Black branes on the linear dilaton background
Clement, Gerard; Leygnac, Cedric; Gal'tsov, Dmitri
2005-04-15
We show that the complete static black p-brane supergravity solution with a single charge contains two and only two branches with respect to behavior at infinity in the transverse space. One branch is the standard family of asymptotically flat black branes, and another is the family of black branes which asymptotically approach the linear dilaton background (LDB) with antisymmetric form flux. Such configurations were previously obtained in the near-horizon near-extreme limit of the dilatonic asymptotically flat p-branes, and used to describe the thermal phase of field theories involved in the domain wall (DW)/quantum field theory (QFT) dualities and the thermodynamics of little string theory in the case of the NS5-brane. Here we show by direct integration of the Einstein equations that the asymptotically LDB p-branes are indeed exact supergravity solutions, and we prove a new uniqueness theorem for static p-brane solutions satisfying cosmic censorship. In the nondilatonic case, our general nonasymptotically flat p-branes are black branes on the background AdS{sub p+2}xS{sup D-p-2} supported by the form flux. We develop the general formalism of quasilocal quantities for nonasymptotically flat supergravity solutions with antisymmetric form fields, and show that our solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also suggest a constructive procedure to derive rotating asymptotically LDB brane solutions.
Hawking radiation of massive vector particles from the linear dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun
2016-07-01
By using the tunneling formalism, we calculated the massive vector particles' Hawking radiation from the non-rotating and rotating linear dilaton black holes. By applying the WKB approximation to the Proca field equation that govern the dynamics of massive vector bosons, we derive the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted vector particles from the linear dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperatures of the linear dilaton black holes have been recovered, which are consistent with the previous results in the literature. This means that the vector particles' tunneling method can also be used in studying the Hawking radiation of asymptotically non-flat and non-AdS black holes.
Absorption cross-section and decay rate of rotating linear dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.; Aslan, O. A.
2016-02-01
We analytically study the scalar perturbation of non-asymptotically flat (NAF) rotating linear dilaton black holes (RLDBHs) in 4-dimensions. We show that both radial and angular wave equations can be solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The exact greybody factor (GF), the absorption cross-section (ACS), and the decay rate (DR) for the massless scalar waves are computed for these black holes (BHs). The results obtained for ACS and DR are discussed through graphs.
Charged rotating dilaton black strings
Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.
2005-02-15
In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.
Scalar field radiation from dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2012-12-01
We study radiation of scalar particles from charged dilaton black holes. The Hamilton-Jacobi method has been used to work out the tunneling probability of outgoing particles from the event horizon of dilaton black holes. For this purpose we use WKB approximation to solve the charged Klein-Gordon equation. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for these black holes as well.
Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Faizal, Mir; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes.
Charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in dilaton gravity
Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Matsuno, Ken; Sheykhi, Ahmad
2010-02-15
We obtain a class of slowly rotating charged Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions of the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling constant. At infinity, the spacetime is effectively four dimensional. In the absence of the squashing function, our solution reduces to the five-dimensional asymptotically flat slowly rotating charged dilaton black hole solution with two equal angular momenta. We calculate the mass, the angular momentum, and the gyromagnetic ratio of these rotating Kaluza-Klein dilaton black holes. It is shown that the dilaton field and the nontrivial asymptotic structure of the solutions modify the gyromagnetic ratio of the black holes. We also find that the gyromagnetic ratio crucially depends on the dilaton coupling constant, {alpha}, and decreases with increasing {alpha} for any size of the compact extra dimension.
Intersecting nonextreme p-branes and linear dilaton background
Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi
2005-08-15
We construct the general static solution to the supergravity action containing gravity, the dilaton and a set of antisymmetric forms describing the intersecting branes delocalized in the relative transverse dimensions. The solution is obtained by reducing the system to a set of separate Liouville equations (the intersection rules implying the separability); it contains the maximal number of free parameters corresponding to the rank of the differential equations. Imposing the requirement of the absence of naked singularities, we show that the general configurations are restricted to two and only two classes: the usual asymptotically flat intersecting branes, and the intersecting branes some of which are asymptotically flat and some approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. In both cases the configurations are black. These are supposed to be relevant for the description of the thermal phase of the QFT's in the corresponding Domain-Wall/QFT duality.
Extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rad, Masoud Sepehri; Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Matsuno, Ken; Sheykhi, Ahmad
2015-12-01
Motivated by considerable interests of Myers-Perry black holes, we employ the perturbative method to obtain a family of extremal charged rotating black hole solutions in odd dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity. We start with an extremal Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta, and then by adding the dilaton field and the nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics, we find an extremal nonlinearly charged rotating black holes. The perturbative parameter is assumed to be the electric charge q and the perturbations are performed up to the third order. We then study the physical properties of these Born-Infeld-dilaton black holes. In particular, we show that the perturbative parameter, q, the dilaton coupling constant, α, and the Born-Infeld parameter, β, modify the Smarr formula and the values of the gyromagnetic ratio of the extremal charged rotating black holes.
Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen
2011-04-15
We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.
Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.
2016-09-01
We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.
Tunneling Radiation of Massive Vector Bosons from Dilaton Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ran; Zhao, Jun-Kun; Wu, Xing-Hua
2016-07-01
It is well known that Hawking radiation can be treated as a quantum tunneling process of particles from the event horizon of black hole. In this paper, we attempt to apply the massive vector bosons tunneling method to study the Hawking radiation from the non-rotating and rotating dilaton black holes. Starting with the Proca field equation that govern the dynamics of massive vector bosons, we derive the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted vector bosons from the static spherical symmetric dilatonic black hole, the rotating Kaluza—Klein black hole, and the rotating Kerr—Sen black hole. Comparing the results with the blackbody spectrum, we satisfactorily reproduce the Hawking temperatures of these dilaton black holes, which are consistent with the previous results in the literature. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205048
Hawking Temperature of Dilaton Black Holes from Tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Ji-Rong; Li, Ran; Liu, Fei-Hu
Recently, it has been suggested that Hawking radiation can be derived from quantum tunneling methods. Here, we calculated Hawking temperature of dilatonic black holes from tunneling formalism. The two semiclassical methods adopted here are: the null-geodesic method proposed by Parikh and Wilczek and the Hamilton-Jacobi method proposed by Angheben et al. We apply the two methods to analyze the Hawking temperature of the static spherical symmetric dilatonic black hole, the rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole, and the rotating Kerr-Sen black hole.
Decay of Dirac hair around a dilaton black hole
Gibbons, Gary W.; Rogatko, Marek
2008-02-15
The intermediate and late-time behavior of a massive Dirac field in the background of static spherically symmetric dilaton black hole solutions is investigated. The intermediate asymptotic behavior of a massive Dirac field depends on the mass parameter as well as the wave number of the mode, while the late-time behavior has a power-law decay rate independent of both.
Topology, entropy, and Witten index of dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbons, G. W.; Kallosh, R. E.
1995-03-01
We have found that for extreme dilaton black holes an inner boundary must be introduced in addition to the outer boundary to give an integer value to the Euler number. The resulting manifolds have (if one identifies imaginary time) a topology S1×R×S2 and Euler number χ=0 in contrast with the nonextreme case with χ=2. The entropy of extreme U(1) dilaton black holes is already known to be zero. We include a review of some recent ideas due to Hawking on the Reissner-Nordström case. By regarding all extreme black holes as having an inner boundary, we conclude that the entropy of all extreme black holes, including [U(1)]2 black holes, vanishes. We discuss the relevance of this to the vanishing of quantum corrections and the idea that the functional integral for extreme holes gives a Witten index. We have studied also the topology of ``moduli space'' of multi-black-holes. The quantum mechanics on black hole moduli spaces is expected to be supersymmetric despite the fact that they are not hyper-Kähler since the corresponding geometry has a torsion unlike the BPS monopole case. Finally, we describe the possibility of extreme black hole fission for states with an energy gap. The energy released, as a proportion of the initial rest mass, during the decay of an electromagnetic black hole is 300 times greater than that released by the fission of a 235U nucleus.
Dilaton gravity, charged dust, and (quasi-) black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronnikov, K. A.; Fabris, J. C.; Silveira, R.; Zaslavskii, O. B.
2014-05-01
We consider Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with charged dust and interaction of the form P(χ)FμνFμν, where P(χ) is an arbitrary function of the dilaton field χ that can be normal or phantom. For any regular P(χ), static configurations are possible with arbitrary functions g00=exp(2γ(xi)) (i =1, 2, 3) and χ=χ(γ), without any assumption of spatial symmetry. The classical Majumdar-Papapetrou system is restored by putting χ =const. Among possible solutions are black-hole (BH) and quasi-black-hole (QBH) ones. Some general results on BH and QBH properties are deduced and confirmed by examples. It is found, in particular, that asymptotically flat BHs and QBHs can exist with positive energy densities of matter and both scalar and electromagnetic fields.
Dilaton gravity, (quasi-) black holes, and scalar charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronnikov, K. A.; Fabris, J. C.; Silveira, R.; Zaslavskii, O. B.
2014-09-01
We consider static electrically charged dust configurations in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with the interaction term P(\\chi) F_{mn} F^{mn} in the Lagrangian, where P(\\chi) is an arbitrary function of the dilaton field \\chi, and the latter is allowed to be normal or phantom. It is shown that, for any regular P(\\chi), static configurations are possible with arbitrary functions g_{00} = e^{2\\gamma(x^i)} (i=1,2,3) and \\chi = \\chi(\\gamma), without any assumption of spatial symmetry. The corresponding matter, electric charge and scalar charge densities are found from the field equations. Meanwhile, configurations with nontrivial \\chi(x^i) generically require a nonzero scalar charge density distribution. The classical Majumdar-Papapetrou (MP) system is obtained as a special case where \\chi = const; there is its scalar analogue in the case F_{mn} = 0, but only with a phantom \\chi field. Among possible solutions are black-hole (BH) and quasi-black-hole (QBH) ones. Some general results on QBH properties obtained previously for the MP system are here extended to systems with the dilaton. Particular examples of asymptotically flat spherically symmetric BH and QBH solutions are found, some of them being phantom-free, that is, exist with positive energy densities of matter and both scalar and electromagnetic fields.
Topology, entropy, and Witten index of dilaton black holes
Gibbons, G.W.; Kallosh, R.E. )
1995-03-15
We have found that for extreme dilaton black holes an inner boundary must be introduced in addition to the outer boundary to give an integer value to the Euler number. The resulting manifolds have (if one identifies imaginary time) a topology [ital S][sup 1][times][ital R][times][ital S][sup 2] and Euler number [chi]=0 in contrast with the nonextreme case with [chi]=2. The entropy of extreme U(1) dilaton black holes is already known to be zero. We include a review of some recent ideas due to Hawking on the Reissner-Nordstroem case. By regarding all extreme black holes as having an inner boundary, we conclude that the entropy of [ital all] extreme black holes, including [U(1)][sup 2] black holes, vanishes. We discuss the relevance of this to the vanishing of quantum corrections and the idea that the functional integral for extreme holes gives a Witten index. We have studied also the topology of moduli space'' of multi-black-holes. The quantum mechanics on black hole moduli spaces is expected to be supersymmetric despite the fact that they are not hyper-Kaehler since the corresponding geometry has a torsion unlike the BPS monopole case. Finally, we describe the possibility of extreme black hole fission for states with an energy gap. The energy released, as a proportion of the initial rest mass, during the decay of an electromagnetic black hole is 300 times greater than that released by the fission of a [sup 235]U nucleus.
Conformally invariant thermodynamics of a Maxwell-Dilaton black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Monsalvo, C. S.; Nettel, F.; Quevedo, H.
2013-12-01
The thermodynamics of Maxwell-Dilaton black holes has been extensively studied. It has served as a fertile ground to test ideas about temperature through various definitions of surface gravity. In this paper, we make an independent analysis of this black hole solution in both, Einstein and Jordan, frames. We explore a set of definitions for the surface gravity and observe the different predictions they make for the near extremal configuration of this black hole. Finally, motivated by the singularity structure in the interior of the event horizon, we use a holographic argument to remove the micro-states from the disconnected region of this solution. In this manner, we construct a frame independent entropy from which we obtain a temperature which agrees with the standard results in the non-extremal regime, and has a desirable behaviour around the extremal configurations according to the third law of black hole mechanics.
Charged rotating dilaton black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knoll, Christian; Nedkova, Petya
2016-03-01
We construct a class of stationary and axisymmetric solutions to the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity, which describe configurations of charged rotating black objects with Kaluza-Klein asymptotics. The solutions are constructed by uplifting a vacuum seed solution to six dimensions, performing a boost and a subsequent circle reduction. We investigate the physical properties of the charged solutions and obtain their general relations to the properties of the vacuum seed. We also derive the gyromagnetic ratio and the Smarr-like relations. As particular cases, we study three solutions, which describe a charged rotating black string, a charged rotating black ring on Kaluza-Klein bubbles, and a superposition of two black holes and a Kaluza-Klein bubble.
Hamiltonian thermodynamics of three-dimensional dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Gonçalo A. S.; Lemos, José P. S.
2008-08-01
The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories with a negative cosmological constant can be recast in a Brans-Dicke type action, with its free ω parameter. These theories have static spherically symmetric black holes. Those with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity (ω→∞), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory (ω=0), and a theory representing a class of theories (ω=-3). The Hamiltonian formalism is set up in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unconstrained theory with one pair of canonical coordinates {M,PM}, M being the mass parameter and PM its conjugate momenta The resulting Hamiltonian is a sum of boundary terms only. A quantization of the theory is performed. The Schrödinger evolution operator is constructed, the trace is taken, and the partition function of the canonical ensemble is obtained. The black hole entropies differ, in general, from the usual quarter of the horizon area due to the dilaton.
Peculiar properties of a charged dilatonic black hole in AdS{sub 5}
Gubser, Steven S.; Rocha, Fabio D.
2010-02-15
We study a charged dilatonic black hole in AdS{sub 5}, derived from a Lagrangian involving a gauge field whose kinetic term is modified by the exponential of a neutral scalar. This black hole has two properties which one might reasonably demand of the dual of a Fermi liquid: Its entropy is proportional to temperature at low temperature, and its extremal limit supports normal modes of massless, charged bulk fermions. The black hole we study has a simple analytic form because it can be embedded in type IIB string theory as the near-horizon limit of D3-branes with equal spins in two of the three independent transverse planes. Two further properties can be deduced from this embedding: There is a thermodynamic instability, reminiscent of ferromagnetism, at low temperatures; and there is an AdS{sub 3} factor in the extremal near-horizon geometry which accounts for the linear dependence of entropy on temperature. Altogether, it is plausible that the dilatonic black hole we study, or a relative of it with similar behavior in the infrared, is the dual of a Fermi liquid; however, the particular embedding in string theory that we consider is unlikely to have such a dual description, unless through some unexpected boson-fermion equivalence at large N.
Question of Abelian-Higgs hair expulsion from extremal dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moderski, Rafał; Rogatko, Marek
1999-11-01
It has been argued that the extremal dilaton black holes exhibit a flux expulsion of Abelian-Higgs vortices. We carefully reexamine the problem and give analytic proofs for the flux expulsion to always take place. We also conduct a numerical analysis of the problem using three initial data sets on the horizon of an extreme dilatonic black hole, namely, core, vacuum, and sinusoidal initial conditions. We also show that an AbelianHiggs vortex can end on the extremal dilaton black hole. Concluding, we calculate the back reaction of the Abelian-Higgs vortex on the geometry of the extremal black hole and draw a conclusion that a straight cosmic string and the extreme dilatonic black hole hardly felt their presence.
Hamiltonian thermodynamics of charged three-dimensional dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Gonçalo A. S.; Lemos, José P. S.
2008-10-01
The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories, with an electromagnetic Maxwell field and a cosmological constant, can be recast in a Brans-Dicke-Maxwell type action, with its free ω parameter. For a negative cosmological constant, these theories have static, electrically charged, and spherically symmetric black hole solutions. Those theories with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity (ω→±∞), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory (ω=0), and a theory representing a class of theories (ω=-3), all with a Maxwell term. The Hamiltonian formalism is set up in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti-de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces and the radial component of the vector potential one-form are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unconstrained theory with two pairs of canonical coordinates {M,PM;Q,PQ}, where M is the mass parameter, which for ω<-(3)/(2) and for ω=±∞ needs a careful renormalization, PM is the conjugate momenta of M, Q is the charge parameter, and PQ is its conjugate momentum. The resulting Hamiltonian is a sum of boundary terms only. A quantization of the theory is performed. The Schrödinger evolution operator is constructed, the trace is taken, and the partition function of the grand canonical ensemble is obtained, where the chemical potential is the scalar electric field ϕ¯. Like the uncharged cases studied previously, the charged black hole entropies differ, in general, from the usual quarter of the horizon area due to the dilaton.
Slowly-Rotating Black Hole Solution in Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayzenberg, Dimitry; Yunes, Nicolas
2015-04-01
We present a stationary and axisymmetric black hole solution in Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity to quadratic order in the ratio of the spin angular momentum to the black hole mass squared. This solution introduces new corrections to previously found nonspinning and linear-in-spin solutions. The location of the event horizon and the ergosphere are modified, as well as the quadrupole moment. The new solution is of Petrov type I, although lower order in spin solutions are of Petrov type D. There are no closed timelike curves or spacetime regions that violate causality outside of the event horizon in the new solution. We calculate the modifications to the binding energy, Kepler's third law, and properties of the innermost stable circular orbit. These modifications are important for determining how the electromagnetic properties of accretion disks around supermassive black holes are changed from those expected in general relativity.
Quantum (in)stability of 2D charged dilaton black holes and 3D rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
1999-02-01
The quantum properties of charged black holes (BHs) in two-dimensional (2D) dilaton-Maxwell gravity (spontaneously compactified from heterotic string) with N dilaton coupled scalars are studied. We first investigate 2D BHs found by McGuigan, Nappi, and Yost. Kaluza-Klein reduction of 3D gravity with minimal scalars leads also to 2D dilaton-Maxwell gravity with dilaton coupled scalars and the rotating BH solution found by Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli, which can be also described by 2D charged dilatonic BHs. Evaluating the one-loop effective action for dilaton coupled scalars in large N (and the s-wave approximation for the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli case), we show that quantum-corrected BHs may evaporate or else antievaporate similarly to 4D Nariai BHs as is observed by Bousso and Hawking. Higher modes may cause the disintegration of BHs in accordance with recent observation by Bousso.
Solitons and black holes in a generalized Skyrme model with dilaton-quarkonium field
Doneva, Daniela D.; Stefanov, Ivan Zh.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.
2011-06-15
Skyrme theory is among the viable effective theories which emerge from the low-energy limit of quantum chromodynamics. Many of its generalizations include also a dilaton. Here we find new self-gravitating solutions, both solitons and black holes, in a generalized Skyrme model in which a dilaton is present. The investigation of the properties of the solutions is done numerically. We find that the introduction of the dilaton in the theory does not change the picture qualitatively, only quantitatively. The model considered here has one free parameter more than the Einstein-Skyrme model which comes from the potential of the dilaton. We have applied also the turning point method to establish that one of the black-hole branches of solutions is unstable. The turning point method here is based on the first law of black-hole thermodynamics a detailed derivation of which is given in the Appendix of the paper.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of rotating dilaton black branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2016-07-01
We construct a new class of rotating dilaton solutions in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics. These solutions represent black branes with flat horizon and contain k=[(n-1)/2] rotation parameters in n-dimensional spacetime where [ x] is the integer part of x. We study the causal structure of the spacetime and calculate thermodynamic and conserved quantities and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon, { dM}={ TdS}+{{{sum _{i=1}k}}}Ω id{J}i+{ Ud}{Q}. Then, we study geometrical approach towards thermodynamics by choosing an appropriate geometrical metric. We show that the singularity of the Ricci scalar coincides exactly with the phase transition points. We observe that our system encounters two types of phase transitions depending on the metric parameters. For the first one the heat capacity is zero and for the second one the heat capacity diverges. In the first kind of phase transition, the brane has a transition from an unstable non-physical to a stable physical state. In the second type of phase transition the brane moves from a stable to an unstable state. Finally, we comment on the dynamical stability of the obtained solutions under perturbations in four dimensions.
Thermodynamic instability of charged dilaton black holes in AdS spaces
Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.; Hendi, S. H.
2010-04-15
We study thermodynamic instability of a class of (n+1)-dimensional charged dilatonic spherically symmetric black holes in the background of the anti-de Sitter universe. We calculate the quasilocal mass of the anti-de Sitter dilaton black hole through the use of the subtraction method of Brown and York. We find a Smarr-type formula and perform a stability analysis in the canonical ensemble and disclose the effect of the dilaton field on the thermal stability of the solutions. Our study shows that the solutions are thermally stable for small {alpha}, while for large {alpha} the system has an unstable phase, where {alpha} is a coupling constant between the dilaton and matter field.
Thermodynamics of black holes in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity
Sheykhi, A.; Riazi, N.
2007-01-15
We construct a new class of (n+1)-dimensional (n{>=}3) black hole solutions in Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential for the dilaton field and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can represent black holes, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black hole, or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the thermodynamic quantities of the black hole solutions and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis and investigate the effect of dilaton on the stability of the solutions.
Uniqueness theorem for stationary axisymmetric black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-axion-dilaton gravity
Rogatko, Marek
2010-08-15
We prove the uniqueness theorem for the stationary axisymmetric black hole solution in Einstein-Maxwell-axion-dilaton gravity being the low-energy limit of the heterotic string theory. We consider both the nonextremal and extremal Kerr-Sen black hole solutions.
First law of black ring thermodynamics in higher dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength forms
Rogatko, Marek
2006-01-15
We derive the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein dilaton gravity with additional (p+1)-form field strength being the simplest generalization of five-dimensional theory containing a stationary black ring solution with dipole charge. It was done by means of choosing any cross section of the event horizon to the future of the bifurcation surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Sahami, Ehsan
2016-07-01
In this paper, we consider the timelike and null geodesics around the static (GMGHS, magnetically charged GMGHS, electrically charged GMGHS) and the rotating (Kerr-Sen dilaton-axion) dilaton black holes. The geodesic equations are solved in terms of Weierstrass elliptic functions. To classify the trajectories around the black holes, we use the analytical solution and effective potential techniques and then characterize the different types of the resulting orbits in terms of the conserved energy and angular momentum. Also, using the obtained results we study astrophysical applications.
Quasinormal modes of charged scalars around dilaton black holes in 2+1 dimensions: Exact frequencies
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2008-06-15
We have studied the charged scalar perturbation around a dilaton black hole in 2+1 dimensions. The wave equations of a massless charged scalar field are shown to be exactly solvable in terms of hypergeometric functions. The quasinormal frequencies are computed exactly. The relation between the quasinormal frequencies and the charge of the black hole, charge of the scalar, and the temperature of the black hole are analyzed. The asymptotic form of the real part of the quasinormal frequencies is evaluated exactly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Yang, Shu-Zheng
2009-10-01
Fermions tunneling of the non-stationary Dilaton-Maxwell black hole is investigated with general tortoise coordinate transformation. The Dirac equation is simplified by semiclassical approximation so that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is generated. Finally the tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is calculated.
Gravitational Perturbation of Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger Dilaton Black Hole and Quasinormal Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai
2010-11-01
We research gravitational perturbation of Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton black hole and its quasinormal modes by using WKB approach proposed by Schutz, Will, Iyer and Konoplya. The quasinormal frequency with different angular momentum l is calculated in this paper. Our results show that, as the charge parameter b increase, both the real part and the absolute value of imaginary part of quasinormal frequency also increase, which means that the effect of charge in Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton background spacetime lead to higher frequency gravitational wave and the quasinormal modes damp at a rapider rate.
Observing the shadow of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn
2013-11-01
In this paper, the shadows cast by Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole and naked singularity are studied. The shadow of a rotating black hole is found to be a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. For a fixed value of the spin a, the size of the shadow decreases with the dilaton parameter b. The distortion of the shadow monotonically increases with b and takes its maximal when the black hole approaches to the extremal case. Due to the optical properties, the area of the black hole shadow is supposed to equal to the high-energy absorption cross section. Based on this assumption, the energy emission rate is investigated. For a naked singularity, the shadow has a dark arc and a dark spot or straight, and the corresponding observables are obtained. These results show that there is a significant effect of the spin a and dilaton parameter b on these shadows. Moreover, we examine the observables of the shadow cast by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, which is very useful for us to probe the nature of the black hole through the astronomical observations in the near future.
Spinning dilaton black holes in 2+1 dimensions: Quasinormal modes and the area spectrum
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2009-06-15
We have studied the perturbation of a spinning dilaton black hole in 2+1 dimensions by a massless scalar field. The wave equations of a massless scalar field is shown to be exactly solvable in terms of hypergeometric functions. The quasinormal frequencies are computed for slowly spinning black holes. The stability of the black hole is discussed. The asymptotic form of the quasinormal frequencies are evaluated. The area spectrum of the quantum black holes are evaluated by using the asymptotic quasinormal frequencies and is shown to be equally spaced.
Information Loss and Tunneling Radiation of the Non-Stationary Dilaton-Maxwell Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng
Taking the self-gravitational interaction and unfixed background space-time into account, we discuss the tunneling radiation of the Dilaton-Maxwell black hole by the Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the tunneling rate is related not only to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, but also to a subtle integral about the black hole mass, which does not satisfy the unitary theory and is different from Parikh and Wilczek's result. This implies that information loss in black hole evaporation is possible.
Decay of massive scalar hair in the background of a dilaton gravity black hole
Rogatko, Marek
2007-05-15
We investigate analytically both the intermediate and late-time behavior of the massive scalar field in the background of the static spherically symmetric black hole solution in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary coupling constant. The intermediate asymptotic behavior of the scalar field depends on the field's parameter mass as well as the multiple number l. On its turn, the late-time behavior has the power-law decay rate independent on the coupling constant in the theory under consideration.
Radiating black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory and cosmic censorship violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniceto, Pedro; Pani, Paolo; Rocha, Jorge V.
2016-05-01
We construct exact, time-dependent, black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling, a. For a = 1 this theory arises as the four-dimensional low-energy effective description of heterotic string theory. These solutions represent electrically charged, spherically symmetric black holes emitting or absorbing charged null fluids and generalize the Vaidya and Bonnor-Vaidya solutions of general relativity and of Einstein-Maxwell theory, respectively. The a = 1 case stands out as special, in the sense that it is the only choice of the coupling that allows for a time-dependent dilaton field in this class of solutions. As a by-product, when a = 1 we show that an electrically charged black hole in this theory can be overcharged by bombarding it with a stream of electrically charged null fluid, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity. This provides an example of cosmic censorship violation in an exact dynamical solution to low-energy effective string theory and in a case in which the total stress-energy tensor satisfies all energy conditions. When a ≠ 1, our solutions necessarily have a time-independent scalar field and consequently cannot be overcharged.
García-Diaz, Alberto A.
2014-01-14
Using the Schwarzschild coordinate frame for a static cyclic symmetric metric in 2+1 gravity coupled minimally to a dilaton logarithmically depending on the radial coordinate in the presence of an exponential potential, by solving first order linear Einstein equations, the general solution is derived and it is identified with the Chan–Mann dilaton solution. In these coordinates, a new stationary dilaton solution is obtained; it does not allow for a de Sitter–Anti-de Sitter limit at spatial infinity, where its structural functions increase indefinitely. On the other hand, it is horizonless and allows for a naked singularity at the origin of coordinates; moreover, one can identify at a large radial coordinate a (quasi-local) mass parameter and in the whole space a constant angular momentum. Via a general SL(2,R)–transformation, applied on the static cyclic symmetric metric, a family of stationary dilaton solutions has been generated. A particular SL(2,R)–transformation is identified, which gives rise to the rotating Chan–Mann dilaton solution. All the exhibited solutions have been characterized by their quasi-local energy, mass, and momentum through their series expansions at spatial infinity. The algebraic structure of the Ricci–energy-momentum, and Cotton tensors is given explicitly.
Penrose process in a charged axion-dilaton coupled black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Chandrima; SenGupta, Soumitra
2016-04-01
Using the Newman-Janis method to construct the axion-dilaton coupled charged rotating black holes, we show that the energy extraction from such black holes via the Penrose process takes place from the axion/Kalb-Ramond field energy responsible for rendering the angular momentum to the black hole. Determining the explicit form for the Kalb-Ramond field strength, which is argued to be equivalent to spacetime torsion, we demonstrate that at the end of the energy extraction process, the spacetime becomes torsion free with a spherically symmetric non-rotating black hole remnant. In this context, applications to physical phenomena, such as the emission of neutral particles in astrophysical jets, are also discussed. It is seen that the infalling matter gains energy from the rotation of the black hole, or equivalently from the axion field, and that it is ejected as a highly collimated astrophysical jet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Xiao-Gang
2013-05-01
By introducing a new tortoise coordinate transformation, we apply Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiation of massive scalar particles in a dynamic Dilaton-Maxwell black hole. We find that Hawking radiation spectrum shows still the blackbody one, while the Hawking temperature is significantly changed. Additionally, by adopting the thin film method, we calculate the entropy of a dynamic Dilaton-Maxwell black hole. The result indicates that the entropy for such a black hole is still in proportional to the area of its event horizon.
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor
2009-04-15
It is generally accepted that Einstein's theory will get some as yet unknown corrections, possibly large in the strong-field regime. An ideal place to look for these modifications is in the vicinities of compact objects such as black holes. Here, we study dilatonic black holes, which arise in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet couplings and one-loop corrected four-dimensional effective theory of heterotic superstrings at low energies. These are interesting objects as a prototype for alternative, yet well-behaved gravity theories: they evade the 'no-hair' theorem of general relativity but were proven to be stable against radial perturbations. We investigate the viability of these black holes as astrophysical objects and try to provide some means to distinguish them from black holes in general relativity. We start by extending previous works and establishing the stability of these black holes against axial perturbations. We then look for solutions of the field equations describing slowly rotating black holes and study geodesic motion around this geometry. Depending on the values of mass, dilaton charge, and angular momentum of the solution, one can have differences in the innermost-stable-circular-orbit location and orbital frequency, relative to black holes in general relativity. In the most favorable cases, the difference amounts to a few percent. Given the current state-of-the-art, we discuss the difficulty of distinguishing the correct theory of gravity from electromagnetic observations or even with gravitational-wave detectors.
Mass variation formulae for Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs and Einstein-dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heusler, Markus; Straumann, Norbert
1993-09-01
We consider the ``first law'' of black hole physics for stationary Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs and Einstein-dilaton theories. It is shown that the mass variation formula involves only global quantities and surface terms. Our results hold for arbitrary gauge groups and any structure of the Higgs field multiplets. For purely magnetic field configurations, the extra horizon integrals vanish and the variation of the mass can be expressed in terms of the usual vacuum contributions and additional surface integrals at spacelike infinity.
