. If the calculated value exceeds a certain threshold, the directional kernel is used to obtain the filtered value. Otherwise, an isotropic filter kernel is used. Results: The evaluation was performed on a set of 36 fluoroscopic images using a vascular head phantom with three different guidewires and nine different x-ray dosages from 6 nGy/pulse to 45 nGy/pulse as well as a clinical data set containing ten images. Compared with wavelet shrinkage and the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm increased the average contrast to noise ratio by at least 17.8% for the phantom and 68.9% for the clinical images. The accuracy of the device segmentation was improved on average by at least 17.3% and 14.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm was able to significantly reduce the amount of noise in the images and therefore increase the quality of the device segmentations compared to both the bilateral filter and the wavelet thresholding approach for all acquired noise levels using rotating directional filter kernels near line structures and isotropic kernels for the background. The application of the proposed algorithm for the 3D reconstruction of curvilinear devices from two views would allow a more accurate reconstruction of the device. PMID:26233192

  15. Intelligibility in Noise of Three LPC (Linear Predictive Coders) Voice Channels with Active Noise Reduction Headsets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-04

    NUMBER( S ) AAMRL-TR-88- 063 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Harry G . Armstrong (if applicable...BIODYNAMICS AND BIOENGINEERING DIVISION t HARRY G . ARMSTRONG AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH 45433-65 73 K NOVEMBER 1988...SUMMARY REPORT FOR JUNE 1988 70 NOVEMBER 1988 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. OTIC ^LECTE f HARRY G . ARMSTRONG AEROSPAC ’MEDICAL

  16. Methods for clinical evaluation of noise reduction techniques in abdominopelvic CT.

    PubMed

    Ehman, Eric C; Yu, Lifeng; Manduca, Armando; Hara, Amy K; Shiung, Maria M; Jondal, Dayna; Lake, David S; Paden, Robert G; Blezek, Daniel J; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Hough, David M; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Most noise reduction methods involve nonlinear processes, and objective evaluation of image quality can be challenging, since image noise cannot be fully characterized on the sole basis of the noise level at computed tomography (CT). Noise spatial correlation (or noise texture) is closely related to the detection and characterization of low-contrast objects and may be quantified by analyzing the noise power spectrum. High-contrast spatial resolution can be measured using the modulation transfer function and section sensitivity profile and is generally unaffected by noise reduction. Detectability of low-contrast lesions can be evaluated subjectively at varying dose levels using phantoms containing low-contrast objects. Clinical applications with inherent high-contrast abnormalities (eg, CT for renal calculi, CT enterography) permit larger dose reductions with denoising techniques. In low-contrast tasks such as detection of metastases in solid organs, dose reduction is substantially more limited by loss of lesion conspicuity due to loss of low-contrast spatial resolution and coarsening of noise texture. Existing noise reduction strategies for dose reduction have a substantial impact on lowering the radiation dose at CT. To preserve the diagnostic benefit of CT examination, thoughtful utilization of these strategies must be based on the inherent lesion-to-background contrast and the anatomy of interest. The authors provide an overview of existing noise reduction strategies for low-dose abdominopelvic CT, including analytic reconstruction, image and projection space denoising, and iterative reconstruction; review qualitative and quantitative tools for evaluating these strategies; and discuss the strengths and limitations of individual noise reduction methods.

  17. Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

  18. Acoustic noise reduction. January 1970-November 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, devices, and materials for acoustic-noise reduction. Included are noise-reduction techniques for engines, turbines, machinery, motor vehicles, pumps, aircraft cabins, and compressors. (Contains 189 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. A research program to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes: Noise reduction through a cavity-backed flexible plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Vandam, C. P. G.

    1978-01-01

    A prediction method is reported for noise reduction through a cavity-backed panel. The analysis takes into account only cavity modes in one direction. The results of this analysis were to find the effect of acoustic stiffness of a backing cavity on the panel behavior. The resulting changes in the noise reduction through the panel are significant.

  20. Optical Fiber Sensors for Infrasonic Wind Noise Reduction and Earth Strain Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, Scott

    Fiber-based interferometers provide the means to sense very small displacements over long baselines, and have the advantage of being nearly completely passive in their operation, making them particularly well suited for geophysical applications. This work presents the development and results from four new systems: one in atmospheric acoustics and three in Earth strain. Turbulent pressure fluctuations (wind noise) are a significant limiting factor in low-frequency atmospheric acoustic measurements. The Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor (OFIS) provides an alternative to traditional infrasonic wind noise reduction (WNR) techniques by providing an instantaneous average over a large spatial extent. This study shows that linear OFISs ranging in length from 30 to 270 m provide a WNR of up to 30 dB in winds up to 5 m/s, in good agreement with a new analytical model. Arrays of optical fiber strainmeters were deployed to measure sediment compaction at two sites in Bangladesh. One array at Jamalganj (in the north) consists of 20, 40, 60, and 100 m long strainmeters, while the second near Khulna (in the south) also includes lengths of 80 and 300 m. Two years of weekly measurements show a clear seasonal signal and subsidence at both sites that is in reasonable agreement with collocated GPS receivers. A new 250-meter, interferometric vertical borehole strainmeter has been developed based completely on passive optical components. Details of the prototyping, design, and deployment at the Pinon Flat Observatory (PFO) are presented. Power spectra show an intertidal noise level of -130 dB (re. 1 epsilon/Hz), consistent within 1-3 dB between redundant components. Examination of its response to Earth tides and earthquakes relative to the areal strain recorded by an orthogonal pair of collocated, 730 m horizontal laser strainmeters yield a Poisson's ratio of 0.26. Two prototype horizontal strainmeters were also developed to explore the use of similar interferometric optical fiber

  1. Differential adaptation of the linear and nonlinear components of the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clendaniel, Richard A.; Lasker, David M.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Previous work in squirrel monkeys has demonstrated the presence of linear and nonlinear components to the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evoked by high-acceleration rotations. The nonlinear component is seen as a rise in gain with increasing velocity of rotation at frequencies more than 2 Hz (a velocity-dependent gain enhancement). We have shown that there are greater changes in the nonlinear than linear component of the response after spectacle-induced adaptation. The present study was conducted to determine if the two components of the response share a common adaptive process. The gain of the VOR, in the dark, to sinusoidal stimuli at 4 Hz (peak velocities: 20-150 degrees /s) and 10 Hz (peak velocities: 20 and 100 degrees /s) was measured pre- and postadaptation. Adaptation was induced over 4 h with x0.45 minimizing spectacles. Sum-of-sines stimuli were used to induce adaptation, and the parameters of the stimuli were adjusted to invoke only the linear or both linear and nonlinear components of the response. Preadaptation, there was a velocity-dependent gain enhancement at 4 and 10 Hz. In postadaptation with the paradigms that only recruited the linear component, there was a decrease in gain and a persistent velocity-dependent gain enhancement (indicating adaptation of only the linear component). After adaptation with the paradigm designed to recruit both the linear and nonlinear components, there was a decrease in gain and no velocity-dependent gain enhancement (indicating adaptation of both components). There were comparable changes in the response to steps of acceleration. We interpret these results to indicate that separate processes drive the adaptation of the linear and nonlinear components of the response.

  2. Identification of Noise Sources and Design of Noise Reduction Measures for a Pneumatic Nail Gun.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Vignesh; Kim, Jay; Zechmann, Edward

    An experimental-analytical procedure was implemented to reduce the operating noise level of a nail gun, a commonly found power tool in a construction site. The procedure is comprised of preliminary measurements, identification and ranking of major noise sources and application of noise controls. Preliminary measurements show that the impact noise transmitted through the structure and the exhaust related noise were found to be the first and second major contributors. Applying a noise absorbing foam on the outside of the nail gun body was found to be an effective noise reduction technique. One and two-volume small mufflers were designed and applied to the exhaust side of the nail gun which reduced not only the exhaust noise but also the impact noise. It was shown that the overall noise level could be reduced by as much as 3.5 dB, suggesting that significant noise reduction is possible in construction power tools without any significant increase of the cost.

  3. Two Methods of Mechanical Noise Reduction of Recorded Speech During Phonation in an MRI device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Přibil, J.; Horáček, J.; Horák, P.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents two methods of noise reduction of speech signal recorded in an MRI device during phonation for the human vocal tract modelling. The applied approach of noise speech signal cleaning is based on cepstral speech analysis and synthesis because the noise is mainly produced by gradient coils, has a mechanical character, and can be processed in spectral domain. Our first noise reduction method is using real cepstrum limitation and clipping the "peaks" corresponding to the harmonic frequencies of mechanical noise. The second method is coming out from substation of the short-time spectra of two signals recorded withal: the first includes speech and noise, and the second consists of noise only. The resulting speech quality was compared by spectrogram and mean periodogram methods.

  4. An experimental study of USB flap noise reduction through mean flow modification. [Upper Surface Blown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, M. C.; Yu, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mean flow modification on the noise production of upper surface blown flaps has been studied experimentally. Mean velocity profile at the nozzle exit was modified from the usual 'top-hat' shape to 'Gamma' and 'L'-shaped profiles. The 'L'-modification caused noise reduction around and above the peak frequency of the 'top-hat' spectrum when compared on an equal thrust per exit area basis. Modification to 'Gamma'-shaped profile resulted in a shift of the spectrum to lower frequencies and a lower overall noise reduction. These modifications alter the development of the large scale disturbances in the upper shear layer and trailing edge wake of the wall jet geometry.

  5. Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Baumann, Bernhard; Schmoll, Tilman; Sattmann, Harald; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system based on polarization maintaining fibers and two high speed CMOS line scan cameras capable of retinal imaging with up to 128 k A-lines/s. This high imaging speed strongly reduces motion artifacts and therefore averaging of several B-scans is possible, which strongly reduces speckle noise and improves image quality. We present several methods for averaging retardation and optic axis orientation, the best one providing a 5 fold noise reduction. Furthermore, a novel scheme of calculating images of degree of polarization uniformity is presented. We quantitatively compare the noise reduction depending on the number of averaged frames and discuss the limits of frame numbers that can usefully be averaged. PMID:21934820

  6. New circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines resulting from a new practice of noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Toki, Hiroshi; Sato, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In modern life, we are surrounded by and filled with electromagnetic noise caused by the dominant use of energy in the form of electricity. This situation is brought about by the fact that the noise is not understood theoretically. A new practice of noise reduction was introduced for the construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The key concept is a symmetric three-line circuit that arranges power supplies, noise filters and magnets around a third central ground line. A continuous theoretical effort forced us to find a new circuit theory involving a multiconductor transmission-line system starting from Maxwell's equations without any approximation. We discuss the essence of all of these experimental and theoretical developments with the hope to remove unnecessary electromagnetic noise not only from power supplies, but also from all electric devices. The newly derived circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines is universal, and establishes the validity of the practice of noise reduction.

  7. Fan noise reduction achieved by removing tip flow irregularities behind the rotor - forward arc test configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The noise source caused by the interaction of the rotor tip flow irregularities (vortices and velocity defects) with the downstream stator vanes was studied. Fan flow was removed behind a 0.508 meter (20 in.) diameter model turbofan through an outer wall slot between the rotor and stator. Noise measurements were made with far-field microphones positioned in an arc about the fan inlet and with a pressure transducer in the duct behind the stator. Little tone noise reduction was observed in the forward arc during flow removal; possibly because the rotor-stator interaction noise did not propagate upstream through the rotor. Noise reductions were maded in the duct behind the stator and the largest decrease occurred with the first increment of flow removal. This result indicates that the rotor tip flow irregularity-stator interaction is as important a noise producing mechanism as the normally considered rotor wake-stator interaction.

  8. [Evaluation of an adaptive filter for CT under low-CNR condition: comparison with linear filter].

    PubMed

    Mori, Issei; Uchida, Miho; Sato, Ami; Sato, Shingo; Tamura, Hajime; Takai, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Saito, Haruo; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Ogura, Takahide; Chida, Koichi; Machida, Yoshio

    2009-01-20

    The use of an adaptive filter for CT images is becoming a common procedure and is said to reduce image noise while preserving sharpness and helping to reduce the required X-ray dose. Although many reports support this view, the validity of such evaluations is arguable. When the linearity of a system is in question, physical performance indexes should be measured under conditions similar to those of clinical use. Evaluations of diagnosis using clinical images may be fallible because the non-filtered image used as the reference might not have been optimally reconstructed. We have chosen simple, but commonly used, adaptive filters for our evaluation. As a reference for comparing performance, we designed linear filters that best approximate the noise characteristics of the adaptive filters. MTF is measured through observation of the edge-spread function. Clinical abdominal images are used to compare the performance of adaptive filters and linear filters. We conclude that the performance of the type of adaptive filter we have chosen is virtually the same as that of the linear filter, as long as the image quality of soft tissues is our interest. Both the noise SD and MTF are virtually the same if the contrast of the object is not substantially higher than 150 HU. Images of soft tissues obtained with the use of adaptive filters are also virtually the same as those obtained by linear filters. The edge-preservation characteristic of this adaptive filter is not observable for soft tissues.

  9. Noise reduction by the application of an air-bubble curtain in offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Underwater noise pollution is a by-product of marine industrial operations. In particular, the noise generated when a foundation pile is driven into the soil with an impact hammer is considered to be harmful for the aquatic species. In an attempt to reduce the ecological footprint, several noise mitigation techniques have been investigated. Among the various solutions proposed, the air-bubble curtain is often applied due to its efficacy in noise reduction. In this paper, a model is proposed for the investigation of the sound reduction during marine piling when an air-bubble curtain is placed around the pile. The model consists of the pile, the surrounding water and soil media, and the air-bubble curtain which is positioned at a certain distance from the pile surface. The solution approach is semi-analytical and is based on the dynamic sub-structuring technique and the modal decomposition method. Two main results of the paper can be distinguished. First, a new model is proposed that can be used for predictions of the noise levels in a computationally efficient manner. Second, an analysis is presented of the principal mechanisms that are responsible for the noise reduction due to the application of the air-bubble curtain in marine piling. The understanding of these mechanisms turns to be crucial for the exploitation of the maximum efficiency of the system. It is shown that the principal mechanism of noise reduction depends strongly on the frequency content of the radiated sound and the characteristics of the bubbly medium. For piles of large diameter which radiate most of the acoustic energy at relatively low frequencies, the noise reduction is mainly attributed to the mismatch of the acoustic impedances between the seawater and the bubbly layer. On the contrary, for smaller piles and when the radiated acoustic energy is concentrated at frequencies close to, or higher than, the resonance frequency of the air bubbles, the sound absorption within the bubbly layer

  10. Noise-reduction capabilities of a raman-mediated wavelength converter.

    PubMed

    Dahan, David; Bilenca, Alberto; Eisenstein, Gadi

    2003-04-15

    We describe ultrawideband Raman-mediated wavelength conversion. The nonlinear conversion transfer function is calculated analytically and simulated numerically in the cw regime, and the predicted performance is confirmed experimentally. Data conversion from long- to short-wavelength bands with signal reshaping and significant noise reduction are demonstrated experimentally at 10 Gbits/s and modeled by numerical simulations. Q factors and extinction ratios that are both larger than 10 dB are possible over an effective conversion bandwidth of 35 nm.

  11. The noise reduction potential of dual-stream coaxial rectangular improperly expanded jet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dosanjh, Darshan; Spina, Eric F.

    1995-01-01

    The research performed began during Spring 1991 as a project to assess the noise reduction potential of rectangular coaxial nozzle configurations for improperly expanded jets. The research plan consisted of: (1) design of coaxial rectangular nozzle configuration by Syracuse graduate research assistant; (2) construction of nozzles by NASA Langley machinists; and (3) acquisition of preliminary acoustic and optical data for a variety of inner and outer jet pressure ratios.

  12. Workshop on Jet Exhaust Noise Reduction for Tactical Aircraft - NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    Jet noise from supersonic, high performance aircraft is a significant problem for takeoff and landing operations near air bases and aircraft carriers. As newer aircraft with higher thrust and performance are introduced, the noise tends to increase due to higher jet exhaust velocities. Jet noise has been a subject of research for over 55 years. Commercial subsonic aircraft benefit from changes to the engine cycle that reduce the exhaust velocities and result in significant noise reduction. Most of the research programs over the past few decades have concentrated on commercial aircraft. Progress has been made by introducing new engines with design features that reduce the noise. NASA has recently started a new program called "Fundamental Aeronautics" where three projects (subsonic fixed wing, subsonic rotary wing, and supersonics) address aircraft noise. For the supersonics project, a primary goal is to understand the underlying physics associated with jet noise so that improved noise prediction tools and noise reduction methods can be developed for a wide range of applications. Highlights from the supersonics project are presented including prediction methods for broadband shock noise, flow measurement methods, and noise reduction methods. Realistic expectations are presented based on past history that indicates significant jet noise reduction cannot be achieved without major changes to the engine cycle. NASA s past experience shows a few EPNdB (effective perceived noise level in decibels) can be achieved using low noise design features such as chevron nozzles. Minimal thrust loss can be expected with these nozzles (< 0.5%) and they may be retrofitted on existing engines. In the long term, it is desirable to use variable cycle engines that can be optimized for lower jet noise during takeoff operations and higher thrust for operational performance. It is also suggested that noise experts be included early in the design process for engine nozzle systems to participate

  13. Evaluation of the sparse coding shrinkage noise reduction algorithm in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jinqiu; Hu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Guoping; Lutman, Mark E; Bleeck, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Although there are numerous single-channel noise reduction strategies to improve speech perception in noise, most of them improve speech quality but do not improve speech intelligibility, in circumstances where the noise and speech have similar frequency spectra. Current exceptions that may improve speech intelligibility are those that require a priori knowledge of the speech or noise statistics, which limits practical application. Hearing impaired (HI) listeners suffer more in speech intelligibility than normal hearing listeners (NH) in the same noisy environment, so developing better single-channel noise reduction algorithms for HI listeners is justified. Our model-based "sparse coding shrinkage" (SCS) algorithm extracts key speech information in noisy speech. We evaluate it by comparison with a state-of-the-art Wiener filtering approach using speech intelligibility tests with NH and HI listeners. The model-based SCS algorithm relies only on statistical signal information without prior information. Results show that the SCS algorithm improves speech intelligibility in stationary noise and is comparable to the Wiener filtering algorithm. Both algorithms improve intelligibility for HI listeners but not for NH listeners. Improvement is less in fluctuating (babble) noise than in stationary noise. Both noise reduction algorithms perform better at higher input signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) where HI listeners can benefit but where NH listeners have already reached ceiling performance. The difference between NH and HI subjects in intelligibility gain depends fundamentally on the input SNR rather than the hearing loss level. We conclude that HI listeners need different signal processing algorithms from NH subjects and that the SCS algorithm offers a promising alternative to Wiener filtering. Performance of all noise reduction algorithms is likely to vary according to extent of hearing loss and algorithms that show little benefit for listeners with moderate hearing loss may

  14. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  15. Effect of Bypass Capacitor in Common-mode Noise Reduction Technique for Automobile PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Takanori; Ichikawa, Kouji; Mabuchi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Atushi

    In this letter, we studied the use of common mode noise reduction technique for in-vehicle electronic equipment, each comprising large-scale integrated circuit (LSI), printed circuit board (PCB), wiring harnesses, and ground plane. We have improved the model circuit of the common mode noise that flows to the wire harness to add the effect of by-pass capacitors located near an LSI.

  16. Executive Summary of Systems Analysis to Develop Future Civil Aircraft Noise Reduction Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD-AIIB 4 PEER CONSULTANTS INC ROCKVILLE NO F/6 1/3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TO DEVELOP FUTURE CIVIL A-ETC(U) MAY B2 L A ROBINSON DTFAOI...Energy Washington, D.C. 20591 Develop Future Civil Aircraft Noise Reduction Alternatives Lilia Abron Robinson, Ph. D. PEER Consultants, Inc. 1160...ORGANIZATION CODE 7. AUTHOR(S) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. PEER Consultants, Inc. 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM

  17. A Self-Adaptive Projection and Contraction Method for Linear Complementarity Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Lizhi Wang Shengli

    2003-10-15

    In this paper we develop a self-adaptive projection and contraction method for the linear complementarity problem (LCP). This method improves the practical performance of the modified projection and contraction method by adopting a self-adaptive technique. The global convergence of our new method is proved under mild assumptions. Our numerical tests clearly demonstrate the necessity and effectiveness of our proposed method.

  18. Assessment of Soft Vane and Metal Foam Engine Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Hughes, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Two innovative fan-noise reduction concepts developed by NASA are presented - soft vanes and over-the-rotor metal foam liners. Design methodologies are described for each concept. Soft vanes are outlet guide vanes with internal, resonant chambers that communicate with the exterior aeroacoustic environment via a porous surface. They provide acoustic absorption via viscous losses generated by interaction of unsteady flows with the internal solid structure. Over-the-rotor metal foam liners installed at or near the fan rotor axial plane provide rotor noise absorption. Both concepts also provide pressure-release surfaces that potentially inhibit noise generation. Several configurations for both concepts are evaluated with a normal incidence tube, and the results are used to guide designs for implementation in two NASA fan rigs. For soft vanes, approximately 1 to 2 dB of broadband inlet and aft-radiated fan noise reduction is achieved. For over-the-rotor metal foam liners, up to 3 dB of fan noise reduction is measured in the low-speed fan rig, but minimal reduction is measured in the high-speed fan rig. These metal foam liner results are compared with a static engine test, in which inlet sound power level reductions up to 5 dB were measured. Brief plans for further development are also provided.

  19. Hybrid feedforward-feedback active noise reduction for hearing protection and communication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Laura R; Solbeck, Jason A; Streeter, Alexander D; Collier, Robert D

    2006-10-01

    A hybrid active noise reduction (ANR) architecture is presented and validated for a circumaural earcup and a communication earplug. The hybrid system combines source-independent feedback ANR with a Lyapunov-tuned leaky LMS filter (LyLMS) improving gain stability margins over feedforward ANR alone. In flat plate testing, the earcup demonstrates an overall C-weighted total noise reduction of 40 dB and 30-32 dB, respectively, for 50-800 Hz sum-of-tones noise and for aircraft or helicopter cockpit noise, improving low frequency (<100 Hz) performance by up to 15 dB over either control component acting individually. For the earplug, a filtered-X implementation of the LyLMS accommodates its nonconstant cancellation path gain. A fast time-domain identification method provides a high-fidelity, computationally efficient, infinite impulse response cancellation path model, which is used for both the filtered-X implementation and communication feedthrough. Insertion loss measurements made with a manikin show overall C-weighted total noise reduction provided by the ANR earplug of 46-48 dB for sum-of-tones 80-2000 Hz and 40-41 dB from 63 to 3000 Hz for UH-60 helicopter noise, with negligible degradation in attenuation during speech communication. For both hearing protectors, a stability metric improves by a factor of 2 to several orders of magnitude through hybrid ANR.

  20. Fluorescence microscopy image noise reduction using a stochastically-connected random field model

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S. A.; Cameron, A.; Siva, P.; Lui, D.; Shafiee, M. J.; Boroomand, A.; Haider, N.; Wong, A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an essential part of a biologist’s toolkit, allowing assaying of many parameters like subcellular localization of proteins, changes in cytoskeletal dynamics, protein-protein interactions, and the concentration of specific cellular ions. A fundamental challenge with using fluorescence microscopy is the presence of noise. This study introduces a novel approach to reducing noise in fluorescence microscopy images. The noise reduction problem is posed as a Maximum A Posteriori estimation problem, and solved using a novel random field model called stochastically-connected random field (SRF), which combines random graph and field theory. Experimental results using synthetic and real fluorescence microscopy data show the proposed approach achieving strong noise reduction performance when compared to several other noise reduction algorithms, using quantitative metrics. The proposed SRF approach was able to achieve strong performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio in the synthetic results, high signal to noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio in the real fluorescence microscopy data results, and was able to maintain cell structure and subtle details while reducing background and intra-cellular noise. PMID:26884148

  1. Measured noise reductions resulting from modified approach procedures for business jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.; Parish, O. O.

    1975-01-01

    Five business jet airplanes were flown to determine the noise reductions that result from the use of modified approach procedures. The airplanes tested were a Gulfstream 2, JetStar, Hawker Siddeley 125-400, Sabreliner-60 and LearJet-24. Noise measurements were made 3, 5, and 7 nautical miles from the touchdown point. In addition to a standard 3 deg glide slope approach, a 4 deg glide slope approach, a 3 deg glide slope approach in a low-drag configuration, and a two-segment approach were flown. It was found that the 4 deg approach was about 4 EPNdB quieter than the standard 3 deg approach. Noise reductions for the low-drag 3 deg approach varied widely among the airplanes tested, with an average of 8.5 EPNdB on a fleet-weighted basis. The two-segment approach resulted in noise reductions of 7 to 8 EPNdB at 3 and 5 nautical miles from touchdown, but only 3 EPNdB at 7 nautical miles from touchdown when the airplanes were still in level flight prior to glide slope intercept. Pilot ratings showed progressively increasing workload for the 4 deg, low-drag 3 deg, and two-segment approaches.

  2. Blade-Mounted Flap Control for BVI Noise Reduction Proof-of-Concept Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Seth; Hassan, Ahmed; Straub, Friedrich; Tadghighi, Hormoz

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a wind tunnel test of the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (MDHS) Active Flap Model Rotor at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The test demonstrated that BVI noise reductions and vibration reductions were possible with the use of an active flap. Aerodynamic results supported the acoustic data trends, showing a reduction in the strength of the tip vortex with the deflection of the flap. Acoustic results showed that the flap deployment, depending on the peak deflection angle and azimuthal shift in its deployment schedule, can produce BVI noise reductions as much as 6 dB on the advancing and retreating sides. The noise reduction was accompanied by an increase in low frequency harmonic noise and high frequency broadband noise. A brief assessment of the effect of the flap on vibration showed that significant reductions were possible. The greatest vibration reductions (as much as 76%) were found in the four per rev pitching moment at the hub. Performance improvement cam results were inconclusive, as the improvements were predicted to be smaller than the resolution of the rotor balance.

  3. Evaluation of Airframe Noise Reduction Concepts via Simulations Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2015-01-01

    Unsteady computations are presented for a high-fidelity, 18% scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e. flap deflected at 39 degree and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW® to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. In addition to the baseline geometry, which was presented previously, various noise reduction concepts for the flap and main landing gear are simulated. In particular, care is taken to fully resolve the complex geometrical details associated with these concepts in order to capture the resulting intricate local flow field thus enabling accurate prediction of their acoustic behavior. To determine aeroacoustic performance, the farfield noise predicted with the concepts applied is compared to high-fidelity simulations of the untreated baseline configurations. To assess the accuracy of the computed results, the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic impact of the noise reduction concepts is evaluated numerically and compared to experimental results for the same model. The trends and effectiveness of the simulated noise reduction concepts compare well with measured values and demonstrate that the computational approach is capable of capturing the primary effects of the acoustic treatment on a full aircraft model.

  4. Optimization of the poro-serrated trailing edges for airfoil broadband noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Chong, Tze Pei; Dubois, Elisa

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports an aeroacoustic investigation of a NACA0012 airfoil with a number of poro-serrated trailing edge devices that contain porous materials of various air flow resistances at the gaps between adjacent members of the serrated-sawtooth trailing edge. The main objective of this work is to determine whether multiple-mechanisms on the broadband noise reduction can co-exist on a poro-serrated trailing edge. When the sawtooth gaps are filled with porous material of low-flow resistivity, the vortex shedding tone at low-frequency could not be completely suppressed at high-velocity, but a reasonably good broadband noise reduction can be achieved at high-frequency. When the sawtooth gaps are filled with porous material of very high-flow resistivity, no vortex shedding tone is present, but the serration effect on the broadband noise reduction becomes less effective. An optimal choice of the flow resistivity for a poro-serrated configuration has been identified, where it can surpass the conventional serrated trailing edge of the same geometry by achieving a further 1.5 dB reduction in the broadband noise while completely suppressing the vortex shedding tone. A weakened turbulent boundary layer noise scattering at the poro-serrated trailing edge is reflected by the lower-turbulence intensity at the near wake centreline across the whole spanwise wavelength of the sawtooth.

  5. Evaluation of Variable-Depth Liner Configurations for Increased Broadband Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Howerton, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of variable-depth geometry on the amount of noise reduction that can be achieved with acoustic liners. Results for two variable-depth liners tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube demonstrate significant broadband noise reduction. An impedance prediction model is combined with two propagation codes to predict corresponding sound pressure level profiles over the length of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The comparison of measured and predicted sound pressure level profiles is sufficiently favorable to support use of these tools for investigation of a number of proposed variable-depth liner configurations. Predicted sound pressure level profiles for these proposed configurations reveal a number of interesting features. Liner orientation clearly affects the sound pressure level profile over the length of the liner, but the effect on the total attenuation is less pronounced. The axial extent of attenuation at an individual frequency continues well beyond the location where the liner depth is optimally tuned to the quarter-wavelength of that frequency. The sound pressure level profile is significantly affected by the way in which variable-depth segments are distributed over the length of the liner. Given the broadband noise reduction capability for these liner configurations, further development of impedance prediction models and propagation codes specifically tuned for this application is warranted.

  6. Static and wind tunnel model tests for the development of externally blown flap noise reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennock, A. P.; Swift, G.; Marbert, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Externally blown flap models were tested for noise and performance at one-fifth scale in a static facility and at one-tenth scale in a large acoustically-treated wind tunnel. The static tests covered two flap designs, conical and ejector nozzles, third-flap noise-reduction treatments, internal blowing, and flap/nozzle geometry variations. The wind tunnel variables were triple-slotted or single-slotted flaps, sweep angle, and solid or perforated third flap. The static test program showed the following noise reductions at takeoff: 1.5 PNdB due to treating the third flap; 0.5 PNdB due to blowing from the third flap; 6 PNdB at flyover and 4.5 PNdB in the critical sideline plane (30 deg elevation) due to installation of the ejector nozzle. The wind tunnel program showed a reduction of 2 PNdB in the sideline plane due to a forward speed of 43.8 m/s (85 kn). The best combination of noise reduction concepts reduced the sideline noise of the reference aircraft at constant field length by 4 PNdB.

