#### Sample records for linear drive ka

1. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waydo, Peter

2003-01-01

Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

2. 250 kA compact linear transformer driver for wire array z-pinch loads

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bott, S. C.; Haas, D. M.; Madden, R. E.; Ueda, U.; Eshaq, Y.; Collins, G., IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Mazarakis, M.; Struve, K.; Sharpe, R.

2011-05-01

We present the application of a short rise (˜150ns) 250 kA linear transformer driver (LTD) to wire array z-pinch loads for the first time. The generator is a modification of a previous driver in which a new conical power feed provides a low inductance coupling to wire loads. Performance of the new design using both short circuit and plasma loads is presented and discussed. The final design delivers ˜200kA to a wire array load which is in good agreement with SCREAMER calculations using a simplified representative circuit. Example results demonstrate successful experiments using cylindrical, conical, and inverse wire arrays as well as previously published work on x-pinch loads.

3. Split-Stirling-cycle displacer linear-electric drive

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ackermann, R. A.; Bhate, S. K.; Byrne, D. V.

1983-01-01

The retrofit of a 1/4-W split-Stirling cooler with a linear driven on the displacer was achieved and its performance characterized. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a small linear motor could be designed to meet the existing envelope specifications of the cooler and that an electric linear drive on the displacer could improve the cooler's reliability and performance. The paper describes the characteristics of this motor and presents cooler test results.

4. High reliability linear drive device for artificial hearts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ji, Jinghua; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liu, Guohai; Shen, Yue; Wang, Fangqun

2012-04-01

In this paper, a new high reliability linear drive device, termed as stator-permanent-magnet tubular oscillating actuator (SPM-TOA), is proposed for artificial hearts (AHs). The key is to incorporate the concept of two independent phases into this linear AH device, hence achieving high reliability operation. The fault-tolerant teeth are employed to provide the desired decoupling phases in magnetic circuit. Also, as the magnets and the coils are located in the stator, the proposed SPM-TOA takes the definite advantages of robust mover and direct-drive capability. By using the time-stepping finite element method, the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed SPM-TOA are analyzed, including magnetic field distributions, flux linkages, back- electromotive forces (back-EMFs) self- and mutual inductances, as well as cogging and thrust forces. The results confirm that the proposed SPM-TOA meets the dimension, weight, and force requirements of the AH drive device.

5. Beam dynamics in the ETA and ATA 10 kA linear induction accelerators: observations and issues

SciTech Connect

Briggs, R.J.; Birx, D.L.; Caporaso, G.J.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hester, R.E.; Melendez, R.; Neil, V.K.; Paul, A.C.; Struve, K.W.

1981-03-06

The 10 kA ETA and ATA linear induction accelerators are described. Beam instability is the major concern in these high current machines, and the current status of theoretical understanding, and experimental investigations with the 8 cavity ETA, are reviewed. Modifications to the induction cavities are described that have essentially eliminated the transverse resonant modes seen in the ETA.

6. Pulsatile blood pump with a linear drive actuator.

PubMed

Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Homma, Akihiko; Funakubo, Akio; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Soichiro; Fukui, Yasuhiro

2007-01-01

The main purpose of this study was to develop an implantable direct-electromagnetic left ventricular assist system driven by a linear actuator (linear LVAS). The linear LVAS is a pulsatile pump with a pusher plate that is driven directly by a linear oscillatory actuator (LOA) without any movement converters. This prototype pump unit with a LOA was 100 mm in diameter, 50 mm in thickness, and weighed 740 g. The full-fill/full-eject driving method was applied to the control algorithm. In addition, a mechanism to detect and release sucking was realized to overcome this problem that accompanies the active-filling type of VAS. The performance of the linear LVAS was evaluated in a long-term animal experiment using a goat (56 kg). The goat survived for 42 days. The reason why we terminated this experiment was that thrombus was found in the pump. There was no frictional debris found around the LOA. The linear LVAS did not exhibit electrical or mechanical problems during the first animal experiment.

7. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response.

PubMed Central

Tsujimura, S.; Wolffsohn, J. S.; Gilmartin, B.

2001-01-01

Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (< 0.25 D change in mean level) even when the concurrent pupillary response was large (ca. 0.30 mm). The pupillary response to an isoluminant grating was sustained, delayed (by ca. 60 ms) and larger in amplitude than that for a isochromatic uniform stimulus, which supports previous work suggesting that the chromatic mechanism contributes to the pupillary response. In a second experiment, selected chromatic test gratings were used and isoresponse contours in cone contrast space were obtained. The results showed that the isoresponse contour in cone contrast space is well described (r(2) = 0.99) by a straight line with a positive slope. The results indicate that a /L - M/ linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses. PMID:11674867

8. Oscillating-Linear-Drive Vacuum Compressor for CO2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Izenson, Michael G.; Shimko, Martin

2005-01-01

A vacuum compressor has been designed to compress CO2 from approximately equal to 1 psia (approximately equal to 6.9 kPa absolute pressure) to approximately equal to 75 psia (approximately equal to 0.52 MPa), to be insensitive to moisture, to have a long operational life, and to be lightweight, compact, and efficient. The compressor consists mainly of (1) a compression head that includes hydraulic diaphragms, a gas-compression diaphragm, and check valves; and (2) oscillating linear drive that includes a linear motor and a drive spring, through which compression force is applied to the hydraulic diaphragms. The motor is driven at the resonance vibrational frequency of the motor/spring/compression-head system, the compression head acting as a damper that takes energy out of the oscillation. The net effect of the oscillation is to cause cyclic expansion and contraction of the gas-compression diaphragm, and, hence, of the volume bounded by this diaphragm. One-way check valves admit gas into this volume from the low-pressure side during expansion and allow the gas to flow out to the high-pressure side during contraction. Fatigue data and the results of diaphragm stress calculations have been interpreted as signifying that the compressor can be expected to have an operational life of greater than 30 years with a confidence level of 99.9 percent.

9. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

DOEpatents

Walsh, Michael M.

1984-02-21

A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible.

10. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1993-09-01

This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base.

11. Nonlinear response of a linear chain to weak driving

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hennig, D.; Mulhern, C.; Burbanks, A. D.; Schimansky-Geier, L.

2014-01-01

We study the escape of a chain of coupled units over the barrier of a metastable potential. It is demonstrated that a very weak external driving field with a suitably chosen frequency suffices to accomplish speedy escape. The latter requires passage through a transition state, the formation of which is triggered by permanent feeding of energy from a phonon background into humps of localized energy and elastic interaction of the arising breather solutions. In fact, cooperativity between the units of the chain entailing coordinated energy transfer is shown to be crucial for enhancing the rate of escape in an extremely effective and low-energy cost way where the effects of entropic localization and breather coalescence conspire.

12. Forces driving late Pleistocene (ca. 77-12 ka) landscape evolution in the Cimarron River valley, southwestern Kansas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layzell, Anthony L.; Mandel, Rolfe D.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Smith, Jon J.

2015-07-01

This study presents stratigraphic, geomorphic, and paleoenvironmental (δ13C) data that provide insight into the late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Cimarron River valley in the High Plains of southwestern Kansas. Two distinct valley fills (T-1 and T-2) were investigated. Three soils occur in the T-2 fill and five in the T-1 fill, all indicating periods of landscape stability or slow sedimentation. Of particular interest are two cumulic soils dating to ca. 48-28 and 13-12.5 ka. δ13C values are consistent with regional paleoenvironmental proxy data that indicate the prevalence of warm, dry conditions at these times. The Cimarron River is interpreted to have responded to these climatic changes and to local base level control. Specifically, aggradation occurred during cool, wet periods and slow sedimentation with cumulic soil formation occurred under warmer, drier climates. Significant valley incision (~ 25 m) by ca. 28 ka likely resulted from a lowering of local base level caused by deep-seated dissolution of Permian evaporite deposits.

13. Improved linear ultrasonic motor performance with square-wave based driving-tip trajectory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le, Adam Y.; Mills, James K.; Benhabib, Beno

2015-03-01

This paper proposes the application of a non-sinusoidal periodic excitation voltage to induce a near-square-wave driving tip trajectory in linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs). A square-wave-based trajectory can deliver superior frictional force to the moving stage in the forward stroke of the driving tip motion and reduced frictional force during the return stroke. This would reduce lost power in the periodic driving tip motion, thereby, increasing the output force and power of the LUSM. An implementation procedure is suggested to achieve the near-square-wave driving tip trajectory. The proposed approach is illustrated through realistic finite-element-based simulations using a bimodal LUSM configuration.

14. Linear Stepper Actuation Driving Drop Resonance and Modifying Hysteresis.

PubMed

Katariya, Mayur; Huynh, So Hung; McMorran, Darren; Lau, Chun Yat; Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Tuck Wah

2016-08-23

In this work, 2 μL water drops are placed on substrates that are created to have a circular hydrophilic region bounded by superhydrophobicity so that they exhibit high contact angles. When the substrate is translated by a linear stepper actuator, the random force components present in the actuator are shown to cause the drop to rock resonantly. When the substrate is translated downward at inclination angles of up to 6° with respect to the horizontal, the contact angle hysteresis increases progressively to a limiting condition. When the substrate is moved up at inclined angles, alternatively, the contact angle hysteresis increases initially to the limiting condition before it is progressively restored to its static state. These behaviors are accounted for by the reversible micro-Cassie to Wenzel wetting state transformations that are made possible by the hierarchical microscale and nanoscale structures present in the superhydrophobic regions.

15. Piezoelectric Linear Motors for Driving Head Element of CD-ROM

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yabuki, Akira; Aoyagi, Manabu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro

1994-09-01

This paper deals with piezoelectric linear motors for driving an optical pickup element of CD-ROM. These linear motors have such merits in that they can be made thin because of their simple construction, and they are suitable for precise positioning owing to their operation principle of using ultrasonic vibrations of essentially very small displacements. We can expect that the input power of these motors will be economized due to their self-position-retention function. Therefore, in order to achieve such linear motors, we have already reported some piezoelectric linear motors of the self-moving type. On the other hand, in this paper, the authors investigated some stationary piezoelectric linear motors which could easily be constructed in a flat shape. Compared with the self-moving piezoelectric linear motors reported previously, the stationary piezoelectric linear motors have the merit that they easily generate a uniform pressing force. In this paper, the structure, operation principles, and characteristics of such stationary linear motors are described, and moreover, a method to lower the driving voltage of these linear motors is reported.

16. Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system

DOEpatents

Horton, Richard H.

1980-01-01

A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape.

17. Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system

SciTech Connect

Horton, R.H.

1980-03-11

A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape. 11 figs.

18. Linear-drive cryocoolers for the Department of Defense standard advanced dewar assembly (SADA)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tate, Garin S.

2005-05-01

The Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA) is the critical module in the Department of Defense (DoD) standardization of scanning second-generation thermal imaging systems. The DoD has established a family of SADAs to fulfill a range of performance requirements for various platforms. The SADA consists of the Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), Dewar, Command & Control Electronics (C&CE), and the cryogenic cooler, and is used in platforms such as the Apache helicopter, the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank, the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and the Javelin Command Launch Unit (CLU). In support of the family of SADAs, the DoD defined a complementary family of tactical linear drive cryocoolers. The Stirling cycle linear drive cryocoolers are utilized to cool the Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) in the SADAs. These coolers are required to have low input power, a quick cool-down time, low vibration output, low audible noise, and a higher reliability than currently fielded rotary coolers. These coolers must also operate in a military environment with its inherent high vibration level and temperature extremes. This paper will (1) outline the characteristics of each cryocooler, (2) present the status and results of qualification tests, (3) present the status of production efforts, and (4) present the status of efforts to increase linear drive cooler reliability.

19. Experiments investigating the generation and transport of 10--12 MeV, 30-kA, mm-size electron beams with linear inductive voltage adders

SciTech Connect

Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E.

1997-06-01

The authors present the design, analysis, and results of the high-brightness electron beam experiments currently under investigation at Sandia National Laboratories. The anticipated beam parameters are the following: 8--12 MeV, 35--50 kA, 30--60 ns FWHM, and 0.5-mm rms beam radius. The accelerators utilized are SABRE and HERMES III. Both are linear inductive voltage adders modified to higher impedance and fitted with magnetically immersed foil less electron diodes. In the strong 20--50 Tesla solenoidal magnetic field of the diode, mm-size electron beams are generated and propagated to a beam stop. The electron beam is field emitted from mm-diameter needle-shaped cathode electrode and is contained in a similar size envelop by the strong magnetic field. These extremely space charge dominated beams provide the opportunity to study beam dynamics and possible instabilities in a unique parameter space. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 1.5-mm FWHM electron beams, while the HERMES-III experiments are on-going.

20. Single-Phase Drive Linear Ultrasonic Motor with Perpendicular Electrode Vibrator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shih-Wei Hsiao,; Mi-Ching Tsai,

2010-02-01

Unlike most ultrasonic motor designs, in this study, we employ a pair of perpendicular electrodes to energize a piezoelectric vibrator, in which the angle between the direction of polarization and the electric field is purposely set at neither 0 nor 90° so that both the longitudinal and shear effects of the vibrator can be generated simultaneously by a single-phase voltage source. Such a vibrator can generate oblique line trajectories on the contact surface to push a slider for movement, while its moving direction can be easily controlled by switching the excitation sequence of the pair of perpendicular electrodes. In this study, the finite element analysis method was first employed to simulate the oscillatory behavior of the vibrator and then simulation results were verified by single-point, noncontact measurement on the surface of the vibrator. The newly designed linear ultrasonic motor, which can offer identical performance in both forward and backward motions, can maintain its attractive characteristics of simple structure, quiet operation, and single-phase drive. A prototype of the single-phase drive linear ultrasonic motor was fabricated to confirm the feasibility of the proposed vibrator design. The illustrated bidirectional linear ultrasonic motor is shown to be capable of generating a sliding velocity of 84.2 mm/s and a sliding force of 1.79 N.

1. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

SciTech Connect

Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L.

2009-11-15

A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

2. Controllability of Free-piston Stirling Engine/linear Alternator Driving a Dynamic Load

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.

1994-01-01

This paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) driving a single-phase fractional horse-power induction motor. The controllability and dynamic stability of the system are discussed by means of sensitivity effects of variations in system parameters, engine controller, operating conditions, and mechanical loading on the induction motor. The approach used expands on a combined mechanical and thermodynamic formulation employed in a previous paper. The application of state-space technique and frequency domain analysis enhances understanding of the dynamic interactions. Engine-alternator parametric sensitivity studies, similar to those of the previous paper, are summarized. Detailed discussions are provided for parametric variations which relate to the engine controller and system operating conditions. The results suggest that the controllability of a FPSE-based power system is enhanced by proper operating conditions and built-in controls.

3. A rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with four driving feet.

PubMed

Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

2013-04-01

To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.

4. Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.

PubMed

Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning

2016-12-01

This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke.

5. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

SciTech Connect

Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

1991-12-31

Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

6. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

SciTech Connect

Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

1991-01-01

Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

7. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muir, P. F.; Bryan, J. R.

Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques, yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. We describe the design, development, testing, and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k x 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76 percent to below 5 percent for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5 percent if only the upper 90 percent of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50 percent. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards.

8. Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object

DOEpatents

Barkman, William E.

1980-01-01

A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.

9. Novel concept for driving the linear compressor of a micro-miniature split Stirling cryogenic cooler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maron, V.; Veprik, A.; Finkelstein, L.; Vilenchik, H.; Ziv, I.; Pundak, N.

2009-05-01

New methods of carrying out homeland security and antiterrorist operations call for the development of a new generation of mechanically cooled, portable, battery powered infrared imagers, relying on micro-miniature Stirling cryogenic coolers of rotary or linear types. Since split Stirling linearly driven micro-miniature cryogenic coolers have inherently longer life spans, low vibration export and better aural stealth as compared to their rotary driven rivals, they are more suitable for the above applications. The performance of such cryogenic coolers depends strongly on the efficacy of their electronic drivers. In a traditional approach, the PWM power electronics produce the fixed frequency tonal driving voltage/current, the magnitude of which is modulated via a PID control law so as to maintain the desired focal plane array temperature. The disadvantage of such drivers is that they draw high ripple current from the system's power bus. This results in the need for an oversized DC power supply (battery packs) and power electronic components, low efficiency due to excessive conductive losses and high residual electromagnetic interference which in turn degrades the performance of other systems connected to the same power bus. Without either an active line filter or large and heavy passive filtering, other electronics can not be powered from the same power bus, unless they incorporate heavy filtering at their inputs. The authors present the results of a feasibility study towards developing a novel "pumping" driver consuming essentially constant instant battery power/current without making use of an active or passive filter. In the tested setup, the driver relies on a bidirectional controllable bridge, invertible with the driving frequency, and a fast regulated DC/DC converter which maintains a constant level of current consumed from the DC power supply and thus operates in input current control mode. From the experimental results, the steady-state power consumed by the

10. Design, analysis and experimental performance of a stepping type piezoelectric linear actuator based on compliant foot driving

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wang, Shupeng; Rong, Weibin; Wang, Lefeng; Sun, Lining

2016-11-01

A stepping type piezoelectric linear actuator based on compliant foot driving is proposed in this paper. With the help of four piezo-stacks and four compliant feet, the designed actuator can produce large range linear motions in both positive and negative directions with high accuracy. The mechanical structure and the operating principle are discussed. Mohr integration method is used to analyze the deformation of the key component compliant foot. To investigate the working performance, a prototype is fabricated and a series of experiments are carried out. The experimental results indicate that the displacement outputs under various driving voltages and various driving frequencies show good linear relationships with the time. The driving resolution and the maximum output force are 10.98 nm and 43 N, respectively. The displacements deviation between the forward and backward motions within 30 steps is 6.82 μm and the amplitude of the parasitic motions is about 0.638 μm. The experimental results also confirm that the designed actuator can achieve various speeds by changing the driving voltage and driving frequency.

11. NDT and SHM of Carbon Fiber Composites using Linear Drive MWM-Arrays

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Washabaugh, Andrew; Martin, Christopher; Lyons, Robert; Grundy, David; Goldfine, Neil; Russell, Richard; Wincheski, Russell

2012-01-01

Carbon fiber composites are used in a wide range of structural applications due to their excellent specific strength and stiffness. However, the anisotropic mechanical and electrical properties associated with the fibers within each composite layer present challenges, and opportunities, for Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods used to characterize and assess the structure condition. This includes composite condition after manufacture (such as fiber orientation and density, porosity, delamination, and bond strength) and during usage (such as damage from impact, fiber breakage, thermal exposure or applied stress). Ultrasonic and thermographic methods can address some of these challenges, but eddy current methods provide an alternative method for composite structures that contain a conducting material, such as carbon fibers or a metallic liner. This presentation reviews recent advances in the development of eddy current sensors and arrays for carbon fiber composite NDT and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. The focus is on eddy current sensor constructs with linear drive windings, such as MWM -Arrays, that induce currents primarily within the linear fibers of the composite. By combining this type of sensor construct with micromechanical models that relate composite constituent properties to measurable sensor responses, insight is obtained into the volumetric distribution of electrical properties within the composite and the associated manufacturing, damage, or strain conditions. With knowledge of the fiber layup, this MWM-Array technology is able to detect damage and strain/stress as a function of depth and fiber orientation. This work has been funded by NASA, NA V AIR and the Army for applications ranging from composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) to aircraft structures and rotorcraft blades. This presentation will specifically present background on the MWM-Array technology, results from the micromechanical modeling effort, and results from

12. Single-Phase Drive Ultrasonic Linear Motor Using a Linked Twin Square Plate Vibrator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yokoyama, Keiji; Tamura, Hideki; Masuda, Kentaro; Takano, Takehiro

2013-07-01

A novel linear motion ultrasonic motor, which uses a single resonance mode driven by a single phase and has the same motor characteristics for operation in reverse directions, is developed. An in-plane breathing mode in the square plate is strongly driven by the transverse effect of a piezoelectric ceramic. A stator resonator consists of twin square plates linked by V-shaped beams. Only one side of the square plate can be excited by the resonance of the breathing mode, when the other passive side plate is electrically opened so that the effective elasticities and the resonant frequencies between both plates are different; as a result, the friction edge of the resonator vibrates in a slant locus to move a load slider. The reverse operation is easily obtained by switching the driving side of the square plates. We designed the stator resonator by FEM analysis and fabricated a prototype for our experiment. The prototype motor showed good characteristics, for example, a moving slider velocity of 100 mm/s, a thrust force of 3.5 N, and an efficiency of 30% when the preload was 10 N, the input effective voltage was 5 V, and the input power was 1.2 W.

13. Report on the status of linear drive coolers for the Department of Defense Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salazar, William

2003-01-01

14. Non-linear effects in electron cyclotron current drive applied for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ayten, B.; Westerhof, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

2014-07-01

Due to the smallness of the volumes associated with the flux surfaces around the O-point of a magnetic island, the electron cyclotron power density applied inside the island for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) can exceed the threshold for non-linear effects as derived previously by Harvey et al (1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 426). We study the non-linear electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency through bounce-averaged, quasi-linear Fokker-Planck calculations in the magnetic geometry as created by the islands. The calculations are performed for the parameters of a typical NTM stabilization experiment on ASDEX Upgrade. A particular feature of these experiments is that the rays of the EC wave beam propagate tangential to the flux surfaces in the power deposition region. The calculations show significant non-linear effects on the ECCD efficiency, when the ECCD power is increased from its experimental value of 1 MW to a larger value of 4 MW. The nonlinear effects are largest in the case of locked islands or when the magnetic island rotation period is longer than the collisional time scale. The non-linear effects result in an overall reduction of the current drive efficiency for this case with absorption of the EC power on the low-field side of the electron cyclotron resonance layer. As a consequence of the non-linear effects, also the stabilizing effect of the ECCD on the island is reduced from linear expectations.

15. Quasi-linear modeling of lower hybrid current drive in ITER and DEMO

SciTech Connect

Cardinali, A. Cesario, R.; Panaccione, L.; Santini, F.; Amicucci, L.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Mirizzi, F.; Tuccillo, A. A.

2015-12-10

First pass absorption of the Lower Hybrid waves in thermonuclear devices like ITER and DEMO is modeled by coupling the ray tracing equations with the quasi-linear evolution of the electron distribution function in 2D velocity space. As usually assumed, the Lower Hybrid Current Drive is not effective in a plasma of a tokamak fusion reactor, owing to the accessibility condition which, depending on the density, restricts the parallel wavenumber to values greater than n{sub ∥crit} and, at the same time, to the high electron temperature that would enhance the wave absorption and then restricts the RF power deposition to the very periphery of the plasma column (near the separatrix). In this work, by extensively using the “ray{sup star}” code, a parametric study of the propagation and absorption of the LH wave as function of the coupled wave spectrum (as its width, and peak value), has been performed very accurately. Such a careful investigation aims at controlling the power deposition layer possibly in the external half radius of the plasma, thus providing a valuable aid to the solution of how to control the plasma current profile in a toroidal magnetic configuration, and how to help the suppression of MHD mode that can develop in the outer part of the plasma. This analysis is useful not only for exploring the possibility of profile control of a pulsed operation reactor as well as the tearing mode stabilization, but also in order to reconsider the feasibility of steady state regime for DEMO.

16. Ka-band study: 1988

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Layland, J. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Clauss, R. C.; Wilcher, J. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Mudgway, D. J.

1989-01-01

The Ka-band study team was chartered in late 1987 to bring together all the planning elements for establishing 32 GHz (Ka-band) as the primary downlink frequency for deep-space operation, and to provide a stable baseline from which to pursue that development. This article summarizes the results of that study at its conclusion in mid-1988, and corresponds to material presented to NASA's Office of Space Operations on July 14, 1988. For a variety of reasons, Ka-band is the right next major step in deep-space communications. It offers improved radio metric accuracy through reduced plasma sensitivity and increased bandwidth. Because of these improvements, it offers the opportunity to reduce costs in the flight radio system or in the DSN by allocating part of the overall benefits of Ka-band to this cost reduction. A mission scenario is being planned that can drive at least two and possibly all three of the DSN subnets to provide a Ka-band downlink capability by the turn of the century. The implementation scenario devised by the study team is believed to be feasible within reasonable resource expectations, and capable of providing the needed upgrade as a natural follow-on to the technology development which is already underway.

17. Electron cyclotron current drive simulations for finite collisionality plasmas in Wendelstein 7-X using the full linearized collision model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kapper, Gernot; Kasilov, Sergei V.; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F.; Heyn, Martin F.; Marushchenko, Nikolai B.; Turkin, Yuriy

2016-11-01

The Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) efficiency is usually modeled in the collisionless limit. While such models are sufficient for plasmas with rather low collisionality, they might underestimate the current drive in plasmas at low temperatures likely to occur at the initial phase of high density device operation. In this paper, the impact of finite collisionality effects on the wave-induced current drive is studied for a high-mirror configuration of Wendelstein 7-X using a combination of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 and the ray-tracing code TRAVIS for a realistic set of plasma parameter profiles. The generalized Spitzer function, which describes the ECCD efficiency in phase space, is modeled with help of NEO-2, which uses the full linearized Coulomb collision operator, including energy and momentum conservation. Within this approach, the linearized drift kinetic equation is solved by means of the field line integration technique without any simplifications on device geometry. The results of the ray-tracing code TRAVIS using the ECCD efficiency from NEO-2 within the adjoint approach show a significant difference for the driven current when compared to commonly used collisionless models for the ordinary as well as the extraordinary second harmonic mode.

18. Comparison of a linear and a non-linear model for using sensory-motor, cognitive, personality, and demographic data to predict driving ability in healthy older adults.

PubMed

Hoggarth, Petra A; Innes, Carrie R H; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Severinsen, Julie E; Jones, Richard D

2010-11-01

This study compared the ability of binary logistic regression (BLR) and non-linear causal resource analysis (NCRA) to utilize a range of cognitive, sensory-motor, personality and demographic measures to predict driving ability in a sample of cognitively healthy older drivers. Participants were sixty drivers aged 70 and above (mean=76.7 years, 50% men) with no diagnosed neurological disorder. Test data was used to build classification models for a Pass or Fail score on an on-road driving assessment. The generalizability of the models was estimated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Sixteen participants (27%) received an on-road Fail score. Area under the ROC curve values were .76 for BLR and .88 for NCRA (no significant difference, z=1.488, p=.137). The ROC curve was used to select three different cut-points for each model and to compare classification. At the cut-point corresponding to the maximum average of sensitivity and specificity, the BLR model had a sensitivity of 68.8% and specificity of 75.0% while NCRA had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 95.5%. However, leave-one-out cross-validation reduced sensitivity in both models and particularly reduced specificity for NCRA. Neither model is accurate enough to be relied on solely for determination of driving ability. The lowered accuracy of the models following leave-one-out cross-validation highlights the importance of investigating models beyond classification alone in order to determine a model's ability to generalize to new cases.

19. Non-Linear Effects on the LH Wave Coupling in Tore Supra and Impact on the LH Current Drive Efficiency

SciTech Connect

Ekedahl, A.; Frincu, B.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Petrzilka, V.

2009-11-26

A strong, non-linear degradation of the Lower Hybrid (LH) wave coupling in Tore Supra can be observed when the LH launcher is screened on both sides by additional side limiters, such as side protections of adjacent Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas. The power reflection coefficient (RC) at the LH grill mouth is estimated to increase from {approx}20% at low power density (<1 MW/m{sup 2}) up to >40% at high power density (>10 MW/m{sup 2}). Such large RC (>40%) is unacceptably high, in particular for long durations. The screening by the additional side limiters reduces the connection length in front of the LH grill, which results in lower {lambda}{sub n}, {lambda}{sub T}, n{sub e} and T{sub e} at the grill. However, the reduction in ne alone is not enough to explain the non-linear behaviour. Modelling with a code that takes into account a ponderomotive force potential [1], depleting the electron density in front of the grill, shows consistent results. In full non-inductive current drive scenarios, the observed degradation in LH coupling is measurable on the LH current drive efficiency, through the increase in coupled LH power required to maintain V{sub Loop} = 0. These results demonstrate thus the importance of being able to control the LH coupling conditions, in order to optimize the efficiency and power handling of LH systems.

20. Optimizing the driving function for nonequilibrium free-energy calculations in the linear regime: a variational approach.

PubMed

de Koning, Maurice

2005-03-08

We consider the issue of optimizing linear-regime nonequilibrium simulations to estimate free-energy differences. In particular, we focus on the problem of finding the best-possible driving function lambda(t) that, for a given thermodynamic path, simulation algorithm, and amount of computational effort, minimizes dissipation. From the fluctuation-dissipation theorem it follows that, in the linear-response regime, the dissipation is controlled by the magnitude and characteristic correlation time of the equilibrium fluctuations in the driving force. As a result, the problem of finding the optimal switching scheme involves the solution of a standard problem in variational calculus: the minimization of a functional with respect to the switching function. In practice, the minimization involves solving the associated Euler-Lagrange equation subject to a set of boundary conditions. As a demonstration we apply the approach to the simple, yet illustrative problem of computing the free-energy difference between two classical harmonic oscillators with very different characteristic frequencies.

1. Induction Motor Drive System Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liu, Liying; Zhang, Yongli; Yao, Qingmei

It is difficult to establish an exact mathematical model for the induction motor and the robustness is poor of the vector control system using PI regulator. This paper adopts the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) to control inductor motor. LADRC doesn't need the exact mathematical model of motor and it can not only estimate but also compensate the general disturbance that includes the coupling items in model of motor and parameters perturbations by linear extended state observer (LESO), so the rotor flux and torque fully decouple. As a result, the performance is improved. To prove the above control scheme, the proposed control system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the comparison was made with PID. Simulation results show that LADRC' has better performance and robustness than PID.

2. A novel driving principle by means of the parasitic motion of the microgripper and its preliminary application in the design of the linear actuator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Yang, Zhaojun; Mi, Jie; Fan, Zunqiang; Wan, Shunguang; Shi, Chengli; Ma, Zhichao

2012-05-01

This paper presents a novel driving principle by means of the parasitic motion of the microgripper. Actuators based on this principle can realize the large displacement range and high speed easily. Also the structure can be simple. A parasitic motion principle linear actuator mainly consisting of two piezoelectric stacks, two microgrippers and a mover was designed. Experimental results indicate that at a low driving frequency of 5 Hz, large velocity over 40 μm/s is obtained with the driving voltage of 100 V. Backward motion was observed and analyzed. Experimental results verify the feasibility of the new principle and it can be used to design new linear or rotary actuators.