Thermodynamics of charged rotating dilaton black branes with power-law Maxwell field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of charged rotating dilaton black brane solutions, with a complete set of rotation parameters, which is coupled to a nonlinear Maxwell field. The Lagrangian of the matter field has the form of the power-law Maxwell field. We study the causal structure of the spacetime and its physical properties in ample details. We also compute thermodynamic and conserved quantities of the spacetime, such as the temperature, entropy, mass, charge, and angular momentum. We find a Smarr-formula for the mass and verify the validity of the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon. Finally, we investigate the thermal stability of solutions in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles and disclose the effects of dilaton field and nonlinearity of the Maxwell field on the thermal stability of the solutions. We find that, for α ≤ 1, charged rotating black brane solutions are thermally stable independent of the values of the other parameters. For α >1, the solutions can encounter an unstable phase depending on the metric parameters.
Entanglement entropy of charged dilaton-axion black hole and quantum isolated horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ze-Min; Li, Xiu-Lan; Gao, Ying
2016-09-01
Based on the work of Ghosh and Perez, we calculate the statistical entropy of charged dilaton-axion black hole. In the calculations we take the integral from the position of QIH to infinity, so the obtained entropy is the entanglement entropy outside the QIH. It is shown that only if the position of QIH is properly chosen the leading term of logarithm of the number of quantum states on the QIH is equal to the leading term of the entanglement entropy outside the black hole horizon, and both are the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. The results reveal the relation between the entanglement entropy of black hole and the logarithm of the number of quantum states.
New 2D dilaton gravity for nonsingular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunstatter, Gabor; Maeda, Hideki; Taves, Tim
2016-05-01
We construct a two-dimensional action that is an extension of spherically symmetric Einstein-Lanczos-Lovelock (ELL) gravity. The action contains arbitrary functions of the areal radius and the norm squared of its gradient, but the field equations are second order and obey Birkhoff’s theorem. In complete analogy with spherically symmetric ELL gravity, the field equations admit the generalized Misner-Sharp mass as the first integral that determines the form of the vacuum solution. The arbitrary functions in the action allow for vacuum solutions that describe a larger class of interesting nonsingular black hole spacetimes than previously available.
Late-time evolution of a self-interacting scalar field in the spacetime of a dilaton black hole
Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek
2001-08-15
We investigate the late-time tails of self-interacting (massive) scalar fields in the spacetime of a dilaton black hole. Following the no hair theorem we examine the mechanism by which self-interacting scalar hair decays. We reveal that the intermediate asymptotic behavior of the considered field perturbations is dominated by an oscillatory inverse power-law decaying tail. The numerical simulations show that at very late time, massive self-interacting scalar hair decays slower than any power law.
Eikonal particle scattering and dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Saurya; Majumdar, Parthasarathi
1997-02-01
Approximating light charged pointlike particles in terms of (nonextremal) dilatonic black holes is shown to lead to certain pathologies in Planckian scattering in the eikonal approximation, which are traced to the presence of a (naked) curvature singularity in the metric of these black holes. The existence of such pathologies is confirmed by analyzing the problem in an ``external metric'' formulation where an ultrarelativistic point particle scatters off a dilatonic black hole geometry at large impact parameters. The maladies disappear almost trivially upon imposing the extremal limit. Attempts to derive an effective three-dimensional ``boundary'' field theory in the eikonal limit are stymied by four-dimensional (bulk) terms proportional to the light-cone derivatives of the dilaton field, leading to nontrivial mixing of electromagnetic and gravitational effects, in contrast with the case of general relativity. An eikonal scattering amplitude, showing decoupling of these effects, is shown to be derivable by resummation of graviton, dilaton, and photon exchange ladder diagrams in a linearized version of the theory for an asymptotic value of the dilaton field which makes the string coupling constant nonperturbative.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Liu, Xiong-Wei; Yang, Shu-Zheng
2008-12-01
Hawking radiation of particles with electric and magnetic charges from the Einstein Maxwell-Dilaton Axion black hole is derived via the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek and elaborated by Banerjee and Kulkarni recently. We reconstruct the electromagnetic field tensor to redefine the gauge potential and equivalent charge corresponding to the source with electric and magnetic charges. We only adopt the covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies to discuss the near-horizon quantum anomaly in the dragging coordinate frame. Our result shows that Hawking radiation in this case also can be reproduced from the viewpoint of anomaly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Tad, R. Moradi; Armanfard, Z.; Talezadeh, M. S.
2016-05-01
Motivated by a thermodynamic analogy of black holes and Van der Waals liquid/gas systems, in this paper, we study P- V criticality of both dilatonic Born-Infeld black holes and their conformal solutions, Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld solutions. Due to the conformal constraint, we have to neglect the old Lagrangian of dilatonic Born-Infeld theory and its black hole solutions, and introduce a new one. We obtain spherically symmetric nonlinearly charged black hole solutions in both Einstein and Jordan frames and then we calculate the related conserved and thermodynamic quantities. After that, we extend the phase space by considering the proportionality of the cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure. We obtain critical values of the thermodynamic coordinates through numerical methods and plot the relevant P- V and G- T diagrams. Investigation of the mentioned diagrams helps us to study the thermodynamical phase transition. We also analyze the effects of varying different parameters on the phase transition of black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.
2011-08-01
We show in detail that the entropic force of the static spherically symmetric spacetimes with unusual asymptotics can be calculated through the Verlinde's arguments. We introduce three different holographic screen candidates, which are first employed thoroughly by Myung and Kim [Phys. Rev. D 81, 105012 (2010)] for Schwarzschild black hole solutions, in order to identify the entropic force arising between a charged dilaton black hole and a test particle. The significance of the dilaton parameter on the entropic force is highlighted, and shown graphically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Z. G.; Fang, W.; Lu, H. Q.
In Brans-Dicke gravitational theory, an analytical accelerating expansion solution of the Universe is found at the dilaton dominated epoch. Both Einstein frame (EF) and Jordan frame (JF) are applied. We consider the form of exponential potential of dilaton field in EF while we consider the power law potential in JF. In matter and dilaton coexisting epoch, only the decelerating expansion solution without potential is considered with experimental constraint α2<0.001. If the power law potential of dilaton field is applied in JF, some authors found the dilaton field can act as quintessence based numerical method.1 We find that the influence of dilaton will not change the evolutionary law of density perturbation of baryon matter.
Black branes as piezoelectrics.
Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A
2012-12-14
We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.
Black branes as piezoelectrics.
Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A
2012-12-14
We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298
Dilatons in Dense Baryonic Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque
We discuss the role of dilaton, which is supposed to be representing a special feature of scale symmetry of QCD, trace anomaly, in dense baryonic matter. The idea that the scale symmetry breaking of QCD is responsible for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is presented along the similar spirit of Freund-Nambu model. The incorporation of dilaton field in the hidden local symmetric parity doublet model is briefly sketched with the possible role of dilaton at high density baryonic matter, the emergence of linear sigma model in dilaton limit.
Stringy stability of charged dilaton black holes with flat event horizon
Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin
2015-01-15
Electrically charged black holes with flat event horizon in anti-de Sitter space have received much attention due to various applications in Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, from modeling the behavior of quark-gluon plasma to superconductor. Critical to the physics on the dual field theory is the fact that when embedded in string theory, black holes in the bulk may become vulnerable to instability caused by brane pair-production. Since dilation arises naturally in the context of string theory, we study the effect of coupling dilation to Maxwell field on the stability of flat charged AdS black holes.
Generalized Smarr formula and the viscosity bound for Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.
2015-09-01
We study the shear viscosity to entropy ratio η /S in the boundary field theories dual to black-hole backgrounds in theories of gravity coupled to a scalar field, and generalizations including a Maxwell field and nonminimal scalar couplings. Motivated by the observation in simple examples that the saturation of the η /S ≥1 /(4 π ) bound is correlated with the existence of a generalized Smarr relation for the planar black-hole solutions, we investigate this in detail for the general black-hole solutions in these theories, focusing especially on the cases where the scalar field plays a nontrivial role and gives rise to an additional parameter in the space of solutions. We find that a generalized Smarr relation holds in all cases, and in fact it can be viewed as the bulk gravity dual of the statement of the saturation of the viscosity to entropy bound. We obtain the generalized Smarr relation, whose existence depends upon a scaling symmetry of the planar black-hole solutions, by two different but related methods, one based on integrating the first law of thermodynamics, and the other based on the construction of a conserved Noether charge.
Cosmic censorship and the dilaton
Horne, J.H. ); Horowitz, G.T. )
1993-12-15
We investigate extremal electrically charged black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a cosmological constant inspired by string theory. These solutions are not static, and a timelike singularity eventually appears which is not surrounded by an event horizon. This suggests that cosmic censorship may be violated in this theory.
Hawking radiation of non-asymptotically flat rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, Izzet; Aslan, Onur Atilla
2016-04-01
We study the Hawking radiation of non-asymptotically flat rotating linear dilaton black holes, which are the solutions to the 4D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion action by using the semi-classical radiation spectrum method. Using scalar perturbations, we show that both angular and radial equations produce exact analytical solutions. Thus, we obtain a precise radiation spectrum for the rotating linear dilaton black hole. The high-frequency regime does not yield the standard Hawking temperature of this black hole computed from the surface gravity. However, we show in detail that the specific low-frequency band of the radiation spectrum allows for the original Hawking temperature of the rotating linear dilaton black hole. The computations are also exhibited graphically.
Asymptotically AdS Solutions of Five Dimensional Gravity-Dilaton Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nata Atmaja, Ardian
2016-08-01
We search for Asymptotically AdS solutions of the background metric in which dilaton back reacts to gravity in five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory. The five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory generally appears in the context of the low energy effective action of closed string theory in the Einstein frame. In particular, we consider dilaton which are minimally coupled to gravity in which the potential for dilation is taken to be simple and contain only one exponential term parametrized by a constant a. We solve analytically and show for a simple constant dilaton potential it appears there are no black hole solutions if we turn on the dilaton contribution. On the other hand, the exponential dilaton potential has black hole solutions but they are not in general Asymptotically AdS. We argue that there are some possible Asymptotically AdS black hole solutions in the range of |a| \\lt \\frac{4}{\\sqrt{6}}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dando, Owen; Gregory, Ruth
1998-07-01
We examine the field equations of a self-gravitating global string in low energy superstring gravity, allowing for an arbitrary coupling of the global string to the dilaton. Massive and massless dilatons are considered. For the massive dilaton the spacetime is similar to the recently discovered non-singular time-dependent Einstein self-gravitating global string, but the massless dilaton generically gives a singular spacetime, even allowing for time dependence. We also demonstrate a time-dependent non-singular string-antistring configuration, in which the string pair causes a compactification of two of the spatial dimensions, albeit on a very large scale.
Implications of a light dilaton in gauge theory
Dick, Rainer
1997-06-15
The recent observation that gauge theory with a dilaton accommodates both a regularized Coulomb phase and a confining phase is reviewed. In addition to the contribution from the linearly increasing gauge potential dilaton-mass couplings may induce a scalar contribution and some implications of the vector and scalar contributions to the confining potential are outlined.
Global monopoles in dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dando, Owen; Gregory, Ruth
1998-04-01
We analyse the gravitational field of a global monopole within the context of low-energy string gravity, allowing for an arbitrary coupling of the monopole fields to the dilaton. Both massive and massless dilatons are considered. We find that, for a massless dilaton, the spacetime is generically singular, whereas when the dilaton is massive, the monopole generically induces a long-range dilaton cloud. We compare and contrast these results with the literature.
A strongly coupled anisotropic fluid from dilaton driven holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Nilay; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda; Trivedi, Sandip P.
2015-01-01
We consider a system consisting of 5 dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a massless scalar, the dilaton. We construct a black brane solution which arises when the dilaton satisfies linearly varying boundary conditions in the asymptotically AdS 5 region. The geometry of this black brane breaks rotational symmetry while preserving translational invariance and corresponds to an anisotropic phase of the system. Close to extremality, where the anisotropy is big compared to the temperature, some components of the viscosity tensor become parametrically small compared to the entropy density. We study the quasi normal modes in considerable detail and find no instability close to extremality. We also obtain the equations for fluid mechanics for an anisotropic driven system in general, working upto first order in the derivative expansion for the stress tensor, and identify additional transport coefficients which appear in the constitutive relation. For the fluid of interest we find that the parametrically small viscosity can result in a very small force of friction, when the fluid is enclosed between appropriately oriented parallel plates moving with a relative velocity.
Black hole hair removal: non-linear analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sen, Ashoke; Srivastava, Yogesh K.
2010-02-01
BMPV black holes in flat transverse space and in Taub-NUT space have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic degeneracies. It has been proposed that this difference can be accounted for by different contribution to the degeneracies of these black holes from hair modes, — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon. In this paper we explicitly construct the hair modes of these two black holes as finite bosonic and fermionic deformations of the black hole solution satisfying the full non-linear equations of motion of supergravity and preserving the supersymmetry of the original solutions. Special care is taken to ensure that these solutions do not have any curvature singularity at the future horizon when viewed as the full ten dimensional geometry. We show that after removing the contribution due to the hair degrees of freedom from the microscopic partition function, the partition functions of the two black holes agree.
All or nothing: On the small fluctuations of two-dimensional string theoretic black holes
Gilbert, Gerald; Raiten, Eric
1992-10-01
A comprehensive analysis of small fluctuations about two-dimensional string-theoretic and string-inspired black holes is presented. It is shown with specific examples that two-dimensional black holes behave in a radically different way from all known black holes in four dimensions. For both the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole and the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive dilaton with constant field strength, it is shown that there are a {\\it continuous infinity} of solutions to the linearized equations of motion, which are such that it is impossible to ascertain the classical linear response. It is further shown that the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive, linear dilaton admits {\\it no small fluctuations at all}. We discuss possible implications of our results for the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger black hole.
Magnetic monopole solutions with a massive dilaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forgács, P.; Gyürüsi, J.
1998-11-01
Static, spherically symmetric monopole solutions of a spontaneously broken SU(2) gauge theory coupled to a massive dilaton field are studied in detail in function of the dilaton coupling strength and of the dilaton mass.
Bai, Yang; Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph
2009-12-31
A dilaton could be the dominant messenger between standard model fields and dark matter. The measured dark matter relic abundance relates the dark matter mass and spin to the conformal breaking scale. The dark matter-nucleon spin-independent cross section is predicted in terms of the dilaton mass. We compute the current constraints on the dilaton from LEP and Tevatron experiments, and the gamma-ray signal from dark matter annihilation to dilatons that could be observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope.
Bai Yang; Lykken, Joseph; Carena, Marcela
2009-12-31
A dilaton could be the dominant messenger between standard model fields and dark matter. The measured dark matter relic abundance relates the dark matter mass and spin to the conformal breaking scale. The dark matter-nucleon spin-independent cross section is predicted in terms of the dilaton mass. We compute the current constraints on the dilaton from LEP and Tevatron experiments, and the gamma-ray signal from dark matter annihilation to dilatons that could be observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope.
Mirror effect induced by the dilaton field on the Hawking radiation
Maeda, Kengo; Okamura, Takashi
2006-11-03
A ''stringy particle'' action is naturally derived from Kaluza-Klein compactification of a test string action coupled to the dilaton field in a conformally invariant manner. According to the standard procedure, we perform the second quantization of the stringy particle. As an interesting application, we consider evaporation of a near-extremal dilatonic black hole by Hawking radiation via the stringy particles. We show that a mirror surface which reflects them is induced by the dilaton field outside the the horizon when the size of the black hole is comparable to the Planck scale. As a result, the energy flux does not propagate across the surface, and hence the evaporation of the dilatonic black hole stops just before the naked singularity at the extremal state appears even though the surface gravity is non-zero in the extremal limit.
No hair theorem in quasi-dilaton massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, De-Jun; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2016-06-01
We investigate the static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions in the quasi-dilaton model and its generalizations, which are scalar extended dRGT massive gravity with a shift symmetry. We show that, unlike generic scalar extended massive gravity models, these theories do not admit static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions until the theory parameters in the dRGT potential are fine-tuned. When fine-tuned, the geometry of the static, spherically symmetric black hole is necessarily that of general relativity and the quasi-dilaton field is constant across the spacetime. The fine-tuning and the no hair theorem apply to black holes with flat, anti-de Sitter or de Sitter asymptotics.
Extremal dyonic black holes in D=4 Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.; Orlov, Dmitry G.
2008-11-01
We investigate extremal dyon black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with higher curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. In the same theory without the Gauss-Bonnet term the extremal dyon solutions exist only for discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant a. We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term acts as a dyon hair tonic enlarging the allowed values of a to continuous domains in the plane (a,qm) where qm is the magnetic charge. In the limit of the vanishing curvature coupling (a large magnetic charge) the dyon solutions obtained tend to the Reissner-Nordström solution but not to the extremal dyons of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. Both solutions have the same dependence of the horizon radius in terms of charges. The entropy of new dyonic black holes interpolates between the Bekenstein-Hawking value in the limit of the large magnetic charge (equivalent to the vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling) and twice this value for the vanishing magnetic charge. Although an expression for the entropy can be obtained analytically using purely local near-horizon solutions, its interpretation as the black hole entropy is legitimate only once the global black hole solution is known to exist, and we obtain numerically the corresponding conditions on the parameters. Thus, a purely local analysis is insufficient to fully understand the entropy of the curvature-corrected black holes. We also find dyon solutions which are not asymptotically flat, but approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. They describe magnetic black holes on the electric linear dilaton background.
Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols
Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John
2013-04-19
The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.
Wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kanti, Panagiota; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta
2011-12-30
We construct traversable wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in four spacetime dimensions, without needing any form of exotic matter. We determine their domain of existence, and show that these wormholes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We demonstrate linear stability with respect to radial perturbations for a subset of these wormholes.
Holographic conductivity for logarithmic charged dilaton-Lifshitz solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Kord Zangeneh, M.
2016-07-01
We disclose the effects of the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics on the holographic conductivity of Lifshitz dilaton black holes/branes. We analyze thermodynamics of these solutions as a necessary requirement for applying gauge/gravity duality, by calculating conserved and thermodynamic quantities such as the temperature, entropy, electric potential and mass of the black holes/branes. We calculate the holographic conductivity for a (2 + 1)-dimensional brane boundary and study its behavior in terms of the frequency per temperature. Interestingly enough, we find out that, in contrast to the Lifshitz-Maxwell-dilaton black branes which have conductivity for all z, here in the presence of nonlinear gauge field, the holographic conductivity does exist provided z ≤ 3 and vanishes for z > 3. It is shown that independent of the nonlinear parameter β, the real part of the conductivity is the same for a specific value of frequency per temperature in both AdS and Lifshitz cases. Besides, the behavior of real part of conductivity for large frequencies has a positive slope with respect to large frequencies for a system with Lifshitz symmetry whereas it tends to a constant for a system with AdS symmetry. This behavior may be interpreted as existence of an additional charge carrier rather than the AdS case, and is due to the presence of the scalar dilaton field in model. Similar behavior for optical conductivity of single-layer graphene induced by mild oxygen plasma exposure has been reported.
Ryskin, M. G.; Shuvaev, A. G.
2010-06-15
We study possible phenomenological consequences of the recently proposed new approach to the Weinberg-Salam model. The electroweak theory is considered as a gravity and the Higgs particle is interpreted in it as a dilaton, without the usual potential of interaction in the Higgs sector. We have taken as a test the process of photon pair production, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {sup {yields}}Z + {gamma} + {gamma}. In the framework of new formulation this reaction is mediated in the lowest order by the dilaton. The cross section is found to be rather small.
Phantom black holes and sigma models
Azreg-Aienou, Mustapha; Clement, Gerard; Fabris, Julio C.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.
2011-06-15
We construct static multicenter solutions of phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory from null geodesics of the target space, leading to regular black holes without spatial symmetry for certain discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant. We also discuss the three-dimensional gravitating sigma models obtained by reduction of phantom Einstein-Maxwell, phantom Kaluza-Klein and phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theories. In each case, we generate by group transformations phantom charged black hole solutions from a neutral seed.
On dilatons and the LHC diphoton excess
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Megías, Eugenio; Pujolàs, Oriol; Quirós, Mariano
2016-05-01
We study soft wall models that can embed the Standard Model and a naturally light dilaton. Exploiting the full capabilities of these models we identify the parameter space that allows to pass Electroweak Precision Tests with a moderate Kaluza-Klein scale, around 2 TeV. We analyze the coupling of the dilaton with Standard Model (SM) fields in the bulk, and discuss two applications: i) Models with a light dilaton as the first particle beyond the SM pass quite easily all observational tests even with a dilaton lighter than the Higgs. However the possibility of a 125 GeV dilaton as a Higgs impostor is essentially disfavored; ii) We show how to extend the soft wall models to realize a 750 GeV dilaton that could explain the recently reported diphoton excess at the LHC.
Oscillons in dilaton-scalar theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter; Horváth, Zalán; Mezei, Márk
2009-08-01
It is shown by both analytical methods and numerical simulations that extremely long living spherically symmetric oscillons appear in virtually any real scalar field theory coupled to a massless dilaton (DS theories). In fact such ``dilatonic'' oscillons are already present in the simplest non-trivial DS theory — a free massive scalar field coupled to the dilaton. It is shown that in analogy to the previously considered cases with a single nonlinear scalar field, in DS theories there are also time periodic quasibreathers (QB) associated to small amplitude oscillons. Exploiting the QB picture the radiation law of the small amplitude dilatonic oscillons is determined analytically.
Cosmic strings in axionic-dilatonic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Caroline
2001-05-01
We first consider local cosmic strings in dilaton-axion gravity and show that they are singular solutions. Then we take a supermassive Higgs limit and present expressions for the fields at far distances from the core by applying a Pecci-Quinn and a duality transformation to the dilatonic Melvin's magnetic universe.
Systematic simulations of modified gravity: symmetron and dilaton models
Brax, Philippe; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no
2012-10-01
We study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in the dilaton and symmetron models of modified gravity using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of scenarios using only a few parameters, such as the coupling between the scalar field and the matter, and the range of the scalar force on very large scales. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ECOSMOG, which is a variant of RAMSES working in modified gravity scenarios, to perform a set of 110 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a large portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM template cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}. Our results show the full effect of screening on nonlinear structure formation and the associated deviation from ΛCDM. We also investigate how differences in the force mediated by the scalar field in modified gravity models lead to qualitatively different features for the nonlinear power spectrum and the halo mass function, and how varying the individual model parameters changes these observables. The differences are particularly large in the nonlinear power spectra whose shapes for f(R), dilaton and symmetron models vary greatly, and where the characteristic bump around 1 hMpc{sup −1} of f(R) models is preserved for symmetrons, whereas an increase on much smaller scales is particular to symmetrons. No bump is present for dilatons where a flattening of the power spectrum takes place on small scales. These deviations from ΛCDM and the differences between modified gravity models, such as dilatons and symmetrons, could be tested with future surveys.
Superradiance from a charged dilation black hole
Shiraishi, K. )
1992-12-07
In this paper, the authors study the behavior of the wave function of charged Klein-Gordon field around a charge dilaton black hole. The rate of spontaneous charge loss is estimated for large black hole case.
Universal linear in temperature resistivity from black hole superradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donos, Aristomenis; Hartnoll, Sean A.
2012-12-01
Observations across many families of unconventional materials motivate the search for robust mechanisms producing linear in temperature dc resistivity. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless quantum phase transitions are commonplace in holographic descriptions of finite density matter, separating critical and ordered phases. We show that at a holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical point, if the unstable operator is coupled to the current via irrelevant operators, then a linear contribution to the resistivity is universally obtained. We also obtain broad power law tails in the optical conductivity that shift spectral weight from the Drude peak as well as interband energy scales. We give a partial realization of this scenario using an Einstein-Maxwell-pseudoscalar bulk theory. The instability is a vectorial mode at nonzero wave vector, which is communicated to the homogeneous current via irrelevant coupling to an ionic lattice.
Solitons of axion-dilaton gravity
Bakas, I. |
1996-11-01
We use soliton techniques of the two-dimensional reduced {beta}-function equations to obtain nontrivial string backgrounds from flat space. These solutions are characterized by two integers ({ital n},{ital m}) referring to the soliton numbers of the metric and axion-dilaton sectors, respectively. We show that the Nappi-Witten universe associated with the SL(2){times}SU(2)/SO(1,1){times}U(1) CFT coset arises as a (1,1) soliton in this fashion for certain values of the moduli parameters, while for other values of the soliton moduli we arrive at the SL(2)/SO(1,1){times}SO(1,1){sup 2} background. Ordinary four-dimensional black holes arise as two-dimensional (2,0) solitons, while the Euclidean wormhole background is described as a (0,2) soliton on flat space. The soliton transformations correspond to specific elements of the string Geroch group. These could be used as a starting point for exploring the role of {ital U} dualities in string compactifications to two dimensions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Phenomenology of a light scalar: The dilaton
Vecchi, Luca
2010-10-01
We make use of the language of nonlinear realizations to analyze electroweak symmetry breaking scenarios in which a light dilaton emerges from the breaking of a nearly conformal strong dynamics and compare the phenomenology of the dilaton to that of the well-motivated light composite Higgs scenario. We argue that - in addition to departures in the decay/production rates into massless gauge bosons mediated by the conformal anomaly - characterizing features of the light dilaton scenario are enhancements in off-shell events at high invariant mass involving two longitudinally polarized vector bosons and a dilaton, and tree-level flavor violating processes. Accommodating both electroweak precision measurements and flavor constraints appears especially challenging in the ambiguous scenario in which the Higgs and the dilaton fields strongly mix. We show that warped higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking are explicit and tractable realizations of this limiting case. The relation between the naive radion profile often adopted in the study of holographic realizations of the light dilaton scenario and the actual dynamical dilaton field is clarified in the Appendix.
Magnetic strings in dilaton gravity
Dehghani, M.H.
2005-03-15
First, I present two new classes of magnetic rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. The first class of solutions yields a four-dimensional spacetime with a longitudinal magnetic field generated by a static or spinning magnetic string. I find that these solutions have no curvature singularity and no horizons, but have a conic geometry. In these spacetimes, when the rotation parameter does not vanish, there exists an electric field, and therefore the spinning string has a net electric charge which is proportional to the rotation parameter. The second class of solutions yields a spacetime with an angular magnetic field. These solutions have no curvature singularity, no horizon, and no conical singularity. The net electric charge of the strings in these spacetimes is proportional to their velocities. Second, I obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. I argue that these solutions can present horizonless spacetimes with conic singularity, if one chooses the parameters of the solutions suitable. I also use the counterterm method and compute the conserved quantities of these spacetimes.
Thermodynamics of Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai
2008-08-15
We show that all thermodynamic quantities of the Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in three dimensions can be obtained from the dilaton and its potential of two-dimensional dilaton gravity through dimensional reduction. These are all between nonrotating uncharged BTZ (Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli) black hole (NBTZ) and charged BTZ black hole (CBTZ)
Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals
Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC
2011-06-28
We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.
Black hole non-modal linear stability: the Schwarzschild (A)dS cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dotti, Gustavo
2016-10-01
The non-modal linear stability of the Schwarzschild black hole established in Dotti (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 191101) is generalized to the case of a non-negative cosmological constant Λ. Two gauge invariant combinations G ± of perturbed scalars made out of the Weyl tensor and its first covariant derivative are found such that the map [{h}α β ]\\to ({G}-([{h}α β ]),{G}+([{h}α β ])) with domain the set of equivalent classes [{h}α β ] under gauge transformations of solutions of the linearized Einstein’s equation, is invertible. The way to reconstruct a representative of [{h}α β ] in terms of ({G}-,{G}+) is given. It is proved that, for an arbitrary perturbation consistent with the background asymptote, {G}+ and {G}- are bounded in the the outer static region. At large times, the perturbation decays leaving a linearized Kerr black hole around the Schwarzschild or Schwarschild de Sitter background solution. For negative cosmological constant it is shown that there are choices of boundary conditions at the time-like boundary under which the Schwarzschild anti de Sitter black hole is unstable. The root of Chandrasekhar’s duality relating odd and even modes is exhibited, and some technicalities related to this duality and omitted in the original proof of the {{Λ }}=0 case are explained in detail.
Non-abelian solutions of d= 4 + 1 Einstein-Yang-Mills and Yang-Mills-dilaton theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radu, E.; Shnir, Ya.; Tchrakian, D. H.
2010-03-01
We construct static, asymptotically flat solutions of SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in 4 + 1 dimensions, subject to bi-azimuthal symmetry. The results are compared with similar solutions of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-dilaton model. Both particle-like and black hole solutions are considered. The text was submitted by the authors in English.
Thermodynamics of rotating solutions in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity
Sheykhi, A.; Riazi, N.; Pakravan, J.; Dehghani, M. H.
2006-10-15
We construct a class of charged, rotating solutions of (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with cylindrical or toroidal horizons in the presence of Liouville-type potentials and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can represent black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We also compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, mass and angular momentum of the black brane solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We find a Smarr-type formula and perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity in the canonical ensemble. We find that the system is thermally stable when the coupling constant between the dilaton and matter field {alpha}{<=}1, while for {alpha}>1 the system has an unstable phase. This shows that the dilaton field makes the solution unstable, while it is stable even in Lovelock gravity.
Dilaton cosmology, noncommutativity, and generalized uncertainty principle
Vakili, Babak
2008-02-15
The effects of noncommutativity and of the existence of a minimal length on the phase space of a dilatonic cosmological model are investigated. The existence of a minimum length results in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a deformed Heisenberg algebra between the minisuperspace variables and their momenta operators. I extend these deformed commutating relations to the corresponding deformed Poisson algebra. For an exponential dilaton potential, the exact classical and quantum solutions in the commutative and noncommutative cases, and some approximate analytical solutions in the case of GUP, are presented and compared.
First law of black Saturn thermodynamics
Rogatko, Marek
2007-06-15
The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.
Interpreting the 750 GeV diphoton excess in the minimal dilaton model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Junjie; Shang, Liangliang; Su, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jinya
2016-05-01
We try to interpret the 750 GeV diphoton excess in the minimal dilaton model, which extends the SM by adding one linearized dilaton field and vector-like fermions. We first show by analytic formulas in this framework that the production rates of the γ γ , gg, Zγ , ZZ, WW^*, tbar{t}, and hh signals at the 750 GeV resonance are only sensitive to the dilaton-Higgs mixing angle θ _S and the parameter η ≡ v N_X/f, where f is the dilaton decay constant and N_X denotes the number of the fermions. Then we scan the two parameters by considering various theoretical and experimental constraints to find the solutions to the diphoton excess. We conclude that the model can predict the central value of the diphoton rate without conflicting with any constraints. The signatures of our explanation at the LHC Run II and the vacuum stability at high energy scale are also discussed.