  7. Model reference adaptive control for linear time varying and nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abida, L.; Kaufman, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model reference adaptive control is applied to linear time varying systems and to nonlinear systems amenable to virtual linearization. Asymptotic stability is guaranteed even if the perfect model following conditions do not hold, provided that some sufficient conditions are satisfied. Simulations show the scheme to be capable of effectively controlling certain nonlinear systems.

  8. Adjustment of Adaptive Gain with Bounded Linear Stability Analysis to Improve Time-Delay Margin for Metrics-Driven Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinvas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Bounded Linear Stability Analysis (BLSA) method for metrics driven adaptive control. The bounded linear stability analysis method is used for analyzing stability of adaptive control models, without linearizing the adaptive laws. Metrics-driven adaptive control introduces a notion that adaptation should be driven by some stability metrics to achieve robustness. By the application of bounded linear stability analysis method the adaptive gain is adjusted during the adaptation in order to meet certain phase margin requirements. Analysis of metrics-driven adaptive control is evaluated for a linear damaged twin-engine generic transport model of aircraft. The analysis shows that the system with the adjusted adaptive gain becomes more robust to unmodeled dynamics or time delay.

  9. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables.

    PubMed

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X; Rios Piedra, Edgar A; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  10. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X.; Rios Piedra, Edgar A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  11. Adaptive superposition of finite element meshes in linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhihua

    2005-11-01

    The numerical analysis of transient phenomena in solids, for instance, wave propagation and structural dynamics, is a very important and active area of study in engineering. Despite the current evolutionary state of modern computer hardware, practical analysis of large scale, nonlinear transient problems requires the use of adaptive methods where computational resources are locally allocated according to the interpolation requirements of the solution form. Adaptive analysis of transient problems involves obtaining solutions at many different time steps, each of which requires a sequence of adaptive meshes. Therefore, the execution speed of the adaptive algorithm is of paramount importance. In addition, transient problems require that the solution must be passed from one adaptive mesh to the next adaptive mesh with a bare minimum of solution-transfer error since this form of error compromises the initial conditions used for the next time step. A new adaptive finite element procedure (s-adaptive) is developed in this study for modeling transient phenomena in both linear elastic solids and nonlinear elastic solids caused by progressive damage. The adaptive procedure automatically updates the time step size and the spatial mesh discretization in transient analysis, achieving the accuracy and the efficiency requirements simultaneously. The novel feature of the s-adaptive procedure is the original use of finite element mesh superposition to produce spatial refinement in transient problems. The use of mesh superposition enables the s-adaptive procedure to completely avoid the need for cumbersome multipoint constraint algorithms and mesh generators, which makes the s-adaptive procedure extremely fast. Moreover, the use of mesh superposition enables the s-adaptive procedure to minimize the solution-transfer error. In a series of different solid mechanics problem types including 2-D and 3-D linear elastic quasi-static problems, 2-D material nonlinear quasi-static problems

  12. Unmasking the linear behaviour of slow motor adaptation to prolonged convergence.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Ian M; Thompson, Benjamin; Bobier, William R

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation to changing environmental demands is central to maintaining optimal motor system function. Current theories suggest that adaptation in both the skeletal-motor and oculomotor systems involves a combination of fast (reflexive) and slow (recalibration) mechanisms. Here we used the oculomotor vergence system as a model to investigate the mechanisms underlying slow motor adaptation. Unlike reaching with the upper limbs, vergence is less susceptible to changes in cognitive strategy that can affect the behaviour of motor adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that mechanisms of slow motor adaptation reflect early neural processing by assessing the linearity of adaptive responses over a large range of stimuli. Using varied disparity stimuli in conflict with accommodation, the slow adaptation of tonic vergence was found to exhibit a linear response whereby the rate (R(2)  = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and amplitude (R(2)  = 0.65, P < 0.0001) of the adaptive effects increased proportionally with stimulus amplitude. These results suggest that this slow adaptive mechanism is an early neural process, implying a fundamental physiological nature that is potentially dominated by subcortical and cerebellar substrates.

  13. Adaptive inverse control of linear and nonlinear systems using dynamic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Plett, G L

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we see adaptive control as a three-part adaptive-filtering problem. First, the dynamical system we wish to control is modeled using adaptive system-identification techniques. Second, the dynamic response of the system is controlled using an adaptive feedforward controller. No direct feedback is used, except that the system output is monitored and used by an adaptive algorithm to adjust the parameters of the controller. Third, disturbance canceling is performed using an additional adaptive filter. The canceler does not affect system dynamics, but feeds back plant disturbance in a way that minimizes output disturbance power. The techniques work to control minimum-phase or nonminimum-phase, linear or nonlinear, single-input-single-output (SISO) or multiple-input-multiple-ouput (MIMO), stable or stabilized systems. Constraints may additionally be placed on control effort for a practical implementation. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate that the proposed methods work very well.

  14. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Shaojie; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-09-15

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of 'salt-and-pepper' noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  15. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaojie; Tang, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of “salt-and-pepper” noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  16. A noise reduction method for quantifying nanoparticle light scattering in low magnification dark-field microscope far-field images

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have become a powerful tool for cell imaging, biomolecule and cell and protein interaction studies, but are difficult to rapidly and accurately measure in most assays. Dark-field microscope (DFM) image analysis approaches used to quantify nanoparticles require high-magnification near-field (HN) images that are labor intensive due to a requirement for manual image selection and focal adjustments needed when identifying and capturing new regions of interest. Low-magnification far-field (LF) DFM imagery is technically simpler to perform but cannot be used as an alternate to HN-DFM quantification, since it is highly sensitive to surface artifacts and debris that can easily mask nanoparticle signal. We now describe a new noise reduction approach that markedly reduces LF-DFM image artifacts to allow sensitive and accurate nanoparticle signal quantification from LF-DFM images. We have used this approach to develop a “Dark Scatter Master” (DSM) algorithm for the popular NIH image analysis program ImageJ, which can be readily adapted for use with automated high-throughput assay analyses. This method demonstrated robust performance quantifying nanoparticles in different assay formats, including a novel method that quantified extracellular vesicles in patient blood sample to detect pancreatic cancer cases. Based on these results, we believe our LF-DFM quantification method can markedly decrease the analysis time of most nanoparticle-based assays to impact both basic research and clinical analyses. PMID:28177210

  17. Bulk Current Injection Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques, 50 kHz to 400 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.

  18. An aeroacoustic study of micro-tab on airframe noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chiawei B.

    Aircraft high-lift devices such as leading-edge slats and trailing-edge flaps generate noise when extended, causing significant contributions to overall aircraft sound pressure levels, in particular in approach to land phase. It is shown by previous research efforts that noise generated by the high-lift devices increases with their deployment angles. Hence it is possible to mitigate such high-lift noise by using reduced settings without sacrificing the aerodynamic performance, particularly lift. In this dissertation research, micro-tab device attached at the pressure side of the flap surface near its trailing-edge is envisioned as the way to compensate the lift loss due to reduced high-lift device settings. Hybrid numerical method, which combines computational fluid dynamics and acoustics analogy, was adopted to predict the farfield noise spectrum. It is the goal of this research project to illustrate that noise level increase due to micro-tab deployment is smaller than that from the prescribed slat and flap setting increases, so that an overall airframe noise reduction can be achieved. Two-dimensional computational simulations and three-dimensional computational simulations were performed progressively. Results indicated that the proposed reduced high-lift settings with micro-tab application achieved noise reduction, particularly in the mid-frequency range where human hearing is most sensitive to. Parametric studies involving geometry and size effects of the micro-tab configurations were conducted using two-dimensional and three-dimensional models. Results showed that considerable noise reduction was obtained if slit micro-tab was used. An airworthiness study regarding applying micro-tab device onto existing commercial airliners as retrofit to lower noise emission in approach was also investigated and compliance strategy was provided. In the last part of this research, a different approach from aviation policy was taken as the airport noise compatibility planning

  19. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques From 2 MHz to 200 MHz - Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the first part of a two-paper series. This first paper discusses cable types and shield connections. In the second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. <50 KHz) or high frequencies (>100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz. The electronic system (Fig. 1) consisted of two Hammond shielded electrical enclosures, one containing the source resistance, and the other containing the load resistance. The boxes were mounted on a large aluminium plate acting as the chassis. Cables connecting the two boxes measured 81 cm in length and were attached to the boxes using standard D38999 military-style connectors. The test setup is shown in Fig. 2. Electromagnetic fields were created using an HP8657B signal generator, MiniCircuits ZHL-42W-SMA amplifier, and an EMCO 5103 TEM cell. Measurements were

  20. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  1. Fan noise reduction of an aircraft engine by inclining the outlet guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.; Pochkin, Ya. S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the acoustic characteristics of an aircraft engine fan in the design of which the outlet guide vanes are leaned in the circumferential direction. It was found that the configuration of the outlet guide with the vanes leaned along the rotation of the rotor leads to fan noise reduction with respect to the configuration with outlet guide vanes, and a configuration of the outlet guide with an lean of the vane counterrotation of the rotor wheel leads to its increase.

  2. Phase noise reduction of a semiconductor laser in a composite optical phase-locked loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyan, Naresh; Sendowski, Jacob; Vasilyev, Arseny; Rakuljic, George; Yariv, Amnon

    2010-12-01

    The bandwidth and residual phase noise of optical phase-locked loops (OPLLs) using semiconductor lasers are typically constrained by the nonuniform frequency modulation response of the laser, limiting their usefulness in a number of applications. It is shown in this work that additional feedback control using an optical phase modulator improves the coherence between the master and slave lasers in the OPLL by achieving bandwidths determined only by the propagation delay in the loop. A phase noise reduction by more than a factor of two is demonstrated in a proof-of-concept experiment using a commercial distributed feedback semiconductor laser.

  3. Noise reduction in solid-state lasers using a SHG-based buffer reservoir.

    PubMed

    El Amili, Abdelkrim; Alouini, Mehdi

    2015-04-01

    The cancellation of resonant intensity noise, from a few kHz up to several GHz, is reported using a second-harmonic generation (SHG) buffer reservoir in a Nd:YAG solid-state laser. This approach is shown to be well suited and easily optimizable for reducing the excess noise lying at the laser relaxation oscillations as well as that originating from the beating between the lasing mode and nonlasing adjacent longitudinal modes. A thorough analysis of noise spectra of both laser and SHG signals confirms definitely that noise reduction is a consequence of a deep laser dynamics modification rather than noise evacuation mechanism.

  4. Adaptive stabilization of discrete-time systems using linear periodically time varying controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Romeo; Albertos, Pedro; Lozano, Rogelio

    1988-01-01

    A direct adaptive scheme based on the use of linear time-varying periodic controllers is proposed which estimates online the periodic coefficients of the controller. It is shown that adaptive stabilization is attained for all possibly nonstably invertible plants of known order but unknown delay. Although no appeal is made to persistency of excitation arguments, a provision is needed to avoid the singularity of an estimated matrix, this property being required only for the analysis and not the control calculations.

  5. Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

  6. Adaptive Control for Linear Uncertain Systems with Unmodeled Dynamics Revisited via Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal control modification for linear uncertain plants. The Lyapunov analysis shows that the modification parameter has a limiting value depending on the nature of the uncertainty. The optimal control modification exhibits a linear asymptotic property that enables it to be analyzed in a linear time invariant framework for linear uncertain plants. The linear asymptotic property shows that the closed-loop plants in the limit possess a scaled input-output mapping. Using this property, we can derive an analytical closed-loop transfer function in the limit as the adaptive gain tends to infinity. The paper revisits the Rohrs counterexample problem that illustrates the nature of non-robustness of model-reference adaptive control in the presence of unmodeled dynamics. An analytical approach is developed to compute exactly the modification parameter for the optimal control modification that stabilizes the plant in the Rohrs counterexample. The linear asymptotic property is also used to address output feedback adaptive control for non-minimum phase plants with a relative degree 1.

  7. An adaptive observer for single-input single-output linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, R. L.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that the full order adaptive observer for single input, single output, observable, continuous, stable, linear differential systems in the absence of a deterministic or random disturbance vector guarantees the vanishing of observation error, regardless of the size of the constant or slowly varying parameter ignorance. The observer parameters are directly changed in a Liapunov adaptive way so as to eventually yield the unknown full order Luenberger observer. The observer poles throughout may be placed freely in the stable region and no derivatives are required in the adaptive law.

  8. Intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system based on the adaptive neurocontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Kobezhicov, V.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neuro-controller for intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system. The formed as the fuzzy selective neural net the adaptive neuro-controller on the base of system's state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed adaptive neuro-controller are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed controller scheme achieves real-time control speed and the competitive performance, as compared to PID, fuzzy logic controllers.

  9. Use of a plane jet for flow-induced noise reduction of tandem rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Zhao; Xi-xiang, Yang; Patrick, N. Okolo; Wei-hua, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Unsteady wake from upstream components of landing gear impinging on downstream components could be a strong noise source. The use of a plane jet is proposed to reduce this flow-induced noise. Tandem rods with different gap widths were utilized as the test body. Both acoustic and aerodynamic tests were conducted in order to validate this technique. Acoustic test results proved that overall noise emission from tandem rods could be lowered and tonal noise could be removed with use of the plane jet. However, when the plane jet was turned on, in some frequency range it could be the subsequent main contributor instead of tandem rods to total noise emission whilst in some frequency range rods could still be the main contributor. Moreover, aerodynamic tests fundamentally studied explanations for the noise reduction. Specifically, not only impinging speed to rods but speed and turbulence level to the top edge of the rear rod could be diminished by the upstream plane jet. Consequently, the vortex shedding induced by the rear rod was reduced, which was confirmed by the speed, Reynolds stress as well as the velocity fluctuation spectral measured in its wake. This study confirmed the potential use of a plane jet towards landing gear noise reduction. Project partially supported by the European Union FP7 CleanSky Joint Technology Initiative “ALLEGRA” (Grant No. 308225).

  10. Application of Independent Component Analysis techniques in speckle noise reduction of retinal OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghaie, Ahmadreza; D'Souza, Roshan M.; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-08-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique in the field of biomedical imaging, with applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, coronary imaging etc. OCT images usually suffer from a granular pattern, called speckle noise, which restricts the process of interpretation. Therefore the need for speckle noise reduction techniques is of high importance. To the best of our knowledge, use of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) techniques has never been explored for speckle reduction of OCT images. Here, a comparative study of several ICA techniques (InfoMax, JADE, FastICA and SOBI) is provided for noise reduction of retinal OCT images. Having multiple B-scans of the same location, the eye movements are compensated using a rigid registration technique. Then, different ICA techniques are applied to the aggregated set of B-scans for extracting the noise-free image. Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR), Contrast-to-Noise-Ratio (CNR) and Equivalent-Number-of-Looks (ENL), as well as analysis on the computational complexity of the methods, are considered as metrics for comparison. The results show that use of ICA can be beneficial, especially in case of having fewer number of B-scans.

  11. Transient Noise Reduction in Cochlear Implant Users: a Multi-Band Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dyballa, Karl-Heinz; Hehrmann, Phillipp; Hamacher, Volkmar; Lenarz, Thomas; Buechner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A previously-tested transient noise reduction (TNR) algorithm for cochlear implant (CI) users was modified to detect and attenuate transients independently across multiple frequency-bands. Since speech and transient noise are often spectrally distinct, we hypothesized that benefits in speech intelligibility can be achieved over the earlier single-band design. Fifteen experienced CI users (49 to 72 years) were tested unilaterally using pre-processed stimuli delivered directly to a speech processor. Speech intelligibility in transient and soft stationary noise, subjective sound quality and the recognition of warning signals was investigated in three processing conditions: no TNR (TNRoff), single-band TNR (TNRsgl) and multi-band TNR (TNRmult). Notably, TNRmult improved speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in cafeteria noise and office noise by up to 3 dB over both TNRoff and TNRsgl, and yielded higher comfort and clarity ratings in cafeteria noise. Our results indicate that multi-band transient noise reduction may be advantageous compared to a single-band approach, and reveal a substantial overall potential for TNR to improve speech perception and listening comfort in CI users. PMID:27942372

  12. Noise reduction in computed tomography using a multiplicative continuous-time image reconstruction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yusaku; Kojima, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    In clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT), filtered back-projection as a transform method and iterative reconstruction such as the maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) method are known methods to reconstruct tomographic images. As the other reconstruction method, we have presented a continuous-time image reconstruction (CIR) system described by a nonlinear dynamical system, based on the idea of continuous methods for solving tomographic inverse problems. Recently, we have also proposed a multiplicative CIR system described by differential equations based on the minimization of a weighted Kullback-Leibler divergence. We prove theoretically that the divergence measure decreases along the solution to the CIR system, for consistent inverse problems. In consideration of the noisy nature of projections in clinical CT, the inverse problem belongs to the category of ill-posed problems. The performance of a noise-reduction scheme for a new (previously developed) CIR system was investigated by means of numerical experiments using a circular phantom image. Compared to the conventional CIR and the ML-EM methods, the proposed CIR method has an advantage on noisy projection with lower signal-to-noise ratios in terms of the divergence measure on the actual image under the same common measure observed via the projection data. The results lead to the conclusion that the multiplicative CIR method is more effective and robust for noise reduction in CT compared to the ML-EM as well as conventional CIR methods.

  13. The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.

  14. Development of an MCG/MEG system for small animals and its noise reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Kawai, J.; Adachi, Y.; Haruta, Y.; Komamura, K.; Uehara, G.

    2008-02-01

    Accurate capture of the biomagnetic signals from a rat or a mouse greatly benefits the development of new medicine and pathology. In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of biomagnetic measurement of small animals, we developed a biomagnetic measurement system specific to small animal measurement. A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensor array and a table for the system were newly developed and were integrated into a transportable chassis having dimensions of 1.3 m width × 0.7 m depth × 1.8 m height and housing all principal components for the system. The integrated 9ch low-Tc SQUIDs magnetometer array designed to improve spatial resolution covers 8 mm × 8mm measurement area. We have also developed a real-time noise canceling method suitable for this system. The advantage of this method is that the noise reduction process is carried out in real time. We have confirmed the efficacy of this method using the measurement system which was installed in typical laboratory environment. The noise reduction effect was measured to be roughly 16 dB at power line frequency and its harmonics. We measured an magnetocardiogram (MCG) of a mouse using the system with the real-time noise canceling method, and the feasibility of small animal MCG measurement was ensured.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Single-Microphone Noise Reduction Algorithms for Digital Hearing Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzinzik, Mark; Kollmeier, Birger

    In this study single-microphone noise reduction procedures were investigated for use in digital hearing aids. One widely reported artifact of most noise suppression systems, the musical noise phenomenon, can partly be overcome by the Ephraim-Malah noise suppression algorithms [1,2]. Based on these algorithms, three different versions have been implemented together with a procedure for automatically updating the noise-spectrum estimate. To evaluate the algorithms, different tests have been performed with six normal-hearing and six hearing-impaired subjects. With `standard' measurement methods no increase in speech intelligibility was found compared to the unprocessed signal. However, benefits with respect to reductions in listener fatigue and in the mental effort needed to listen to speech in noise over longer periods of time were found in this study by use of a newly developed ease-of-listening test. Subsequent paired comparison tests also revealed a clear preference of the hearing-impaired subjects for the noise-reduced signals in situations with rather stationary noise. In the case of strongly fluctuating noise at low SNR, however, the subjects preferred the unprocessed signal due to speech distortions caused by the noise reduction algorithms.

  16. Boeing's variable geometry chevron: morphing aerospace structures for jet noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Frederick T.; Mabe, James H.; Butler, George W.

    2006-03-01

    Boeing is applying cutting edge smart material actuators to the next generation morphing technologies for aircraft. This effort has led to the Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), which utilize compact, light weight, and robust shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. These actuators morph the shape of chevrons on the trailing edge of a jet engine in order to optimize acoustic and performance objectives at multiple flight conditions. We have demonstrated a technical readiness level of 7 by successfully flight testing the VGCs on a Boeing 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. In this paper we describe the VGC design, development and performance during flight test. Autonomous operation of the VGCs, which did not require a control system or aircraft power, was demonstrated. A parametric study was conducted showing the influence of VGC configurations on shockcell generated cabin noise reduction during cruise. The VGC system provided a robust test vehicle to explore chevron configurations for community and shockcell noise reduction. Most importantly, the VGC concept demonstrated an exciting capability to optimize jet nozzle performance at multiple flight conditions.

  17. Column-parallel correlated multiple sampling circuits for CMOS image sensors and their noise reduction effects.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sungho; Itoh, Shinya; Aoyama, Satoshi; Kawahito, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    For low-noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, the reduction of pixel source follower noises is becoming very important. Column-parallel high-gain readout circuits are useful for low-noise CMOS image sensors. This paper presents column-parallel high-gain signal readout circuits, correlated multiple sampling (CMS) circuits and their noise reduction effects. In the CMS, the gain of the noise cancelling is controlled by the number of samplings. It has a similar effect to that of an amplified CDS for the thermal noise but is a little more effective for 1/f and RTS noises. Two types of the CMS with simple integration and folding integration are proposed. In the folding integration, the output signal swing is suppressed by a negative feedback using a comparator and one-bit D-to-A converter. The CMS circuit using the folding integration technique allows to realize a very low-noise level while maintaining a wide dynamic range. The noise reduction effects of their circuits have been investigated with a noise analysis and an implementation of a 1Mpixel pinned photodiode CMOS image sensor. Using 16 samplings, dynamic range of 59.4 dB and noise level of 1.9 e(-) for the simple integration CMS and 75 dB and 2.2 e(-) for the folding integration CMS, respectively, are obtained.

  18. New circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines resulting from a new practice of noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    TOKI, Hiroshi; SATO, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In modern life, we are surrounded by and filled with electromagnetic noise caused by the dominant use of energy in the form of electricity. This situation is brought about by the fact that the noise is not understood theoretically. A new practice of noise reduction was introduced for the construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The key concept is a symmetric three-line circuit that arranges power supplies, noise filters and magnets around a third central ground line. A continuous theoretical effort forced us to find a new circuit theory involving a multiconductor transmission-line system starting from Maxwell’s equations without any approximation. We discuss the essence of all of these experimental and theoretical developments with the hope to remove unnecessary electromagnetic noise not only from power supplies, but also from all electric devices. The newly derived circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines is universal, and establishes the validity of the practice of noise reduction. PMID:24522153

  19. An MDOE Assessment of Nozzle Vanes for High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Norum, Thomas; Bridges, James

    2006-01-01

    The effect of airfoil-shaped vanes placed in the fan stream of a BPR 8 coannular nozzle model system on the resulting jet noise was investigated. The experiments used a Modern Design of Experiments approach to investigate the impact of a range of vane parameters on the noise reduction achieved at representative takeoff conditions. The experimental results showed that the installation of the vanes decreased low frequency noise radiation in the downstream peak-noise direction and increased high frequency noise in the upstream direction. Results also showed that improper selection of the vane configuration resulted in increased low frequency noise radiation in the upstream direction. Large angles of attack are shown to reduce noise near the peak jet noise angle and increase noise in the upstream direction. The MDOE analysis yields an optimum design that minimizes perceived noise levels. Limited data taken with a BPR 5 nozzle system showed that the vanes result in better effective perceived noise reduction for lower bypass ratio nozzles than for the BPR 8 model.

  20. The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.

  1. A comparative intelligibility study of single-microphone noise reduction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C

    2007-09-01

    The evaluation of intelligibility of noise reduction algorithms is reported. IEEE sentences and consonants were corrupted by four types of noise including babble, car, street and train at two signal-to-noise ratio levels (0 and 5 dB), and then processed by eight speech enhancement methods encompassing four classes of algorithms: spectral subtractive, sub-space, statistical model based and Wiener-type algorithms. The enhanced speech was presented to normal-hearing listeners for identification. With the exception of a single noise condition, no algorithm produced significant improvements in speech intelligibility. Information transmission analysis of the consonant confusion matrices indicated that no algorithm improved significantly the place feature score, significantly, which is critically important for speech recognition. The algorithms which were found in previous studies to perform the best in terms of overall quality, were not the same algorithms that performed the best in terms of speech intelligibility. The subspace algorithm, for instance, was previously found to perform the worst in terms of overall quality, but performed well in the present study in terms of preserving speech intelligibility. Overall, the analysis of consonant confusion matrices suggests that in order for noise reduction algorithms to improve speech intelligibility, they need to improve the place and manner feature scores.

  2. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  3. An Approach for Practical Use of Common-Mode Noise Reduction Technique for In-Vehicle Electronic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Takanori; Ichikawa, Kouji; Mabuchi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Okazaki, Yuji; Asai, Hideki

    In this paper, we studied the use of common-mode noise reduction technique for in-vehicle electronic equipment in an actual instrument design. We have improved the circuit model of the common-mode noise that flows to the wire harness to add the effect of a bypass capacitor located near the LSI. We analyzed the improved circuit model using a circuit simulator and verified the effectiveness of the noise reduction condition derived from the circuit model. It was also confirmed that offsetting the impedance mismatch in the PCB section requires to make a circuit constant larger than that necessary for doing the impedance mismatch in the LSI section. An evaluation circuit board comprising an automotive microcomputer was prototyped to experiment on the common-mode noise reduction effect of the board. The experimental results showed the noise reduction effect of the board. The experimental results also revealed that the degree of impedance mismatch in the LSI section can be estimated by using a PCB having a known impedance. We further inquired into the optimization of impedance parameters, which is difficult for actual products at present. To satisfy the noise reduction condition composed of numerous parameters, we proposed a design method using an optimization algorithm and an electromagnetic field simulator, and confirmed its effectiveness.

  4. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  5. Thermal Noise Reduction of Mechanical Oscillators by Actively Controlled External Dissipative Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shoudan; Medich, David; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Sheng, Sitong; Yuan, Jian-Yang; Shao, Zhifeng

    1999-01-01

    We show that the thermal fluctuations of very soft mechanical oscillators, such as the cantilever in an atomic force microscope (AFM), can be reduced without changing the stiffness of the spring or having to lower the environment temperature. We derive a theoretical relationship between the thermal fluctuations of an oscillator and an actively external-dissipative force. This relationship is verified by experiments with an AFM cantilever where the external active force is coupled through a magnetic field. With simple instrumentation, we have reduced the thermal noise amplitude of the cantilever by a factor of 3.4, achieving an apparent temperature of 25 K with the environment at 295K. This active noise reduction approach can significantly improve the accuracy of static position or static force measurements in a number of practical applications.

  6. Sound quality measures for speech in noise through a commercial hearing aid implementing digital noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2005-05-01

    This brief report discusses the affect of digital noise reduction (DNR) processing on aided speech recognition and sound quality measures in 14 adults fitted with a commercial hearing aid. Measures of speech recognition and sound quality were obtained in two different speech-in-noise conditions (71 dBA speech, +6 dB SNR and 75 dBA speech, +1 dB SNR). The results revealed that the presence or absence of DNR processing did not impact speech recognition in noise (either positively or negatively). Paired comparisons of sound quality for the same speech in noise signals, however, revealed a strong preference for DNR processing. These data suggest that at least one implementation of DNR processing is capable of providing improved sound quality, for speech in noise, in the absence of improved speech recognition.

  7. An Interactive Procedure to Preserve the Desired Edges during the Image Processing of Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Yu; Huang, Hsuan-Yu; Lee, Lin-Tsang

    2010-12-01

    The paper propose a new procedure including four stages in order to preserve the desired edges during the image processing of noise reduction. A denoised image can be obtained from a noisy image at the first stage of the procedure. At the second stage, an edge map can be obtained by the Canny edge detector to find the edges of the object contours. Manual modification of an edge map at the third stage is optional to capture all the desired edges of the object contours. At the final stage, a new method called Edge Preserved Inhomogeneous Diffusion Equation (EPIDE) is used to smooth the noisy images or the previously denoised image at the first stage for achieving the edge preservation. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR) results in the experiments show that the proposed procedure has the best recognition result because of the capability of edge preservation.

  8. Proper orthogonal decomposition methods for noise reduction in particle-based transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2008-09-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition techniques to reduce noise in the reconstruction of the distribution function in particle-based transport calculations are explored. For two-dimensional steady-state problems, the method is based on low rank truncations of the singular value decomposition of a coarse-grained representation of the particle distribution function. For time-dependent two-dimensional problems or three-dimensional time-independent problems, the use of a generalized low-rank approximation of matrices technique is proposed. The methods are illustrated and tested with Monte Carlo particle simulation data of plasma collisional relaxation and guiding-center transport with collisions in a magnetically confined plasma in toroidal geometry. It is observed that the proposed noise reduction methods achieve high levels of smoothness in the particle distribution function by using significantly fewer particles in the computations.

  9. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  10. Full-Scale Investigation of Several Jet-Engine Noise-Reduction Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Callaghan, Edmund E

    1958-01-01

    A number of noise-suppression nozzles were tested on full-scale engines. In general, these nozzles achieved noise reduction by the mixing interference of adjacent jets, that is, by using multiple-slot-nozzles. Several of the nozzles achieved reductions in sound power of approximately 5 decibels (nearly 70 percent) with small thrust losses (approx. 1 percent). The maximum sound-pressure level was reduced by as much as 18 decibels in particular frequency bands. Some of the nozzles showed considerable spatial asymmetry; that is, the sound field was not rotationally symmetrical. A method of calculating the limiting frequency effected by such nozzles is presented. Furthermore data are shown that appear to indicate that further reductions in sound power will not be easily achieved from nozzles using mixing interference as a means of noise suppression

  11. Studies of blade-vortex interaction noise reduction by rotor blade modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is one of the most objectionable types of helicopter noise. This impulsive blade-slap noise can be particularly intense during low-speed landing approach and maneuvers. Over the years, a number of flight and model rotor tests have examined blade tip modification and other blade design changes to reduce this noise. Many times these tests have produced conflicting results. In the present paper, a number of these studies are reviewed in light of the current understanding of the BVI noise problem. Results from one study in particular are used to help establish the noise reduction potential and to shed light on the role of blade design. Current blade studies and some new concepts under development are also described.