3. Numerical solution of the Polanyi-DR isotherm in linear driving force models.

PubMed

Lorenzetti, David M; Sohn, Michael D

2011-12-01

The Polanyi-Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm has proven useful for modeling the adsorption of volatile organic compounds on microporous materials such as activated carbon. When embedded in a larger dynamic simulation--e.g., of whole-building pollutant transport--it is important to solve the sorption relations as quickly as possible. This work compares numerical methods for solving the Polanyi-DR model, in cases where transport to the surface is assumed linear in the bulk-to-surface concentration differences. We focus on developing numerically stable algorithms that converge across a wide range of inputs, including zero concentrations, where the isotherm is undefined. We identify several methods, including a modified Newton-Raphson search, that solve the system 3-4 times faster than simple bisection. Finally, we present a rule of thumb for identifying when boundary-layer diffusion limits the transport rate enough to justify reducing the model complexity.

4. Investigating the discrimination potential of linear and nonlinear spectral multivariate calibrations for analysis of phenolic compounds in their binary and ternary mixtures and calculation pKa values

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rasouli, Zolaikha; Ghavami, Raouf

2016-08-01

Vanillin (VA), vanillic acid (VAI) and syringaldehyde (SIA) are important food additives as flavor enhancers. The current study for the first time is devote to the application of partial least square (PLS-1), partial robust M-regression (PRM) and feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) as linear and nonlinear chemometric methods for the simultaneous detection of binary and ternary mixtures of VA, VAI and SIA using data extracted directly from UV-spectra with overlapped peaks of individual analytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, for each compound a linear calibration was obtained in the concentration range of 0.61-20.99 [LOD = 0.12], 0.67-23.19 [LOD = 0.13] and 0.73-25.12 [LOD = 0.15] μg mL- 1 for VA, VAI and SIA, respectively. Four calibration sets of standard samples were designed by combination of a full and fractional factorial designs with the use of the seven and three levels for each factor for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. The results of this study reveal that both the methods of PLS-1 and PRM are similar in terms of predict ability each binary mixtures. The resolution of ternary mixture has been accomplished by FFNNs. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied for the description of spectra from the acid-base titration systems each individual compound, i.e. the resolution of the complex overlapping spectra as well as to interpret the extracted spectral and concentration profiles of any pure chemical species identified. Evolving factor analysis (EFA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) were used to distinguish the number of chemical species. Subsequently, their corresponding dissociation constants were derived. Finally, FFNNs has been used to detection active compounds in real and spiked water samples.

5. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

PubMed

Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

2006-12-01

In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s).

6. Dual-drive LiNbO3 interferometric Mach-Zehnder architecture with extended linear regime for high peak-to-average OFDM-based communication systems.

PubMed

Morant, Maria; Llorente, Roberto; Hauden, Jerome; Quinlan, Terence; Mottet, Alexandre; Walker, Stuart

2011-12-12

A dual-drive LiNbO(3) architecture modulator with chirp management is proposed and developed offering SFDR > 25 dB in a 1.4 V bias excursion compared to only 0.5 V bias excursion in a conventional Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The architecture effectively extends the linear regime and enables the optical transmission of wireless systems employing orthogonal division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation such as ultra-wide band (UWB) which require high linearity over a broad frequency range due to their high peak-to-average power ratio (PARP). Radio-over-fiber UWB transmission in a passive optical network is experimentally demonstrated employing this technique, exhibiting an enhancement of 2.2 dB in EVM after 57 km SSMF when the dual-drive developed modulator is employed.

7. Analysis on the multi-dimensional spectrum of the thrust force for the linear motor feed drive system in machine tools

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yang, Xiaojun; Lu, Dun; Ma, Chengfang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua

2017-01-01

The motor thrust force has lots of harmonic components due to the nonlinearity of drive circuit and motor itself in the linear motor feed drive system. What is more, in the motion process, these thrust force harmonics may vary with the position, velocity, acceleration and load, which affects the displacement fluctuation of the feed drive system. Therefore, in this paper, on the basis of the thrust force spectrum obtained by the Maxwell equation and the electromagnetic energy method, the multi-dimensional variation of each thrust harmonic is analyzed under different motion parameters. Then the model of the servo system is established oriented to the dynamic precision. The influence of the variation of the thrust force spectrum on the displacement fluctuation is discussed. At last the experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis above. It can be found that the thrust harmonics show multi-dimensional spectrum characteristics under different motion parameters and loads, which should be considered to choose the motion parameters and optimize the servo control parameters in the high-speed and high-precision machine tools equipped with the linear motor feed drive system.

8. Nonlinear SVM-DTC for induction motor drive using input-output feedback linearization and high order sliding mode control.

PubMed

Ammar, Abdelkarim; Bourek, Amor; Benakcha, Abdelhamid

2017-03-01

This paper presents a nonlinear Direct Torque Control (DTC) strategy with Space Vector Modulation (SVM) for an induction motor. A nonlinear input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) is implemented to achieve a decoupled torque and flux control and the SVM is employed to reduce high torque and flux ripples. Furthermore, the control scheme performance is improved by inserting a super twisting speed controller in the outer loop and a load torque observer to enhance the speed regulation. The combining of dual nonlinear strategies ensures a good dynamic and robustness against parameters variation and disturbance. The system stability has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is investigated by simulation and experimental validation using Matlab/Simulink software with real-time interface based on dSpace 1104.

9. JINR test facility for studies FEL bunching technique for CLIC driving beam

SciTech Connect

Dolbilov, G.V.; Fateev, A.A.; Ivanov, I.N.

1995-12-31

SILUND-21 linear induction accelerator (energy up to 10 MeV, peak current about of 1 kA, pulse duration 50 - 70 ns) is constructed at JINR in the framework of experimental program to study free electron laser physics, a problem of two-beam acceleration and microwave electronics. In this paper we present project of an experiment to adopt the FEL bunching technique for generation of the CLIC driving beam.

10. Linear and stable photonic radio frequency phase shifter based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator using a two-drive scheme.

PubMed

Shen, Jianguo; Wu, Guiling; Zou, Weiwen; Chen, Ruihao; Chen, Jianping

2013-12-01

We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a linear and stable photonic RF phase shifter based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) using a two-drive scheme. To avoid the effect of the residual optical carrier and overcome the lowest frequency limit from the optical filter, a local microwave signal and a signal up-converted from the under-phase-shifted RF signal are applied to the two RF inputs of the DPMZM, respectively. A phase-shifted RF signal is generated by beating the two first-order upper sidebands located in the passband of the optical filter. A continuous and linear phase shift of more than 360° and power variation of less than ±0.15  dB at 1 GHz are achieved by simply tuning the bias voltage of the modulator. A phase tuning bandwidth of more than 17 MHz and phase drift of less than 0.5° within 2000 s are also observed.

11. Linearizing the joint torque characteristics of an electric direct-drive robot for high performance control of in-contact operations

SciTech Connect

Muir, P.F.

1992-01-01

Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command of the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, a practical methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree-of-freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

12. Benchmarking pKa prediction

PubMed Central

Davies, Matthew N; Toseland, Christopher P; Moss, David S; Flower, Darren R

2006-01-01

Background pKa values are a measure of the protonation of ionizable groups in proteins. Ionizable groups are involved in intra-protein, protein-solvent and protein-ligand interactions as well as solubility, protein folding and catalytic activity. The pKa shift of a group from its intrinsic value is determined by the perturbation of the residue by the environment and can be calculated from three-dimensional structural data. Results Here we use a large dataset of experimentally-determined pKas to analyse the performance of different prediction techniques. Our work provides a benchmark of available software implementations: MCCE, MEAD, PROPKA and UHBD. Combinatorial and regression analysis is also used in an attempt to find a consensus approach towards pKa prediction. The tendency of individual programs to over- or underpredict the pKa value is related to the underlying methodology of the individual programs. Conclusion Overall, PROPKA is more accurate than the other three programs. Key to developing accurate predictive software will be a complete sampling of conformations accessible to protein structures. PMID:16749919

13. Biorelevant pKa (37°C) predicted from the 2D structure of the molecule and its pKa at 25°C

PubMed Central

Sun, Na; Avdeef, Alex

2011-01-01

Values of the ionization constants at 37°C, which are scarcely reported, are more meaningful for interpreting mechanisms of cellular transport by ionizable molecules and in mechanistic dissolution studies, which are often performed at the biorelevant temperature. An equation was developed where the pKa values of drug-like molecules determined at 25°C can be simply converted to values at 37°C, without additional measurement. The differences between the values, ΔpKa = pKa37 − pKa25, were linearly fitted to a function of pKa25 and the standard entropy of ionization, ΔSo, where the latter term was approximated by the five Abraham linear free energy solvation descriptors using multiple linear regression. The Abraham descriptors (H-bond donor and acceptor strengths, dipolar solute-solvent interactions potential, the pi- and n-electrons dispersion force, and molar volume) were determined from the 2-dimensional structure of the molecules. A total of 143 mostly drug-like molecules (207 pKa values at 25°C and at 37°C) were chosen for the study. The pKa values of many were determined here for the first time. Included were 34 weak acids, 85 weak bases, and 24 amphoteric compounds (6 ordinary ampholytes, 18 zwitterions). PMID:21652160

14. Neutral beam current drive scaling in DIII-D

SciTech Connect

Porter, G.D.; Bhadra, D.K.; Burrell, K.H.; Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Ferron, J.R.; James, R.A.; Kellman, A.G.; Kim, J.; Matsuoka, M.

1989-03-01

Neutral beam current drive scaling experiments have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. These experiments were performed using up to 10 MW of 80 keV hydrogen beams. Previous current drive experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated beam driven currents up to 340 kA. In the experiments reported here we achieved beam driven currents of at least 500 kA, and have obtained operation with record values of poloidal beta (epsilon..beta../sub p/ = 1.4). The beam driven current reported here is obtained from the total plasma current by subtracting an estimate of the residual Ohmic current determined from the measured loop voltage. In this report we discuss the scaling of the current drive efficiency with plasma conditions. Using hydrogen neutral beams, we find the current drive efficiency is similar in Deuterium and Helium target plasmas. Experiments have been performed with plasma electron temperatures up to T/sub e/ = 3 keV, and densities in the range 2 /times/ 10/sup 19/m/sup /minus/3/ < n/sub e/ < 4 /times/ 10/sup 19/m/sup /minus/3/. The current drive efficiency (nIR/P) is observed to scale linearly with the energy confinement time on DIII-D to a maximum of 0.05 /times/ 10/sup 20/m/sup /minus/2/ A/W. The measured efficiency is consistent with a 0-D theoretical model. In addition to comparison with this simple model, detailed analysis of several shots using the time dependent transport code ONETWO is discussed. This analysis indicates that bootstrap current contributes approximately 10--20% of the the total current. Our estimates of this effect are somewhat uncertain due to limited measurements of the radial profile of the density and temperatures. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

15. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pottenger, Warren

1995-01-01

The broad objective of this program was to demonstrate a proof of concept insertion of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) device technology into an innovative (tile architecture) active phased array antenna application supporting advanced EHF communication systems. Ka-band MMIC arrays have long been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in close proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments.

16. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pottenger, Warren

1995-06-01

The broad objective of this program was to demonstrate a proof of concept insertion of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) device technology into an innovative (tile architecture) active phased array antenna application supporting advanced EHF communication systems. Ka-band MMIC arrays have long been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in close proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments.

17. KaVA ESTEMA project

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Cho, Se-Hyung; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Choi, Yoon-Kyong; Kim, Jaeheon; Yun, Youngjoo; Matsumoto, Naoko; Min, Cheul-Hong; Oyama, Tomoaki; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Jin; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria; Burns, Ross; Orosz, Gabor; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Chibueze O, James; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrey

2016-07-01

The ESTEMA (Expanded Study on Stellar Masers) project is one of three Large Programs of the KaVA (the combined array of the Korean VLBI Network and Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), and conducted in 2015-2016. It aims to publish a database of the largest sample of VLBI images of circumstellar water (H2O) and silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser sources towards circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of 80 evolved stars in late AGB to early post-AGB phase. Here we present the specifications of the ESTEMA observations and the planned scientific goals in order to share the basic information of the ESTEMA with astronomical community and encourage future collaborations with the ESTEMA and future follow-up observations for the targeted stars.

18. SARAL/AltiKa Project Overview

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Picot, Nicolas; Sengenes, Pierre; Lambin, Juliette; Noubel, Jocelyne; Mazeau, Sophie; Verron, Jacques

2015-04-01

The SARAL-AltiKa satellite mission is an India-France ISRO-CNES joint project. The satellite has been put into orbit by a PSLV vehicle supplied by ISRO, and launched from Sriharikota, the main ISRO launch base, on Feb. 25, 2013. The SARAL (Satellite for ARgos and ALtika) payload consists of an ARGOS instrument, and an altimetry payload including the AltiKa radiometer-altimeter. SARAL/AltiKa is intended to be a gap filler mission between the RA-2 on-board ENVISAT and Sentinel-3. As such, SARAL/AltiKa is flying on the same orbit as ENVISAT. The special feature of SARAL/AltiKa is mainly related to a wideband Ka-band altimeter (35.75 GHz, 500 MHz), which is the very first satellite altimeter dedicated to oceanography to operate at such a high frequency. The AltiKa instrument consists in a Ka-band altimeter based on already developed subsystems inherited from Siral (CRYOSAT) and Poseidon-3 (JASON-2) in particular, and an embedded dual frequency radiometer. The altimeter and the radiometer share the same antenna. Due to the single frequency Ka-band altimeter, the enhanced bandwidth leads to a better vertical resolution. The spatial resolution is also improved, thanks to the Ka-band smaller footprint and the increased PRF. This talk will present the main characteristics of the mission and the main outcome regarding the data availability and overall quality after 2 years of mission. In particular, we will focus on the main advantages and/or drawbacks of the Ka band frequency compared to the classical Ku band used on other missions like Jason-2. A specific point will be performed on the rain attenuation and corresponding impacts on the altimeter data quality.

19. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

DOEpatents

Mittell, Larry C.

1981-01-01

A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

20. Fault tolerant linear actuator

DOEpatents

Tesar, Delbert

2004-09-14

In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

1. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

SciTech Connect

Malikopoulos, Andreas

2012-09-17

iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

2. Ka-Band MMIC Subarray Technology Program (Ka-Mist)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pottinger, W.

1995-01-01

Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) arrays have been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in closed proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the 'tile' array packaging architecture at EHF via the insertion of 1990 MMIC technology into a functional tile array or subarray module. The means test of this objective was to demonstrate and deliver to NASA a minimum of two 4 x 4 (16 radiating element) subarray modules operating in a transmit mode at 29.6 GHz. Available (1990) MMIC technology was chosen to focus the program effort on the novel interconnect schemes and packaging requirements rather than focusing on MMIC development. Major technical achievements of this program include the successful integration of two 4 x 4 subarray modules into a single antenna array. This 32 element array demonstrates a transmit EIRP of over 300 watts yielding an effective directive power gain in excess of 55 dB at 29.63 GHz. The array has been actively used as the transmit link in airborne/terrestrial mobile communication experiments accomplished via the ACTS satellite launched in August 1993.

3. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pottinger, W.

1995-09-01

Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) arrays have been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in closed proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the 'tile' array packaging architecture at EHF via the insertion of 1990 MMIC technology into a functional tile array or subarray module. The means test of this objective was to demonstrate and deliver to NASA a minimum of two 4 x 4 (16 radiating element) subarray modules operating in a transmit mode at 29.6 GHz. Available (1990) MMIC technology was chosen to focus the program effort on the novel interconnect schemes and packaging requirements rather than focusing on MMIC development. Major technical achievements of this program include the successful integration of two 4 x 4 subarray modules into a single antenna array. This 32 element array demonstrates a transmit EIRP of over 300 watts yielding an effective directive power gain in excess of 55 dB at 29.63 GHz. The array has been actively used as the transmit link in airborne/terrestrial mobile communication experiments accomplished via the ACTS satellite launched in August 1993.

4. Linear mass actuator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holloway, Sidney E., III (Inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (Inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (Inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.

5. The Asteroid 2015 KA122

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vodniza, Alberto Quijano; Pereira, Mario Rojas

2015-11-01

6. Drugged Driving

MedlinePlus

... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... in the past year. Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol ...

7. Impaired Driving

MedlinePlus

Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

8. Base drive circuit

DOEpatents

Lange, Arnold C.

1995-01-01

An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

9. Base drive circuit

DOEpatents

Lange, A.C.

1995-04-04

An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

10. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

2000-01-01

environment for the feed and electronics equipment. A dichroic plate is used to reflect the X-band energy and pass the Ka-band energy to another mirror. The RF energy for each band is then focused onto a feed horn and low-noise amplifier package. After amplification and RF/IF downconversion, the IF signals are sent to the Experimental Tone Tracker (ETT), a digital phase-lock-loop receiver, which simultaneously tracks both X-band and Ka-band carrier signals. Once a signal is detected, the ETT outputs estimates of the SNR in a I -Hz bandwidth (Pc/No), baseband phase and frequency of the signals every I -sec. Between December 1996 and December 1998, the Ka-band and X-band signals from MGS were tracked on a regular basis using the ETT. The Ka-band downlink frequencies described here were referenced to the spacecraft's on-board USO which was also the X-band frequency reference (f(sub ka)= 3.8 f(sub x)). The ETT estimates of baseband phase at I -second sampled time tags were converted to sky frequency estimates. Frequency residuals were then generated for each band by removing a model frequency from each observable frequency at each time tag. The model included Doppler and other effects derived from spacecraft trajectory files obtained from the MGS Navigation Team. A simple troposphere correction was applied to the data. In addition to residuals, the USO frequencies emitted by the spacecraft were estimated. For several passes, the USO frequencies were determined from X-band data and from Ka-band data (referred to X-band by dividing by 3.8) and were found to be in good agreement. In addition, X-band USO frequency estimates from MGS Radio Science data acquired from operational DSN stations were available for comparison and were found to agree within the I Hz level. The remaining sub-Hertz differences were attributed to the different models and software algorithms used by MGS Radio Science and KaBLE-11. A summary of the results of a linear fit of the USO frequency versus time (day of

11. Microlinear piezo drive experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

2017-02-01

The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand construction-design of the peripheral cord tensioner; the determined frequency characteristics and the identified resonant and actual frequencies of an oscillatory system under inertia load. A series of experiments has been conducted for both different preliminary voltages and inertia mass values.

12. Linear inductive voltage adders (IVA) for advanced hydrodynamic radiography

SciTech Connect

Mazarakis, M.G.; Boyes, J.D.; Johnson, D.L.

1998-09-01

The electron beam which drifts through the multiple cavities of conventional induction linacs (LIA) is replaced in an IVA by a cylindrical metal conductor which extends along the entire length of the device and effectuates the addition of the accelerator cavity voltages. In the approach to radiography, the linear inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed electron diode with a millimeter diameter cathode electrode and a planar anode/bremsstrahlung converter. Both anode and cathode electrodes are immersed in a strong (15--50 T) solenoidal magnetic field. The electron beam cross section is approximately of the same size as the cathode needle and generates a similar size, very intense x-ray beam when it strikes the anode converter. An IVA driven diode can produce electron beams of equal size and energy as a LIA but with much higher currents (40--50 kA versus 4--5 kA), simpler hardware and thus lower cost. The authors present here first experimental validations of the technology utilizing HERMES 3 and SABRE IVA accelerators. The electron beam voltage and current were respectively of the order of 10 MV and 40 kA. X-ray doses of up to 1 kR {at} 1 m and spot sizes as small as 1.7 mm (at 200 R doses) were measured.

13. Computational chemical analysis of unconjugated bilirubin anions and insights into pKa values clarification

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vega-Hissi, Esteban G.; Estrada, Mario R.; Lavecchia, Martín J.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

2013-01-01

The pKa, the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation equilibrium constant, of the carboxylic acid groups of unconjugated bilirubin in water is a discussed issue because there are quite different experimental values reported. Using quantum mechanical calculations we have studied the conformational behavior of unconjugated bilirubin species (in gas phase and in solution modeled implicitly and explicitly) to provide evidence that may clarify pKa values because of its pathophysiological relevance. Our results show that rotation of carboxylate group, which is not restricted, settles it in a suitable place to establish stronger interactions that stabilizes the monoanion and the dianion to be properly solvated, demonstrating that the rationalization used to justify the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin is inappropriate. Furthermore, low unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) pKa values were estimated from a linear regression analysis.

14. AltiKa in-flight performances

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boy, Francois; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Steunou, Nathalie

2015-04-01

The SARAL/AltiKa satellite has been launched the 25th of February 2013 from the launch pad of Sriharikota (India). Since this date, AltiKa provides measurements and affords the first altimetry results in Ka band. This paper recalls the instrument design and assesses the in-flight performance. The SARAL/AltiKa mission has been developed in the frame of a cooperation between CNES (French Space Agency) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). AltiKa is a single frequency Ka-band altimeter with a bi-frequency radiometer embedded. Both altimeter and radiometer share the same antenna. Altimeter expertise and routine calibrations performed during assessment phase demonstrate the stability of the instrument. Moreover the performance assessed over ocean are noteworthy such as 0.9 cm on epoch 1 Hz noise for 2 m of SWH, which is fully consistent with simulations and ground pre-flight tests results. The data availability is also very good and very few altimeter measurements are lost due to rain attenuation. Radiometer data analysis shows that the instrument is very stable and its performances are consistent with pre-flight tests results.

15. Excitatory drive onto dopaminergic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by norepinephrine in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner.

PubMed

Williams, Megan A; Li, Chia; Kash, Thomas L; Matthews, Robert T; Winder, Danny G

2014-11-01

Dopaminergic innervation of the extended amygdala regulates anxiety-like behavior and stress responsivity. A portion of this dopamine input arises from dopamine neurons located in the ventral lateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and rostral (RLi) and caudal linear nuclei of the raphe (CLi). These neurons receive substantial norepinephrine input, which may prime them for involvement in stress responses. Using a mouse line that expresses eGFP under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter, we explored the physiology and responsiveness to norepinephrine of these neurons. We find that RLi dopamine neurons differ from VTA dopamine neurons with respect to membrane resistance, capacitance and the hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih. Further, we found that norepinephrine increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) on RLi dopamine neurons. This effect was mediated through the α1 adrenergic receptor (AR), as the actions of norepinephrine were mimicked by the α1-AR agonist methoxamine and blocked by the α1-AR antagonist prazosin. This action of norepinephrine on sEPSCs was transient, as it did not persist in the presence of prazosin. Methoxamine also increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs, indicating that the α1-AR action on glutamatergic transmission likely has a presynaptic mechanism. There was also a modest decrease in sEPSC frequency with the application of the α2-AR agonist UK-14,304. These studies illustrate a potential mechanism through which norepinephrine could recruit the activity of this population of dopaminergic neurons.

16. Hosing Instability of the Drive Electron Beam in the E157 Plasma-Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

SciTech Connect

Blue, Brent Edward; /SLAC /UCLA

2005-10-10

In the plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC, known as E157, an ultra-relativistic electron beam is used to both excite and witness a plasma wave for advanced accelerator applications. If the beam is tilted, then it will undergo transverse oscillations inside of the plasma. These oscillations can grow exponentially via an instability know as the electron hose instability. The linear theory of electron-hose instability in a uniform ion column predicts that for the parameters of the E157 experiment (beam charge, bunch length, and plasma density) a growth of the centroid offset should occur. Analysis of the E157 data has provided four critical results. The first was that the incoming beam did have a tilt. The tilt was much smaller than the radius and was measured to be 5.3 {micro}m/{delta}{sub z} at the entrance of the plasma (IP1.) The second was the beam centroid oscillates in the ion channel at half the frequency of the beam radius (betatron beam oscillations), and these oscillations can be predicted by the envelope equation. Third, up to the maximum operating plasma density of E157 ({approx}2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}), no growth of the centroid offset was measured. Finally, time-resolved data of the beam shows that up to this density, no significant growth of the tail of the beam (up to 8ps from the centroid) occurred even though the beam had an initial tilt.

17. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

2000-01-01

for the feed and electronics equipment. A dichroic plate is used to reflect the X-band energy and pass the Ka-band energy to another mirror. The RF energy for each band is then focused onto a feed horn and low-noise amplifier package. After amplification and RF/IF downconversion, the IF signals are sent to the Experimental Tone Tracker (ETT), a digital phase-lock-loop receiver, which simultaneously tracks both X-band and Ka-band carrier signals. Once a signal is detected, the ETT outputs estimates of the SNR in a I -Hz bandwidth (Pc/No), baseband phase and frequency of the signals every I -sec. Between December 1996 and December 1998, the Ka-band and X-band signals from MGS were tracked on a regular basis using the ETT. The Ka-band downlink frequencies described here were referenced to the spacecraft's on-board USO which was also the X-band frequency reference (fka= 3.8 fx). The ETT estimates of baseband phase at I -second sampled time tags were converted to sky frequency estimates. Frequency residuals were then generated for each band by removing a model frequency from each observable frequency at each time tag. The model included Doppler and other effects derived from spacecraft trajectory files obtained from the MGS Navigation Team. A simple troposphere correction was applied to the data. In addition to residuals, the USO frequencies emitted by the spacecraft were estimated. For several passes, the USO frequencies were determined from X-band data and from Ka-band data (referred to X-band by dividing by 3.8) and were found to be in good agreement. In addition, X-band USO frequency estimates from MGS Radio Science data acquired from operational DSN stations were available for comparison and were found to agree within the I Hz level. The remaining sub-Hertz differences were attributed to the different models and software algorithms used by MGS Radio Science and KaBLE-11. A summary of the results of a linear fit of the USO frequency versus time (day of year) is

18. Pile Driving

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1987-01-01

Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

19. Distracted driving

MedlinePlus

... the road Your hands on the wheel Your mind on driving Distracted driving occurs when something gets in the way of you doing all 3 things. Examples include: Talking on a cell phone Reading or sending text messages Eating and drinking Grooming ( ...

20. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited

PubMed Central

Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno E, Bertrand; McIntosh, Lawrence P

2015-01-01

Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group. PMID:25808204

1. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited.

PubMed

Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand E; McIntosh, Lawrence P

2015-05-01

Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼ 12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group.

2. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30ka to 10ka

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya

2016-04-01

Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial periods which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial periods. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North Atlantic between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ Ca paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M

3. Validation of SARAL/AltiKa significant wave height and wind speed observations over the North Indian Ocean

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kumar, U. Mahesh; Swain, D.; Sasamal, S. K.; Reddy, N. Narendra; Ramanjappa, T.

2015-12-01

SARAL/AltiKa, a joint Ka-band altimetry mission of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was successfully launched on February 25, 2013. The main purpose of this mission is to explore the ocean surface topography. As it is a Ka-band altimeter mission unlike other altimeters which were primarily in Ku-band, it is essential to calibrate and validate AltiKa data products before using the data for oceanographic applications. With this objective, two important geophysical parameters, Significant Wave Height (SWH) and Wind Speed (WS) from SARAL/AltiKa are inter-compared with those from 18 moored buoy stations in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) for a two year period from March 2013 to March 2015. SARAL/AltiKa GDR-T patch-2 version products are collocated with moored buoy observations with a collocation criteria of spatio-temporal window of 50 km radius about the buoy location and 30 min time for all the altimeter measurements. Following this, linear regression relations are developed and statistical analyses carried out to assess the performance of SARAL/AltiKa. The correlation between SARAL/AltiKa derived SWHs and those from moored buoys is 0.98 m with a bias of -0.02 m and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.15 m at 95% confidence level. The WSs derived from SARAL/AltiKa Ka-band correlates reasonably well with buoy observations with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, bias of -0.28 m/s and RMSE of 1.13 m/s. The inter-comparison results are found to be interesting with a good agreement between SARAL/AltiKa and moored buoys observations of SWH and WS in the NIO where SWHs are less than ∼4 m and WS are less than ∼13 m/s during the entire analysis period.

4. Dementia & Driving

MedlinePlus

... Caregiver Resource Center Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support Groups Caregiver Stories Connections e-Newsletter FCA+(plus) Services ... be like if you could no longer drive. Support groups provide a good venue for both the caregivers ...

5. First-principles calculation of pKa for cocaine, nicotine, neurotransmitters, and anilines in aqueous solution.

PubMed

Lu, Haiting; Chen, Xi; Zhan, Chang-Guo

2007-09-06

The absolute pKa values of 24 representative amine compounds, including cocaine, nicotine, 10 neurotransmitters, and 12 anilines, in aqueous solution were calculated by performing first-principles electronic structure calculations that account for the solvent effects using four different solvation models, i.e., the surface and volume polarization for electrostatic interaction (SVPE) model, the standard polarizable continuum model (PCM), the integral equation formalism for the polarizable continuum model (IEFPCM), and the conductor-like screening solvation model (COSMO). Within the examined computational methods, the calculations using the SVPE model lead to the absolute pKa values with the smallest root-mean-square-deviation (rmsd) value (1.18). When the SVPE model was replaced by the PCM, IEFPCM, and COSMO, the rmsd value of the calculated absolute pKa values became 3.21, 2.72, and 3.08, respectively. All types of calculated pKa values linearly correlate with the experimental pKa values very well. With the empirical corrections using the linear correlation relationships, the theoretical pKa values are much closer to the corresponding experimental data and the rmsd values become 0.51-0.83. The smallest rmsd value (0.51) is also associated with the SVPE model. All of the results suggest that the first-principles electronic structure calculations using the SVPE model are a reliable approach to the pKa prediction for the amine compounds.

6. An Ka Bamanankan Kalan: Intermediate Bambara.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bird, Charles; Kante, Mamadou

This textbook follows the third edition of "Introductory Bambara: An Ka Bamanankan Kalan", and is designed so that Bambara can be used almost exclusively in the classroom. Each of the twenty lessons has a culturally oriented topic and consists of a reading selection, drills on grammar and vocabulary list. The grammar notes are not…

7. Ka-Band, Multi-Gigabit-Per-Second Transceiver

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Smith, Francis J.; Harris, Johnny M.; Landon, David G.; Haddadin, Osama S.; McIntire, William K.; Sun, June Y.

2011-01-01

A document discusses a multi-Gigabit-per-second, Ka-band transceiver with a software-defined modem (SDM) capable of digitally encoding/decoding data and compensating for linear and nonlinear distortions in the end-to-end system, including the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA). This innovation can increase data rates of space-to-ground communication links, and has potential application to NASA s future spacebased Earth observation system. The SDM incorporates an extended version of the industry-standard DVB-S2, and LDPC rate 9/10 FEC codec. The SDM supports a suite of waveforms, including QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32- APSK, 64-APSK, and 128-QAM. The Ka-band and TWTA deliver an output power on the order of 200 W with efficiency greater than 60%, and a passband of at least 3 GHz. The modem and the TWTA together enable a data rate of 20 Gbps with a low bit error rate (BER). The payload data rates for spacecraft in NASA s integrated space communications network can be increased by an order of magnitude (>10 ) over current state-of-practice. This innovation enhances the data rate by using bandwidth-efficient modulation techniques, which transmit a higher number of bits per Hertz of bandwidth than the currently used quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) waveforms.

8. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

1999-01-01

The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

9. Disk Drives

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1994-01-01

A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

10. Fast wave current drive on DIII-D

SciTech Connect

deGrassie, J.S.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.

1995-07-01

The physics of electron heating and current drive with the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on DIII-D, in reasonable agreement with theoretical modeling. A recently completed upgrade to the fast wave capability should allow full noninductive current drive in steady state advanced confinement discharges and provide some current density profile control for the Advanced Tokamak Program. DIII-D now has three four-strap fast wave antennas and three transmitters, each with nominally 2 MW of generator power. Extensive experiments have been conducted with the first system, at 60 MHz, while the two newer systems have come into operation within the past year. The newer systems are configured for 60 to 120 MHz. The measured FWCD efficiency is found to increase linearly with electron temperature as {gamma} = 0.4 {times} 10{sup 18} T{sub eo} (keV) [A/m{sup 2}W], measured up to central electron temperature over 5 keV. A newly developed technique for determining the internal noninductive current density profile gives efficiencies in agreement with this scaling and profiles consistent with theoretical predictions. Full noninductive current drive at 170 kA was achieved in a discharge prepared by rampdown of the Ohmic current. Modulation of microwave reflectometry signals at the fast wave frequency is being used to investigate fast wave propagation and damping. Additionally, rf pick-up probes on the internal boundary of the vessel provide a comparison with ray tracing codes, with dear evidence for a toroidally directed wave with antenna phasing set for current drive. There is some experimental evidence for fast wave absorption by energetic beam ions at high cyclotron harmonic resonances.

11. Modulation transfer functions at Ka band

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hesany, Vahid; Sistani, Bita; Salam, Asif; Haimov, Samuel; Gogineni, Prasad; Moore, Richard K.

The modulation transfer function (MTF) is often used to describe the modulation of the radar signal by the long waves. MTFs were measured at 35 GHz (Ka band) with a switched-beam vector slope gauge/scatterometer on the research platform NORDSEE as part of the SAXON-FPN experiment. Three independent measurements of the scattering were available for each height measurement. This provided the opportunity to average the time series to reduce the effects of fading noise and sea spikes, or, alternatively, to append the time series to achieve more degrees of freedom in the spectral estimates. For upwind measurements, the phase of the VV-polarized Ka-band MTF was always positive, which implies that the maximum of the radar return originates from the forward face of the long-scale waves. This phase increases with increasing wind speed. The magnitude of the MTF decreases with increasing wind speed.

12. Malama I Ka Aina: Fostering the Culture-Science connection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bruno, B.; Chinn, P.

2005-12-01

The Malama I Ka Aina Project (Caring for the land, or sustainability) aims to improve and expand the education of Hawaii's children by developing and disseminating standards-based, culturally relevant science curricular materials based on an understanding and appreciation of the ways in which traditional Hawaiians interacted with their environment for sustainability. Key concepts include the role of water and the ahupuaa (traditional Hawaiian system of land management), and a culture-based sense of place that includes knowledge of and connection to the land. Elementary, middle, high school and University of Hawaii teachers work together to develop and implement curricula that are especially relevant to a particular school's science program and issues, e.g., invasive species, students, community and/or geographical location. Participants (typically a mix of teachers, education majors and science majors) enroll in Malama I Ka Aina, a three-credit course offered through the University of Hawaiis Dept. of Curriculum Studies and applicable toward a Bachelor's or Master's degree. This course (team taught by scientists, cultural experts and educational professionals) enables participants to: (1) Study Hawaiis unique geology, geography and environmental issues in the context of Hawaiian culture and post Western contact; (2) Use course knowledge to develop, teach and assess Hawaii-oriented, project-based, inquiry activities that address the Hawaii Science Content Standards; (3) Gain an appreciation for the scientific method, and the curiosity that drives science (4) Use educational technology such as PowerPoint, graphing packages and web authoring software to develop electronic resources for educational activities. A sample of the lessons developed by course participants can be found on http://malama.hawaii.edu/schools/index2.html. This project is based at the University of Hawaii College of Education and funded by an award to P. Chinn by the US Department of

13. Wideband Linear Phase Modulator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mysoor, Narayan R.; Mueller, Robert O.

1994-01-01

Phase modulator for transmission in X band provides large phase deviation that remains nearly linear with voltage over relatively wide range. Operates with low loss over wide frequency band and with stable characteristics over wide temperature range. Phase modulator contains two varactor-diode phase shifters coupled via circulators. Separate drive circuit applies modulating voltages to varactor diodes. Modulation voltages vary in accordance with input to drive circuit.

14. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

2016-04-01

15. Direct drive field actuator motors

DOEpatents

Grahn, A.R.

1998-03-10

A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

16. Direct drive field actuator motors

SciTech Connect

Grahn, Allen R.

1998-01-01

A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

17. High-power Ka-band amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cormier, R.

1993-01-01

Development of a high-power tube suitable to power a Ka-band (34.5-GHz) antenna transmitter located at the Goldstone, California, tracking station is continuing. The University of Maryland Laboratory for Plasma Research and JPL are conducting a joint effort to test the feasibility of phase locking a second-harmonic gyrotron both by direct injection at the output cavity and by using a priming cavity to bunch the electrons in the beam. This article describes several design options and the results of computer simulation testing.

18. The 100 kA VLHC transmission line magnet superconducting cable test facility

SciTech Connect

Foster, G. W.; Kashikhin, V. S.; Malamud, E.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, Piekarz,H.; Fuerst, J.; Rabahl, R.; Schlabach, P.; Volk, J.

2000-03-01

A superconducting transmission line magnet test facility was built and commissioned at Fermilab. The test facility is capable of generating a 100 kA current in a 17-meter length short-circuited superconducting loop, as well as driving 15 m long test magnets. The current is excited by a room temperature primary winding and iron yoke operated as a current transformer. This approach avoids the expense and difficulty of 100 kA current leads, and allows the facility to be Dewar-based. The loop has a replaceable superconductor section 4 m long for testing various types of VLHC transmission line cables. The system design, 3D magnetic field analysis, magnetic force distribution and test results are discussed.

19. Linear Resonance Cooler.

DTIC Science & Technology

1985-04-01

for a Stirling cycle cryocooler . 26 * .*o .. * COMPRESSOR MOTOR FORCE VERSUS ROTOR AXIAL POSITION COMPRESSOR P-V DIAGRAM *COMPRESSOR MOTOR COMPRESSOR...potential. However, the limited test program has demonstrated the application of linear motor drive technology to a Stirling cycle cryocooler design. L...Ace-ss Ion& For flTIC TAB - TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE IPAGE - 2. DETAILED DESIGN OF LINEAR RESONANCE CRYOCOOLER ......... 3 2.2 Expander

20. Climatic Forcings of the Last Major Glacial Inception: A GCM Simulation of 115.5 Ka

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essig, M.; Oglesby, R.; Otieno, F.; Bromwich, D.

2007-12-01

The onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation at around 115.5 Ka is thought to have been caused by a number of factors. Two of the most important of these are a reduction in atmospheric CO2 from approximately 380 ppm to 180 ppm, and changes in the earth's eccentricity, precession, and obliquity due to Milankovitch orbital cycles. We used the NCAR CCSM3 GCM in fully coupled mode to simulate the climate at 115.5 ka B.P. The fully-coupled mode includes dynamical atmospheric and oceanic components, as well as sophisticated land surface and sea ice schemes. Sea level and the distribution of the continents were held at present-day values, since they changed little between 0 Ka and 115.5 Ka. Thus, our model simulation can also be thought of as examining the roles of lowered CO2 and orbital configuration in driving glacial inception. In particular, we hypothesize that these climatic forcings will lead to a succession of cool summers and warm wet winters in key regions of the high latitude Northern Hemisphere. In turn, we expect this will be conducive to building the perennial snow pack that is an essential precursor to the Laurentide and Fenno-Scandinavian ice sheets. Though the simulation is still underway at this writing, preliminary results from the first 100 years of the run suggest that this does indeed take place. Key results from the completed run will be presented at the meeting, along with an assessment of how they differ from a present-day CCSM3 control run. Furthermore, in glacial inception regions the performance of both the control run and an existing CCSM3 preindustrial simulation are being compared to ERA40 reanalyses as an additional test of model fidelity. The model simulation is also being verified using all available data from geologic record for the time around 115.5 Ka.

1. p Ka calculation of poliprotic acid: histamine

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De Abreu, Heitor A.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Duarte, Hélio A.

2004-01-01

Various theoretical studies have been reported addressing the performance of solvation models available to estimate p Ka values. However, no attention has been paid so far to the role played by the electronic, thermal and solvation energy individual contributions to the Gibbs free energy of the deprotonation process. In this work, we decompose the total Gibbs free energy into three distinct terms and then evaluate the dependence of each contribution on the level of theory employed for its determination using different levels of theory. The three possible p Kas of histamine have been estimated and compared with available experimental data. We found that the electronic energy term is sensitive to the level of theory and basis set, and, therefore, could be also a source of error in the theoretical calculation of p Kas.

2. Aeronautical applications of steerable K/Ka-band antennas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helmken, Henry; Prather, Horton

1995-01-01

The expected growth of wideband data and video transmission via satellite will press existing satellite Ku-band services and push development of the Ka-band region. Isolated ground based K/Ka-band terminals can experience severe fading due to rain and weather phenomena. However, since aircraft generally fly above the severe weather, they are attractive platforms for developing commercial K/Ka-band communication links.

3. Elucidating the Conformational Dependence of Calculated pKa Values.

PubMed

Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J; Kanjanapangka, Julie; Chea, Eric; Cortez, Hector; Garcia, Jorge; Kidd, Patrick; Marquez, Mario Pulido; Pande, Swati; Yang, David

2006-07-01

The variability within calculated protein residue pKa values calculated using Poisson-Boltzmann continuum theory with respect to small conformational fluctuations is investigated. As a general rule, sites buried in the protein core have the largest pKa fluctuations but the least amount of conformational variability; conversely, sites on the protein surface generally have large conformational fluctuations but very small pKa fluctuations. These results occur because of the heterogeneous or uniform nature of the electrostatic microenvironments at the protein core or surface, respectively. Atypical surface sites with large pKa fluctuations occur at the interfaces between significant anionic and cationic potentials.

4. Study of sea ice regions using AltiKa measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Hoang, Duc; Boy, François; Guillot, Amandine; Picot, Nicolas

2015-04-01

Since the launch of the SARAL/AltiKa mission on February 25th, 2013, altimeter measurements of excellent quality are acquired all over the globe for the first time in Ka-band. One of the main benefits of the Ka-band is to have a very low penetration length in the ice (unlike the Ku-band historically used by previous altimetry missions), which allows to significantly reduce measurements uncertainties of the sea ice topography. Flying on the Envisat orbit and providing measurements at 40 Hz, the exploitation of AltiKa waveforms on sea ice is of great interest. Sea ice covered regions are characterized by a large number of different surfaces with a multitude of backscattering properties rapidly evolving with time. Thanks to the high resolution and precision of the AltiKa measurements, backscattering properties from each of these surfaces (first year ice, multiyear ice, fast ice, leads, polynyas, etc. …) can be observed through rapid changes of the returned echo shape. In the framework of the PEACHI project (Prototype for Expertise on AltiKa, for Coastal, Hydrology and Ice funded by CNES) which aims at analyzing and improving AltiKa measurements, a waveform processing based on an altimeter echo classification is developed and performed on all available AltiKa data in the Arctic ocean. Through this processing a study is conducted on the the evolution of the sea ice cover observed in Ka-band.

5. Quantum effects in warp drives

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finazzi, Stefano

2013-09-01

Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

6. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

SciTech Connect

Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

2009-03-09

In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function value). We

7. Dichroic Filter for Separating W-Band and Ka-Band

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epp, Larry W.; Durden, Stephen L.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Long, Ezra M.; Sosnowski, John B.; Higuera, Raymond J.; Chen, Jacqueline C.

2012-01-01

The proposed Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACEs) mission development would advance cloud profiling radar from that used in CloudSat by adding a 35-GHz (Ka-band) channel to the 94-GHz (W-band) channel used in CloudSat. In order to illuminate a single antenna, and use CloudSat-like quasi-optical transmission lines, a spatial diplexer is needed to add the Ka-band channel. A dichroic filter separates Ka-band from W-band by employing advances in electrical discharge machining (EDM) and mode-matching analysis techniques developed and validated for designing dichroics for the Deep Space Network (DSN), to develop a preliminary design that both met the requirements of frequency separation and mechanical strength. First, a mechanical prototype was built using an approximately 102-micron-diameter EDM process, and tolerances of the hole dimensions, wall thickness, radius, and dichroic filter thickness measured. The prototype validated the manufacturing needed to design a dichroic filter for a higher-frequency usage than previously used in the DSN. The initial design was based on a Ka-band design, but thicker walls are required for mechanical rigidity than one obtains by simply scaling the Ka-band dichroic filter. The resulting trade of hole dimensions for mechanical rigidity (wall thickness) required electrical redesign of the hole dimensions. Updates to existing codes in the linear solver decreased the analysis time using mode-matching, enabling the electrical design to be realized quickly. This work is applicable to missions and instruments that seek to extend W-band cloud profiling measurements to other frequencies. By demonstrating a dichroic filter that passes W-band, but reflects a lower frequency, this opens up the development of instruments that both compare to and enhance CloudSat.

8. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

2008-01-01

A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

9. Assigning the pKa's of Polyprotic Acids.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bodner, George M.

1986-01-01

Discusses (1) polyproptic acids for which the difference between K-a's is large; (2) the Henderson-Hasselbach equation; (3) polyprotic acids for which the difference between K-a's is small; (4) analysis of microscopic dissociation constants for cysteine; and (5) analysis of pK-a data. (JN)

10. Determination of the pKa of the N-terminal amino group of ubiquitin by NMR

PubMed Central

Oregioni, Alain; Stieglitz, Benjamin; Kelly, Geoffrey; Rittinger, Katrin; Frenkiel, Tom

2017-01-01

Ubiquitination regulates nearly every aspect of cellular life. It is catalysed by a cascade of three enzymes and results in the attachment of the C-terminal carboxylate of ubiquitin to a lysine side chain in the protein substrate. Chain extension occurs via addition of subsequent ubiquitin molecules to either one of the seven lysine residues of ubiquitin, or via its N-terminal α-amino group to build linear ubiquitin chains. The pKa of lysine side chains is around 10.5 and hence E3 ligases require a mechanism to deprotonate the amino group at physiological pH to produce an effective nucleophile. In contrast, the pKa of N-terminal α-amino groups of proteins can vary significantly, with reported values between 6.8 and 9.1, raising the possibility that linear chain synthesis may not require a general base. In this study we use NMR spectroscopy to determine the pKa for the N-terminal α-amino group of methionine1 of ubiquitin for the first time. We show that it is 9.14, one of the highest pKa values ever reported for this amino group, providing a rational for the observed need for a general base in the E3 ligase HOIP, which synthesizes linear ubiquitin chains. PMID:28252051

11. Determination of the pKa of the N-terminal amino group of ubiquitin by NMR.

PubMed

Oregioni, Alain; Stieglitz, Benjamin; Kelly, Geoffrey; Rittinger, Katrin; Frenkiel, Tom

2017-03-02

Ubiquitination regulates nearly every aspect of cellular life. It is catalysed by a cascade of three enzymes and results in the attachment of the C-terminal carboxylate of ubiquitin to a lysine side chain in the protein substrate. Chain extension occurs via addition of subsequent ubiquitin molecules to either one of the seven lysine residues of ubiquitin, or via its N-terminal α-amino group to build linear ubiquitin chains. The pKa of lysine side chains is around 10.5 and hence E3 ligases require a mechanism to deprotonate the amino group at physiological pH to produce an effective nucleophile. In contrast, the pKa of N-terminal α-amino groups of proteins can vary significantly, with reported values between 6.8 and 9.1, raising the possibility that linear chain synthesis may not require a general base. In this study we use NMR spectroscopy to determine the pKa for the N-terminal α-amino group of methionine1 of ubiquitin for the first time. We show that it is 9.14, one of the highest pKa values ever reported for this amino group, providing a rational for the observed need for a general base in the E3 ligase HOIP, which synthesizes linear ubiquitin chains.

12. Dating loess up to 800 ka by thermoluminescence

SciTech Connect

Berger, G.W. ); Pillans, B.J. ); Palmer, A.S. )

1992-05-01

Thermoluminescence (TL) ages agreeing with expected ages have been obtained for 13 loess samples spanning the age range from 20 to 800 ka. The authors samples are from Alaska and North Island, New Zealand, and are unusual in TL dating studies of loess older than 80-100 ka by having independent age assignments that are generally well constrained, from ages of associated tephra beds. With the polymineral fine-silt-sized (4-11 {mu}m) grains the partial-bleach TL technique yielded expected ages up to about 350 ka, whereas the total-bleach method gave accurate ages in the range 100 to 800 ka. Thus, the much disputed upper age limit of 100-150 ka for the TL dating of loess now appears to be sample and worker dependent, rather than a global property of the TL signals in the TL-dominant feldspars.

13. Ka-Band Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tien, Jeffrey; Purcell, George, Jr.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey; Ciminera, Michael; Srinivasan, Meera; Meehan, Thomas; Young, Lawrence; Aung, MiMi; Amaro, Luis; Chong, Yong; Quirk, Kevin

2004-01-01

Ka-band integrated range and bearing-angle formation sensor called the Autonomous Formation Flying (AFF) Sensor has been developed to enable deep-space formation flying of multiple spacecraft. The AFF Sensor concept is similar to that of the Global Positioning System (GPS), but the AFF Sensor would not use the GPS. The AFF Sensor would reside in radio transceivers and signal-processing subsystems aboard the formation-flying spacecraft. A version of the AFF Sensor has been developed for initial application to the two-spacecraft StarLight optical-interferometry mission, and several design investigations have been performed. From the prototype development, it has been concluded that the AFF Sensor can be expected to measure distances and directions with standard deviations of 2 cm and 1 arc minute, respectively, for spacecraft separations ranging up to about 1 km. It has also been concluded that it is necessary to optimize performance of the overall mission through design trade-offs among the performance of the AFF Sensor, the field of view of the AFF Sensor, the designs of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments that they will carry, the spacecraft maneuvers required for formation flying, and the design of a formation-control system.

14. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maus, Daryl

1993-01-01

Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

15. On the development of protein pKa calculation algorithms

SciTech Connect

Carstensen, Tommy; Farrell, Damien; Huang, Yong; Baker, Nathan A.; Nielsen, Jens E.

2011-12-01

Protein pKa calculation algorithms are typically developed to reproduce experimental pKa values and provide us with a better understanding of the fundamental importance of electrostatics for protein structure and function. However, the approximations and adjustable parameters employed in almost all pKa calculation methods means that there is the risk that pKa calculation algorithms are 'over-fitted' to the available datasets, and that these methods therefore do not model protein physics realistically. We employ simulations of the protein pKa calculation algorithm development process to show that careful optimization procedures and non-biased experimental datasets must be applied to ensure a realistic description of the underlying physical terms. We furthermore investigate the effect of experimental noise and find a significant effect on the pKa calculation algorithm optimization landscape. Finally, we comment on strategies for ensuring the physical realism of protein pKa calculation algorithms and we assess the overall state of the field with a view to predicting future directions of development.

16. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1992-01-01

A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

17. Linear induction accelerator parameter options

SciTech Connect

Birx, D.L.; Caporaso, G.J.; Reginato, L.L.

1986-04-21

The principal undertaking of the Beam Research Program over the past decade has been the investigation of propagating intense self-focused beams. Recently, the major activity of the program has shifted toward the investigation of converting high quality electron beams directly to laser radiation. During the early years of the program, accelerator development was directed toward the generation of very high current (>10 kA), high energy beams (>50 MeV). In its new mission, the program has shifted the emphasis toward the production of lower current beams (>3 kA) with high brightness (>10/sup 6/ A/(rad-cm)/sup 2/) at very high average power levels. In efforts to produce these intense beams, the state of the art of linear induction accelerators (LIA) has been advanced to the point of satisfying not only the current requirements but also future national needs.

18. NASA SCaN Overview and Ka-Band Actvities

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stegeman, James D.; Midon, Marco Mario; Davarian, Faramaz; Geldzahler, Barry

2014-01-01

The Ka- and Broadband Communications Conference is an international forum attended by worldwide experts in the area of Ka-Band Propagation and satellite communications. Since its inception, NASA has taken the initiative of organizing and leading technical sections on RF Propagation and satellite communications, solidifying its worldwide leadership in the aforementioned areas. Consequently, participation in this conference through the contributions described below will maintain NASA leadership in Ka- and above RF Propagation as it relates to enhancing current and future satellite communication systems supporting space exploration.

19. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

2011-01-01

An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

20. Analysis of non-inductive current drive from ECCD and bootstrap on T-10

SciTech Connect

Lohr, J.; Harvey, R.W.; Luce, T.C.; Petty, C.C. ); James, R.A. ); Alikaev, V.V.; Bagdasarov, A.A.; Borshchegovsky, A.A.; Esipchuk, Y.V.; Gorelov, Y.A.; Pimenov, A.B.; Razumova, K.A.; Roi, I.N.; Trukhin, V.M.; Vasin, N.L. )

1991-10-01

The combination of electron cyclotron current drive and the bootstrap effect has produced completely non-inductively driven current of 75kA for up to 200 msec in the T-10 tokamak. At higher values of plasma current I{sub p} {approximately} 175kA, I{sub p} {ge} 60kA was maintained by ECCD. These experiments have been modeled with the coupled ray training and transport codes TORAY and ONETWO. Within the uncertainties in the experimental data, the calculations show that the sum of bootstrap and ECCD substantially exceeded the net programmed plasma current. 2 figs.

1. Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR

SciTech Connect

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R.; Vogtlin, G.

1981-01-01

The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.

2. Computing pKa Values with a Mixing Hamiltonian Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Approach.

PubMed

Liu, Yang; Fan, Xiaoli; Jin, Yingdi; Hu, Xiangqian; Hu, Hao

2013-09-10

Accurate computation of the pKa value of a compound in solution is important but challenging. Here, a new mixing quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) Hamiltonian method is developed to simulate the free-energy change associated with the protonation/deprotonation processes in solution. The mixing Hamiltonian method is designed for efficient quantum mechanical free-energy simulations by alchemically varying the nuclear potential, i.e., the nuclear charge of the transforming nucleus. In pKa calculation, the charge on the proton is varied in fraction between 0 and 1, corresponding to the fully deprotonated and protonated states, respectively. Inspired by the mixing potential QM/MM free energy simulation method developed previously [H. Hu and W. T. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 041102], this method succeeds many advantages of a large class of λ-coupled free-energy simulation methods and the linear combination of atomic potential approach. Theory and technique details of this method, along with the calculation results of the pKa of methanol and methanethiol molecules in aqueous solution, are reported. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

3. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter Ka-band system design and operations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noreen, Gary; Komarek, Tomas; Diehl, Roger; Shambayati, Shervin; Breidenthal, Julian; Lopez, Saturnino; Jordan, Frank

2003-01-01

NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) will relay broadband communications from landers, rovers and spacecraft in the vicinity of Mars to Earth. This paper describes the MTO communications system and how the MTO Ka-band system will be operated.

4. The Mars Observer Ka-band link experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rebold, T. A.; Kwok, A.; Wood, G. E.; Butman, S.

1994-01-01

The Ka-Band Link Experiment was the first demonstration of a deep-space communications link in the 32- to 35-GHz band (Ka-band). It was carried out using the Mars Observer spacecraft while the spacecraft was in the cruise phase of its mission and using a 34-meter beam-waveguide research and development antenna at the Goldstone complex of the DSN. The DSN has been investigating the performance benefits of a shift from X-band (8.4 GHz) to Ka-band (32 GHz) for deep-space communications. The fourfold increase in frequency is expected to offer a factor of 3 to 10 improvement (5 to 10 dB) in signal strength for a given spacecraft transmitter power and antenna size. Until recently, the expected benefits were based on performance studies, with an eye to implementing such a link, but theory was transformed to reality when a 33.7-GHz Ka-band signal was received from the spacecraft by DSS 13. This article describes the design and implementation of the Ka-Band Link Experiment from the spacecraft to the DSS-13 system, as well as results from the Ka-band telemetry demonstration, ranging demonstration, and long-term tracking experiment. Finally, a preliminary analysis of comparative X- and Ka-band tracking results is included. These results show a 4- to 7-dB advantage for Ka-band using the system at DSS 13, assuming such obstacles as antenna pointing loss and power conversion loss are overcome.

5. Linear Accelerators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sidorin, Anatoly

2010-01-01

In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

6. pH dependencies of the Tetrahymena ribozyme reveal an unconventional origin of an apparent pKa.

PubMed

Knitt, D S; Herschlag, D

1996-02-06

The L-21 ScaI ribozyme derived from the Tetrahymena thermophila pre-rRNA group I intron catalyzes a site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA, DNA, and chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides: CCCUCUA5 + G-->CCCUCU + GA5. The pH-rate dependence was determined for the reaction of the E.G complex with the oligonucleotide substrate d(CCCUC)r(U)d(A5) [(kcat/Km)S conditions]. Although it was shown that the pH dependence is not affected by specific buffers, there is inhibition by specific monovalent cations. The intrinsic pH-rate dependence is log-linear with slope 1 below pH 7, displays an apparent pKa of 7.6, remains nearly level until pH 8.5, and then begins to fall. Two models to explain the apparent pKa were ruled out: (1) the pKa represents loss of a proton from the nucleophilic 3' OH of G, and (2) the pKa arises from a change in rate-limiting step from a pH-dependent to a pH-independent step. In addition, these models, or others involving a single titration, cannot account for the decrease in activity at high pH. A third, unconventional, model is consistent with all of the data. It involves inactivation of the ribozyme by any of several independent titrations of groups with pKa values considerably higher than the apparent pKa of 7.6. The data are consistent with loss of catalytic function upon release of a proton from any one of 19 independent sites with pKa = 9.4 (the unperturbed pKa of N1 of G and N3 of U in solution). Independent experiments investigating the effect of pH on different reaction steps supported this model and suggested the identity of some of the required protons. This mechanism of inactivation is expected to generally affect the behavior of RNAs at pH values removed from the pKa of the titrating bases.

7. Coaxial Redundant Drives

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brissette, R.

1983-01-01

Harmonic drives allow redundancy and high out put torque in small package. If main drive fails, standby drive takes over and produces torque along same axis as main drive. Uses include power units in robot for internal pipeline inspection, manipulators in deep submersible probes or other applications in which redundancy protects against costly failures.

8. An 85-ka Paleoclimate Record From Lowland Central America

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Escobar, J.; Hodell, D. A.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Gilli, A.; Grzesik, D. A.; Guilderson, T. J.; Müller, A. D.; Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Kutterolf, S.

2008-05-01

Lake sediment cores recovered at seven sites in Lake Peten Itza, northern Guatemala, contain a record of climate change from lowland Central America extending back to ~200 ka. Drill cores at site PI-6 contain a high- resolution record (1 m/ka) for the last ~85 ka. Peten climate generally varied between wetter conditions during interstadials and a drier state during stadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. The most arid periods coincided with Heinrich Events in the North Atlantic and reductions in the strength of meridional overturning circulation. The pattern of clay-gypsum (wet-dry) oscillations during MIS 3 closely resembles the temperature record from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic marine sediment cores and precipitation proxies from the Cariaco Basin. Previous studies suggested that cool, dry conditions prevailed in the region during the last glacial maximum (LGM) chronozone, ~23 to 18 ka BP. Sedimentologic and palynologic data support a moist climate in the Peten lowlands during this period whenvegetation consisted of a temperate pine-oak forest. This finding contradicts the previous inferences. At the end of the LGM, Peten climate switched abruptly from moist to arid conditions during the so-called "Mystery Period" from 18 to 14.9 ka. Moister conditions prevailed during the warmer Bolling-Allerod (14.7 to 12.8 ka), with the exception of a drier climate, with greater δ18O values between ca. 14.5 and 13.5 ka BP. This drier period in Central America coincided with Meltwater Pulse 1A (14.1- 13.5 ka) (Fairbanks et al., 2005) when a substantial volume of glacial meltwater was introduced to the Gulf of Mexico (e.g. Flower et al., 2004). The greatest δ18O values in Peten Itza occurred at 13.7 ka coinciding with the greatest rate of sea level rise (4.3 cm yr-1) at 13.9 ka. In contrast, sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions (Lea et al., 2003), color reflectance, and elemental (Fe, Ti) data (Peterson et al., 2000) from Cariaco Basin cores, north of

9. Variational full wave calculation of fast wave current drive in DIII-D using the ALCYON code

SciTech Connect

Becoulet, A.; Moreau, D.

1992-04-01

Initial fast wave current drive simulations performed with the ALCYON code for the 60 MHz DIII-D experiment are presented. Two typical shots of the 1991 summer campaign were selected with magnetic field intensities of 1 and 2 teslas respectively. The results for the wave electromagnetic field in the plasma chamber are displayed. They exhibit a strong enrichment of the poloidal mode number m-spectrum which leads to the upshift of the parallel wavenumber, {kappa}{perpendicular}, and to the wave absorption. The m-spectrum is bounded when the local poloidal wavenumber reaches the Alfven wavenumber and the {kappa}{perpendicular} upshifts do not destroy the wave directionality. Linear estimations of the driven current are made. The current density profiles are found to be peaked and we find that about 88 kA can be driven in the 1 tesla/1.7 keV phase with 1.7 MW coupled to the electrons. In the 2 tesla/3.4 keV case, 47 kA are driven with a total power of 1.5 MW, 44% of which are absorbed on the hydrogen minority, through the second harmonic ion cyclotron resonance. The global efficiency is then 0.18 {times} 10{sup 19} A m{sup {minus}2}W{sup {minus}1} if one considers only the effective power going to the electrons.

10. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

2004-01-01

Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

11. Direct-drive field actuator motors

DOEpatents

Grahn, A.R.

1995-07-11

A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor is disclosed including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 37 figs.

12. Direct-drive field actuator motors

SciTech Connect

Grahn, Allen R.

1995-01-01

A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

13. Power semiconductor controlled drives

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dubey, Gopal K.

This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

14. Wavelet Analysis of the Periodicity and Correlation of the 420-ka Temperature, Carbon Dioxide, and Methane Time Series from the Vostok Ice Core

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zhang, J.; Huang, S.