Linear mode stability of the Kerr-Newman black hole and its quasinormal modes.
Dias, Óscar J C; Godazgar, Mahdi; Santos, Jorge E
2015-04-17
We provide strong evidence that, up to 99.999% of extremality, Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs) are linear mode stable within Einstein-Maxwell theory. We derive and solve, numerically, a coupled system of two partial differential equations for two gauge invariant fields that describe the most general linear perturbations of a KNBH. We determine the quasinormal mode (QNM) spectrum of the KNBH as a function of its three parameters and find no unstable modes. In addition, we find that the lowest radial overtone QNMs that are connected continuously to the gravitational ℓ=m=2 Schwarzschild QNM dominate the spectrum for all values of the parameter space (m is the azimuthal number of the wave function and ℓ measures the number of nodes along the polar direction). Furthermore, the (lowest radial overtone) QNMs with ℓ=m approach Reω=mΩH(ext) and Imω=0 at extremality; this is a universal property for any field of arbitrary spin |s|≤2 propagating on a KNBH background (ω is the wave frequency and ΩH(ext) the black hole angular velocity at extremality). We compare our results with available perturbative results in the small charge or small rotation regimes and find good agreement. PMID:25933301
Linear Mode Stability of the Kerr-Newman Black Hole and Its Quasinormal Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Godazgar, Mahdi; Santos, Jorge E.
2015-04-01
We provide strong evidence that, up to 99.999% of extremality, Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs) are linear mode stable within Einstein-Maxwell theory. We derive and solve, numerically, a coupled system of two partial differential equations for two gauge invariant fields that describe the most general linear perturbations of a KNBH. We determine the quasinormal mode (QNM) spectrum of the KNBH as a function of its three parameters and find no unstable modes. In addition, we find that the lowest radial overtone QNMs that are connected continuously to the gravitational ℓ=m =2 Schwarzschild QNM dominate the spectrum for all values of the parameter space (m is the azimuthal number of the wave function and ℓ measures the number of nodes along the polar direction). Furthermore, the (lowest radial overtone) QNMs with ℓ=m approach Re ω =m ΩHext and Im ω =0 at extremality; this is a universal property for any field of arbitrary spin |s |≤2 propagating on a KNBH background (ω is the wave frequency and ΩHext the black hole angular velocity at extremality). We compare our results with available perturbative results in the small charge or small rotation regimes and find good agreement.
Linear mode stability of the Kerr-Newman black hole and its quasinormal modes.
Dias, Óscar J C; Godazgar, Mahdi; Santos, Jorge E
2015-04-17
We provide strong evidence that, up to 99.999% of extremality, Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs) are linear mode stable within Einstein-Maxwell theory. We derive and solve, numerically, a coupled system of two partial differential equations for two gauge invariant fields that describe the most general linear perturbations of a KNBH. We determine the quasinormal mode (QNM) spectrum of the KNBH as a function of its three parameters and find no unstable modes. In addition, we find that the lowest radial overtone QNMs that are connected continuously to the gravitational ℓ=m=2 Schwarzschild QNM dominate the spectrum for all values of the parameter space (m is the azimuthal number of the wave function and ℓ measures the number of nodes along the polar direction). Furthermore, the (lowest radial overtone) QNMs with ℓ=m approach Reω=mΩH(ext) and Imω=0 at extremality; this is a universal property for any field of arbitrary spin |s|≤2 propagating on a KNBH background (ω is the wave frequency and ΩH(ext) the black hole angular velocity at extremality). We compare our results with available perturbative results in the small charge or small rotation regimes and find good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winstanley, E.; Sarbach, O.
2002-02-01
Using a recently developed perturbation formalism based on curvature quantities, we complete our investigation of the linear stability of black holes and solitons with Yang-Mills hair and a negative cosmological constant. We show that those solutions which have no linear instabilities under odd- and even-parity spherically symmetric perturbations remain stable under even-parity, linear, non-spherically symmetric perturbations. Together with the result from a previous work, we have therefore established the existence of stable hairy black holes and solitons with anti-de Sitter asymptotic.
Nonmetricity and torsion induced by dilaton gravity in two dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adak, M.
2006-05-01
We develop a theory in which there are couplings amongst Dirac spinor, dilaton and non-Riemannian gravity and explore the nature of connection-induced dilaton couplings to gravity and Dirac spinor when the theory is reformulated in terms of the Levi-Civita connection. After presenting some exact solutions without spinors, we investigate the minimal spinor couplings to the model and in conclusion we cannot find any nontrivial dilaton couplings to spinor.
Hou, Zhipeng; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Ding, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Enke; Xi, Xuekui; Wu, Guangheng; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong
2016-01-01
Black Phosphorus (BP) is presently attracting immense research interest on the global level due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential application in optoelectronics and flexible devices. It was theoretically predicted that BP has a large direction-dependent electrical and magnetotransport anisotropy. Investigations on magnetotransport of BP may therefore provide a new platform for studying the nature of electron transport in layered materials. However, to the best of our knowledge, magnetotransport studies, especially the anisotropic magnetoresistance (MR) effect in layered BP, are rarely reported. Here, we report a large linear MR up to 510% at a magnetic field of 7 Tesla in single crystals of BP. Analysis of the temperature and angle dependence of MR revealed that the large linear MR in our sample originates from mobility fluctuations. Furthermore, we reveal that the large linear MR of layered BP in fact follows a three-dimensional behavior rather than a two-dimensional one. Our results have implications to both the fundamental understanding and magnetoresistive device applications of BP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Zhipeng; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Ding, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Enke; Xi, Xuekui; Wu, Guangheng; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong
2016-03-01
Black Phosphorus (BP) is presently attracting immense research interest on the global level due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential application in optoelectronics and flexible devices. It was theoretically predicted that BP has a large direction-dependent electrical and magnetotransport anisotropy. Investigations on magnetotransport of BP may therefore provide a new platform for studying the nature of electron transport in layered materials. However, to the best of our knowledge, magnetotransport studies, especially the anisotropic magnetoresistance (MR) effect in layered BP, are rarely reported. Here, we report a large linear MR up to 510% at a magnetic field of 7 Tesla in single crystals of BP. Analysis of the temperature and angle dependence of MR revealed that the large linear MR in our sample originates from mobility fluctuations. Furthermore, we reveal that the large linear MR of layered BP in fact follows a three-dimensional behavior rather than a two-dimensional one. Our results have implications to both the fundamental understanding and magnetoresistive device applications of BP.
Hou, Zhipeng; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Ding, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Enke; Xi, Xuekui; Wu, Guangheng; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong
2016-01-01
Black Phosphorus (BP) is presently attracting immense research interest on the global level due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential application in optoelectronics and flexible devices. It was theoretically predicted that BP has a large direction-dependent electrical and magnetotransport anisotropy. Investigations on magnetotransport of BP may therefore provide a new platform for studying the nature of electron transport in layered materials. However, to the best of our knowledge, magnetotransport studies, especially the anisotropic magnetoresistance (MR) effect in layered BP, are rarely reported. Here, we report a large linear MR up to 510% at a magnetic field of 7 Tesla in single crystals of BP. Analysis of the temperature and angle dependence of MR revealed that the large linear MR in our sample originates from mobility fluctuations. Furthermore, we reveal that the large linear MR of layered BP in fact follows a three-dimensional behavior rather than a two-dimensional one. Our results have implications to both the fundamental understanding and magnetoresistive device applications of BP. PMID:27030141
Hou, Zhipeng; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Ding, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Enke; Xi, Xuekui; Wu, Guangheng; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong
2016-01-01
Black Phosphorus (BP) is presently attracting immense research interest on the global level due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential application in optoelectronics and flexible devices. It was theoretically predicted that BP has a large direction-dependent electrical and magnetotransport anisotropy. Investigations on magnetotransport of BP may therefore provide a new platform for studying the nature of electron transport in layered materials. However, to the best of our knowledge, magnetotransport studies, especially the anisotropic magnetoresistance (MR) effect in layered BP, are rarely reported. Here, we report a large linear MR up to 510% at a magnetic field of 7 Tesla in single crystals of BP. Analysis of the temperature and angle dependence of MR revealed that the large linear MR in our sample originates from mobility fluctuations. Furthermore, we reveal that the large linear MR of layered BP in fact follows a three-dimensional behavior rather than a two-dimensional one. Our results have implications to both the fundamental understanding and magnetoresistive device applications of BP. PMID:27030141
High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus.
Qiao, Jingsi; Kong, Xianghua; Hu, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Feng; Ji, Wei
2014-07-21
Two-dimensional crystals are emerging materials for nanoelectronics. Development of the field requires candidate systems with both a high carrier mobility and, in contrast to graphene, a sufficiently large electronic bandgap. Here we present a detailed theoretical investigation of the atomic and electronic structure of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) to predict its electrical and optical properties. This system has a direct bandgap, tunable from 1.51 eV for a monolayer to 0.59 eV for a five-layer sample. We predict that the mobilities are hole-dominated, rather high and highly anisotropic. The monolayer is exceptional in having an extremely high hole mobility (of order 10,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and anomalous elastic properties which reverse the anisotropy. Light absorption spectra indicate linear dichroism between perpendicular in-plane directions, which allows optical determination of the crystalline orientation and optical activation of the anisotropic transport properties. These results make few-layer BP a promising candidate for future electronics.
Dilaton stabilization in three-generation heterotic string model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beye, Florian; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kuwakino, Shogo
2016-09-01
We study dilaton stabilization in heterotic string models. By utilizing the asymmetric orbifold construction, we construct an explicit three-generation model whose matter content in the visible sector is the supersymmetric standard model with additional vectorlike matter. This model does not contain any geometric moduli fields except the dilaton field. Model building at a symmetry enhancement point in moduli space enlarges the rank of the hidden gauge group. By analyzing multiple hidden gauge sectors, the dilaton field is stabilized by the racetrack mechanism. We also discuss a supersymmetry breaking scenario and F-term uplifting.
Linear perturbations of black holes: stability, quasi-normal modes and tails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhidenko, Alexander
2009-03-01
Black holes have their proper oscillations, which are called the quasi-normal modes. The proper oscillations of astrophysical black holes can be observed in the nearest future with the help of gravitational wave detectors. Quasi-normal modes are also very important in the context of testing of the stability of black objects, the anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence and in higher dimensional theories, such as the brane-world scenarios and string theory. This dissertation reviews a number of works, which provide a thorough study of the quasi-normal spectrum of a wide class of black holes in four and higher dimensions for fields of various spin and gravitational perturbations. We have studied numerically the dependance of the quasi-normal modes on a number of factors, such as the presence of the cosmological constant, the Gauss-Bonnet parameter or the aether in the space-time, the dependance of the spectrum on parameters of the black hole and fields under consideration. By the analysis of the quasi-normal spectrum, we have studied the stability of higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black holes, Kaluza-Klein black holes with squashed horizons, Gauss-Bonnet black holes and black strings. Special attention is paid to the evolution of massive fields in the background of various black holes. We have considered their quasi-normal ringing and the late-time tails. In addition, we present two new numerical techniques: a generalisation of the Nollert improvement of the Frobenius method for higher dimensional problems and a qualitatively new method, which allows to calculate quasi-normal frequencies for black holes, which metrics are not known analytically.
Proposal for a geophysical search for dilatonic waves
Shiomi, Sachie
2008-08-15
We propose a new method of searching for the composition-dependent dilatonic waves, predicted by unified theories of strings. In this method, Earth's surface-gravity changes due to translational motions of its inner core, excited by dilatonic waves, are searched for by using superconducting gravimeters. This method has its best sensitivity at the frequency of {approx}7x10{sup -5} Hz, which is lower than the sensitive frequencies of previous proposals using gravitational wave detectors: {approx}10 to 1000 Hz. Using available results of surface-gravity measurements with superconducting gravimeters and assuming a simple Earth model, we present preliminary upper limits on the energy density of a stochastic background of massless dilatons at the low frequency. Though the results are currently limited by the uncertainty in the Earth model, this method has a potential of detecting dilatonic waves in a new window.
Minimal dilaton model and the diphoton excess
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Bakul; Isaacson, Joshua; Mohan, Kirtimaan A.
2016-08-01
In light of the recent 750 GeV diphoton excesses reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, we investigate the possibility of explaining this excess using the minimal dilaton model. We find that this model is able to explain the observed excess with the presence of additional top partner(s), with the same charge as the top quark, but with mass in the TeV region. First, we constrain model parameters using in addition to the 750 GeV diphoton signal strength, precision electroweak tests, single top production measurements, as well as Higgs signal strength data collected in the earlier runs of the LHC. In addition we discuss interesting phenomenology that could arise in this model, relevant for future runs of the LHC.
Singularity-free interaction in dilaton-Maxwell electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechkin, O. V.; Mosharev, P. A.
2016-09-01
An effective potential is created for the dynamics of a test particle, which preserves dilatation symmetry for nonlinear static dilaton-Maxwell background. It is found that the central interaction in this theory is singularity-free everywhere; it vanishes at short distances and demonstrates Coulomb behavior far from the source. It is shown that static and spherically symmetric source behaves like a soliton: it has the finite energy characteristics that are inversely proportional to the dilaton-Maxwell coupling constant.
Brane Solutions of Gravity-Dilaton-Axion Systems
Bergshoeff, E.; Collinucci, A.; Gran, U.; Roest, D.; Vandoren, S.
2005-04-25
We consider general properties of brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems. We focus on the case of 7-branes and instantons. In both cases we show that besides the standard solutions there are new deformed solutions whose charges take value in any of the three conjugacy classes of SL(2, R). In the case of 7-branes we find that for each conjugacy class the 7-brane solutions are 1/2 BPS. Next, we discuss the relation of the 7-branes with the DW/QFT correspondence. In particular, we show that the two (inequivalent) 7-brane solutions in the SO(2) conjugacy class have a nice interpretation as a distribution of (the so-called near horizon limit of) branes. This suggests a way to define the near-horizon limit of a 7-brane.In the case of instantons only the solutions corresponding to the R conjugacy class are 1/2 BPS. The solutions corresponding to the other two conjugacy classess correspond to non-extremal deformations. We first discuss an alternative description of these solutions as the geodesic motion of a particle in a two-dimensional AdS2 space. Next, we discuss the instanton-soliton correspondence. In particular, we show that for two of the conjugacy classes the instanton action in D dimensions is given by the mass of the corresponding soliton which is a (non-extremal) black hole solution in D+1 dimension. We speculate on the role of the non-extremal instantons in calculating higher-derivative corrections to the string effective action and, after a generalization from a flat to a curved AdS5 background, on their role in the AdS/CFT corresopondence.
Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings
Teo, Edward
2006-01-15
We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.
Randall-Sundrum scenario with bulk dilaton and torsion
Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Somasri; SenGupta, Soumitra
2009-06-15
We consider a string-inspired torsion-dilaton-gravity action in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario and show that, in an effective four-dimensional theory on the visible brane, the rank-2 antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field (source of torsion) is exponentially suppressed. The result is similar to our earlier result in [B. Mukhopadhyaya, S. Sen, and S. SenGupta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 121101 (2002); Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 259902(E) (2002)], where no dilaton was present in the bulk. This offers an explanation of the apparent invisibility of torsion in our space-time. However, in this case the trilinear couplings {approx}TeV{sup -1} between the dilaton and torsion may lead to new signals in TeV-scale experiments, bearing the stamp of extra warped dimensions.
[ital N]=2 supersymmetry in two-dimensional dilaton gravity
Nelson, W.M.; Park, Y. )
1993-11-15
Actions for [ital D]=2, [ital N]=2 supergravity coupled to a scalar field are calculated, and it is shown that the most general power-counting renormalizable dilaton gravity action has an [ital N]=2 locally supersymmetric extension. The presence of chiral terms in the action leads one to hope that nonrenormalization theorems similar to those in global SUSY will apply; this would eliminate some of the renormalization ambiguities which plague ordinary bosonic (and [ital N]=1) dilaton gravity. To investigate this, the model is studied in the superconformal gauge, where it is found that one chiral term becomes nonchiral, so that only one term is safe from renormalization.
Generalized dilaton-Maxwell cosmic string and wall solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, John R.
2006-09-01
The class of static solutions found by Gibbons and Wells for dilaton-electrodynamics in flat spacetime, which describe nontopological strings and walls that trap magnetic flux, is extended to a class of dynamical solutions supporting arbitrarily large, nondissipative traveling waves, using techniques previously applied to global and local topological defects. These solutions can then be used in conjunction with S-duality to obtain more general solitonic solutions for various axidilaton-Maxwell theories. As an example, a set of dynamical solutions is found for axion, dilaton, and Maxwell fields in low energy heterotic string theory using the SL(2,R) invariance of the equations of motion.
Inflationary Dilatonic de Sitter Universe from { N} = 4 Super-Yang Mills Theory Perturbed by Scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurtado, John Quiroga
In this paper a quantum { N} = 4 super-Yang Mills theory perturbed by dilaton-coupled scalars, is considered. The induced effective action for such a theory is calculated on a dilaton-gravitational background using the conformal anomaly found via AdS/CFT correspondence. Considering such an effective action (using the large N method) as a quantum correction to the classical gravity action with cosmological constant we study the effect from dilaton to the scale factor (which corresponds to the inflationary universe without dilaton). It is shown that, depending on the initial conditions for the dilaton, the dilaton may slow down, or accelerate, the inflation process. At late times, the dilaton is decaying exponentially. At the end of this work, we consider the question how the perturbation of the solution for the scale factor affects the stability of the solution for the equations of motion and therefore the stability of the Inflationary Universe, which could be eternal.
Supersymmetry breaking and dilaton stabilization in string gas cosmology
Mishra, Sasmita; Xue, Wei; Brandenberger, Robert; Yajnik, Urjit E-mail: xueweiphy@gmail.com E-mail: yajnik@iitb.ac.in
2012-09-01
In this Note we study supersymmetry breaking via gaugino condensation in string gas cosmology. We show that the same gaugino condensate which is introduced to stabilize the dilaton breaks supersymmetry. We study the constraints on the scale of supersymmetry breaking which this mechanism leads to.
Collapse of charged scalar field in dilaton gravity
Borkowska, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Moderski, Rafal
2011-04-15
We elaborated the gravitational collapse of a self-gravitating complex charged scalar field in the context of the low-energy limit of the string theory, the so-called dilaton gravity. We begin with the regular spacetime and follow the evolution through the formation of an apparent horizon and the final central singularity.
Solution of the dilaton problem in open bosonic string theories
Bern, Z. ); Dunbar, D.C. )
1991-01-01
One of the most remarkable features of string theories is that they seem to provide a framework for a consistent theory of quantum gravity which is unified with all other forces. String theories fall into the two basic, a priori equally interesting, categories of open and closed string theories. For the past five years virtually all attention has been focused on purely closed string theories even though the reincarnation of string theory began with the discovery of anomaly cancellation and finiteness in the Green-Schwarz open superstring. It is the authors' purpose in this essay to rekindle interest in open string theories as potential theories of nature, including gravity. All string theories naively contain a massless dilaton which couples with the strength of gravity in direct violation of experiment. They present a simple mechanism for giving the dilaton a mass in unoriented open bosonic string theories.
Structures of general relativity in dilaton-Maxwell electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechkin, O. V.; Mosharev, P. A.
2016-08-01
It is shown that electro (magneto) static sector of Maxwell’s electrodynamics coupled to the dilaton field in a string theory form possesses the symmetry group of the stationary General Relativity in vacuum. Performing the Ernst formalism, we develope a technique for generation of exact solutions in this modified electrodynamics on the base of the normalized Ehlers symmetry transformation. In the electrostatic case, we construct and study a general class of spherically symmetric solutions that describes a pointlike source of the Coulomb type. It is demonstrated that this source is characterized by finite and singularity-free interaction at short distances. Also it is established that the total electrostatic energy of this source is finite and inversely proportional to the dilaton-Maxwell coupling constant.
String's Current Induced by the Dilatonic Coupling of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimarães, Maria E. X.
The nature of an ordinary cosmic string1 in the framework of a scalar-tensor extension of gravity is investigated. It is shown that in this case, the dilaton field can act as a timelike or a spacelike current traveling along the string, and localized into it2. Apart from the fact that the current can not be formed after the string forming phase transition but exactly at the same time, since the dilaton is not an ordinary scalar field but a component of the gravitational interaction configuration would resemble very much the usual superconducting strings first proposed by Witten3. This means that a network of strings here produced would suffer from the vorton excess problem4, leading to an actual cosmological catastrophe from which one can derive strong constraints on the relevant theories.
Scale-invariant alternatives to general relativity. II. Dilaton properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karananas, Georgios K.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2016-04-01
In the present paper, we revisit gravitational theories which are invariant under TDiffs—transverse (volume-preserving) diffeomorphisms and global scale transformations. It is known that these theories can be rewritten in an equivalent diffeomorphism-invariant form with an action including an integration constant (cosmological constant for the particular case of non-scale-invariant unimodular gravity). The presence of this integration constant, in general, breaks explicitly scale invariance and induces a runaway potential for the (otherwise massless) dilaton, associated with the determinant of the metric tensor. We show, however, that if the metric carries mass dimension [GeV] -2 , the scale invariance of the system is preserved, unlike the situation in theories in which the metric has mass dimension different from -2 . The dilaton remains massless and couples to other fields only through derivatives, without any conflict with observations. We observe that one can define a specific limit for fields and their derivatives (in particular, the dilaton goes to zero, potentially related to the small distance domain of the theory) in which the only singular terms in the action correspond to the Higgs mass and the cosmological constant. We speculate that the self-consistency of the theory may require the regularity of the action, leading to the absence of the bare Higgs mass and cosmological constant, whereas their small finite values may be generated by nonperturbative effects.
Chiral primordial gravitational waves from dilaton induced delayed chromonatural inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obata, Ippei; Soda, Jiro; CLEO Collaboration
2016-06-01
We study inflation driven by a dilaton and an axion, both of which are coupled to a SU(2) gauge field. We find that the inflation driven by the dilaton occurs in the early stage of inflation during which the gauge field grows due to the gauge-kinetic function. When the energy density of magnetic fields catches up with that of electric fields, chromonatural inflation takes over in the late stage of inflation, which we call delayed chromonatural inflation. Thus, the delayed chromonatural inflation driven by the axion and the gauge field is induced by the dilaton. The interesting outcome of the model is the generation of chiral primordial gravitational waves on small scales. Since the gauge field is inert in the early stage of inflation, it is viable in contrast to the conventional chromonatural inflation. We find the parameter region where chiral gravitational waves are generated in a frequency range higher than nHz, which are potentially detectable in future gravitational wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays such as DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO), evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), and Square Kilometer Array (SKA).
Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.
2016-05-01
We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.
Quantum singularities in (2+1) dimensional matter coupled black hole spacetimes
Unver, O.; Gurtug, O.
2010-10-15
Quantum singularities considered in the 3D Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime by Pitelli and Letelier [Phys. Rev. D 77, 124030 (2008)] is extended to charged BTZ and 3D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes. The occurrence of naked singularities in the Einstein-Maxwell extension of the BTZ spacetime both in linear and nonlinear electrodynamics as well as in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes are analyzed with the quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We show that with the inclusion of the matter fields, the conical geometry near r=0 is removed and restricted classes of solutions are admitted for the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Hence, the classical central singularity at r=0 turns out to be quantum mechanically singular for quantum particles obeying the Klein-Gordon equation but nonsingular for fermions obeying the Dirac equation. Explicit calculations reveal that the occurrence of the timelike naked singularities in the considered spacetimes does not violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis as far as the Dirac fields are concerned. The role of horizons that clothes the singularity in the black hole cases is replaced by repulsive potential barrier against the propagation of Dirac fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho; Lazov, Boian
2016-04-01
We consider the problem for the classification of static and asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton spacetimes with a photon sphere. It is first proven that the photon spheres in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity have constant mean and constant scalar curvature. Then we derive some relations between the mean curvature and the physical characteristics of the photon spheres. Using further the symmetries of the dimensionally reduced Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton field equations we show that the lapse function, the electrostatic potential, and the dilaton field are functionally dependent in the presence of a photon sphere. Using all this we prove the main classification theorem by explicitly constructing all Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton solutions possessing a nonextremal photon sphere.
Baryon asymmetry from hypermagnetic helicity in dilaton hypercharge electromagnetism
Bamba, Kazuharu
2006-12-15
The generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe from the hypermagnetic helicity, the physical interpretation of which is given in terms of hypermagnetic knots, is studied in inflationary cosmology, taking into account the breaking of the conformal invariance of hypercharge electromagnetic fields through both a coupling with the dilaton and with a pseudoscalar field. It is shown that, if the electroweak phase transition is strongly first order and the present amplitude of the generated magnetic fields on the horizon scale is sufficiently large, a baryon asymmetry with a sufficient magnitude to account for the observed baryon-to-entropy ratio can be generated.
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-11-01
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field σ which has a very large VEV f ≫mHiggs. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings ζi, where ζi ≲ mHiggs2 /f2. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of σ in the ζi → 0 limit. The singlet field σ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.
Light wave propagation through a dilaton-Maxwell domain wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, J. R.; Schulze-Halberg, A.
2015-10-01
We consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a dilaton-Maxwell domain wall of the type introduced by Gibbons and Wells [G. W. Gibbons and C. G. Wells, Classical and Quantum Gravity 11, 2499 (1994)]. It is found that if such a wall exists within our observable Universe, it would be absurdly thick, or else have a magnetic field in its core which is much stronger than observed intergalactic fields. We conclude that it is highly improbable that any such wall is physically realized.
Phase structures of 4D stringy charged black holes in canonical ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Qiang; Lu, J. X.; Tan, Xiao-Jun
2016-08-01
We study the thermodynamics and phase structures of the asymptotically flat dilatonic black holes in 4 dimensions, placed in a cavity a la York, in string theory for an arbitrary dilaton coupling. We consider these charged black systems in canonical ensemble for which the temperature at the wall of and the charge inside the cavity are fixed. We find that the dilaton coupling plays the key role in the underlying phase structures. The connection of these black holes to higher dimensional brane systems via diagonal (double) and/or direct dimensional reductions indicates that the phase structures of the former may exhaust all possible ones of the latter, which are more difficult to study, under conditions of similar settings. Our study also shows that a diagonal (double) dimensional reduction preserves the underlying phase structure while a direct dimensional reduction has the potential to change it.
Dyonic AdS 4 black hole entropy and attractors via entropy function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goulart, Prieslei
2016-09-01
Using the Sen's entropy function formalism, we compute the entropy for the extremal dyonic black hole solutions of theories in the presence of dilaton field coupled to the field strength and a dilaton potential. We solve the attractor equations analytically and determine the near horizon metric, the value of the scalar fields and the electric field on the horizon, and consequently the entropy of these black holes. The attractor mechanism plays a very important role for these systems, and after studying the simplest systems involving dilaton fields, we propose a general solution for the value of the scalar field on the horizon, which allows us to solve the attractor equations for gauged supergravity theories in AdS 4 spaces. In particular, we derive an expression for the dyonic black hole entropy for the {N}=8 gauged supergravity in 4 dimensions which does not contain explicitly the gauge parameter of the potential.
Dyonic AdS 4 black hole entropy and attractors via entropy function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goulart, Prieslei
2016-09-01
Using the Sen's entropy function formalism, we compute the entropy for the extremal dyonic black hole solutions of theories in the presence of dilaton field coupled to the field strength and a dilaton potential. We solve the attractor equations analytically and determine the near horizon metric, the value of the scalar fields and the electric field on the horizon, and consequently the entropy of these black holes. The attractor mechanism plays a very important role for these systems, and after studying the simplest systems involving dilaton fields, we propose a general solution for the value of the scalar field on the horizon, which allows us to solve the attractor equations for gauged supergravity theories in AdS 4 spaces. In particular, we derive an expression for the dyonic black hole entropy for the N=8 gauged supergravity in 4 dimensions which does not contain explicitly the gauge parameter of the potential.
Could fermion masses play a role in the stabilization of the dilaton in cosmology?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabo, Alejandro; Brandenberger, Robert
2009-02-01
We study the possibility that the Dilaton is stabilized by the contribution of fermion masses to its effective potential. We consider the Dilaton gravity action in four dimensions to which we add a mass term for a Dirac fermion. Such an action describes the interaction of the Dilaton with the fermions in the Yang-Mills sector of the coupled supergravity/super-Yang-Mills action which emerges as the low energy effective action of superstring theory after the extra spatial dimensions have been fixed. The Dilaton couples to the Fermion mass term via the usual exponential factor of this field which multiplies the non-kinetic terms of the matter Lagrangian, if we work in the Einstein frame. In the kinetic part of the Fermion action in the Einstein frame the Dilaton does not enter. Such masses can be generated in several ways: they can arise as a consequence of flux about internal spatial dimensions, they may arise as thermal fermion masses in a quasi-static phase in the early universe, and they will arise after the breaking of supersymmetry at late times. The vacuum contribution to the potential for the Dilaton is evaluated up to two loops. The result shows a minimum which could stabilize the Dilaton for reasonable ranges of parameter values.
E-ELT constraints on runaway dilaton scenarios
Martinelli, M.; Calabrese, E.; Martins, C.J.A.P. E-mail: erminia.calabrese@physics.ox.ac.uk
2015-11-01
We use a combination of simulated cosmological probes and astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant α, as expected from the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), to constrain the class of string-inspired runaway dilaton models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We consider three different scenarios for the dark sector couplings in the model and discuss the observational differences between them. We improve previously existing analyses investigating in detail the degeneracies between the parameters ruling the coupling of the dilaton field to the other components of the universe, and studying how the constraints on these parameters change for different fiducial cosmologies. We find that if the couplings are small (e.g., α{sub b} = α{sub V} ∼ 0) these degeneracies strongly affect the constraining power of future data, while if they are sufficiently large (e.g., α{sub b} ∼> 10{sup −5}−α{sub V} ∼> 0.05, as in agreement with current constraints) the degeneracies can be partially broken. We show that E-ELT will be able to probe some of this additional parameter space.