  12. INVITED PAPER: Application of an active device for helicopter noise reduction in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    2010-02-01

    Important issues in noise problems for current helicopters are described. An active tab (AT) was developed as a new active device for noise/vibration reduction under research cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Kawada Industries, Inc. The wind tunnel test was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the AT on the aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter. From the wind tunnel test, the capability of reducing blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise by an AT was verified. A new control law using instantaneous pressure change on a blade during BVI phenomena was introduced and applied to the wind tunnel testing. This new control law shows reasonable controllability for helicopter noise reduction. Furthermore, in order to analyze noise characteristics, the advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code named JAXA_ov3d was developed in JAXA and extended to include CFD-CSD (computational structure dynamics) coupling by using the beam theory for blade deformation.

  13. Noise Reduction Analysis on Inverter Driven Two-Cylinder Rotary Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Ryutaro; Suda, Akihiro; Matumoto, Kenzou

    Two-cylinder rotary compressor is dynamically balanced well because two rollers in each cylinder chamber are located in opposite sides. Thus, it helps to reduce the circumferential vibration based on the tracking torque ripple for gas compression. This concept has been recently applied to room airconditioners (RACs) for the purpose of reducing vibration and noise of the unit. However, it consequently requires the compressor, which is one of the main noise factors, extremely low noise to reduce RAC noise. This paper describes generating mechanisms of the compressor noise established by analysis using signal processing and computer aided engineering. In addition, concrete countermeasures are presented for the noise reduction of the two-cylinder rotary compressor. In conclusion, Countermeasures for resonance in cavities were achieved by reducing 630Hz∼1KHz levels and the effect of muffler in the chamber contributed to the reduction of 3KHz∼6KHz levels.

  14. Experimental investigation of the noise reduction of supersonic exhaust jets with fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Russell William Walter

    The noise produced by the supersonic, high temperature jets that exhaust from military aircraft is becoming a hazard to naval personnel and a disturbance to communities near military bases. Methods to reduce the noise produced from these jets in a practical full-scale environment are difficult. The development and analysis of distributed nozzle blowing for the reduction of radiated noise from supersonic jets is described. Model scale experiments of jets that simulate the exhaust jets from typical low-bypass ratio military jet aircraft engines during takeoff are performed. Fluidic inserts are created that use distributed blowing in the divergent section of the nozzle to simulate mechanical, hardwall corrugations, while having the advantage of being an active control method. This research focuses on model scale experiments to better understand the fluidic insert noise reduction method. Distributed blowing within the divergent section of the military-style convergent divergent nozzle alters the shock structure of the jet in addition to creating streamwise vorticity for the reduction of mixing noise. Enhancements to the fluidic insert design have been performed along with experiments over a large number of injection parameters and core jet conditions. Primarily military-style round nozzles have been used, with preliminary measurements of hardwall corrugations and fluidic inserts in rectangular nozzle geometries also performed. It has been shown that the noise reduction of the fluidic inserts is most heavily dependent upon the momentum flux ratio between the injector and core jet. Maximum reductions of approximately 5.5 dB OASPL have been observed with practical mass flow rates and injection pressures. The first measurements with fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream have been performed. Optimal noise reduction occurs at similar injector parameters in the presence of forward flight. Fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream were

  15. Aeroacoustic Analysis of Fan Noise Reduction With Increased Bypass Nozzle Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced model turbofan was tested in the NASA Glenn 9-by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects of increased bypass nozzle area. This fan stage test was part of the NASA Glenn Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test, second entry (SDT2) which acquired aeroacoustic results over a range of test conditions. The baseline nozzle was sized to produce maximum stage performance at cruise condition. However, the wind tunnel testing is conducted near sea level condition. Therefore, in order to simulate and obtain performance at other operating conditions, two additional nozzles were designed and tested one with +5 percent increase in weight flow (+5.4 percent increase in nozzle area compared with the baseline nozzle), sized to simulate the performance at the stage design point (takeoff) condition, and the other with a +7.5 percent increase in weight flow (+10.9 percent increase in nozzle area) sized for maximum weight flow with a fixed nozzle at sea level condition. Measured acoustic benefits with increased nozzle area were very encouraging, showing overall sound power level (OAPWL) reductions of 2 or more dB while the stage thrust actually increased by 2 to 3 percent except for the most open nozzle at takeoff rotor speed where stage performance decreased. Effective perceived noise levels for a 1500 ft engine flyover and 3.35 scale factor showed a similar noise reduction of 2 or more EPNdB. Noise reductions, principally in the level of broadband noise, were observed everywhere in the far field. Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements taken downstream of the rotor showed that the total turbulent velocity decreased with increasing nozzle flow, which may explain the reduced rotor broadband noise levels.

  16. Development of a SMA-Based, Slat-Gap Filler for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Long, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Noise produced by unsteady flow around aircraft structures, termed airframe noise, is an important source of aircraft noise during the approach and landing phases of flight. Conventional leading-edge-slat devices for high lift on typical transport aircraft are a prominent source of airframe noise. Many concepts for slat noise reduction have been investigated. Slat-cove fillers have emerged as an attractive solution, but they maintain the gap flow, leaving some noise production mechanisms unabated, and thus represent a nonoptimal solution. Drooped-leading-edge (DLE) concepts have been proposed as "optimal" because the gap flow is eliminated. The deployed leading edge device is not distinct and separate from the main wing in DLE concepts and the high-lift performance suffers at high angles of attack (alpha) as a consequence. Elusive high-alpha performance and excessive weight penalty have stymied DLE development. The fact that high-lift performance of DLE systems is only affected at high alpha suggests another concept that simultaneously achieves the high-lift of the baseline airfoil and the noise reduction of DLE concepts. The concept involves utilizing a conventional leading-edge slat device and a deformable structure that is deployed from the leading edge of the main wing and closes the gap between the slat and main wing, termed a slat-gap filler (SGF). The deployable structure consists of a portion of the skin of the main wing and it is driven in conjunction with the slat during deployment and retraction. Benchtop models have been developed to assess the feasibility and to study important parameters. Computational models have assisted in the bench-top model design and provided valuable insight in the parameter space as well as the feasibility.

  17. Digital redesign of the decentralised adaptive tracker for linear large-scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Hong; Sheng-Hong Tsai, Jason; Chen, Chia-Wei; Guo, Shu-Mei; Chu, Che-An

    2010-02-01

    A novel digital redesign of the analogue model-reference-based decentralized adaptive tracker is proposed for the sampled-data large scale system consisting of N interconnected linear subsystems, so that the system output will follow any trajectory specified at sampling instant which may not be presented by the analytic reference initially, and shows that the proposed decentralized controller induces a good robustness on the decoupling of the closed-loop controlled system. The adaptation of the analogue controller gain is derived by using the model-reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's method. In this article, it is shown that using the sampled-data decentralized adaptive control system it is theoretically possible to asymptotically track the desired output with a desired performance. It is assumed that all the controllers share their prior information and the principal result is derived when they cooperate implicitly. Based on the prediction-based digital redesign methodology, the optimal digital redesigned tracker for the sampled-data decentralised adaptive control systems is newly proposed. An illustrative example of interconnected linear system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology.

  18. Effects of cavity resonances on sound transmission into a thin cylindrical shell. [noise reduction in aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koval, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    In the context of the transmission of airborne noise into an aircraft fuselage, a mathematical model is presented for the effects of internal cavity resonances on sound transmission into a thin cylindrical shell. The 'noise reduction' of the cylinder is defined and computed, with and without including the effects of internal cavity resonances. As would be expected, the noise reduction in the absence of cavity resonances follows the same qualitative pattern as does transmission loss. Numerical results show that cavity resonances lead to wide fluctuations and a general decrease of noise reduction, especially at cavity resonances. Modest internal absorption is shown to greatly reduce the effect of cavity resonances. The effects of external airflow, internal cabin pressurization, and different acoustical properties inside and outside the cylinder are also included and briefly examined.

  19. Initial results of a model rotor higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel experiment on BVI impulsive noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Lehmann, G.; van der Wall, B.

    1989-09-01

    Initial acoustic results are presented from a higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel pilot experiment on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise reduction, making use of the DFVLR 40-percent-scaled BO-105 research rotor in the DNW 6m by 8m closed test section. Considerable noise reduction (of several decibels) has been measured for particular HHC control settings, however, at the cost of increased vibration levels and vice versa. The apparently adverse results for noise and vibration reduction by HHC are explained. At optimum pitch control settings for BVI noise reduction, rotor simulation results demonstrate that blade loading at the outer tip region is decreased, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are increased, resulting altogether in reduced BVI noise generation. At optimum pitch control settings for vibration reduction adverse effects on blade loading, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are found.

  20. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  1. Speech quality evaluation of a sparse coding shrinkage noise reduction algorithm with normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jinqiu; Hu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Guoping; Lutman, Mark E; Bleeck, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous papers describing single-channel noise reduction strategies to improve speech perception in a noisy environment, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effects of noise reduction algorithms on speech quality for hearing impaired (HI). A model-based sparse coding shrinkage (SCS) algorithm has been developed, and has shown previously (Sang et al., 2014) that it is as competitive as a state-of-the-art Wiener filter approach in speech intelligibility. Here, the analysis is extended to include subjective quality ratings and a method called Interpolated Paired Comparison Rating (IPCR) is adopted to quantitatively link the benefit of speech intelligibility and speech quality. The subjective quality tests are performed through IPCR to efficiently quantify noise reduction effects on speech quality. Objective measures including frequency-weighted segmental signal-to-noise ratio (fwsegSNR), perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) and hearing aid speech quality index (HASQI) are adopted to predict the noise reduction effects. Results show little difference in speech quality between the SCS and the Wiener filter algorithm but a difference in quality rating between the HI and NH listeners. HI listeners generally gave better quality ratings of noise reduction algorithms than NH listeners. However, SCS reduced the noise more efficiently at the cost of higher distortions that were detected by NH but not by the HI. SCS is a promising candidate for noise reduction algorithms for HI. In general, care needs to be taken when adopting algorithms that were originally developed for NH participants into hearing aid applications. An algorithm that is evaluated negatively with NH might still bring benefits for HI participants.

  2. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  3. The effect of oblique angle of sound incidence, realistic edge conditions, curvature and in-plane panel stresses on the noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F.; Lameris, J.; Dunn, D.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments and a theoretical analysis were conducted to predict the noise reduction of inclined and curved panels. These predictions are compared to the experimental results with reasonable agreement between theory and experiment for panels under an oblique angle of sound incidence. Theoretical as well as experimental results indicate a big increase in noise reduction when a flat test panel is curved. Further curving the panel slightly decreases the noise reduction. Riveted flat panels are shown to give a higher noise reduction in the stiffness-controlled frequency region, while bonded panels are superior in this region when the test panel is curved. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. These test results indicate an important improvement in the noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity frequency.

  4. An adaptive locally linear embedding manifold learning approach for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.; Messinger, David W.

    2015-05-01

    Algorithms for spectral analysis commonly use parametric or linear models of the data. Research has shown, however, that hyperspectral data -- particularly in materially cluttered scenes -- are not always well-modeled by statistical or linear methods. Here, we propose an approach to hyperspectral target detection that is based on a graph theory model of the data and a manifold learning transformation. An adaptive nearest neighbor (ANN) graph is built on the data, and then used to implement an adaptive version of locally linear embedding (LLE). We artificially induce a target manifold and incorporate it into the adaptive LLE transformation. The artificial target manifold helps to guide the separation of the target data from the background data in the new, transformed manifold coordinates. Then, target detection is performed in the manifold space using Spectral Angle Mapper. This methodology is an improvement over previous iterations of this approach due to the incorporation of ANN, the artificial target manifold, and the choice of detector in the transformed space. We implement our approach in a spatially local way: the image is delineated into square tiles, and the detection maps are normalized across the entire image. Target detection results will be shown using laboratory-measured and scene-derived target data from the SHARE 2012 collect.

  5. A new adaptive multiple modelling approach for non-linear and non-stationary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Gong, Yu; Hong, Xia

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive multiple modelling algorithm for non-linear and non-stationary systems. This simple modelling paradigm comprises K candidate sub-models which are all linear. With data available in an online fashion, the performance of all candidate sub-models are monitored based on the most recent data window, and M best sub-models are selected from the K candidates. The weight coefficients of the selected sub-model are adapted via the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm, while the coefficients of the remaining sub-models are unchanged. These M model predictions are then optimally combined to produce the multi-model output. We propose to minimise the mean square error based on a recent data window, and apply the sum to one constraint to the combination parameters, leading to a closed-form solution, so that maximal computational efficiency can be achieved. In addition, at each time step, the model prediction is chosen from either the resultant multiple model or the best sub-model, whichever is the best. Simulation results are given in comparison with some typical alternatives, including the linear RLS algorithm and a number of online non-linear approaches, in terms of modelling performance and time consumption.

  6. Optimization and Modeling of Noise Reduction for Turbulent Jets with Induced Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamimonjezi, Sara

    This project relates to the development of next-generation high-speed aircraft that are efficient and environmentally compliant. The emphasis of the research is on reducing noise from high-performance engines that will power these aircraft. A strong component of engine noise is jet mixing noise that comes from the turbulent mixing process between the high-speed exhaust flow of the engine and the atmosphere. The fan flow deflection method (FFD) suppresses jet noise by deflecting the fan stream downward, by a few degrees, with respect to the core stream. This reduces the convective Mach number of the primary shear layer and turbulent kinetic energy in the downward direction and therefore reduces the noise emitted towards the ground. The redistribution of the fan stream is achieved with inserting airfoil-shaped vanes inside the fan duct. Aerodynamic optimization of FFD has been done by Dr. Juntao Xiong using a computational fluid dynamics code to maximize reduction of noise perceived by the community while minimizing aerodynamic losses. The optimal vane airfoils are used in a parametric experimental study of 50 4-vane deflector configurations. The vane chord length, angle of attack, and azimuthal location are the parameters studied in acoustic optimization. The best vane configuration yields a reduction in cumulative (downward + sideline) effective perceived noise level (EPNL) of 5.3 dB. The optimization study underscores the sensitivity of FFD to deflector parameters and the need for careful design in the practical implementation of this noise reduction approach. An analytical model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and acoustic analogy is developed to predict the spectral changes from a known baseline in the direction of peak emission. A generalized form for space-time correlation is introduced that allows shapes beyond the traditional exponential forms. Azimuthal directivity based on the wavepacket model of jet noise is integrated with the acoustic

  7. Meta-Analysis of Free-Response Studies, 1992-2008: Assessing the Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Lance; Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Di Risio, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of meta-analyses on 3 types of free-response study: (a) ganzfeld (a technique that enhances a communication anomaly referred to as "psi"); (b) nonganzfeld noise reduction using alleged psi-enhancing techniques such as dream psi, meditation, relaxation, or hypnosis; and (c) standard free response (nonganzfeld, no noise…

  8. Meta-analysis of free-response studies, 1992-2008: assessing the noise reduction model in parapsychology.

    PubMed

    Storm, Lance; Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Di Risio, Lorenzo

    2010-07-01

    We report the results of meta-analyses on 3 types of free-response study: (a) ganzfeld (a technique that enhances a communication anomaly referred to as "psi"); (b) nonganzfeld noise reduction using alleged psi-enhancing techniques such as dream psi, meditation, relaxation, or hypnosis; and (c) standard free response (nonganzfeld, no noise reduction). For the period 1997-2008, a homogeneous data set of 29 ganzfeld studies yielded a mean effect size of 0.142 (Stouffer Z = 5.48, p = 2.13 x 10(-8)). A homogeneous nonganzfeld noise reduction data set of 16 studies yielded a mean effect size of 0.110 (Stouffer Z = 3.35, p = 2.08 x 10(-4)), and a homogeneous data set of 14 standard free-response studies produced a weak negative mean effect size of -0.029 (Stouffer Z = -2.29, p = .989). The mean effect size value of the ganzfeld database was significantly higher than the mean effect size of the standard free-response database but was not higher than the effect size of the nonganzfeld noise reduction database [corrected].We also found that selected participants (believers in the paranormal, meditators, etc.) had a performance advantage over unselected participants, but only if they were in the ganzfeld condition.

  9. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (<70 dB) small-scale animal imager. Results serve as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  10. Optimization of actuator and sensor positions for an active noise reduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Sten; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald

    2006-03-01

    Different systems and strategies have been invented in order to reduce the noise level inside the fuselage of aircrafts. First of all passive methods like adding materials with high damping or vibration absorbing qualities were used. Due to mass reduction as a major aspect in aircraft design a lot of research is focused on active noise reduction (ANR). The level of attenuation gained by an ANR - system is depending on several attributes of the system like hardware and software in use. Another important parameter, which has a great impact on the performance, is the positioning of the actuators and sensors. Because of the high number of possible arrangements of actuators and sensors in three dimensional spaces, it is almost impossible to determine the optimal positions by experimental work. Therefore numerical optimization is applied. In this paper a hybrid evolutionary algorithm is introduced for the calculation of appropriate configurations for a fixed number of actuator and sensors out of a high number of possible positions for an ANR - system within a military aircraft. The presented COSA - algorithm (cooperative simulated annealing) connects qualities of two well known optimization algorithms, the simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA). A general description of the algorithm and the acoustical basics will be provided together with an overview of the results.

  11. Improved Kalman filter method for measurement noise reduction in multi sensor RFID systems.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Kyung, Yeo Sun; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Min Chul; Jung, Kyung Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the range of available radio frequency identification (RFID) tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Performance of Kalman filter is determined by a measurement and system noise covariance which are usually called the R and Q variables in the Kalman filter algorithm. Choosing a correct R and Q variable is one of the most important design factors for better performance of the Kalman filter. For this reason, we proposed an improved Kalman filter to advance an ability of noise reduction of the Kalman filter. The measurement noise covariance was only considered because the system architecture is simple and can be adjusted by the neural network. With this method, more accurate data can be obtained with smart RFID tags. In a simulation the proposed improved Kalman filter has 40.1%, 60.4% and 87.5% less mean squared error (MSE) than the conventional Kalman filter method for a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and oxygen sensor, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was also verified with some experiments.

  12. Investigation of Shot Noise Reduction in InGaP HBTs with different Base Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalas, P.; Schroter, M.; Zampardi, P.

    2005-08-01

    DC, AC characteristics and Noise parameters of InGaP/GaAs HBTs with base thicknesses of wB/nm=90, 70, 50 as well as CCHBTs with wB=90 nm, were measured and modeled using advanced compact model HICUM. Very good agreement of HICUM versus measured data was observed for AC and DC data. Significant base thickness reduction only slightly increases peak transit frequency fT/GHz =(45 (90nm), 54 (50nm)) due to reduced base transit time. High speed performance is mainly controlled by nonequilibrium electrons which form minority carrier jam in B/C SCR and thus additional delay. Significant increase of fT/GHz =60 (90nm) was observed for CCHBTs, which feature lower collector internal resistance and smaller delay in B/C SCR. Therefore measured NFmin of different wB HBTs did not exhibit expected difference, in contrast to CCHBTs, which demonstrated significantly lower NFmin. Our analytical noise model clarified that strong shot noise reduction in AIIIBV is stemming not only from correlated currents, but also from Coulomb blockade by nonequilibrium electrons.

  13. Reward Pays the Cost of Noise Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew A J; Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Jarman, Paul R; Bhatia, Kailash P; Husain, Masud

    2015-06-29

    Speed-accuracy trade-off is an intensively studied law governing almost all behavioral tasks across species. Here we show that motivation by reward breaks this law, by simultaneously invigorating movement and improving response precision. We devised a model to explain this paradoxical effect of reward by considering a new factor: the cost of control. Exerting control to improve response precision might itself come at a cost--a cost to attenuate a proportion of intrinsic neural noise. Applying a noise-reduction cost to optimal motor control predicted that reward can increase both velocity and accuracy. Similarly, application to decision-making predicted that reward reduces reaction times and errors in cognitive control. We used a novel saccadic distraction task to quantify the speed and accuracy of both movements and decisions under varying reward. Both faster speeds and smaller errors were observed with higher incentives, with the results best fitted by a model including a precision cost. Recent theories consider dopamine to be a key neuromodulator in mediating motivational effects of reward. We therefore examined how Parkinson's disease (PD), a condition associated with dopamine depletion, alters the effects of reward. Individuals with PD showed reduced reward sensitivity in their speed and accuracy, consistent in our model with higher noise-control costs. Including a cost of control over noise explains how reward may allow apparent performance limits to be surpassed. On this view, the pattern of reduced reward sensitivity in PD patients can specifically be accounted for by a higher cost for controlling noise.

  14. Intelligent background noise reduction technology in cable fault locator using the magneto-acoustic synchronous method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, JianWei; Huang, JiFa; Fang, XiaoLi; Fan, LiBin

    2017-01-01

    The magneto-acoustic synchronous method has found wide application in accurate positioning of power cable fault due to its advantages of high accuracy and strong ability to reject interference. In the view of principle, the magneto-acoustic synchronous method needs to detect the discharge sound signal and electromagnetic signal emitted from the fault point, but the discharge sound signal is easy to be interfered by the ambient noise around and the magnetic sound synchronization. Therefore, it is challenging to quickly and accurately detect the fault location of cable especially in strong background noise environment. On the other hand, the spectral subtraction is a relatively traditional and effective method in many intelligent background noise reduction technologies, which is characterized by a relatively small computational cost and strong real-time performance. However, its application is limited because the algorithm displays poor performance in low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) environment. Aiming at the shortcoming of the spectral subtraction that de-noising effect is weak in low SNR environment, this paper proposes an improved spectral subtraction combining the magnetic sound synchronous principle and analyzing the properties of discharging sound. This method can accurately estimate noise in real time and optimize the performance of the basic spectral subtraction thus solving the problem that the magneto-acoustic synchronous method is unsatisfactory for positioning cable fault in the strong background noise environment.

  15. Wavelet-based density estimation for noise reduction in plasma simulations using particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen van Yen, R.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Schneider, K.; Farge, M.; Chen, G.

    2009-11-01

    A limitation of particle methods is the inherent noise caused by limited statistical sampling with finite number of particles. Thus, a key issue for the success of these methods is the development of noise reduction techniques in the reconstruction of the particle distribution function from discrete particle data. Here we propose and study a method based on wavelets, previously introduced in the statistical literature to estimate probability densities given a finite number of independent measurements. Its application to plasma simulations can be viewed as a natural extension of the finite size particles (FSP) approach, with the advantage of estimating more accurately distribution functions that have localized sharp features. Furthermore, the moments of the particle distribution function can be preserved with a good accuracy, and there is no constraint on the dimensionality of the system. It is shown that the computational cost of the denoising stage is of the same order as one time step of a FSP simulation. The wavelet method is compared with the recently introduced proper orthogonal decomposition approach in Ref. [D. del-Castillo-Negrete, et al., Phys. Plasma, 15 092308 (2008)].

  16. Proper orthogonal decomposition and wavelet methods for noise reduction in particle-based transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen van Ye, Romain; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Spong, D.; Hirshman, S.; Farge, M.

    2008-11-01

    A limitation of particle-based transport calculations is the noise due to limited statistical sampling. Thus, a key element for the success of these calculations is the development of efficient denoising methods. Here we discuss denoising techniques based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Wavelet Decomposition (WD). The goal is the reconstruction of smooth (denoised) particle distribution functions from discrete particle data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. In 2-D, the POD method is based on low rank truncations of the singular value decomposition of the data. For 3-D we propose the use of a generalized low rank approximation of matrices technique. The WD denoising is based on the thresholding of empirical wavelet coefficients [Donoho et al., 1996]. The methods are illustrated and tested with Monte-Carlo particle simulation data of plasma collisional relaxation including pitch angle and energy scattering. As an application we consider guiding-center transport with collisions in a magnetically confined plasma in toroidal geometry. The proposed noise reduction methods allow to achieve high levels of smoothness in the particle distribution function using significantly less particles in the computations.

  17. [Noise-reduction function and its affecting factors of urban plant communities in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Fei; Zheng, Si-Jun; Xia, Lei; Wu, Hai-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Li; Li, Ming-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    The factor analysis on the relationships between excess noise attenuation (decrement after noise propagating 30 m) and 8 structural characteristics of 19 urban plant communities in Shanghai showed that all the plant communities had notable effects on reducing noise, and the noise attenuation ability of the communities was significantly higher than that of lawn (P < 0.01). The plant communities could be divided into three groups base on their noise attenuation ability, i.e., those of > or = 10 dB(A), 6-10 dB(A), and < or = 6 dB(A). The main factors affecting the noise attenuation ability of the communities were leaf area index, average bifurcate height, average height, coverage, and average canopy diameter, and their correlation coefficients with noise attenuation were 0.343, 0.318, 0.285, 0.226 and 0.193, respectively. These five factors had a cumulative contribution rate of 65.47%, suggesting that they should be considered in stress when designing urban greenbelt for noise reduction.

  18. Optimal filter design for shielded and unshielded ambient noise reduction in fetal magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comani, S.; Mantini, D.; Alleva, G.; Di Luzio, S.; Romani, G. L.

    2005-12-01

    The greatest impediment to extracting high-quality fetal signals from fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is environmental magnetic noise, which may have peak-to-peak intensity comparable to fetal QRS amplitude. Being an unstructured Gaussian signal with large disturbances at specific frequencies, ambient field noise can be reduced with hardware-based approaches and/or with software algorithms that digitally filter magnetocardiographic recordings. At present, no systematic evaluation of filters' performances on shielded and unshielded fMCG is available. We designed high-pass and low-pass Chebychev II-type filters with zero-phase and stable impulse response; the most commonly used band-pass filters were implemented combining high-pass and low-pass filters. The achieved ambient noise reduction in shielded and unshielded recordings was quantified, and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) of the retrieved fetal signals was evaluated. The study regarded 66 fMCG datasets at different gestational ages (22-37 weeks). Since the spectral structures of shielded and unshielded magnetic noise were very similar, we concluded that the same filter setting might be applied to both conditions. Band-pass filters (1.0-100 Hz) and (2.0-100 Hz) provided the best combinations of fetal signal detection rates, SNR and SDR; however, the former should be preferred in the case of arrhythmic fetuses, which might present spectral components below 2 Hz.

  19. Optimal filter design for shielded and unshielded ambient noise reduction in fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Comani, S; Mantini, D; Alleva, G; Di Luzio, S; Romani, G L

    2005-12-07

    The greatest impediment to extracting high-quality fetal signals from fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is environmental magnetic noise, which may have peak-to-peak intensity comparable to fetal QRS amplitude. Being an unstructured Gaussian signal with large disturbances at specific frequencies, ambient field noise can be reduced with hardware-based approaches and/or with software algorithms that digitally filter magnetocardiographic recordings. At present, no systematic evaluation of filters' performances on shielded and unshielded fMCG is available. We designed high-pass and low-pass Chebychev II-type filters with zero-phase and stable impulse response; the most commonly used band-pass filters were implemented combining high-pass and low-pass filters. The achieved ambient noise reduction in shielded and unshielded recordings was quantified, and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) of the retrieved fetal signals was evaluated. The study regarded 66 fMCG datasets at different gestational ages (22-37 weeks). Since the spectral structures of shielded and unshielded magnetic noise were very similar, we concluded that the same filter setting might be applied to both conditions. Band-pass filters (1.0-100 Hz) and (2.0-100 Hz) provided the best combinations of fetal signal detection rates, SNR and SDR; however, the former should be preferred in the case of arrhythmic fetuses, which might present spectral components below 2 Hz.

  20. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun

    2015-01-01

    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application.

  1. Noise Reduction Techniques and Scaling Effects towards Photon Counting CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Boukhayma, Assim; Peizerat, Arnaud; Enz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the read noise in CMOS image sensors (CISs) based on four-transistors (4T) pixels, column-level amplification and correlated multiple sampling. Starting from the input-referred noise analytical formula, process level optimizations, device choices and circuit techniques at the pixel and column level of the readout chain are derived and discussed. The noise reduction techniques that can be implemented at the column and pixel level are verified by transient noise simulations, measurement and results from recently-published low noise CIS. We show how recently-reported process refinement, leading to the reduction of the sense node capacitance, can be combined with an optimal in-pixel source follower design to reach a sub-0.3erms- read noise at room temperature. This paper also discusses the impact of technology scaling on the CIS read noise. It shows how designers can take advantage of scaling and how the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistor gate leakage tunneling current appears as a challenging limitation. For this purpose, both simulation results of the gate leakage current and 1/f noise data reported from different foundries and technology nodes are used.

  2. Real-Time Noise Reduction for Mossbauer Spectroscopy through Online Implementation of a Modified Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Abrecht, David G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2015-02-01

    Spectrum-processing software that incorporates a gaussian smoothing kernel within the statistics of first-order Kalman filtration has been developed to provide cross-channel spectral noise reduction for increased real-time signal-to-noise ratios for Mossbauer spectroscopy. The filter was optimized for the breadth of the gaussian using the Mossbauer spectrum of natural iron foil, and comparisons between the peak broadening, signal-to-noise ratios, and shifts in the calculated hyperfine parameters are presented. The results of optimization give a maximum improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of 51.1% over the unfiltered spectrum at a gaussian breadth of 27 channels, or 2.5% of the total spectrum width. The full-width half-maximum of the spectrum peaks showed an increase of 19.6% at this optimum point, indicating a relatively weak increase in the peak broadening relative to the signal enhancement, leading to an overall increase in the observable signal. Calculations of the hyperfine parameters showed no statistically significant deviations were introduced from the application of the filter, confirming the utility of this filter for spectroscopy applications.

  3. Voice communications in the cockpit noise environment: The role of active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Peter David

    The topic of voice communications in the cockpit noise environment of modern fast-jet aircraft and helicopters is addressed, and in particular, research undertaken in support of the development of a system for reducing the noise level at the operators' ear is described by acoustic cancellation within the ear defender, known as active noise reduction (ANR). The internal noise spectra of today's high performance fast-jet aircraft and military helicopters is described, and the complex interaction of acoustic noise transmission, speech, and microphone noise pick-up, which produces the total acoustic environment at the aircrews' ears, is discussed. Means of mathematically modelling the audio channel, quantifying the components identified above, and identifying areas of shortfall in performance are derived, leading to a procedure for the development of attenuation requirements, described as the communications audit. A model of the electroacoustic characteristics of the ANR ear defender assembly is presented and the sound field distribution within the ear defender/ear cavity, and its effect upon cancellation performance, is discussed. The extensive laboratory and flight testing of the ANR system that was undertaken is reviewed, paying particular attention to the measurement and analysis techniques employed in such testing. Finally, the performance characteristics of ANR are discussed and compared with the requirements previously established. Design limitations placed upon the system by the constraints of its area of application are described, and the scope for future improvements is considered.