2010-12-01

A good understanding of the history of Earth’s surface temperature and the excursion of atmospheric greenhouse gas composition is of crucial importance in reasoning the course and causes of climate change. However, identifying the variation and correspondence of different climate variables has been a challenging task due to the noisy, complex, and non-linear nature of paleoclimate records. Here we use wavelet technique to revisit the 420-ka temperature, carbon dioxide, and methane records from the ice core of Vostok station in East Antarctica [Petit et al., 1999, Nature, 399, 429] for the periodicity of and the correlation among these three variables. As with many other paleoclimate records, the sampling intervals of the Vostok records are different from variable to variable and from time to time. To allow for the application of continuous Morlet wavelet transform, cross-wavelet transform, and cross-wavelet coherence techniques, all three records were interpolated into 500-year equal interval time series with a cubic polynomial interpolation scheme. All three time series demonstrate the orbital eccentricity oscillation of about 100-ka as the most significant period with a lengthening trend towards the present day. Another periodicity common to all three records is the orbital tilt period of about 41 ka. However, the about 21 ka precession period can only be identified in the methane time series in the Morlet wavelet power spectrum. Our analysis further shows that temperature, CO2, and CH4 are well correlated, whereas the linkage of temperature with CO2 is stranger than that of temperature with CH4 and CO2 with CH4. In pairwise cross-wavelet transform and cross-wavelet coherence diagrams, almost all significant sections show in-phase correlations. Generally, the fluctuations of CO2 and CH4 appear to be either in sync with or slightly led by temperature variation, although there are isolated slots of millennium scales when the temperature - greenhouse gas

15. Xen clusters in the alpha cages of zeolite KA

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jameson, Cynthia J.; Jameson, A. Keith; Gerald, Rex E., II; Lim, Hyung-Mi

1995-11-01

We have observed the individual signals of the Xen clusters (n=1-5) trapped in the alpha cages of zeolite KA. The 129Xe NMR chemical shift of each cluster in zeolite KA is larger than that of the corresponding Xen cluster in zeolite NaA. The temperature dependence of the chemical shifts of the clusters vary systematically with cluster size as they do in NaA, but the change of the temperature coefficients with n is somewhat more pronounced for Xen in the cages of KA than in NaA. The Xen chemical shifts and their variation with temperature are reproduced by the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. GCMC simulations of the distribution of the Xe atoms among the alpha cages in KA provide the fractions of cages containing n Xe atoms which agree reasonably well with the observed equilibrium distributions. The characteristics of Xe distribution and chemical shifts in KA are compared with that in NaA.

16. Ku/Ka band observations over polar ice sheets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thibaut, Pierre; Lasne, Yannick; Guillot, Amandine; Picot, Nicolas; Rémy, Frédérique

2015-04-01

For the first time, comparisons between Ku and Ka altimeter measurements are possible thanks to the new AltiKa instrument embarked onboard the Saral mission launched on February 25, 2013. This comparison is of particular interest when dealing with ice sheet observations because both frequencies have different penetration characteristics. We propose in this paper to revisit the estimation of the ice sheet topography (and other related parameters) with altimeter systems and to present illustrations of the differences observed in Ku and Ka bands using AltiKa, Envisat/RA-2 but also Cryosat-2 measurements. Working on AltiKa waveforms in the frame of the PEACHI project has allowed us to better understand the impact of the penetration depth on the echo shape, to improve the estimation algorithm and to compare its output with historical results obtained on Envisat and ERS missions. In particular, analyses at cross-overs of the Cryosat-2 and Saral data will be presented. Sentinel-3 mission should be launch during 2015. Operating in Ku band and in delay/doppler mode, it will be crucial to account for penetration effects in order to accurately derive the ice sheet heights and trends. The results of the work presented here, will benefit to the Sentinel-3 mission.

17. Ocular disease and driving.

PubMed

Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A

2016-09-01

As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment resulting from ocular disease will increase given the age-related prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. This review summarises current research regarding the impact of common ocular diseases on driving ability and safety, with particular focus on cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, hemianopia and diabetic retinopathy. The evidence considered includes self-reported driving outcomes, driving performance (on-road and simulator-based) and various motor vehicle crash indices. Collectively, this review demonstrates that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular disease; however, further research is needed in this area. Older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits.

18. Dementia and driving

MedlinePlus

... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on this page, ... their independence is being taken away. Signs That Driving May No Longer be Safe People with signs ...

19. Safe driving for teens

MedlinePlus

... gov/pubmed/25837240 . Simons-Morton B, Ouimet MC. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16788109 . Simons-Morton B. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: rationale, evidence of effects, ...

20. High Harmonic Fast Wave heating and current drive for NSTX

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robinson, J. A.; Majeski, R.; Hosea, J.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J.; Batchelor, D. B.; Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.; Mau, T. K.; Chiu, S. C.; Smithe, D.

1997-11-01

Heating and noninductive current drive in NSTX will initially use 6 MW of rf power in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime. We present numerical modelling of HHFW heating and current drive in NSTX using the PICES, CURRAY, FISIC, and METS95 codes. High electron β during the discharge flattop in NSTX is predicted to result in off-axis power deposition and current drive. However, reductions in the trapped electron fraction (due also to high β effects) are predicted to result in adequate current drive efficiency, with ~ 400 - 500 kA of noninductive current driven. Sufficient per-pass absorption (>10%) to ensure effective electron heating is also expected for the startup plasma. Present plans call for a single twelve strap antenna driven by six FMIT transmitters operating at 30 MHz. The design for the antenna and matching system will also be discussed.

1. Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

1991-01-01

In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

2. Gear bearing drive

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

3. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

2012-01-01

The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

4. Magnetic drive coupling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carter, Edward L. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

The driving and driven members of a magnetic drive are separated by en enlarged gap to provide clearance for a conduit or other member. Flux pins in the gap maintain the torque transmitting capability of the drive. The spacing between two of the flux pins is increased to provide space for the conduit.

5. Grieving while Driving

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rosenblatt, Paul C.

2004-01-01

Secondary analysis of data from 84 people in 2 interview studies shows that some bereaved people grieve actively while driving. The grief can be intense, even years after a death. Grief while driving may erupt spontaneously or be set off by a wide range of reminders. Some bereaved people seem to save their grieving for times when they drive,…

6. X-/Ka-Band Dichroic Plate Noise Temperature Reduction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

1994-07-01

The X-/Ka-band (8.4-GHz/32.0-GHz) dichroic plate installed at DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be refocused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

7. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

1994-11-01

The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

8. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

1994-01-01

The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

9. Screening and Isolation of Penicillinase Inhibitor, KA-107

PubMed Central

Iwai, Y.; Ohno, H.; Takeshima, H.; Yamaguchi, N.; Ōmura, S.; Hata, T.

1973-01-01

It is known that penicillin resistance of bacteria is mainly caused by the inactivation of penicillin by penicillinase derived from such strains. We have developed a screening procedure for penicillinase inhibitors. Several microorganisms were found to produce such inhibitors, and from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces gedanensis ATCC 4880 a penicillinase inhibitor, named KA-107, was isolated. The characteristics of this inhibitor were revealed by an in vitro test by using penicillinase derived from penicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, FS-1277. When KA-107 was used in combination with penicillin-G, ampicillin, d- or l-phenethicillin, the growth inhibitory activity of these penicillins was maintained. PMID:4202340

10. A linear magnetic motor and generator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studer, P. A.

1980-01-01

In linear magnetic motor and generator suitable for remote and hostile environments, magnetic forces drive reciprocating shaft along its axis. Actuator shaft is located in center of cylindrical body and may be supported by either contacting or noncontacting bearings. When device operates as bidirectional motor, drive coil selectively adds and subtracts magnetic flux to and from flux paths, producing forces that drive actuator along axis. When actuator is driven by external reciprocating engine, device becomes ac generator.

11. Pollen-climate relationships in time (9 ka, 6 ka, 0 ka) and space (upland vs. lowland) in eastern continental Asia

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tian, Fang; Cao, Xianyong; Dallmeyer, Anne; Zhao, Yan; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

2017-01-01

Temporal and spatial stability of the vegetation-climate relationship is a basic ecological assumption for pollen-based quantitative inferences of past climate change and for predicting future vegetation. We explore this assumption for the Holocene in eastern continental Asia (China, Mongolia). Boosted regression trees (BRT) between fossil pollen taxa percentages (Abies, Artemisia, Betula, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Ephedra, Picea, Pinus, Poaceae and Quercus) and climate model outputs of mean annual precipitation (Pann) and mean temperature of the warmest month (Mtwa) for 9 and 6 ka (ka = thousand years before present) were set up and results compared to those obtained from relating modern pollen to modern climate. Overall, our results reveal only slight temporal differences in the pollen-climate relationships. Our analyses suggest that the importance of Pann compared with Mtwa for taxa distribution is higher today than it was at 6 ka and 9 ka. In particular, the relevance of Pann for Picea and Pinus increases and has become the main determinant. This change in the climate-tree pollen relationship parallels a widespread tree pollen decrease in north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We assume that this is at least partly related to vegetation-climate disequilibrium originating from human impact. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration may have permitted the expansion of moisture-loving herb taxa (Cyperaceae and Poaceae) during the late Holocene into arid/semi-arid areas. We furthermore find that the pollen-climate relationship between north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau is generally similar, but that regional differences are larger than temporal differences. In summary, vegetation-climate relationships in China are generally stable in space and time, and pollen-based climate reconstructions can be applied to the Holocene. Regional differences imply the calibration-set should be restricted spatially.

12. Syncope and Driving.

PubMed

Guzman, Juan C; Morillo, Carlos A

2015-08-01

The occurrence of syncope while driving has obvious implications for personal and public safety. Neurally mediated syncope is the most common type of syncope in general and, thereby, also while driving. The presence of structural heart disease (reduced ejection fraction, previous myocardial infarction, significant congenital heart disease) potentially leads to high risk and should determine driving restrictions pending clarification of underlying heart disease and etiology of syncope. The clinical approach to syncope evaluation and recommendations for driving should not differ, whether or not the syncopal spell occurred while driving.

13. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

DOEpatents

Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

1959-02-17

Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

14. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

2013-01-01

A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

15. Drill drive mechanism

DOEpatents

Dressel, Michael O.

1979-01-01

A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

16. Precision magnetic suspension linear bearing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trumper, David L.; Queen, Michael A.

1992-01-01

We have shown the design and analyzed the electromechanics of a linear motor suitable for independently controlling two suspension degrees of freedom. This motor, at least on paper, meets the requirements for driving an X-Y stage of 10 Kg mass with about 4 m/sq sec acceleration, with travel of several hundred millimeters in X and Y, and with reasonable power dissipation. A conceptual design for such a stage is presented. The theoretical feasibility of linear and planar bearings using single or multiple magnetic suspension linear motors is demonstrated.

17. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

PubMed Central

Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

2012-01-01

Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51–46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ∼63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic–modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ∼50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

18. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

SciTech Connect

Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

2004-11-01

New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

19. Cassini Downlink Ka-Band Carrier Signal Analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morabito, D. D.; Kahan, D.; Oudrhiri, K.; Lee, C.-A.

2017-02-01

Lower frequency telemetry bands are becoming more limited in bandwidth with more competition between flight projects and other entities. Higher frequency bands offer significantly more bandwidth and hence the prospect of much higher data rates. Future or prospective flight projects considering Ka-band (32-GHz) telemetry data links are interested in past flight experience with received Ka-band data. Over 10 years of Cassini closed-loop received Ka-band carrier data involving over 2 million individual measurements were acquired at all three Deep Space Network (DSN) sites. We analyzed these data to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis, we have derived a recommendation for telecommunications link margin for preflight planning purposes. These results suggest that a 4-dB margin will ensure a 94 percent data return at a minimum 20-deg elevation angle under 90 percent weather conditions at 32 GHz (Ka-band).

20. Experimental radio frequency link for Ka-band communications applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fujikawa, Gene; Conray, Martin J.; Saunders, Alan L.; Pope, Dale E.

1988-01-01

An experimental radio frequency link has been demonstrated to provide two-way communication between a remote user ground terminal and a ground-based Ka-band transponder. Bit-error-rate performance and radio frequency characteristics of the communication link were investigated.

1. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka.

PubMed

Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

2012-09-04

Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51-46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ~63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic-modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ~50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia.

2. Induction linear accelerators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birx, Daniel

1992-03-01

Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

3. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

DOEpatents

Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

1988-01-01

A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

4. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

DOEpatents

Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

1988-06-07

A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

5. Marihuana and driving.

PubMed

Moskowitz, H

1985-08-01

A review was performed of the marihuana and driving literature, both epidemiological and experimental. It was noted that epidemiological studies face considerable difficulties in obtaining estimates of risks involved for drivers utilizing marihuana due to the rapid decline in blood levels of tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, experimental studies examining the relationship between administered marihuana dose and performance have identified many driving-related areas as exhibiting impairment. Areas impaired include coordination, tracking, perception, vigilance and performance in both driving simulators and on the road. Other behavioral areas of lesser importance for driving also exhibited evidence of impairment by marihuana. Areas for further research are suggested.

6. Calibration of the radiocarbon time scale at 37ka BP

SciTech Connect

Southon, J.R.; Deino, A.L.; Orsi, G.

1995-12-01

Results from radiocarbon and U-Th measurements on corals have provided a radiocarbon calibration beyond the range covered by tree ring series, but the uncertainties in the measurements beyond 20ka BP are very large. We have obtained new calibration data from radiocarbon dates on material associated with the catastrophic Campanian Ignimbrite eruption from the Phlegrean Fields near Naples. The eruption has been well dated by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar to 37ka BP. Radiocarbon measurements were carried out on charcoal from a carbonized branch exposed within the ignimbrite tuff on the wall of an active quarry. The sample was split and analyzed at both the Naples and Lawrence Livermore AMS facilities. The offset between the Ar-Ar data and the radiocarbon results (recalculated using the true 5730-year half life for {sup 14}C) is consistent with predictions from paleomagnetic data and carbon cycle modeling.

7. EUReKA! A Conceptual Model of Emotion Understanding.

PubMed

Castro, Vanessa L; Cheng, Yanhua; Halberstadt, Amy G; Grühn, Daniel

2016-07-01

The field of emotion understanding is replete with measures, yet lacks an integrated conceptual organizing structure. To identify and organize skills associated with the recognition and knowledge of emotions, and to highlight the focus of emotion understanding as localized in the self, in specific others, and in generalized others, we introduce the conceptual framework of Emotion Understanding in Recognition and Knowledge Abilities (EUReKA). We then categorize fifty-six existing methods of emotion understanding within this framework to highlight current gaps and future opportunities in assessing emotion understanding across the lifespan. We hope the EUReKA model provides a systematic and integrated framework for conceptualizing and measuring emotion understanding for future research.

8. Ka-band MMIC arrays for ACTS Aero Terminal Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raquet, C.; Zakrajsek, R.; Lee, R.; Turtle, J.

1992-01-01

An antenna system consisting of three experimental Ka-band active arrays using GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification is presented. The MMIC arrays are to be demonstrated in the ACTS Aeronautical Terminal Experiment, planned for early 1994. The experiment is outlined, with emphasis on a description of the antenna system. Attention is given to the way in which proof-of-concept MMIC arrays featuring three different state-of-the-art approaches to Ka-band MMIC insertion are being incorporated into an experimental aircraft terminal for the demonstration of an aircraft-to-satellite link, providing a basis for follow-on MMIC array development.

9. T-Slide Linear Actuators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vranish, John

2009-01-01

T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off

10. Piezoelectric drive circuit

DOEpatents

Treu, C.A. Jr.

1999-08-31

A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

11. Piezoelectric drive circuit

DOEpatents

Treu, Jr., Charles A.

1999-08-31

A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

12. Electric vehicles: Driving range

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kempton, Willett

2016-09-01

For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

13. Interim Findings of ACTS Ka-Band Propagation Campaign

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Golshan, N.

1997-01-01

The ACTS propagation campaign is focusing on two broad areas: 1) Rain/signal attenuation data collection at seven sites in North America, 2) Theoretical and empirical consideratons for a global model to predict first & second order temporal and spatial statistics on attenuation, scintillation, conherence bandwidth, and depolarization due to weather (precipitation and atmospheric including interaction of weather with the antenna) for satellite systems at Ka-band.

14. Rain Fade Compensation Alternatives for Ka Band Communication Satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acosta, Roberto J.