Energy Associated with the Gibbons-Maeda Dilaton Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa; Korunur, Murat; Acikgoz, Irfan
2006-12-01
In order to obtain energy and momentum (due to matter and fields including gravitation) distributions of the Gibbons-Maeda dilaton spacetime, we use the Møller energy-momentum prescription both in Einstein's theory of general relativity and teleparallel gravity. We find the same energy distribution for a given metric in both of these different gravitation theories. Under two limits, we also calculate energy associated with two other models such as the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton spacetime and the Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. The energy obtained is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any teleparallel model. Our result also sustains (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution for a given spacetime and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the Møller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept of energy and momentum (c) the hypothesis of Vagenas that there is a connection between the coefficients of the energy-momentum expression of Einstein and those of Møller.
Khan, M K I; Naznin, M
2013-10-01
breeds were lowered after fitting the linear regression. The co-efficient of determination (R(2)) of male and female black Bengal and Jamunapari goats kids similar.
Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu
2014-08-01
Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.
Family of dilatons and metrics for AdS/QCD models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vega, Alfredo; Cabrera, Paulina
2016-06-01
We explore some possibilities for obtaining useful metrics and dilatons for anti-de Sitter (AdS)/QCD models. As a guideline, we consider dilatons and/or metrics that on the one hand reproduce the mesonic spectrum, and that on the other hand allow us a correct implementation of chiral symmetry breaking in AdS/QCD models. We discuss two procedures: one is based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics techniques and the other considers the interpolation between some limits on dilatons and/or metrics.
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-09-26
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-09-26
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet fieldmore » $$\\sigma$$ which has a very large VEV $$f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $$\\zeta_i$$, where $$\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $$\\sigma$$ in the $$\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$$ limit. The singlet field $$\\sigma$$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.« less
Does Quantum Cosmology Predict a Constant Dilatonic Field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarenga, F. G.; Batista, A. B.; Fabris, J. C.
Quantum cosmology may permit to determine the initial conditions of the Universe. In particular, it may select a specific model between many possible classical models. In this work, we study a quantum cosmological model based on the string effective action coupled to matter. The Schutz's formalism is employed in the description of the fluid. A radiation fluid is considered. In this way, a time coordinate may be identified and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation reduces in the minisuperspace to a Schrödinger-like equation. It is shown that, under some quite natural assumptions, the expectation values indicate a null axionic field and a constant dilatonic field. At the same time the scale factor exhibits a bounce revealing a singularity-free cosmological model. In some cases, the mininum value of the scale factor can be related to the value of gravitational coupling.
Conformal dilaton gravity: Classical noninvariance gives rise to quantum invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio; Martín, Carmelo P.
2016-03-01
When quantizing conformal dilaton gravity, there is a conformal anomaly which starts at two-loop order. This anomaly stems from evanescent operators on the divergent parts of the effective action. The general form of the finite counterterm, which is necessary in order to insure cancellation of the Weyl anomaly to every order in perturbation theory, has been determined using only conformal invariance. Those finite counterterms do not have any inverse power of any mass scale in front of them (precisely because of conformal invariance), and then they are not negligible in the low-energy deep infrared limit. The general form of the ensuing modifications to the scalar field equation of motion has been determined, and some physical consequences have been extracted.
Holographic cosmic quintessence on the dilatonic brane world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Lin, Feng-Li
2002-02-01
Recently quintessence has been proposed to explain the observation data of supernovae indicating a time-varying cosmological constant and accelerating universe. Inspired by this and its mysterious origin, we look for the possibility that quintessence is the holographic dark matter dominating in the late time in the brane world scenarios. We consider both the cases of a static and moving brane in a dilaton gravity background. For the static brane we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method motivated by holographic renormalization group to study the intrinsic FRW cosmology on the brane and find the constraint on the bulk potential for quintessence. This constraint requires a negative slowly varying bulk potential which implies an anti-de Sitter-like bulk geometry and could be possibly realized from higher dimensional supergravities or string theory. We find a similar constraint for the moving brane cases and that the quintessence on it has the effect of a mildly time-varying Newton constant.
Static spherically symmetric monopole solutions in the presence of a dilaton field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forgács, Péter; Gyürüsi, József
1996-02-01
A numerical study of static, spherically symmetric monopole solutions of a spontaneously broken SU(2) gauge theory coupled to a dilation field is presented. Regular solutions seem to exist only up a maximal value of the dilaton coupling. In addition to the generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole a discrete family of regular solutions is found, corresponding to radial excitations absent in the theory without dilaton.
Dilaton and off-shell (non-critical string) effects in Boltzmann equation for species abundances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahanas, Ab; Mavromatos, Ne; Nanopoulos, Dv
In this work we derive the modifications to the Boltzmann equation governing the cosmic evolution of relic abundances induced by dilaton dissipative-source and non-critical-string terms in dilaton-driven non-equilibrium string Cosmologies. We also discuss briefly the most important phenomenological consequences, including modifications of the constraints on the available parameter space of cosmologically appealing particle physics models, imposed by recent precision data of astrophysical measurements.
Black rings and the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics
Rogatko, Marek
2005-10-01
We consider the problem of the physical process version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with additional (p+1)-form field strength and dilaton fields. The first order variations of mass, angular momentum and local charge for black ring are derived. From them we prove the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamic for stationary black rings.
Magnetic branes in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity
Sheykhi, A.; Riazi, N.; Dehghani, M. H.
2007-02-15
We construct two new classes of spacetimes generated by spinning and traveling magnetic sources in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (A)dS. The first class of solutions which yields a (n+1)-dimensional spacetime with a longitudinal magnetic field and k rotation parameters have no curvature singularity and no horizons, but have a conic geometry. We show that when one or more of the rotation parameters are nonzero, the spinning branes have a net electric charge that is proportional to the magnitude of the rotation parameters. The second class of solutions yields a static spacetime with an angular magnetic field and has no curvature singularity, no horizons, and no conical singularity. Although one may add linear momentum to the second class of solutions by a boost transformation, one does not obtain a new solution. We find that the net electric charge of these traveling branes with one or more nonzero boost parameters is proportional to the magnitude of the velocity of the branes. We also use the counterterm method and calculate the conserved quantities of the solutions.
Born-Infeld and charged black holes with non-linear source in f(T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Houndjo, Mahouton J. S.
2015-06-01
We investigate f(T) theory coupled with a nonlinear source of electrodynamics, for a spherically symmetric and static spacetime in 4D. We re-obtain the Born-Infeld and Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS solutions. We generalize the no-go theorem for any content that obeys the relationship Script T00=Script T11 for the energy-momentum tensor and a given set of tetrads. Our results show new classes of solutions where the metrics are related through b(r)=-Na(r). We do the introductory analysis showing that solutions are that of asymptotically flat black holes, with a singularity at the origin of the radial coordinate, covered by a single event horizon. We also reconstruct the action for this class of solutions and obtain the functional form f(T)=f0(-T)(N+3)/[2(N+1)] and Script LNED=Script L0(-F)(N+3)/[2(N+1)]. Using the Lagrangian density of Born-Infeld, we obtain a new class of charged black holes where the action reads f(T)=-16βBI[1-√1+(T/4βBI)].
Born-Infeld and charged black holes with non-linear source in f(T) gravity
Junior, Ednaldo L.B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Houndjo, Mahouton J.S. E-mail: esialg@gmail.com
2015-06-01
We investigate f(T) theory coupled with a nonlinear source of electrodynamics, for a spherically symmetric and static spacetime in 4D. We re-obtain the Born-Infeld and Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS solutions. We generalize the no-go theorem for any content that obeys the relationship T{sup 0}{sub 0}=T{sup 1}{sub 1} for the energy-momentum tensor and a given set of tetrads. Our results show new classes of solutions where the metrics are related through b(r)=−Na(r). We do the introductory analysis showing that solutions are that of asymptotically flat black holes, with a singularity at the origin of the radial coordinate, covered by a single event horizon. We also reconstruct the action for this class of solutions and obtain the functional form f(T)=f{sub 0}(−T){sup (N+3)/[2(N+1)]} and L{sub NED}=L{sub 0}(−F){sup (N+3)/[2(N+1)]}. Using the Lagrangian density of Born-Infeld, we obtain a new class of charged black holes where the action reads f(T)=−16β{sub BI}[1−√1+(T/4β{sub BI})].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukamoto, Naoki; Kimura, Masashi; Harada, Tomohiro
2014-01-01
We study high energy particle collisions around higher dimensional black holes. It is shown that the center of mass energy can be arbitrarily large in the vicinity of the event horizon like the Bañados, Silk and West (BSW) process in four dimensions if the following two conditions are satisfied: (i) the horizon is extremal and (ii) the parameters of either of the two colliding particles are fine-tuned, which is called a critical particle condition. We also show that a test particle which satisfies the critical particle condition can reach the event horizon from a distant region for a simple case. Finally, we discuss the relation between the BSW process and the linear instability of test fields around extremal black holes, the latter of which has been recently found by Aretakis [Commun. Math. Phys. 307, 17 (2011); Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré 12, 1491 (2011); J. Funct. Anal. 263, 2770 (2012); arXiv:1206.6598; Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 095010 (2013); Phys. Rev. D 87, 084052 (2013)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of topological black hole Lifshitz solutions in the presence of nonlinear exponential electrodynamics for Einstein-dilaton gravity. We show that the reality of Lifshitz supporting Maxwell matter fields exclude the negative horizon curvature solutions except for the asymptotic AdS case. Calculating the conserved and thermodynamical quantities, we obtain a Smarr type formula for the mass and confirm that thermodynamics first law is satisfied on the black hole horizon. Afterward, we study the thermal stability of our solutions and figure out the effects of different parameters on the stability of solutions under thermal perturbations. Next, we apply the gauge/gravity duality in order to calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy for a three-dimensional hydrodynamic system by using the pole method. Furthermore, we study the behavior of holographic conductivity for two-dimensional systems such as graphene. We consider linear Maxwell and nonlinear exponential electrodynamics separately and disclose the effect of nonlinearity on holographic conductivity. We indicate that holographic conductivity vanishes for z > 3 in the case of nonlinear electrodynamics while it does not in the linear Maxwell case. Finally, we solve perturbative additional field equations numerically and plot the behaviors of real and imaginary parts of conductivity for asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz cases. We present experimental results match with our numerical ones.
Weyl gauge-vector and complex dilaton scalar for conformal symmetry and its breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohanian, Hans C.
2016-03-01
Instead of the scalar "dilaton" field that is usually adopted to construct conformally invariant Lagrangians for gravitation, we here propose a hybrid construction, involving both a complex dilaton scalar and a Weyl gauge-vector, in accord with Weyl's original concept of a non-Riemannian conformal geometry with a transport law for length and time intervals, for which this gauge vector is required. Such a hybrid construction permits us to avoid the wrong sign of the dilaton kinetic term (the ghost problem) that afflicts the usual construction. The introduction of a Weyl gauge-vector and its interaction with the dilaton also has the collateral benefit of providing an explicit mechanism for spontaneous breaking of the conformal symmetry, whereby the dilaton and the Weyl gauge-vector acquire masses somewhat smaller than {m}_{P} by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Conformal symmetry breaking is assumed to precede inflation, which occurs later by a separate GUT or electroweak symmetry breaking, as in inflationary models based on the Higgs boson.
Kok, Maarten O; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Bal, Roland; Schuit, Jantine
2012-03-01
While attempts are being made to improve health promotion by following a linear Evidence-Based (EB) approach, the actors involved are aware that the quality of health promotion is not just a matter of supplying 'evidence-based' interventions to local practitioners, but the result of a situated coproduction process that depends on many factors. This paper explores what constitutes an intervention that works from the perspective of health promotion professionals (HPP), and how, according to them, the development and implementation of interventions should be improved. We interviewed 81 HPPs about the use of 10 health promotion interventions at 30 Municipality Health Services in The Netherlands. The HPPs described an intervention that works as something that produces its intended effects after being realized in a local situation. Interventions are realized by combining elements of a supplied intervention (e.g. a theory, artefacts) with elements that are situated in the local context (e.g. funding, local network). Interventions that are transferred contain implicit assumptions about local contexts, but it is often unclear what precisely constitutes an intervention and what is assumed of local contexts. An intervention that works is a situated configuration of aligned elements. A linear EB approach depends on the realization of the local circumstances in which 'evidence based' interventions can work. Various strategies are possible for approximating such circumstances, but the core assumption that the configuration that is realized in practice is similar to the 'evidence based' intervention seems unrealistic for most health promotion in The Netherlands. Under such circumstances, attention should shift from central quality assurance to the system of actors and the distributed actions and heterogeneous learning processes that together add up to interventions that work.
Bulk antisymmetric tensor fields coupled to a dilaton in a Randall-Sundrum model
Alencar, G.; Tahim, M. O.; Landim, R. R.; Muniz, C. R.
2010-11-15
A string-inspired three-form-dilaton-gravity model is studied in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. As expected, the rank-3 antisymmetric field is exponentially suppressed. For each mass level, the mass spectrum is bigger than the one for the Kalb-Ramond field. The coupling between the dilaton and the massless Kaluza-Klein mode of the three-form is calculated, and the coupling constant of the cubic interactions is obtained numerically. This coupling are of the order of Tev{sup -1}; therefore, there exists a possibility to find some signal of it at Tev scale.
Conformal Higgs, or Techni-Dilaton -- Composite Higgs Near Conformality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamawaki, Koichi
2011-01-01
In contrast to the folklore that Technicolor (TC) is a "Higgsless theory", we shall discuss existence of a composite Higgs boson, Techni-Dilaton (TD), a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the scale invariance in the Scale-invariant/Walking/Conformal TC (SWC TC) which generates a large anomalous dimension γm ≃ 1 in a wide region from the dynamical mass m = {O} ({TeV}) of the techni-fermion all the way up to the intrinsic scale ΛTC of the SWC TC (analogue of ΛQCD), where ΛTC is taken typically as the scale of the Extended TC scale ΛETC: ΛTC ≃ ΛETC 103 TeV (≫ m). All the techni-hadrons have mass on the same order {O}(m), which in SWC TC is extremely smaller than the intrinsic scale ΛTC ≃ ΛETC, in sharp contrast to QCD where both are of the same order. The mass of TD arises from the non-perturbative scale anomaly associated with the techni-fermion mass generation and is typically 500-600 GeV, even smaller than other techni-hadrons of the same order of {O}(m), in another contrast to QCD which is believed to have no scalar bar qq bound state lighter than other hadrons. We discuss the TD mass in various methods, Gauged NJL model via ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation, straightforward calculations in the ladder SD/ Bethe-Salpeter equation, and the holographic approach including techni-gluon condensate. The TD may be discovered in LHC.
Quasi-black holes: General features and purely field configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronnikov, K. A.; Zaslavskii, O. B.
2015-08-01
Objects that are on the threshold of forming the horizon but never collapse are called quasi-black holes (QBHs). We discuss the properties of the general spherically symmetric QBH metric without addressing its material source, including its limiting cases as the corresponding small parameter tends to zero. We then show that QBHs can exist among self-gravitating configurations of electromagnetic and dilatonic scalar fields without matter. These general results are illustrated by explicit examples of exact solutions.
Charged Particle Tunnels from the Einstein-Maxwell Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng
Considering the self-gravitation interaction and the unfixed background space-time, we study the Hawking radiation of the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA) black hole by the radial geodesic method and the Hamilton-Jacobi method. Both sets of results agree with Parikh and Wilczek's and show that the actual radiation spectrum deviates from the purely thermal one and the tunneling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, which satisfies an underlying unitary theory.
Black holes and gravitating axially symmetric non-abelian solitons in d 3+1 and d = 4+1
Radu, Eugen; Shnir, Yasha; Tchrakian, D. H.
2010-03-24
We construct static, asymptotically flat solutions of SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory in 4+1 dimensions, subject to bi-azimuthal symmetry. The results are compared with similar solutions of the SU(2) Yang--Mills--dilaton (YMd) model. Both particle-like and black hole solutions are considered.
Global solutions for higher-dimensional stretched small black holes
Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Orlov, Dmitry G.
2010-01-15
Small black holes in heterotic string theory have a vanishing horizon area at the supergravity level, but the horizon is stretched to the finite radius AdS{sub 2}xS{sup D-2} geometry once higher curvature corrections are turned on. This has been demonstrated to give good agreement with microscopic entropy counting. Previous considerations, however, were based on the classical local solutions valid only in the vicinity of the event horizon. Here we address the question of global existence of extremal black holes in the D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with the Gauss-Bonnet term introducing a variable dilaton coupling a as a parameter. We show that asymptotically flat black holes exist only in a bounded region of the dilaton couplings 0=}5 (but not for D=4) the allowed range of a includes the heterotic string values. For a>a{sub cr} numerical solutions meet weak naked singularities at finite radii r=r{sub cusp} (spherical cusps), where the scalar curvature diverges as |r-r{sub cusp}|{sup -1/2}. For D{>=}7 cusps are met in pairs, so that solutions can be formally extended to asymptotically flat infinity choosing a suitable integration variable. We show, however, that radial geodesics cannot be continued through the cusp singularities, so such a continuation is unphysical.
Dilaton dominance in the early universe dilutes dark matter relic abundances
Lahanas, A. B.
2011-05-15
The role of the dilaton field and its coupling to matter may result in a dilution of dark matter (DM) relic densities. This is to be contrasted with quintessence scenarios in which relic densities are augmented, due to modification of the expansion rate, since the Universe is not radiation dominated at DM decoupling. The dilaton field, besides this, affects relic densities through its coupling to dust which tends to decrease relic abundances. Thus two separate mechanisms compete with each other resulting, in general, in a decrease of the relic density. This feature may be welcomed and can help the situation if direct dark matter experiments point towards small neutralino-nucleon cross sections, implying small neutralino annihilation rates and hence large relic densities, at least in the popular supersymmetric scenarios. In the presence of a diluting mechanism, both experimental constraints can be met. The role of the dilaton for this mechanism has been studied in the context of the noncritical string theory but in this work we follow a rather general approach assuming that the dilaton dominates only at early eras long before big bang nucleosynthesis.
Magnetic Dilaton Rotating Strings in the Presence of Exponential Nonlinear Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Mahmoudi, Z.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of four-dimensional spinning magnetic dilaton string solutions which produces a longitudinal nonlinear electromagnetic field. The Lagrangian of the matter field has the exponential form. We study the physical properties of the solution in ample details. Geometrical, causal and geodisical structures of the solutions are investigated, separately. We confirm that the spacetime is both null and geodesically complete. We find that these solutions have no curvature singularity and no horizon, but have a conic geometry. We investigate the effects of variation of charge and the intensity of the dilaton field, on the deficit angle. Due to the presence of the dilaton field, the asymptotic behavior of the solutions are neither flat nor (anti-) de Sitter [(A)dS]. Furthermore, we extend our study to the higher dimensions and obtain the ( n+1)-dimensional magnetic rotating dilaton strings with k≤[ n/2] rotation parameters and calculate conserved quantities of the solutions. Although these solutions are not asymptotically (A)dS, we use counterterm method to calculate conserved quantities. We also calculate electric charge and show that the net electric charge of the spinning string is proportional to the rotating parameter and the electric field only exists when the rotation parameter does not vanish.
Black hole in the expanding universe with arbitrary power-law expansion
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Nozawa, Masato
2010-06-15
We present a time-dependent and spatially inhomogeneous solution that interpolates the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) black hole and the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with arbitrary power-law expansion. It is an exact solution of the D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton system, where two Abelian gauge fields couple to the dilaton with different coupling constants, and the dilaton field has a Liouville-type exponential potential. It is shown that the system satisfies the weak energy condition. The solution involves two harmonic functions on a (D-1)-dimensional Ricci-flat base space. In the case where the harmonics have a single-point source on the Euclidean space, we find that the spacetime describes a spherically symmetric charged black hole in the FLRW universe, which is characterized by three parameters: the steepness parameter of the dilaton potential n{sub T}, the U(1) charge Q, and the nonextremality {tau}. In contrast with the extremal RN solution, the spacetime admits a nondegenerate Killing horizon unless these parameters are finely tuned. The global spacetime structures are discussed in detail.
Abbott–Deser–Tekin Charge of Dilaton Black Holes with Squashed Horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jun-Jin; Xiang, Wen-Chang; Cai, Shao-Hong
2016-08-01
Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11275157 and 11505036, the Doctoral Research Fund of Guizhou Normal University in 2014, the Technology Department of Guizhou Province Fund under Grant No [2015]2114, and the Science and Technology Innovation Talent Team of Guizhou Province under Grant No (2015)4015.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bean, R.; Magueijo, J.
2001-09-01
Quintessence scenarios provide a simple explanation for the observed acceleration of the Universe. Yet, explaining why acceleration did not start a long time ago remains a challenge. The idea that the transition from radiation to matter domination played a dynamical role in triggering acceleration has been put forward in various guises. We propose a simple dilaton-derived quintessence model in which temporary vacuum domination is naturally triggered by the radiation to matter transition. In this model Einstein's gravity is preserved but quintessence couples non-minimally to the cold dark matter, but not to ``visible'' matter. Such couplings have been attributed to the dilaton in the low-energy limit of string theory beyond tree level. We also show how a cosmological constant in the string frame translates into a quintessence-type of potential in the atomic frame.
Subsubleading soft theorems of gravitons and dilatons in the bosonic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin
2016-06-01
Starting from the amplitude with an arbitrary number of massless closed states of the bosonic string, we compute the soft limit when one of the states becomes soft to subsubleading order in the soft momentum expansion, and we show that when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full string amplitude can be expressed as a soft theorem through subsubleading order. It turns out that there are string corrections to the field theoretical limit in the case of a soft graviton, while for a soft dilaton the string corrections vanish. We then show that the new soft theorems, including the string corrections, can be simply obtained from the exchange diagrams where the soft state is attached to the other external states through the three-point string vertex of three massless states. In the soft-limit, the propagator of the exchanged state is divergent, and at tree-level these are the only divergent contributions to the full amplitude. However, they do not form a gauge invariant subset and must be supplemented with extra non-singular terms. The requirement of gauge invariance then fixes the complete amplitude through subsubleading order in the soft expansion, reproducing exactly what one gets from the explicit calculation in string theory. From this it is seen that the string corrections at subsubleading order arise as a consequence of the three-point amplitude having string corrections in the bosonic string. When specialized to a soft dilaton, it remarkably turns out that the string corrections vanish and that the non-singular piece of the subsubleading term of the dilaton soft theorem is the generator of space-time special conformal transformation.
Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories with a Liouville potential
Charmousis, Christos; Gouteraux, Blaise; Soda, Jiro
2009-07-15
We find and analyze solutions of Einstein's equations in arbitrary dimensions and in the presence of a scalar field with a Liouville potential coupled to a Maxwell field. We consider spacetimes of cylindrical symmetry or again subspaces of dimension d-2 with constant curvature and analyze in detail the field equations and manifest their symmetries. The field equations of the full system are shown to reduce to a single or couple of ordinary differential equations, which can be used to solve analytically or numerically the theory for the symmetry at hand. Further solutions can also be generated by a solution-generating technique akin to the electromagnetic duality in the absence of a cosmological constant. We then find and analyze explicit solutions including black holes and gravitating solitons for the case of four-dimensional relativity and the higher-dimensional oxidized five-dimensional spacetime. The general solution is obtained for a certain relation between couplings in the case of cylindrical symmetry.
Tachyon-Dilaton-induced inflation as an α'-resummed string background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandre, Jean; Kostouki, Anna; Mavromatos, Nick E.
2009-03-01
Within the framework of a novel functional method on the world-sheet of the string, we discuss simple but re-summed (in the Regge slope) inflationary scenarios in the context of closed Bosonic strings, living in four target-space dimensions, in the presence of non-trivial tachyon, dilaton and graviton cosmological backgrounds. The inflationary solutions are argued to guarantee the vanishing of the corresponding Weyl anomaly coefficients in a given world-sheet renormalization scheme, thereby ensuring conformal invariance of the corresponding σ-model to all orders in the Regge slope. The key property is the requirement of ``homogeneity'' of the corresponding Weyl anomaly coefficients. Inflation entails appropriate relations between the dilaton and tachyon field configurations, whose form can lead to either a de Sitter vacuum, incompatible though (due to the cosmic horizons) with the perturbative string scattering amplitudes, or to cosmic space-times involving brief inflationary periods, interpolating smoothly between power-law and/or Minkowski Universes. The latter situation is characterized by well-defined scattering amplitudes, and is thus compatible with a perturbative string framework. It is this scenario that we consider a self-consistent ground state in our framework, which is based on local field redefinitions of background fields.
Low-energy effective action for pions and a dilatonic meson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal
2016-09-01
Numerical simulations of QCD-like theories in which the number of flavors is adjusted so that the beta function is very small, but confinement and chiral symmetry breaking nevertheless take place, appear to reveal the presence of a flavor-singlet scalar meson which can be as light as the pions. Because the breaking of dilatation symmetry, quantified by the beta function, is small relative to QCD, a possible explanation is that the scalar meson is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with the approximate dilatation symmetry. We use this observation to systematically develop a low-energy effective action that accounts for both the pions and the "dilatonic" scalar meson. In order to justify the power counting that controls the couplings of the dilatonic meson we invoke the Veneziano limit, in which the number of fundamental-representation flavors Nf grows in proportion with the number of colors Nc, while the ratio Nf/Nc is kept close to, but below, the critical value where the conformal window is entered.
Information retrieval from black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T.
2016-08-01
It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge, and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after the formation of a black hole. Semiclassically, black holes evaporate after their formation through the Hawking radiation. The dominant part of the radiation is expected to be thermal and hence one cannot know anything about the initial data from the resultant radiation. However, there can be sources of distortions which make the radiation nonthermal. Although the distortions are not strong enough to make the evolution unitary, these distortions carry some part of information regarding the in-state. In this work, we show how one can decipher the information about the in-state of the field from these distortions. We show that the distortions of a particular kind—which we call nonvacuum distortions—can be used to fully reconstruct the initial data. The asymptotic observer can do this operationally by measuring certain well-defined observables of the quantum field at late times. We demonstrate that a general class of in-states encode all their information content in the correlation of late time out-going modes. Further, using a 1 +1 dimensional dilatonic black hole model to accommodate backreaction self-consistently, we show that observers can also infer and track the information content about the initial data, during the course of evaporation, unambiguously. Implications of such information extraction are discussed.
Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin E-mail: tdereli@ku.edu.tr
2013-02-01
We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Corianò, Claudio; Costantini, Antonio; Rose, Luigi Delle
2016-09-01
We explore the potential for the discovery of a dilaton O(200-500) GeV in a classical scale/conformal invariant extension of the Standard Model by investigating the size of the corresponding breaking scale Λ at the LHC, extending a previous analysis. In particular, we address the recent bounds on Λ derived from Higgs boson searches. We investigate if such a dilaton can be produced via gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC, presenting rates for its decay either into a pair of Higgs bosons or into two heavy gauge bosons, which can give rise to multi-leptonic final states. A detailed analysis via PYTHIA-FastJet has been carried out of the dominant Standard Model backgrounds at the LHC, at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. We show that early data of ˜ 20 fb-1 can certainly probe the region of parameter space where such a dilaton is allowed. A conformal scale of 5 TeV is allowed by the current data, for almost all values of the dilaton mass investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-02-01
We study the effective theory of slowly rotating black holes at the infinite limit of the spacetime dimension D. This large D effective theory is obtained by integrating the Einstein equation with respect to the radial direction. The effective theory gives equations for non-linear dynamical deformations of a slowly rotating black hole by effective equations. The effective equations contain the slowly rotating Myers-Perry black hole, slowly boosted black string, non-uniform black string and black ring as stationary solutions. We obtain the analytic solution of the black ring by solving effective equations. Furthermore, by perturbation analysis of effective equations, we find a quasinormal mode condition of the black ring in analytic way. As a result we confirm that thin black ring is unstable against non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also include 1 /D corrections to the effective equations and discuss the effects by 1 /D corrections.
Non-Abelian black holes in D=5 maximal gauged supergravity
Cvetic, M.; Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.
2010-02-15
We investigate static non-Abelian black hole solutions of anti-de Sitter (AdS) Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton gravity, which is obtained as a consistent truncation of five-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. If the dilaton is (consistently) set to zero, the remaining equations of motion, with a spherically-symmetric ansatz, may be derived from a superpotential. The associated first-order equations admit an explicit solution supported by a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge potential, which has a logarithmically growing mass term. In an extremal limit the horizon geometry becomes AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 3}. If the dilaton is also excited, the equations of motion cannot easily be solved explicitly, but we obtain the asymptotic form of the more general non-Abelian black holes in this case. An alternative consistent truncation, in which the Yang-Mills fields are set to zero, also admits a description in terms of a superpotential. This allows us to construct explicit wormhole solutions (neutral spherically-symmetric domain walls). These solutions may be generalized to dimensions other than five.
Stability of Black Holes and Black Branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollands, Stefan; Wald, Robert M.
2013-08-01
We establish a new criterion for the dynamical stability of black holes in D ≥ 4 spacetime dimensions in general relativity with respect to axisymmetric perturbations: Dynamical stability is equivalent to the positivity of the canonical energy, {{E}}, on a subspace, {{T}}, of linearized solutions that have vanishing linearized ADM mass, momentum, and angular momentum at infinity and satisfy certain gauge conditions at the horizon. This is shown by proving that—apart from pure gauge perturbations and perturbations towards other stationary black holes—{{E}} is nondegenerate on {{T}} and that, for axisymmetric perturbations, {{E}} has positive flux properties at both infinity and the horizon. We further show that {{E}} is related to the second order variations of mass, angular momentum, and horizon area by {{E} = δ^2 M -sum_A Ω_A δ^2 J_A - κ/8πδ^2 A}, thereby establishing a close connection between dynamical stability and thermodynamic stability. Thermodynamic instability of a family of black holes need not imply dynamical instability because the perturbations towards other members of the family will not, in general, have vanishing linearized ADM mass and/or angular momentum. However, we prove that for any black brane corresponding to a thermodynamically unstable black hole, sufficiently long wavelength perturbations can be found with {{E} < 0} and vanishing linearized ADM quantities. Thus, all black branes corresponding to thermodynmically unstable black holes are dynamically unstable, as conjectured by Gubser and Mitra. We also prove that positivity of {{E}} on {{T}} is equivalent to the satisfaction of a " local Penrose inequality," thus showing that satisfaction of this local Penrose inequality is necessary and sufficient for dynamical stability. Although we restrict our considerations in this paper to vacuum general relativity, most of the results of this paper are derived using general Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods and therefore can be
Bull, D.L.