  4. Phase-noise reduction in surface wave oscillators by using nonlinear sustaining amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Avramov, Ivan D

    2006-04-01

    Nonlinear sustaining amplifier operation has been investigated and applied to high-power negative resistance oscillators (NRO), using single-port surface transverse wave (STW) resonators, and single-transistor sustaining amplifiers for feedback-loop STW oscillators (FLSO) stabilized with two-port STW devices. In all cases, self-limiting, silicon (Si)-bipolar sustaining amplifiers that operate in the highly nonlinear AB-, B-, or C-class modes are implemented. Phase-noise reduction is based on the assumption that a sustaining amplifier, operating in one of these modes, uses current limiting and remains cut off over a significant portion of the wave period. Therefore, it does not generate 1/f noise over the cut-off portion of the radio frequency (RF) cycle, and this reduces the close-in oscillator phase noise significantly. The proposed method has been found to provide phase-noise levels in the -111 to -119 dBc/Hz range at 1 KHz carrier offset in 915 MHz C-class power NRO and FLSO generating up to 23 dBm of RF-power at RF versus dc (RF/dc) efficiencies exceeding 40%. C-class amplifier design techniques are used for adequate matching and high RF/dc efficiency.

  5. Noise reduction studies for the Cessna model 337 (0-2) airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Connor, A. B.; Dingeldein, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the noise reduction potential of the 0-2 airplane in order to reduce its aural detection distance. Static and flyover noise measurements were made to document the noise signature of the unmodified airplane. The results show that significant reductions in aural detection distance can be achieved by the combination of propeller geometry changes and the addition of engine exhaust mufflers. The best results were estimated for the aircraft equipped with a six-blade propeller operating at 3/4 engine speed in combination with a 3.49 cubic foot exhaust muffler installed on each engine. Detection distance for the modified aircraft is estimated to be reduced from about 4-1/4 miles to about 1-1/2 miles when the aircraft is operating at an altitude of 1,000 ft over grassy terrain. Reducing the altitude to 300 ft over a leafy jungle ground cover should reduce the aural detection distance to 0.9 miles. Reduced aural detection distances were also indicated for a modification utilizing a direct-drive six-blade propeller of reduced radius along with smaller exhaust mufflers.

  6. Noise-Reduction Benefits Analyzed for Over-the-Wing-Mounted Advanced Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Also, the large fan diameters of modern engines with increasingly higher bypass ratios pose significant packaging and aircraft installation challenges. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large diameters and high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this approach allows the wing to shield much of the engine noise from people on the ground. The Propulsion Systems Analysis Office at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field conducted independent analytical research to estimate the noise reduction potential of mounting advanced turbofan engines above the wing. Certification noise predictions were made for a notional long-haul commercial quadjet transport. A large quad was chosen because, even under current regulations, such aircraft sometimes experience difficulty in complying with certification noise requirements with a substantial margin. Also, because of its long wing chords, a large airplane would receive the greatest advantage of any noise-shielding benefit.

  7. The effect of a hearing aid noise reduction algorithm on the acquisition of novel speech contrasts.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, André M; Yathiraj, Asha; Côté, Isabelle; Logan, John

    2006-12-01

    Audiologists are reluctant to prescribe digital hearing aids with active digital noise reduction (DNR) to pre-verbal children due to their potential for an adverse effect on the acquisition of language. The present study investigated the relation between DNR and language acquisition by modeling pre-verbal language acquisition using adult listeners presented with a non-native speech contrast. Two groups of normal-hearing, monolingual Anglophone subjects were trained over four testing sessions to discriminate novel, difficult to discriminate, non-native Hindi speech contrasts in continuous noise, where one group listened to both speech items and noise processed with DNR, and where the other group listened to unprocessed speech in noise. Results did not reveal a significant difference in performance between groups across testing sessions. A significant learning effect was noted for both groups between the first and second testing sessions only. Overall, DNR does not appear to enhance or impair the acquisition of novel speech contrasts by adult listeners.

  8. Experimental Study of Active Techniques for Blade/Vortex Interaction Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobiki, Noboru; Murashige, Atsushi; Tsuchihashi, Akihiko; Yamakawa, Eiichi

    This paper presents the experimental results of the effect of Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) and Active Flap on the Blade/Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. Wind tunnel tests were performed with a 1-bladed rotor system to evaluate the simplified BVI phenomenon avoiding the complicated aerodynamic interference which is characteristically and inevitably caused by a multi-bladed rotor. Another merit to use this 1-bladed rotor system is that the several objective active techniques can be evaluated under the same condition installed in the same rotor system. The effects of the active techniques on the BVI noise reduction were evaluated comprehensively by the sound pressure, the blade/vortex miss distance obtained by Laser light Sheet (LLS), the blade surface pressure distribution and the tip vortex structure by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The correlation among these quantities to describe the effect of the active techniques on the BVI conditions is well obtained. The experiments show that the blade/vortex miss distance is more dominant for BVI noise than the other two BVI governing factors, such as blade lift and vortex strength at the moment of BVI.

  9. Engine isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine vibration isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction is investigated. A laboratory based test procedure to simulate engine induced structure-borne noise transmission, the testing of a range of candidate isolators for relative performance data, and the development of an analytical model of the transmission phenomena for isolator design evaluation are addressed. The isolator relative performance test data show that the elastomeric isolators do not appear to operate as single degree of freedom systems with respect to noise isolation. Noise isolation beyond 150 Hz levels off and begins to decrease somewhat above 600 Hz. Coupled analytical and empirical models were used to study the structure-borne noise transmission phenomena. Correlation of predicted results with measured data show that (1) the modeling procedures are reasonably accurate for isolator design evaluation, (2) the frequency dependent properties of the isolators must be included in the model if reasonably accurate noise prediction beyond 150 Hz is desired. The experimental and analytical studies were carried out in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz.

  10. Evaluation of Novel Liner Concepts for Fan and Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Howerton, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of four novel liner concepts: soft vanes, over-the-rotor liners, external liners, and flap side-edge liners. A number of similarities in the design and evaluation of these concepts emerged during these investigations. Since these were the first attempts to study these particular liner concepts, there was limited information to guide the design process. In all cases, the target frequencies (or frequency range) were known, but the optimum acoustic impedance and optimum liner placement were typically not known. For these cases, the maximum available surface was used and a c-impedance was targeted based on the assumption the sound field impinges on the surface at normal incidence. This choice proved fruitful for every application. An impedance prediction model was used to design variable-depth liner configurations, and a graphical design code (ILIAD) was developed to aid in this process. The ability to build increasingly complex liner configurations via additive manufacturing was key, such that multiple designs could quickly be tested in a normal incidence impedance tube. The Two-Thickness Method was used to evaluate available bulk materials, such that bulk liners could also be considered for each application. These novel liner concepts provide sufficient noise reduction to warrant further investigations.

  11. Broadband Noise Reduction of a Low-Speed Fan Noise Using Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through the use of rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a continuous trailing edge slot. Hollow blades with interior guide vanes create flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the blade root to the trailing edge. A previous paper documented the substantial tonal reductions of this Trailing Edge Rotor Blowing (TERB) fan. This report documents the broadband characteristics of TERB. The Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF), located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof-of-concept test bed. Two-component hotwire data behind the rotor, unsteady surface pressures on the stator vane, and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates of 1.1, 1.5, and 1.8 percent of the total fan mass flow. The results indicate a substantial reduction in the rotor wake turbulent velocity and in the stator vane unsteady surface pressures. Based on the physics of the noise generation, these indirect measurements indicate the prospect of broadband noise reduction. However, since the broadband noise generated by the ANCF is rotor-dominated, any change in the rotor-stator interaction broadband noise levels is barely distinguishable in the farfield measurements.

  12. Reduction of noise of large amplitude through adaptive neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Mera, M Eugenia; Morán, Manuel

    2009-07-01

    We propose a noise reduction algorithm based on adaptive neighborhood selection that is able to obtain high levels of noise reduction for chaotic vector time series corrupted by observational noises with a noise-to-signal ratio of up to 300%.

  13. Adaptive iterative learning control for a class of non-linearly parameterised systems with input saturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruikun; Hou, Zhongsheng; Ji, Honghai; Yin, Chenkun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an adaptive iterative learning control scheme is proposed for a class of non-linearly parameterised systems with unknown time-varying parameters and input saturations. By incorporating a saturation function, a new iterative learning control mechanism is presented which includes a feedback term and a parameter updating term. Through the use of parameter separation technique, the non-linear parameters are separated from the non-linear function and then a saturated difference updating law is designed in iteration domain by combining the unknown parametric term of the local Lipschitz continuous function and the unknown time-varying gain into an unknown time-varying function. The analysis of convergence is based on a time-weighted Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function which consists of time-weighted input, state and parameter estimation information. The proposed learning control mechanism warrants a L2[0, T] convergence of the tracking error sequence along the iteration axis. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the adaptive iterative learning control scheme.

  14. Adaptive H∞ nonlinear velocity tracking using RBFNN for linear DC brushless motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ching-Chih; Chan, Cheng-Kain; Li, Yi Yu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an adaptive H ∞ nonlinear velocity control for a linear DC brushless motor. A simplified model of this motor with friction is briefly recalled. The friction dynamics is described by the Lu Gre model and the online tuning radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to parameterise the nonlinear friction function and un-modelled errors. An adaptive nonlinear H ∞ control method is then proposed to achieve velocity tracking, by assuming that the upper bounds of the ripple force, the changeable load and the nonlinear friction can be learned by the RBFNN. The closed-loop system is proven to be uniformly bounded using the Lyapunov stability theory. The feasibility and the efficacy of the proposed control are exemplified by conducting two velocity tracking experiments.

  15. Model-free adaptive fractional order control of stable linear time-varying systems.

    PubMed

    Yakoub, Z; Amairi, M; Chetoui, M; Saidi, B; Aoun, M

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new model-free adaptive fractional order control approach for linear time-varying systems. An online algorithm is proposed to determine some frequency characteristics using a selective filtering and to design a fractional PID controller based on the numerical optimization of the frequency-domain criterion. When the system parameters are time-varying, the controller is updated to keep the same desired performances. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that the controller design depends only on the measured input and output signals of the process. The effectiveness of the proposed method is assessed through a numerical example.

  16. Stability of Wilkinson's linear model of prism adaptation over time for various targets.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1977-01-01

    Prism adaptation as measured by negative aftereffects (NA), proprioceptive shifts (PS), and visual shifts (VS) was assessed as a function of amount of exposure time and target specificity, whether an exposure and a test target background were the same or different, to determine the validity of Wilkinson's linear model (NA = PS + VS). With few exceptions the model was found to hold well up to 40 min of prism viewing regardless of type of exposure background. In addition target specificity affected magnitude of the NA component of adapation but not the PS and the VS components.

  17. Stable Direct Adaptive Control of Linear Infinite-dimensional Systems Using a Command Generator Tracker Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, M. J.; Kaufman, H.; Wen, J.

    1985-01-01

    A command generator tracker approach to model following contol of linear distributed parameter systems (DPS) whose dynamics are described on infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces is presented. This method generates finite dimensional controllers capable of exponentially stable tracking of the reference trajectories when certain ideal trajectories are known to exist for the open loop DPS; we present conditions for the existence of these ideal trajectories. An adaptive version of this type of controller is also presented and shown to achieve (in some cases, asymptotically) stable finite dimensional control of the infinite dimensional DPS.

  18. Optimisation of substrate blends in anaerobic co-digestion using adaptive linear programming.

    PubMed

    García-Gen, Santiago; Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of multiple substrates has the potential to enhance biogas productivity by making use of the complementary characteristics of different substrates. A blending strategy based on a linear programming optimisation method is proposed aiming at maximising COD conversion into methane, but simultaneously maintaining a digestate and biogas quality. The method incorporates experimental and heuristic information to define the objective function and the linear restrictions. The active constraints are continuously adapted (by relaxing the restriction boundaries) such that further optimisations in terms of methane productivity can be achieved. The feasibility of the blends calculated with this methodology was previously tested and accurately predicted with an ADM1-based co-digestion model. This was validated in a continuously operated pilot plant, treating for several months different mixtures of glycerine, gelatine and pig manure at organic loading rates from 1.50 to 4.93 gCOD/Ld and hydraulic retention times between 32 and 40 days at mesophilic conditions.

  19. Noise reduction by sparse representation in learned dictionaries for application to blind tip reconstruction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwiak, Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a well known tool used for the investigation of phenomena in objects in the nanometer size range. However, quantitative results are limited by the size and the shape of the nanoprobe used in experiments. Blind tip reconstruction (BTR) is a very popular method used to reconstruct the upper boundary on the shape of the probe. This method is known to be very sensitive to all kinds of interference in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image. Due to mathematical morphology calculus, the interference makes the BTR results biased rather than randomly disrupted. For this reason, the careful choice of methods used for image enhancement and denoising, as well as the shape of a calibration sample are very important. In the paper, the results of thorough investigations on the shape of a calibration standard are shown. A novel shape is proposed and a tool for the simulation of AFM images of this calibration standard was designed. It was shown that careful choice of the initial tip allows us to use images of hole structures to blindly reconstruct the shape of a probe. The simulator was used to test the impact of modern filtration algorithms on the BTR process. These techniques are based on sparse approximation with function dictionaries learned on the basis of an image itself. Various learning algorithms and parameters were tested to determine the optimal combination for sparse representation. It was observed that the strong reduction of noise does not guarantee strong reduction in reconstruction errors. It seems that further improvements will be possible by the combination of BTR and a noise reduction procedure.

  20. Investigating Differences in Preferred Noise Reduction Strength Among Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2016-01-01

    Even though hearing aid (HA) users can respond very differently to noise reduction (NR) processing, knowledge about possible drivers of this variability (and thus ways of addressing it in HA fittings) is sparse. The current study investigated differences in preferred NR strength among HA users. Participants were groups of experienced users with clear preferences (“NR lovers”; N = 14) or dislikes (“NR haters”; N = 13) for strong NR processing, as determined in two earlier studies. Maximally acceptable background noise levels, detection thresholds for speech distortions caused by NR processing, and self-reported “sound personality” traits were considered as candidate measures for explaining group membership. Participants also adjusted the strength of the (binaural coherence-based) NR algorithm to their preferred level. Consistent with previous findings, NR lovers favored stronger processing than NR haters, although there also was some overlap. While maximally acceptable noise levels and detection thresholds for speech distortions tended to be higher for NR lovers than for NR haters, group differences were only marginally significant. No clear group differences were observed in the self-report data. Taken together, these results indicate that preferred NR strength is an individual trait that is fairly stable across time and that is not easily captured by psychoacoustic, audiological, or self-report measures aimed at indexing susceptibility to background noise and processing artifacts. To achieve more personalized NR processing, an effective approach may be to let HA users determine the optimal setting themselves during the fitting process. PMID:27604781

  1. Advanced noise reduction in placental ultrasound imaging using CPU and GPU: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zombori, G.; Ryan, J.; McAuliffe, F.; Rainford, L.; Moran, M.; Brennan, P.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of different implementations of 3D anisotropic diffusion speckle noise reduction technique on ultrasound images. In this project we are developing a novel volumetric calcification assessment metric for the placenta, and providing a software tool for this purpose. The tool can also automatically segment and visualize (in 3D) ultrasound data. One of the first steps when developing such a tool is to find a fast and efficient way to eliminate speckle noise. Previous works on this topic by Duan, Q. [1] and Sun, Q. [2] have proven that the 3D noise reducing anisotropic diffusion (3D SRAD) method shows exceptional performance in enhancing ultrasound images for object segmentation. Therefore we have implemented this method in our software application and performed a comparative study on the different variants in terms of performance and computation time. To increase processing speed it was necessary to utilize the full potential of current state of the art Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Our 3D datasets are represented in a spherical volume format. With the aim of 2D slice visualization and segmentation, a "scan conversion" or "slice-reconstruction" step is needed, which includes coordinate transformation from spherical to Cartesian, re-sampling of the volume and interpolation. Combining the noise filtering and slice reconstruction in one process on the GPU, we can achieve close to real-time operation on high quality data sets without the need for down-sampling or reducing image quality. For the GPU programming OpenCL language was used. Therefore the presented solution is fully portable.

  2. Minimizing noise in fiberglass aquaculture tanks: Noise reduction potential of various retrofits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, J.; Frankel, A.S.; Ellison, W.T.; Summerfelt, S.; Popper, A.N.; Mazik, P.; Bebak, J.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment used in intensive aquaculture systems, such as pumps and blowers can produce underwater sound levels and frequencies within the range of fish hearing. The impacts of underwater noise on fish are not well known, but limited research suggests that subjecting fish to noise could result in impairment of the auditory system, reduced growth rates, and increased stress. Consequently, reducing sound in fish tanks could result in advantages for cultured species and increased productivity for the aquaculture industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise reduction potential of various retrofits to fiberglass fish culture tanks. The following structural changes were applied to tanks to reduce underwater noise: (1) inlet piping was suspended to avoid contact with the tank, (2) effluent piping was disconnected from a common drain line, (3) effluent piping was insulated beneath tanks, and (4) tanks were elevated on cement blocks and seated on insulated padding. Four combinations of the aforementioned structural changes were evaluated in duplicate and two tanks were left unchanged as controls. Control tanks had sound levels of 120.6 dB re 1 ??Pa. Each retrofit contributed to a reduction of underwater sound. As structural changes were combined, a cumulative reduction in sound level was observed. Tanks designed with a combination of retrofits had sound levels of 108.6 dB re 1 ??Pa, a four-fold reduction in sound pressure level. Sound frequency spectra indicated that the greatest sound reductions occurred between 2 and 100 Hz and demonstrated that nearby pumps and blowers created tonal frequencies that were transmitted into the tanks. The tank modifications used during this study were simple and inexpensive and could be applied to existing systems or considered when designing aquaculture facilities. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of noise reduction on AM perception for hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Miermont, Franck; Coez, Arnaud; Bizaguet, Eric; Lorenzi, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Noise reduction (NR) systems are commonplace in modern digital hearing aids. Though not improving speech intelligibility, NR helps the hearing-aid user in terms of lowering noise annoyance, reducing cognitive load and improving ease of listening. Previous psychophysical work has shown that NR does in fact improve the ability of normal-hearing (NH) listeners to discriminate the slow amplitude-modulation (AM) cues representative of those found in speech. The goal of this study was to assess whether this improvement of AM discrimination with NR can also be observed for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. AM discrimination was measured at two audio frequencies of 500 Hz and 2 kHz in a background noise with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12 dB. Discrimination was measured for ten HI and ten NH listeners with and without NR processing. The HI listeners had a moderate sensorineural hearing loss of about 50 dB HL at 2 kHz and normal hearing (≤ 20 dB HL) at 500 Hz. The results showed that most of the HI listeners tended to benefit from NR at 500 Hz but not at 2 kHz. However, statistical analyses showed that HI listeners did not benefit significantly from NR at any frequency region. In comparison, the NH listeners showed a significant benefit from NR at both frequencies. For each condition, the fidelity of AM transmission was quantified by a computational model of early auditory processing. The parameters of the model were adjusted separately for the two groups (NH and HI) of listeners. The AM discrimination performance of the HI group (with and without NR) was best captured by a model simulating the loss of the fast-acting amplitude compression applied by the normal cochlea. This suggests that the lack of benefit from NR for HI listeners results from loudness recruitment.

  4. L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianwen; Wen, Shiting; Hu, Wenjun

    2015-09-01

    In most supervised domain adaptation learning (DAL) tasks, one has access only to a small number of labeled examples from target domain. Therefore the success of supervised DAL in this "small sample" regime needs the effective utilization of the large amounts of unlabeled data to extract information that is useful for generalization. Toward this end, we here use the geometric intuition of manifold assumption to extend the established frameworks in existing model-based DAL methods for function learning by incorporating additional information about the target geometric structure of the marginal distribution. We would like to ensure that the solution is smooth with respect to both the ambient space and the target marginal distribution. In doing this, we propose a novel L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning framework which exploits the geometry of the probability distribution, which has two techniques. Firstly, an L1-norm locally linear representation method is presented for robust graph construction by replacing the L2-norm reconstruction measure in LLE with L1-norm one, which is termed as L1-LLR for short. Secondly, considering the robust graph regularization, we replace traditional graph Laplacian regularization with our new L1-LLR graph Laplacian regularization and therefore construct new graph-based semi-supervised learning framework with multi-source adaptation constraint, which is coined as L1-MSAL method. Moreover, to deal with the nonlinear learning problem, we also generalize the L1-MSAL method by mapping the input data points from the input space to a high-dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) via a nonlinear mapping. Promising experimental results have been obtained on several real-world datasets such as face, visual video and object.

  5. Noise-reduction effectiveness of resilient rail fasteners on steel solid web stringer elevated structures. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.T.; Wilson, G.P.

    1989-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Technical Assistance program, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) studies the noise-reduction effectiveness of various resilient rail fasteners for steel elevated structures. The study included field and laboratory tests, and limited theoretical modeling to identify and optimize those characteristics most effective in reducing noise, while meeting criteria for rail stability. Top-plate bending resonance in the 500-700 Hz frequency range may be a significant factor in reducing the vibration-isolation effectiveness of resilient rail fasteners. The standing-wave elastomer resonance (thickness mode) of resilient fasteners does not appear to be significant to wayside noise reduction at 500 Hz or lower frequencies for the type of fasteners considered.

  6. SU-E-I-77: A Noise Reduction Technique for Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lam Ng, A; Ding, H; Cho, H; Molloi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Finding the optimal energy threshold setting for an energy-resolved photon-counting detector has an important impact on the maximization of contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). We introduce a noise reduction method to enhance CNR by reducing the noise in each energy bin without altering the average gray levels in the projection and image domains. Methods: We simulated a four bin energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on Si with a 10 mm depth of interaction. TASMIP algorithm was used to simulate a spectrum of 65 kVp with 2.7 mm Al filter. A 13 mm PMMA phantom with hydroxyapatite and iodine at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml for HA, and 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml for Iodine) was used. Projection-based and Image-based energy weighting methods were used to generate weighted images. A reference low noise image was used for noise reduction purposes. A Gaussian-like weighting function which computes the similarity between pixels of interest was calculated from the reference image and implemented on a pixel by pixel basis for the noisy images. Results: CNR improvement compared to different methods (Charge-Integrated, Photon-Counting and Energy-Weighting) and after noise reduction was highly task-dependent. The CNR improvement with respect to the Charge-Integrated CNR for hydroxyapatite and iodine were 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. In each of the energy bins, the noise was reduced by approximately factor of two without altering their respective average gray levels. Conclusion: The proposed noise reduction technique for energy-resolved photon-counting detectors can significantly reduce image noise. This technique can be used as a compliment to the current energy-weighting methods in CNR optimization.

  7. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  8. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  9. A computational study of the effect of windscreen shape and flow resistivity on turbulent wind noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zheng, Z C; Wilson, D K

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations are used to study the turbulent wind noise reduction effect of microphone windscreens with varying shapes and flow resistivities. Typical windscreen shapes consisting of circular, elliptical, and rectangular cylinders are investigated. A turbulent environment is generated by placing a solid circular cylinder upstream of the microphone. An immersed-boundary method with a fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme is implemented to enhance the simulation accuracy for high-Reynolds number flow around the solid cylinder as well as at the interface between the open air and the porous material comprising the windscreen. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved in the open air. For the flow inside the porous material, a modified form of the Zwikker-Kosten equation is solved. The results show that, on average, the circular and horizontal ellipse windscreens have similar overall wind noise reduction performance, while the horizontal ellipse windscreen with medium flow resistivity provides the most effective wind noise reduction among all the considered cases. The vertical ellipse windscreen with high flow resistivity, in particular, increases the wind noise because of increased self-generation of turbulence.

  10. Design and optimization of a noise reduction system for infrasonic measurements using elements with low acoustic impedance.

    PubMed

    Alcoverro, Benoit; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2005-04-01

    The implementation of the infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the enforcement of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) increases the effort in the design of suitable noise reducer systems. In this paper we present a new design consisting of low impedance elements. The dimensioning and the optimization of this discrete mechanical system are based on numerical simulations, including a complete electroacoustical modeling and a realistic wind-noise model. The frequency response and the noise reduction obtained for a given wind speed are compared to statistical noise measurements in the [0.02-4] Hz frequency band. The effects of the constructive parameters-the length of the pipes, inner diameters, summing volume, and number of air inlets-are investigated through a parametric study. The studied system consists of 32 air inlets distributed along an overall diameter of 16 m. Its frequency response is flat up to 4 Hz. For a 2 m/s wind speed, the maximal noise reduction obtained is 15 dB between 0.5 and 4 Hz. At lower frequencies, the noise reduction is improved by the use of a system of larger diameter. The main drawback is the high-frequency limitation introduced by acoustical resonances inside the pipes.

  11. Application of a Euryarchaeota-Specific Helicase from Thermococcus kodakarensis for Noise Reduction in PCR

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ayako; Kawato, Katsuhiro; Kato, Saori; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Hidese, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA/RNA helicases, which are enzymes for eliminating hydrogen bonds between bases of DNA/DNA, DNA/RNA, and RNA/RNA using the energy of ATP hydrolysis, contribute to various biological activities. In the present study, the Euryarchaeota-specific helicase EshA (TK0566) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tk-EshA) was obtained as a recombinant form, and its enzymatic properties were examined. Tk-EshA exhibited maximal ATPase activity in the presence of RNA at 80°C. Unwinding activity was evaluated with various double-stranded DNAs (forked, 5′ overhung, 3′ overhung, and blunt end) at 50°C. Tk-EshA unwound forked and 3′ overhung DNAs. These activities were expected to unwind the structured template and to peel off misannealed primers when Tk-EshA was added to a PCR mixture. To examine the effect of Tk-EshA on PCR, various target DNAs were selected, and DNA synthesis was investigated. When 16S rRNA genes were used as a template, several misamplified products (noise DNAs) were detected in the absence of Tk-EshA. In contrast, noise DNAs were eliminated in the presence of Tk-EshA. Noise reduction by Tk-EshA was also confirmed when Taq DNA polymerase (a family A DNA polymerase, PolI type) and KOD DNA polymerase (a family B DNA polymerase, α type) were used for PCR. Misamplified bands were also eliminated during toxA gene amplification from Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA, which possesses a high GC content (69%). Tk-EshA addition was more effective than increasing the annealing temperature to reduce misamplified DNAs during toxA amplification. Tk-EshA is a useful tool to reduce noise DNAs for accurate PCR. IMPORTANCE PCR is a technique that is useful for genetic diagnosis, genetic engineering, and detection of pathogenic microorganisms. However, troubles with nonspecific DNA amplification often occur from primer misannealing. In order to achieve a specific DNA amplification by eliminating noise DNAs derived from primer misannealing, a

  12. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that, when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm which provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Design Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7-12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR-off and DNR-on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an in increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: 1) an inversion technique which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and 2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. Results One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately

  13. Linear-scaling symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with scaled dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, Simon A.; Beer, Matthias; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2013-11-14

    We present a linear-scaling symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) method that is based on an atomic orbital (AO) formulation of zeroth-order SAPT (SAPT0). The non-dispersive terms are realized with linear-scaling cost using both the continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) and the linear exchange (LinK) approach for integral contractions as well as our efficient Laplace-based coupled-perturbed self-consistent field method (DL-CPSCF) for evaluating response densities. The reformulation of the dispersion term is based on our linear-scaling AO Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (AO-MP2) method, that uses our recently introduced QQR-type screening [S. A. Maurer, D. S. Lambrecht, J. Kussmann, and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014101 (2013)] for preselecting numerically significant energy contributions. Similar to scaled opposite-spin MP2, we neglect the exchange-dispersion term in SAPT and introduce a scaling factor for the dispersion term, which compensates for the error and at the same time accounts for basis set incompleteness effects and intramonomer correlation. We show in extensive benchmark calculations that the new scaled-dispersion (sd-)SAPT0 approach provides reliable results for small and large interacting systems where the results with a small 6-31G** basis are roughly comparable to supermolecular MP2 calculations in a triple-zeta basis. The performance of our method is demonstrated with timings on cellulose fragments, DNA systems, and cutouts of a protein-ligand complex with up to 1100 atoms on a single computer core.

  14. Linear hypergeneralization of learned dynamics across movement speeds reveals anisotropic, gain-encoding primitives for motor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Wilsaan M; Ajayi, Obafunso; Sing, Gary C; Smith, Maurice A

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generalize learned motor actions to new contexts is a key feature of the motor system. For example, the ability to ride a bicycle or swing a racket is often first developed at lower speeds and later applied to faster velocities. A number of previous studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement directions and found that the learned adaptation decays in a pattern consistent with the existence of motor primitives that display narrow Gaussian tuning. However, few studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement speeds. Following adaptation to linear velocity-dependent dynamics during point-to-point reaching arm movements at one speed, we tested the ability of subjects to transfer this adaptation to short-duration higher-speed movements aimed at the same target. We found near-perfect linear extrapolation of the trained adaptation with respect to both the magnitude and the time course of the velocity profiles associated with the high-speed movements: a 69% increase in movement speed corresponded to a 74% extrapolation of the trained adaptation. The close match between the increase in movement speed and the corresponding increase in adaptation beyond what was trained indicates linear hypergeneralization. Computational modeling shows that this pattern of linear hypergeneralization across movement speeds is not compatible with previous models of adaptation in which motor primitives display isotropic Gaussian tuning of motor output around their preferred velocities. Instead, we show that this generalization pattern indicates that the primitives involved in the adaptation to viscous dynamics display anisotropic tuning in velocity space and encode the gain between motor output and motion state rather than motor output itself.

  15. Linear dichroism amplification: Adapting a long-known technique for ultrasensitive femtosecond IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rehault, Julien; Helbing, Jan; Zanirato, Vinicio; Olivucci, Massimo

    2011-03-28

    We demonstrate strong amplification of polarization-sensitive transient IR signals using a pseudo-null crossed polarizer technique first proposed by Keston and Lospalluto [Fed. Proc. 10, 207 (1951)] and applied for nanosecond flash photolysis in the visible by Che et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 224, 145 (1994)]. We adapted the technique to ultrafast pulsed laser spectroscopy in the infrared using photoelastic modulators, which allow us to measure amplified linear dichroism at kilohertz repetition rates. The method was applied to a photoswitch of the N-alkylated Schiff base family in order to demonstrate its potential of strongly enhancing sensitivity and signal to noise in ultrafast transient IR experiments, to simplify spectra and to determine intramolecular transition dipole orientations.

  16. Adaptive Predictor-Based Output Feedback Control for a Class of Unknown MIMO Linear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong Hoang; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the problem of characterizing adaptive output feedback control laws for a general class of unknown MIMO linear systems is considered. Specifically, the presented control approach relies on three components, i.e., a predictor, a reference model and a controller. The predictor is designed to predict the system's output with arbitrary accuracy, for any admissible control input. Subsequently, a full state feedback control law is designed to control the predictor output to approach the reference system, while the reference system tracks the desired trajectory. Ultimately, the control objective of driving the actual system output to track the desired trajectories is achieved by showing that the system output, the predictor output and the reference system trajectories all converge to each other.

  17. Missing pixels restoration for remote sensing images using adaptive search window and linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Shen-Chuan; Chen, Peng-Yu; Chao, Chian-Yen

    2016-07-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems proposed an efficient image compression standard that can do lossless compression (CCSDS-ICS). CCSDS-ICS is the most widely utilized standard for satellite communications. However, the original CCSDS-ICS is weak in terms of error resilience with even a single incorrect bit possibly causing numerous missing pixels. A restoration algorithm based on the neighborhood similar pixel interpolator is proposed to fill in missing pixels. The linear regression model is used to generate the reference image from other panchromatic or multispectral images. Furthermore, an adaptive search window is utilized to sieve out similar pixels from the pixels in the search region defined in the neighborhood similar pixel interpolator. The experimental results show that the proposed methods are capable of reconstructing missing regions with good visual quality.

  18. Adapting Predictive Models for Cepheid Variable Star Classification Using Linear Regression and Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kinjal Dhar; Vilalta, Ricardo; Asadourian, Vicken; Macri, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    We describe an approach to automate the classification of Cepheid variable stars into two subtypes according to their pulsation mode. Automating such classification is relevant to obtain a precise determination of distances to nearby galaxies, which in addition helps reduce the uncertainty in the current expansion of the universe. One main difficulty lies in the compatibility of models trained using different galaxy datasets; a model trained using a training dataset may be ineffectual on a testing set. A solution to such difficulty is to adapt predictive models across domains; this is necessary when the training and testing sets do not follow the same distribution. The gist of our methodology is to train a predictive model on a nearby galaxy (e.g., Large Magellanic Cloud), followed by a model-adaptation step to make the model operable on other nearby galaxies. We follow a parametric approach to density estimation by modeling the training data (anchor galaxy) using a mixture of linear models. We then use maximum likelihood to compute the right amount of variable displacement, until the testing data closely overlaps the training data. At that point, the model can be directly used in the testing data (target galaxy).

  19. Optimization of an adaptive SPECT system with the scanning linear estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Nasrin; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Li, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The adaptive single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system studied here acquires an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the object. Then the configuration is adjusted by selecting the size of the pinhole and the magnification that optimize system performance on an ensemble of virtual objects generated to be consistent with the scout data. In this study the object is a lumpy background that contains a Gaussian signal with a variable width and amplitude. The virtual objects in the ensemble are imaged by all of the available configurations and the subsequent images are evaluated with the scanning linear estimator to obtain an estimate of the signal width and amplitude. The ensemble mean squared error (EMSE) on the virtual ensemble between the estimated and the true parameters serves as the performance figure of merit for selecting the optimum configuration. The results indicate that variability in the original object background, noise and signal parameters leads to a specific optimum configuration in each case. A statistical study carried out for a number of objects show that the adaptive system on average performs better than its nonadaptive counterpart.

  20. Pratt & Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Larry A.; Hauser, Joseph E.; Mathews, Douglas C.; Topol, David A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Lan, Justin H.; Premo, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed in Phase 2 of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) contract. The purpose of the program is to validate, through engine testing, advanced noise reduction concepts aimed at reducing engine noise up to 6 EPNdB and improving nacelle suppression by 50 percent relative to 1992 technology. Phase 1 of the program is completed and is summarized in NASA/CR-2014-218088.

  1. Demonstration of short-haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8 cm) diameter fan, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Mcfalls, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a 20 inch diameter, low tip speed, low pressure ratio fan which investigated aft fan noise reduction techniques are reported. These techniques included source noise reduction features of selection of vane-blade ratio to reduce second harmonic noise, spacing effects, and lowering the Mach number through a vane row. Aft suppression features investigated included porosity effects, variable depth treatment, and treatment regenerated flow noise. Initial results and selected comparisons are presented.

  2. A research program to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes. Influence of depressurization and damping material on the noise reduction characteristics of flat and curved stiffened panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaneethan, R.; Streeter, B.; Koontz, S.; Roskam, J.

    1981-01-01

    Some 20 x 20 aluminum panels were studied in a frequency range from 20 Hz to 5000 Hz. The noise sources used were a swept sine wave generator and a random noise generator. The effect of noise source was found to be negligible. Increasing the pressure differential across the panel gave better noise reduction below the fundamental resonance frequency due to an increase in stiffness. The largest increase occurred in the first 1 psi pressure differential. The curved, stiffened panel exhibited similar behavior, but with a lower increase of low frequency noise reduction. Depressurization on these panels resulted in decreased noise reduction at higher frequencies. The effect of damping tapes on the overall noise reduction values of the test specimens was small away from the resonance frequency. In the mass-law region, a slight and proportional improvement in noise reduction was observed by adding damping material. Adding sound absorbtion material to a panel with damping material beneficially increased noise reduction at high frequencies.

  3. Stable direct adaptive control of linear infinite-dimensional systems using a command generator tracker approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark; Kaufman, Howard; Wen, John

    1984-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: an adaptive model following control; adaptive control of a distributed parameter system (DPS) with a finite-dimensional controller; a direct adaptive controller; a closed-loop adaptively controlled DPS; Lyapunov stability; the asymptotic stability of the closed loop; and model control of a simply supported beam.

  4. Linear matrix inequality-based nonlinear adaptive robust control with application to unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, David William

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) are gaining popularity in civil and commercial applications as their lightweight on-board computers become more powerful and affordable, their power storage devices improve, and the Federal Aviation Administration addresses the legal and safety concerns of integrating UASs in the national airspace. Consequently, many researchers are pursuing novel methods to control UASs in order to improve their capabilities, dependability, and safety assurance. The nonlinear control approach is a common choice as it offers several benefits for these highly nonlinear aerospace systems (e.g., the quadrotor). First, the controller design is physically intuitive and is derived from well known dynamic equations. Second, the final control law is valid in a larger region of operation, including far from the equilibrium states. And third, the procedure is largely methodical, requiring less expertise with gain tuning, which can be arduous for a novice engineer. Considering these facts, this thesis proposes a nonlinear controller design method that combines the advantages of adaptive robust control (ARC) with the powerful design tools of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). The ARC-LMI controller is designed with a discontinuous projection-based adaptation law, and guarantees a prescribed transient and steady state tracking performance for uncertain systems in the presence of matched disturbances. The norm of the tracking error is bounded by a known function that depends on the controller design parameters in a known form. Furthermore, the LMI-based part of the controller ensures the stability of the system while overcoming polytopic uncertainties, and minimizes the control effort. This can reduce the number of parameters that require adaptation, and helps to avoid control input saturation. These desirable characteristics make the ARC-LMI control algorithm well suited for the quadrotor UAS, which may have unknown parameters and may encounter external

  5. Adaptive tracking control of leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hanquan; Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the consensus problem for leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances is investigated. Brownian motions are used to describe exogenous disturbances. A distributed tracking controller based on Riccati inequalities with an adaptive law for adjusting coupling weights between neighbouring agents is designed for leader-following multi-agent systems under fixed and switching topologies. In traditional distributed static controllers, the coupling weights depend on the communication graph. However, coupling weights associated with the feedback gain matrix in our method are updated by state errors between neighbouring agents. We further present the stability analysis of leader-following multi-agent systems with stochastic disturbances under switching topology. Most traditional literature requires the graph to be connected all the time, while the communication graph is only assumed to be jointly connected in this paper. The design technique is based on Riccati inequalities and algebraic graph theory. Finally, simulations are given to show the validity of our method.

  6. Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kawahito, Shoji; Seo, Min-Woong

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the noise reduction effect of multiple-sampling-based signal readout circuits for implementing ultra-low-noise image sensors. The correlated multiple sampling (CMS) technique has recently become an important technology for high-gain column readout circuits in low-noise CMOS image sensors (CISs). This paper reveals how the column CMS circuits, together with a pixel having a high-conversion-gain charge detector and low-noise transistor, realizes deep sub-electron read noise levels based on the analysis of noise components in the signal readout chain from a pixel to the column analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The noise measurement results of experimental CISs are compared with the noise analysis and the effect of noise reduction to the sampling number is discussed at the deep sub-electron level. Images taken with three CMS gains of two, 16, and 128 show distinct advantage of image contrast for the gain of 128 (noise(median): 0.29 e−rms) when compared with the CMS gain of two (2.4 e−rms), or 16 (1.1 e−rms). PMID:27827972

  7. Elastomeric Structural Attachment Concepts for Aircraft Flap Noise Reduction - Challenges and Approaches to Hyperelastic Structural Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Turner, Travis L.; Moore, James B.; Su, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise of transport aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Airframe noise reduction is currently emphasized under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Fixed Wing (FW) Project goals of NASA. A promising concept for trailing-edge-flap noise reduction is a flexible structural element or link that connects the side edges of the deployable flap to the adjacent main-wing structure. The proposed solution is distinguished by minimization of the span-wise extent of the structural link, thereby minimizing the aerodynamic load on the link structure at the expense of increased deformation requirement. Development of such a flexible structural link necessitated application of hyperelastic materials, atypical structural configurations and novel interface hardware. The resulting highly-deformable structural concept was termed the FLEXible Side Edge Link (FLEXSEL) concept. Prediction of atypical elastomeric deformation responses from detailed structural analysis was essential for evaluating feasible concepts that met the design constraints. The focus of this paper is to describe the many challenges encountered with hyperelastic finite element modeling and the nonlinear structural analysis of evolving FLEXSEL concepts. Detailed herein is the nonlinear analysis of FLEXSEL concepts that emerged during the project which include solid-section, foamcore, hollow, extended-span and pre-stressed concepts. Coupon-level analysis performed on elastomeric interface joints, which form a part of the FLEXSEL topology development, are also presented.

  8. Gain-induced speech distortions and the absence of intelligibility benefit with existing noise-reduction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gibak; Loizou, Philipos C

    2011-09-01

    Most noise-reduction algorithms used in hearing aids apply a gain to the noisy envelopes to reduce noise interference. The present study assesses the impact of two types of speech distortion introduced by noise-suppressive gain functions: amplification distortion occurring when the amplitude of the target signal is over-estimated, and attenuation distortion occurring when the target amplitude is under-estimated. Sentences corrupted by steady noise and competing talker were processed through a noise-reduction algorithm and synthesized to contain either amplification distortion, attenuation distortion or both. The attenuation distortion was found to have a minimal effect on speech intelligibility. In fact, substantial improvements (>80 percentage points) in intelligibility, relative to noise-corrupted speech, were obtained when the processed sentences contained only attenuation distortion. When the amplification distortion was limited to be smaller than 6 dB, performance was nearly unaffected in the steady-noise conditions, but was severely degraded in the competing-talker conditions. Overall, the present data suggest that one reason that existing algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility is because they allow amplification distortions in excess of 6 dB. These distortions are shown in this study to be always associated with masker-dominated envelopes and should thus be eliminated.

  9. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  10. Analysis of the noise reduction property of type-2 fuzzy logic systems using a novel type-2 membership function.

    PubMed

    Khanesar, Mojtaba Ahmadieh; Kayacan, Erdal; Teshnehlab, Mohammad; Kaynak, Okyay

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the noise reduction property of type-2 fuzzy logic (FL) systems (FLSs) (T2FLSs) that use a novel type-2 fuzzy membership function is studied. The proposed type-2 membership function has certain values on both ends of the support and the kernel and some uncertain values for the other values of the support. The parameter tuning rules of a T2FLS that uses such a membership function are derived using the gradient descend learning algorithm. There exist a number of papers in the literature that claim that the performance of T2FLSs is better than type-1 FLSs under noisy conditions, and the claim is tried to be justified by simulation studies only for some specific systems. In this paper, a simpler T2FLS is considered with the novel membership function proposed in which the effect of input noise in the rule base is shown numerically in a general way. The proposed type-2 fuzzy neuro structure is tested on different input-output data sets, and it is shown that the T2FLS with the proposed novel membership function has better noise reduction property when compared to the type-1 counterparts.

  11. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process.

  12. Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kawahito, Shoji; Seo, Min-Woong

    2016-11-06

    This paper discusses the noise reduction effect of multiple-sampling-based signal readout circuits for implementing ultra-low-noise image sensors. The correlated multiple sampling (CMS) technique has recently become an important technology for high-gain column readout circuits in low-noise CMOS image sensors (CISs). This paper reveals how the column CMS circuits, together with a pixel having a high-conversion-gain charge detector and low-noise transistor, realizes deep sub-electron read noise levels based on the analysis of noise components in the signal readout chain from a pixel to the column analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The noise measurement results of experimental CISs are compared with the noise analysis and the effect of noise reduction to the sampling number is discussed at the deep sub-electron level. Images taken with three CMS gains of two, 16, and 128 show distinct advantage of image contrast for the gain of 128 (noise(median): 0.29 e(-)rms) when compared with the CMS gain of two (2.4 e(-)rms), or 16 (1.1 e(-)rms).

  13. Adapting iterative algorithms for solving large sparse linear systems for efficient use on the CDC CYBER 205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, D. R.; Young, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Adapting and designing mathematical software to achieve optimum performance on the CYBER 205 is discussed. Comments and observations are made in light of recent work done on modifying the ITPACK software package and on writing new software for vector supercomputers. The goal was to develop very efficient vector algorithms and software for solving large sparse linear systems using iterative methods.

  14. Adaptation of the phase of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) and effects on the oculomotor neural integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegemann, S.; Shelhamer, M.; Kramer, P. D.; Zee, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The phase of the translational linear VOR (LVOR) can be adaptively modified by exposure to a visual-vestibular mismatch. We extend here our earlier work on LVOR phase adaptation, and discuss the role of the oculomotor neural integrator. Ten subjects were oscillated laterally at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration, while sitting upright on a linear sled. LVOR was assessed before and after adaptation with subjects tracking the remembered location of a target at 1 m in the dark. Phase and gain were measured by fitting sine waves to the desaccaded eye movements, and comparing sled and eye position. To adapt LVOR phase, the subject viewed a computer-generated stereoscopic visual display, at a virtual distance of 1 m, that moved so as to require either a phase lead or a phase lag of 53 deg. Adaptation lasted 20 min, during which subjects were oscillated at 0.5 Hz/0.3 g. Four of five subjects produced an adaptive change in the lag condition (range 4-45 deg), and each of five produced a change in the lead condition (range 19-56 deg), as requested. Changes in drift on eccentric gaze suggest that the oculomotor velocity-to-position integrator may be involved in the phase changes.

  15. Active Control of Turbulent Boundary Layers for Drag and Noise Reduction in Naval Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    methods that have been studied experimentally include localized heating [6], piezo-electric flaps [7], oscillatory blowing [8], synthetic jets [9...perpendicular to the core flow. Linear arrays of permanent magnets are interlaced with a commercially fabricated printed circuit board to generate the necessary...consists of a commercially fabricated two-layer printed circuit board (Multi-Lab, Inc. Manchester, MA). The electrodes protrude slightly above the surface

  16. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  17. A study of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mount systems with emphasis on non-linear characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Singh, R.

    1995-01-01

    Passive hydraulic mounts exhibit excitation frequency variant and deflection amplitude sensitive stiffness and damping properties. Such non-linear dynamic characteristics are examined by using analytical and experimental methods, both at the device level and within the context of a simplified vehicle model. A new lumped parameter non-linear mathematical model of the hydraulic mount is developed by simulating its decoupler switching mechanism and inertia track dynamics. The low frequency performance features and limitations of several passive mounts are made clear through the non-linear vehicle model simulation and comparable laboratory vibration tests. The high frequency performance problems of the passive hydraulic mount are identified by applying the quasi-linear analysis method. Based on these results, a new adaptive mount system is developed which exhibits broad bandwidth performance features up to 250 Hz. It implements an on-off damping control mode by using engine intake manifold vacuum and a microprocessor based solenoid valve controller. A laboratory bench set-up has already demonstrated its operational feasibility. Through analytical methods, it is observed that our adaptive mount provides superior dynamic performance to passive engine mounts and comparable performance to a small scale active mount over a wide frequency range, given the engine mounting resonance control, shock absorption and vibration isolation performance requirements. Although technical prospects of the proposed adaptive system appear promising, the in situperformance needs to be evaluated.

  18. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  19. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  20. Acoustic Performance of Novel Fan Noise Reduction Technologies for a High Bypass Model Turbofan at Simulated Flights Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David M.; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    Two novel fan noise reduction technologies, over the rotor acoustic treatment and soft stator vane technologies, were tested in an ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan model in the NASA Glenn Research Center s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The performance of these technologies was compared to that of the baseline fan configuration, which did not have these technologies. Sideline acoustic data and hot film flow data were acquired and are used to determine the effectiveness of the various treatments. The material used for the over the rotor treatment was foam metal and two different types were used. The soft stator vanes had several internal cavities tuned to target certain frequencies. In order to accommodate the cavities it was necessary to use a cut-on stator to demonstrate the soft vane concept.

  1. A “Salt and Pepper” Noise Reduction Scheme for Digital Images Based on Support Vector Machines Classification and Regression

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Moreno, Hilario; Gil-Jiménez, Pedro; Lafuente-Arroyo, Sergio; López-Sastre, Roberto; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2014-01-01

    We present a new impulse noise removal technique based on Support Vector Machines (SVM). Both classification and regression were used to reduce the “salt and pepper” noise found in digital images. Classification enables identification of noisy pixels, while regression provides a means to determine reconstruction values. The training vectors necessary for the SVM were generated synthetically in order to maintain control over quality and complexity. A modified median filter based on a previous noise detection stage and a regression-based filter are presented and compared to other well-known state-of-the-art noise reduction algorithms. The results show that the filters proposed achieved good results, outperforming other state-of-the-art algorithms for low and medium noise ratios, and were comparable for very highly corrupted images. PMID:25202739

  2. Singular spectrum analysis and adaptive filtering enhance the functional connectivity analysis of resting state fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Piaggi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Gentili, Claudio; Handjaras, Giacomo; Gemignani, Angelo; Landi, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Sources of noise in resting-state fMRI experiments include instrumental and physiological noises, which need to be filtered before a functional connectivity analysis of brain regions is performed. These noisy components show autocorrelated and nonstationary properties that limit the efficacy of standard techniques (i.e. time filtering and general linear model). Herein we describe a novel approach based on the combination of singular spectrum analysis and adaptive filtering, which allows a greater noise reduction and yields better connectivity estimates between regions at rest, providing a new feasible procedure to analyze fMRI data.

  3. Noise reduction and estimation in multiple micro-electro-mechanical inertial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waegli, Adrian; Skaloud, Jan; Guerrier, Stéphane; Eulàlia Parés, Maria; Colomina, Ismael

    2010-06-01

    This research studies the reduction and the estimation of the noise level within a redundant configuration of low-cost (MEMS-type) inertial measurement units (IMUs). Firstly, independent observations between units and sensors are assumed and the theoretical decrease in the system noise level is analyzed in an experiment with four MEMS-IMU triads. Then, more complex scenarios are presented in which the noise level can vary in time and for each sensor. A statistical method employed for studying the volatility of financial markets (GARCH) is adapted and tested for the usage with inertial data. This paper demonstrates experimentally and through simulations the benefit of direct noise estimation in redundant IMU setups.

  4. Duct wall impedance control as an advanced concept for acoustic suppression enhancement. [engine noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    A systems concept procedure is described for the optimization of acoustic duct liner design for both uniform and multisegment types. The concept was implemented by the use of a double reverberant chamber flow duct facility coupled with sophisticated computer control and acoustic analysis systems. The optimization procedure for liner insertion loss was based on the concept of variable liner impedance produced by bias air flow through a multilayer, resonant cavity liner. A multiple microphone technique for in situ wall impedance measurements was used and successfully adapted to produce automated measurements for all liner configurations tested. The complete validation of the systems concept was prevented by the inability to optimize the insertion loss using bias flow induced wall impedance changes. This inability appeared to be a direct function of the presence of a higher order energy carrying modes which were not influenced significantly by the wall impedance changes.

  5. A multiscale filter for noise reduction of low-dose cone beam projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Weiguang; Farr, Jonathan B.

    2015-08-01

    The Poisson or compound Poisson process governs the randomness of photon fluence in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging systems. The probability density function depends on the mean (noiseless) of the fluence at a certain detector. This dependence indicates the natural requirement of multiscale filters to smooth noise while preserving structures of the imaged object on the low-dose cone beam projection. In this work, we used a Gaussian filter, \\text{exp}≤ft(-{{x}2}/2σ f2\\right) as the multiscale filter to de-noise the low-dose cone beam projections. We analytically obtained the expression of {σf} , which represents the scale of the filter, by minimizing local noise-to-signal ratio. We analytically derived the variance of residual noise from the Poisson or compound Poisson processes after Gaussian filtering. From the derived analytical form of the variance of residual noise, optimal σ f2 is proved to be proportional to the noiseless fluence and modulated by local structure strength expressed as the linear fitting error of the structure. A strategy was used to obtain the reliable linear fitting error: smoothing the projection along the longitudinal direction to calculate the linear fitting error along the lateral direction and vice versa. The performance of our multiscale filter was examined on low-dose cone beam projections of a Catphan phantom and a head-and-neck patient. After performing the filter on the Catphan phantom projections scanned with pulse time 4 ms, the number of visible line pairs was similar to that scanned with 16 ms, and the contrast-to-noise ratio of the inserts was higher than that scanned with 16 ms about 64% in average. For the simulated head-and-neck patient projections with pulse time 4 ms, the visibility of soft tissue structures in the patient was comparable to that scanned with 20 ms. The image processing took less than 0.5 s per projection with 1024   ×   768 pixels.

  6. A multiscale filter for noise reduction of low-dose cone beam projections.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weiguang; Farr, Jonathan B

    2015-08-21

    The Poisson or compound Poisson process governs the randomness of photon fluence in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging systems. The probability density function depends on the mean (noiseless) of the fluence at a certain detector. This dependence indicates the natural requirement of multiscale filters to smooth noise while preserving structures of the imaged object on the low-dose cone beam projection. In this work, we used a Gaussian filter, exp(-x2/2σ(2)(f)) as the multiscale filter to de-noise the low-dose cone beam projections. We analytically obtained the expression of σ(f), which represents the scale of the filter, by minimizing local noise-to-signal ratio. We analytically derived the variance of residual noise from the Poisson or compound Poisson processes after Gaussian filtering. From the derived analytical form of the variance of residual noise, optimal σ(2)(f)) is proved to be proportional to the noiseless fluence and modulated by local structure strength expressed as the linear fitting error of the structure. A strategy was used to obtain the reliable linear fitting error: smoothing the projection along the longitudinal direction to calculate the linear fitting error along the lateral direction and vice versa. The performance of our multiscale filter was examined on low-dose cone beam projections of a Catphan phantom and a head-and-neck patient. After performing the filter on the Catphan phantom projections scanned with pulse time 4 ms, the number of visible line pairs was similar to that scanned with 16 ms, and the contrast-to-noise ratio of the inserts was higher than that scanned with 16 ms about 64% in average. For the simulated head-and-neck patient projections with pulse time 4 ms, the visibility of soft tissue structures in the patient was comparable to that scanned with 20 ms. The image processing took less than 0.5 s per projection with 1024   ×   768 pixels.

  7. Acoustic analysis of aft noise reduction techniques measured on a subsonic tip speed 50.8 cm (twenty inch) diameter fan. [quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Clemons, A.

    1977-01-01

    Sound data which were obtained during tests of a 50.8 cm diameter, subsonic tip speed, low pressure ratio fan were analyzed. The test matrix was divided into two major investigations: (1) source noise reduction techniques; and (2) aft duct noise reduction with acoustic treatment. Source noise reduction techniques were investigated which include minimizing second harmonic noise by varying vane/blade ratio, variation in spacing, and lowering the Mach number through the vane row to lower fan broadband noise. Treatment in the aft duct which includes flow noise effects, faceplate porosity, rotor OGV treatment, slant cell treatment, and splitter simulation with variable depth on the outer wall and constant thickness treatment on the inner wall was investigated. Variable boundary conditions such as variation in treatment panel thickness and orientation, and mixed porosity combined with variable thickness were examined. Significant results are reported.

  8. Adaptive Control of Linear Modal Systems Using Residual Mode Filters and a Simple Disturbance Estimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark; Frost, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Flexible structures containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques which are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend our adaptive control theory to accommodate troublesome modal subsystems of a plant that might inhibit the adaptive controller. In some cases the plant does not satisfy the requirements of Almost Strict Positive Realness. Instead, there maybe be a modal subsystem that inhibits this property. This section will present new results for our adaptive control theory. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for the troublesome modal subsystem, or the Q modes. Here we present the theory for adaptive controllers modified by RMFs, with attention to the issue of disturbances propagating through the Q modes. We apply the theoretical results to a flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter.

  9. Wavelet-based density estimation for noise reduction in plasma simulations using particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van yen, Romain Nguyen; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Chen, Guangye

    2010-04-01

    For given computational resources, the accuracy of plasma simulations using particles is mainly limited by the noise due to limited statistical sampling in the reconstruction of the particle distribution function. A method based on wavelet analysis is proposed and tested to reduce this noise. The method, known as wavelet-based density estimation (WBDE), was previously introduced in the statistical literature to estimate probability densities given a finite number of independent measurements. Its novel application to plasma simulations can be viewed as a natural extension of the finite size particles (FSP) approach, with the advantage of estimating more accurately distribution functions that have localized sharp features. The proposed method preserves the moments of the particle distribution function to a good level of accuracy, has no constraints on the dimensionality of the system, does not require an a priori selection of a global smoothing scale, and its able to adapt locally to the smoothness of the density based on the given discrete particle data. Moreover, the computational cost of the denoising stage is of the same order as one time step of a FSP simulation. The method is compared with a recently proposed proper orthogonal decomposition based method, and it is tested with three particle data sets involving different levels of collisionality and interaction with external and self-consistent fields.

  10. Wavelet-based density estimation for noise reduction in plasma simulations using particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen van yen, Romain; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Chen, Guangye

    2010-01-01

    For given computational resources, one of the main limitations in the accuracy of plasma simulations using particles comes from the noise due to limited statistical sampling in the reconstruction of the particle distribution function. A method based on wavelet multiresolution analysis is proposed and tested to reduce this noise. The method, known as wavelet based density estimation (WBDE), was previously introduced in the statistical literature to estimate probability densities given a nite number of independent measurements. Its novel application to plasma simulations can be viewed as a natural extension of the nite size particles (FSP) approach, with the advantage of estimating more accurately distribution functions that have localized sharp features. The proposed method preserves the moments of the particle distribution function to a good level of accuracy, has no constraints on the dimensionality of the system, does not require an a priori selection of a global smoothing scale, and its able to adapt locally to the smoothness of the density based on the given discrete particle data. Most importantly, the computational cost of the denoising stage is of the same order as one timestep of a FSP simulation. The method is compared with a recently proposed proper orthogonal decomposition based method, and it is tested with particle data corresponding to strongly collisional, weakly collisional, and collisionless plasmas simulations.

  11. Noise reduction of time domain electromagnetic data: Application of a combined wavelet denoising method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yanju; Li, Dongsheng; Yuan, Guiyang; Lin, Jun; Du, Shangyu; Xie, Lijun; Wang, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    A denoising method based on wavelet analysis is presented for the removal of noise (background noise and random spike) from time domain electromagnetic (TEM) data. This method includes two signal processing technologies: wavelet threshold method and stationary wavelet transform. First, wavelet threshold method is used for the removal of background noise from TEM data. Then, the data are divided into a series of details and approximations by using stationary wavelet transform. The random spike in details is identified by zero reference data and adaptive energy detector. Next, the corresponding details are processed to suppress the random spike. The denoised TEM data are reconstructed via inverse stationary wavelet transform using the processed details at each level and the approximations at the highest level. The proposed method has been verified using a synthetic TEM data, the signal-to-noise ratio of synthetic TEM data is increased from 10.97 dB to 24.37 dB at last. This method is also applied to the noise suppression of the field data which were collected at Hengsha island, China. The section image results shown that the noise is suppressed effectively and the resolution of the deep anomaly is obviously improved.

  12. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality.

    PubMed

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.