1986-04-01
Studies were made of the comparative in vitro metabolism of (/sup 14/C)xanthotoxin and(/sup 14/C)aldrin by homogenate preparations of midguts and bodies (carcass minus digestive tract and head) of last-stage larvae of the black swallowtail butterfly (Papilio polyxenes Fabr.) and the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)). The two substrates were metabolized by 10,000g supernatant microsomal preparations from both species. Evidence gained through the use of a specific inhibitor and cofactor indicated that mixed-function microsomal oxidases were major factors in the metabolism and that the specific activity of this enzyme system was considerably higher in midgut preparations from P. polyxenes than in similar preparations from S. frugiperda. Aldrin was metabolized 3-4 times faster by P. polyxenes, and xanthotoxin 6-6.5 times faster.
Thermodynamics of Nonspherical Black Holes from Liouville Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Fang-Fang; Huang, Yong-Chang
2012-08-01
A Liouville formalism was proposed many years ago to account for the black hole entropy. It was recently updated to connect thermodynamics of general black holes, in particular the Hawking temperature, to two-dimensional Liouville theory. This relies on the dimensional reduction to two-dimensional black hole metric. The relevant dilaton gravity model can be rewritten as a Liouville-like theory. We refine the method and give general formulas for the corresponding scalar and energy-momentum tensors in Liouville theory. This enables us to read off the black hole temperature using a relation which was found about three decades ago. Then the range of application is extended to include nonspherical black holes such as neutral and charged black rings, topological black hole and the case coupled to a scalar field. As for the entropy, following previous authors, we invoke the Lagrangian approach to central charge by Cadoni and then use the Cardy formula. The general relevant parameters are also given. This approach is more advantageous than the usual Hamiltonian approach which was used by the old Liouville formalism for black hole entropy.
Dilatonic repulsons and confinement via the AdS/CFT correspondence
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Hirano, Shinji; Ohta, Nobuyoshi
2004-10-15
We study a class of dilatonic deformations of asymptotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} geometry analytically and numerically. The spacetime is nonsupersymmetric and suffers from a naked singularity. We propose that the causality bound may serve as a criterion for such a geometry with a naked singularity to still make sense in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that the static string, the one corresponding to a large Wilson loop in the dual gauge theory, reveals confinement in a certain range of parameters of our solutions, where the singularity exhibits the repulsion that can well cloak the singularity from the static string probe. In particular, we find the exact expression for the tension of the QCD strings. We also discuss a possible interpretation of our solution in terms of unstable branes and their tachyon matter.
An ultra-weak sector, the strong CP problem and the pseudo-Goldstone dilaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2015-02-01
In the context of a Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for the Higgs boson mass, we address the strong CP problem. We show that a DFSZ-like invisible axion model with a gauge-singlet complex scalar field S, whose couplings to the Standard Model are naturally ultra-weak, can solve the strong CP problem and simultaneously generate acceptable electroweak symmetry breaking. The ultra-weak couplings of the singlet S are associated with underlying approximate shift symmetries that act as custodial symmetries and maintain technical naturalness. The model also contains a very light pseudo-Goldstone dilaton that is consistent with cosmological Polonyi bounds, and the axion can be the dark matter of the universe. We further outline how a SUSY version of this model, which may be required in the context of Grand Unification, can avoid introducing a hierarchy problem.
Dynamical moving mirrors and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Tze-Dan; Verlinde, Herman
1994-04-01
A simple quantum mechanical model of N free scalar fields interacting with a dynamical moving mirror is formulated and shown to be equivalent to two-dimensional dilaton gravity. We derive the semi-classical dynamics of this system, by including the back reaction due to the quantum radiation. We develop a hamiltonian formalism that describes the time evolution as seen by an asymptotic observer, and write a scattering equation that relates the in-falling and out-going modes at low energies. At higher incoming energy flux, however, the semi-classical model appears to become unstable and the mirror seems to accelerate forever along a trajectory that runs off to infinity. This instability provides a useful paradigm for black hole formation and introduces an analogous information paradox. Finally, we indicate a possible mechanism that may restore the stability of the system at the quantum level without destroying quantum coherence.
Dynamical moving mirrors and black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzedan, Chung; Verlinde, H.
1994-04-01
A simple quantum mechanical model of N free scalar fields interacting with a dynamical moving mirror is formulated and shown to be equivalent to two-dimensional dilaton gravity. The authors derive the semi-classical dynamics of this system, by including the back reaction due to the quantum radiation. They develop a hamiltonian formalism that describes the time evolution as seen by an asymptotic observer, and write a scattering equation that relates the in-falling and out-going modes at low energies. At higher incoming energy flux, however, the semi-classical model appears to become unstable and the mirror seems to accelerate forever along a trajectory that runs off to infinity. This instability provides a useful paradigm for black hole formation and introduces an analogous information paradox.
Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes
Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo
2009-12-15
Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Ferrera, Antonio E-mail: a.ferrera.pardo@gmail.com
2008-10-15
We construct a new brane-world model composed of a bulk with a dilatonic field, plus a brane with brane tension coupled to the dilaton, cold dark matter and an induced gravity term. It is possible to show that, depending on the nature of the coupling between the brane tension and the dilaton, this model can describe the late time acceleration of the brane expansion (for the normal branch) as it moves within the bulk. The acceleration is produced together with a mimicry of the crossing of the cosmological constant line (w = -1) on the brane, although this crossing of the phantom divide is obtained without invoking any phantom matter either on the brane or in the bulk. The role of dark energy is played by the brane tension, which reaches a maximum positive value along the cosmological expansion of the brane. It is precisely at that maximum that the crossing of the phantom divide takes place. We also show that these results remain valid when the induced gravity term on the brane is switched off.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack
1974-01-01
Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…
Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.
2001-01-01
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801
Phantom black holes and critical phenomena
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Marques, Glauber T.
2014-07-01
We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.
Graded Poisson-sigma models and dilaton-deformed 2D supergravity algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergamin, Luzi; Kummer, Wolfgang
2003-05-01
Supergravity extensions of generic 2d gravity theories obtained from the graded Poisson-Sigma model (gPSM) approach show a large degree of ambiguity. On the other hand, obstructions may reduce the allowed range of fields as given by the bosonic theory, or even prohibit any extension in certain cases. In our present work we relate the finite W-algebras inherent in the gPSM algebra of constraints to supergravity algebras (Neuveu-Schwarz or Ramond algebras resp.), deformed by the presence of the dilaton field. With very straightforward and natural assumptions on them - like the one linking the anti-commutator of certain fermionic charges to the Hamiltonian constraint without deformation - we are able not only to remove the ambiguities but, at the same time, the singularities referred to above. Thus all especially interesting bosonic models (spherically reduced gravity, the Jackiw-Teitelboim model etc.) under these conditions possess a unique fermionic extension and are free from new singularities. The superspace supergravity model of Howe is found as a special case of this supergravity action. For this class of models the relation between bosonic potential and prepotential does not introduce obstructions as well.
Dilaton assisted two-field inflation from no-scale supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Das, Suratna; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra
2016-07-01
We present a two-field inflation model where the inflaton field has a noncanonical kinetic term due to the presence of a dilaton field. It is a two-parameter generalization of one-parameter Brans-Dicke gravity in the Einstein frame. We show that in such an inflation model the quartic and quadratic inflaton potentials, which are otherwise ruled out by the present Planck-Keck/BICEP2 data, yield the scalar spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio in accordance with the present data. Such a model yields a tensor-to-scalar ratio of the order of 10-2 which is within the reach of B -mode experiments like Keck/BICEP3, CMBPol and thus can be put to the test in the near future. This model yields negligible non-Gaussianity and no isocurvature perturbations up to slow-roll approximation. Finally, we show that such a model can be realized in the realm of no-scale supergravity.
Geometric properties of static Einstein-Maxwell dilaton horizons with a Liouville potential
Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Shoom, Andrey A.
2011-05-15
We study nondegenerate and degenerate (extremal) Killing horizons of arbitrary geometry and topology within the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton model with a Liouville potential (the EMdL model) in d-dimensional (d{>=}4) static space-times. Using Israel's description of a static space-time, we construct the EMdL equations and the space-time curvature invariants: the Ricci scalar, the square of the Ricci tensor, and the Kretschmann scalar. Assuming that space-time metric functions and the model fields are real analytic functions in the vicinity of a space-time horizon, we study the behavior of the space-time metric and the fields near the horizon and derive relations between the space-time curvature invariants calculated on the horizon and geometric invariants of the horizon surface. The derived relations generalize similar relations known for horizons of static four- and five-dimensional vacuum and four-dimensional electrovacuum space-times. Our analysis shows that all the extremal horizon surfaces are Einstein spaces. We present the necessary conditions for the existence of static extremal horizons within the EMdL model.
Black Hole Instabilities and Local Penrose Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueras, Pau; Murata, Keiju; Reall, Harvey S.
2015-01-01
Various higher-dimensional black holes have been shown to be unstable by studying linearized gravitational perturbations. A simpler method for demonstrating instability is to find initial data that describes a small perturbation of the black hole and violates a Penrose inequality. We use the method to confirm the existence of the "ultraspinning" instability of Myers-Perry black holes. We also study black rings and show that "fat" black rings are unstable. We find no evidence of any rotationally symmetric instability of "thin" black rings.
General parametrization of axisymmetric black holes in metric theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konoplya, Roman; Rezzolla, Luciano; Zhidenko, Alexander
2016-03-01
Following previous work of ours in spherical symmetry, we here propose a new parametric framework to describe the spacetime of axisymmetric black holes in generic metric theories of gravity. In this case, the metric components are functions of both the radial and the polar angular coordinates, forcing a double expansion to obtain a generic axisymmetric metric expression. In particular, we use a continued-fraction expansion in terms of a compactified radial coordinate to express the radial dependence, while we exploit a Taylor expansion in terms of the cosine of the polar angle for the polar dependence. These choices lead to a superior convergence in the radial direction and to an exact limit on the equatorial plane. As a validation of our approach, we build parametrized representations of Kerr, rotating dilaton, and Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet black holes. The match is already very good at lowest order in the expansion and improves as new orders are added. We expect a similar behavior for any stationary and axisymmetric black-hole metric.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.
1986-01-01
This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abrahams, Roger D.
This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Harry
The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Reginald L., Ed.
The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…
Dirac fermions in nontrivial topology black hole backgrounds
Gozdz, Marek; Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek
2010-05-15
We discuss the behavior of the Dirac fermions in a general spherically symmetric black hole background with a nontrivial topology of the event horizon. Both massive and massless cases are taken into account. We will conduct an analytical study of intermediate and late-time behavior of massive Dirac hair in the background of a black hole with a global monopole and dilaton black hole pierced by a cosmic string. In the case of a global monopole swallowed by a static black hole, the intermediate late-time behavior depends on the mass of the Dirac field, the multiple number of the wave mode, and the global monopole parameter. The late-time behavior is quite independent of these factors and has a decay rate proportional to t{sup -5/6}. As far as the black hole pierced by a cosmic string is concerned, the intermediate late-time behavior depends only on the hair mass and the multipole number of the wave mode, while the late-time behavior dependence is the same as in the previous case. The main modification stems from the topology of the S{sup 2} sphere pierced by a cosmic string. This factor modifies the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator acting on the transverse manifold.
Self-tuning at large (distances): 4D description of runaway dilaton capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, C. P.; Diener, Ross; Williams, M.
2015-10-01
We complete here a three-part study (see also arXiv:1506.08095 and arXiv:1508.00856) of how codimension-two objects back-react gravitationally with their environment, with particular interest in situations where the transverse `bulk' is stabilized by the interplay between gravity and flux-quantization in a dilaton-Maxwell-Einstein system such as commonly appears in higher-dimensional supergravity and is used in the Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED) program. Such systems enjoy a classical flat direction that can be lifted by interactions with the branes, giving a mass to the would-be modulus that is smaller than the KK scale. We construct the effective low-energy 4D description appropriate below the KK scale once the transverse extra dimensions are integrated out, and show that it reproduces the predictions of the full UV theory for how the vacuum energy and modulus mass depend on the properties of the branes and stabilizing fluxes. In particular we show how this 4D theory learns the news of flux quantization through the existence of a space-filling four-form potential that descends from the higher-dimensional Maxwell field. We find a scalar potential consistent with general constraints, like the runaway dictated by Weinberg's theorem. We show how scale-breaking brane interactions can give this potential minima for which the extra-dimensional size, ℓ, is exponentially large relative to underlying physics scales, r B , with ℓ 2 = r B 2 e - φ where - φ ≫ 1 can be arranged with a small hierarchy between fundamental parameters. We identify circumstances where the potential at the minimum can (but need not) be parametrically suppressed relative to the tensions of the branes, provide a preliminary discussion of the robustness of these results to quantum corrections, and discuss the relation between what we find and earlier papers in the SLED program.
Conformal Higgs, or Techni-Dilaton — Composite Higgs Near Conformality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamawaki, Koichi
In contrast to the folklore that Technicolor (TC) is a "Higgsless theory", we shall discuss existence of a composite Higgs boson, Techni-Dilaton (TD), a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the scale invariance in the Scale-invariant/Walking/Conformal TC (SWC TC) which generates a large anomalous dimension γm ≃ 1 in a wide region from the dynamical mass m = {O} ({TeV}) of the techni-fermion all the way up to the intrinsic scale ΛTC of the SWC TC (analogue of ΛQCD), where ΛTC is taken typically as the scale of the Extended TC scale ΛETC: ΛTC ≃ ΛETC 103 TeV (≫ m). All the techni-hadrons have mass on the same order {O}(m), which in SWC TC is extremely smaller than the intrinsic scale ΛTC ≃ ΛETC, in sharp contrast to QCD where both are of the same order. The mass of TD arises from the non-perturbative scale anomaly associated with the techni-fermion mass generation and is typically 500-600 GeV, even smaller than other techni-hadrons of the same order of {O}(m), in another contrast to QCD which is believed to have no scalar bar {q}q bound state lighter than other hadrons. We discuss the TD mass in various methods, Gauged NJL model via ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation, straightforward calculations in the ladder SD/ Bethe-Salpeter equation, and the holographic approach including techni-gluon condensate. The TD may be discovered in LHC.
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-05
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
Spectrum of charged black holes - the big fix mechanism revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barvinsky, Andrei; Das, Saurya; Kunstatter, Gabor
2001-11-01
Following an earlier suggestion of the authors (Barvinsky A and Kunstatter G 1997 Mass spectrum for black holes in generic 2-D dilaton gravity Proc. 2nd International A D Sakharov Conference on Physics ed I M Dremin and A M Seminkhatov (Singapore: World Scientific) pp 210-15), we use some basic properties of Euclidean black hole thermodynamics and the quantum mechanics of systems with periodic phase space coordinate to derive the discrete two-parameter area spectrum of generic charged spherically symmetric black holes in any dimension. For the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole we get A/4Gℎ = π(2n + p + 1), where the integer p = 0, 1, 2,... gives the charge spectrum, with Q = +/- √ ℎp. The quantity π(2n + 1), n = 0, 1,..., gives a measure of the excess of the mass/energy over the critical minimum (i.e. extremal) value allowed for a given fixed charge Q. The classical critical bound cannot be saturated due to vacuum fluctuations of the horizon, so that generically extremal black holes do not appear in the physical spectrum. Consistency also requires the black hole charge to be an integer multiple of any fundamental elementary particle charge: Q = +/-me, m = 0, 1, 2,.... As a by-product this yields a relation between the fine structure constant and integer parameters of the black hole - a kind of the Coleman big fix mechanism induced by black holes. In four dimensions, this relationship is e2/ℎ = p/m2 and requires the fine structure constant to be a rational number. Finally, we prove that the horizon area is an adiabatic invariant, as has been conjectured previously.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christiansen, H. R.; Cunha, M. S.; Tahim, M. O.
2010-10-01
We analytically find the exact propagation modes of the electromagnetic and the Kalb-Ramond fields together in a five-dimensional curved space-time. The existence and localization of gauge particles into our four-dimensional world (4D) is studied in detail on a brane-world scenario in which two gauge fields interact with a dilaton and a gravitational background. The coupling to the dilaton is different in each case causing the splitting between gauge spectra. The gauge-field zero-modes and an infinite tower of Kaluza-Klein massive states are analytically obtained. Relevant conditions on the dilaton coupling constant are found in order to identify with precision every finite tensor and vector eigenstate in the theory. An exact quantization condition on the whole mass spectrum, depending on the dilaton coupling constant and the bulk Planck mass, is inherited from the extra-dimension. This allows finding an exact rule to prevent tachyons in the theory and, by the same token, predicting a possible tensor zero-mode in 4D world. We also show that KK massive-modes contributions onto 4D physics are strongly suppressed.
Rotating black branes in Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.
2008-08-01
In this paper, we present a new class of charged rotating black brane solutions in the higher dimensional Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theory and investigate their properties. Solving the field equations directly is a nontrivial task because they include the second derivatives of the scalar field. We remove this difficulty through a conformal transformation. Also, we find that the suitable Lagrangian of Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity is not the same as presented by Dehghani et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 0702, 020 (2007)]. We show that the given solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane, or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. These black brane solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti-)de Sitter. Then we calculate finite Euclidean action, the conserved, and thermodynamic quantities through the use of counterterm method. Finally, we argue that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru
2015-02-01
An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru
An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.
Laser Excited Fluorescence Studies Of Black Liquor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.
1986-10-01
Laser excited fluorescence of black liquor was investigated as a possible monitoring technique for pulping processes. A nitrogen pumped dye laser was used to examine the fluorescence spectrum of black liquor solutions. Various excitation wavelengths were used between 290 and 403 nm. Black liquor fluorescence spectra were found to vary with both excitation wavelength and black liquor concentration. Laser excited fluorescence was found to be a sensitive technique for measurement of black liquor with good detection limits and linear response over a large dynamic range.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walkiewicz, T. A.; Newby, N. D., Jr.
1972-01-01
A discussion of linear collisions between two or three objects is related to a junior-level course in analytical mechanics. The theoretical discussion uses a geometrical approach that treats elastic and inelastic collisions from a unified point of view. Experiments with a linear air track are described. (Author/TS)
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ware, Gilbert
1977-01-01
Notes that blacks are destined to remain strangers in the land of opportunity and in the system of justice, except as persons suspected, accused, arrested, prosecuted, imprisoned, executed--all in disproportionate numbers. (Author/AM)
... flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other ... that men who get more phytoestrogens in their diet have a lower risk of developing lung cancer ...
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugarBlack psyllium might decrease blood sugar by decreasing how much ... absorbs from foods. Taking it along with other herbs and supplements that might also lower blood sugar ...
Cosmological rotating black holes in five-dimensional fake supergravity
Nozawa, Masato; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2011-01-15
In recent series of papers, we found an arbitrary dimensional, time-evolving, and spatially inhomogeneous solution in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with particular couplings. Similar to the supersymmetric case, the solution can be arbitrarily superposed in spite of nontrivial time-dependence, since the metric is specified by a set of harmonic functions. When each harmonic has a single point source at the center, the solution describes a spherically symmetric black hole with regular Killing horizons and the spacetime approaches asymptotically to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. We discuss in this paper that in 5 dimensions, this equilibrium condition traces back to the first-order 'Killing spinor' equation in 'fake supergravity' coupled to arbitrary U(1) gauge fields and scalars. We present a five-dimensional, asymptotically FLRW, rotating black-hole solution admitting a nontrivial 'Killing spinor', which is a spinning generalization of our previous solution. We argue that the solution admits nondegenerate and rotating Killing horizons in contrast with the supersymmetric solutions. It is shown that the present pseudo-supersymmetric solution admits closed timelike curves around the central singularities. When only one harmonic is time-dependent, the solution oxidizes to 11 dimensions and realizes the dynamically intersecting M2/M2/M2-branes in a rotating Kasner universe. The Kaluza-Klein-type black holes are also discussed.
The Crisis in Black and Black.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hutchinson, Earl Ofari
These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…
Black holes with metric and fields of the same form
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyriakopoulos, E.
2012-01-01
We present two rotating black hole solutions with axion ξ, dilaton {φ} and two U(1) vector fields. Starting from a non-rotating metric with three arbitrary parameters, which we have found previously, and applying the "Newman-Janis complex coordinate trick" we get a rotating metric g μν with four arbitrary parameters namely the mass M, the rotation parameter a and the charges electric Q E and magnetic Q M . Then we find a solution of the equations of motion having this g μν as metric. Our solution is asymptotically flat and has angular momentum J = M a, gyromagnetic ratio g = 2, two horizons, the singularities of the solution of Kerr, axion and dilaton singular only when r = a cos θ = 0 etc. By applying to our solution the S-duality transformation we get a new solution, whose axion, dilaton and vector fields have one more parameter. The metrics, the vector fields and the quantity {λ=ξ+ie^{-2φ}} of our solutions and the solution of: Sen for Q E , Sen for Q E and Q M , Kerr-Newman for Q E and Q M , Kerr, Reference Kyriakopoulos [Class. Quantum Grav. 23:7591, 2006, Eqs. (54-57)], Shapere, Trivedi and Wilczek, Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger, Reissner-Nordström, Schwarzschild are the same function of a, and two functions ρ 2 = r( r + b) + a 2 cos2 θ and Δ = r( r + b) - 2 Mr + a 2 + c, of a, b and two functions for each vector field, and of a, b and d respectively, where a, b, c and d are constants. From our solutions several known solutions can be obtained for certain values of their parameters. It is shown that our two solutions satisfy the weak the dominant and the strong energy conditions outside and on the outer horizon and that all solutions with a metric of our form, whose parameters satisfy some relations satisfy also these energy conditions outside and on the outer horizon. This happens to all solutions given in the "Appendix". Mass formulae for our solutions and for all solutions which are mentioned in the paper are given. One mass
Mostepanenko, V.M.; Sokolov, I.Y. )
1989-06-01
On the basis of an analysis of experimental data, restrictions are obtained on the parameters of hypothetical long-range Yukawa-type interactions which arise from the exchange of vector and pseudo-Goldstone particles. The masses of the spin-1 antigraviton and the dilaton are estimated to be greater than 6{times}10{sup {minus}5} and 4{times}10{sup {minus}5} eV, respectively.
High school science enrollment of black students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goggins, Ellen O.; Lindbeck, Joy S.
How can the high school science enrollment of black students be increased? School and home counseling and classroom procedures could benefit from variables identified as predictors of science enrollment. The problem in this study was to identify a set of variables which characterize science course enrollment by black secondary students. The population consisted of a subsample of 3963 black high school seniors from The High School and Beyond 1980 Base-Year Survey. Using multiple linear regression, backward regression, and correlation analyses, the US Census regions and grades mostly As and Bs in English were found to be significant predictors of the number of science courses scheduled by black seniors.
Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Melvin G.
1977-01-01
Considers three works by black authors, all dealing with lynchings, that may be used in a black literature course to introduce students to the esthetic dimension of black literature, as well as to its cultural and racial significance. (GW)
Dynamic and Thermodynamic Stability of Black Holes and Black Branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wald, Robert M.
I describe recent work with Stefan Hollands that establishes a new criterion for the dynamical stability of black holes in D ge 4 spacetime dimensions in general relativity with respect to axisymmetric perturbations: Dynamical stability is equivalent to the positivity of the canonical energy, E, on a subspace of linearized solutions that have vanishing linearized ADM mass, momentum, and angular momentum at infinity and satisfy certain gauge conditions at the horizon. We further show that E is related to the second order variations of mass, angular momentum, and horizon area by fancyscript{E} = δ ^2 M - sum _i \\varOmega _i δ ^2 J_i - (kappa /8π ) δ ^2 A, thereby establishing a close connection between dynamical stability and thermodynamic stability. Thermodynamic instability of a family of black holes need not imply dynamical instability because the perturbations towards other members of the family will not, in general, have vanishing linearized ADM mass and/or angular momentum. However, we prove that all black branes corresponding to thermodynamically unstable black holes are dynamically unstable, as conjectured by Gubser and Mitra. We also prove that positivity of E is equivalent to the satisfaction of a "local Penrose inequality," thus showing that satisfaction of this local Penrose inequality is necessary and sufficient for dynamical stability.
Black holes are almost optimal quantum cloners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adami, Christoph; Ver Steeg, Greg
2015-06-01
If black holes were able to clone quantum states, a number of paradoxes in black hole physics would disappear. However, the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids exact cloning of quantum states. Here we show that black holes indeed clone incoming quantum states with a fidelity that depends on the black hole’s absorption coefficient, without violating the no-cloning theorem because the clones are only approximate. Perfectly reflecting black holes are optimal universal ‘quantum cloning machines’ and operate on the principle of stimulated emission, exactly as their quantum optical counterparts. In the limit of perfect absorption, the fidelity of clones is only equal to what can be obtained via quantum state estimation methods. But for any absorption probability less than one, the cloning fidelity is nearly optimal as long as ω /T≥slant 10, a common parameter for modest-sized black holes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vontress, Clemmont E.
1970-01-01
Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…
... from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 288: 321-333, 2002. [ PubMed abstract ] Gunn TR, Wright IM: The use of black and blue cohosh in labour. New Zealand Medical Journal 109: 410-411, 1996. [ PubMed abstract ] Finkle RS, ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Charles-James N.
This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Reginald L., Ed.
This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2014-05-15
article title: Drought in the Black Hills View ... and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging ... the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
San Francisco Unified School District, CA.
This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…
Hawking radiation as tunneling from charged black holes in 0A string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hongbin
2011-09-01
There has been much work on explaining Hawking radiation as a quantum tunneling process through horizons. Basically, this intuitive picture requires the calculation of the imaginary part of the action for outgoing particle. And two ways are known for achieving this goal: the null-geodesic method and the Hamilton-Jacobi method. We apply these methods to the charged black holes in 2D dilaton gravity which is originated from the low energy effective theory of type 0A string theory. We derive the correct Hawking temperature of the black holes including the effect of the back reaction of the radiation, and obtain the entropy by using the 1st law of black hole thermodynamics. For fixed-charge ensemble, the 0A black holes are free of phase transition and thermodynamically stable regardless of mass-charge ratio. We show this by interpreting the back reaction term as the inverse of the heat capacity of the black holes. Finally, the possibility of the phase transition in the fixed-potential ensemble is discussed.
Colgate, S.A.
1958-05-27
An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds
These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Uniqueness theorem for black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2010-07-15
In the present paper, we prove a uniqueness theorem for stationary multi-black hole configurations with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in a certain sector of 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity. As a part of the technical assumptions in the theorem, we assume that the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension is orthogonal to the other Killing vectors and that it is also hypersurface orthogonal. About the Maxwell field, we assume that it is invariant under the Killing symmetries and has a nonzero component only along the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension. We show that such multi-black hole configurations are uniquely specified by the interval structure, angular momenta of the horizons, magnetic charges, and the magnetic flux. A straightforward generalization of the uniqueness theorem for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity is also given.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Pearl
The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…
Smoking Cessation among Blacks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stotts, R. Craig; And Others
1991-01-01
Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)
Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Lehébel, Antoine
2016-08-01
We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza–Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss–Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.
Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Lehébel, Antoine
2016-08-01
We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza-Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss-Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.
Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon; Son, Edwin J.
2011-06-15
We investigate the stability of an f(R) (Schwarzschild) black hole obtained from the f(R) gravity. It is difficult to carry out the perturbation analysis around the black hole because the linearized Einstein equation is fourth order in f(R) gravity. In order to resolve this difficulty, we transform f(R) gravity into the scalar-tensor theory by introducing two auxiliary scalars. In this case, the linearized curvature scalar becomes a scalaron, showing that all linearized equations are second order, which are the same equations for the massive Brans-Dicke theory. It turns out that the f(R) black hole is stable against the external perturbations if the scalaron does not have a tachyonic mass.
Magnetically charged black holes and their stability
Aichelburg, P.C. ); Bizon, P. )
1993-07-15
We study magnetically charged black holes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in the limit of infinitely strong coupling of the Higgs field. Using mixed analytical and numerical methods we give a complete description of static spherically symmetric black hole solutions, both Abelian and non-Abelian. In particular, we find a new class of extremal non-Abelian solutions. We show that all non-Abelian solutions are stable against linear radial perturbations. The implications of our results for the semiclassical evolution of magnetically charged black holes are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.
1981-01-01
The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)
Stability of Lovelock black holes under tensor perturbations
Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro
2009-05-15
We study the stability of static black holes in the third order Lovelock theory. We derive a master equation for tensor perturbations. Using the master equation, we analyze the stability of Lovelock black holes mainly in seven and eight dimensions. We find there are cases where the linear analysis breaks down. If we restrict ourselves to the regime where the linear analysis is legitimate, black holes are always stable in seven dimensions. However, in eight dimensions, there exists a critical mass below which black holes are unstable. Combining our result in the third order Lovelock theory with the previous one in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory, we conjecture that small black holes are unstable in any dimensions. The instability found in this paper will be important for the analysis of black holes at the LHC.
The persistence of the large volumes in black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Yen Chin
2015-08-01
Classically, black holes admit maximal interior volumes that grow asymptotically linearly in time. We show that such volumes remain large when Hawking evaporation is taken into account. Even if a charged black hole approaches the extremal limit during this evolution, its volume continues to grow; although an exactly extremal black hole does not have a "large interior". We clarify this point and discuss the implications of our results to the information loss and firewall paradoxes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, Edward Earl
2010-01-01
Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, Michele
The importance to the black community of teaching as a profession can be seen in reference material and other literature about blacks, but this book is unique in presenting the voices of black teachers themselves. The stories of 20 black teachers, born between 1905 and 1973, are told in their own voices. These 20 life interviews collect the…
The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeffers, Trellie
1981-01-01
Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)
Exact formation of hairy planar black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Zhong-Ying; Chen, Bin
2016-04-01
We consider Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a given potential in general dimensions. We obtain large classes of static hairy planar black holes which are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times. In particular, for a special case μ =(n -2 )/2 , we obtain new classes of exact dynamical solutions describing black hole formation. We find there are two classes of collapse solutions. The first class of solutions describes the evolution start from AdS space-time with a naked singularity at the origin. The space-time is linearly unstable and evolves into stationary black hole states even under small perturbation. The second class of solutions describes the space-time spontaneously evolving from AdS vacua into stationary black hole states undergoing nonlinear instability. We also discuss the global properties of all these dynamical solutions.
Black holes in a cubic Galileon universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, E.; Charmousis, C.; Lehébel, A.; Moskalets, T.
2016-09-01
We find and study the properties of black hole solutions for a subclass of Horndeski theory including the cubic Galileon term. The theory under study has shift symmetry but not reflection symmetry for the scalar field. The Galileon is assumed to have linear time dependence characterized by a velocity parameter. We give analytic 3-dimensional solutions that are akin to the BTZ solutions but with a non-trivial scalar field that modifies the effective cosmological constant. We then study the 4-dimensional asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions. The latter present three different branches according to their effective cosmological constant. For two of these branches, we find families of black hole solutions, parametrized by the velocity of the scalar field. These spherically symmetric solutions, obtained numerically, are different from GR solutions close to the black hole event horizon, while they have the same de-Sitter asymptotic behavior. The velocity parameter represents black hole primary hair.
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Nedkova, Petia G.
2009-07-15
We present a general class of exact solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity describing configurations of black holes and Kaluza-Klein bubbles magnetized along the compact dimension. Smarr-like relations for the mass and the tension are found. We also derive the mass and tension first laws for the configurations under consideration using the Noether current approach. The novelty is the appearance of new terms in the Smarr-like relations and the first laws containing the magnetic flux. The solutions we consider are also explicit examples showing that in Kaluza-Klein spacetimes the interval (rod) structure and the charges (which are zero by construction for the solutions here), are insufficient to classify the solutions and additional data is necessary, namely, the magnetic flux(es)
Stationary charged scalar clouds around black holes in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, Canisius
2016-10-01
It was reported that Kerr-Newman black holes can support linear charged scalar fields in their exterior regions. These stationary massive charged scalar fields can form bound states, which are called stationary scalar clouds. In this paper, we show that Kerr-Sen black holes can also support stationary massive charged scalar clouds by matching the near- and far-region solutions of the radial part of the Klein-Gordon wave equation. We also review stationary scalar clouds within the background of static electrically charged black hole solutions in the low-energy limit of heterotic string field theory, namely, the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes.
Asymptotically charged BTZ black holes in gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.
2016-04-01
Motivated by the wide applications of BTZ black holes and interesting results of gravity's rainbow, we consider three dimensional rainbow solutions and investigate their thermodynamic properties. In addition to investigate black holes thermodynamics related to AdS/CFT correspondence, one may regard gravity's rainbow to encode quantum gravity effects into the black hole solutions. We take into account the various models of linear and nonlinear electrodynamics and study their effects on the gravity's rainbow spacetime. We also examine thermal stability and find that obtained three dimensional rainbow black holes are thermally stable.
Modification of the phase structure of black D6 branes in a canonical ensemble and its origin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, J. X.; Ouyang, Jun; Roy, Shibaji
2014-09-01
It is well known that charged black Dp branes of type II string theory share a universal phase structure of van der Waals-Maxwell liquid-gas type except D5 and D6 branes. Interestingly, the phase structure of D5 and D6 branes can be changed to the universal form with the inclusion of particular delocalized charged lower-dimensional branes. For D5 branes, one needs to introduce delocalized D1 branes, and for D6 branes, one needs to introduce delocalized D0 branes to obtain the universal structure. In a previous paper [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2013) 100], Lu with Wei study the phase structure of black D6 branes with the introduction of delocalized D0 branes in a special case when their charges are equal and the dilaton charge vanishes. In this paper, we look at the phase structure of the black D6/D0 system with the generic values of the parameters, which makes the analysis more involved but the structure more rich. We also provide reasons why the respective modifications of the phase structures to the universal form for the black D5 and D6 branes occur when specific delocalized lower-dimensional branes are introduced.
What Black Business Leaders Can Do for the Black Community.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, John H.
1985-01-01
The existence of viable Black businesses is a statement of productivity and hope for the Black community. Black business leaders can help Black America by giving, soliciting, and lending money; by setting examples; by advocating for Black economic progress and change; and by providing opportunities for Black youth. (GC)
In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...
... the southern areas of the United States. The black widow makes her home in wood piles, under eaves, and other undisturbed places. The bite of a black widow can be serious and require medical attention. ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Long, Richard A.
1970-01-01
Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)
Black and white psychiatrists: therapy with blacks.
Jones, B E; Gray, B A
1985-01-01
This paper is one of a series of reports on the findings of a survey on psychotherapy with nonpsychotic black patients and black and white psychiatrists. The responses of the two groups of psychiatrists are presented and analyzed, focusing on their clinical experiences with their black patients. The differences between the two groups of psychiatrists on the presenting problems, unconscious conflicts, and role of racism with their black patients are among the clinical areas examined and discussed.The psychiatrists treated similar types of black male and female patients; however, the survey results indicate that a large proportion of white psychiatrists have little or no experience treating blacks. Although there were more similarities than differences in responses of black and white psychiatrists to clinical questions, there were differences in the frequency and order in which problems were rated. For example, both groups of psychiatrists rated developing new coping mechanisms as the most frequent problem in stages of the treatment process for both sexes. However, white psychiatrists rated a majority of the problems in stages of the treatment process as occurring more frequently than did black psychiatrists. The findings substantiate difficulties with clinical treatment by a therapist who has a racial, ethnic, or cultural background different from that of his patient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2013-05-01
The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Tracy A.
1994-01-01
Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Garcia, Michael
2005-01-01
The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies.
The Non-Black Teacher, Black Literature, and Black Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shepard, Ray Anthony
1970-01-01
Criticizes Keneth Kinnamon's advice in his article Afro-American Literature, the Black Revolution, and Ghetto High Schools," English Journal," vol. 5., no. 2 (February 1970), pp. 189-94 (see TE 200 536). (SW)
Galaxy Bulges and Their Massive Black Holes: A Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Alister W.
With references to both key and often forgotten pioneering works, this article starts by presenting a review into how we came to believe in the existence of massive black holes at the centers of galaxies. It then presents the historical development of the near-linear (black hole)-(host spheroid) mass relation, before explaining why this has recently been dramatically revised. Past disagreement over the slope of the (black hole)-(velocity dispersion) relation is also explained, and the discovery of sub-structure within the (black hole)-(velocity dispersion) diagram is discussed. As the search for the fundamental connection between massive black holes and their host galaxies continues, the competing array of additional black hole mass scaling relations for samples of predominantly inactive galaxies are presented.
Landsat linear features in Montana plains
Shurr, G.W.
1983-08-01
Multispectral scanner images obtained from satellites provide a unique regional perspective of geologic features on the earth's surface. Linear features observed on Landsat images are particularly conspicuous and can be mapped easily. In Montana, east of long. 110/sup 0/W and in adjoining parts of Canada, the Dakotas, and Wyoming, linear features have been mapped on 14 images. Black and white film products in bands 5 and 7 at a scale of 1:1,000,000 were employed. Specific linear features observed on both bands were compiled on a mosaic covering more than 90,000 mi/sup 2/ (233,000 km/sup 2/). Trends to the northwest and northeast are most common, but north-south and east-west linear features are also observed. Four separate tectonic regions of the Montana plains seem to be characterized by different populations of linear features. Published syntheses of geophysical, structural and stratigraphic data can be used to establish the geologic significance of specific linear features. Magnetic, gravity, and seimsic data suggest that linear features may reflect basement structural elements such as fault-bounded blocks. Some specific geologic structures shown on structure contour maps are marked by linear features. Paleotectonic features interpreted from stratigraphic maps have surface expression on Landsat that have not been recognized previously.
Magnetized static black Saturn
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.
2008-06-15
We present a new static solution to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a static black hole surrounded by a nonrotating dipole black ring. The configuration is kept in equilibrium by an external magnetic field interacting with the dipole charge of the black ring. The properties of the black Saturn-like configuration are studied and the basic physical quantities are calculated. The solution demonstrates 2-fold continuous nonuniqueness of the 5D magnetized static neutral black objects for fixed total mass and Melvin background.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garica, M.
2001-01-01
In 1995 we proposed to carry out ground-based observations in order to securely identify stellar mass black holes in our galaxy. This type 4 proposal under NASA's UV, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics program compliments NASA's space-based research by following up black hole candidates found and studied with space-based observatories, in order to determine if they are indeed black holes. While our primary goal is to securely identify black holes by measuring their masses, a secondary goal is identifying unique visible-range signatures for black holes.
Nonstationary analogue black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eskin, Gregory
2014-12-01
We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics.
Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle
2013-01-01
Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974
Instabilities of Extremal Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2015-11-01
Recently, Durkee and Reall have conjectured a criterion for linear instability of rotating, extremal, asymptotically Minkowskian black holes in dimensions, such as the Myers-Perry black holes. They considered a certain elliptic operator, , acting on symmetric trace-free tensors intrinsic to the horizon. Based in part on numerical evidence, they suggested that if the lowest eigenvalue of this operator is less than the critical value -1/4 ( called "effective BF-bound"), then the black hole is linearly unstable. In this paper, we prove an extended version of their conjecture. Our proof uses a combination of methods such as (1) the "canonical energy method" of Hollands-Wald, (2) algebraically special properties of the near horizon geometries associated with the black hole, (3) the Corvino-Schoen technique, and (4) semiclassical analysis. Our method of proof is also applicable to rotating, extremal asymptotically Anti-deSitter black holes. In that case, we find additional instabilities for ultra-spinning black holes. Although we explicitly discuss in this paper only extremal black holes, we argue that our results can be generalized to near extremal black holes.
Thermodynamics of topological black holes in Brans-Dicke gravity with a power-law Maxwell field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehghani, M. H.; Sheykhi, A.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we present a new class of higher-dimensional exact topological black hole solutions of the Brans-Dicke theory in the presence of a power-law Maxwell field as the matter source. For this aim, we introduce a conformal transformation which transforms the Einstein-dilaton-power-law Maxwell gravity Lagrangian to the Brans-Dicke-power-law Maxwell theory one. Then, by using this conformal transformation, we obtain the desired solutions. Next, we study the properties of the solutions and conditions under which we have black holes. Interestingly enough, we show that there is a cosmological horizon in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. Finally, we calculate the temperature and charge and then by calculating the Euclidean action, we obtain the mass, the entropy and the electromagnetic potential energy. We find that the entropy does not respect the area law, and also the conserved and thermodynamic quantities are invariant under conformal transformation. Using these thermodynamic and conserved quantities, we show that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied on the horizon.
On conserved charges and thermodynamics of the AdS4 dyonic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cárdenas, Marcela; Fuentealba, Oscar; Matulich, Javier
2016-05-01
We consider four-dimensional gravity in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field and an Abelian gauge field. This theory corresponds to the bosonic sector of a Kaluza-Klein reduction of eleven-dimensional supergravity which induces a specific self-interacting potential for the scalar field. We compute the conserved charges and carry out the thermodynamics of an anti-de Sitter (AdS) dyonic black hole solution that was proposed recently. The charges coming from symmetries of the action are computed using the Regge-Teitelboim Hamiltonian approach. They correspond to the mass, which acquires contributions from the scalar field, and the electric charge. We introduce integrability conditions because the scalar field leads to non-integrable terms in the variation of the mass. These conditions are generically solved by introducing boundary conditions that relate the leading and subleading terms of the scalar field fall-off. The Hamiltonian Euclidean action, computed in the grand canonical ensemble, is obtained by demanding the action to have an extremum. Its value is given by a radial boundary term plus an additional polar angle boundary term due to the presence of a magnetic monopole. Remarkably, the magnetic charge can be identified from the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term, confirming that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is a consequence of having a well-defined and finite Hamiltonian action principle, even if the charge does not come from a symmetry of the action. The temperature and electrostatic potential are determined by demanding regularity of the black hole solution, whereas the value of the magnetic potential is determined by the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term. Consequently, the first law of black hole thermodynamics is identically satisfied by construction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang
We show that black holes can be quantized in an intuitive and elegant way with results in agreement with conventional knowledge of black holes by using Bohr's idea of quantizing the motion of an electron inside the atom in quantum mechanics. We find that properties of black holes can also be derived from an ansatz of quantized entropy Δ S = 4π k Δ R/{{-{λ }}}, which was suggested in a previous work to unify the black hole entropy formula and Verlinde's conjecture to explain gravity as an entropic force. Such an Ansatz also explains gravity as an entropic force from quantum effect. This suggests a way to unify gravity with quantum theory. Several interesting and surprising results of black holes are given from which we predict the existence of primordial black holes ranging from Planck scale both in size and energy to big ones in size but with low energy behaviors.
Electrothermal linear actuator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Derr, L. J.; Tobias, R. A.
1969-01-01
Converting electric power into powerful linear thrust without generation of magnetic fields is accomplished with an electrothermal linear actuator. When treated by an energized filament, a stack of bimetallic washers expands and drives the end of the shaft upward.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuey, R. C.
1972-01-01
Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.
Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.
1997-08-01
It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces {ital outside} the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
What Black Educators are Saying.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wright, Nathan, Jr., Ed.
Contents of this book are comprised of five groups of articles: Part I. The Black Educator: "Education for black humanism; a way of approaching it," Preston Wilcox; "The new black dimension in our society," Olivia Pearl Stokes; "The black teacher and black Power," Leslie Campbell; and, "The difference," Leslie Campbell. Part II. The White…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
Nightshade poisoning; Morelle noire poisoning; Wonderberry poisoning ... Black nightshade poisoning can affect many areas of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Dry mouth Enlarged (dilated) pupils ...
Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas
2011-01-01
The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205
Never judge a black hole by its area
Ong, Yen Chin
2015-04-01
Christodoulou and Rovelli have shown that black holes have large interiors that grow asymptotically linearly in advanced time, and speculated that this may be relevant to the information loss paradox. We show that there is no simple relation between the interior volume of an arbitrary black hole and its horizon area. That is, the volume enclosed is not necessarily a monotonically increasing function of the surface area.
Stahura, J M
1988-10-01
"This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Urban Review, 1972
1972-01-01
From a statement on media practices regarding the dissemination of a wide range of documentary and other programming about the state of Black America without any input, consultation, or decisions by black Americans, issued by the Congressional Black Caucus. (JM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Long, Richard A.
Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.
2006-01-01
Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayes, Dianne
2012-01-01
Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…
Black English: Two Viewpoints.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kleederman, Frances
This paper focuses on the two main schools of thought concerning the structure of Black English and its relationship to other dialects. One approach is that of the social dialectologists who claim that Black English shares features and origins of white non-standard Southern speech; the frequency with which specific features occur in actual speech…
Learning Mathematics while Black
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Danny Bernard
2012-01-01
While research by scholars has contributed greatly to an emerging knowledge base on Black children and mathematics, there continues to be a dire need for insightful research that de-centers longstanding accounts that have contributed to the construction of Black children as mathematically illiterate and as less than ideal learners relative to…
Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.
Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Tina Sloan; And Others
An overview of the achievements of black women in sports is presented in this collection of essays, biographical sketches, and philosophical investigations. The work is divided into five chapters, the first of which focuses on prejudice (racial and sexual), absence of black women as subjects in the research base, work/home/family pressures, black…
Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jennings, Kenneth
1975-01-01
A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)
Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu
2015-05-26
The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications.
Black Craftsmen Through History.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers, Robin
This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elward, Thomas J.
1981-01-01
Reviews the history of Black music education in the public schools of Washington, D.C., from 1869 through the 1920s. Appended (on pp38-39) are historical notes on Black composers James Weldon Johnson and John Rosamond Johnson, and their song "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing." (Author/SJL)
Hydro-elastic complementarity in black branes at large D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emparan, Roberto; Izumi, Keisuke; Luna, Raimon; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-06-01
We obtain the effective theory for the non-linear dynamics of black branes — both neutral and charged, in asymptotically flat or Anti-deSitter spacetimes — to leading order in the inverse-dimensional expansion. We find that black branes evolve as viscous fluids, but when they settle down they are more naturally viewed as solutions of an elastic soap-bubble theory. The two views are complementary: the same variable is regarded in one case as the energy density of the fluid, in the other as the deformation of the elastic membrane. The large- D theory captures finite-wavelength phenomena beyond the conventional reach of hydrodynamics. For asymptotically flat charged black branes (either Reissner-Nordstrom or p-brane-charged black branes) it yields the non-linear evolution of the Gregory-Laflamme instability at large D and its endpoint at stable non-uniform black branes. For Reissner-Nordstrom AdS black branes we find that sound perturbations do not propagate (have purely imaginary frequency) when their wavelength is below a certain charge-dependent value. We also study the polarization of black branes induced by an external electric field.
Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I
1988-07-01
Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818
Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.
1998-01-01
A brief summary of the annual cycle of the American Black duck (Anas rubripes) is presented. The history of the American black duck population is tracked by the Mid-Winter Index (MWI) and related to annual harvest. Previous to effective restrictions in the United States in 1982 and later in Canada, the MWI was declining significantly at about 4% annually. Since restrictions were established the black duck population has stabilized, but to reach the goal of 260,000 wintering black ducks in the Atlantic Flyway continued or even more restrictions will be necessary. If the number of breeding pairs can be increased from current levels the black duck population is expected to increase.
Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I
1988-07-01
Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goutéraux, B.
2010-11-01
In this thesis, we wish to examine the black-hole solutions of modified gravity theories inspired by String Theory or Cosmology. Namely, these modifications will take the guise of additional gauge and scalar fields for the so-called Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories with an exponential Liouville potential; and of extra spatial dimensions for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories. The black-hole solutions of EMD theories as well as their integrability are reviewed. One of the main results is that a master equation is obtained in the case of planar horizon topology, which allows to completely integrate the problem for s special relationship between the couplings. We also classify existing solutions. We move on to the study of Gauss-Bonnet black holes, focusing on the six-dimensional case. It is found that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling exposes the Weyl tensor of the horizon to the dynamics, severely restricting the Einstein spaces admissible and effectively lifting some of the degeneracy on the horizon topology. We then turn to the study of the thermodynamic properties of black holes, in General Relativity as well as in EMD theories. For the latter, phase transitions may be found in the canonical ensemble, which resemble the phase transitions for Reissner-Nordström black holes. Generically, we find that the thermodynamic properties (stability, order of phase transitions) depend crucially on the values of the EMD coupling constants. Finally, we interpret our planar EMD solutions holographically as Infra-Red geometries through the AdS/CFT correspondence, taking into account various validity constraints. We also compute AC and DC conductivities as applications to Condensed Matter Systems, and find some properties characteristic of strange metal behaviour.
Mathur, Samir D.
2012-11-15
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, Sidney E., III (Inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (Inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (Inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.
Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Melvin G.
When studying Afro-American literature, even in an English class rather than Black Studies class, both student interest and the topic tend to lead discussion toward sociological, not literary, aspects. However, the teacher should emphasize repeatedly the aesthetic dimensions of an artistic work as well as the various literary forms in which a…
Linear phase compressive filter
McEwan, Thomas E.
1995-01-01
A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.
Linear phase compressive filter
McEwan, T.E.
1995-06-06
A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.
Fault tolerant linear actuator
Tesar, Delbert
2004-09-14
In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.
Untapped Resources: "Styling" in Black Students' Writing for Black Audiences.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Redd, Teresa M.
Two studies compared the impact of black and white audiences on black students' writing style. In the first study, eight students in an all-black intermediate composition class completed one argumentative draft addressed to black opponents and one addressed to white opponents on two different topics. The essays were examined for stylistic features…
The next Black America: Obstacles amidst opportunities for Black families.
Armah, Tichianaa
2015-09-01
In this article, the author offers personal accounts on how she feels about the current Black America and obstacles that people face reaching for opportunities for Black families. Focus relies on the current state of Black America, poverty, schools, academic achievement, raising children in the next Black America and much more. (PsycINFO Database Record
The next Black America: Obstacles amidst opportunities for Black families.
Armah, Tichianaa
2015-09-01
In this article, the author offers personal accounts on how she feels about the current Black America and obstacles that people face reaching for opportunities for Black families. Focus relies on the current state of Black America, poverty, schools, academic achievement, raising children in the next Black America and much more. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460716
Black Studies and Black People in the Future
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James B.
1976-01-01
Suggests that the demise of Black Studies would foreshadow the future deterioration of the material conditions of black people, a situation which all elements of the black community want to preclude as a possible future for black people. (Author/AM)
On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram
2015-01-01
This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…
Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinne, Oliver
2014-12-01
We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu
2015-01-10
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmire, Gordon
1999-09-01
WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.
Linearly polarized fiber amplifier
Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.
2004-11-30
Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.
Richter, B.
1985-12-01
A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The status of the machine and the detectors are discussed and an overview is given of the physics which can be done at this new facility. Some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clancy, John P.
1988-01-01
The object of the invention is to provide a mechanical force actuator which is lightweight and manipulatable and utilizes linear motion for push or pull forces while maintaining a constant overall length. The mechanical force producing mechanism comprises a linear actuator mechanism and a linear motion shaft mounted parallel to one another. The linear motion shaft is connected to a stationary or fixed housing and to a movable housing where the movable housing is mechanically actuated through actuator mechanism by either manual means or motor means. The housings are adapted to releasably receive a variety of jaw or pulling elements adapted for clamping or prying action. The stationary housing is adapted to be pivotally mounted to permit an angular position of the housing to allow the tool to adapt to skewed interfaces. The actuator mechanisms is operated by a gear train to obtain linear motion of the actuator mechanism.
Linear models: permutation methods
Cade, B.S.; Everitt, B.S.; Howell, D.C.
2005-01-01
Permutation tests (see Permutation Based Inference) for the linear model have applications in behavioral studies when traditional parametric assumptions about the error term in a linear model are not tenable. Improved validity of Type I error rates can be achieved with properly constructed permutation tests. Perhaps more importantly, increased statistical power, improved robustness to effects of outliers, and detection of alternative distributional differences can be achieved by coupling permutation inference with alternative linear model estimators. For example, it is well-known that estimates of the mean in linear model are extremely sensitive to even a single outlying value of the dependent variable compared to estimates of the median [7, 19]. Traditionally, linear modeling focused on estimating changes in the center of distributions (means or medians). However, quantile regression allows distributional changes to be estimated in all or any selected part of a distribution or responses, providing a more complete statistical picture that has relevance to many biological questions [6]...
The Price of "Black Dominance."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoberman, John
2000-01-01
Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…
Black Managers in White Corporations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, John P.
The study examines the major determinants of the career patterns of black managers in white businesses and the effects of corporations on their black managers' identities and relationships to the black community. Analyzed were occupational mobility theories; white and black managers' career patterns, goals, and related factors; company employment…
Quantum-corrected self-dual black hole entropy in tunneling formalism with GUP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2015-10-01
In this paper we focus on the Hamilton-Jacobi method to determine the entropy of a self-dual black hole by using linear and quadratic GUPs (generalized uncertainty principles). We have obtained the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of self-dual black holes and its quantum corrections that are logarithm and also of several other types.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chng, Brenda; Mann, Robert; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian
2008-12-01
We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordström solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we found contain either a conical or naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.
... the United States is declining, there is decreased awareness of TB signs and symptoms among health care ... working on projects designed to educate and raise awareness about TB in black communities. In one project, ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot
2005-01-01
Black holes are most often detected by the radiation produced when they gravitationally pull in surrounding gas, in a process called accretion. The efficiency with which the hot gas radiates its thermal energy strongly influences the geometry and dynamics of the accretion flow. Both radiatively efficient thin disks and radiatively inefficient thick disks are observed. When the accreting gas gets close to the central black hole, the radiation it produces becomes sensitive to the spin of the hole and the presence of an event horizon. Analysis of the luminosities and spectra of accreting black holes has yielded tantalizing evidence for both rotating holes and event horizons. Numerical simulations imply that the relativistic jets often seen from accreting black holes may be powered in part by the spin of the hole. PMID:15637269
Astrophysics: Monster black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappellari, Michele
2011-12-01
A combination of ground-based and spacecraft observations has uncovered two black holes of 10 billion solar masses in the nearby Universe. The finding sheds light on how these cosmic monsters co-evolve with galaxies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.
2011-10-01
In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bridges, Roger D.; Daley, Harry
1996-01-01
Presents an excellent lesson plan discussing the repressive racial legislation that remained enforced in Illinois even after the repeal of slavery. Background material also covers the black communities' response to these racist laws. Includes teaching suggestions, handouts, and activities. (MJP)
Helical superconducting black holes.
Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P
2012-05-25
We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Comer, James P.
Black and white conflict is a by-product of a more basic problem: the failure of this society to develop a social system that enables all people to meet their basic human needs at a reasonable level. Until this is done, we will not be able to move beyond black and white. The underlying problem is related to a sudden acceleration of human history…
Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity
Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com
2013-11-01
In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.
Can Blacks Be Racists? Black-on-Black Principal Abuse in an Urban School Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khalifa, Muhammad
2015-01-01
This study examines Black student and parental perceptions of exclusionary practices of Black school principals. I ask why students and parents viewed two Black principals as contributing to abusive and exclusionary school environments that marginalized Black students. After a two-year ethnographic study, it was revealed that exclusionary…
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whisker, Richard
2008-10-01
In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, and we attempt to generate rotating solutions from known static solutions using the Newman-Janis complexification ``trick''.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.
1998-01-01
Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Studer, P. A. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem
... is the device most commonly used for external beam radiation treatments for patients with cancer. The linear ... shape of the patient's tumor and the customized beam is directed to the patient's tumor. The beam ...
Isolated linear blaschkoid psoriasis.
Nasimi, M; Abedini, R; Azizpour, A; Nikoo, A
2016-10-01
Linear psoriasis (LPs) is considered a rare clinical presentation of psoriasis, which is characterized by linear erythematous and scaly lesions along the lines of Blaschko. We report the case of a 20-year-old man who presented with asymptomatic linear and S-shaped erythematous, scaly plaques on right side of his trunk. The plaques were arranged along the lines of Blaschko with a sharp demarcation at the midline. Histological examination of a skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of psoriasis. Topical calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate ointments were prescribed for 2 months. A good clinical improvement was achieved, with reduction in lesion thickness and scaling. In patients with linear erythematous and scaly plaques along the lines of Blaschko, the diagnosis of LPs should be kept in mind, especially in patients with asymptomatic lesions of late onset. PMID:27663156
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laughlin, Darren
1995-01-01
Inertial linear actuators developed to suppress residual accelerations of nominally stationary or steadily moving platforms. Function like long-stroke version of voice coil in conventional loudspeaker, with superimposed linear variable-differential transformer. Basic concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations of terrestrial platforms. For example, laboratory table equipped with such actuators plus suitable vibration sensors and control circuits made to vibrate much less in presence of seismic, vehicular, and other environmental vibrational disturbances.
Shetty, Shricharith; Rao, Raghavendra; Kudva, R Ranjini; Subramanian, Kumudhini
2016-01-01
Alopecia areata (AA) over scalp is known to present in various shapes and extents of hair loss. Typically it presents as circumscribed patches of alopecia with underlying skin remaining normal. We describe a rare variant of AA presenting in linear band-like form. Only four cases of linear alopecia have been reported in medical literature till today, all four being diagnosed as lupus erythematosus profundus. PMID:27625568
Shetty, Shricharith; Rao, Raghavendra; Kudva, R Ranjini; Subramanian, Kumudhini
2016-01-01
Alopecia areata (AA) over scalp is known to present in various shapes and extents of hair loss. Typically it presents as circumscribed patches of alopecia with underlying skin remaining normal. We describe a rare variant of AA presenting in linear band-like form. Only four cases of linear alopecia have been reported in medical literature till today, all four being diagnosed as lupus erythematosus profundus.
Shetty, Shricharith; Rao, Raghavendra; Kudva, R Ranjini; Subramanian, Kumudhini
2016-01-01
Alopecia areata (AA) over scalp is known to present in various shapes and extents of hair loss. Typically it presents as circumscribed patches of alopecia with underlying skin remaining normal. We describe a rare variant of AA presenting in linear band-like form. Only four cases of linear alopecia have been reported in medical literature till today, all four being diagnosed as lupus erythematosus profundus. PMID:27625568
Time evolution of entanglement entropy from black hole interiors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartman, Thomas; Maldacena, Juan
2013-05-01
We compute the time-dependent entanglement entropy of a CFT which starts in relatively simple initial states. The initial states are the thermofield double for thermal states, dual to eternal black holes, and a particular pure state, dual to a black hole formed by gravitational collapse. The entanglement entropy grows linearly in time. This linear growth is directly related to the growth of the black hole interior measured along "nice" spatial slices. These nice slices probe the spacelike direction in the interior, at a fixed special value of the interior time. In the case of a two-dimensional CFT, we match the bulk and boundary computations of the entanglement entropy. We briefly discuss the long time behavior of various correlators, computed via classical geodesics or surfaces, and point out that their exponential decay comes about for similar reasons. We also present the time evolution of the wavefunction in the tensor network description.
Improvements to the construction of binary black hole initial data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ossokine, Serguei; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Szilágyi, Béla
2015-12-01
Construction of binary black hole initial data is a prerequisite for numerical evolutions of binary black holes. This paper reports improvements to the binary black hole initial data solver in the spectral Einstein code, to allow robust construction of initial data for mass-ratio above 10:1, and for dimensionless black hole spins above 0.9, while improving efficiency for lower mass-ratios and spins. We implement a more flexible domain decomposition, adaptive mesh refinement and an updated method for choosing free parameters. We also introduce a new method to control and eliminate residual linear momentum in initial data for precessing systems, and demonstrate that it eliminates gravitational mode mixing during the evolution. Finally, the new code is applied to construct initial data for hyperbolic scattering and for binaries with very small separation.
Black strings, low viscosity fluids, and violation of cosmic censorship.
Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans
2010-09-01
We describe the behavior of 5-dimensional black strings, subject to the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Beyond the linear level, the evolving strings exhibit a rich dynamics, where at intermediate stages the horizon can be described as a sequence of 3-dimensional spherical black holes joined by black string segments. These segments are themselves subject to a Gregory-Laflamme instability, resulting in a self-similar cascade, where ever-smaller satellite black holes form connected by ever-thinner string segments. This behavior is akin to satellite formation in low-viscosity fluid streams subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The simulation results imply that the string segments will reach zero radius in finite asymptotic time, whence the classical space-time terminates in a naked singularity. Since no fine-tuning is required to excite the instability, this constitutes a generic violation of cosmic censorship.
Black strings, low viscosity fluids, and violation of cosmic censorship.
Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans
2010-09-01
We describe the behavior of 5-dimensional black strings, subject to the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Beyond the linear level, the evolving strings exhibit a rich dynamics, where at intermediate stages the horizon can be described as a sequence of 3-dimensional spherical black holes joined by black string segments. These segments are themselves subject to a Gregory-Laflamme instability, resulting in a self-similar cascade, where ever-smaller satellite black holes form connected by ever-thinner string segments. This behavior is akin to satellite formation in low-viscosity fluid streams subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The simulation results imply that the string segments will reach zero radius in finite asymptotic time, whence the classical space-time terminates in a naked singularity. Since no fine-tuning is required to excite the instability, this constitutes a generic violation of cosmic censorship. PMID:20867508
Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi
2010-10-15
Previously the five dimensional S{sup 1}-rotating black rings have been superposed in a concentric way by some solitonic methods, and regular systems of two S{sup 1}-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions 'black di-rings'). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings is shown, in which both isothermality and isorotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.
Scalar field conformally coupled to a charged BTZ black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valtancoli, P.