  13. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings. PMID

  14. Sensitivity improvement and noise reduction of array CD mapping on memory device using inspection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Byeong-Ok; Park, Jin-Hong; Hur, Jinseok; Woo, Seok-Hoon; Choi, Seungwoon; Park, Chan-Hoon

    2009-03-01

    Array CD uniformity can be measured by inspection tool and showed good correlation to traditional CD measurement such as CD-SEM and OCD.[1] Due to the inspection tool's basic requirement which collects information over whole area of wafer, the CD mapping from inspection images results in high spatial details within shot and along the wafer scale. However the reflected light which comes from the interaction between sub-wavelength array pattern and illuminated light isn't only responsible for CD variation of the illuminated area pattern. Other than lateral CD differences, thickness variation of pattern and under layer films also result in light intensity changes on reflected light. Therefore the noise separation other than CD variation is crucial factor on CD mapping using inspection tool. On the other hand, the sensitivity of CD variation is dependent on the patterned layer materials and how it interacts with the polarization of illuminated light. From previous study, reflection light from sub wavelength array structure contains CD variation information and gives linear response to the structure volume change. In this paper, CD test box which has intentional CD variation is introduced to investigate on various parameters that result in reflectivity changes. Wavelength, polarization and optical property of patterned structure are conducted to analyze the influence to the reflectivity signal. In parallel the experimental results are compared with simulation result using RCWA and good correlation is achieved.

  15. No Evidence for a Low Linear Energy Transfer Adaptive Response in Irradiated RKO Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Lewis, Adam J.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-01-06

    It has become increasingly evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. In this paper we examine recent data that suggest that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low LET exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic survival or micronucleus formation.

  16. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  17. Biohybrid Control of General Linear Systems Using the Adaptive Filter Model of Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Emma D.; Assaf, Tareq; Pearson, Martin J.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Dean, Paul; Anderson, Sean R.; Porrill, John

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit has been successfully applied to biological motor control problems, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and to sensory processing problems, such as the adaptive cancelation of reafferent noise. It has also been successfully applied to problems in robotics, such as adaptive camera stabilization and sensor noise cancelation. In previous applications to inverse control problems, the algorithm was applied to the velocity control of a plant dominated by viscous and elastic elements. Naive application of the adaptive filter model to the displacement (as opposed to velocity) control of this plant results in unstable learning and control. To be more generally useful in engineering problems, it is essential to remove this restriction to enable the stable control of plants of any order. We address this problem here by developing a biohybrid model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme, which stabilizes the control algorithm for strictly proper plants. We evaluate the performance of this novel cerebellar-inspired algorithm with MRAC scheme in the experimental control of a dielectric electroactive polymer, a class of artificial muscle. The results show that the augmented cerebellar algorithm is able to accurately control the displacement response of the artificial muscle. The proposed solution not only greatly extends the practical applicability of the cerebellar-inspired algorithm, but may also shed light on cerebellar involvement in a wider range of biological control tasks. PMID:26257638

  18. Biohybrid Control of General Linear Systems Using the Adaptive Filter Model of Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma D; Assaf, Tareq; Pearson, Martin J; Rossiter, Jonathan M; Dean, Paul; Anderson, Sean R; Porrill, John

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit has been successfully applied to biological motor control problems, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and to sensory processing problems, such as the adaptive cancelation of reafferent noise. It has also been successfully applied to problems in robotics, such as adaptive camera stabilization and sensor noise cancelation. In previous applications to inverse control problems, the algorithm was applied to the velocity control of a plant dominated by viscous and elastic elements. Naive application of the adaptive filter model to the displacement (as opposed to velocity) control of this plant results in unstable learning and control. To be more generally useful in engineering problems, it is essential to remove this restriction to enable the stable control of plants of any order. We address this problem here by developing a biohybrid model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme, which stabilizes the control algorithm for strictly proper plants. We evaluate the performance of this novel cerebellar-inspired algorithm with MRAC scheme in the experimental control of a dielectric electroactive polymer, a class of artificial muscle. The results show that the augmented cerebellar algorithm is able to accurately control the displacement response of the artificial muscle. The proposed solution not only greatly extends the practical applicability of the cerebellar-inspired algorithm, but may also shed light on cerebellar involvement in a wider range of biological control tasks.

  19. Noise correlation in CBCT projection data and its application for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hua; Ouyang, Luo; Wang, Jing E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Ma, Jianhua E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Huang, Jing; Chen, Wufan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To study the noise correlation properties of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data and to incorporate the noise correlation information to a statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT. Methods: In this study, the authors systematically investigated the noise correlation properties among detector bins of CBCT projection data by analyzing repeated projection measurements. The measurements were performed on a TrueBeam onboard CBCT imaging system with a 4030CB flat panel detector. An anthropomorphic male pelvis phantom was used to acquire 500 repeated projection data at six different dose levels from 0.1 to 1.6 mAs per projection at three fixed angles. To minimize the influence of the lag effect, lag correction was performed on the consecutively acquired projection data. The noise correlation coefficient between detector bin pairs was calculated from the corrected projection data. The noise correlation among CBCT projection data was then incorporated into the covariance matrix of the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT. Results: The analyses of the repeated measurements show that noise correlation coefficients are nonzero between the nearest neighboring bins of CBCT projection data. The average noise correlation coefficients for the first- and second-order neighbors are 0.20 and 0.06, respectively. The noise correlation coefficients are independent of the dose level. Reconstruction of the pelvis phantom shows that the PWLS criterion with consideration of noise correlation (PWLS-Cor) results in a lower noise level as compared to the PWLS criterion without considering the noise correlation (PWLS-Dia) at the matched resolution. At the 2.0 mm resolution level in the axial-plane noise resolution tradeoff analysis, the noise level of the PWLS-Cor reconstruction is 6.3% lower than that of the PWLS-Dia reconstruction. Conclusions: Noise is correlated among nearest neighboring

  20. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  1. Pratt and Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts: Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Douglas; Bock, Larry A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Dougherty, R. P.; Premo, John W.; Scharpf, Dan F.; Yu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Major airports in the world's air transportation systems face a serious problem in providing greater capacity to meet the ever increasing demands of air travel. This problem could be relieved if airports are allowed to increase their operating time, now restricted by curfews and by relaxing present limits on takeoffs and landings. The key operational issue in extending the present curfews is noise. In response to these increasing restrictive noise regulations, NASA has launched a program to validate through engine testing, noise reduction concepts and technologies that have evolved from the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) Noise Reduction Program. The goal of this AST program was to develop and validate technology that reduces engine noise and improves nacelle suppression effectiveness relative to 1992 technology. Contract NAS3-97144 titled "Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts" (EVNRC) was awarded to P&W on August 12, 1997 to conduct full scale noise reduction tests in two Phases on a PW4098 engine. The following Section 1.2 provides a brief description of the overall program. The remainder of this report provides a detailed documentation of Phase I of the program.

  2. Demonstration of short haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8 cm) diameter fan, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a twenty inch diameter, low tip speed, low pressure ratio fan which investigated aft fan noise reduction techniques are reported. The 1/3 octave band sound data are presented for all the configurations tested. The model data are presented on 17 foot arc and extrapolated to 200 foot sideline.

  3. Wavelet denoising in voxel-based parametric estimation of small animal PET images: a systematic evaluation of spatial constraints and noise reduction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Shoghi, Kooresh I

    2008-11-07

    Voxel-based estimation of PET images, generally referred to as parametric imaging, can provide invaluable information about the heterogeneity of an imaging agent in a given tissue. Due to high level of noise in dynamic images, however, the estimated parametric image is often noisy and unreliable. Several approaches have been developed to address this challenge, including spatial noise reduction techniques, cluster analysis and spatial constrained weighted nonlinear least-square (SCWNLS) methods. In this study, we develop and test several noise reduction techniques combined with SCWNLS using simulated dynamic PET images. Both spatial smoothing filters and wavelet-based noise reduction techniques are investigated. In addition, 12 different parametric imaging methods are compared using simulated data. With the combination of noise reduction techniques and SCWNLS methods, more accurate parameter estimation can be achieved than with either of the two techniques alone. A less than 10% relative root-mean-square error is achieved with the combined approach in the simulation study. The wavelet denoising based approach is less sensitive to noise and provides more accurate parameter estimation at higher noise levels. Further evaluation of the proposed methods is performed using actual small animal PET datasets. We expect that the proposed method would be useful for cardiac, neurological and oncologic applications.

  4. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Downie, J D; Goodman, J W

    1989-10-15

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by measuring and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The necessary control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time, which adds to the residual error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper investigates this possibility by studying the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for adaptive optics use.

  5. A quantitative comparison of noise reduction across five commercial (hybrid and model-based) iterative reconstruction techniques: an anthropomorphic phantom study.

    PubMed

    Patino, Manuel; Fuentes, Jorge M; Hayano, Koichi; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to compare the performance of three hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques (IRTs) (ASiR, iDose4, SAFIRE) and their respective strengths for image noise reduction on low-dose CT examinations using filtered back projection (FBP) as the standard reference. Also, we compared the performance of these three hybrid IRTs with two model-based IRTs (Veo and IMR) for image noise reduction on low-dose examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS. An anthropomorphic abdomen phantom was scanned at 100 and 120 kVp and different tube current-exposure time products (25-100 mAs) on three CT systems (for ASiR and Veo, Discovery CT750 HD; for iDose4 and IMR, Brilliance iCT; and for SAFIRE, Somatom Definition Flash). Images were reconstructed using FBP and using IRTs at various strengths. Nine noise measurements (mean ROI size, 423 mm(2)) on extracolonic fat for the different strengths of IRTs were recorded and compared with FBP using ANOVA. Radiation dose, which was measured as the volume CT dose index and dose-length product, was also compared. RESULTS. There were no significant differences in radiation dose and image noise among the scanners when FBP was used (p > 0.05). Gradual image noise reduction was observed with each increasing increment of hybrid IRT strength, with a maximum noise suppression of approximately 50% (48.2-53.9%). Similar noise reduction was achieved on the scanners by applying specific hybrid IRT strengths. Maximum noise reduction was higher on model-based IRTs (68.3-81.1%) than hybrid IRTs (48.2-53.9%) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION. When constant scanning parameters are used, radiation dose and image noise on FBP are similar for CT scanners made by different manufacturers. Significant image noise reduction is achieved on low-dose CT examinations rendered with IRTs. The image noise on various scanners can be matched by applying specific hybrid IRT strengths. Model-based IRTs attain substantially higher noise reduction than hybrid

  6. Error-based adaptive non-linear control and regions of feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teel, Andrew R.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear adaptive algorithm of Kanellakopoulos et al. (1991) was modified to produce an error-based algorithm. This permits global stabilizability for a large subset of pure-feedback nonlinear systems. The algorithm was demonstrated on the single-input stabilization problem, but extends easily to the multiple input tracking problems.

  7. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform and SVD based acoustic noise reduction and its application in leak detection for natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuchao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Laibin; Jin, Hao; Qiu, Jingwei

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, leak detection for natural gas pipeline has become one of the paramount concerns of pipeline operators and researchers across the globe. However, acoustic wave method has been proved to be an effective way to identify and localize leakage for gas pipeline. Considering the fact that noises inevitably exist in the acoustic signals collected, noise reduction should be enforced on the signals for subsequent data mining and analysis. Thus, an integrated acoustic noise reduction method based on DTCWT and SVD is proposed in this study. The method is put forward based on the idea that noise reduction strategy should match the characteristics of the noisy signal. According to previous studies, it is known that the energy of acoustic signals collected under leaking condition is mainly concentrated in low-frequency portion (0-100 Hz). And ultralow-frequency component (0-5 Hz), which is taken as the characteristic frequency band in this study, can propagate a relatively longer distance and be captured by sensors. Therefore, in order to filter the noises and to reserve the characteristic frequency band, DTCWT is taken as the core to conduct multilevel decomposition and refining for acoustic signals and SVD is employed to eliminate noises in non-characteristic bands. Both simulation and field experiments show that DTCWT-SVD is an excellent method for acoustic noise reduction. At the end of this study, application in leakage localization shows that it becomes much easier and a little more accurate to estimate the location of leak hole after noise reduction by DTCWT-SVD.

  8. Comparison of speech intelligibility in cockpit noise using SPH-4 flight helmet with and without active noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jeffrey W.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Active Noise Reduction (ANR) is a new technology which can reduce the level of aircraft cockpit noise that reaches the pilot's ear while simultaneously improving the signal to noise ratio for voice communications and other information bearing sound signals in the cockpit. A miniature, ear-cup mounted ANR system was tested to determine whether speech intelligibility is better for helicopter pilots using ANR compared to a control condition of ANR turned off. Two signal to noise ratios (S/N), representative of actual cockpit conditions, were used for the ratio of the speech to cockpit noise sound pressure levels. Speech intelligibility was significantly better with ANR compared to no ANR for both S/N conditions. Variability of speech intelligibility among pilots was also significantly less with ANR. When the stock helmet was used with ANR turned off, the average PB Word speech intelligibility score was below the Normally Acceptable level. In comparison, it was above that level with ANR on in both S/N levels.

  9. Poisson-Gaussian Noise Reduction Using the Hidden Markov Model in Contourlet Domain for Fluorescence Microscopy Images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sejung; Lee, Byung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    In certain image acquisitions processes, like in fluorescence microscopy or astronomy, only a limited number of photons can be collected due to various physical constraints. The resulting images suffer from signal dependent noise, which can be modeled as a Poisson distribution, and a low signal-to-noise ratio. However, the majority of research on noise reduction algorithms focuses on signal independent Gaussian noise. In this paper, we model noise as a combination of Poisson and Gaussian probability distributions to construct a more accurate model and adopt the contourlet transform which provides a sparse representation of the directional components in images. We also apply hidden Markov models with a framework that neatly describes the spatial and interscale dependencies which are the properties of transformation coefficients of natural images. In this paper, an effective denoising algorithm for Poisson-Gaussian noise is proposed using the contourlet transform, hidden Markov models and noise estimation in the transform domain. We supplement the algorithm by cycle spinning and Wiener filtering for further improvements. We finally show experimental results with simulations and fluorescence microscopy images which demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed approach.

  10. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. The double panel structure is widely used, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nevertheless, the resonance of the cavity and the poor sound transmission loss at low frequencies limit the double panel's noise control performance. Applying active structural acoustic control to the panels or active noise control to the cavity has been discussed in many papers. In this paper, the resonances of the panels and the cavity are considered simultaneously to further reduce the transmitted noise through an existing double panel structure. A structural-acoustic coupled model is developed to investigate and compare various structural control and cavity control methods. Numerical analysis and real-time control results show that structural control should be applied to both panels. Three types of cavity control sources are presented and compared. The results indicate that the largest noise reduction is obtained with cavity control by loudspeakers modified to operate as incident pressure sources.

  11. Robust frequency diversity based algorithm for clutter noise reduction of ultrasonic signals using multiple sub-spectrum phase coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Gongzhang, R.; Xiao, B.; Lardner, T.; Gachagan, A.; Li, M.

    2014-02-18

    This paper presents a robust frequency diversity based algorithm for clutter reduction in ultrasonic A-scan waveforms. The performance of conventional spectral-temporal techniques like Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) is highly dependent on the parameter selection, especially when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low. Although spatial beamforming offers noise reduction with less sensitivity to parameter variation, phased array techniques are not always available. The proposed algorithm first selects an ascending series of frequency bands. A signal is reconstructed for each selected band in which a defect is present when all frequency components are in uniform sign. Combining all reconstructed signals through averaging gives a probability profile of potential defect position. To facilitate data collection and validate the proposed algorithm, Full Matrix Capture is applied on the austenitic steel and high nickel alloy (HNA) samples with 5MHz transducer arrays. When processing A-scan signals with unrefined parameters, the proposed algorithm enhances SNR by 20dB for both samples and consequently, defects are more visible in B-scan images created from the large amount of A-scan traces. Importantly, the proposed algorithm is considered robust, while SSP is shown to fail on the austenitic steel data and achieves less SNR enhancement on the HNA data.

  12. SVD-Based Technique for Interference Cancellation and Noise Reduction in NMR Measurement of Time-Dependent Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjun; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment for measurement of time-dependent magnetic fields was introduced. To improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of NMR data, a new method for interference cancellation and noise reduction (ICNR) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was proposed. The singular values corresponding to the radio frequency interference (RFI) signal were identified in terms of the correlation between the FID data and the reference data, and then the RFI and noise were suppressed by setting the corresponding singular values to zero. The validity of the algorithm was verified by processing the measured NMR data. The results indicated that, this method has a significantly suppression of RFI and random noise, and can well preserve the FID signal. At present, the major limitation of the proposed SVD-based ICNR technique is that the threshold value for interference cancellation needs to be manually selected. Finally, the inversion waveform of the applied alternating magnetic field was given by fitting the processed experimental data. PMID:26959024

  13. Experimental observation of spatial quantum noise reduction below the standard quantum limit with bright twin beams of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Nunley, Hayden; Marino, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Quantum noise reduction (QNR) below the standard quantum limit (SQL) has been a subject of interest for the past two to three decades due to its wide range of applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. To date, most of the attention has focused on the study of QNR in the temporal domain. However, many areas in quantum optics, specifically in quantum imaging, could benefit from QNR not only in the temporal domain but also in the spatial domain. With the use of a high quantum efficiency electron multiplier charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, we have observed spatial QNR below the SQL in bright narrowband twin light beams generated through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process in hot rubidium atoms. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin beams are momentum correlated. This leads to spatial quantum correlations and spatial QNR. Our preliminary results show a spatial QNR of over 2 dB with respect to the SQL. Unlike previous results on spatial QNR with faint and broadband photon pairs from parametric down conversion (PDC), we demonstrate spatial QNR with spectrally and spatially narrowband bright light beams. The results obtained will be useful for atom light interaction based quantum protocols and quantum imaging. Work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  14. SVD-Based Technique for Interference Cancellation and Noise Reduction in NMR Measurement of Time-Dependent Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjun; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Zhang, Hua

    2016-03-04

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment for measurement of time-dependent magnetic fields was introduced. To improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of NMR data, a new method for interference cancellation and noise reduction (ICNR) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was proposed. The singular values corresponding to the radio frequency interference (RFI) signal were identified in terms of the correlation between the FID data and the reference data, and then the RFI and noise were suppressed by setting the corresponding singular values to zero. The validity of the algorithm was verified by processing the measured NMR data. The results indicated that, this method has a significantly suppression of RFI and random noise, and can well preserve the FID signal. At present, the major limitation of the proposed SVD-based ICNR technique is that the threshold value for interference cancellation needs to be manually selected. Finally, the inversion waveform of the applied alternating magnetic field was given by fitting the processed experimental data.

  15. A Data-Driven Noise Reduction Method and Its Application for the Enhancement of Stress Wave Signals

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hai-Lin; Fang, Yi-Ming; Xiang, Xuan-Qi; Li, Jian; Li, Guan-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) has been recently used to recover a signal from observed noisy data. Typically this is performed by partial reconstruction or thresholding operation. In this paper we describe an efficient noise reduction method. EEMD is used to decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The time intervals between two adjacent zero-crossings within the IMF, called instantaneous half period (IHP), are used as a criterion to detect and classify the noise oscillations. The undesirable waveforms with a larger IHP are set to zero. Furthermore, the optimum threshold in this approach can be derived from the signal itself using the consecutive mean square error (CMSE). The method is fully data driven, and it requires no prior knowledge of the target signals. This method can be verified with the simulative program by using Matlab. The denoising results are proper. In comparison with other EEMD based methods, it is concluded that the means adopted in this paper is suitable to preprocess the stress wave signals in the wood nondestructive testing. PMID:23213283

  16. Improving word recognition in noise among hearing-impaired subjects with a single-channel cochlear noise-reduction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fink, Nir; Furst, Miriam; Muchnik, Chava

    2012-09-01

    A common complaint of the hearing impaired is the inability to understand speech in noisy environments even with their hearing assistive devices. Only a few single-channel algorithms have significantly improved speech intelligibility in noise for hearing-impaired listeners. The current study introduces a cochlear noise reduction algorithm. It is based on a cochlear representation of acoustic signals and real-time derivation of a binary speech mask. The contribution of the algorithm for enhancing word recognition in noise was evaluated on a group of 42 normal-hearing subjects, 35 hearing-aid users, 8 cochlear implant recipients, and 14 participants with bimodal devices. Recognition scores of Hebrew monosyllabic words embedded in Gaussian noise at several signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were obtained with processed and unprocessed signals. The algorithm was not effective among the normal-hearing participants. However, it yielded a significant improvement in some of the hearing-impaired subjects under different listening conditions. Its most impressive benefit appeared among cochlear implant recipients. More than 20% improvement in recognition score of noisy words was obtained by 12, 16, and 26 hearing-impaired at SNR of 30, 24, and 18 dB, respectively. The algorithm has a potential to improve speech intelligibility in background noise, yet further research is required to improve its performances.

  17. Mixed linear model approach adapted for genome-wide association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed linear model (MLM) methods have proven useful in controlling for population structure and relatedness within genome-wide association studies. However, MLM-based methods can be computationally challenging for large datasets. We report a compression approach, called ‘compressed MLM,’ that decrea...

  18. Multiple solution of systems of linear algebraic equations by an iterative method with the adaptive recalculation of the preconditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhunov, R. R.; Gazizov, T. R.; Kuksenko, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    The mean time needed to solve a series of systems of linear algebraic equations (SLAEs) as a function of the number of SLAEs is investigated. It is proved that this function has an extremum point. An algorithm for adaptively determining the time when the preconditioner matrix should be recalculated when a series of SLAEs is solved is developed. A numerical experiment with multiply solving a series of SLAEs using the proposed algorithm for computing 100 capacitance matrices with two different structures—microstrip when its thickness varies and a modal filter as the gap between the conductors varies—is carried out. The speedups turned out to be close to the optimal ones.

  19. Online optimal tracking control of continuous-time linear systems with unknown dynamics by using adaptive dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chunbin; Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel theoretic formulation based on adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is developed to solve online the optimal tracking problem of the continuous-time linear system with unknown dynamics. First, the original system dynamics and the reference trajectory dynamics are transformed into an augmented system. Then, under the same performance index with the original system dynamics, an augmented algebraic Riccati equation is derived. Furthermore, the solutions for the optimal control problem of the augmented system are proven to be equal to the standard solutions for the optimal tracking problem of the original system dynamics. Moreover, a new online algorithm based on the ADP technique is presented to solve the optimal tracking problem of the linear system with unknown system dynamics. Finally, simulation results are given to verify the effectiveness of the theoretic results.

  20. Video noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewery, J. O.; Storey, R.; Tanton, N. E.

    1984-07-01

    A video noise and film grain reducer is described which is based on a first-order recursive temporal filter. Filtering of moving detail is avoided by inhibiting recursion in response to the amount of motion in a picture. Motion detection is based on the point-by-point power of the picture difference signal coupled with a knowledge of the noise statistics. A control system measures the noise power and adjusts the working point of the motion detector accordingly. A field trial of a manual version of the equipment at Television Center indicated that a worthwhile improvement in the quality of noisy or grainy pictures received by the viewer could be obtained. Subsequent trials of the automated version confirmed that the improvement could be maintained. Commercial equipment based on the design is being manufactured and marketed by Pye T.V.T. under license. It is in regular use on both the BBC1 and BBC2 networks.

  1. Jet Engine Noise Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Aeropropulsion Division, NASA Glenn Professor Parviz Moin, Ph.D. Director, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University Executive Secretary Mr. William J...Supersonic Jet Noise Prof. Parviz Moin, Stanford University 59 Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines (VAATE) Overview Dr. Larry Burns, AFRL...NASA Glenn Professor Parviz Moin, Ph.D. Director, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University Executive Secretary Mr. William J. Voorhees Head

  2. Noise Reduction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallas, Tony

    There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

  3. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  4. SU-F-18C-15: Model-Based Multiscale Noise Reduction On Low Dose Cone Beam Projection

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, W; Farr, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve image quality of low dose cone beam CT for patient positioning in radiation therapy. Methods: In low dose cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging systems, Poisson process governs the randomness of photon fluence at x-ray source and the detector because of the independent binomial process of photon absorption in medium. On a CBCT projection, the variance of fluence consists of the variance of noiseless imaging structure and that of Poisson noise, which is proportional to the mean (noiseless) of the fluence at the detector. This requires multiscale filters to smoothen noise while keeping the structure information of the imaged object. We used a mathematical model of Poisson process to design multiscale filters and established the balance of noise correction and structure blurring. The algorithm was checked with low dose kilo-voltage CBCT projections acquired from a Varian OBI system. Results: From the investigation of low dose CBCT of a Catphan phantom and patients, it showed that our model-based multiscale technique could efficiently reduce noise and meanwhile keep the fine structure of the imaged object. After the image processing, the number of visible line pairs in Catphan phantom scanned with 4 ms pulse time was similar to that scanned with 32 ms, and soft tissue structure from simulated 4 ms patient head-and-neck images was also comparable with scanned 20 ms ones. Compared with fixed-scale technique, the image quality from multiscale one was improved. Conclusion: Use of projection-specific multiscale filters can reach better balance on noise reduction and structure information loss. The image quality of low dose CBCT can be improved by using multiscale filters.

  5. Minerals detection for hyperspectral images using adapted linear unmixing: LinMin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Frédéric; Legendre, Maxime; Le Mouëlic, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Minerals detection over large volume of spectra is the challenge addressed by current hyperspectral imaging spectrometer in Planetary Science. Instruments such OMEGA (Mars Express), CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter), M3 (Chandrayaan-1), VIRTIS (Rosetta) and many more, have been producing very large datasets since one decade. We propose here a fast supervised detection algorithm called LinMin, in the framework of linear unmixing, with innovative arrangement in order to treat non-linear cases due to radiative transfer in both atmosphere and surface. We use reference laboratory and synthetic spectral library. Additional spectra are used in order to mimic the effect of Martian aerosols, grain size, and observation geometry discrepancies between reference and observed spectra. The proposed algorithm estimates the uncertainty on “mixing coefficient” from the uncertainty of observed spectra. Both numerical and observational tests validate the approach. Fast parallel implementation of the best algorithm (IPLS) on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) allows to significantly reduce the computation cost by a factor of ∼40.

  6. Adaptive vision-based control of an unmanned aerial vehicle without linear velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Jabbari Asl, Hamed; Yoon, Jungwon

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an image-based visual servo controller is designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle. The main objective is to use flow of image features as the velocity cue to compensate for the low quality of linear velocity information obtained from accelerometers. Nonlinear observers are designed to estimate this flow. The proposed controller is bounded, which can help to keep the target points in the field of view of the camera. The main advantages over the previous full dynamic observer-based methods are that, the controller is robust with respect to unknown image depth, and also no yaw information is required. The complete stability analysis is presented and asymptotic convergence of the error signals is guaranteed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Performance analysis of structured gradient algorithm. [for adaptive beamforming linear arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godara, Lal C.

    1990-01-01

    The structured gradient algorithm uses a structured estimate of the array correlation matrix (ACM) to estimate the gradient required for the constrained least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. This structure reflects the structure of the exact array correlation matrix for an equispaced linear array and is obtained by spatial averaging of the elements of the noisy correlation matrix. In its standard form the LMS algorithm does not exploit the structure of the array correlation matrix. The gradient is estimated by multiplying the array output with the receiver outputs. An analysis of the two algorithms is presented to show that the covariance of the gradient estimated by the structured method is less sensitive to the look direction signal than that estimated by the standard method. The effect of the number of elements on the signal sensitivity of the two algorithms is studied.

  8. A new adaptation of linear reservoir models in parallel sets to assess actual hydrological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo Lázaro, Jesús; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; García Gil, Alejandro; Edo Romero, Vanesa

    2015-05-01

    A methodology based on Parallel Linear Reservoir (PLR) models is presented. To carry it out has been implemented within the software SHEE (Simulation of Hydrological Extreme Events), which is a tool for the analysis of hydrological processes in catchments with the management and display of DEM and datasets. The algorithms of the models pass throughout the cells and drainage network, by means of the Watershed Traversal Algorithm (WTA) that runs the entire drainage network of a basin in both directions, upwards and downwards, which is ideal for incorporating the models of the hydrological processes of the basins into its structure. The WTA methodology is combined with another one based on models of Parallel Linear Reservoirs (PLR) whose main qualities include: (1) the models are defined by observing the recession curves of actual hydrographs, i.e., the watershed actual responses; (2) the models serve as a way to simulate the routing through the watershed and its different reservoirs; and (3) the models allow calculating the water balance, which is essential to the study of actual events in the watershed. A complete hydrometeorological event needs the combination of several models, each one of which represents a hydrological process. The PLR model is a routing model, but it also contributes to the adjustment of other models (e.g., the rainfall-runoff model) and allows establishing a distributed model of effective rainfall for an actual event occurred in a basin. On the other hand, the proposed formulation solves the rainfall distribution problem for each deposit in the reservoir combination models.

  9. Multiple linear combination (MLC) regression tests for common variants adapted to linkage disequilibrium structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Sun, Lei; Poirier, Julia G.; Paterson, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By jointly analyzing multiple variants within a gene, instead of one at a time, gene‐based multiple regression can improve power, robustness, and interpretation in genetic association analysis. We investigate multiple linear combination (MLC) test statistics for analysis of common variants under realistic trait models with linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on HapMap Asian haplotypes. MLC is a directional test that exploits LD structure in a gene to construct clusters of closely correlated variants recoded such that the majority of pairwise correlations are positive. It combines variant effects within the same cluster linearly, and aggregates cluster‐specific effects in a quadratic sum of squares and cross‐products, producing a test statistic with reduced degrees of freedom (df) equal to the number of clusters. By simulation studies of 1000 genes from across the genome, we demonstrate that MLC is a well‐powered and robust choice among existing methods across a broad range of gene structures. Compared to minimum P‐value, variance‐component, and principal‐component methods, the mean power of MLC is never much lower than that of other methods, and can be higher, particularly with multiple causal variants. Moreover, the variation in gene‐specific MLC test size and power across 1000 genes is less than that of other methods, suggesting it is a complementary approach for discovery in genome‐wide analysis. The cluster construction of the MLC test statistics helps reveal within‐gene LD structure, allowing interpretation of clustered variants as haplotypic effects, while multiple regression helps to distinguish direct and indirect associations. PMID:27885705

  10. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-31

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  11. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods. PMID:27258276

  12. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent, 22-Lobed, and Unique-Lobed Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salikuddin, M.; Martens, S.; Shin, H.; Majjigi, R. K.; Krejsa, Gene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a design methodology and noise reduction concepts for high bypass exhaust systems which could be applied to both existing production and new advanced engine designs. Special emphasis was given to engine cycles with bypass ratios in the range of 4:1 to 7:1, where jet mixing noise was a primary noise source at full power takeoff conditions. The goal of this effort was to develop the design methodology for mixed-flow exhaust systems and other novel noise reduction concepts that would yield 3 EPNdB noise reduction relative to 1992 baseline technology. Two multi-lobed mixers, a 22-lobed axisymmetric and a 21-lobed with a unique lobe, were designed. These mixers along with a confluent mixer were tested with several fan nozzles of different lengths with and without acoustic treatment in GEAE's Cell 41 under the current subtask (Subtask C). In addition to the acoustic and LDA tests for the model mixer exhaust systems, a semi-empirical noise prediction method for mixer exhaust system is developed. Effort was also made to implement flowfield data for noise prediction by utilizing MGB code. In general, this study established an aero and acoustic diagnostic database to calibrate and refine current aero and acoustic prediction tools.