2016-06-01
We study the Klein-Gordon equation of a scalar field conformally coupled to a charged BTZ black hole. The background metric is obtained by coupling a non-linear and conformal invariant Maxwell field to (2 + 1) gravity. We show that the radial part is generally solved by a Heun function and, in the pure gravity limit, by a hypergeometric function.
Superradiant instabilities of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen R.; Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Wald, Robert M.
2016-06-01
We study the linear stability of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in general relativity in spacetime dimension d≥slant 4. Our approach is an adaptation of the general framework of Hollands and Wald, which gives a stability criterion in terms of the sign of the canonical energy, { E }. The general framework was originally formulated for static or stationary and axisymmetric black holes in the asymptotically flat case, and the stability analysis for that case applies only to axisymmetric perturbations. However, in the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case, the stability analysis requires only that the black hole have a single Killing field normal to the horizon and there are no restrictions on the perturbations (apart from smoothness and appropriate behavior at infinity). For an asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole, we define an ergoregion to be a region where the horizon Killing field is spacelike; such a region, if present, would normally occur near infinity. We show that for black holes with ergoregions, initial data can be constructed such that { E }\\lt 0, so all such black holes are unstable. To obtain such initial data, we first construct an approximate solution to the constraint equations using the WKB method, and then we use the Corvino-Schoen technique to obtain an exact solution. We also discuss the case of charged asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes with generalized ergoregions.
Quasistationary solutions of scalar fields around accreting black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Izquierdo, Paula; Font, José A.; Montero, Pedro J.
2016-08-01
Massive scalar fields can form long-lived configurations around black holes. These configurations, dubbed quasibound states, have been studied both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. In this paper, we show that quasibound states can form in a dynamical scenario in which the mass of the black hole grows significantly due to the capture of infalling matter. We solve the Klein-Gordon equation numerically in spherical symmetry, mimicking the evolution of the spacetime through a sequence of analytic Schwarzschild black hole solutions of increasing mass. It is found that the frequency of oscillation of the quasibound states decreases as the mass of the black hole increases. In addition, accretion leads to an increase of the exponential decay of the scalar field energy. We compare the black hole mass growth rates used in our study with estimates from observational surveys and extrapolate our results to values of the scalar field masses consistent with models that propose scalar fields as dark matter in the universe. We show that, even for unrealistically large mass accretion rates, quasibound states around accreting black holes can survive for cosmological time scales. Our results provide further support to the intriguing possibility of the existence of dark matter halos based on (ultralight) scalar fields surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic centers.
Superradiant instabilities of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen R.; Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Wald, Robert M.
2016-06-01
We study the linear stability of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in general relativity in spacetime dimension d≥slant 4. Our approach is an adaptation of the general framework of Hollands and Wald, which gives a stability criterion in terms of the sign of the canonical energy, { E }. The general framework was originally formulated for static or stationary and axisymmetric black holes in the asymptotically flat case, and the stability analysis for that case applies only to axisymmetric perturbations. However, in the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case, the stability analysis requires only that the black hole have a single Killing field normal to the horizon and there are no restrictions on the perturbations (apart from smoothness and appropriate behavior at infinity). For an asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole, we define an ergoregion to be a region where the horizon Killing field is spacelike; such a region, if present, would normally occur near infinity. We show that for black holes with ergoregions, initial data can be constructed such that { E }\\lt 0, so all such black holes are unstable. To obtain such initial data, we first construct an approximate solution to the constraint equations using the WKB method, and then we use the Corvino–Schoen technique to obtain an exact solution. We also discuss the case of charged asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes with generalized ergoregions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathur, Samir D.
2012-11-01
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, John
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Maeda, Kengo; Fujii, Shunsuke; Koga, Jun-ichirou
2010-06-15
We investigate instability of four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS{sub 4}) black holes with various topologies by charged scalar field perturbations. We numerically find that the RN-AdS{sub 4} black holes become unstable against the linear perturbations below a critical temperature. It is analytically shown that charge extraction from the black holes occurs during the unstable evolution. To explore the end state of the instability, we perturbatively construct static black hole solutions with the scalar hair near the critical temperature. It is numerically found that the entropy of the hairy black hole is always larger than the one of the unstable RN-AdS{sub 4} black hole in the microcanonical ensemble. Our results support the speculation that the black hole with charged scalar hair always appears as the final fate of the instability of the RN-AdS{sub 4} black hole.
Strengths of Black Families: A Black Community's Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Royse, David D.; Turner, Gladys T.
1980-01-01
Research on Black families should use a nondeviant perspective. Strengths in Black families, such as kinship, work orientation, adaptability of family roles, achievement, and religious orientation, are too often overlooked. (JAC)
Superconducting linear actuator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Bruce; Hockney, Richard
1993-01-01
Special actuators are needed to control the orientation of large structures in space-based precision pointing systems. Electromagnetic actuators that presently exist are too large in size and their bandwidth is too low. Hydraulic fluid actuation also presents problems for many space-based applications. Hydraulic oil can escape in space and contaminate the environment around the spacecraft. A research study was performed that selected an electrically-powered linear actuator that can be used to control the orientation of a large pointed structure. This research surveyed available products, analyzed the capabilities of conventional linear actuators, and designed a first-cut candidate superconducting linear actuator. The study first examined theoretical capabilities of electrical actuators and determined their problems with respect to the application and then determined if any presently available actuators or any modifications to available actuator designs would meet the required performance. The best actuator was then selected based on available design, modified design, or new design for this application. The last task was to proceed with a conceptual design. No commercially-available linear actuator or modification capable of meeting the specifications was found. A conventional moving-coil dc linear actuator would meet the specification, but the back-iron for this actuator would weigh approximately 12,000 lbs. A superconducting field coil, however, eliminates the need for back iron, resulting in an actuator weight of approximately 1000 lbs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Sebastian; Santos, Jorge E.
2013-07-01
We construct the gravitational dual, in the Unruh state, of the "jammed" phase of a CFT at strong coupling and infinite N on a fixed five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. When the angular momenta are all zero, the solution corresponds to the five-dimensional generalization of the solution first studied in [1]. In the extremal limit, when the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry black hole are maximum, the Unruh, Boulware and Hartle-Hawking states degenerate. We give a detailed analysis of the corresponding holographic stress energy tensor for all values of the angular momenta, finding it to be regular at the horizon in all cases. We compare our results with existent literature on thermal states of free field theories on black hole backgrounds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furmann, John M.
2003-03-01
Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.
Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Levi, Thomas S.
2007-06-22
We present a sample microstate for a black ring in four and five dimensional language. The microstate consists of a black string microstate with an additional D6-brane. We show that with an appropriate choice of parameters the piece involving the black string microstate falls down a long AdS throat, whose M-theory lift is AdS_3 x S2. We wrap a spinning dipole M2-brane on the S2 in the probe approximation. In IIA, this corresponds to a dielectric D2-brane carrying only D0-charge. We conjecture this is the firstapproximation to a cloud of D0-branes blowing up due to their non-abelian degrees of freedom and the Myers effect.
Designing linear systolic arrays
Kumar, V.K.P.; Tsai, Y.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)
1989-12-01
The authors develop a simple mapping technique to design linear systolic arrays. The basic idea of the technique is to map the computations of a certain class of two-dimensional systolic arrays onto one-dimensional arrays. Using this technique, systolic algorithms are derived for problems such as matrix multiplication and transitive closure on linearly connected arrays of PEs with constant I/O bandwidth. Compared to known designs in the literature, the technique leads to modular systolic arrays with constant hardware in each PE, few control lines, lexicographic data input/output, and improved delay time. The unidirectional flow of control and data in this design assures implementation of the linear array in the known fault models of wafer scale integration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A Linear Motion Encoding device for measuring the linear motion of a moving object is disclosed in which a light source is mounted on the moving object and a position sensitive detector such as an array photodetector is mounted on a nearby stationary object. The light source emits a light beam directed towards the array photodetector such that a light spot is created on the array. An analog-to-digital converter, connected to the array photodetector is used for reading the position of the spot on the array photodetector. A microprocessor and memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the linear displacement of the moving object based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-15
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-01
The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Infinitely coloured black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2000-04-01
We formulate the field equations for SU (icons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/> ) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and use an analytic approximation to elucidate the properties of spherically symmetric black hole solutions. This model may be motivated by string theory considerations, given the enormous gauge symmetries which characterize string theory. The solutions simplify considerably in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, particularly for the limiting cases of a very large cosmological constant or very small gauge field. The black holes possess infinite amounts of gauge field hair, and we speculate on possible consequences of this for quantum decoherence, which, however, we do not tackle here.
Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Mosquera-Martínez, Joaquín; Martínez-Torre, Santiago
2013-01-01
Black-pigmented sputum, also called “melanoptysis,” is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis). The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc.) or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established. PMID:24648674
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie
1991-01-01
We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.
Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.
2010-09-01
We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.
REPORT TO CONGRESS ON BLACK CARBON
The Report to Congress on Black Carbon describes domestic and international sources of black carbon emissions, and summarizes available scientific information on the climate effects of black carbon. Further, the Report evaluates available black carbon mitigation options and thei...
Black Television: Avenue of Power
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Douglas, Pamela
1973-01-01
Analyzes a few of the prominent issues in black television, examining public television, commercial television, black ownership of stations, cable television, and some projections for the future. (Author/JM)
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
Conquering the Black Girl Blues.
Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly
2015-10-01
An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points.
Conquering the Black Girl Blues.
Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly
2015-10-01
An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points. PMID:26489355
Black Musicians Leading the Way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Music Educators Journal, 1982
1982-01-01
Describes the careers and musical achievements of Blacks who were forerunners in jazz, blues, gospel, music, spirituals, band music, classical music, ragtime, and opera. The list was compiled to provide teachers with historical background information for "Black History Month." (AM)
Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie
Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent
Improved Electrohydraulic Linear Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamtil, James
2004-01-01
A product line of improved electrohydraulic linear actuators has been developed. These actuators are designed especially for use in actuating valves in rocket-engine test facilities. They are also adaptable to many industrial uses, such as steam turbines, process control valves, dampers, motion control, etc. The advantageous features of the improved electrohydraulic linear actuators are best described with respect to shortcomings of prior electrohydraulic linear actuators that the improved ones are intended to supplant. The flow of hydraulic fluid to the two ports of the actuator cylinder is controlled by a servo valve that is controlled by a signal from a servo amplifier that, in turn, receives an analog position-command signal (a current having a value between 4 and 20 mA) from a supervisory control system of the facility. As the position command changes, the servo valve shifts, causing a greater flow of hydraulic fluid to one side of the cylinder and thereby causing the actuator piston to move to extend or retract a piston rod from the actuator body. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) directly linked to the piston provides a position-feedback signal, which is compared with the position-command signal in the servo amplifier. When the position-feedback and position-command signals match, the servo valve moves to its null position, in which it holds the actuator piston at a steady position.
Duck, F
2010-01-01
The propagation of acoustic waves is a fundamentally non-linear process, and only waves with infinitesimally small amplitudes may be described by linear expressions. In practice, all ultrasound propagation is associated with a progressive distortion in the acoustic waveform and the generation of frequency harmonics. At the frequencies and amplitudes used for medical diagnostic scanning, the waveform distortion can result in the formation of acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy, and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation, such as water, amniotic fluid, or urine. Attenuation by soft tissues limits but does not extinguish these non-linear effects. Harmonics may be used to create tissue harmonic images. These offer improvements over conventional B-mode images in spatial resolution and, more significantly, in the suppression of acoustic clutter and side-lobe artefacts. The quantity B/A has promise as a parameter for tissue characterization, but methods for imaging B/A have shown only limited success. Standard methods for the prediction of tissue in-situ exposure from acoustic measurements in water, whether for regulatory purposes, for safety assessment, or for planning therapeutic regimes, may be in error because of unaccounted non-linear losses. Biological effects mechanisms are altered by finite-amplitude effects. PMID:20349813
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, J. A. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
The linear motion valve is described. The valve spool employs magnetically permeable rings, spaced apart axially, which engage a sealing assembly having magnetically permeable pole pieces in magnetic relationship with a magnet. The gap between the ring and the pole pieces is sealed with a ferrofluid. Depletion of the ferrofluid is minimized.
Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleinberg, L. L.
1982-01-01
Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ward, Francis
1974-01-01
Argues that the "super" image of the black male in films served three essential purposes: it gave blacks whatever therapy they needed from films; it had hot box office appeal; and it kept white in control of the images blacks have had of themselves. (Author/JM)
Black Responses to Environmental Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paris, Peter
1978-01-01
There is general agreement that various types of environmental forces have resulted in the victimization of Black Americans. Victimization implies a condition of passivity. This article challenges that perspective by demonstrating the distinctive role of the Black churches in helping Blacks maintain self-respect and act on their environment.…
Black Psychologists Discuss Behavior Modification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardo, Harold R.; And Others
The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss reasons why blacks should be concerned and actively involved with practices in behavior modification. The concern is that as these techniques are refined it becomes more important to be sure blacks should be involved at all levels of the application of these procedures when other blacks are subjects…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel C.
2008-01-01
Of the 281 million Americans, "Scientific American" estimates that White Africans (21% of White Caucasians) have Black heritage. This article discusses the present state of black elite and the transformation of black students in the United States. Some strategies to become a "white" student are also discussed.
Community Attitudes toward Black English
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoover, Mary Rhodes
1978-01-01
Describes research in which 28 black parents and community people were polled as to their attitudes toward vernacular and standard Black English. Attitudes were assessed in four domains--school, home, community and playground--and in four channels--reading, speaking, writing and listening. Standard Black English was preferred in all domains and…
Black English: A Community Language.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, France A.
Black English, the particular variation of the English language used by many American Negroes, is frequently condemned as inferior to standard English by arbiters of language usage, but many Negroes find the structures and style of black English satisfactory for their communication needs. Black English is the result of a complex, developmental…
Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.
2016-01-01
Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…
Black Athletes at the Millennium.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrison, C. Keith
2000-01-01
Analyzes Harry Edwards' theories and solutions regarding black male athletes, discussing the single-minded pursuit of sports glory by black males to the exclusion of cultural, educational, and social needs. Examines the systemic channeling of black males by American institutions, noting that though this system promotes opportunity for all,…
Black Progress: Convergence or Cleavage?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Robert B.
1982-01-01
The popular view of a permanent Black underclass falling farther behind an expanding Black middle class is disputed by empirical evidence that the underclass is experiencing upward mobility. The discrepancy stems from social scientists' overreliance on cross-sectional data rather than longitudinal data in analyzing economic change among Blacks.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lambert, Robert G., Jr.
General Ulysses S. Grant reflected the prevailing views of his community and times concerning social attitudes. Although opposed to slavery, he was not a strong advocate of liberties and rights for black people. Like President Lincoln, Grant at first opposed use of black troops in the Civil War. On July 17, 1862 black recruitment was approved and…
Health Issues Facing Black Women.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reid, Inez Smith
Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…
Blacks, Science, and American Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearson, Willie, Jr., Ed.; Bechtel, H. Kenneth, Ed.
Blacks are severely underrepresented in the American scientific community; fewer than two percent of all scientists with doctorates in this country are black. Despite civil rights legislation and integration of schools, school systems still fail to encourage black students to consider and prepare for careers in the sciences. In this book, eight…
African Psychology and Black Personality Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baldwin, Joseph A.
1987-01-01
The following instruments for measuring Black personality use the world view and cultural orientations of Africa have been developed and are described: (1) the Black Personality Questionnaire; (2) the Black Preference Inventory; (3) the Black Opinion Scale; (4) the Themes of Black Awareness Test; (5) the Themes Concerning Blacks Test; and (6) the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Jerry J.
1986-01-01
Georgia State's minority retention program provides academic and social support for black freshmen by referral to appropriate campus personnel or resources for assistance with academic, financial, personal, social, and career planning problems. It uses peer counseling, faculty mentors, nonacademic staff participation, and social events to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roach, Ronald
1999-01-01
Under the leadership of President David H. Swinton, Benedict College (North Carolina) has provided leadership and support for local economic development, benefitting both the community and the school. Trustees invested college endowment funds to help save the sole black-owned banking institution in the state, which now promises to become a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noldon, Carl
2007-01-01
The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mehta, Diane
2006-01-01
Thomas Sayers Ellis, assistant professor of creative writing at New York's Sarah Lawrence College, is one of many scholars fighting for the soul of Black poetry, a struggle that takes place largely off-campus. Unless one is accepted into a top-level graduate poetry program, such as Boston University's program or the Iowa Writing Workshop, a poet's…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki
2012-03-01
We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.
Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-06-20
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Jacob U., Ed.; Rosser, James M., Ed.
Beginning with the selection of Professor Newby, who attempts to reveal the role which historians, perhaps more specifically white historians, have played and continue to play in the perpetuation of racism in American culture, this anthology concludes with an analysis of the present status of Black Studies. W. Arthur Lewis' critical essay attempts…
[Thematic Issue: Black Theatre.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrison, Carl F., Jr., Ed.
"Nummo" refers to "the word" or "word force." The aim of this publication is to provide a common forum for the utilization of the word force in exploring the opinions and creations of black community, educational, and professional theatre artists and scholars. This issue includes a play called "The Twilight Dinner" by Lennox Brown; a review of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halpern, Florence
This book was written to communicate to others how the author became involved in the lives of the southeastern black people and how her perception and understanding of them changed as the result of that involvement. The plan of this book is as follows: the first and, by far the longer, part is devoted to descriptions and examples of the way in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kadi-Hanifi, Karima
2013-01-01
This is an exploratory paper, drawing on the author's experiences as well as those of three other black lecturers in Higher Education (HE). Three interviews were carried out, asking the same five questions around themes of concern to the author. These are about the learning and teaching approaches used by these lecturers; their experiences of…
Black Families. Third Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.
The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…
Black Phosphorus RF Transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen
2015-03-01
Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.
Teaching the Black Experience.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirschenbaum, Howard
1968-01-01
Instructional materials and teaching approaches can be used to get students to seriously and constructively confront problems in race relations which they will eventually have to solve. For example, Richard Wright's "Black Boy," an anthology of Negro poetry or a collection of poems on race relations, and such films as "Where is Prejudice?" can…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kafele, Baruti K.
2012-01-01
Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…
Black Phosphorus Terahertz Photodetectors.
Viti, Leonardo; Hu, Jin; Coquillat, Dominique; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Politano, Antonio; Vitiello, Miriam Serena
2015-10-01
The first room-temperature terahertz (THz)-frequency nanodetector exploiting a 10 nm thick flake of exfoliated crystalline black phosphorus as an active channel of a field-effect transistor, is devised. By engineering and embedding planar THz antennas for efficient light harvesting, the first technological demonstration of a phosphorus-based active THz device is described. PMID:26270791
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, William M.
This published dissertation discusses the community development process as applied to urban black ghettoes. It provides extensive documentation on the many issues, concepts, and procedures in the field of community development. The method employed in collecting the data is a through review of existing literature in the topical areas for relevance…
Kohl, Arthur L.
1987-07-28
A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.
Kohl, A.L.
1987-07-28
A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Geyer, Donna
1969-01-01
The inclusion of Afro-American literature in high schools either as an elective course or as a unit within an American literature course provides opportunities for Black students to gain, from members of their own race, pride in themselves and belief in the possibility of personal achievement. Title selection should depend upon class make-up. For…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.
This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…
Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors
Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1995-01-01
The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.
Wave equations on the linear mass Vaidya metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nafooshe, Saeede; O'Loughlin, Martin
2016-08-01
We discuss the near-singularity region of the linear mass Vaidya metric. In particular, we investigate the structure in the numerical solutions for the scattering of scalar and electromagnetic metric perturbations from the singularity. We observe that, around the total evaporation point, quasinormal-like oscillations appear, indicating that this may be an interesting model for the description of the end point of black hole evaporation.
Growth of Primordial Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Tomohiro
Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.
Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartkus, Tadas P.; T'ien, James S.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Wessel, Richard A.
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY) ) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.
Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.
Slowly rotating black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics in five dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Sepehri Rad, M.
2014-10-01
Employing linear order perturbation theory with the rotation parameter as the perturbative parameter, we obtain asymptotically AdS slowly rotating black hole solutions in the Einstein gravity with Born-Infeld (BI) type nonlinear electrodynamics (NED). We start from asymptotically AdS static black hole solutions coupled to BI type NED in five dimensions. Then, we consider the effect of adding a small amount of angular momenta to the seed solutions. Finally, we investigate the geometry and thermodynamic properties of the solutions.
Black hole hair in generalized scalar-tensor gravity.
Sotiriou, Thomas P; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-06-27
The most general action for a scalar field coupled to gravity that leads to second-order field equations for both the metric and the scalar--Horndeski's theory--is considered, with the extra assumption that the scalar satisfies shift symmetry. We show that in such theories, the scalar field is forced to have a nontrivial configuration in black hole spacetimes, unless one carefully tunes away a linear coupling with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Hence, black holes for generic theories in this class will have hair. This contradicts a recent no-hair theorem which seems to have overlooked the presence of this coupling. PMID:25014801
Black Hole Hair in Generalized Scalar-Tensor Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-06-01
The most general action for a scalar field coupled to gravity that leads to second-order field equations for both the metric and the scalar—Horndeski's theory—is considered, with the extra assumption that the scalar satisfies shift symmetry. We show that in such theories, the scalar field is forced to have a nontrivial configuration in black hole spacetimes, unless one carefully tunes away a linear coupling with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Hence, black holes for generic theories in this class will have hair. This contradicts a recent no-hair theorem which seems to have overlooked the presence of this coupling.
Black hole hair in generalized scalar-tensor gravity.
Sotiriou, Thomas P; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-06-27
The most general action for a scalar field coupled to gravity that leads to second-order field equations for both the metric and the scalar--Horndeski's theory--is considered, with the extra assumption that the scalar satisfies shift symmetry. We show that in such theories, the scalar field is forced to have a nontrivial configuration in black hole spacetimes, unless one carefully tunes away a linear coupling with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Hence, black holes for generic theories in this class will have hair. This contradicts a recent no-hair theorem which seems to have overlooked the presence of this coupling.
Superradiant instability of black holes immersed in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo
2014-05-01
Magnetic fields surrounding spinning black holes can confine radiation and trigger superradiant instabilities. To investigate this effect, we perform the first fully-consistent linear analysis of the Ernst spacetime, an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field B. In the limit in which the black-hole mass vanishes, the background reduces to the marginally stable Melvin spacetime. The presence of an event horizon introduces a small dissipative term, resulting in a set of long-lived—or unstable—modes. We provide a simple interpretation of the mode spectrum in terms of a small perfect absorber immersed in a confining box of size ˜1/B and show that rotation triggers a superradiant instability. By studying scalar perturbations of a magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole, we are able to confirm and quantify the details of this instability. The instability time scale can be orders of magnitude shorter than that associated to massive bosonic fields. The instability extracts angular momentum from the event horizon, competing against accretion. This implies that strong magnetic fields set an upper bound on the black-hole spin. Conversely, observations of highly-spinning massive black holes impose an intrinsic limit to the strength of the surrounding magnetic field. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results and the limitations of the Ernst spacetime to describe realistic astrophysical configurations.
Gravitational Rocket from the Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Dale
2006-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are expected to be among the most fascinating gravitational wave sources, observable by the NASA/ESA LISA detector. Not only will the merger events reveal the rich phenomenology of extremely strong and dynamical gravity deep inside the potential wells at the centers of galaxies (thus providing an excellent testing ground for general relativity), it will also make important contributions to the astrophysics of massive black hole evolutions. Typical black hole mergers involve asymmetric radiation of gravitational waves and lose linear momentum as well as energy and angular momentum. As a result, the merger remnant receives a kick from the GW emission: a gravitational rocket effect. High kick velocities (higher than the escape velocities of the host structure) would have a strong impact on our understanding of how massive black holes have evolved over time and, in particular, on the estimates of the merger rate for LISA. The main difficulties in calculations of the kick velocities has been in the last moments of the merger where the full theory of general relativity must be employed to accurately model the black hole dynamics. I describe a recent calculation of the kick velocities from numerical relativity simulations of the merging black hole binaries.
Entropy and temperature of black holes in a gravity's rainbow
Galan, Pablo; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A.
2006-08-15
The linear relation between the entropy and area of a black hole can be derived from the Heisenberg principle, the energy-momentum dispersion relation of special relativity, and general considerations about black holes. There exist results in quantum gravity and related contexts suggesting the modification of the usual dispersion relation and uncertainty principle. One of these contexts is the gravity's rainbow formalism. We analyze the consequences of such a modification for black hole thermodynamics from the perspective of two distinct rainbow realizations built from doubly special relativity. One is the proposal of Magueijo and Smolin and the other is based on a canonical implementation of doubly special relativity put forward recently by the authors. In these scenarios, we obtain modified expressions for the entropy and temperature of black holes. We show that, for a family of doubly special relativity theories satisfying certain properties, the temperature can vanish in the limit of zero black hole mass. For the Magueijo and Smolin proposal, this is only possible for some restricted class of models with bounded energy and unbounded momentum. With the proposal of a canonical implementation, on the other hand, the temperature may vanish for more general theories; in particular, the momentum may also be bounded, with bounded or unbounded energy. This opens new possibilities for the outcome of black hole evaporation in the framework of a gravity's rainbow.
Black strings in Gauss-Bonnet theory are unstable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio; Vera, Aldo
2015-05-01
We report the existence of unstable s-wave modes for black strings in Gauss-Bonnet theory (which is quadratic in the curvature) in seven dimensions. This theory admits analytic uniform black strings that are, in the transverse section, black holes of the same Gauss-Bonnet theory in six dimensions. All the components of the perturbation can be written in terms of a single component and its derivatives. For this, we find a master equation that admits bounded solutions provided the characteristic time of the exponential growth of the perturbation is related to the wave number along the extra direction, as in general relativity. It is known that these configurations suffer from a thermal instability; therefore, the results presented here provide evidence for the Gubser-Mitra conjecture in the context of Gauss-Bonnet theory. Because of the nontriviality of the curvature of the background, all of the components of the metric perturbation appear in the linearized equations. Similar to spherical black holes, the black strings should be obtained as the short-distance limit r ≪α1 /2 of the black-string solution of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory (which is not known analytically), where α is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling.
Gravitational Rocket from the Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, D.
2005-12-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are expected to be among the most fascinating gravitational wave sources, observable by the NASA/ESA LISA detector. Not only will the merger events reveal the rich phenomenology of extremely strong and dynamical gravity deep inside the potential wells at the centers of galaxies (thus providing an excellent testing ground for general relativity), it will also make important contributions to the astrophysics of massive black hole evolutions. Typical black hole mergers involve asymmetric radiation of gravitational waves and lose linear momentum as well as energy and angular momentum. As a result, the merger remnant receives a kick from the GW emission: a gravitational rocket effect. High kick velocities (higher than the escape velocites of the host structure) would have a strong impact on our understanding of how massive black holes have evolved over time and, in particular, on the estimates of the merger rate for LISA. The main difficulties in calculations of the kick velocities has been in the last moments of the merger where the full theory of general relativity must be employed to accurately model the black hole dynamics. I describe a recent calculation of the kick velocities from numerical relativity simulations of the merging black hole binaries. Support from NASA ATP#02-0043-0056 is greatly appreciated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.
General linear chirplet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Gang; Zhou, Yiqi
2016-03-01
Time-frequency (TF) analysis (TFA) method is an effective tool to characterize the time-varying feature of a signal, which has drawn many attentions in a fairly long period. With the development of TFA, many advanced methods are proposed, which can provide more precise TF results. However, some restrictions are introduced inevitably. In this paper, we introduce a novel TFA method, termed as general linear chirplet transform (GLCT), which can overcome some limitations existed in current TFA methods. In numerical and experimental validations, by comparing with current TFA methods, some advantages of GLCT are demonstrated, which consist of well-characterizing the signal of multi-component with distinct non-linear features, being independent to the mathematical model and initial TFA method, allowing for the reconstruction of the interested component, and being non-sensitivity to noise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Curry, Kenneth C.
1990-01-01
Electrically charged helices attract or repel each other. Proposed electrostatic linear actuator made with intertwined dual helices, which holds charge-bearing surfaces. Dual-helix configuration provides relatively large unbroken facing charged surfaces (relatively large electrostatic force) within small volume. Inner helix slides axially in outer helix in response to voltages applied to conductors. Spiral form also makes components more rigid. Actuator conceived to have few moving parts and to be operable after long intervals of inactivity.
Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.
1988-06-21
A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Combustion powered linear actuator
Fischer, Gary J.
2007-09-04
The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.
Representation of linear orders.
Taylor, D A; Kim, J O; Sudevan, P
1984-01-01
Two binary classification tasks were used to explore the associative structure of linear orders. In Experiment 1, college students classified English letters as targets or nontargets, the targets being consecutive letters of the alphabet. The time to reject nontargets was a decreasing function of the distance from the target set, suggesting response interference mediated by automatic associations from the target to the nontarget letters. The way in which this interference effect depended on the placement of the boundaries between the target and nontarget sets revealed the relative strengths of individual interletter associations. In Experiment 2, students were assigned novel linear orders composed of letterlike symbols and asked to classify pairs of symbols as being adjacent or nonadjacent in the assigned sequence. Reaction time was found to be a joint function of the distance between any pair of symbols and the relative positions of those symbols within the sequence. The effects of both distance and position decreased systematically over 6 days of practice with a particular order, beginning at a level typical of unfamiliar orders and converging on a level characteristic of familiar orders such as letters and digits. These results provide an empirical unification of two previously disparate sets of findings in the literature on linear orders, those concerning familiar and unfamiliar orders, and the systematic transition between the two patterns of results suggests the gradual integration of a new associative structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlmann, Armin
2016-03-01
This is an introduction to antilinear operators. In following Wigner the terminus antilinear is used as it is standard in Physics. Mathematicians prefer to say conjugate linear. By restricting to finite-dimensional complex-linear spaces, the exposition becomes elementary in the functional analytic sense. Nevertheless it shows the amazing differences to the linear case. Basics of antilinearity is explained in sects. 2, 3, 4, 7 and in sect. 1.2: Spectrum, canonical Hermitian form, antilinear rank one and two operators, the Hermitian adjoint, classification of antilinear normal operators, (skew) conjugations, involutions, and acq-lines, the antilinear counterparts of 1-parameter operator groups. Applications include the representation of the Lagrangian Grassmannian by conjugations, its covering by acq-lines. As well as results on equivalence relations. After remembering elementary Tomita-Takesaki theory, antilinear maps, associated to a vector of a two-partite quantum system, are defined. By allowing to write modular objects as twisted products of pairs of them, they open some new ways to express EPR and teleportation tasks. The appendix presents a look onto the rich structure of antilinear operator spaces.