  13. "Adapted Linear Interaction Energy": A Structure-Based LIE Parametrization for Fast Prediction of Protein-Ligand Affinities.

    PubMed

    Linder, Mats; Ranganathan, Anirudh; Brinck, Tore

    2013-02-12

    We present a structure-based parametrization of the Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) method and show that it allows for the prediction of absolute protein-ligand binding energies. We call the new model "Adapted" LIE (ALIE) because the α and β coefficients are defined by system-dependent descriptors and do therefore not require any empirical γ term. The best formulation attains a mean average deviation of 1.8 kcal/mol for a diverse test set and depends on only one fitted parameter. It is robust with respect to additional fitting and cross-validation. We compare this new approach with standard LIE by Åqvist and co-workers and the LIE + γSASA model (initially suggested by Jorgensen and co-workers) against in-house and external data sets and discuss their applicabilities.

  14. Optimizing the general linear model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy: an adaptive hemodynamic response function approach

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Dan, Haruka; Watanabe, Eiju

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies utilize a general linear model (GLM) approach, which serves as a standard statistical method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. While fMRI solely measures the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, fNIRS measures the changes of oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) signals at a temporal resolution severalfold higher. This suggests the necessity of adjusting the temporal parameters of a GLM for fNIRS signals. Thus, we devised a GLM-based method utilizing an adaptive hemodynamic response function (HRF). We sought the optimum temporal parameters to best explain the observed time series data during verbal fluency and naming tasks. The peak delay of the HRF was systematically changed to achieve the best-fit model for the observed oxy- and deoxy-Hb time series data. The optimized peak delay showed different values for each Hb signal and task. When the optimized peak delays were adopted, the deoxy-Hb data yielded comparable activations with similar statistical power and spatial patterns to oxy-Hb data. The adaptive HRF method could suitably explain the behaviors of both Hb parameters during tasks with the different cognitive loads during a time course, and thus would serve as an objective method to fully utilize the temporal structures of all fNIRS data. PMID:26157973

  15. Piecewise linear approximations to model the dynamics of adaptation to osmotic stress by food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Métris, Aline; George, Susie M; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-01-02

    Addition of salt to food is one of the most ancient and most common methods of food preservation. However, little is known of how bacterial cells adapt to such conditions. We propose to use piecewise linear approximations to model the regulatory adaptation of Escherichiacoli to osmotic stress. We apply the method to eight selected genes representing the functions known to be at play during osmotic adaptation. The network is centred on the general stress response factor, sigma S, and also includes a module representing the catabolic repressor CRP-cAMP. Glutamate, potassium and supercoiling are combined to represent the intracellular regulatory signal during osmotic stress induced by salt. The output is a module where growth is represented by the concentration of stable RNAs and the transcription of the osmotic gene osmY. The time course of gene expression of transport of osmoprotectant represented by the symporter proP and of the osmY is successfully reproduced by the network. The behaviour of the rpoS mutant predicted by the model is in agreement with experimental data. We discuss the application of the model to food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella; although the genes considered have orthologs, it seems that supercoiling is not regulated in the same way. The model is limited to a few selected genes, but the regulatory interactions are numerous and span different time scales. In addition, they seem to be condition specific: the links that are important during the transition from exponential to stationary phase are not all needed during osmotic stress. This model is one of the first steps towards modelling adaptation to stress in food safety and has scope to be extended to other genes and pathways, other stresses relevant to the food industry, and food-borne pathogens. The method offers a good compromise between systems of ordinary differential equations, which would be unmanageable because of the size of the system and for which insufficient data are available

  16. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  17. SU-C-207-05: A Comparative Study of Noise-Reduction Algorithms for Low-Dose Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S; Yao, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study different noise-reduction algorithms and to improve the image quality of low dose cone beam CT for patient positioning in radiation therapy. Methods: In low-dose cone-beam CT, the reconstructed image is contaminated with excessive quantum noise. In this study, three well-developed noise reduction algorithms namely, a) penalized weighted least square (PWLS) method, b) split-Bregman total variation (TV) method, and c) compressed sensing (CS) method were studied and applied to the images of a computer–simulated “Shepp-Logan” phantom and a physical CATPHAN phantom. Up to 20% additive Gaussian noise was added to the Shepp-Logan phantom. The CATPHAN phantom was scanned by a Varian OBI system with 100 kVp, 4 ms and 20 mA. For comparing the performance of these algorithms, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the denoised images was computed. Results: The algorithms were shown to have the potential in reducing the noise level for low-dose CBCT images. For Shepp-Logan phantom, an improvement of PSNR of 2 dB, 3.1 dB and 4 dB was observed using PWLS, TV and CS respectively, while for CATPHAN, the improvement was 1.2 dB, 1.8 dB and 2.1 dB, respectively. Conclusion: Penalized weighted least square, total variation and compressed sensing methods were studied and compared for reducing the noise on a simulated phantom and a physical phantom scanned by low-dose CBCT. The techniques have shown promising results for noise reduction in terms of PSNR improvement. However, reducing the noise without compromising the smoothness and resolution of the image needs more extensive research.

  18. Study of noise reduction characteristics of composite fiber-reinforced panels, interior panel configurations, and the application of the tuned damper concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lameris, J.; Stevenson, S.; Streeter, B.

    1982-01-01

    The application of fiber reinforced composite materials, such as graphite epoxy and Kevlar, for secondary or primary structures developing in the commercial airplane industry was investigated. A composite panel program was initiated to study the effects of some of the parameters that affect noise reduction of these panels. The fiber materials and the ply orientation were chosen to be variables in the test program. It was found that increasing the damping characteristics of a structural panel will reduce the vibration amplitudes at resonant frequencies with attendant reductions in sound reduction. Test results for a dynamic absorber, a tuned damper, are presented and evaluated.

  19. Assessment Methods for Personal Active Noise Reduction Validated in an International Round Robin (Methodes d’evaluation des protecteurs auditifs a attenuation active du bruit)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    peuvent aussi se comporter de façon non linéaire aux niveaux élevés. De ce fait, les méthodes d’évaluation standard (méthode subjective de mesure des... programmes Ear protectors Helicopters Helmets Human factors engineering Military aircraft Noise (sound) Noise reduction Protective equipment...Virginia 2216 STAR est édité par CASI dans le cadre du programme ETATS-UNIS NASA d’information scientifique et technique (STI) (accessible également

  20. Integer-Linear-Programing Optimization in Scalable Video Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chaewoo

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm. PMID:25276862

  1. Integer-linear-programing optimization in scalable video multicast with adaptive modulation and coding in wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongyul; Lee, Chaewoo

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.

  2. The effect of dose reduction and feasibility of edge-preserving noise reduction on the detection of liver lesions using MSCT.

    PubMed

    Wessling, Johannes; Esseling, Rainer; Raupach, Rainer; Fockenberg, Stefanie; Osada, Nani; Gerss, Joachim; Heindel, Walter; Fischbach, Roman

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dose reduction and the potential of noise reduction filters on image quality and the detection of liver lesions using MSCT. Twenty-nine patients with a total of 40 liver lesions underwent 16-slice CT (120 kV; 180 mAs). Virtual noise was added to CT raw datasets simulating effective mAs levels of 155, 130, 105, 80, 55, 30 and 10 mAs. All datasets were post-processed with an edge-preserving noise-reduction filter (ANR-3D), yielding a total of 15 datasets per patient. Ten radiologists performed independent evaluations of image quality, the presence of liver lesions and diagnostic confidence. Quantitative noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were obtained. Superior image quality (P < 0.02), reduction of image noise (P < 0.001) and the increase of lesion-to-liver CNR (P < 0.001) were observed in images processed with the ANR-3D filter. Sensitivity for lesion detection remained unchanged down to 105 mAs (CTDI(w) 6.6 mGy) without filter and 80 mAs (CTDI(w) 5.1 mGy) with ANR-3D. Confidence was rated significantly higher for datasets reconstructed with ANR-3D. The use of a noise-reducing, but edge-preserving filter (ANR-3D) is a promising option to reduce further the radiation dose in liver CT.

  3. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  4. Modifying the normalized covariance metric measure to account for nonlinear distortions introduced by noise-reduction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Hu, Yi

    2013-05-01

    In this study, two methods are proposed to modify the normalized covariance metric (NCM) measure to reduce the effects of gain-induced nonlinear distortions introduced by most noise-suppression algorithms. Considering that the gain-induced distortions behave differently dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio between the noise-reduced speech and the noise, the first approach introduces a penalty factor involving this ratio in the modified NCM measure. The second approach deemphasizes segments marked with amplification distortions that contribute less to intelligibility via adaptive thresholding. Significantly higher correlations with intelligibility scores were obtained from the modified NCM measures compared with the original NCM measures.

  5. Acoustic plane waves normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct. [to explain noise reduction curves for reducing interior noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unz, H.; Roskam, J.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of acoustic plane wave normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct is developed. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the acoustic wave propagation in infinite space and in the rectangular duct is considered. The partial differential equation which governs the vibration of the panel (plate) is modified by adding to its stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces, and the fundamental resonance frequency and the attenuation factor are discussed. The noise reduction expression based on the theory is found to agree well with the corresponding experimental data of a sample aluminum panel in the mass controlled region, the damping controlled region, and the stiffness controlled region. All the frequency positions of the upward and downward resonance spikes in the sample experimental data are identified theoretically as resulting from four cross interacting major resonance phenomena: the cavity resonance, the acoustic resonance, the plate resonance, and the wooden back panel resonance.

  6. Meeting 2006, outdoor noise directive (OND) noise levels for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, David F.

    2005-09-01

    In January 2006, the noise limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``Noise Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor Noise Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing noise on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the noise reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND noise limit of 100 LwA.

  7. TH-A-18C-03: Noise Correlation in CBCT Projection Data and Its Application for Noise Reduction in Low-Dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, H; Huang, J; Ma, J; Chen, W; Ouyang, L; Wang, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the noise correlation properties of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data and to incorporate the noise correlation information to a statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT. Methods: In this study, we systematically investigated the noise correlation properties among detector bins of CBCT projection data by analyzing repeated projection measurements. The measurements were performed on a TrueBeam on-board CBCT imaging system with a 4030CB flat panel detector. An anthropomorphic male pelvis phantom was used to acquire 500 repeated projection data at six different dose levels from 0.1 mAs to 1.6 mAs per projection at three fixed angles. To minimize the influence of the lag effect, lag correction was performed on the consecutively acquired projection data. The noise correlation coefficient between detector bin pairs was calculated from the corrected projection data. The noise correlation among CBCT projection data was then incorporated into the covariance matrix of the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT. Results: The analyses of the repeated measurements show that noise correlation coefficients are non-zero between the nearest neighboring bins of CBCT projection data. The average noise correlation coefficients for the first- and second- order neighbors are about 0.20 and 0.06, respectively. The noise correlation coefficients are independent of the dose level. Reconstruction of the pelvis phantom shows that the PWLS criterion with consideration of noise correlation (PWLS-Cor) results in a lower noise level as compared to the PWLS criterion without considering the noise correlation (PWLS-Dia) at the matched resolution. Conclusion: Noise is correlated among nearest neighboring detector bins of CBCT projection data. An accurate noise model of CBCT projection data can improve the performance of the statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for low

  8. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools—Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Konstanze; Scharf, Thomas; Baumann, Uwe; Groneberg, David A.; Bundschuh, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. Methods: This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax) as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam) were investigated. Results: The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of “metal grid” (90.71 dB) or of a woven willow “basket” (91.61 dB), whereas a case of “aluminium” (103.34 dB) generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs “metal grid” and “basket”. The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (−13.88 dB) and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. Conclusion: The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven “basket” with an insert of PU-foam. PMID:27384575

  9. Analysing the mechanical performance and growth adaptation of Norway spruce using a non-linear finite-element model and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Lundström, T; Jonas, T; Volkwein, A

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] trees of different size, age, and social status, and grown under varying conditions, were investigated to see how they react to complex natural static loading under summer and winter conditions, and how they have adapted their growth to such combinations of load and tree state. For this purpose a non-linear finite-element model and an extensive experimental data set were used, as well as a new formulation describing the degree to which the exploitation of the bending stress capacity is uniform. The three main findings were: material and geometric non-linearities play important roles when analysing tree deflections and critical loads; the strengths of the stem and the anchorage mutually adapt to the local wind acting on the tree crown in the forest canopy; and the radial stem growth follows a mechanically high-performance path because it adapts to prevailing as well as acute seasonal combinations of the tree state (e.g. frozen or unfrozen stem and anchorage) and load (e.g. wind and vertical and lateral snow pressure). Young trees appeared to adapt to such combinations in a more differentiated way than older trees. In conclusion, the mechanical performance of the Norway spruce studied was mostly very high, indicating that their overall growth had been clearly influenced by the external site- and tree-specific mechanical stress.

  10. Electricity Consumption in the Industrial Sector of Jordan: Application of Multivariate Linear Regression and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samhouri, M.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Fouad, R. H.

    2009-08-01

    In this study two techniques, for modeling electricity consumption of the Jordanian industrial sector, are presented: (i) multivariate linear regression and (ii) neuro-fuzzy models. Electricity consumption is modeled as function of different variables such as number of establishments, number of employees, electricity tariff, prevailing fuel prices, production outputs, capacity utilizations, and structural effects. It was found that industrial production and capacity utilization are the most important variables that have significant effect on future electrical power demand. The results showed that both the multivariate linear regression and neuro-fuzzy models are generally comparable and can be used adequately to simulate industrial electricity consumption. However, comparison that is based on the square root average squared error of data suggests that the neuro-fuzzy model performs slightly better for future prediction of electricity consumption than the multivariate linear regression model. Such results are in full agreement with similar work, using different methods, for other countries.

  11. Teacher Conceptions, Curriculum Ideologies, and Adaptations to Linear Change in River School District: Implications for Gifted and Talented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William T., Jr.; Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum ideologies are educational theories applied in everyday pedagogical practice. In this study, to better meet the learning needs of their students, four middle school teachers used a variety of ideologies as a professional toolbox. When confronted with school district standardization, these teachers adapted; however, as predicted by…

  12. Program on ground test of modified quiet, clean, JT3D and JT8D turbofan engines in their respective nacelles. [modification of Boeing 707, 727, and 737 aircraft for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A program to reduce the community noise levels of commercial jet aircraft is summarized. The program objective is the development of three acoustically treated nacelle configurations for the 707, 727, and 737 series aircraft to provide maximum noise reduction with minimum performance loss, modification requirements, and economic impact. The preliminary design, model testing, data analyses, and economic studies of proposed nacelle configurations are discussed.

  13. Development of flank wear model of cutting tool by using adaptive feedback linear control system on machining AISI D2 steel and AISI 4340 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orra, Kashfull; Choudhury, Sounak K.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build an adaptive feedback linear control system to check the variation of cutting force signal to improve the tool life. The paper discusses the use of transfer function approach in improving the mathematical modelling and adaptively controlling the process dynamics of the turning operation. The experimental results shows to be in agreement with the simulation model and error obtained is less than 3%. The state space approach model used in this paper successfully check the adequacy of the control system through controllability and observability test matrix and can be transferred from one state to another by appropriate input control in a finite time. The proposed system can be implemented to other machining process under varying range of cutting conditions to improve the efficiency and observability of the system.

  14. An adaptive panoramic filter bank as a qualitative model of the filtering system of the cochlea: the peculiarities in linear and nonlinear mode.

    PubMed

    Stasiunas, Antanas; Verikas, Antanas; Bacauskiene, Marija; Miliauskas, Rimvydas

    2012-03-01

    Outer hair cells in the cochlea of the ear, together with the local structures of the basilar membrane, reticular lamina and tectorial membrane constitute the adaptive primary filters (PF) of the second order. We used them for designing a serial-parallel signal filtering system. We determined a rational number of the PF included in Gaussian channels of the system, summation weights of the output signals, and distribution of the PF along the basilar membrane. A Gaussian panoramic filter bank each channel of which consists of five PF is presented as an example. The properties of the PF, the channel and the filter bank operating in the linear and nonlinear modes are determined during adaptation and under efferent control. The results suggest that application of biological filtering principles can be useful for designing cochlear implants with new speech encoding strategies.

  15. HARLIE 3-D Aerosol Backscatter and Wind Profile Measurements During Recent Field Experiments: Background Noise Reduction with a Fabry-Perot Etalon Filter in the HARLIE System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Egbert, Cameron; Anderson, Mark; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Background noise reduction of War signals is one of the most important factors in achieving better signal to noise ratio and precise atmospheric data from Mar measurements. Fahey Perot etalons have been used in several lidar systems as narrow band pass filters in the reduction of scattered sunlight. An slalom with spectral bandwidth, (Delta)v=0.23/cm, free spectral range, FSR=6.7/cm, and diameter, d=24mm was installed in a fiber coupled box which included a 500 pm bandwidth interference Filter. The slalom box couples the telescope and detector with 200 pm core fibers and 21 mm focal length collimators. The angular magnification is M=48. The etalon box was inserted into the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) system and tested during the HARGLO-2 intercomparison campaign conducted in November 2001 at Wallops Island, Virginia. This paper presents the preliminary test results of the slalom and a complete analysis will be presented at the conference.

  16. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent and 12-Lobed E(exp 3) Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salikuddin, M.; Babbit, R. R.; Shin, H.; Wisler, S.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this report has been funded by NASA Glenn Research Center as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) initiative. The program operates under the Large Engine Technologies (LET) as Task Order #3 1. Task Order 31 is a three year research program divided into three subtasks. Subtask A develops the experimental acoustic and aerodynamic subsonic mixed flow exhaust system databases. Subtask B seeks to develop and assess CFD-based aero-acoustic methods for subsonic mixed flow exhaust systems. Subtask B relies on the data obtained from Subtask A to direct and calibrate the aero-acoustic methods development. Subtask C then seeks to utilize both the aero-acoustic data bases developed in Subtask A and the analytical methods developed in Subtask B to define improved subsonic mixed-flow exhaust systems. The mixed flow systems defined in Subtask C will be experimentally demonstrated for improved noise reduction in a scale model aero-acoustic test conducted similarly to the test performed in Subtask A. The overall object of this Task Order is to develop and demonstrate the technology to define a -3EPNdB exhaust system relative to 1992 exhaust system technology.

  17. Nonlinear complex diffusion approaches based on a novel noise estimation for noise reduction in phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear diffusion processes have been widely used for image denoising. In the traditional nonlinear anisotropic diffusion denoising techniques, behavior of the diffusion depends highly on the gradient of image. However, it is difficult to get a good effect if we use these methods to reduce noise in optical coherence tomography images. Because background has the gradient that is very similar to regions of interest, so background noise will be mistaken for edge information and cannot be reduced. Therefore, nonlinear complex diffusion approaches using texture feature(NCDTF) for noise reduction in phase-resolved optical coherence tomography is proposed here, which uses texture feature in OCT images and structural OCT images to remove noise in phase-resolved OCT. Taking into account the fact that texture between background and signal region is different, which can be linked with diffusion coefficient of nonlinear complex diffusion model, we use NCDTF method to reduce noises of structure and phase images first. Then, we utilize OCT structure images to filter phase image in OCT. Finally, to validate our method, parameters such as image SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL), and edge preservation were compared between our approach and median filter, Gaussian filter, wavelet filter, nonlinear complex diffusion filter (NCDF). Preliminary results demonstrate that NCDTF method is more effective than others in keeping edges and denoising for phase-resolved OCT.

  18. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  19. Noise Reduction Through Circulation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.; Englar, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Circulation control technology uses tangential blowing around a rounded trailing edge or a leading edge to change the force and moment characteristics of an aerodynamic body. This technology has been applied to circular cylinders, wings, helicopter rotors, and even to automobiles for improved aerodynamic performance. Only limited research has been conducted on the acoustic of this technology. Since wing flaps contribute to the environmental noise of an aircraft, an alternate blown high lift system without complex mechanical flaps could prove beneficial in reducing the noise of an approaching aircraft. Thus, in this study, a direct comparison of the acoustic characteristics of high lift systems employing a circulation control wing configuration and a conventional wing flapped configuration has been made. These results indicate that acoustically, a circulation control wing high lift system could be considerably more acceptable than a wing with conventional mechanical flaps.

  20. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  1. Television noise-reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamps, J. C.; Gordon, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    System greatly improves signal-to-noise ratio with little or no loss in picture resolution. By storage of luminance component, which is summed with chrominance component, system performs mathematical integration of basically-repetitive television signals. Integration of signals over interval of their repetition causes little change in original signals and eliminates random noise.

  2. Four-dimensional noise reduction using the time series of medical computed tomography datasets with short interval times: a static-phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Tani, Wakiko; Suehiro, Erina; Negi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds. This study examines the hypothesis that four-dimensional noise reduction (4DNR) with short interval times reduces noise in cardiac computed tomography (CCT) using “padding” phases. Furthermore, the capability of reducing the reduction dose in CCT using this post-processing technique was assessed. Methods. Using base and quarter radiation doses for CCT (456 and 114 mAs/rot with 120 kVp), a static phantom was scanned ten times with retrospective electrocardiogram gating, and 4DNR with short interval times (50 ms) was performed using a post-processing technique. Differences in the computed tomography (CT) attenuation, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution with modulation transfer function in each dose image obtained with and without 4DNR were assessed by conducting a Tukey–Kramer’s test and non-inferiority test. Results. For the base dose, by using 4DNR, the CNR was improved from 1.18 ± 0.15 to 2.08 ± 0.20 (P = 0.001), while the CT attenuation and spatial resolution of the image of 4DNR did not were significantly inferior to those of reference image (P < 0.001). CNRs of the quarter-dose image in 4DNR also improved to 1.28 ± 0.11, and were not inferior to those of the non-4DNR images of the base dose (P < 0.001). Conclusions. 4DNR with short interval times significantly reduced noise. Furthermore, applying this method to CCT would have the potential of reducing the radiation dose by 75%, while maintaining a similar image noise level. PMID:26893966

  3. Adaptive marginal median filter for colour images.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Samuel; Gregori, Valentín; Sapena, Almanzor

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new filter for impulse noise reduction in colour images which is aimed at improving the noise reduction capability of the classical vector median filter. The filter is inspired by the application of a vector marginal median filtering process over a selected group of pixels in each filtering window. This selection, which is based on the vector median, along with the application of the marginal median operation constitutes an adaptive process that leads to a more robust filter design. Also, the proposed method is able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter.

  4. A new highly adaptable design of shear-flow device for orientation of macromolecules for Linear Dichroism (LD) measurement.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, P Johan; Kitts, Catherine C; Nordén, Bengt

    2011-08-21

    This article presents a new design of flow-orientation device for the study of bio-macromolecules, including DNA and protein complexes, as well as aggregates such as amyloid fibrils and liposome membranes, using Linear Dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. The design provides a number of technical advantages that should make the device inexpensive to manufacture, easier to use and more reliable than existing techniques. The degree of orientation achieved is of the same order of magnitude as that of the commonly used concentric cylinders Couette flow cell, however, since the device exploits a set of flat strain-free quartz plates, a number of problems associated with refraction and birefringence of light are eliminated, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of measurement. The device provides similar shear rates to those of the Couette cell but is superior in that the shear rate is constant across the gap. Other major advantages of the design is the possibility to change parts and vary sample volume and path length easily and at a low cost.

  5. A Combination of Spatial and Recursive Temporal Filtering for Noise Reduction when Using Region of Interest (ROI) Fluoroscopy for Patient Dose Reduction in Image Guided Vascular Interventions with Significant Anatomical Motion

    PubMed Central

    Nagesh, S.V. Setlur; Khobragade, P.; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D.R; Rudin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bio-prosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions. PMID:26900203

  6. A Combination of Spatial and Recursive Temporal Filtering for Noise Reduction when Using Region of Interest (ROI) Fluoroscopy for Patient Dose Reduction in Image Guided Vascular Interventions with Significant Anatomical Motion.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, S V Setlur; Khobragade, P; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2015-02-21

    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bio-prosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions.

  7. A combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering for noise reduction when using region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy for patient dose reduction in image guided vascular interventions with significant anatomical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Khobragade, P.; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bioprosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions.

  8. White noise analysis of pace-maker-response interactions and non-linearities in slowly adapting crayfish stretch receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Buño, W; Bustamante, J; Fuentes, J

    1984-01-01

    Input-output relations were investigated in the slowly adapting stretch receptor organ of crayfish using a Gaussian white noise length input with a 0.03-12.5 Hz band width and the resulting action potential output. The noise input was presented to the de-efferented receptor in situ, at three mean elongations and at four different amplitudes. The three mean elongations were set within the normal range in vivo, two at the extremes close to the minimum and maximum physiological lengths and the other in the mid-range. With white noise inputs there is a finite probability that the system will be tested in all possible conditions within the chosen band width because white noise has the advantage that it contains, with a finite probability, all possible stimulus wave forms at random. The analysis indicated similarities between the effects of the input variables, namely white noise amplitude and mean elongation. With low input variables the activity was periodic. With larger inputs, impulse rates were higher and irregular. The average length trajectories leading to a spike (i.e. the average stimulus) were either biphasic with high inputs or multiphasic and periodic with lower input variables. The frequency of periodicity increased with mean elongation. Although for a given length and noise amplitude a variety of individual length trajectories preceded spikes, the final biphasic shortening-lengthening average stimulus sequence before a spike was similar in all cases irrespective of the input variables. The number of possible trajectories decreased with increments in the input variables. The standard deviation of length values for each average stimulus was computed and displayed as a function of time relative to the spike. It was first constant, and decreased gradually to a minimum value at the spike reference. Standard deviation values were lower for higher white noise amplitudes and mean elongation. Simple, short-lasting stimulus wave forms in the white noise were isolated

  9. Robust model reference adaptive output feedback tracking for uncertain linear systems with actuator fault based on reinforced dead-zone modification.

    PubMed

    Bagherpoor, H M; Salmasi, Farzad R

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, robust model reference adaptive tracking controllers are considered for Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) linear systems containing modeling uncertainties, unknown additive disturbances and actuator fault. Two new lemmas are proposed for both SISO and MIMO, under which dead-zone modification rule is improved such that the tracking error for any reference signal tends to zero in such systems. In the conventional approach, adaption of the controller parameters is ceased inside the dead-zone region which results tracking error, while preserving the system stability. In the proposed scheme, control signal is reinforced with an additive term based on tracking error inside the dead-zone which results in full reference tracking. In addition, no Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) unit is needed in the proposed approach. Closed loop system stability and zero tracking error are proved by considering a suitable Lyapunov functions candidate. It is shown that the proposed control approach can assure that all the signals of the close loop system are bounded in faulty conditions. Finally, validity and performance of the new schemes have been illustrated through numerical simulations of SISO and MIMO systems in the presence of actuator faults, modeling uncertainty and output disturbance.

  10. Improved dose calculation accuracy for low energy brachytherapy by optimizing dual energy CT imaging protocols for noise reduction using sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Landry, Guillaume; Gaudreault, Mathieu; van Elmpt, Wouter; Wildberger, Joachim E; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the noise reduction achievable from dual energy computed tomography (CT) imaging (DECT) using filtered backprojection (FBP) and iterative image reconstruction algorithms combined with increased imaging exposure. We evaluated the data in the context of imaging for brachytherapy dose calculation, where accurate quantification of electron density ρe and effective atomic number Zeff is beneficial. A dual source CT scanner was used to scan a phantom containing tissue mimicking inserts. DECT scans were acquired at 80 kVp/140Sn kVp (where Sn stands for tin filtration) and 100 kVp/140Sn kVp, using the same values of the CT dose index CTDIvol for both settings as a measure for the radiation imaging exposure. Four CTDIvol levels were investigated. Images were reconstructed using FBP and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with strength 1,3 and 5. From DECT scans two material quantities were derived, Zeff and ρe. DECT images were used to assign material types and the amount of improperly assigned voxels was quantified for each protocol. The dosimetric impact of improperly assigned voxels was evaluated with Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for an (125)I source in numerical phantoms. Standard deviations for Zeff and ρe were reduced up to a factor ∼2 when using SAFIRE with strength 5 compared to FBP. Standard deviations on Zeff and ρe as low as 0.15 and 0.006 were achieved for the muscle insert representing typical soft tissue using a CTDIvol of 40 mGy and 3mm slice thickness. Dose calculation accuracy was generally improved when using SAFIRE. Mean (maximum absolute) dose errors of up to 1.3% (21%) with FBP were reduced to less than 1% (6%) with SAFIRE at a CTDIvol of 10 mGy. Using a CTDIvol of 40mGy and SAFIRE yielded mean dose calculation errors of the order of 0.6% which was the MC dose calculation precision in this study and no error was larger than ±2.5% as opposed to errors of up to -4% with FPB. This

  11. MR images restoration with the use of fuzzy filter having adaptive membership parameters.

    PubMed

    Güler, I; Toprak, A; Demirhan, A; Karakiş, R

    2008-06-01

    A new fuzzy adaptive median filter is presented for the noise reduction of magnetic resonance images corrupted with heavy impulse (salt and pepper) noise. In this paper, we have proposed a Fuzzy Adaptive Median Filter with Adaptive Membership Parameters (FAMFAMP) for removing highly corrupted salt and pepper noise, with preserving image edges and details. The FAMFAMP filter is an improved version of Adaptive Median Filter (AMF) and is presented in the aim of noise reduction of images corrupted with additive impulse noise. The proposed filter can preserve image details better than AMF while suppressing additive salt and pepper or impulse type noise. In this paper, we placed our preference on bell-shaped membership function with adaptive parameters instead of triangular membership function without variable coefficients in order to observe better results.