Linearized Kernel Dictionary Learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golts, Alona; Elad, Michael
2016-06-01
In this paper we present a new approach of incorporating kernels into dictionary learning. The kernel K-SVD algorithm (KKSVD), which has been introduced recently, shows an improvement in classification performance, with relation to its linear counterpart K-SVD. However, this algorithm requires the storage and handling of a very large kernel matrix, which leads to high computational cost, while also limiting its use to setups with small number of training examples. We address these problems by combining two ideas: first we approximate the kernel matrix using a cleverly sampled subset of its columns using the Nystr\\"{o}m method; secondly, as we wish to avoid using this matrix altogether, we decompose it by SVD to form new "virtual samples," on which any linear dictionary learning can be employed. Our method, termed "Linearized Kernel Dictionary Learning" (LKDL) can be seamlessly applied as a pre-processing stage on top of any efficient off-the-shelf dictionary learning scheme, effectively "kernelizing" it. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on several tasks of both supervised and unsupervised classification and show the efficiency of the proposed scheme, its easy integration and performance boosting properties.
Rees, J.R.
1989-10-01
April, 1989, the first Z zero particle was observed at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC collides high-energy beams of electrons and positrons into each other. In break with tradition the SLC aims two linear beams at each other. Strong motives impelled the Stanford team to choose the route of innovation. One reason being that linear colliders promise to be less expensive to build and operate than storage ring colliders. An equally powerful motive was the desire to build an Z zero factory, a facility at which the Z zero particle can be studied in detail. More than 200 Z zero particles have been detected at the SLC and more continue to be churned out regularly. It is in measuring the properties of the Z zero that the SLC has a seminal contribution to make. One of the primary goals of the SLC experimental program is to determine the mass of the Z zero as precisely as possible.In the end, the SLC's greatest significance will be in having proved a new accelerator technology. 7 figs.
The Black Hole Firewall and Top-Down Constructions of AdS/CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almheiri, Ahmed Eid Khamis Thani
In the first part of this dissertation we argue that the following statements cannot be all true: (i) Black hole formation and evaporation is a unitary process as viewed by external observers, (ii) Physics outside some microscopic distance away from the event horizon is described by local effective quantum field theory, (iii) A black hole is a quantum system with a finite number of states given by the exponential of the Bekenstein Hawking entropy, and (iv) An infalling observer's experience in the vicinity of the horizon is well described by local effective quantum field theory in the infalling reference frame. We argue that the most conservative resolution is that an infalling observer will see drastic violations of effective field theory far away from the singularity, and encounter high energy quanta, a firewall, just behind the black hole event horizon. We address counter proposals to the firewall which involve, in one way or another, radical modifications of quantum mechanics or locality, and argue that they are unsatisfactory in their current formulation. We conclude this part with an investigation into the existence of firewalls in the two dimensional Einstein-dilaton gravity model of CGHS. We find that black holes in such models do not develop firewalls, but rather evaporate down to form small mass remnants. We elaborate on why this is inevitable in two dimensions and argue against a similar conclusion in higher dimensions. In the second part of this dissertation we construct AdS2 and AdS3 magnetic brane solutions within the abelian truncations of AdS4 x orbifolded S7 and AdS5 x S5 supergravity. We find a class of supersymmetric solutions of the bulk theory to assure stability. We perform a preliminary analysis demonstrating the stability of some nonsupersymmetric embeddings. We identify the dual field theory and compare the thermal entropies across the duality. We end with an investigatation into the effects of backreaction on holography in AdS2. We study a
BLACK HOLE AURORA POWERED BY A ROTATING BLACK HOLE
Takahashi, Masaaki; Takahashi, Rohta
2010-05-15
We present a model for high-energy emission sources generated by a standing magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) shock in a black hole magnetosphere. The black hole magnetosphere would be constructed around a black hole with an accretion disk, where a global magnetic field could be originated by currents in the accretion disk and its corona. Such a black hole magnetosphere may be considered as a model for the central engine of active galactic nuclei, some compact X-ray sources, and gamma-ray bursts. The energy sources of the emission from the magnetosphere are the gravitational and electromagnetic energies of magnetized accreting matters and the rotational energy of a rotating black hole. When the MHD shock generates in MHD accretion flows onto the black hole, the plasma's kinetic energy and the black hole's rotational energy can convert to radiative energy. In this Letter, we demonstrate the huge energy output at the shock front by showing negative energy postshock accreting MHD flows for a rapidly rotating black hole. This means that the extracted energy from the black hole can convert to the radiative energy at the MHD shock front. When an axisymmetric shock front is formed, we expect a ring-shaped region with very hot plasma near the black hole; this would look like an 'aurora'. The high-energy radiation generated from there would carry to us the information for the curved spacetime due to the strong gravity.
Garfinkle, David; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolas
2010-08-15
We perform a linear stability analysis of dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity in the geometric optics approximation and find that it is linearly stable on the backgrounds considered. Our analysis also reveals that gravitational waves in the modified theory travel at the speed of light in Minkowski spacetime. However, on a Schwarzschild background the characteristic speed of propagation along a given direction splits into two modes, one subluminal and one superluminal. The width of the splitting depends on the azimuthal components of the propagation vector, is linearly proportional to the mass of the black hole, and decreases with the third inverse power of the distance from the black hole. Radial propagation is unaffected, implying that as probed by gravitational waves the location of the event horizon of the spacetime is unaltered. The analysis further reveals that when a high frequency, pure gravitational wave is scattered from a black hole, a scalar wave of comparable amplitude is excited, and vice versa.
Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polchinski, Joseph
2015-04-01
Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.
Mytko, Christine
2014-03-31
A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.
Mytko, Christine
2016-07-12
A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.
Snow, Helen
2012-11-01
In the early- to mid-twentieth century, stories about nursing practice submitted by nurses frequently appeared in Public Health Nursing. The article reprinted here is an example of this genre of publications. Originally published in April 1936, this article tells the story of a day in the work of one public health nurse as she moves about the city making home visits. In this article, Snow (1936) used personification of the iconic black bag to tell her story. Using this technique she brings to life the nuances of her day, the personalities of her patients, and the importance of the black bag to the work of public health nurses. What did nurses learn from stories such as this one? Themes embedded in this story reflect the role of the Public Health Nurse (PHN), as well as the environment in which she worked. For instance, in this story we learn that not only was the PHN a welcomed visitor in the homes of families struggling with health problems, but that she brought order out of chaos, as illustrated in "The New Arrival". "The Black Bag" also highlights the humor nurses experienced in their encounters with families, as well as the pathos in other situations. Stories served as a vehicle for nurses to share and learn about both the common elements of their work, as well as the unique features related to location and environment, such as rural and urban locales. PMID:23078428
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
When asked to discuss Cyg XR-1, E. E. Salpeter once concluded, 'A black hole in Cyg X(R)-1 is the most conservative hypothesis.' Recent observations now make it likely that a black hole in Cyg XR-1 is the only hypothesis tenable. Chandrasekhar first showed that compact stars - those with the inward force of gravity on their outer layers balanced by the pressure generated by the Pauli exclusion principle acting on its electrons (in white dwarfs) or nucleons (in neutron stars) - have a maximum mass. Equilibrium is achieved at a minimum of the total energy of the star, which is the sum of the positive Fermi energy and the negative gravitational energy. The maximum mass attainable in equilibrium is found by setting E = 0: M(max) = 1.5 M(Sun). If the mass of the star is larger than this, then E can be decreased without bound by decreasing the star's radius and increasing its (negative) gravitational energy. No equilibrium value of the radius exist, and general relativity predicts that gravitational collapse to a point occurs. This point singularity is a black hole.
Sparse linear programming subprogram
Hanson, R.J.; Hiebert, K.L.
1981-12-01
This report describes a subprogram, SPLP(), for solving linear programming problems. The package of subprogram units comprising SPLP() is written in Fortran 77. The subprogram SPLP() is intended for problems involving at most a few thousand constraints and variables. The subprograms are written to take advantage of sparsity in the constraint matrix. A very general problem statement is accepted by SPLP(). It allows upper, lower, or no bounds on the variables. Both the primal and dual solutions are returned as output parameters. The package has many optional features. Among them is the ability to save partial results and then use them to continue the computation at a later time.
Ultrasonic linear measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.
[Congenital linear nevus sebaceus].
Linnemann, Anders; Bygum, Anette; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper
2011-09-01
An unusual case of nevus sebaceous is described. Nevus sebaceous is a congenital epidermal hamartoma of the skin and the predilection site is the head or neck. In this case the nevus followed the lines of Blaschko along the back of the left lower extremity. The linear lesion seemed papulovesicular which caused suspicion of incontinentia pigmenti or infection, and the boy received antimicrobial treatment until a biopsy revealed the correct diagnosis. We wish to emphasize this clinical picture to spare the patient and relatives from unnecessary tests, treatment and concern. PMID:21893006
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
A linear actuator which can apply high forces is described, which includes a reciprocating rod having a threaded portion engaged by a nut that is directly coupled to the rotor of an electric motor. The nut is connected to the rotor in a manner that minimizes loading on the rotor, by the use of a coupling that transmits torque to the nut but permits it to shift axially and radially with respect to the rotor. The nut has a threaded hydrostatic bearing for engaging the threaded rod portion, with an oilcarrying groove in the nut being interrupted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husain, Viqar
2012-03-01
book are also covered in detail, and with more worked examples, in the former book, and the entire focus of the latter is Bianchi models. After a brief introduction outlining the aim of the book, the second chapter provides the canonical theory of homogeneous isotropic cosmology with scalar matter; this covers the basics and linear perturbation theory, and is meant as a first taste of what is to come. The next chapter is a thorough introduction of the canonical formulation of general relativity in both the ADM and Ashtekar-Barbero variables. This chapter contains details useful for graduate students which are either scattered or missing in the literature. Applications of the canonical formalism are in the following chapter. These cover standard material and techniques for obtaining mini(midi)-superspace models, including the Bianchi and Gowdy cosmologies, and spherically symmetric reductions. There is also a brief discussion of the two-dimensional dilaton gravity. The spherically symmetric reduction is presented in detail also in the connection-triad variables. The chapter on global and asymptotic properties gives introductions to geodesic and null congruences, trapped surfaces, a survey of singularity theorems, horizons and asymptotic properties. The chapter ends with a discussion of junction conditions and the Vaidya solution. As already mentioned, this material is covered in detail in Poisson's book. The final chapter on quantization describes and contrasts the Dirac and reduced phase space methods. It also gives an introduction to background independent quantization using the holonomy-flux operators, which forms the basis of the LQG program. The application of this method to cosmology and its affect on the Friedmann equation is covered next, followed by a brief introduction to the effective constraint method, which is another area developed by the author. I think this book is a useful addition to the literature for graduate students, and potentially also for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.
2012-12-01
Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birx, Daniel
1992-03-01
Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.
Pseudo Linear Gyro Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.
2003-01-01
Previous high fidelity onboard attitude algorithms estimated only the spacecraft attitude and gyro bias. The desire to promote spacecraft and ground autonomy and improvements in onboard computing power has spurred development of more sophisticated calibration algorithms. Namely, there is a desire to provide for sensor calibration through calibration parameter estimation onboard the spacecraft as well as autonomous estimation on the ground. Gyro calibration is a particularly challenging area of research. There are a variety of gyro devices available for any prospective mission ranging from inexpensive low fidelity gyros with potentially unstable scale factors to much more expensive extremely stable high fidelity units. Much research has been devoted to designing dedicated estimators such as particular Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithms or Square Root Information Filters. This paper builds upon previous attitude, rate, and specialized gyro parameter estimation work performed with Pseudo Linear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA). The PSELIKA advantage is the use of the standard linear Kalman Filter algorithm. A PSELIKA algorithm for an orthogonal gyro set which includes estimates of attitude, rate, gyro misalignments, gyro scale factors, and gyro bias is developed and tested using simulated and flight data. The measurements PSELIKA uses include gyro and quaternion tracker data.
Neutral and charged matter in equilibrium with black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronnikov, K. A.; Zaslavskii, O. B.
2011-10-01
We study the conditions of a possible static equilibrium between spherically symmetric, electrically charged or neutral black holes and ambient matter. The following kinds of matter are considered: (1) neutral and charged matter with a linear equation of state pr=wρ (for neutral matter the results of our previous work are reproduced), (2) neutral and charged matter with pr˜ρm, m>1, and (3) the possible presence of a “vacuum fluid” (the cosmological constant or, more generally, anything that satisfies the equality T00=T11 at least at the horizon). We find a number of new cases of such an equilibrium, including those generalizing the well-known Majumdar-Papapetrou conditions for charged dust. It turns out, in particular, that ultraextremal black holes cannot be in equilibrium with any matter in the absence of a vacuum fluid; meanwhile, matter with w>0, if it is properly charged, can surround an extremal charged black hole.
Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactifications
Giddings, Steven B.; Katz, Emanuel
2001-07-01
We investigate aspects of the four-dimensional (4D) effective description of brane world scenarios based on warped compactification on anti-de Sitter space. The low-energy dynamics is described by visible matter gravitationally coupled to a ''dark'' conformal field theory. We give the linearized description of the 4D stress tensor corresponding to an arbitrary 5D matter distribution. In particular a 5D falling particle corresponds to a 4D expanding shell, giving a 4D interpretation of a trajectory that misses a black hole only by moving in the fifth dimension. Breakdown of the effective description occurs when either five-dimensional physics or strong gravity becomes important. In scenarios with a TeV brane, the latter can happen through the production of black holes near the TeV scale. This could provide an interesting experimental window on quantum black hole dynamics.
Neutrino-axion-dilaton interconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolini, Stefano; Di Luzio, Luca; Kolešová, Helena; Malinský, Michal; Vasquez, Juan Carlos
2016-01-01
We show that a recently proposed framework that provides a simple connection between Majorana neutrinos and an invisible axion in minimal scalar extensions of the standard electroweak model can be naturally embedded in a classically scale-invariant setup. The explicit breaking of the scale invariance à la Coleman-Weinberg generates the Peccei-Quinn and electroweak scales. The spontaneous breaking of the chiral U (1 )PQ triggers the generation of neutrino masses via Type-II seesaw and, at the same time, provides a dynamical solution to the strong C P problem as well as the axion as a dark matter candidate. The electroweak and neutrino mass scales are obtained via a technically natural ultraweak limit of the singlet scalar interactions. Accordingly, a realistic and perturbatively stable scalar spectrum, possibly in the reach of the LHC, is naturally obtained. A very light pseudodilaton characterizes such a setting. The vacuum stability of the extended setup is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2001-05-01
Third Nucleus Observed with the VLT Summary New images from the VLT show that one of the two nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2), now about 100 million km from the Earth, has just split into at least two pieces . The three fragments are now moving through space in nearly parallel orbits while they slowly drift apart. This comet will pass through its perihelion (nearest point to the Sun) on May 25, 2001, at a distance of about 116 million kilometres. It has brightened considerably due to the splitting of its "dirty snowball" nucleus and can now be seen with the unaided eye by observers in the southern hemisphere as a faint object in the southern constellation of Lepus (The Hare). PR Photo 18a/01 : Three nuclei of Comet LINEAR . PR Photo 18b/01 : The break-up of Comet LINEAR (false-colour). Comet LINEAR splits and brightens ESO PR Photo 18a/01 ESO PR Photo 18a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 438 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 875 pix - 136k] ESO PR Photo 18b/01 ESO PR Photo 18b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 367 x 400 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 734 x 800 pix - 272k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 18a/01 shows the three nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2). It is a reproduction of a 1-min exposure in red light, obtained in the early evening of May 16, 2001, with the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN (UT4) telescope at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 18b/01 shows the same image, but in a false-colour rendering for more clarity. The cometary fragment "B" (right) has split into "B1" and "B2" (separation about 1 arcsec, or 500 km) while fragment "A" (upper left) is considerably fainter. Technical information about these photos is available below. Comet LINEAR was discovered on January 3, 2001, and designated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as C/2001 A2 (see IAU Circular 7564 [1]). Six weeks ago, it was suddenly observed to brighten (IAUC 7605 [1]). Amateurs all over the world saw the comparatively faint comet reaching naked-eye magnitude and soon thereafter, observations with professional telescopes indicated
On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.
Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan
2016-01-01
Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.
Sarcoid granuloma on black tattoo.
Morales-Callaghan, Ana María; Aguilar-Bernier, Miguel; Martínez-García, Gerardo; Miranda-Romero, Alberto
2006-11-01
We report the case of a patient with a black and turquoise tattoo who developed sarcoid granulomas on the areas of black pigment. Patch tests showed a positive reaction to nickel, cobalt, and cadmium; spectrophotometric analysis of the black pigment revealed the presence of nickel and cobalt among other metals. Although the pathogenesis of sarcoid granulomas is unknown, it seems that a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction is one of the mechanisms involved.
THE STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN THE DISK AROUND THE KERR BLACK HOLE
Nagakura, Hiroki; Yamada, Shoichi
2009-05-10
This paper is a sequel to our previous work for accretion onto a Schwarzschild black hole and the so-called standing accretion shock instability; in this paper, we investigate nonaxisymmetric perturbations for a Kerr black hole. The linear and nonlinear phases for the shock evolution are analyzed in detail by both two-dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and linear analysis. Since the structure of steady axisymmetric accretion flows with a standing shock wave is very sensitive to the inner transonic flow, their properties such as Mach numbers, which are important for the stability, depend on the Kerr parameter very much. Although the essential features of the instability do not differ from the previous results for the Schwarzschild black hole, the frame-dragging effects specific to the Kerr black hole are also evident. Interestingly, the oscillation periods of the fundamental unstable modes are dependent only on the shock radius irrespective of the injection parameters.
Acceleration of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.
2014-01-01
Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.
Black holes as antimatter factories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Petrov, Alexey A.
2009-09-01
We consider accretion of matter onto a low mass black hole surrounded by ionized medium. We show that, because of the higher mobility of protons than electrons, the black hole would acquire positive electric charge. If the black hole's mass is about or below 1020 g, the electric field at the horizon can reach the critical value which leads to vacuum instability and electron-positron pair production by the Schwinger mechanism. Since the positrons are ejected by the emergent electric field, while electrons are back-captured, the black hole operates as an antimatter factory which effectively converts protons into positrons.
Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon.
Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi
2016-01-01
Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890
Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi
2016-05-01
Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm.
Black holes and the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
How black holes saved relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
String duality and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalara, S.; Nanopoulos, D. V.
1991-09-01
In the context of (semi) classical general relativity, the physics of black holes poses many unanswered and unsettling questions. Notable among them are the loss of quantum coherence, which casts doubts on the basic foundations of quantum mechanics, and the understanding of the enormous entropy carried by black holes which is at odds with strong ``no hair'' theorems. We point out that in string theory, black-hole type solutions (S-black holes) carry local discrete charges inherited from the duality symmetries of the string, which allow S-black holes to carry ``quantum hair''. It is further noted that the conservation of the discrete charges and the presence of quantum hair precludes the information about a quantum state from being completely lost in the black hole thus rescuing quantum coherence. We also note that a large number of quantum hair carried by S-black holes may explain their enormous entropy, i.e. it is the duality symmetry of the string theory which redeems outstanding problems of black-hole dynamics. We also discuss a possible description of black holes as solitons of string theory. Supported in part by DOE Grant DE-AS05-81 ER40039.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; KubizÅák, David
2016-09-01
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon—even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon
Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi
2016-01-01
Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890
Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.
McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O
2011-12-01
Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.
Positrons for linear colliders
Ecklund, S.
1987-11-01
The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)
2006-11-17
Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less
Linear response at criticality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svenkeson, Adam; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo
2012-10-01
We study a set of cooperatively interacting units at criticality, and we prove with analytical and numerical arguments that they generate the same renewal non-Poisson intermittency as that produced by blinking quantum dots, thereby giving a stronger support to the results of earlier investigation. By analyzing how this out-of-equilibrium system responds to harmonic perturbations, we find that the response can be described only using a new form of linear response theory that accounts for aging and the nonergodic behavior of the underlying process. We connect the undamped response of the system at criticality to the decaying response predicted by the recently established nonergodic fluctuation-dissipation theorem for dichotomous processes using information about the second moment of the fluctuations. We demonstrate that over a wide range of perturbation frequencies the response of the cooperative system is greatest when at criticality.
Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.
1959-01-01
A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, Sidney E., III
1994-01-01
This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The linear proof mass actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (mass, upper housing, lower housing, and center support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operating testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, S. E., III
1995-01-01
This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The Linear Proof Mass Actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (Mass, Upper Housing, Lower Housing, and Center Support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operational testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.
Slowly rotating black hole solutions in Horndeski gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maselli, Andrea; Silva, Hector O.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele
2015-11-01
We study black hole solutions at first order in the Hartle-Thorne slow-rotation approximation in Horndeski gravity theories. We derive the equations of motion including also cases where the scalar depends linearly on time. In the Hartle-Thorne formalism, all first-order rotational corrections are described by a single frame-dragging function. We show that the frame-dragging function is exactly the same as in general relativity for all known black hole solutions in shift-symmetric Horndeski theories, with the exception of theories with a linear coupling to the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Our results extend previous no-hair theorems for a broad class of Horndeski gravity theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, T.
star. Within this wide range of possible initial masses the death of these star will lead very different remnants (Heger and Woosley 2001). In the case of stars with masses larger than 260 solar mass no metals may be released in black holes are the natural outcome. This may be an interesting possibility to form intermediate mass black holes which are attractive seeds to be nurtured to the super-massive black holes observed in the centers of nearby galaxies. However, no metals would be released and it would prove difficult to understand the transition to the formation of low mass metal enriched population II stars. Stars with masses below 140 solar masses would enrich the intergalactic medium as well as form massive black holes. The coincidence of the Kelvin Helmholtz time with our computed accretion times at about 120 solar masses may argue in favor of such smaller masses. These first black holes may well leave the halos in which they formed for even rather modest kick velocities >~ 10 km/s. Nevertheless, up to about one hundred thousand of these first black holes may remain in the Milky Way. The realization that structure formation began within one hundred million years after big bang makes it difficult to study observationally these first crucial steps. Future observatories have hence to focus on larger collecting areas and wavelengths for which the universe is transparent up to redshifts of 30. XEUS offers the chance to open a new window to these so far dark ages. The limiting masses quoted here rely on stellar models of primordial stars that do not include rotation, magnetic fields or mass loss and hence are somewhat uncertain.
Computer Program For Linear Algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.
1987-01-01
Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.
Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.
1977-01-01
Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.
Ultrarelativistic black hole formation.
East, William E; Pretorius, Frans
2013-03-01
We study the head-on collision of fluid particles well within the kinetic energy dominated regime (γ = 8 to 12) by numerically solving the Einstein-hydrodynamic equations. We find that the threshold for black hole formation is lower (by a factor of a few) than simple hoop conjecture estimates, and, moreover, near this threshold two distinct apparent horizons first form postcollision and then merge. We argue that this can be understood in terms of a gravitational focusing effect. The gravitational radiation reaches luminosities of 0.014 c(5)/G, carrying 16 ± 2% of the total energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dendy, J. E., Jr.
1981-01-01
The black box multigrid (BOXMG) code, which only needs specification of the matrix problem for application in the multigrid method was investigated. It is contended that a major problem with the multigrid method is that each new grid configuration requires a major programming effort to develop a code that specifically handles that grid configuration. The SOR and ICCG methods only specify the matrix problem, no matter what the grid configuration. It is concluded that the BOXMG does everything else necessary to set up the auxiliary coarser problems to achieve a multigrid solution.
Black Graduate Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palmer, Robert T., Ed.; Hilton, Adriel A., Ed.; Fountaine, Tiffany Patrice, Ed.
2012-01-01
This book provides context about the experiences of Black graduate and professional students attending HBCUs. Indeed, such research is important, particularly since HBCUs play a significant role in the number of Blacks who receive doctorates and professional degrees (i.e. M.D., D.D.S., J.D. etc.), especially in science and engineering. In fact,…
The Congressional Black Caucus and the Institutionalization of Black Politics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, Marguerite Ross
1977-01-01
Examination of its historical development indicates that while Congressional Black Caucus legislative priorities have become more focused, on the other hand these priorities are not the result of a careful analysis of what is or is not a black issue but rather of the economic climate which led to concentration on economic issues. (Author/AM)
Research in the Black Community: A Black Psychologist's Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Robert L.
Much of the research conducted within the black community served primarily to promote the interests and personal gain of the researchers rather than the community. Consequently, the research proved more harmful than helpful, thereby providing no visible or appreciable payoff or benefits to the black community. Moreover, the perspectives of the…
How Black Colleges Empower Black Students: Lessons for Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.
2006-01-01
To their disadvantage, few Americans--and few in higher education--know much about the successes of historically Black colleges and universities. How is it that historically Black colleges graduate so many low-income and academically poorly prepared students? How do they manage to do so well with students "as they are", even when adopting open…
Asymptotically flat, stable black hole solutions in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory.
Brihaye, Yves; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D H
2011-02-18
We construct finite mass, asymptotically flat black hole solutions in d=5 Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. Our results indicate the existence of a second order phase transition between Reissner-Nordström solutions and the non-Abelian black holes which generically are thermodynamically preferred. Some of the non-Abelian configurations are also stable under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations. PMID:21405506
On the stability of dyons and dyonic black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolan, Brien C.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-02-01
We investigate the stability of four-dimensional dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of {su}(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter space. We prove that, in a neighbourhood of the embedded trivial (Schwarzschild-)anti-de Sitter solution, there exist non-trivial dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the field equations which are stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of the metric and non-Abelian gauge field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2002-10-01
Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way
Nonlinear Evolution and Final Fate of Charged Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Superradiant Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosch, Pablo; Green, Stephen R.; Lehner, Luis
2016-04-01
We describe the full nonlinear development of the superradiant instability for a charged massless scalar field coupled to general relativity and electromagnetism, in the vicinity of a Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black hole. The presence of the negative cosmological constant provides a natural context for considering perfectly reflecting boundary conditions and studying the dynamics as the scalar field interacts repeatedly with the black hole. At early times, small superradiant perturbations grow as expected from linearized studies. Backreaction then causes the black hole to lose charge and mass until the perturbation becomes nonsuperradiant, with the final state described by a stable hairy black hole. For large gauge coupling, the instability extracts a large amount of charge per unit mass, resulting in greater entropy increase. We discuss the implications of the observed behavior for the general problem of superradiance in black hole spacetimes.
Charge loss (or the lack thereof) for AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin
2014-06-01
The evolution of evaporating charged black holes is complicated to model in general, but is nevertheless important since the hints to the Information Loss Paradox and its recent firewall incarnation may lie in understanding more generic geometries than that of Schwarzschild spacetime. Fortunately, for sufficiently large asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordström black holes, the evaporation process can be modeled via a system of coupled linear ordinary differential equations, with charge loss rate governed by Schwinger pair-production process. The same model can be generalized to study the evaporation of AdS Reissner-Nordström black holes with flat horizon. It was recently found that such black holes always evolve towards extremality since charge loss is inefficient. This property is completely opposite to the asymptotically flat case in which the black hole eventually loses its charges and tends towards Schwarzschild limit. We clarify the underlying reason for this different behavior.
Nonlinear Evolution and Final Fate of Charged Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Superradiant Instability.
Bosch, Pablo; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis
2016-04-01
We describe the full nonlinear development of the superradiant instability for a charged massless scalar field coupled to general relativity and electromagnetism, in the vicinity of a Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black hole. The presence of the negative cosmological constant provides a natural context for considering perfectly reflecting boundary conditions and studying the dynamics as the scalar field interacts repeatedly with the black hole. At early times, small superradiant perturbations grow as expected from linearized studies. Backreaction then causes the black hole to lose charge and mass until the perturbation becomes nonsuperradiant, with the final state described by a stable hairy black hole. For large gauge coupling, the instability extracts a large amount of charge per unit mass, resulting in greater entropy increase. We discuss the implications of the observed behavior for the general problem of superradiance in black hole spacetimes. PMID:27104693
Nonlinear Evolution and Final Fate of Charged Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Superradiant Instability.
Bosch, Pablo; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis
2016-04-01
We describe the full nonlinear development of the superradiant instability for a charged massless scalar field coupled to general relativity and electromagnetism, in the vicinity of a Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black hole. The presence of the negative cosmological constant provides a natural context for considering perfectly reflecting boundary conditions and studying the dynamics as the scalar field interacts repeatedly with the black hole. At early times, small superradiant perturbations grow as expected from linearized studies. Backreaction then causes the black hole to lose charge and mass until the perturbation becomes nonsuperradiant, with the final state described by a stable hairy black hole. For large gauge coupling, the instability extracts a large amount of charge per unit mass, resulting in greater entropy increase. We discuss the implications of the observed behavior for the general problem of superradiance in black hole spacetimes.
Benefits, costs, and determinants of dominance in American black ducks
Hepp, G.R.
1989-01-01
Behavioural dominance was studied in captive American black ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-December 1984. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and groups of 10 ducks consisting of 5 adults (3 males and 2 females) and 5 juveniles (3 males and 2 females) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet, and ducks in the other 4 pens were given a restricted diet. Dominance structure within pens was linear. Adults were dominant to young, and body mass had no influence on dominance rank. The effect of sex on dominance rank was age-specific. Adult males were dominant to adult females and to young black ducks of both sexes; however, dominance rank of young males did not differ from adult or young females. Paired adults were dominant to unpaired adults and to young individuals that were either paired or unpaired. Paired young black ducks were similar in dominance rank to unpaired adults and unpaired young indicating that pairing did not make these individuals more dominant. Ducks on the restricted diet gained less body mass than ducks on the ad libitum diet, but dominant and subordinate black ducks within treatment groups experienced similar changes in body mass during the early winter. Dominant black ducks interacted more frequently and were more likely to form pair bonds than subordinates, thus higher energy costs of dominant individuals may explain the poor relationship between physical condition and dominance rank. There was a significant positive association between the dominance ranks of pair members.
A comparison of remnants in noncommutative Bardeen black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdipour, S. Hamid; Ahmadi, M. H.
2016-09-01
We derive the mass term of the Bardeen metric in the presence of a noncommutative geometry induced minimal length. In this setup, the proposal of a stable black hole remnant as a candidate to store information is confirmed. We consider the possibility of having an extremal configuration with one degenerate event horizon and compare different sizes of black hole remnants. As a result, once the magnetic charge g of the noncommutative Bardeen solution becomes larger, both the minimal nonzero mass M0 and the minimal nonzero horizon radius r0 get larger. This means, subsequently, under the condition of an adequate amount of g, the three parameters g, M0, and r0 are in a connection with each other linearly. According to our results, a noncommutative Bardeen black hole is colder than the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole and its remnant is bigger, so the minimum required energy for the formation of such a black hole at particle colliders will be larger. We also find a closely similar result for the Hayward solution.