  12. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  13. Bones' adaptive response to mechanical loading is essentially linear between the low strains associated with disuse and the high strains associated with the lamellar/woven bone transition.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Meakin, Lee B; Browne, William J; Galea, Gabriel L; Price, Joanna S; Lanyon, Lance E

    2012-08-01

    There is a widely held view that the relationship between mechanical loading history and adult bone mass/strength includes an adapted state or "lazy zone" where the bone mass/strength remains constant over a wide range of strain magnitudes. Evidence to support this theory is circumstantial. We investigated the possibility that the "lazy zone" is an artifact and that, across the range of normal strain experience, features of bone architecture associated with strength are linearly related in size to their strain experience. Skeletally mature female C57BL/6 mice were right sciatic neurectomized to minimize natural loading in their right tibiae. From the fifth day, these tibiae were subjected to a single period of external axial loading (40, 10-second rest interrupted cycles) on alternate days for 2 weeks, with a peak dynamic load magnitude ranging from 0 to 14 N (peak strain magnitude: 0-5000 µε) and a constant loading rate of 500 N/s (maximum strain rate: 75,000 µε/s). The left tibiae were used as internal controls. Multilevel regression analyses suggest no evidence of any discontinuity in the progression of the relationships between peak dynamic load and three-dimensional measures of bone mass/strength in both cortical and cancellous regions. These are essentially linear between the low-peak locomotor strains associated with disuse (∼300 µε) and the high-peak strains derived from artificial loading and associated with the lamellar/woven bone transition (∼5000 µε). The strain:response relationship and minimum effective strain are site-specific, probably related to differences in the mismatch in strain distribution between normal and artificial loading at the locations investigated.

  14. Null steering of adaptive beamforming using linear constraint minimum variance assisted by particle swarm optimization, dynamic mutated artificial immune system, and gravitational search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program.

  15. Linear force device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, John P.

    1988-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a mechanical force actuator which is lightweight and manipulatable and utilizes linear motion for push or pull forces while maintaining a constant overall length. The mechanical force producing mechanism comprises a linear actuator mechanism and a linear motion shaft mounted parallel to one another. The linear motion shaft is connected to a stationary or fixed housing and to a movable housing where the movable housing is mechanically actuated through actuator mechanism by either manual means or motor means. The housings are adapted to releasably receive a variety of jaw or pulling elements adapted for clamping or prying action. The stationary housing is adapted to be pivotally mounted to permit an angular position of the housing to allow the tool to adapt to skewed interfaces. The actuator mechanisms is operated by a gear train to obtain linear motion of the actuator mechanism.

  16. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  17. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  18. The Bitonic Filter: Linear Filtering in an Edge-preserving Morphological Framework.

    PubMed

    Treece, Graham

    2016-09-02

    A new filter is presented which has better edge and detail preserving properties than a median, noise reduction capability similar to a Gaussian, and is applicable to many signal and noise types. It is built on a definition of signal as bitonic, i.e. containing only one local maxima or minima within the filter range. This definition is based on data ranking rather than value, hence the bitonic filter comprises a combination of non-linear morphological and linear operators. It has no data-level-sensitive parameters and can locally adapt to the signal and noise levels in an image, precisely preserving both smooth and discontinuous signals of any level when there is no noise, but also reducing noise in other areas without creating additional artefactual noise. Both the basis and the performance of the filter are examined in detail, and it is shown to be a significant improvement on the Gaussian and median. It is also compared over various noisy images to the image-guided filter, anisotropic diffusion, non-local means, the grain filter, and self-dual forms of levelling and rank filters. In terms of signal-to-noise, the bitonic filter outperforms all these except non-local means, and sometimes anisotropic diffusion. However it gives good visual results in all circumstances, with characteristics which make it appropriate particularly for signals or images with varying noise, or features at varying levels. The bitonic has very few parameters, does not require optimisation nor prior knowledge of noise levels, does not have any problems with stability, and is reasonably fast to implement. Despite its non-linearity, it hence represents a very practical operation with general applicability.

  19. The Bitonic Filter: Linear Filtering in an Edge-Preserving Morphological Framework.

    PubMed

    Treece, Graham

    2016-11-01

    A new filter is presented which has better edge and detail preserving properties than a median, noise reduction capability similar to a Gaussian, and is applicable to many signal and noise types. It is built on a definition of signal as bitonic, i.e., containing only one local maxima or minima within the filter range. This definition is based on data ranking rather than value; hence, the bitonic filter comprises a combination of non-linear morphological and linear operators. It has no data-level-sensitive parameters and can locally adapt to the signal and noise levels in an image, precisely preserving both smooth and discontinuous signals of any level when there is no noise, but also reducing noise in other areas without creating additional artifactual noise. Both the basis and the performance of the filter are examined in detail, and it is shown to be a significant improvement on the Gaussian and median. It is also compared over various noisy images to the image-guided filter, anisotropic diffusion, non-local means, the grain filter, and self-dual forms of leveling and rank filters. In terms of signal-to-noise, the bitonic filter outperforms all these except non-local means, and sometimes anisotropic diffusion. However, it gives good visual results in all circumstances, with characteristics which make it appropriate particularly for signals or images with varying noise, or features at varying levels. The bitonic has very few parameters, does not require optimization nor prior knowledge of noise levels, does not have any problems with stability, and is reasonably fast to implement. Despite its non-linearity, it hence represents a very practical operation with general applicability.

  20. Adaptive denoising and multiscale detection of the V wave in brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Popescu, M; Papadimitriou, S; Karamitsos, D; Bezerianos, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a wavelet-transform-based system for the V wave identification in brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The system combines signal denoising and rule-based localization modules. The signal denoising module has the potential of effective noise reduction after signal averaging. It analyses adaptively the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales. The singularities of the signal create wavelet maxima with different properties from those of the induced noise. A non-linear filtering process implemented with a neural network extracts out the noise-induced maxima. The filtered wavelet details are subsequently analysed by the rule-based localization module for the automatic identification of the V wave. In the first phase, it implements a set of statistical observations as well as heuristic criteria used by human experts in order to classify the IV-V complex. At the second phase, using a multiscale focusing algorithm, the IV and V waves are positioned on the BAEP signal. Our experiments revealed that the system provides accurate results even for signals exhibiting unclear IV-V complexes.

  1. Facilitating Joint Chaos and Fractal Analysis of Biosignals through Nonlinear Adaptive Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianbo; Hu, Jing; Tung, Wen-wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Chaos and random fractal theories are among the most important for fully characterizing nonlinear dynamics of complicated multiscale biosignals. Chaos analysis requires that signals be relatively noise-free and stationary, while fractal analysis demands signals to be non-rhythmic and scale-free. Methodology/Principal Findings To facilitate joint chaos and fractal analysis of biosignals, we present an adaptive algorithm, which: (1) can readily remove nonstationarities from the signal, (2) can more effectively reduce noise in the signals than linear filters, wavelet denoising, and chaos-based noise reduction techniques; (3) can readily decompose a multiscale biosignal into a series of intrinsically bandlimited functions; and (4) offers a new formulation of fractal and multifractal analysis that is better than existing methods when a biosignal contains a strong oscillatory component. Conclusions The presented approach is a valuable, versatile tool for the analysis of various types of biological signals. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by offering new important insights into brainwave dynamics and the very high accuracy in automatically detecting epileptic seizures from EEG signals. PMID:21915312

  2. Penalized weighted least-squares approach to sinogram noise reduction and image reconstruction for low-dose X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Tianfang; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-10-01

    Reconstructing low-dose X-ray computed tomography (CT) images is a noise problem. This work investigated a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) approach to address this problem in two dimensions, where the WLS considers first- and second-order noise moments and the penalty models signal spatial correlations. Three different implementations were studied for the PWLS minimization. One utilizes a Markov random field (MRF) Gibbs functional to consider spatial correlations among nearby detector bins and projection views in sinogram space and minimizes the PWLS cost function by iterative Gauss-Seidel algorithm. Another employs Karhunen-Loève (KL) transform to de-correlate data signals among nearby views and minimizes the PWLS adaptively to each KL component by analytical calculation, where the spatial correlation among nearby bins is modeled by the same Gibbs functional. The third one models the spatial correlations among image pixels in image domain also by a MRF Gibbs functional and minimizes the PWLS by iterative successive over-relaxation algorithm. In these three implementations, a quadratic functional regularization was chosen for the MRF model. Phantom experiments showed a comparable performance of these three PWLS-based methods in terms of suppressing noise-induced streak artifacts and preserving resolution in the reconstructed images. Computer simulations concurred with the phantom experiments in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff and detectability in low contrast environment. The KL-PWLS implementation may have the advantage in terms of computation for high-resolution dynamic low-dose CT imaging.

  3. Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: Effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae.

    PubMed

    Straub, Shannon C K; Moore, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Liston, Aaron; Livshultz, Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    basis for study of convergent floral morphologies and their adaptive value.

  4. A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

  5. Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

  6. The influence of a prediction display on the quasi-linear describing function and remnant measured with an adaptive analog-pilot in a closed loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, D.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of a prediction display on the human transfer characteristics is explained with the aid of a quasi-linear model. The prediction display causes an increase of the gain factor and the lead factor, a diminishing of the lag factor and a decrease of the remnant. Altogether, these factors yield a smaller mean square value of the control deviation and a simultaneous decrease of the mean square value of the stick signal.

  7. Adaptive linear predictor FIR filter based on the Cyclone V FPGA with HPS to reduce narrow band RFI in AERA radio detection of cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew

    2015-07-01

    We present the new approach to a filtering of radio frequency interferences (RFI) in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) which study the electromagnetic part of the Extensive Air Showers. The radio stations can observe radio signals caused by coherent emissions due to geomagnetic radiation and charge excess processes. AERA observes frequency band from 30 to 80 MHz. This range is highly contaminated by human-made RFI. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio RFI filters are used in AERA to suppress this contamination. The first kind of filter used by AERA was the Median one, based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The second one, which is currently in use, is the infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter. The proposed new filter is a finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on a linear prediction (LP). A periodic contamination hidden in a registered signal (digitized in the ADC) can be extracted and next subtracted to make signal cleaner. The FIR filter requires a calculation of n=32, 64 or even 128 coefficients (dependent on a required speed or accuracy) by solving of n linear equations with coefficients built from the covariance Toeplitz matrix. This matrix can be solved by the Levinson recursion, which is much faster than the Gauss procedure. The filter has been already tested in the real AERA radio stations on Argentinean pampas with a very successful results. The linear equations were solved either in the virtual soft-core NIOSR processor (implemented in the FPGA chip as a net of logic elements) or in the external Voipac PXA270M ARM processor. The NIOS processor is relatively slow (50 MHz internal clock), calculations performed in an external processor consume a significant amount of time for data exchange between the FPGA and the processor. Test showed a very good efficiency of the RFI suppression for stationary (long-term) contaminations. However, we observed a short-time contaminations, which could not be suppressed either by the

  8. Adaptive noise Wiener filter for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Teh, V; Nia, M E

    2016-01-01

    Noise on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is studied. Gaussian noise is the most common type of noise in SEM image. We developed a new noise reduction filter based on the Wiener filter. We compared the performance of this new filter namely adaptive noise Wiener (ANW) filter, with four common existing filters as well as average filter, median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter and the Wiener filter. Based on the experiments results the proposed new filter has better performance on different noise variance comparing to the other existing noise removal filters in the experiments.

  9. Twin jet shielding. [for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cuffel, R. F.; Massier, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    For an over-the-wing/under-the-wing engine configuration on an airplane, the noise produced by the upper jet flow is partially reflected by the lower jet. An analysis has been performed which can be used to predict the distribution of perceived noise levels along the ground plane at take-off for an airplane which is designed to take advantage of the over/under shielding concept. Typical contours of PNL, the shielding benefit in the shadow zone, and the EPNL values at 3.5 nautical miles from brake release as well as EPNL values at sideline at 0.35 nautical miles have been calculated. This has been done for a range of flow parameters characteristic of engines producing inverted velocity profile jets suitable for use in a supersonic cruise vehicle. Reductions up to 6.0 EPNdB in community noise levels can be realized when the over engines are operated at higher thrust and the lower engines simultaneously operated with reduced thrust keeping the total thrust constant.

  10. Environmental noise reduction for holonomic quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Parodi, Daniele; Zanghi, Nino; Sassetti, Maura; Solinas, Paolo

    2007-07-15

    We study the performance of holonomic quantum gates, driven by lasers, under the effect of a dissipative environment modeled as a thermal bath of oscillators. We show how to enhance the performance of the gates by a suitable choice of the loop in the manifold of the controllable parameters of the laser. For a simplified, albeit realistic model, we find the surprising result that for a long time evolution the performance of the gate (properly estimated in terms of average fidelity) increases. On the basis of this result, we compare holonomic gates with the so-called stimulated raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) gates.

  11. Noise Reduction Methods for Weighing Lysimeters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical vibration of the grass and crop weighing lysimeters, located at the University of California West Side Field Research and Extension Station at Five Points, CA generated noise in lysimeter mass measurements and reduced the quality of evapotranspiration (ET) data. Two filtering methods for ...

  12. The challenges of lawnmower noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drutowski, Carol J.; Fetzer, Keith

    2005-09-01

    The European Noise Directive (2000/14/EC) became effective in the year 2000, limiting the allowable noise level for lawnmowers sold in the European Union. Noise level limits are based on cutting width. The Directive requires that manufacturers meet these limits and include statistical uncertainties, then declare their noise levels and have these results certified by an independent third party agency. There are two major challenges with this Directive. First by taking statistical uncertainties into account, this creates a limit lower than the published limit. Second is to lower the sound power level while still maintaining acceptable performance. The physical phenomena that generate the unwanted noise of a lawnmower are also used to perform work. For rotary lawnmowers, a dominant noise source is the cutting deck assembly, which is required to lift and cut grass, then dispose of the clippings. To cut grass with a good quality of cut appearance, the blades are required to turn at a very high tip speed to generate the necessary airflow. For lawnmowers, noise levels and unit performance are intrinsically linked. This has frustrated our industry for over 20 years.

  13. Noise reduction by dynamic signal preemphasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K.

    2011-02-01

    In this work we propose an approach to reduce the digitization noise for a given dynamic range, i.e., the number of bits, of an analog to digital converter used in an NMR receiver. In this approach, the receiver gain is dynamically increased so that the free induction decay is recorded in such an emphasized way that the decaying signal is digitized using as many number of bits as possible, and at the stage of data processing, the original signal profile is restored by applying the apodization that compensates the effect of the preemphasis. This approach, which we call APodization after Receiver gain InCrement during Ongoing sequence with Time (APRICOT), is performed in a solid-state system containing a pair of 13C spins, one of which is fully isotopically labeled and the other is naturally abundant. It is demonstrated that the exceedingly smaller peak buried in the digitization noise in the conventional approach can be revealed by employing APRICOT.

  14. Compression station upgrades include advanced noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, V.R.; Sherikar, S.

    1998-10-01

    Since its inception in the mid-`80s, AlintaGas` Dampier to Bunbury natural gas pipeline has been constantly undergoing a series of upgrades to boost capacity and meet other needs. Extending northward about 850 miles from near Perth to the northwest shelf, the 26-inch line was originally served by five compressor stations. In the 1989-91 period, three new compressor stations were added to increase capacity and a ninth station was added in 1997. Instead of using noise-path-treatment mufflers to reduce existing noise, it was decided to use noise-source-treatment technology to prevent noise creation in the first place. In the field, operation of these new noise-source treatment attenuators has been very quiet. If there was any thought earlier of guaranteed noise-level verification, it is not considered a priority now. It`s also anticipated that as AlintaGas proceeds with its pipeline and compressor station upgrade program, similar noise-source treatment equipment will be employed and retrofitted into older stations where the need to reduce noise and potential radiant-heat exposure is indicated.

  15. Phase Noise Reduction of Laser Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, T. C.; Poizat, J.-Ph.; Grelu, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Grangier, P.; Marin, F.; Bramati, A.; Jost, V.; Levenson, M. D.; Giacobino, E.

    1996-01-01

    Phase noise of single mode laser diodes, either free-running or using line narrowing technique at room temperature, namely injection-locking, has been investigated. It is shown that free-running diodes exhibit very large excess phase noise, typically more than 80 dB above shot-noise at 10 MHz, which can be significantly reduced by the above-mentioned technique.

  16. A novel PACU design for noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Smykowski, Lenore

    2008-08-01

    As redesign and renovation of patient care units occur, health care providers are looking to the literature and finding evidence for the importance of lowering environmental stressors. In the PACU at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, patients historically expressed dissatisfaction with excessive noise levels and frequently cited overhearing staff conversations as most troubling. Nurses found the noise stressful and wearing. When the time approached to design the new PACU, we took the opportunity to explore a unique floor plan to minimize noise and improve privacy.

  17. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  18. State space forecasting and noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Eubank, S.; Casdagli, M.; Farmer, J.D.; Gibson, J.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the effects of nonlinearity and noise on the problem of finding states and dynamics. We point out problems which arise in the construction of state space models for scalar time series. We describe solutions for the case when error due to noise dominates parameter estimation error and outline a framework for the general case.

  19. Noise Reduction in an Undergraduate Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Charles P.; Puglisi, Dawn D.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on program initiated to reduce noise in undergraduate library through combination of space reallocation, rule changes, and staff monitoring of noise. Objective and subjective measures of noise (sound-level readings, preintervention and postintervention questionnaires) and results of intervention program are discussed. Memo distributed on…

  20. Reactive Orthotropic Lattice Diffuser for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An orthotropic lattice structure interconnects porous surfaces of the flap with internal lattice-structured perforations to equalize the steady pressure field on the flap surfaces adjacent to the end and to reduce the amplitude of the fluctuations in the flow field near the flap end. The global communication that exists within all of the perforations provides the mechanism to lessen the pressure gradients experienced by the end portion of the flap. In addition to having diffusive effects (diffusing the incoming flow), the three-dimensional orthogonal lattice structure is also reactive (acoustic wave phase distortion) due to the interconnection of the perforations.

  1. Multipath noise reduction spread spectrum signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The concepts of early-prompt delay tracking, multipath correction of early-prompt delay tracking from correlation shape, and carrier phase multipath correction are addressed. In early-prompt delay tracking, since multipath is always delayed with respect to the direct signals, the system derives phase and pseudorange observables from earlier correlation lags. In multipath correction of early-prompt delay tracking from correlation shape, the system looks for relative variations of amplitude across the code correlation function that do not match the predicted multipath-free code cross-correlation shape. The system then uses deviations from the multipath-free shape to infer the magnitude of multipath, and to generate corrections pseudorange observables. In carrier phase multipath correction, the system looks for variations of phase among plural early and prompt lags. The system uses the measured phase variations, along with the general principle that the multipath errors are larger for later lags, to infer the presence of multipath, and to generate corrections for carrier-phase observables.

  2. Phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques using adaptive sliding mode control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangxi; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Xiaozhe; Wen, Bangchun; Wang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors (ERs) driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques is studied. Firstly, the electromechanical coupling model of the linear vibratory feeder is established by associating induction motor's model with the dynamic model of the system, which is a typical under actuated model. According to the characteristics of the linear vibratory feeder, the complex control problem of the under actuated electromechanical coupling model converts to phase and speed synchronization control of four ERs. In order to keep the four ERs operating synchronously with zero phase differences, phase and speed synchronization controllers are designed by employing adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm via a modified master-slave structure. The stability of the controllers is proved by Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed controllers are verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program and compared with the conventional sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm. The results show the proposed controllers can reject the time-varying load torques effectively and four ERs can operate synchronously with zero phase differences. Moreover, the control performance is better than the conventional SMC algorithm and the chattering phenomenon is attenuated. Furthermore, the effects of reference speed and parametric perturbations are discussed to show the strong robustness of the proposed controllers. Finally, experiments on a simple vibratory test bench are operated by using the proposed controllers and without control, respectively, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers further.

  3. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  4. An optimization of the FPGA/NIOS adaptive FIR filter using linear prediction to reduce narrow band RFI for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; Glas, Dariusz; Legumina, Remigiusz

    2013-12-01

    The electromagnetic part of an extensive air shower developing in the atmosphere provides significant information complementary to that obtained by water Cherenkov detectors which are predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. The emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 and 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently suppresses the RFI by multiple time-to-frequency domain conversions using an FFT procedure as well as by a set of manually chosen IIR notch filters in the time-domain. An alternative approach developed in this paper is an adaptive FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP). The coefficients for the linear predictor are dynamically refreshed and calculated in the virtual NIOS processor. The radio detector is an autonomous system installed on the Argentinean pampas and supplied from a solar panel. Powerful calculation capacity inside the FPGA is a factor. Power consumption versus the degree of effectiveness of the calculation inside the FPGA is a figure of merit to be minimized. Results show that the RFI contamination can be significantly suppressed by the LP FIR filter for 64 or less stages.

  5. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types.

  6. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  7. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  8. Computationally efficient video restoration for Nyquist sampled imaging sensors combining an affine-motion-based temporal Kalman filter and adaptive Wiener filter.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Michael; Hardie, Russell C; Barnard, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient video restoration algorithm to address both blur and noise for a Nyquist sampled imaging system. The proposed method utilizes a temporal Kalman filter followed by a correlation-model based spatial adaptive Wiener filter (AWF). The Kalman filter employs an affine background motion model and novel process-noise variance estimate. We also propose and demonstrate a new multidelay temporal Kalman filter designed to more robustly treat local motion. The AWF is a spatial operation that performs deconvolution and adapts to the spatially varying residual noise left in the Kalman filter stage. In image areas where the temporal Kalman filter is able to provide significant noise reduction, the AWF can be aggressive in its deconvolution. In other areas, where less noise reduction is achieved with the Kalman filter, the AWF balances the deconvolution with spatial noise reduction. In this way, the Kalman filter and AWF work together effectively, but without the computational burden of full joint spatiotemporal processing. We also propose a novel hybrid system that combines a temporal Kalman filter and BM3D processing. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods, we test the algorithms on both simulated imagery and video collected with a visible camera.

  9. Approach for Structurally Clearing an Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Lokos, William A.; Cruz, Josue; Crampton, Glen; Stephens, Craig A.; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap was flown on the NASA Gulfstream GIII test bed at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. This smoothly curving flap replaced the existing Fowler flaps creating a seamless control surface. This compliant structure, developed by FlexSys Inc. in partnership with Air Force Research Laboratory, supported NASA objectives for airframe structural noise reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, and wing weight reduction through gust load alleviation. A thorough structures airworthiness approach was developed to move this project safely to flight.

  10. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by adaptive total variation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Shi, Yaoyao; Liu, Youwen; He, Chongjun

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive total variation method based on the combination of speckle statistics and total variation restoration is proposed and developed for reducing speckle noise in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The statistical distribution of the speckle noise in OCT image is investigated and measured. With the measured parameters such as the mean value and variance of the speckle noise, the OCT image is restored by the adaptive total variation restoration method. The adaptive total variation restoration algorithm was applied to the OCT images of a volunteer's hand skin, which showed effective speckle noise reduction and image quality improvement. For image quality comparison, the commonly used median filtering method was also applied to the same images to reduce the speckle noise. The measured results demonstrate the superior performance of the adaptive total variation restoration method in terms of image signal-to-noise ratio, equivalent number of looks, contrast-to-noise ratio, and mean square error.

  11. An environment-adaptive management algorithm for hearing-support devices incorporating listening situation and noise type classifiers.

    PubMed

    Yook, Sunhyun; Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Heepyung; Hong, Sung Hwa; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide more consistent sound intelligibility for the hearing-impaired person, regardless of environment, it is necessary to adjust the setting of the hearing-support (HS) device to accommodate various environmental circumstances. In this study, a fully automatic HS device management algorithm that can adapt to various environmental situations is proposed; it is composed of a listening-situation classifier, a noise-type classifier, an adaptive noise-reduction algorithm, and a management algorithm that can selectively turn on/off one or more of the three basic algorithms-beamforming, noise-reduction, and feedback cancellation-and can also adjust internal gains and parameters of the wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) and noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in accordance with variations in environmental situations. Experimental results demonstrated that the implemented algorithms can classify both listening situation and ambient noise type situations with high accuracies (92.8-96.4% and 90.9-99.4%, respectively), and the gains and parameters of the WDRC and NR algorithms were successfully adjusted according to variations in environmental situation. The average values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), frequency-weighted segmental SNR, Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality, and mean opinion test scores of 10 normal-hearing volunteers of the adaptive multiband spectral subtraction (MBSS) algorithm were improved by 1.74 dB, 2.11 dB, 0.49, and 0.68, respectively, compared to the conventional fixed-parameter MBSS algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed environment-adaptive management algorithm can be applied to HS devices to improve sound intelligibility for hearing-impaired individuals in various acoustic environments.

  12. Improved Electrohydraulic Linear Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamtil, James

    2004-01-01

    A product line of improved electrohydraulic linear actuators has been developed. These actuators are designed especially for use in actuating valves in rocket-engine test facilities. They are also adaptable to many industrial uses, such as steam turbines, process control valves, dampers, motion control, etc. The advantageous features of the improved electrohydraulic linear actuators are best described with respect to shortcomings of prior electrohydraulic linear actuators that the improved ones are intended to supplant. The flow of hydraulic fluid to the two ports of the actuator cylinder is controlled by a servo valve that is controlled by a signal from a servo amplifier that, in turn, receives an analog position-command signal (a current having a value between 4 and 20 mA) from a supervisory control system of the facility. As the position command changes, the servo valve shifts, causing a greater flow of hydraulic fluid to one side of the cylinder and thereby causing the actuator piston to move to extend or retract a piston rod from the actuator body. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) directly linked to the piston provides a position-feedback signal, which is compared with the position-command signal in the servo amplifier. When the position-feedback and position-command signals match, the servo valve moves to its null position, in which it holds the actuator piston at a steady position.

  13. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  14. Linear Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

    These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. On the design and implementation of linear differential microphone arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingdong; Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Differential microphone array (DMA), a particular kind of sensor array that is responsive to the differential sound pressure field, has a broad range of applications in sound recording, noise reduction, signal separation, dereverberation, etc. Traditionally, an Nth-order DMA is formed by combining, in a linear manner, the outputs of a number of DMAs up to (including) the order of N - 1. This method, though simple and easy to implement, suffers from a number of drawbacks and practical limitations. This paper presents an approach to the design of linear DMAs. The proposed technique first transforms the microphone array signals into the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domain and then converts the DMA beamforming design to simple linear systems to solve. It is shown that this approach is much more flexible as compared to the traditional methods in the design of different directivity patterns. Methods are also presented to deal with the white noise amplification problem that is considered to be the biggest hurdle for DMAs, particularly higher-order implementations.

  16. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  17. Suppression of impulse noise in medical images with the use of Fuzzy Adaptive Median Filter.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Abdullah; Güler, Inan

    2006-12-01

    A new rule based fuzzy filter for removal of highly impulse noise, called Rule Based Fuzzy Adaptive Median (RBFAM) Filter, is aimed to be discussed in this paper. The RBFAM filter is an improved version of Adaptive Median Filter (AMF) and is presented in the aim of noise reduction of images corrupted with additive impulse noise. The filter has three stages. Two of those stages are fuzzy rule based and last stage is based on standard median and adaptive median filter. The proposed filter can preserve image details better then AMF while suppressing additive salt & pepper or impulse type noise. In this paper, we placed our preference on bell-shaped membership function instead of triangular membership function in order to observe better results. Experimental results indicates that the proposed filter is improvable with increased fuzzy rules to reduce more noise corrupted images and to remove salt and pepper noise in a more effective way than what AMF filter does.

  18. Real-time 3D adaptive filtering for portable imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often not able to run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore DSPs have been introduced that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms like 3D adaptive filtering, improving the image quality of portable medical imaging devices. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a digital signal processor (DSP) is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec.

  19. 3-D adaptive nonlinear complex-diffusion despeckling filter.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Bernardes, Rui

    2012-12-01

    This work aims to improve the process of speckle noise reduction while preserving edges and other relevant features through filter expansion from 2-D to 3-D. Despeckling is very important for data visual inspection and as a preprocessing step for other algorithms, as they are usually notably influenced by speckle noise. To that intent, a 3-D approach is proposed for the adaptive complex-diffusion filter. This 3-D iterative filter was applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography medical imaging volumes of the human retina and a quantitative evaluation of the results was performed to allow a demonstration of the better performance of the 3-D over the 2-D filtering and to choose the best total diffusion time. In addition, we propose a fast graphical processing unit parallel implementation so that the filter can be used in a clinical setting.

  20. Evaluation of a portable two-microphone adaptive beamforming speech processor with cochlear implant patients.

    PubMed

    van Hoesel, R J; Clark, G M

    1995-04-01

    A two-microphone noise reduction technique was tested with four cochlear implant patients. The noise reduction technique, known as adaptive beamforming (ABF), used signals from only two microphones--one behind each ear--to attenuate sounds not arriving from the direction directly in front of the patient. The algorithm was implemented in a portable digital signal processor, and was compared with a strategy in which the two microphone signals were simply added together (two-microphone broadside strategy). Tests with the four patients were conducted in a soundproof booth with target speech arriving from in front of the patient and multitalker babble noise arriving at 90 deg to the left. Results at 0-dB signal-to-noise level (S/N) showed large improvements in speech intelligibility for all patients, when compared to the two-microphone broadside strategy. Precautions were taken to avoid cancellation of the target speech, and, accordingly, subjective tests showed no deterioration in performance for the adaptive beamformer in quiet. Physical measurement of the directional characteristics of the ABF was made with the microphones placed behind the ears of a KEMAR manikin and in the same acoustic environment as used with the patients. Results showed directional gain of approximately 10 dB when the angle of incidence for interfering noise was shifted more than 20 to 30 deg from directly in front of or behind the manikin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)