1997-01-01

Future satellite communications systems operating in Ka-band frequency band are subject to degradation produced by the troposphere which is much more severe than those found at lower frequency bands. These impairments include signal absorption by rain, clouds and gases, and amplitude scintillation's arising from refractive index irregularities. For example, rain attenuation at 20 GHz is almost three times that at 11 GHz. Although some of these impairments can be overcome by oversizing the ground station antennas and high power amplifiers, the current trend is using small (less than 20 inches apertures), low-cost ground stations (less than 1000) that can be easily deployed at user premises. As a consequence, most Ka-band systems are expected to employ different forms of fade mitigation that can be implemented relatively easily and at modest cost. The rain fade mitigation approaches are defined by three types of Ka-band communications systems - a low service rate (less than 1.5 Mb/s), a moderate service rate (1.5 to 6 Mb/s) system and a high service rate (greater than 43 Mb/s) system. The ACTS VSAT network, which includes an adaptive rain fade technique, is an example of a moderate service rate. 15. X/Ka Celestial Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Jacobs, C. S.; Bagri, D. S.; Britcliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; Navarro, R.; Rogstad, S. P.; Proctor, R. C.; Sigman, E. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Soriano, M. A.; Sovers, O. J.; Tucker, B. C.; Wang, D.; White, L. A. 2010-01-01 In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame. 16. X/Ka Celestial Reference Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Jacobs, Christopher S.; Bagri, D. S.; Brticliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; García-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; Navarro, R.; Rogstad, S. P.; Proctor, R. C.; Skjerve, L. J.; Soriano, M. A.; Sovers, O. J.; Tucker, B. C.; Wang, D.; White, L. A. 2010-12-01 In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame. 17. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period PubMed Central Vincent, Patrick; Steunou, Nathalie; Caubet, Eric; Phalippou, Laurent; Rey, Laurent; Thouvenot, Eric; Verron, Jacques 2006-01-01 This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has been studied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories. Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be made sustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and GMES (Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security) programs. A short review of some mission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of the GEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, the approach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-band altimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain how this payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expected performances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flight perspectives are given. 18. Driving the Landscape NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Haff, P. K. 2012-12-01 Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired 19. Driving and dementia PubMed Central Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank 2017-01-01 Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with an approach to driving safety concerns when older persons present with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinic. Main message One of the most challenging aspects of dementia care is the assessment of driving safety. Drivers with dementia are at higher risk of motor vehicle collisions, yet many drivers with mild dementia might be safely able to continue driving for several years. Because safe driving is dependent on multiple cognitive and functional skills, clinicians should carefully consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns affect driving safety. Specific findings on corroborated history and office-based cognitive testing might aid in the physician’s decisions to refer for comprehensive on-road driving evaluation and whether to notify transportation authorities in accordance with provincial reporting requirements. Sensitive communication and a person-centred approach are essential. Conclusion Primary care physicians must consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns might affect driving safety in older drivers. PMID:28115437 20. LINEAR ACCELERATOR DOEpatents Colgate, S.A. 1958-05-27 An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam. 1. Drive System Research NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Handschuh, Robert F. 2007-01-01 An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Drive Systems Research will be presented. The primary purpose of this research is to improve performance, reliability, and integrity of aerospace drive systems and space mechanisms. The research is conducted through a combination of in-house, academia, and through contractors. Research is conducted through computer code development and validated through component and system testing. The drive system activity currently has four major thrust areas including: thermal behavior of high speed gearing, health and usage monitoring, advanced components, and space mechanisms. 2. Vision and Driving PubMed Central Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald 2010-01-01 Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907 3. The Test Drive NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 2004-01-01 This image taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory shows engineers rehearsing the sol 133 (June 8, 2004) drive into 'Endurance' crater by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Engineers and scientists have recreated the martian surface and slope the rover will encounter using a combination of bare and thinly sand-coated rocks, simulated martian 'blueberries' and a platform tilted at a 25-degree angle. The results of this test convinced engineers that the rover was capable of driving up and down a straight slope before it attempted the actual drive on Mars. 4. Fast wave current drive SciTech Connect Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H. 1985-07-01 Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities. 5. COAXIAL CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS DOEpatents Fox, R.J.; Oakes, L.C. 1959-04-14 A drive mechanism is presented for the control rod or a nuclear reactor. In this device the control rod is coupled to a drive shaft which extends coaxially through the rotor of an electric motor for relative rotation with respect thereto. A gear reduction mehanism is coupled between the rotor and the drive shaft to convert the rotary motion of the motor into linear motion of the shaft with a comparatively great reduction in speed, thereby providing relatively glow linear movement of the shaft and control rod for control purposes. 6. Past climate variability between 97 and 7 ka reconstructed from a multi proxy speleothem record from Western Cuba NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Winterhalder, Sophie; Scholz, Denis; Mangini, Augusto; Spötl, Christoph; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Pajón, Jesús M. 2016-04-01 The tropical hydrological cycle plays a key role in regulating global climate, mainly through the export of heat and moisture to higher latitudes, and is highly sensitive to climate change, for instance due to changes in the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Previous work on Caribbean stalagmites suggests a strong connection of precipitation variability to North Atlantic (NA) sea surface temperatures on multidecadal to millenial timescales (Fensterer et al., 2012; Fensterer et al., 2013; Winter et al., 2011). Cold phases in the NA potentially lead to a southward shift of the ITCZ and thus drier conditions in Cuba. On orbital timescales, Cuban stalagmites suggest a relation of speleothem δ18O values with the δ18O value of Caribbean surface waters (Fensterer et al., 2013). Here we present an expansion of the Cuban speleothem record covering the whole last glacial period from the end of MIS5c (97 ka BP) until 7 ka with hiatuses between 93-80 ka, 37-35 ka and 13-10 ka. Stalagmite Cuba medio (CM) has been precisely dated with 60 230Th/U-ages, mainly performed by the MC-ICPMS technique. The δ18O and δ13C records are completed by a continuous, high resolution LA-ICPMS trace element profile. These data allow for the first time to establish a multi-proxy climate reconstruction for the North Western Caribbean at decadal to centennial resolution for this period. The long-term variability of the δ18O values probably reflects rainfall amount in Cuba. The response to some Dansgaard/Oeschger and Heinrich stadials confirms the previously observed correlation between Caribbean and NA climate variability. However, this connection is not clearly imprinted throughout the record. Furthermore, trace elements, such as Mg, do not proof without ambiguity drier conditions in Cuba during NA cold events, such as the Heinrich stadials. This suggests that climate variability in Cuba was more complex during the last 100ka, and that the NA was not the only driving factor 7. Linear Clouds NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 2006-01-01 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. 8. Acid-leachable Li and Mg from Lake Cuitzeo sediments in the central Mexico: Paleoclimate change during the past 45 Ka NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Li, H.; Alcantara, I. I.; Bischoff, J. L.; Wen, D.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H. 2009-12-01 Located in Michoacán state of south-central Mexico (19°56’N, 101°5’W), Lake Cuitzeo is an alkaline lake with an area of ~400 km2, average depth of 27m and elevation of 1821m. A 27-m long core was retrieved from the lake, covering about 127-kyr depositional history. The chronology of the upper 9.2m of the core has been reconstructed by radiocarbon dates, showing a continuous deposition during the past 45 Ka. Using 0.5N HCl for leaching the de-ionized water washed lake sediments, we have measured the acid-leachable (AL) elements including Na, K, Li, Mg and Si by ICP-OES. Comparing to the total Si content in bulk sediments ranging from 10 to 40 wt.% with an average of 25.2 ± 4.3 wt.%, the AL Si ranges from 0.064 to 0.375 wt.% with an average of 0.253 ± 0.048 wt.%. The AL Mg content has strongly linear correlation with the total Mg content in the bulk sediments, but accounts for ~55% of the total Mg content. When the carbonate content in the sediment is greater than 10%, the weight loss by the acid-leaching is mainly from dissolution of carbonate. In addition, when the AL Mg is less than 1%, AL Li and AL Mg appear strongly linear correlation. Thus, the AL Li and Mg contents are mainly from authigenic minerals formed in the lake, such as carbonate and sepiolite. When Mg was used up in the lake due to precipitation of carbonate and sepiolite, Li will substitute in sepiolite under the hyper saline and alkaline lake conditions. Therefore, AL Li and Mg contents in the lake sediments can be used as indicators of lake hydrological change under different climatic conditions. High CaCO3%, Li and Mg contents in the periods of 2~12Ka, 19~24Ka, 28~31Ka, 33~34Ka, 35~38Ka and 43~45Ka, indicate higher salinity and alkalinity of the lake hence lower lake levels might be caused by dry and/or warm climates. During 12~20Ka, the lake was relatively fresh and deeper, reflecting cold but wet climatic conditions due to jet stream shifted south during LGM. 9. Determination of pKa values of organic bases in aqueous acetonitrile solutions using capillary electrophoresis. PubMed Buckenmaier, Stephan M C; McCalley, David V; Euerby, Melvin R 2003-07-04 Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the determination of ionisation constants (pKa) of a variety of organic bases in aqueous acetonitrile solutions over the range 0-60% (v/v) acetonitrile. These bases are used as test compounds in HPLC column evaluation, thus knowledge of their pKa in hydro-organic solutions is useful. The base pKa decreased with acetonitrile concentration and significant shifts from the aqueous pKa (up to -0.8) were found using 60% acetonitrile. The CE application was confirmed to be very suitable for fast and accurate pKa measurement in aqueous organic solutions. 10. [Driving and Alzheimer's disease]. PubMed Roche, Jean 2005-09-01 Although most aged people remain safe drivers, a greater risk for crashes due to medical conditions is observed in the elderly. Impairment of important functions for safe driving such as visuospatial skills, attention, memory and judgement are observed in dementia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease. The accident rate increases from 9.4 accidents per million vehicle kilometers traveled for 80 to 85 year-old drivers, but raises to 163.6 for drivers with moderate AD. Patients and their families should be informed that patients with mild dementia related to Alzheimer's disease (stage 1 on the Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR), have a substantially increased rate of traffic accidents and therefore should not drive. But subjects in the pre-dementia phase (stage 0.5 at the CDR, mild cognitive impairment) also pose significant driving safety problems. In most States of the USA, and many European countries, but not in France, law requires regular investigating of driving performance in the elderly. 11. [Driving and aging]. PubMed Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida 2010-01-01 The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries. 12. Control rod drive SciTech Connect Hawke, Basil C. 1986-01-01 A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core. 13. Assessment: A Driving Force. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Rakow, Steven J. 1992-01-01 Asserts that educational assessment drives the curriculum. Thus, assessment is very important in contemplating reform in science education. Assessment should be an integral part of the instructional process, utilizing diagnostic testing, monitoring, and summative evaluations. (PR) 14. Celestial Reference Frame at X/KA-Band (8.4/32 GHz) for Deep Space Navigation NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Snedeker, L. G.; Sotuela, I. 2012-10-01 Deep space tracking and navigation are done in a quasi-inertial reference frame based upon the angular positions of distant active galactic nuclei (AGN). These objects, which are found at extreme distances characterized by median redshifts of z = 1, are ideal for reference frame definition because they exhibit no measurable parallax or proper motion. They are thought to be powered by super massive black holes whose gravitational energy drives galactic sized relativistic jets. These jets produce synchrotron emissions which are detectable by modern radio techniques such as Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI). We have constructed a reference frame based on sixty seven X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) VLBI observing sessions (2005 to present), each of ∼24 hours duration, using the intercontinental baselines of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN): Goldstone, California to Madrid, Spain and Canberra, Australia. We detected 482 sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of 460 X/Ka sources in common with the international standard ICRF2 at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) shows wRMS agreement of 180 μas in RA cos(dec) and 270 μas in Dec. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of phase calibration, troposphere mismodelling, and limited southern geometry. Compared to S/X-band frames (e.g. ICRF2 (Ma et al, 2009)), X/Ka-band allows access to more compact source morphology and reduced core shift. Both these improvements allow for a more well-defined and stable reference frame at X/Ka-band. In the next decade, the optically-based Gaia mission (Lindegren, 2008) may produce a frame with competitive precision. By accurately registering radio frames with Gaia, we could study wavelength dependent systematic errors. A simulated frame tie between our X/Ka radio frame and the Gaia optical frame predicts a frame tie precision of 10-15 μas (1-σ, per 3-D rotation component) with 15. Linear Proof Mass Actuator NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Holloway, Sidney E., III 1994-01-01 This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The linear proof mass actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (mass, upper housing, lower housing, and center support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operating testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions. 16. Linear Proof Mass Actuator NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Holloway, S. E., III 1995-01-01 This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The Linear Proof Mass Actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (Mass, Upper Housing, Lower Housing, and Center Support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operational testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions. 17. CONTROL ROD DRIVE DOEpatents Chapellier, R.A. 1960-05-24 BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod. 18. Common drive unit NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A. 1987-01-01 The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed. 19. Direct drive wind turbine DOEpatents Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel 2006-07-11 A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower. 20. Direct drive wind turbine DOEpatents Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel 2007-02-27 A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower. 1. Direct drive wind turbine DOEpatents Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel 2006-09-19 A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower. 2. Direct drive wind turbine DOEpatents Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel 2006-10-10 A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower. 3. Electric Drive Study DTIC Science & Technology 1987-03-01 Track-Laying Combat Vehicles , and (3) Parametric Study of Electric Drive Component Technologies. The technology survey results are given in a separate...and projections of future electric drive system improvements relative to combat vehicle applications. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...273 5.7.2.3.1 DC Homopolar Drum Machine, Design and Performance 5-278 APPENDIX A 19.5 TON AND 40.0 TON VEHICLE SPECIFICATION APPENDIX B ELECTRIC 4. Self-driving carsickness. PubMed Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E 2016-03-01 This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. 5. Dementia and driving. PubMed O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K 1992-04-01 Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed. 6. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Acord, J. D. 1965-01-01 Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads. 7. Determination of pKa of felodipine using UV-Visible spectroscopy NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Pandey, M. M.; Jaipal, A.; Kumar, A.; Malik, R.; Charde, S. Y. 2013-11-01 In the present study, for the first time, experimental pKa value of felodipine is reported. Dissociation constant, pKa, is one of the very important physicochemical properties of drugs. It is of paramount significance from the perspective of pharmaceutical analysis and dosage form design. The method used for the pKa determination of felodipine was essentially a UV-Visible spectrophotometric method. The spectrophotometric method for the pKa determination was opted by acknowledging the established fact that spectrophotometric determination of pKa produces most precise values. The pKa of felodipine was found to be 5.07. Furthermore, the ruggedness of the determined value is also validated in this study in order to produce exact pKa of the felodipine. 8. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook SciTech Connect Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K 2012-03-06 The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate. 9. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Wenger, J.; Guettich, U. 1993-06-01 Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively. 10. Four-Way Ka-Band Power Combiner NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Perez, Raul; Li, Samuel 2007-01-01 A waveguide structure for combining the outputs of four amplifiers operating at 35 GHz (Ka band) is based on a similar prior structure used in the X band. The structure is designed to function with low combining loss and low total reflected power at a center frequency of 35 GHz with a 160 MHz bandwidth. The structure (see figure) comprises mainly a junction of five rectangular waveguides in a radial waveguide. The outputs of the four amplifiers can be coupled in through any four of the five waveguide ports. Provided that these four signals are properly phased, they combine and come out through the fifth waveguide port. 11. Ka-band mobile and personal systems development at JPL NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Dessouky, K.; Estabrook, P.; Jedrey, T.; Sue, M. K. 1991-01-01 Expanding the commercial applications of space is one of the primary goals of NASA. Throughout the eighties NASA has pursued this objective by sponsoring and undertaking the development of system concepts, enabling high risk technologies, and actual proof of concept demonstration hardware. In the mobile and personal arena, or the so-called low data rate applications area, JPL is NASA's lead center. JPL's focus of activities has been the Mobile Satellite-Experiment (MSAT-X) project, which developed mobile communication technologies at L-band, and its present successors, which aim to expand the mobile arena by exploiting Ka-band. 12. Mental workload and driving PubMed Central Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine 2014-01-01 The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678 13. K/Ka-band channel characterization for mobile satellite systems NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Pinck, Deborah S.; Rice, Michael D. 1995-01-01 Mobile satellite systems allow truly ubiquitous wireless communications to users anywhere and anytime. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an ideal space-based platform for the measurement of K/Ka band propagation characteristics in a land mobile satellite application. Field tests conducted in Southern California during the first seven months of 1994 using JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) provided channel characterization data for the K/Ka-band link. A pilot tone was transmitted from a fixed station in Cleveland, Ohio through the satellite and downlinked at 20 GHz in the Southern California spot beam. The AMT was equipped with a narrow beam, high gain antenna which tracked the satellite in azimuth for a fixed elevation angle (46 degrees for this case). The field tests were conducted in three basic environments: clear line-of-sight (LOS) highways, lightly shadowed suburban, and heavily shadowed suburban. Preliminary results of these field tests indicate very little multipath for rural environments and for clear LOS links (as expected with a narrow beam antenna). Deep fades were experienced in shadowed areas, especially those where tree canopies covered the road. 14. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Pfotenhauer, M. J. Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model. 15. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Marten, H.; Koenig, T. 2010-04-01 The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa. 16. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE ... Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE NEAR BUILDING 80 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA 17. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha 2006-01-01 Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are… 18. Driving anger in Malaysia. PubMed Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Yong, Michelle 2014-10-01 The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures. 19. Electron Cyclotron / Bernstein Wave Heating and Current Drive Experiments using Phased-array Antenna in QUEST SciTech Connect Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Yoshida, N.; Watanebe, H.; Tokunaga, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Sakaguchi, M.; Kalinnikova, E.; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S. 2011-12-23 The phased-array antenna system for Electron Cyclotron/Bernstein Wave Heating and Current Drive experiments has been developed in the QUEST. The antenna was designed to excite a pure O-mode wave in the oblique injection for the O-X-B mode conversion experiments, and its good performances were confirmed at a low power level. The plasma current (<{approx}15 kA) with an aspect ratio of 1.5 was started up and sustained by only RF injection in the low-density operations. The long pulse discharge of 10 kA was also attained for 37 s. The new density window to sustain the plasma current was observed in the high-density plasmas. The single-null divertor configuration with the high plasma current (<{approx}25 kA) was attained in the 17 s plasma sustainment. 20. U.S. DRIVE SciTech Connect 2012-03-16 U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure. 1. Ceramic vane drive joint DOEpatents Smale, Charles H. 1981-01-01 A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot. 2. Organic magnetoresistance under resonant ac drive NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Roundy, R. C.; Raikh, M. E. 2013-09-01 Motivated by a recent experiment, we develop a theory of organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) in the presence of a resonant ac drive. To this end, we perform a thorough analysis of the dynamics of ac-driven electron-hole polaron pair in magnetic field, which is a sum of external and random hyperfine fields. Resonant ac drive affects the OMAR by modifying the singlet content of the eigenmodes. This, in turn, leads to the change of recombination rate, and ultimately, to the change of the spin-blocking that controls the current. Our analysis demonstrates that, upon increasing the drive amplitude, the blocking eigenmodes of the triplet type acquire a singlet admixture and become unblocking. Most surprisingly, the opposite process goes in parallel: new blocking modes emerge from nonblocking precursors as the drive increases. These emergent blocking modes are similar to subradiant modes in the Dicke effect. A nontrivial evolution of eigenmodes translates into a nontrivial behavior of OMAR with the amplitude of the ac drive: it is initially linear, then passes through a maximum, drops, and finally saturates. 3. CONTROL ROD DRIVE DOEpatents Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I. 1961-06-27 Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation. 4. The 8.2 ka event in the northern Alps NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Müller, W.; Spötl, C. 2012-04-01 The 8.2 ka event has been identified as a widespread climate excursion affecting most of the Northern Hemisphere. High-resolution records from ice cores and speleothems constrain the chronology of this event to between 8.21±0.02 and 8.08±0.03 ka BP (Vinther et al. 2006, Cheng et al. 2009). A distinctive asymmetrical pattern in d18O is consistent with modelling results suggesting rapid input of freshwater into the northern Atlantic due to catastrophic drainage of ice-marginal lakes (LeGrande et al., 2008). Despite an increasing amount of data, the regional expression of this event is still poorly understood. Here, we present a new speleothem record from Gasselhöhle in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. The 205 mm-long GAS19 stalagmite was analysed at high resolution for stable isotopes (100 µm) and trace elements (~10-15 µm; continuous LA-ICPMS profiles). Twelve individual MC-ICP-MS U/Th ages underline an annual growth rate of ca. 60 µm during the Early Holocene. The d18O averages -8.9‰, only slightly more depleted than modern carbonate precipitates from the same cave chamber. The 8.2 ka event is marked in GAS19 by a ca. 1‰ excursion with a minimum value of -9.9‰. Largely invariant trace element concentrations (e.g. Mg, U, Sr, Ba) indicate essentially no changes in the local hydrological regime and therefore support the hypothesis of a temperature-dominated signal. The proximity to the lacustrine isotope record from Mondsee (eg. Lauterbach et al. 2011) opens new perspectives for the interpretation of the oxygen isotope signal using two archives at different elevations. Moreover, several coeval speleothem records are available across the Eastern Alps fostering a spatial comparison of the proxy signals associated with this event. Cheng, H. et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 1007-1010 Lauterbach, S. et al. (2011), JQS, 26, 253-267 LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. (2008), Paleoceanography, 23, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001610 Vinther, B. et al. (2006), JGR, 111, D13103 5. Ka-Band Multibeam Aperture Phased Array Being Developed NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J. 2004-01-01 Phased-array antenna systems offer many advantages to low-Earth-orbiting satellite systems. Their large scan angles and multibeam capabilities allow for vibration-free, rapid beam scanning and graceful degradation operation for high rate downlink of data to users on the ground. Technology advancements continue to reduce the power, weight, and cost of these systems to make phased arrays a competitive alternative in comparison to the gimbled reflector system commonly used in science missions. One effort to reduce the cost of phased arrays is the development of a Ka-band multibeam aperture (MBA) phased array by Boeing Corporation under a contract jointly by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Office of Naval Research. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a space-qualifiable dual-beam Ka-band (26.5-GHz) phased-array antenna. The goals are to advance the state of the art in Ka-band active phased-array antennas and to develop and demonstrate multibeam transmission technology compatible with spacecraft in low Earth orbit to reduce the cost of future missions by retiring certain development risks. The frequency chosen is suitable for space-to-space and space-to-ground communication links. The phased-array antenna has a radiation pattern designed by combining a set of individual radiating elements, optimized with the type of radiating elements used, their positions in space, and the amplitude and phase of the currents feeding the elements. This arrangement produces a directional radiation pattern that is proportional to the number of individual radiating elements. The arrays of interest here can scan the main beam electronically with a computerized algorithm. The antenna is constructed using electronic components with no mechanical parts, and the steering is performed electronically, without any resulting vibration. The speed of the scanning is limited primarily by the control electronics. The radiation performance degrades gracefully if a portion of the elements 6. Teachers with Drive ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Coggins, Celine; Diffenbaugh, P. K. 2013-01-01 For students in U.S. classrooms today, the odds of being assigned to an inexperienced teacher are higher than they have ever been because so many teachers, some in the top 20 percent of effectiveness are leaving the classroom in their first five years. Coggins and Diffenbaugh turn to Daniel Pink's work on drive to determine how to motivate… 7. DrivePy SciTech Connect King, Ryan; Guo, Yi 2014-08-30 DrivePy is physics-based drivetrain model that sizes drivetrain components based on aerodynamic and operational loads for use in a systems engineering model. It also calculates costs based on empirical data collected by NREL's National Wind Technology Center. 8. Magnetized drive fluids SciTech Connect Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M. 1986-04-01 A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid. 9. Drive-Through Training ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Carter, Margie 2010-01-01 In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing… 10. Flywheel sickle drive mechanism SciTech Connect Guinn, R.K. 1989-03-21 A releasable, eccentric drive mechanism is described, comprising: a first shaft extending along a central axis and presenting a generally cylindrical portion; a second shaft extending along a reference axis substantially parallel to the central axis in offset relation to the latter and having a generally cylindrical portion; a drive member having structure defining an opening including a first, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the first shaft portion and a second, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the second shaft portion, the second region being in side-by-side relationship to the first region and in open communication with the latter, the first shaft portion and the second shaft portion each including a substantially flat wall section extending in a plane substantially perpendicular to a reference plane passing through the central axis and the reference axis, each of the wall sections being inclined relative to the central axis in complemental, flat engagement with each other; and means coupled to one of the drive member and the second shaft for urging the first shaft in a longitudinal direction generally toward the second shaft in order to bring the wall section of the first shaft into a position of flat, wedging contact with the wall section of the second shaft and in contact with the structure defining the opening in order to securely interconnect the first shaft, the second shaft and the drive member. 11. Driving While Intoxicated. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Brick, John Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk… 12. The Drive to Influence ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Rodriguez, Diego 2017-01-01 At the heart of the educational vocation is a drive to influence, to meaningfully affect the learning and development of others. For adult educators working in higher education, daily activities--from teaching classes to supervising student research to attending faculty meetings to sitting on advisory boards--are full of opportunities to… 13. CSI: Hard Drive ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Sturgeon, Julie 2008-01-01 Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.… 14. A Ka-band GaAs monolithic phase shifter NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J. J.; Contolatis, A.; Bauhahn, P. E.; Chao, C. 1983-01-01 The design and performance of a GaAs monolithic 180-degree one-bit switched line phase shifter test circuit for Ka-band operation is presented. A self-aligned gate (SAG) fabrication technique is also described that reduces resistive parasitics in the switching FET's. Over the 27.5-30 GHz band, typical measured differential insertion phase is within 10-20 deg of the ideal time delay characteristic. Over the same band, the insertion loss for the SAG phase shifter is about 2.5-3 dB per bit. The SAG fabrication technique holds promise in reducing phase shifter insertion loss to about 1.5 dB/bit for 30-GHz operation. 15. Advanced Ka-Band Transceiver With Monopulse Tracking NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Khan, Abdur; Hoppe, Dan; Epp, Larry; Perez, Raul 2006-01-01 A proposed Ka-band transmitting/ receiving system would embody a unique combination of established and semi-proven design features. The proposed system (see figure) would include a monopulse receiving feedback loop and a mirror that could be moved by piezoelectric actuators in the feedback loop to adjust the aim of the transmitted and received radio beams. Unlike in a phased-array tracking system, phase shifters (which can be complex and expensive) would not be needed in this monopulse tracking system. Moreover, the monopulse-tracking loop could be combined with other subsystems used in established subreflector and antenna designs. The final transmitter power amplifier in the proposed system would be a quasi-optical power amplifier (QOPA) -- a combination of a planar array of 25 amplifiers and corresponding planar arrays of antenna elements, such that free-space power combining would take place at the output. 16. Explicit solvent models in protein pKa calculations. PubMed Gibas, C J; Subramaniam, S 1996-07-01 Continuum methods for calculation of protein electrostatics treat buried and ordered water molecules by one of two approximations; either the dielectric constant of regions containing ordered water molecules is equal to the bulk solvent dielectric constant, or it is equal to the protein dielectric constant though no fixed atoms are used to represent water molecules. A method for calculating the titration behavior of individual residues in proteins has been tested on models of hen egg white lysozyme containing various numbers of explicit water molecules. Water molecules were included based on hydrogen bonding, solvent accessibility, and/or proximity to titrating groups in the protein. Inclusion of water molecules significantly alters the calculated titration behavior of individual titrating sites, shifting calculated pKa values by up to 0.5 pH unit. Our results suggest that approximately one water molecule within hydrogen-bonding distance of each charged group should be included in protein electrostatics calculations. 17. A personal communications network using a Ka-band satellite NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Palmer, Larry C.; Laborde, Enrique; Stern, Alan; Sohn, Philip Y. 1992-01-01 The feasibility of a personal communications network using portable terminals that can provide 4.8-kb/s voice communications to a hub station via a Ka-band geosynchronous satellite has been investigated. Tradeoffs are examined so that the combined system of hub and gateway earth stations, the satellite, and the personal terminals can provide a competitive service in terms of cost, availability, and quality. A baseline system that uses a spacecraft with approximately 140 spot beams to cover the contiguous US (CONUS) and 5-W power amplifiers in each beam is described. Satellite access in both the forward and return directions uses frequency-division multiple-access/code-division multiple-access (FDMA/CDMA) with a chip rate of 2.5 Mchip/s. 18. A personal communications network using a Ka-band satellite NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Palmer, L. C.; Stern, A.; Sohn, P. Y. 1991-01-01 The feasibility of portable communications terminals that can provide 4.8-kbps voice communications to a hub station via a Ka-band geosynchronous satellite was investigated. Tradeoffs are examined so that the combined system of the hub and gateway earth stations, the satellite, and the personal terminals can provide a competitive service in terms of cost, availability, and quality. A baseline system is described using a spacecraft with approximately 140 spot beams that cover CONUS with 5-watt power amplifiers in each beam. Satellite access in both the forward and return directions uses Frequency Division Multiple Access/Code Division Multiple Access (FDMA/CDMA) with a chip rate of 2.5 Mchip/sec. An experiment is recommended using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to demonstrate some of the features of the portable terminal concept. 19. Miniaturized Ka-Band Dual-Channel Radar NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Hoffman, James P.; Moussessian, Alina; Jenabi, Masud; Custodero, Brian 2011-01-01 Smaller (volume, mass, power) electronics for a Ka-band (36 GHz) radar interferometer were required. To reduce size and achieve better control over RFphase versus temperature, fully hybrid electronics were developed for the RF portion of the radar s two-channel receiver and single-channel transmitter. In this context, fully hybrid means that every active RF device was an open die, and all passives were directly attached to the subcarrier. Attachments were made using wire and ribbon bonding. In this way, every component, even small passives, was selected for the fabrication of the two radar receivers, and the devices were mounted relative to each other in order to make complementary components isothermal and to isolate other components from potential temperature gradients. This is critical for developing receivers that can track each other s phase over temperature, which is a key mission driver for obtaining ocean surface height. Fully hybrid, Ka-band (36 GHz) radar transmitter and dual-channel receiver were developed for spaceborne radar interferometry. The fully hybrid fabrication enables control over every aspect of the component selection, placement, and connection. Since the two receiver channels must track each other to better than 100 millidegrees of RF phase over several minutes, the hardware in the two receivers must be "identical," routed the same (same line lengths), and as isothermal as possible. This level of design freedom is not possible with packaged components, which include many internal passive, unknown internal connection lengths/types, and often a single orientation of inputs and outputs. 20. The paleoclimate of the Eastern Mediterranean during the transition from early to mid Pleistocene (900 to 700 ka) based on marine and non-marine records: An integrated overview. PubMed Almogi-Labin, Ahuva 2011-04-01 Climate change is frequently considered an important driver of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. The role of climate change in the last phase (900-700 ka) of the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Levant and northeast Africa was examined, using marine and non-marine records. During the MPT the global climate system shifted from a linear 41 k.yr. into a highly non-linear 100 k.yr. system, considerably changing its global modulation. Northeast Africa aridity further intensified around 950ka, as indicated by a sharp increase in dust flux, and a jump to overall higher levels thereafter, coinciding with a lack of sapropels in the deep eastern Mediterranean (930-690ka). The increased dust flux centering at ∼800ka corresponds to the minima in 400 k.yr. eccentricity, a minima in 65 °N solar forcing and in the weakest African monsoon precession periodicity. This resulted in expansion of hyper-arid conditions across North Africa, the lowest lake levels in eastern Africa and the lowest rainfall in the Nile River headwaters. In the eastern Mediterranean an increasing continental signature is seen in glacial stages 22 (∼880ka) and 20 (∼800ka). Lower arboreal pollen values also indicate arid conditions during these glacial stages. The southern and eastern parts of the Negev Desert, unlike its northern part, were hyper-arid during the MPT, making them highly unsustainable. The fluctuations in the stands of Lake Amora follow global climate variability but were more moderate than those of its last glacial Lake Lisan successor. In the northern Jordan-Valley Hula Lake, frequent fluctuations in lake level coincide with both global climate changes and minor changes in water salinity varying from fresh to oligohaline. It appears therefore that the most pronounced and widespread deterioration in climate occurred in northeast Africa from 900 to 700ka, whereas in the Levant the corresponding climatic changes were more moderate. 1. Dating North European mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.): a nearly continuous record from 53 ka to 11 ka NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ukkonen, P.; Aaris-Sørensen, K.; Arppe, L.; Clark, P. U.; Daugnora, L.; Lister, A.; Lõugas, L.; Seppä, H. A.; Stuart, A. J.; Wojtal, P.; Zupins, I. 2010-05-01 nearly continuously from 53 ka to 11 ka, completely disappearing from the area only during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). From the northern parts of the study area, mammoths disappeared ca. 27 ka ago. In the south they survived until the LGM, and occupied the area again during deglaciation. Mammoths survived in the eastern part of the study area until the end of Younger Dryas. References Weninger, B., Jöris, O., 2008. A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia. Journal of Human Evolution 55,772-781. Weninger, B., Jöris, O., Danzeglocke, U., 2008. CalPal-2007. Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Palaeoclimate Research Package. http://www.calpal.de/ [2008-09-18]. 2. Increasing Diversity in STEM through Ka Hikina O Ka Lā Summer Bridge Program for Native Hawaiian Students NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Calder, S.; Nahoolewa, D.; Rai, B. 2014-12-01 The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawaii Maui College. These projects offer instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2014 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Content workshops were offered in Marine Science, Physics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science and Engineering as well as a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies. 3. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis]. PubMed Küst, J; Dettmers, C 2014-07-01 Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. 4. New insights on water level variability for Lake Turkana for the past 15 ka and at 150 ka from relict beaches NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. 2015-12-01 Relict beaches adjacent to Lake Turkana provide a record of water level variability for the Late Quaternary. This study focused on deciphering the geomorphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy and 14C chronology of strand plain sequences in the Kalokol and Lothagam areas. Nine >30 m oscillations in water level were documented between ca. 15 and 4 ka. The earliest oscillation between ca. 14.5 and 13 ka is not well constrained with water level to at least 70 m above the present surface and subsequently fell to at least 50 m. Lake level increased to ~ 90 m between ca. 11.2 and 10.4 ka, post Younger Dryas cooling. Water level fell by >30 m by 10.2 ka, with another potential rise at ca. 8.5 ka to >70 m above current level. Lake level regressed by > 40 m at 8.2 ka coincident with cooling in the equatorial Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Two major >70 m lake level oscillations centered at 6.6 and 5.2 ka may reflect enhanced convection with warmer sea surface temperatures in the Western Indian Ocean. The end of the African Humid Period occurred from ca. 8.0 to 4.5 ka and was characterized by variable lake level (± > 40 m), rather than one monotonic fall in water level. This lake level variability reflects a complex response to variations in the extent and intensity of the East and West African Monsoons near geographic and topographic limits within the catchment of Lake Turkana. Also, for this closed lake basin excess and deficits in water input are amplified with a cascading lake effect in the East Rift Valley and through the Chew Bahir Basin. The final regression from a high stand of > 90 m began at. 5.2 ka and water level was below 20 m by 4.5 ka; and for the remainder of the Holocene. This sustained low stand is associated with weakening of the West African Monsoon, a shift of the mean position of Congo Air Boundary west of the Lake Turkana catchment and with meter-scale variability in lake level linked to Walker circulation across the Indian Ocean. A surprising observation is 5. Sex Chromosome Drive PubMed Central Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine 2015-01-01 Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in two clades, Rodentia and Diptera. Although very little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of drive, epigenetic processes such as chromatin regulation could be involved in many instances. Yet, its evolutionary consequences are far-reaching, from the evolution of mating systems and sex determination to the emergence of new species. PMID:25524548 6. [Cannabis affects driving skills]. PubMed Khiabani, Hassan Z; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg 2007-03-01 Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most important psychoactive substance in cannabis, is frequently detected in blood from apprehended drivers suspected for drugged driving. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the negative effects of THC upon cognitive functions and psychomotor skills. These effects could last longer than a measurable concentration of THC in blood. Culpability studies have recently demonstrated an increased risk of becoming responsible in fatal or injurious traffic accidents, even with low blood concentrations of THC. It has also been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the degree of impairment, the drug dose and the THC blood concentration. It is very important to focus on the negative effect of cannabis on fitness to drive in order to prevent injuries and loss of human life and to avoid large economic consequences to the society. 7. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H. 1990-01-01 Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991. 8. Advanced Motor Drives Studies NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A. 1997-01-01 This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future. 9. Linear induction accelerators for fusion and neutron production SciTech Connect Barletta, W.A. | 1993-08-01 Linear induction accelerators (LIA) with pulsed power drives can produce high energy, intense beams or electrons, protons, or heavy ions with megawatts of average power. The continuing development of highly reliable LIA components permits the use such accelerators as cost-effective beam sources to drive fusion pellets with heavy ions, to produce intense neutron fluxes using proton beams, and to generate with electrons microwave power to drive magnetic fusion reactors and high gradient, rf-linacs. 10. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Soh, C. S.; Bi, C. 2009-04-01 Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost. 11. Driving on the Descartes NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 1972-01-01 Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, drives the 'Rover', Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Lunar Module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Orion' is visible in the foreground. 12. Gear Drive Testing NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 1982-01-01 Philadelphia Gear Corporation used two COSMIC computer programs; one dealing with shrink fit analysis and the other with rotor dynamics problems in computerized design and test work. The programs were used to verify existing in-house programs to insure design accuracy by checking its company-developed computer methods against procedures developed by other organizations. Its specialty is in custom units for unique applications, such as Coast Guard ice breaking ships, steel mill drives, coal crusher, sewage treatment equipment and electricity. 13. Variable reluctance drive system SciTech Connect Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F. 1995-10-17 A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs. 14. Butalbital and driving impairment. PubMed Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K 2013-07-01 Butalbital (Fiorinal(®)), used in the treatment of migraines and muscle pain, is the most commonly encountered barbiturate in impaired driving cases. It has central nervous system (CNS) depressant properties, including sedation, drowsiness, and feelings of intoxication, which can contribute to driving impairment. Twenty-six driving under the influence cases are reviewed including results from field sobriety tests and toxicology testing. Blood samples were screened using enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique immunoassay, and the presence of butalbital was confirmed and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, or gas chromatography nitrogen/phosphorus detection. Butalbital concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 30.2 mg/L, with a mean and median of 16.0 mg/L. General impairment indicators in these cases included horizontal and vertical nystagmus, lack of convergence, poor motor coordination, and balance and speech problems, which are common to CNS depressant intoxication, similar to that associated with alcohol. These findings indicate the importance of toxicological testing for butalbital in cases where CNS depressants are indicated. 15. A high-resolution paleointensity stack of the past 14 to 68 ka from Black Sea sediments NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Nowaczyk, N. R.; Frank, U.; Kind, J.; Arz, H. W. 2013-12-01 Detailed paleo- and mineral magnetic analyses of a sediment composite record from the southeastern Black Sea yielded a high-resolution, well-dated paleointensity record. Though hampered by some larger hiatuses in some cores, and contaminated by diagenetically formed greigite, the paleomagnetic composite record obtained from the preserved primary detrital magnetite phase reflects a highly dynamic geomagnetic field during the last glacial period. Relative variations of paleointensity inferred from the sediments' magnetisations were converted into a record of the virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Lowest VADM values are linked with the Laschamp (0.50×1022 Amat 41.0 ka), the Norwegian-Greenland-Sea (1.5×1022 Amat 64.5 ka), and the Mono Lake (3.0×1022 Amat 34.5 ka) geomagnetic excursions. The fully reversed field during the Laschamp excursion exhibits a VADM of 2.0×1022 Am which is more than 25% of the present day axial dipole moment (7.628×1022 Am). Rates of change calculated from the Black Sea VADM record also give some information on how to assess the global decay of the present-day geomagnetic field, which is significantly enhanced in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Comparison with provided ΔC14 and 10Be records confirm, partly in the very detail, the non-linear anti-correlation of geomagnetic field intensity and the production of cosmogenic radionuclides in the Earth's upper atmosphere. However, discrepancies in the timing of lows and highs in the compiled records points out that the combination of different data sets from different archives remains a challenge. 16. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia]. PubMed Seeger, Rolf 2015-04-01 Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt. 17. The design and modelling of a comb-drive-based microengine for mechanism drive applications NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Garcia, E. J.; Sniegowski, J. J. The design and modelling of a comb-drive-based microengine is presented. The motivation for developing such a device came from our own need to drive specific micromechanisms. Difficulty in connecting an external load to an existing micromotor and insufficient torque led us to a design which uses the comb drive concept of Tang, Nguyen, and Howe, to convert linear oscillatory motion into rotational motion. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering torque to a micromechanism. The microengine can be operated at varying speeds and its motion can be reversed. Modelling of the system indicates that dynamic effects are important and that the device behaves in ways similar to that of 'high speed' machinery. Processing considerations address the elimination of natural interferences that arise when conformally deposited polysilicon films form the links, joints, and gears. The resultant device is completely batch fabricated without the need for manual assembly steps. 18. Highly Efficient Amplifier for Ka-Band Communications NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 1996-01-01 An amplifier developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract will have applications for both satellite and terrestrial communications. This power amplifier uses an innovative series bias arrangement of active devices to achieve over 40-percent efficiency at Ka-band frequencies with an output power of 0.66 W. The amplifier is fabricated on a 2.0- by 3.8-square millimeter chip through the use of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology, and it uses state-of-the-art, Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (PHEMT) devices. Although the performance of the MMIC chip depends on these high-performance devices, the real innovations here are a unique series bias scheme, which results in a high-voltage chip supply, and careful design of the on-chip planar output stage combiner. This design concept has ramifications beyond the chip itself because it opens up the possibility of operation directly from a satellite power bus (usually 28 V) without a dc-dc converter. This will dramatically increase the overall system efficiency. Conventional microwave power amplifier designs utilize many devices all connected in parallel from the bias supply. This results in a low-bias voltage, typically 5 V, and a high bias current. With this configuration, substantial I(sup 2) R losses (current squared times resistance) may arise in the system bias-distribution network. By placing the devices in a series bias configuration, the total current is reduced, leading to reduced distribution losses. Careful design of the on-chip planar output stage power combiner is also important in minimizing losses. Using these concepts, a two-stage amplifier was designed for operation at 33 GHz and fabricated in a standard MMIC foundry process with 0.20-m PHEMT devices. Using a 20-V bias supply, the amplifier achieved efficiencies of over 40 percent with an output power of 0.66 W and a 16-dB gain over a 2-GHz bandwidth centered at 33 GHz. With a 28-V bias, a power 19. Ka Hana Imi Naauao: A Science Curriculum Project NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Napeahi, K.; Roberts, K. D.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, R. A.; Akuna, J.; Bruno, B. 2005-12-01 In antiquity, the first people to step foot on what are now known as the Hawaiian islands skillfully traversed the Pacific Ocean using celestial navigation and learned observations of scientific phenomena. Long before the Western world ventured beyond the horizon, Hawaiians had invented the chronometer, built aqueduct systems (awai) that continue to amaze modern engineers, and had preventive health systems as well as a comprehensive knowledge of medicinal plants (including antivirals) which only now are working their way through trials for use in modern pharmacopia. Yet, today, Native Hawaiians are severely underrepresented in science-related fields, reflecting (in part) a failure of the Western educational system to nurture the potential of these resourceful students, particularly the many "at-risk" students who are presently over-represented in special education. A curriculum which draws from and incorporates traditional Hawaiian values and knowledge is needed to reinforce links to the inquiry process which nurtured creative thinking during the renaissance of Polynesian history. The primary goal of the Ka Hana Imi Naauao Project (translation: science or work in which you seek enlightenment, knowledge or wisdom) is to increase the number of Native Hawaiian adults in science-related postsecondary education and employment fields. Working closely with Native Hawaiian cultural experts and our high school partners, we will develop and implement a culturally responsive 11th and 12th grade high school science curriculum, infused with math, literacy and technology readiness skills. Software and assistive technology will be used to adapt instruction to individual learners reading levels, specific disabilities and learning styles. To ease the transition from secondary to post-secondary education, selected grade 12 students will participate in planned project activities that link high school experiences with college science-related programs of study. Ka Hana Imi Na 20. Radiocarbon dating from 40 to 60 ka BP at Border Cave, South Africa NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bird, M. I.; Fifield, L. K.; Santos, G. M.; Beaumont, P. B.; Zhou, Y.; di Tada, M. L.; Hausladen, P. A. 2003-04-01 We present 21 radiocarbon dates on 19 charcoal samples from the sedimentary sequence preserved in Border Cave, South Africa. The background radiocarbon activity for charcoal from the cave was determined to be 0.050±0.018 percent modern carbon, from the analysis of a radiocarbon-dead sample from unit 5WA. Radiocarbon ages for individual samples ranged from 25.2 to >58.2 ka BP. The error-weighted mean ages for successively older strata are 38.5+0.85/-0.95 ka BP for unit 1WA, 50.2+1.1/-1.0 ka BP for units 2BS.LR.A and 2BS.LR.B, 56.5+2.7/-2.0 ka BP for unit 2BS.LR.C and 59.2+3.4/-2.4 ka BP for unit 2WA. This radiocarbon chronology is consistent with independent chronologies derived from electron spin resonance and amino acid racemization dating. The results therefore provide further evidence that radiocarbon dating of charcoal by the ABOX-SC technique can yield reliable radiocarbon ages beyond 40 ka BP. They also imply that Border Cave 5, a modern human mandible, predates >58.2 ka BP and that the Middle Stone Age (Mode 3)—Later Stone Age (Mode 5) transition of Border Cave was largely effected between ˜56.5 and ˜41.6 ka ago. 1. X/X/Ka-band prime focus feed antenna for the Mars Observer beacon spacecraft NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Stanton, P.; Reilly, H.; Esquivel, M. 1988-01-01 The results of an X/X/Ka-band feed design concept demonstration are presented. The purpose is to show the feasibility of adding a Ka-band beacon to the Mars Observer spacecraft. Scale model radiation patterns were made and analyzed. 2. Electrostatic forces in two lysozymes: calculations and measurements of histidine pKa values. PubMed Takahashi, T; Nakamura, H; Wada, A 1992-08-01 In order to examine the electrostatic forces in globular proteins, pKa values and their ionic strength dependence of His residues of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and human lysozyme (HUML) were measured, and they were compared with those calculated numerically. pKa values of His residues in HEWL, HUML, and short oligopeptides were determined from chemical shift changes of His side chains by 1H-nmr measurements. The associated changes in pKa values in HEWL and HUML were calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations numerically for macroscopic dielectric models. The calculated pKa changes and their ionic strength dependence agreed fairly well with the observed ones. The contribution from each residue of each alpha-helix dipole to the pKa values and their ionic strength dependence was analyzed using Green's reciprocity theorem. The results indicate that (1) the pKa of His residues are largely affected by surrounding ionized and polar groups; (2) the ionic strength dependence of the pKa values is determined by the overall charge distributions and their accessibilities to solvent; and (3) alpha-helix dipoles make a significant contribution to the pKa, when the His residue is close to the helix terminus and not fully exposed to the solvent. 3. A View from the Cocoon--Space Categorization in the Korean Verb [na-ka-ta]. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Kim, Alan Hyun-Oak 1996-01-01 Analysis of the Korean verb "na-ka-ta" ("to get out, exit") focuses on why an expression such as "kyengkicang-ey na-ka-ta" ("someone goes out/in to the sports arena") is acceptable only in the context that the person's entering the arena is for the purpose of a contest, while it becomes semantically… 4. Linear Response Function of Bond-Order PubMed Central Suzuki, Nayuta; Mitsuta, Yuki; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Yamanaka, Shusuke 2016-01-01 We present the linear response function of bond-orders (LRF-BO) based on a real space integration scheme for molecular systems. As in the case of the LRF of density, the LRF-BO is defined as the response of the bond order of the molecule for the virtual perturbation. Our calculations show that the LRF-BO enables us not only to detect inductive and resonating effects of conjugating systems, but also to predict pKa values on substitution groups via linear relationships between the Hammett constants and the LRF-BO values for meta- and para-substituted benzoic acids. More importantly, the LRF-BO values for the O-H bonds strongly depend on the sites to which the virtual perturbation is applied, implying that the LRF-BO values include essential information about reaction mechanism of the acid-dissociation of substituted benzoic acids. PMID:27792148 5. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control SciTech Connect Uhlich, D. 2007-07-17 DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits. 6. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends SciTech Connect Fedder, R. 2008-12-15 Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos. 7. Electro-thermal FEM simulations of the 13 kA LHC joints NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Molnar, D.; Verweij, A. P.; Bielert, E. R. 2013-01-01 The interconnections between the superconducting main dipole and main quadrupole magnets are made of soldered joints of two superconducting Nb-Ti cables embedded in a copper busbar stabilizer. The primary cause of the September 2008 incident in the LHC was a defect in an interconnection between two dipole magnets. Analyses of the incident show that possibly more defects might be present in the 13 kA circuits, which can lead to unprotected resistive transitions. To avoid the reoccurrence of such an event, thorough experimental and numerical investigations have taken place to determine the safe operating conditions of the LHC. However to show measured curves is beyond the scope of this article. Furthermore, improvements in the design have been proposed in the form of additional parallel copper pieces, or shunts, which bridge the possible voids in the soldering and offer a bypass for the current in case of a quench. The purpose of this work is to support the design choices and to indicate the sensitivity to some of the free parameters in the design. Electro-thermal Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations are performed, making use of COMSOL Multiphysics. The use of FEM allows for a profound three-dimensional analysis and some interesting features of the shunted busbar can only be revealed this way. Especially current redistribution in the shunted area of the interconnect gives important insights in the problem. The results obtained using the model are very sensitive to the exact geometrical properties as well as to the material properties, which drive the Joule heating inside the interconnection. Differences as compared to a one-dimensional model, QP3, are presented. QP3 is also used for simulations of non-shunted busbar joints as well as shunted busbars. Furthermore, margins are given for the soldering process and the quality control of the shunted interconnections, since the contact area between the stabilizer pieces and the shunt is an important quality aspect 8. Detecting small seamounts in AltiKa repeat cycle data NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F. 2016-12-01 We present a technique of stacking repeat cycles of satellite altimeter sea surface height profiles that lowers the noise and improves the resolution of small seamounts. Our approach differs from other studies because it uses the median (not the mean) of the stacks, which suppresses outliers. Seamounts as small as 720 m tall are easily detected in stacked 40 Hz AltiKa data profiles, and a 500 m tall seamount is perceptible. Noise variance decreases with an increase in the number of cycles stacked, and RMS noise dips below 2 cm when 11 or more cycles are stacked. Coherence analyses between geoid height and bathymetry show that full wavelengths down to about 10 km can be resolved. Comparisons of study areas with and without seamounts find that signal from small seamounts lies in the 10-28 km waveband. A simple Gaussian band-pass filter based on the seamount waveband passes signals that can be used in seamount detection studies. Such studies may find seamounts <2 km tall that are predicted to be abundant on the ocean floor. 9. A transportable 50 kA dual mode lightning simulator NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Salisbury, K.; Lloyd, S.; Chen, Y. G. 1991-01-01 A transportable lightning simulator was designed, built and tested, which is capable of delivering more than 50 kA to an 8 micro-H test object. The simulator was designed to be a versatile device in the lightning laboratory while meeting the requirements of MIL-STD-1757A for component E current waveforms. The system is capable of operating in either a ringing mode with a Q greater than 5 and a nominal frequency of 160 kHz, or a unipolar mode with no hardware configuration changes. The ringing mode is obtained by the LCR series circuit formed by the pulse generator and test object. The unipolar mode is obtained by closing an electrically triggered crowbar switch at peak current. The simulator exceeds the peak current requirement and rate of rise requirements for MIL-STD-1757A in both the ringing and unipolar modes. The pulse half width in the unipolar mode is in excess of 50 microsec and the action is in excess of 10(exp 5) A(exp 2)s. The design, component values, and test results are presented. 10. Thomson Scattering on exploding wires at 800 kA NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Greenly, John; Seyler, Charles; Banasek, Jacob; Potter, William 2016-10-01 Laser Thomson scattering measurements have been carried out on a single 0.25 mm diameter Al wire load driven with an 800 kA, 100 ns risetime pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility. The 527 nm, 10 J, 5 ns laser is brought to a line focus on a chord across the unstable, roughly cylindrical plasma column of the wire, which reaches 8mm outer diameter at 100 ns. The laser path is either on axis or 2mm or 4mm off axis. Scattered signals are collected on a fiber array yielding data across the laser path through the plasma. The scattered light is easily visible over the wire plasma self-emission. The scattered spectra have highly complex structures comprised of as many as four distinct spectral peaks spread over 1 nm in wavelength, both red-and blue-shifted. On axis, the laser does not reach the far side of the plasma, being totally absorbed and/or refracted out of its path. 2 mm off-axis the beam is severely refracted, probably from near the critical surface in the plasma, appearing in images taken with cameras 45 degrees off its entering path. The scattering should be in the collective regime, and analysis is underway to extract information on flow velocities and temperatures within the volume, of 0.5mm radius, imaged by each fiber. Work supported by US DOE NNSA Grant DE-NA0001855. 11. Absolute paleointensity from Hawaiian lavas younger than 35 ka USGS Publications Warehouse Valet, J.-P.; Tric, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Meynadier, L.; Lockwood, J.P. 1998-01-01 Paleointensity studies have been conducted in air and in argon atmosphere on nine lava flows with radiocarbon ages distributed between 3.3 and 28.2 ka from the Mauna Loa volcano in the big island of Hawaii. Determinations of paleointensity obtained at eight sites depict the same overall pattern as the previous results for the same period in Hawaii, although the overall average field intensity appears to be lower. Since the present results were determined at higher temperatures than in the previous studies, this discrepancy raises questions regarding the selection of low versus high-temperature segments that are usually made for absolute paleointensity. The virtual dipole moments are similar to those displayed by the worldwide data set obtained from dated lava flows. When averaged within finite time intervals, the worldwide values match nicely the variations of the Sint-200 synthetic record of relative paleointensity and confirm the overall decrease of the dipole field intensity during most of this period. The convergence between the existing records at Hawaii and the rest of the world does not favour the presence of persistent strong non-dipole components beneath Hawaii for this period. 12. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh 1997-01-01 This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique. 13. Offset Compound Gear Drive NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G. 2010-01-01 The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged. 14. Generative design drives manufacturing NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Logan, Frank A. 1989-04-01 This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets. 15. Engine valve driving apparatus SciTech Connect Masuda, S.; Uesugi, T.; Oda, H. 1989-01-03 An engine valve driving apparatus for an internal combustion engine having a cam driven engine valve is described. It consists of a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of a crankshaft of an engine and a movable cam member supported by the camshaft for axial movement and prevented from turning relative to the camshaft. The movable cam member can be axially shifted between an operative position wherein the cam member is cooperative with a member of the engine valve so as to cause an operation of the engine valve and an inoperative position wherein the cam member is out of cooperation with the member. 16. Modular droplet actuator drive NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor) 2011-01-01 A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor. 17. HLH Drive System DTIC Science & Technology 1977-09-01 M4 1" 4 C. C, 4 10 rYV .104 14144 \\- // S/ / " I 3.025 DPII 36 TEETH 2 n )r lj < ~( NEW ) _ _ _ 7986 RPM Figure 40. Combiner Configuration 6, Reference...based on testing of th le CH- 4  -7 •-• ’’• stage p lanet bearing , primarily from fa ilures in the • : , - gram of Reference 19. The test results are...USAAMRDL-TR-77-38 r, . . HLH DRIVE SYSTEM -I Boeing Vertol Company P.O. Box 16858 4 • Philadelphia, Pa. 19142 0 September 1977 4Q Final Report 18. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M. 2017-02-01 The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target –the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined. 19. Advances in traction drive technology NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A. 1983-01-01 Traction drives are traced from early uses as main transmissions in automobiles at the turn of the century to modern, high-powered traction drives capable of transmitting hundreds of horsepower. Recent advances in technology are described which enable today's traction drive to be a serious candidate for off-highway vehicles and helicopter applications. Improvements in materials, traction fluids, design techniques, power loss and life prediction methods will be highlighted. Performance characteristics of the Nasvytis fixed-ratio drive are given. Promising future drive applications, such as helicopter main transmissions and servo-control positioning mechanisms are also addressed. 20. Fast wave current drive NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H. 1985-07-01 Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam. 1. Gulf of California Sediment and Proxy SST Records Suggest a Post 6 ka Development of the Arizona Monsoon and Solar Forcing of Cycles NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Barron, J. A.; Bukry, D. 2007-12-01 Summer monsoonal rains in Arizona and adjacent areas are mainly due to pulses of moisture traveling northward up the Gulf of California (GOC). Modern studies reveal that northern GOC SSTs must exceed 26 deg. C before monsoonal rainfall develops in Arizona and western New Mexico, and over 80 percent of the rainfall in this region occurs after northern GOC SSTs exceed 28.5 deg. C. Warming of GOC occurs progressively from south to north in the late spring, as northwest winds, which dominate in the late fall to early spring, decrease in strength, and tropical waters penetrate northward along the western coast of the GOC. Sediment (CaCO3 and opal) and microfossil (diatom and silicoflagellate) proxies spanning the past 15,000 years from cores in the central GOC suggest that waters of the northern GOC were too cold between ca. 11 and 6 ka to allow development of monsoonal rains in Arizona. Evidence for a post 6 ka intensification of monsoonal rains in Arizona and adjacent areas includes: 1) increased frequency of arroyo cutting in Arizona after ca. 5 ka, 2) increased evidence of paleofloods in Arizona and SW Utah after ca. 6 ka, and 3) the renewal of aggradation of alluvial fans in the Mojave Dessert at ca. 6 ka after a lull in their formation between ca. 11 and 6 ka. Supportive pollen evidence includes : 1) the late Holocene appearance of summer flowering annuals and C-{4} grasses in SE Arizona, and 2) the post 6 ka appearance of a warm, mixed biome in the highlands of northwest Mexico. Other pollen evidence and the scarcity of early and middle Holocene packrat middens in the American southwest, however, have been cited as evidence of increased monsoonal rains during the early and middle parts of the Holocene It is likely that the Gulf of Mexico was the main source of monsoonal moisture in the American southwest prior to ca. 6 ka, especially in the regions east of Arizona. A northward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Caribbean prior to ca. 5.4 ka 2. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Ka-band (32 GHz) Demonstration: Cruise Phase Operations NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Shambayati, Shervin; Morabito, David; Border, James S.; Davarian, Faramaz; Lee, Dennis; Mendoza, Ricardo; Britcliffe, Michael; Weinreb, Sander 2006-01-01 The X-band (8.41 GHz) frequency currently used for deep space telecommunications is too narrow (50 MHz) to support future high rate missions. Because of this NASA has decided to transition to Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies. As weather effects cause much larger fluctuations on Ka-band than on X-band, the traditional method of using a few dBs of margin to cover these fluctuations is wasteful of power for Ka-band; therefore, a different operations concept is needed for Ka-band links. As part of the development of the operations concept for Ka-band, NASA has implemented a fully functioning Ka-band communications suite on its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). This suite will be used during the primary science phase to develop and refine the Ka-band operations concept for deep space missions. In order to test the functional readiness of the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network's (DSN) readiness to support the demonstration activities a series of passes over DSN 34-m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas were scheduled during the cruise phase of the mission. MRO was launched on August 12, 2005 from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA and went into Mars Orbit on March 10, 2006. A total of ten telemetry demonstration and one high gain antenna (HGA) calibration passes were allocated to the Ka-band demonstration. Furthermore, a number of "shadow" passes were also scheduled where, during a regular MRO track over a Ka-band capable antenna, Ka-band was identically configured as the X-band and tracked by the station. In addition, nine Ka-band delta differential one way ranging ((delta)DOR) passes were scheduled. During these passes, the spacecraft and the ground system were put through their respective paces. Among the highlights of these was setting a single day record for data return from a deep space spacecraft (133 Gbits) achieved during one 10-hour pass; achieving the highest data rate ever from a planetary mission (6 Mbps) and successfully demonstrating Ka-band DDOR 3. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka USGS Publications Warehouse Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Rhode, D.E.; Spencer, R.J.; Verosub, K.L.; Louderback, L.A.; Johnson, C.A.; Rye, R.O.; Negrini, R.M. 2011-01-01 A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of ??18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have reached its geomorphic highstand and began spilling at 18.5 ka. The fall from the highstand to the Provo level occurred at 17.0 ka and the lake intermittently overflowed at the Provo level until 15.2 ka, at which time the lake fell again, bottoming out at ~14.7 ka. The lake also fell briefly below the Provo level at ~15.9 ka. Carbonate and ??18O data indicate that between 14.7 and 13.1 ka the lake slowly rose to the Gilbert shoreline and remained at about that elevation until 11.6 ka, when it fell again. Chemical and sedimentological data indicate that a marsh formed in the Blue Lake area at 10.5 ka.Relatively dry periods in the BL04-4 records are associated with Heinrich events H1-H4, suggesting that either the warming that closely followed a Heinrich event increased the evaporation rate in the Bonneville Basin and (or) that the core of the polar jet stream (PJS) shifted north of the Bonneville Basin in response to massive losses of ice from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Heinrich event. The second Stansbury Oscillation occurred during Heinrich event H2, and the Gilbert wet event occurred during the Younger Dryas cold interval. Several relatively wet events in BL04-4 occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) warm events.The growth of the Bear River glacier between 32 and 17 ka paralleled changes in the values of proxy 4. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics PubMed Central Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia 2016-01-01 Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221 5. Cyclone Xaver seen by SARAL/AltiKa NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Scharroo, Remko; Fenoglio, Luciana; Annunziato, Alessandro 2014-05-01 During the first week of December 2013, Cyclone Xaver pounded the coasts and the North Sea. On 6 December, all along the Wadden Sea, the barrier islands along the north of the Netherlands and the northwest of Germany experienced record storm surges. We show a comparison of the storm surge measured by the radar altimeter AltiKa on-board the SARAL satellite and various types of in-situ data and models. Two tide gauges along the German North Sea coast, one in the southern harbour of the island of Helgoland and one on an offshore lighthouse Alte Weser, confirmed that the storm drove sea level to about three meters above the normal tide level. Loading effects during the storm are also detected by the GPS measurements at several tide gauge stations. The altimeter in the mean time shows that the storm surge was noticeable as far as 400 km from the coast. The altimeter measured wind speeds of 20 m/s nearly monotonically throughout the North Sea. An offshore anemometer near the island of Borkum corroborated this value. A buoy near the FINO1 offshore platform measured wave heights of 8 m, matching quite well the measurements from the altimeter, ranging from 6 m near the German coast to 12 m further out into the North Sea. Furthermore we compare the altimeter-derived and in-situ sea level, wave height and wind speed products with outputs from the Operation Circulation and Forecast model of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) and with a global storm surge forecast and inundation model of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The Operational circulation model of BSH (BSHcmod) and its component, the surge model (BSHsmod), perform daily predictions for the next 72 hours based on the meteorological model of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). The JRC Storm Surge Calculation System is a new development that has been established at the JRC in the framework of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS). The system uses 6. A 75 ka Stalagmite Paleoclimate Record from Northern Venezuela NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Retrum, J. B.; Gonzalez, L. A.; Edwards, R.; Tincher, S. M.; Cheng, H.; Urbani, F. 2011-12-01 A stalagmite collected from Cueva Zarraga in the northern Venezuelan Andes was analyzed to determine local paleoclimatic history and help examine climate change in the Caribbean. Ages were determined by U/Th disequilibrium and the stalagmite shows a nearly complete record for ~ 75 ka. Two significant periods of non-deposition have been identified. The first period ranges between the Last Glacial Maximum at 19,820 ± 149 cal yr BP and a brief resumption of stalagmite growth at 15,409 ± 747 cal yr BP, likely representing the Bølling-Allerød interstadial. After the brief period of deposition, growth does not resume unil the Holocene at 10,408 ± 78 cal yr BP. Carbon and oxygen isotopes show a major depletion shift from the last glacial period to the Holocene, suggesting warmer and wetter conditions during the Holocene. The oxygen isotope depletion shift is also seen in the Cariaco Basin foraminifera record off the northern coast of Venezuela. While tempting to attribute δ13C depletion to decrease of the C4 plant contribution, there is no evidence that the area experience major vegetation changes. We attribute the δ13C depletion to enhanced recycling of soil CO2 resulting from canopy effects. Today, Cueva Zarraga is at the northern extent of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The cooler and drier conditions of the last glacial period suggest a southern displacement of the ITCZ. The close proximity of Cueva Zarraga to Cariaco Basin may allow for a high resolution tropical terrestrial and oceanic climatic response comparison. 7. KA-SB: from data integration to large scale reasoning PubMed Central Roldán-García, María del Mar; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Kerzazi, Amine; Chniber, Othmane; Molina-Castro, Joaquín; Aldana-Montes, José F 2009-01-01 Background The analysis of information in the biological domain is usually focused on the analysis of data from single on-line data sources. Unfortunately, studying a biological process requires having access to disperse, heterogeneous, autonomous data sources. In this context, an analysis of the information is not possible without the integration of such data. Methods KA-SB is a querying and analysis system for final users based on combining a data integration solution with a reasoner. Thus, the tool has been created with a process divided into two steps: 1) KOMF, the Khaos Ontology-based Mediator Framework, is used to retrieve information from heterogeneous and distributed databases; 2) the integrated information is crystallized in a (persistent and high performance) reasoner (DBOWL). This information could be further analyzed later (by means of querying and reasoning). Results In this paper we present a novel system that combines the use of a mediation system with the reasoning capabilities of a large scale reasoner to provide a way of finding new knowledge and of analyzing the integrated information from different databases, which is retrieved as a set of ontology instances. This tool uses a graphical query interface to build user queries easily, which shows a graphical representation of the ontology and allows users o build queries by clicking on the ontology concepts. Conclusion These kinds of systems (based on KOMF) will provide users with very large amounts of information (interpreted as ontology instances once retrieved), which cannot be managed using traditional main memory-based reasoners. We propose a process for creating persistent and scalable knowledgebases from sets of OWL instances obtained by integrating heterogeneous data sources with KOMF. This process has been applied to develop a demo tool , which uses the BioPax Level 3 ontology as the integration schema, and integrates UNIPROT, KEGG, CHEBI, BRENDA and SABIORK databases. PMID:19796402 8. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K. 2015-12-01 The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service. 9. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian 2016-04-01 High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka. 10. Studying NASA's Transition to Ka-Band Communications for Low Earth Orbit NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Chelmins, David T.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Mortensen, Dale; Welch, Bryan; Downey, Joseph; Evans, Michael 2014-01-01 As the S-band spectrum becomes crowded, future space missions will need to consider moving command and telemetry services to Ka-band. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed provides a software-defined radio (SDR) platform that is capable of supporting investigation of this service transition. The testbed contains two S-band SDRs and one Ka-band SDR. Over the past year, SCaN Testbed has demonstrated Ka-band communications capabilities with NASAs Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) using both open- and closed-loop antenna tracking profiles. A number of technical areas need to be addressed for successful transition to Ka-band. The smaller antenna beamwidth at Ka-band increases the criticality of antenna pointing, necessitating closed loop tracking algorithms and new techniques for received power estimation. Additionally, the antenna pointing routines require enhanced knowledge of spacecraft position and attitude for initial acquisition, versus an S-band antenna. Ka-band provides a number of technical advantages for bulk data transfer. Unlike at S-band, a larger bandwidth may be available for space missions, allowing increased data rates. The potential for high rate data transfer can also be extended for direct-to-ground links through use of variable or adaptive coding and modulation. Specific examples of Ka-band research from SCaN Testbeds first year of operation will be cited, such as communications link performance with TDRSS, and the effects of truss flexure on antenna pointing. 11. Standard Observing Bands: Is Now the Time to Replace S/X with X/Ka? NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Jacobs, C. S.; Lanyi, G. E.; Naudet, C. J. 2004-01-01 In this paper we will argue that the VLBI community should be developing a road map to transition from S/X to simultaneous X and Ka-band (32 GHz) observations. There are both negative and positive reasons for planning such a transition. On the negative side, we will outline concerns that S-band observations may be headed toward obsolescence. On the positive side, we will refer to evidence that X/Ka has potential for providing a more stable reference frame than S/X. We will propose timetables for a transition to X/Ka observing starting from the current status of X/Ka and plans that are now taking shape. First X/Ka fringes were obtained in 2001 with the Deep Space Network. Future plans will be discussed including a proposed X/Ka-band upgrade to the VLBA. Lastly, we will consider the need for a period of overlap between S/X and X/Ka so that the long and rich history of astrometric and geodetic VLBI is not compromised. 12. Tephrochronology of a 70 ka-long marine record in the Marsili Basin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea) NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Tamburrino, S.; Insinga, D. D.; Pelosi, N.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Capotondi, L.; Sprovieri, M. 2016-11-01 A sequence of tephra layers is studied in a 13.9 m-long deep-sea core (MD01-2474G) from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The chronology of the succession is provided by a high-resolution age-depth model based on isotope stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dating, which place the succession of events in a time interval spanning the last 70 ka. Based on a precise chronological framework and proximal-distal correlations, the Y-1, Y-6 and Y-7 main marker tephras were identified. Compositional data on fresh micro-pumice or glass shards of selected tephras were correlated with the coeval volcanic activity of Aeolian Arc (Vulcano and Salina), Mt. Etna, Phlegrean Fields Pantelleria and Ischia. The tephra sequence contains a number of deposits documenting recurrent activity on Vulcano Island at ca. 6.9 ka BP (MD3), ca. 16.7 ka BP (MD11), ca. 23.2 ka BP (MD14), ca. 29.6 ka BP (MD15), ca. 36.9 ka BP (MD22) and ca. 42.5 ka BP (MD27). The results presented in this study improve the southern Tyrrhenian Sea tephrostratigraphic framework and provide new insights into chemistry and dispersal area of Aeolian Arc pyroclastic deposits in this sector of the Central Mediterranean. 13. Performance of a Ka-Band Transponder Breadboard for Deep-Space Applications NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W. 1995-04-01 This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of an advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Ka-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. In addition, it can also be configured to provide X-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7-deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results. 14. Standard Observing Bands: Is Now the Time to Replace S/X with X/Ka? NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Jacobs, Christopher S.; Lanyi, G. E.; Naudet, C. J. 2004-06-01 In this paper we will argue that the VLBI community should be developing a road map to transition from S/X to simultaneous X and Ka-band (32 GHz) observations. There are both negative and positive reasons for planning such a transition. On the negative side, we will outline concerns that S-band observations may be headed toward obsolescence. On the positive side, we will refer to evidence that X/Ka has potential for providing a more stable reference frame than S/X. We will propose timetables for a transition to X/Ka observing starting from the current status of X/Ka and plans that are now taking shape. First X/Ka fringes were obtained in 2001 with the Deep Space Network. Future plans will be discussed including a proposed X/Ka-band upgrade to the VLBA. Lastly, we will consider the need for a period of overlap between S/X and X/Ka so that the long and rich history of astrometric and geodetic VLBI is not compromised. 15. Studying NASA's Transition to Ka-Band Communications for Low Earth Orbit NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard; Mortensen, Dale; Welch, Bryan; Downey, Joseph; Evans, Mike 2014-01-01 As the S-band spectrum becomes crowded, future space missions will need to consider moving command and telemetry services to Ka-band. NASAs Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed provides a software-defined radio (SDR) platform that is capable of supporting investigation of this service transition. The testbed contains two S-band SDRs and one Ka-band SDR. Over the past year, SCaN Testbed has demonstrated Ka-band communications capabilities with NASAs Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) using both open- and closed-loop antenna tracking profiles. A number of technical areas need to be addressed for successful transition to Ka-band. The smaller antenna beamwidth at Ka-band increases the criticality of antenna pointing, necessitating closed loop tracking algorithms and new techniques for received power estimation. Additionally, the antenna pointing routines require enhanced knowledge of spacecraft position and attitude for initial acquisition, versus an S-band antenna. Ka-band provides a number of technical advantages for bulk data transfer. Unlike at S-band, a larger bandwidth may be available for space missions, allowing increased data rates. The potential for high rate data transfer can also be extended for direct-to-ground links through use of variable or adaptive coding and modulation. Specific examples of Ka-band research from SCaN Testbeds first year of operation will be cited, such as communications link performance with TDRSS, and the effects of truss flexure on antenna pointing. 16. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, J. A.; Lovell, J.; Majid, W.; Natusch, T.; Neidhardt, A.; Phillips, C.; Porcas, R.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Saldana, L.; Schreiber, U.; Sotuela, I.; Takeuchi, H.; Trinh, J.; Tzioumis, A.; deVincente, P. 2012-01-01 Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years! 17. Prediction of Absolute Hydroxyl pKa Values for 3-Hydroxypyridin-4-ones. PubMed Chen, Yu-Lin; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Hider, Robert C; Barlow, Dave J 2012-10-18 pKa values have been calculated for a series of 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (HPO) chelators in aqueous solution using coordination constrained ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) in combination with thermodynamic integration. This dynamics-based methodology in which the solvent is treated explicitly at the ab initio level has been compared with more commonly used simple, static, approaches. Comparison with experimental numbers has confirmed that the AIMD-based approach predicts the correct trend in the pKa values and produces the lowest average error (∼0.3 pKa units). The corresponding pKa predictions made via static quantum mechanical calculations overestimate the pKa values by 0.3-7 pKa units, with the extent of error dependent on the choice of thermodynamic cycle employed. The use of simple quantitative structure property relationship methods gives prediction errors of 0.3-1 pKa units, with some values overestimated and some underestimated. Beyond merely calculating pKa values, the AIMD simulations provide valuable additional insight into the atomistic details of the proton transfer mechanism and the solvation structure and dynamics at all stages of the reaction. For all HPOs studied, it is seen that proton transfer takes place along a chain of three H2O molecules, although direct hydrogen bonds are seen to form transiently. Analysis of the solvation structure before and after the proton transfer event using radial pair distribution functions and integrated number densities suggests that the trends in the pKa values correlate with the strength of the hydrogen bond and the average number of solvent molecules in the vicinity of the donor oxygen. 18. [Car driving and psychiatry]. PubMed Jonas, Carol 2015-10-01 Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature. 19. Rotary drive mechanism DOEpatents Kenderdine, Eugene W. 1991-01-01 A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member. 20. What Drives Blend Miscibility? NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane 2014-03-01 With no mixture data available, can one predict phase behavior in polymeric systems based on pure component information only? Due to the very weak entropic drive for large molecules to mix, predicting and understanding miscibility behavior is indeed very difficult. However, while not perfect, some a priori insight is attainable when pure component properties are analyzed within the framework of a theoretical model. A theory provides a platform, allowing one to define quantities and other measures that may not always be directly measurable, but, are physically appealing and insightful none-the-less. Are there properties that can explain for example, why a polymer like polyisobutylene (PIB) exhibits such different phase behavior compared to other polyolefins? Applying our simple lattice-based equation of state, we have recently analyzed a large number of different polymers. In this talk we will present insights from trends and patterns we have observed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation. 1. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE DOEpatents Dickson, J.J. 1958-07-01 A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency. 2. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N. 2015-01-01 This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band). 3. A Ka-band (32 GHz) beacon link experiment (KABLE) with Mars Observer NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Riley, A. L.; Hansen, D. M.; Mileant, A.; Hartop, R. W. 1987-02-01 A proposal for a Ka-Band (32 GHz) Link Experiment (KABLE) with the Mars Observer mission was submitted to NASA. The experiment will rely on the fourth harmonic of the spacecraft X-band transmitter to generate a 33.6 GHz signal. The experiment will rely also on the Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving station equipped to simultaneously receive X- and Ka-band signals. The experiment will accurately measure the spacecraft-to-Earth telecommunication link performance at Ka-band and X-band (8.4 GHz). 4. A Ka-band (32 GHz) beacon link experiment (KABLE) with Mars Observer NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Riley, A. L.; Hansen, D. M.; Mileant, A.; Hartop, R. W. 1987-01-01 A proposal for a Ka-Band (32 GHz) Link Experiment (KABLE) with the Mars Observer mission was submitted to NASA. The experiment will rely on the fourth harmonic of the spacecraft X-band transmitter to generate a 33.6 GHz signal. The experiment will rely also on the Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving station equipped to simultaneously receive X- and Ka-band signals. The experiment will accurately measure the spacecraft-to-Earth telecommunication link performance at Ka-band and X-band (8.4 GHz). 5. A ˜50 ka record of monsoonal variability in the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Sarkar, Anindya; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Cheng-Sen 2015-04-01 Pollen, phytoliths and δ 13C signatures of soil organic matter from two fluvial sedimentary sequences of the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas are used to portray palaeoclimatic oscillations and their impact on regional plant communities over the last ˜50 ka. Quantitative palaeoclimate estimation using coexistence approach on pollen data and other proxies indicate significant oscillations in precipitation during the late part of MIS 3 (46.4-25.9 ka), early and middle part of MIS 2 (25.9-15.6 ka), and 5.4 to 3.5 ka. Middle to late MIS 3 (ca 46.4-31 ka.) was characterized by a comparatively low monsoonal activity and slightly higher temperature than that during ca 31 ka onwards. Simultaneous expansion of deciduous trees and chloridoid grasses also imply a drier and warmer phase. Between 31 and 22.3 ka (late MIS 3 to mid-MIS 2), higher precipitation and a slightly cooler temperature led to an increase in evergreen elements over deciduous taxa and wet-loving panicoid grasses over dry-loving chloridoid grasses than earlier. After ca 22.3 ka, shrinking of forest cover, expansion of C4 chloridoid grasses, Asteraceae and Cheno-ams in the vegetation with lowering of temperature and precipitation characterized the onset of the LGM which continued till 18.3 ka. End of the LGM is manifested by a restoration in the forest cover and in the temperature and precipitation regime. Later, during 5.4 to 4.3 ka, a strong monsoonal activity supported a dense moist evergreen forest cover that subsequently declined during 4.3 to 3.5 ka. A further increase in deciduous elements and non-arboreals might be a consequence of reduced precipitation and higher temperature during this phase. A comparison between monsoonal rainfall, MAT and palaeoatmospheric CO2 with floral dynamics since last ˜50 ka indicates that these fluctuations in plant succession were mainly driven by monsoonal variations. 6. Validation Studies for CHRISTINE-CC Using a Ka-Band Coupled-Cavity TWT DTIC Science & Technology 2006-04-01 Cavity TWT for 29-31 GHz Figure 3: Output power vs. input power at f=30.0 Communications Systems," I Ith Ka and Broadband GHz for the VTA-6430A1 Ka...Coupled-Cavity TWT DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: 2006 IEEE...Studies for CHRISTINE-CC Using a Ka-Band Coupled-Cavity TWT * D. Chernin, D. Dialetis, T. M. Antonsen, Jr.t, Science Applications International Corp McLean 7. Driving anger in Ukraine: Appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while driving. PubMed Stephens, A N; Hill, T; Sullman, M J M 2016-03-01 Trait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al., 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries. 8. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers PubMed Central Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz 2014-01-01 Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497 9. [Application of HHT to driving fatigue in EEG analysis]. PubMed Nan, Jiaofen; Ai, Lingmei; Shen, Jun 2011-08-01 Based on the fact that the signals of electroencephalogram (EEG) possess non-linear and non-stationary properties, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) was proposed for the EEG analysis of driving fatigue. Firstly, C4-lead EEG was selected, and the data of normal driving state and fatigue driving state was analyzed by HHT to explore the differences. Then O2-lead EEG was chosen for contrastive analysis of differences between the different leads. It was found through the analysis that the EEG signals had different Hilbert marginal spectrums for different states, and there were also some differences at the same state for the two leads. It can be certain that HHT can well distinguish different states of drivers as a novel approach for driving fatigue detection, and the selected lead may affect detectable results to some extent. 10. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian 2001-01-01 The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends. 11. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor) 2014-01-01 A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels. 12. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks SciTech Connect Uckan, N.A. 1985-01-01 Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves). 13. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ... Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA 14. Driving for All Seasons and Reasons. Book Four. Project Drive. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Zook, Doris; And Others This Project Drive booklet titled Driving for All Seasons and Reasons is one of eight booklets designed for intermediate-level English-as-a-second-language students and low-level adult basic education/basic reading students. The goal of the booklet is to aid the student in developing the oral and sight vocabulary necessary for a basic driver… 15. VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ... Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI 16. Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka-Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Xia, Tian 2016-01-01 The Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka- Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite project will develop a novel Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) that is capable of establishing high data rate inter-satellite links with a throughput of 500 megabits per second (Mb/s) and providing millimeter ranging precision. The system will be designed to operate with high performance and reliability that is robust against various interference effects and network anomalies. The Ka-band radio resulting from this work will improve upon state of the art Ka-band radios in terms of dimensional size, mass and power dissipation, which limit their use in small satellites. 17. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat 2016-01-01 A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas. 18. Electronic Non-Contacting Linear Position Measuring System DOEpatents Post, Richard F. 2005-06-14 A non-contacting linear position location system employs a special transmission line to encode and transmit magnetic signals to a receiver on the object whose position is to be measured. The invention is useful as a non-contact linear locator of moving objects, e.g., to determine the location of a magnetic-levitation train for the operation of the linear-synchronous motor drive system. 19. The "genetics" of driving behavior: parents' driving style predicts their children's driving style. PubMed Bianchi, Alessandra; Summala, Heikki 2004-07-01 It can be hypothesized that children inherit their parents' driving habits both through genetic disposition and model learning. A few studies have shown indeed that parents' and their children's traffic convictions and accidents correlate which, however, may be due to life style and other exposure factors. This study aimed at investigating the relationships between parents' and their children's self-reported driving behavior. The subjects were 174 parent-child pairs who independently completed a questionnaire. Driving behavior-driving style-was evaluated by means of Manchester driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ), while data about driving exposure, life style, accidents, and traffic tickets were also collected. A series of regression models indicated that parents' self-reported driving behavior explains their children's respective self-reported behavior, even when exposure and demographic and life-style factors are controlled. 20. Global calibration/validation of 2 years of SARAL/AltiKa data NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Scharroo, Remko; Lillibridge, John; Leuliette, Eric; Bonekamp, Hans 2015-04-01 The AltiKa altimeter flying onboard the French/Indian SARAL satellite provides the first opportunity to examine Ka-band measurements of sea surface height, significant wave height and ocean surface wind speed. In this presentation we provide the results from our global calibration/validation analysis of the AltiKa measurements, with an emphasis on near real-time applications of interest to both EUMETSAT and NOAA. Traditional along-track SSHA, and single as well as dual-satellite crossover assessments of the AltiKa performance are be provided. Unique aspects of the AltiKa mission such as improved along-track resolution, reduced ionospheric path delay corrections, mission-specific wind speed and sea state bias corrections, and sensitivity to liquid moisture and rain are also explored. In February 2014, a major update to the ground processing was introduced. "Patch-2" improved the way wind speed was derived from altimeter backscatter, as suggested by Lillibridge et al. (1). The backscatter attenuation is now derived from the radiometer measurements via neural network algorithms, which also determine the wet tropospheric correction. We emphasize these improvements in our analysis. After 2 years in flight, SARAL/AltiKa is already providing a significant contribution to the constellation of operational radar altimetry missions, demonstrating the large benefits of high-rate Ka-band altimetry. (1) Lillibridge, John, Remko Scharroo, Saleh Abdalla, Doug Vandemark, 2014: One- and Two-Dimensional Wind Speed Models for Ka-Band Altimetry. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 630-638. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00167.1 1. An abrupt and prominent climatic reversal at 9.2 ka in the northeastern North America NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Hou, J.; Huang, Y.; Shuman, B. N.; Oswald, W.; Foster, D. R. 2008-12-01 Continental climate during the early Holocene (from 10 to 7 ka) is characterized by multiple abrupt climatic reversals such as the well-known 8.2 ka event that has been observed worldwide and attributed to the terminal collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) in the North American continent. However, many episodes of meltwater releases occurred prior to the final collapse of LIS, their impact on the continental climate is much less understood. We present in this paper decadal-scale hydrogen isotopic records of aquatic and terrestrial plant biomarkers from Blood Pond, Massachusetts during the early Holocene. Our isotopic records infer a cooling of 3~4 degree between 9.3 and 9.1 ka against the millennial scale climate background, mainly induced by changes in precipitation seasonality. In comparison, the 8.2 ka event displays smaller amplitude of temperature cooling of 1~2 degree at our southern New England site. We interpret our observed climatic reversal at ~ 9.2 ka as representing increased proportion of winter precipitation in conjunction with a drier and cooler summer, triggered by slowdown in thermohaline circulation as a result of freshwater release from the proglacial lakes. We attribute the difference in climate response at 8.2 ka and 9.2 ka events to the configuration of LIS, with 9.2 ka LIS having a much stronger blocking effect on the moisture from the Gulf of Mexico during the summer. Our data suggest that the seasonality of the precipitation at the southern New England was highly sensitive to meltwater releases, especially prior to the final collapse of the LIS. 2. NASA's Evolution to Ka-Band Space Communications for Near-Earth Spacecraft NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) McCarthy, Kevin; Stocklin, Frank; Geldzahler, Barry; Friedman, Daniel; Celeste, Peter 2010-01-01 This slide presentation reviews the exploration of NASA using a Ka-band system for spacecraft communications in Near-Earth orbits. The reasons for changing to Ka-band are the higher data rates, and the current (X-band spectrum) is becoming crowded. This will require some modification to the current ground station antennas systems. The results of a Request for Information (RFI) are discussed, and the recommended solution is reviewed. 3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic, Piezophilic, Heterotrophic Bacterium Marinitoga piezophila KA3 SciTech Connect Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Vannier, Pauline; Oger, Phil; Bartlett, Douglas; Noll, Kenneth M; Woyke, Tanja; Jebbar, Mohamed 2012-01-01 Marinitoga piezophila KA3 is a thermophilic, anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic, sulfur-reducing bacterium isolated from the Grandbonum deep-sea hydrothermal vent site at the East Pacific Rise (13 degrees N, 2,630-m depth). The genome of M. piezophila KA3 comprises a 2,231,407-bp circular chromosome and a 13,386-bp circular plasmid. This genome was sequenced within Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute CSP 2010. 4. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H. 1991-01-01 Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented. 5. Drive-By Pharming NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Stamm, Sid; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Jakobsson, Markus This paper describes an attack concept termed Drive-by Pharming where an attacker sets up a web page that, when simply viewed by the victim (on a JavaScript-enabled browser), attempts to change the DNS server settings on the victim's home broadband router. As a result, future DNS queries are resolved by a DNS server of the attacker's choice. The attacker can direct the victim's Internet traffic and point the victim to the attacker's own web sites regardless of what domain the victim thinks he is actually going to, potentially leading to the compromise of the victim's credentials. The same attack methodology can be used to make other changes to the router, like replacing its firmware. Routers could then host malicious web pages or engage in click fraud. Since the attack is mounted through viewing a web page, it does not require the attacker to have any physical proximity to the victim nor does it require the explicit download of traditional malicious software. The attack works under the reasonable assumption that the victim has not changed the default management password on their broadband router. 6. Rapid climate change from north Andean Lake Fúquene pollen records driven by obliquity: implications for a basin-wide biostratigraphic zonation for the last 284 ka NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bogotá-A, R. G.; Groot, M. H. M.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Lourens, L. J.; Van der Linden, M.; Berrio, J. C. 2011-11-01 This paper compares a new super-high resolution pollen record from a central location in Lake Fúquene (4°N) with 3 pollen records from marginal sites from the same lake basin, located at 2540 m elevation in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. We harmonized the pollen sum of all records, and provided previously published records of climate change with an improved age model using a new approach for long continental pollen records. We dissociated from subjective curve matching and applied a more objective procedure including radiocarbon ages, cyclostratigraphy, and orbital tuning using the new 284 ka long Fúquene Basin Composite record (Fq-BC) as the backbone ( Groot et al., 2011). We showed that a common ˜9 m cycle in the arboreal pollen percentage (AP%) records reflects obliquity forcing and drives vegetational and climatic change. The AP% records were tuned to the 41 kyr component filtered from standard benthic δ 18O LR04 record. Changes in sediment supply to the lake are reflected in concert by the four records making frequency analysis in the depth domain an adequate method to compare records from the same basin. We calibrated the original 14C ages and used where necessary biostratigraphic correlation, i.e. for records shorter than one obliquity cycle. Pollen records from the periphery of the lake showed changes in the abundance of Alnus and Weinmannia forests more clearly while centrally located record Fq-9C shows a more integrated signal of regional vegetation change. The revised age models show that core Fq-2 reflects the last 44 ka and composite record Fq-7C the last 85.5 ka. Marginally located core Fq-3 has an age of 133 ka at 32 m core depth and the lowermost 11 m of sediments appear of older but unknown age. The longest record Fq-BC shows ˜60 yr resolution over the period of 284-27 ka. All pollen records are in support of a common regional vegetation development leading to a robust reconstruction of long series of submillennial climate oscillations 7. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) PubMed Central 2011-01-01 Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis. PMID:21906288 8. Pre-Flight Testing and Performance of a Ka-Band Software Defined Radio NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Downey, Joseph A.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas 2012-01-01 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a space-qualified, reprogrammable, Ka-band Software Defined Radio (SDR) to be utilized as part of an on-orbit, reconfigurable testbed. The testbed will operate on the truss of the International Space Station beginning in late 2012. Three unique SDRs comprise the testbed, and each radio is compliant to the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. The testbed provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop communications, navigation, and networking applications in the laboratory and space environment, while at the same time advancing SDR technology, reducing risk, and enabling future mission capability. Designed and built by Harris Corporation, the Ka-band SDR is NASA's first space-qualified Ka-band SDR transceiver. The Harris SDR will also mark the first NASA user of the Ka-band capabilities of the Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for on-orbit operations. This paper describes the testbed's Ka-band System, including the SDR, travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), and antenna system. The reconfigurable aspects of the system enabled by SDR technology are discussed and the Ka-band system performance is presented as measured during extensive pre-flight testing. 9. Stratigraphic constraints for explosive activity in the past 100 ka at Etna Volcano, Italy NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Coltelli, Mauro; Del Carlo, Paola; Vezzoli, Luigina 2000-08-01 The pyroclastic deposits of Etna have been correlated over the whole volcanic edifice for the first time, allowing the construction of a continuous record of tephra-producing events, which extends from approximately 100 ka to the Present. In this interval, five main periods of explosive activity have been identified: (a) 100-ka strombolian to subplinian activity; (b) 80- to 100-ka plinian benmoreitic activity; (c) 16- to 80-ka strombolian to subplinian from basaltic to mugearitic activity; (d) 15.5- to 15-ka plinian benmoreitic activity accompanying the caldera-forming eruptions of the Ellittico Volcano; and (e) the most recent 13-ka basaltic explosive activity of strombolian and subplinian type of the present edifice that also includes the 122-B.C. plinian eruption. This study results in a semi-quantitative and in some cases quantitative definition of the intensity and chronology of the explosive activity at Etna. Moreover, this work gives a new significance to the volcanic hazards of Etna, a volcano generally considered to be the site of gentle effusive eruptions. 10. Progress in the prediction of pKa values in proteins SciTech Connect Alexov, Emil; Mehler, Ernest L.; Baker, Nathan A.; Baptista, Antonio; Huang, Yong; Milletti, Francesca; Nielsen, Jens E.; Farrell, Damien; Carstensen, Tommy; Olsson, Mats H.; Shen, Jana K.; Warwicker, Jim; Williams, Sarah; Word, J Michael 2011-12-15 The pKa-cooperative aims to provide a forum for experimental and theoretical researchers interested in protein pKa values and protein electrostatics in general. The first round of the pKa -cooperative, which challenged computational labs to carry out blind predictions against pKas experimentally determined in the laboratory of Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, was completed and results discussed at the Telluride meeting (July 6-10, 2009). This paper serves as an introduction to the reports submitted by the blind prediction participants that will be published in a special issue of PROTEINS: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics. Here we briefly outline existing approaches for pKa calculations, emphasizing methods that were used by the participants in calculating the blind pKa values in the first round of the cooperative. We then point out some of the difficulties encountered by the participating groups in making their blind predictions, and finally try to provide some insights for future developments aimed at improving the accuracy of pKa calculations. 11. A Ka-band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Sotuela, I. 2011-10-01 The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of ~200 micro-arcsec (μas) in α cos δ and ~300 μas in δ. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions. 12. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana 2011-01-01 The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions. 13. The GridKa Tier-1 Computing Center within the ALICE Grid Framework NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Park, WooJin J.; Christopher, Jung; Heiss, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas; Schwarz, Kilian 2014-06-01 The GridKa computing center, hosted by Steinbuch Centre for Computing at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany, is serving as the largest Tier-1 center used by the ALICE collaboration at the LHC. In 2013, GridKa provides 30k HEPSPEC06, 2.7 PB of disk space, and 5.25 PB of tape storage to ALICE. The 10Gbit/s network connections from GridKa to CERN, several Tier-1 centers and the general purpose network are used by ALICE intensively. In 2012 a total amount of ~1 PB was transferred to and from GridKa. As Grid framework, AliEn (ALICE Environment) is being used to access the resources, and various monitoring tools including the MonALISA (MONitoring Agent using a Large Integrated Services Architecture) are always running to alert in case of any problem. GridKa on-call engineers provide 24/7 support to guarantee minimal loss of availability of computing and storage resources in case of hardware or software problems. We introduce the GridKa Tier-1 center from the viewpoint of ALICE services. 14. High frequency drive mechanism for an active controls systems aircraft control surface NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Smith, H. E. 1981-01-01 The mechanism was successfully utilized on a wind tunnel model tested in the transonic blow down tunnel. The mechanism is also applicable to a flying aircraft. Several interrelated mechanical subsystems were utilized, including a low inertia antibacklash drive mechanism for high frequency oscillation and a compact antibacklash drive mechanism for conversion of rotary motion to linear motion. 15. An optically controlled Ka-band phased array antenna NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Kunath, R. R.; Lee, Richard Q.; Martzaklis, K. S.; Shalkhauser, K. A.; Downey, Alan N.; Simons, Rainee N. 1992-01-01 The design and development of a small, optically controlled phased array antenna suitable for communication satellite applications are discussed. A vertical integration architecture is used which minimizes the size of the array with its associated beamforming network (BFN). The antenna features a four-element linear microstrip array that uses aperture coupling of the antenna elements to the BFN; a modified Wilkinson power divider BFN; and 32 GHz, four-bit monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phase shifters in customized quartz packages with corresponding optoelectronic interface circuits (OEIC's) for control signal reception. 16. A vertically integrated Ka-band phased array antenna NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Kunath, R. R.; Lee, R. Q.; Martzaklis, K. S.; Shalkhauser, K. A.; Downey, A. N.; Simons, R. 1992-01-01 The design, development, and experimental demonstration of a small phased array antenna suitable for applications on communications satellites are discussed. Each of the vertical layers was optimized for performance, and MMICs on custom carriers were characterized prior to insertion. A vertical integration architecture is used which minimizes the size of the array with its associated beamforming network (BFN). The antenna features a four-element linear microstrip array that uses aperture coupling of the antenna elements to the BFN; a modified Wilkinson power divider BFN; and 32 Ghz, 4-bit MMIC phase shifters on customized alumina carriers. Performance data are presented for all components, and far-field antenna radiation patterns are given. 17. Handbook for Driving Knowledge Testing. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L. Materials intended for driving knowledge test development for use by operational licensing and education agencies are presented. A pool of 1,313 multiple choice test items is included, consisting of sets of specially developed and tested items covering principles of safe driving, legal regulations, and traffic control device knowledge pertinent to… 18. Bidirectional drive and brake mechanism NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Swan, Scott A. (Inventor) 1991-01-01 A space transport vehicle is disclosed as including a body which is arranged to be movably mounted on an elongated guide member disposed in outer space and driven therealong. A drive wheel is mounted on a drive shaft and arranged to be positioned in rolling engagement with the elongated guide carrying the vehicle. A brake member is arranged on the drive shaft for movement into and out of engagement with an adjacent surface of the drive wheel. An actuator is mounted on the body to be manually moved back and forth between spaced positions in an arc of movement. A ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is arranged to operate upon movements of the actuator in one direction between first and second positions for coupling the actuator to the drive wheel to incrementally rotate the wheel in one rotational direction and to operate upon movements of the actuator in the opposite direction for uncoupling the actuator from the wheel. The brake member is threadedly coupled to the drive shaft in order that the brake member will be operated only when the actuator is moved on beyond its first and second positions for shifting the brake member along the drive shaft and into frictional engagement with the adjacent surface on the drive wheel. 19. Silicic magma accumulation beneath Mount Mazama, Oregon, 71 ka to 24 ka constrained by SHRIMP measurements of dissolved volatile concentrations in melt inclusions NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Wright, H. M.; Bacon, C. R.; Vazquez, J. A.; Sisson, T. W. 2010-12-01 Dissolved volatile contents of melt inclusions trapped in pyroxene and plagioclase crystals from 7 silicic eruptions preceding the climactic ~7.7 ka Mazama eruption were measured by SIMS with the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG. Melt inclusions in crystals were intersected, polished, and crystals were mounted in indium in Al mounts. A 1.2-3.0 nA (depending on the session), O2- primary beam was accelerated and focused to a 15-25 μm spot on the sample surface, which generated positive secondary ions of analyzed Li, Be, B, C, OH, F, Mg, Si, SiH, S, Cl, Ca, AlO, KO, Rb, and Sr. Measurements were made at high mass resolution (6000-7000). Trace element and volatile concentrations were calculated using a best-fit regression to count rate ratios (normalized to 30Si) vs. variable known concentrations in experimental and natural rhyolite glass standards. Pumiceous samples were chosen from dacitic to rhyodacitic eruptive deposits, consisting of the 71ka dacite of Pumice Castle, 70ka dacite below Llao Rock, 50ka dacite of the Watchman, 35ka dacite of Munson Valley, 35ka Williams Crater tephra, 27ka Redcloud Cliff rhyodacite, and 24ka andesite S of Bear Bluff. Melt inclusions are abundant in spongy, mineral-inclusion-rich interiors of pyroxene crystals in early (71-35ka) eruptive deposits and are less abundant throughout pyroxenes from later eruptions (35-24ka) and in plagioclase crystals. Over the entire time interval, most trace element and volatile concentrations remain approximately constant between melt inclusion populations. However, there are some variations in water and carbon dioxide concentration. A large proportion of inclusions in the smaller eruptive deposits (0.003-0.4 km3) of the dacite of the Watchman, dacite of Munson Valley, and Williams Crater tephra have low water contents, ~1 wt% H2O, corresponding to a saturation pressure of 25MPa, or ~1km depth (at 870°, approximate average temperature for these deposits, e.g., Druitt and Bacon, Contrib Mineral Petrol 1989 20. Quantum gates by periodic driving PubMed Central Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X. 2016-01-01 Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900 1. Electric vehicle drive systems NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Appleyard, M. 1992-01-01 New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced. 2. The SPARC linear accelerator based terahertz source SciTech Connect Chiadroni, E.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Filippetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Pace, E.; Rossi, A. R.; Vaccarezza, C.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; and others 2013-03-04 Ultra-short electron beams, produced through the velocity bunching compression technique, are used to drive the SPARC linear accelerator based source, which relies on the emission of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range. This paper reports on the main features of this radiation, as terahertz source, with spectral coverage up to 5 THz and pulse duration down to 200 fs, with an energy per pulse of the order of several micro-joule, and as electron beam longitudinal diagnostics. 3. High average power linear induction accelerator development SciTech Connect Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J. 1987-07-01 There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs. 4. VINETA II: A linear magnetic reconnection experiment SciTech Connect Bohlin, H. Von Stechow, A.; Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T. 2014-02-15 A linear experiment dedicated to the study of driven magnetic reconnection is presented. The new device (VINETA II) is suitable for investigating both collisional and near collisionless reconnection. Reconnection is achieved by externally driving magnetic field lines towards an X-point, inducing a current in the background plasma which consequently modifies the magnetic field topology. Owing to the open field line configuration of the experiment, the current is limited by the axial sheath boundary conditions. A plasma gun is used as an additional electron source in order to counterbalance the charge separation effects and supply the required current. Two drive methods are used in the device. First, an oscillating current through two parallel conductors drive the reconnection. Second, a stationary X-point topology is formed by the parallel conductors, and the drive is achieved by an oscillating current through a third conductor. In the first setup, the magnetic field of the axial plasma current dominates the field topology near the X-point throughout most of the drive. The second setup allows for the amplitude of the plasma current as well as the motion of the flux to be set independently of the X-point topology of the parallel conductors. 5. Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator to drive the future FEL Light Source. SciTech Connect Jing, C.; Power, J.; Zholents, A. ) 2011-04-20 X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expensive instruments and a large part of the cost of the entire facility is driven by the accelerator. Using a high-energy gain dielectric wake-field accelerator (DWA) instead of the conventional accelerator may provide a significant cost saving and reduction of the facility size. In this article, we investigate using a collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator to provide a high repetition rate, high current, high energy beam to drive a future FEL x-ray light source. As an initial case study, a {approx}100 MV/m loaded gradient, 850 GHz quartz dielectric based 2-stage, wakefield accelerator is proposed to generate a main electron beam of 8 GeV, 50 pC/bunch, {approx}1.2 kA of peak current, 10 x 10 kHz (10 beamlines) in just 100 meters with the fill factor and beam loading considered. This scheme provides 10 parallel main beams with one 100 kHz drive beam. A drive-to-main beam efficiency {approx}38.5% can be achieved with an advanced transformer ratio enhancement technique. rf power dissipation in the structure is only 5 W/cm{sup 2} in the high repetition rate, high gradient operation mode, which is in the range of advanced water cooling capability. Details of study presented in the article include the overall layout, the transform ratio enhancement scheme used to increase the drive to main beam efficiency, main wakefield linac design, cooling of the structure, etc. 6. Molecular Paleoclimate Reconstructions over the Last 9 ka from a Peat Sequence in South China PubMed Central Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Xianyu; Sachse, Dirk; Ding, Weihua; Xue, Jiantao 2016-01-01 To achieve a better understanding of Holocene climate change in the monsoon regions of China, we investigated the molecular distributions and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ13C and δD values) of long-chain n-alkanes in a peat core from the Shiwangutian (SWGT) peatland, south China over the last 9 ka. By comparisons with other climate records, we found that the δ13C values of the long-chain n-alkanes can be a proxy for humidity, while the δD values of the long-chain n-alkanes primarily recorded the moisture source δD signal during 9–1.8 ka BP and responded to the dry climate during 1.8–0.3 ka BP. Together with the average chain length (ACL) and the carbon preference index (CPI) data, the climate evolution over last 9 ka in the SWGT peatland can be divided into three stages. During the first stage (9–5 ka BP), the δ13C values were depleted and CPI and Paq values were low, while ACL values were high. They reveal a period of warm and wet climate, which is regarded as the Holocene optimum. The second stage (5–1.8 ka BP) witnessed a shift to relatively cool and dry climate, as indicated by the more positive δ13C values and lower ACL values. During the third stage (1.8–0.3 ka BP), the δ13C, δD, CPI and Paq values showed marked increase and ACL values varied greatly, implying an abrupt change to cold and dry conditions. This climate pattern corresponds to the broad decline in Asian monsoon intensity through the latter part of the Holocene. Our results do not support a later Holocene optimum in south China as suggested by previous studies. PMID:27505008 7. Molecular Paleoclimate Reconstructions over the Last 9 ka from a Peat Sequence in South China. PubMed Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Xianyu; Sachse, Dirk; Ding, Weihua; Xue, Jiantao 2016-01-01 To achieve a better understanding of Holocene climate change in the monsoon regions of China, we investigated the molecular distributions and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ13C and δD values) of long-chain n-alkanes in a peat core from the Shiwangutian (SWGT) peatland, south China over the last 9 ka. By comparisons with other climate records, we found that the δ13C values of the long-chain n-alkanes can be a proxy for humidity, while the δD values of the long-chain n-alkanes primarily recorded the moisture source δD signal during 9-1.8 ka BP and responded to the dry climate during 1.8-0.3 ka BP. Together with the average chain length (ACL) and the carbon preference index (CPI) data, the climate evolution over last 9 ka in the SWGT peatland can be divided into three stages. During the first stage (9-5 ka BP), the δ13C values were depleted and CPI and Paq values were low, while ACL values were high. They reveal a period of warm and wet climate, which is regarded as the Holocene optimum. The second stage (5-1.8 ka BP) witnessed a shift to relatively cool and dry climate, as indicated by the more positive δ13C values and lower ACL values. During the third stage (1.8-0.3 ka BP), the δ13C, δD, CPI and Paq values showed marked increase and ACL values varied greatly, implying an abrupt change to cold and dry conditions. This climate pattern corresponds to the broad decline in Asian monsoon intensity through the latter part of the Holocene. Our results do not support a later Holocene optimum in south China as suggested by previous studies. 8. The kinetics of acylation and deacylation of penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli ATCC 11105: evidence for lowered pKa values of groups near the catalytic centre. PubMed Central Morillas, M; Goble, M L; Virden, R 1999-01-01 Penicillin G acylase catalysed the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate with a kcat of 0.8 s-1 and a Km of 10 microM at pH 7.5 and 20 degreesC. Results from stopped-flow experiments fitted a dissociation constant of 0.16 mM for the Michaelis complex, formation of an acetyl enzyme with a rate constant of 32 s-1 and a subsequent deacylation step with a rate constant of 0.81 s-1. Non-linear Van't Hoff and Arrhenius plots for these parameters, measured at pH 7.5, may be partly explained by a conformational transition affecting catalytic groups, but a linear Arrhenius plot for the ratio of the rate constant for acylation relative to KS was consistent with energy-compensation between the binding of the substrate and catalysis of the formation of the transition state. At 20 degreesC, the pH-dependence of kcat was similar to that of kcat/Km, indicating that formation of the acyl-enzyme did not affect the pKa values (6.5 and 9.0) of an acidic and basic group in the active enzyme. The heats of ionization deduced from values of pKa for kcat, which measures the rate of deacylation, are consistent with alpha-amino and guanidinium groups whose pKa values are decreased in a non-polar environment. It is proposed that, for catalytic activity, the alpha-amino group of the catalytic SerB1 and the guanidinium group of ArgB263 are required in neutral and protonated states respectively. PMID:9931321 9. Linear integrated circuits NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Young, T. This book is intended to be used as a textbook in a one-semester course at a variety of levels. Because of self-study features incorporated, it may also be used by practicing electronic engineers as a formal and thorough introduction to the subject. The distinction between linear and digital integrated circuits is discussed, taking into account digital and linear signal characteristics, linear and digital integrated circuit characteristics, the definitions for linear and digital circuits, applications of digital and linear integrated circuits, aspects of fabrication, packaging, and classification and numbering. Operational amplifiers are considered along with linear integrated circuit (LIC) power requirements and power supplies, voltage and current regulators, linear amplifiers, linear integrated circuit oscillators, wave-shaping circuits, active filters, DA and AD converters, demodulators, comparators, instrument amplifiers, current difference amplifiers, analog circuits and devices, and aspects of troubleshooting. 10. A linear programming manual NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Tuey, R. C. 1972-01-01 Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated. 11. Linear Accelerator (LINAC) MedlinePlus ... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... Therapy (SBRT) . top of page How does the equipment work? The linear accelerator uses microwave technology (similar ... 12. Foucault Pendulum without Driving NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Yamashita, Yoshifumi 2016-06-01 Foucault pendulums are two-dimensional harmonic oscillators to which the Coriolis force is applied. The Foucault parameter ΩF is the ideal rate of rotation of the plane of oscillation due to the Coriolis force. Kamerlingh Onnes pointed out that the actual behavior of Foucault pendulums can be understood only by taking into account the unavoidable mechanical asymmetry, i.e., the difference between the frequency in the X-direction and that in the Y-direction, which is called the asymmetry parameter δ. Our equations of motion for Foucault pendulums are linear and their solutions are easily obtained. We are interested in slowly varying rotations of the plane of oscillation, where the angle of rotation is denoted by φ. The motion of the bob consists of rapid simple oscillations and the slow rotations mentioned above. Eliminating the rapid oscillations, we obtain an analytic expression for tan 2φ, which is a periodic function with period π /√{Ω F2 + δ 2} . The graphs of the rotation φ versus time t have two distinct appearances. Under the condition ΩF ≥ δ|cos(2θ)| (θ is the initial value of φ), φ decreases monotonically, which is the behavior expected for Foucault pendulums. Otherwise φ repeatedly increases and decreases, which is the behavior of pendulums describing Lissajous figures. The vertical component of angular momentum is also calculated analytically. 13. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks PubMed Central Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter 2015-01-01 Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P < 0.05 for the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289 14. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit DOEpatents Ball, Don G.; Birx, Dan; Cook, Edward G. 1993-01-01 A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased. 15. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit DOEpatents Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G. 1993-01-05 A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased. 16. How to maintain chain drives SciTech Connect Wright, J.L. ) 1992-06-18 Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out. 17. IR Linearity Monitor NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Hilbert, Bryan 2012-10-01 These observations will be used to monitor the signal non-linearity of the IR channel, as well as to update the IR channel non-linearity calibration reference file. The non-linearity behavior of each pixel in the detector will be investigated through the use of full frame and subarray flat fields, while the photometric behavior of point sources will be studied using observations of 47 Tuc. This is a continuation of the Cycle 19 non-linearity monitor, program 12696. 18. IR linearity monitor NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Hilbert, Bryan 2013-10-01 These observations will be used to monitor the signal non-linearity of the IR channel, as well as to update the IR channel non-linearity calibration reference file. The non-linearity behavior of each pixel in the detector will be investigated through the use of full frame and subarray flat fields, while the photometric behavior of point sources will be studied using observations of 47 Tuc. This is a continuation of the Cycle 20 non-linearity monitor, program 13079. 19. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence. PubMed Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C 2010-05-01 The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety. 20. Records of the paleoclimate during the fast transgression period (13 ka BP-8 ka BP) from the mud area on the inner shelf of the East China Sea NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Liu, S. 2015-12-01 A 35.30m-long core (MZ02) recovered from a water depth of 32.4m from the inner shelf mud deposit of the East China Sea was analyzed for sedimentary characteristics, color reflectance, clay mineral, and element geochemistry components as well as by AMS 14C dating to research the sedimentation rate, sediment provenance and paleocwan mountainous river and clay fralimate evolution during the fast transgression period in the study area. Rare earth element and clay mineral proxies indicated that the mixed provenance sediment accumulated in the foreshore-nearshore region at the beginning of the fast transgression period, with a higher sedimentation rate of 5.58m/ka. While from 9800-9500 a B.P., the sedimentation rate keep lower about 1.73m/ka, and the sediment provenance changed obviously, silt fraction were apt to Taiction prone to be transported from the Yangtze River. Multiple proxy system including sediment redness (a*), chemical index of alteration (CIA), clay mineral proxy (smectite/kaolinite), major and trace element proxy (CaO/MgO, Ba/Sr) also showed a good paleoclimate record during the fast transgression period, which could be divided into three units. All the proxies changed little during Unit I (13-11.3ka B.P.) and revealed the climate kept in a relative stable level. Obvious fluctuation happened in Unit II (11.3-10.1ka B.P.) and the temperature kept decreasing more than 1ka till the Younger Dryas event, showed a well regional response to global climate changes. While continuous warming trend resumed again in Unit III (10.1-8 ka B.P.), which may be the signal for Holocene warm period. In addition, we also found significant 80yr, 89yr and 100yr cycles in our CIA, CaO/MgO and Ba/Sr records that imply a possible solar influence on the regional climate changes during the fast transgression period. Keywords: East China Sea, provenance, transgression, mud deposit, late Pleistocene, paleoclimate 1. Linear-Algebra Programs NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B. 1982-01-01 The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers. 2. Equatorial Precession in the Control Software of the Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring Experiment NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Jakeman, Hali L. 2013-01-01 The Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring, or KaBOOM, project is designed mainly to track and characterize near Earth objects. However, a smaller goal of the project would be to monitor pulsars and study their radio frequency signals for use as a clock in interstellar travel. The use of pulsars and their timing accuracy has been studied for decades, but never in the Ka-band of the radio frequency spectrum. In order to begin the use of KaBOOM for this research, the control systems need to be analyzed to ensure its capability. Flaws in the control documentation leave it unclear as to whether the control software processes coordinates from the J200 epoch. This experiment will examine the control software of the Intertronic 12m antennas used for the KaBOOM project and detail its capabilities in its "equatorial mode." The antennas will be pointed at 4 chosen points in the sky on several days while probing the virtual azimuth and elevation (horizon coordinate) registers. The input right ascension and declination coordinates will then be converted separately from the control software to horizontal coordinates and compared, thus determining the ability of the control software to process equatorial coordinates. 3. Ka-band monopulse antenna-pointing systems analysis and simulation NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Lo, V. Y. 1996-01-01 NASA 's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been using both 70-m and 34-m reflector antennas to communicate with spacecraft at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.45 GHz). To improve the quality of telecommunication and to meet future mission requirements, JPL has been developing 34-m Ka-band (32-GHz) beam waveguide antennas. Presently, antenna pointing operates in either the open-loop mode with blind pointing using navigation predicts or the closed-loop mode with conical scan (conscan). Pointing accuracy under normal conscan operating conditions is in the neighborhood of 5 mdeg. This is acceptable at S- and X-bands, but not enough at Ka-band. Due to the narrow beamwidth at Ka-band, it is important to improve pointing accuracy significantly (approximately 2 mdeg). Monopulse antenna tracking is one scheme being developed to meet the stringent pointing-accuracy requirement at Ka-band. Other advantages of monopulse tracking include low sensitivity to signal amplitude fluctuations as well as single-pulse processing for acquisition and tracking. This article presents system modeling, signal processing, simulation, and implementation of Ka-band monopulse tracking feed for antennas in NASA/DSN ground stations. 4. A 600-ka Arctic sea-ice record from Mendeleev Ridge based on ostracodes NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Cronin, T. M.; Polyak, L.; Reed, D.; Kandiano, E. S.; Marzen, R. E.; Council, E. A. 2013-11-01 Arctic paleoceanography and sea-ice history were reconstructed from epipelagic and benthic ostracodes from a sediment core (HLY0503-06JPC, 800 m water depth) located on the Mendeleev Ridge, Western Arctic Ocean. The calcareous microfaunal record (ostracodes and foraminifers) covers several glacial/interglacial cycles back to estimated Marine Isotope Stage 13 (MIS 13, ˜500 ka) with an average sedimentation rate of ˜0.5 cm/ka for most of the stratigraphy (MIS 5-13). Results based on ostracode assemblages and an unusual planktic foraminiferal assemblage in MIS 11 dominated by a temperate-water species Turborotalita egelida show that extreme interglacial warmth, high surface ocean productivity, and possibly open ocean convection characterized MIS 11 and MIS 13 (˜400 and 500 ka, respectively). A major shift in western Arctic Ocean environments toward perennial sea ice occurred after MIS 11 based on the distribution of an ice-dwelling ostracode Acetabulastoma arcticum. Spectral analyses of the ostracode assemblages indicate sea ice and mid-depth ocean circulation in western Arctic Ocean varied primarily at precessional (˜22 ka) and obliquity (˜40 ka) frequencies. 5. A 600-ka Arctic sea-ice record from Mendeleev Ridge based on ostracodes USGS Publications Warehouse Cronin, Thomas M.; Polyak, L.V.; Reed, D.; Kandiano, E. S.; Marzen, R. E.; Council, E. A. 2013-01-01 Arctic paleoceanography and sea-ice history were reconstructed from epipelagic and benthic ostracodes from a sediment core (HLY0503-06JPC, 800 m water depth) located on the Mendeleev Ridge, Western Arctic Ocean. The calcareous microfaunal record (ostracodes and foraminifers) covers several glacial/interglacial cycles back to estimated Marine Isotope Stage 13 (MIS 13, ∼500 ka) with an average sedimentation rate of ∼0.5 cm/ka for most of the stratigraphy (MIS 5–13). Results based on ostracode assemblages and an unusual planktic foraminiferal assemblage in MIS 11 dominated by a temperate-water species Turborotalita egelida show that extreme interglacial warmth, high surface ocean productivity, and possibly open ocean convection characterized MIS 11 and MIS 13 (∼400 and 500 ka, respectively). A major shift in western Arctic Ocean environments toward perennial sea ice occurred after MIS 11 based on the distribution of an ice-dwelling ostracode Acetabulastoma arcticum. Spectral analyses of the ostracode assemblages indicate sea ice and mid-depth ocean circulation in western Arctic Ocean varied primarily at precessional (∼22 ka) and obliquity (∼40 ka) frequencies. 6. Geological record of meltwater events at Qinghai Lake, China from the past 40 ka NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Taibei; Wang, Hao; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Peng; Zhu, Yizhi; Burr, G. S. 2016-10-01 We report here on a previously unpublished sediment core from Qinghai Lake, China, that preserves a continuous record of sedimentation for the past 40 ka. A striking feature of the record is a set of distinct meltwater events recorded at 35, 19 and 14 ka respectively. These events are manifest as distinct pulses of relatively old organic radiocarbon in the sediments. We interpret these as a signal of glacial melting in the Qinghai Lake watershed. The meltwater signals are closely correlated to temperature and precipitation records associated with deglaciation. The events at 19 ka and 14 ka correspond to well-established high latitude Melt Water Pulse (MWP) events during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, and the 35 ka event corresponds to a period of pervasive high lake levels in western China during late MIS 3. We interpret these anomalous dates as the result of relatively old carbon that was destabilized by the glaciers, and released into the lake as the glaciers melted. The data indicate that this process takes thousands of years. We expect that the approach employed here to identify these events is generally applicable to any lake system with a significant glacial meltwater component. 7. Performance of a Ka-band transponder breadboard for deep-space applications NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W. 1995-01-01 This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of and advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Da-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7 deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results. 8. Overview of Ka-band communications technology requirements for the space exploration initiative NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Miller, Edward F. 1991-12-01 In the Space Exploration Initiative, Ka-band frequencies are likely to carry the bulk of the communications traffic both in the vicinity of and on the return links from the moon and Mars. The four exploration architectures identified by the Synthesis Group are examined and Ka-band technology requirements to meet the data traffic needs and schedule are identified. Specific Ka-band technology requirements identified are: transmitters - 0.5 to 200 W with high efficiency; antennas - 5m and 9m diameter, with multiple beams and/or scanning beams; and spacecraft receivers - noise figure of 2 dB. For each component, the current state of technology is assessed and needed technology development programs are identified. It is concluded that to meet the schedules of lunar and Mars precursor missions beginning in approximately the year 2000, aggressive technology development and advanced development programs are required immediately for Ka-band communications systems components. Additionally, the greater data transmission rates for the cargo and piloted phases of the exploration program require further Ka-band communications technology developments targeted for operations beginning in about 2010. 9. Performance of a Ka-band transponder breadboard for deep-space applications NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W. 1995-08-01 This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of and advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Da-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7 deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results. 10. Overview of Ka-band communications technology requirements for the space exploration initiative NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Miller, Edward F. 1991-01-01 In the Space Exploration Initiative, Ka-band frequencies are likely to carry the bulk of the communications traffic both in the vicinity of and on the return links from the moon and Mars. The four exploration architectures identified by the Synthesis Group are examined and Ka-band technology requirements to meet the data traffic needs and schedule are identified. Specific Ka-band technology requirements identified are: transmitters - 0.5 to 200 W with high efficiency; antennas - 5m and 9m diameter, with multiple beams and/or scanning beams; and spacecraft receivers - noise figure of 2 dB. For each component, the current state of technology is assessed and needed technology development programs are identified. It is concluded that to meet the schedules of lunar and Mars precursor missions beginning in approximately the year 2000, aggressive technology development and advanced development programs are required immediately for Ka-band communications systems components. Additionally, the greater data transmission rates for the cargo and piloted phases of the exploration program require further Ka-band communications technology developments targeted for operations beginning in about 2010. 11. Sea-level records at ~80 ka from tectonically stable platforms: Florida and Bermuda USGS Publications Warehouse Ludwig, K. R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A. 1996-01-01 Studies from technically active coasts on New Guinea and Barbados have suggested that sea level at ???80 ka was significantly lower than present, whereas data from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America indicate an ???80 ka sea level close to that of the present. We determined ages of corals from a shallow submerged reef off the Florida Keys and an emergent marine deposit on Bermuda. Both localities are on tectonically stable platforms distant from plate boundaries. Uranium-series ages show that corals at both localities grew during the ???80 ka sea-level highstand, and geologic data show that sea level at that time was no lower than 7-9 m below present (Florida) and may have been 1-2 m above present (Bermuda). The ice-volume discrepancy of the 80 ka sea-level estimates is greater than the volume of the Greenland or West Antarctic ice sheets. Comparison of our ages with high-latitude insolation values indicates that the sea-level stand near the present at ???80 ka could have been orbitally forced. 12. Apparatus for forming drive belts NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor) 1974-01-01 An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers. 13. Dangers of Texting While Driving MedlinePlus ... Privacy Policy Proceedings & Actions Proceedings and Actions Overview Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) Commission Documents (EDOCS) Most ... 000 drivers are using cell phones or manipulating electronic devices while driving, a number that has held ... 14. Driving Speed vs Fuel Efficiency. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Vest, Floyd 1980-01-01 A mathematical treatment of the relationship between driving speed and fuel efficiency is presented. The material involves applications of exponentials, logarithms, and elementary calculus, and is intended to be enrichment material for secondary and lower college mathematics classes. (MP) 15. Power requirements for current drive NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Boozer, Allen H. 1988-03-01 General formulas for the efficiency of current drive in toroidal plasmas are derived using entropy arguments. The highest possible efficiency for current drive in which a high-energy electron tail is formed is shown to be p=Erj, with p and j the power and current densities and Er≊0.09n14 V/m with n14 the electron density in units of 1014/cm.3 The electric field required to maintain the current in a runaway discharge is also shown to equal Er. If the plasma current is carried by near-Maxwellian electrons, waves that have a low phase velocity, compared to the energy of the electrons with which they interact, can drive a current with Ohmic efficiency, p=ηj2. Such waves were first discussed in the context of current drive by Fisch [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 175 (1987)]. 16. Mechanical drive for blood pump DOEpatents Bifano, N.J.; Pouchot, W.D. 1975-07-29 This patent relates to a highly efficient blood pump to be used as a replacement for a ventricle of the human heart to restore people disabled by heart disease. The mechanical drive of the present invention is designed to operate in conjunction with a thermoelectric converter power source. The mechanical drive system essentially converts the output of a rotary power into pulsatile motion so that the power demand from the thermoelectric converter remains essentially constant while the blood pump output is pulsed. (auth) 17. [Vision and car driving ability]. PubMed Wilhelm, Helmut 2011-05-01 Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered. 18. Influence of northwest Pacific productivity on North Pacific Intermediate Water oxygen concentrations during the Bølling-Ållerød interval (14.7-12.9 ka) USGS Publications Warehouse Crusius, John; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Kienast, Stephanie; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Labeyrie, Laurent 2004-01-01 Elevated productivity in the northwest Pacific is suggested as a new possible control driving past intervals of low-O2 intermediate water along the western continental margin of North America. According to this mechanism, O2 consumption would occur near the site of formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), due to increased respiration of organic carbon in response to a high-productivity event. Evidence is provided for such a productivity increase during the B??lling-A??ller??d interval (14.7-12.9 ka), a time when laminated sediments were deposited along the northern California margin. By this mechanism, low-O2 events in intermediate waters off the western North American margin could occur without significant changes in the rate of NPIW ventilation. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America. 19. Low backlash direct drive actuator DOEpatents Kuklo, T.C. 1994-10-25 A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 10 figs. 20. Low backlash direct drive actuator DOEpatents Kuklo, Thomas C. 1994-01-01 A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 1. Evaluating North America Paleoclimate Simulations for 6 ka and 21 ka Using a Combination of Observed Paleovegetation Data and Process-Based Vegetation Model Simulations NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J. 2015-12-01 Paleoclimate model simulations are often evaluated using observed paleovegetation data (e.g., pollen and plant macrofossils) that record vegetation responses to past climate changes. These observed vegetation data can be combined with mechanistic vegetation model simulations to develop process-based evaluations of paleoclimate model simulations. The use of mechanistic vegetation model simulations allows us to identify the particular spatial and temporal features of individual paleoclimate simulations that may be producing agreement or disagreement between the observed and simulated vegetation data. We used this approach to evaluate a set of eight PMIP3 (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 3) paleoclimate simulations for 6 ka and 21 ka from the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) database. Climate data were regridded onto a 10-km grid of North America using the PMIP3 vegetation simulation protocol. The regridded climate data were used as input to BIOME4, an equilibrium vegetation model, to simulate 6 ka and 21 ka biomes across the study area. The simulated biome data were compared with observed paleovegetation data from the BIOME 6000 (version 4.2) dataset. In general, agreement between simulated and observed biomes was greater for forest biomes than for non-forest biomes. We evaluated specific instances of disagreement between the simulated and observed biomes to determine whether the biome disagreement was produced by the climate model simulation (e.g., temperature bias), the vegetation model simulation (e.g., inability to simulate important disturbance regimes), the observed paleovegetation data (e.g., limits in the biomization method), or a combination of these factors. The results are summarized and we describe some of the strengths and limitations of this data-model comparison approach for evaluating paleoclimate simulations. 2. Low Inductance pulser system drives a fast magnet at DARHT. SciTech Connect Rose, E. A.; Bartsch, R. R.; Custer, D. M.; Ekdahl, C. A.; Montoya, R. R.; Smith, J. R. 2002-01-01 The DARHT facility [Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] uses bremsstrahlung radiation from focused electron beams to produce radiographs. To produce a smaller spot size and, thus, a higher quality radiograph, one must be able to control the emittance of the electron beam. To that end, it is necessary to measure emittance. Emittance is measured by focusing the electron beam to a small size, such that the size is dominated by the emittance, as opposed to the space charge. Our electron beam, at 2 kA, 18 MV and 2 ps, would destroy any imaging target, were the full beam to be focused to minimal spot size for the full beam duration. The solution is to focus the beam for a short duration, a few tens of nanoseconds, using a fast solenoid magnet. This paper reports details of the pulsed power system used to drive the segmented magnet. The system consists of twenty pulsers, driving 60 cables to feed two headers on the magnet. The magnet itself consists of 12 individual loops, each segmented in three parts, for inductance reduction. The system is designed to produce one kilogauss over a 15-cm diameter and 60-cm length. The pulsers incorporate spark gaps that produce the main pulse with a half sine period of 125 ns and also clip the tail of the pulse to prevent refocusing of the beam. A five-to-one ratio between the first and second current peaks has been demonstrated [same polarity peaks]. 3. NASA's K/Ka-Band Broadband Aeronautical Terminal for Duplex Satellite Video Communications NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Densmore, A.; Agan, M. 1994-01-01 JPL has recently begun the development of a Broadband Aeronautical Terminal (BAT) for duplex video satellite communications on commercial or business class aircraft. The BAT is designed for use with NASA's K/Ka-band Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The BAT system will provide the systems and technology groundwork for an eventual commercial K/Ka-band aeronautical satellite communication system. With industry/government partnerships, three main goals will be addressed by the BAT task: 1) develop, characterize and demonstrate the performance of an ACTS based high data rate aeronautical communications system; 2) assess the performance of current video compression algorithms in an aeronautical satellite communication link; and 3) characterize the propagation effects of the K/Ka-band channel for aeronautical communications. 4. Validation of SARAL/AltiKa data in the Amazon basin NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Santos da Silva, Joecila; Calmant, Stephane; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Oliveira, Robson; Conchy, Taina; Gennero, Marie-Claude; Seyler, Frederique 2015-04-01 SARAL/AltiKa is a link between past missions (since it flies on the ERS-ENVISAT orbit with Ku band nadir altimeters in LRM) and future missions such as SWOT's Ka band interferometry swaths. In the present study, we compare the capability of its altimeter AltiKa to that of previous missions working in the Ku band such as ENVISAT and Jason-2 in retrieving water levels over the Amazon basin. Same as for the aforementioned preceding missions, the best results were obtained with the ICE-1 retracking algorithm. We qualitatively analyze the impact of rainfalls in the loss of measurements. Since making long -multi mission- time series is of major importance either for hydro-climatic studies or for basin management, we also present an estimate of the altimeter bias in order that the SARAL series of water level can be appended to those of these previous missions. 5. Radar altimetry backscattering signatures at Ka, Ku, C, and S bands over West Africa NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Frappart, F.; Fatras, C.; Mougin, E.; Marieu, V.; Diepkilé, A. T.; Blarel, F.; Borderies, P. This study presents a comprehensive comparison of radar altimetry signatures at Ka-, Ku-, C-, and S-bands using SARAL, ENVISAT and Jason-2 data over the major bioclimatic zones, soil and vegetation types encountered in West-Africa, with an emphasis on the new information at Ka-band provided by the recently launched SARAL-Altika mission. Spatio-temporal variations of the radar altimetry responses were related to changes in surface roughness, land cover and soil wetness. Analysis of time series of backscattering coefficients along the West African bioclimatic gradient shows that radar echoes at nadir incidence are well correlated to soil moisture in semi-arid savannah environments. Radar altimeters are able to detect the presence of water even under a dense canopy cover at all frequencies. But only measurements at Ka-band are able to penetrate underneath the canopy of non-inundated tropical evergreen forests. 6. The Celestial Reference Frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Jacobs, C. S.; Clark, J. E.; Heflin, M. B.; Skjerve, L. J.; Sovers, O. J.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Moll, V. E.; Horiuchi, S. 2011-01-01 A celestial reference frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) has been constructed using fifty-one 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network. We report on observations which have detected 436 sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of 200 micro-arcsec in a cos delta and 290 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for zonal errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of phase calibration, troposphere mismodelling, and limited southern geometry. The motivations for extending the ICRF to frequencies above 8 GHz are to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability, to provide calibrators for phase referencing, and to support spacecraft navigation at Ka-band. 7. Development of Methods for the Determination of pKa Values PubMed Central Reijenga, Jetse; van Hoof, Arno; van Loon, Antonie; Teunissen, Bram 2013-01-01 The acid dissociation constant (pKa) is among the most frequently used physicochemical parameters, and its determination is of interest to a wide range of research fields. We present a brief introduction on the conceptual development of pKa as a physical parameter and its relationship to the concept of the pH of a solution. This is followed by a general summary of the historical development and current state of the techniques of pKa determination and an attempt to develop insight into future developments. Fourteen methods of determining the acid dissociation constant are placed in context and are critically evaluated to make a fair comparison and to determine their applications in modern chemistry. Additionally, we have studied these techniques in light of present trends in science and technology and attempt to determine how these trends might affect future developments in the field. PMID:23997574 8. Pharmacokinetic drivers of toxicity for basic molecules: Strategy to lower pKa results in decreased tissue exposure and toxicity for a small molecule Met inhibitor SciTech Connect Diaz, Dolores; Ford, Kevin A.; Hartley, Dylan P.; Harstad, Eric B.; Cain, Gary R.; Achilles-Poon, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Zhong; Merchant, Mark; Sutherlin, Daniel P.; Gaudino, John J.; Kaus, Robert; Lewin-Koh, Sock C.; Choo, Edna F.; Liederer, Bianca M.; Dambach, Donna M. 2013-01-01 Several toxicities are clearly driven by free drug concentrations in plasma, such as toxicities related to on-target exaggerated pharmacology or off-target pharmacological activity associated with receptors, enzymes or ion channels. However, there are examples in which organ toxicities appear to correlate better with total drug concentrations in the target tissues, rather than with free drug concentrations in plasma. Here we present a case study in which a small molecule Met inhibitor, GEN-203, with significant liver and bone marrow toxicity in preclinical species was modified with the intention of increasing the safety margin. GEN-203 is a lipophilic weak base as demonstrated by its physicochemical and structural properties: high LogD (distribution coefficient) (4.3) and high measured pKa (7.45) due to the basic amine (N-ethyl-3-fluoro-4-aminopiperidine). The physicochemical properties of GEN-203 were hypothesized to drive the high distribution of this compound to tissues as evidenced by a moderately-high volume of distribution (Vd > 3 l/kg) in mouse and subsequent toxicities of the compound. Specifically, the basicity of GEN-203 was decreased through addition of a second fluorine in the 3-position of the aminopiperidine to yield GEN-890 (N-ethyl-3,3-difluoro-4-aminopiperidine), which decreased the volume of distribution of the compound in mouse (Vd = 1.0 l/kg), decreased its tissue drug concentrations and led to decreased toxicity in mice. This strategy suggests that when toxicity is driven by tissue drug concentrations, optimization of the physicochemical parameters that drive tissue distribution can result in decreased drug concentrations in tissues, resulting in lower toxicity and improved safety margins. -- Highlights: ► Lower pKa for a small molecule: reduced tissue drug levels and toxicity. ► New analysis tools to assess electrostatic effects and ionization are presented. ► Chemical and PK drivers of toxicity can be leveraged to improve safety. 9. Exact linearization of the radiation-damped spin system PubMed Rourke; Augustine 2000-02-21 Nonlinear evolution of the Landau-Lifshitz type can be exactly linearized. Special cases include the radiation-damped spin system and the superradiant system in the semiclassical regime, in the presence of time-varying driving fields. For these, the resultant linear system is simply that of a spin 1 / 2 particle, with the radiation damping rate, or superradiant characteristic time, manifested as an imaginary addition to the spin's resonance frequency. Consequently, methods from inverse scattering theory can be used to design driving fields. The behavior of these systems under stochastic excitation can be determined exactly. 10. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique. PubMed Pichardo, Samuel; Silva, Rafael R C; Rubel, Oleg; Curiel, Laura 2015-01-01 Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field. 11. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique PubMed Central 2015-01-01 Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field. PMID:26418550 12. Stabilization and Destabilization of Sawtooth Oscillations by Lower Hybrid Current Drive in the WT-3 Tokamak NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Iida, Motomi; Maekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ide, Shunsuke; Ogura, Kazuo; Hanada, Kazuaki; Iwamasa, Mikito; Itoh, Takehiko; Terumichi, Yasushi; Tanaka, Shigetoshi 1988-11-01 Sawtooth oscillations appearing in Ohmically heated (OH) plasmas are suppressed by the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in the WT-3 tokamak (R{=}65 cm, a{=}20 cm, Ip≃100 kA, \\bar{n}e{=}1-2× 1013 cm-3, qa≃4.5, and PLH≳100 kW). After the suppression, sawteeth reappear following m{=}1 oscillations in the LHCD plasmas. The latter sawteeth have a large amplitude and long period (Ts{=}2--5 msec), compared with the former one (Ts{=}0.5--1.5 msec). Furthermore, they do not accompany a precursor and crash very fast. 13. Simulated Changes in Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events at 6 ka NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Bell, J. L.; Sloan, L. C. 2003-12-01 Paleoenviromental archives record a range of information about past environments. Three key influences shaping paleoclimate records at a given time plane are the mean state of the climate system, interannual variability, and the frequency and seasonality of extreme climate events. We have employed a high resolution regional climate model (RCM) to test the sensitivity of extreme climate events to 6 ka orbital forcing, using western North America as a case study. Extreme precipitation and temperature events were defined by the distribution of daily precipitation and temperature values in the control simulation. Simulated anomalies (6 ka - control) in the number of extreme precipitation events per year were positive throughout the RCM domain, as were anomalies in the percent of annual precipitation delivered by extreme precipitation events. These annual-scale positive anomalies in extreme precipitation were driven by changes in the seasonality of extreme precipitation events at 6 ka, with January, October and November showing the greatest positive anomalies in percent of monthly precipitation delivered by extreme precipitation events. The frequency and length of extreme temperature events in the western United States was also sensitive to 6 ka orbital forcing. Positive anomalies in the frequency of extreme maximum daily temperature values occurred inland in the RCM domain, with peak anomalies of 24 days/year centered over the Great Basin. Likewise, the number of days/year in which the maximum daily temperature exceeded 32° C increased over land by 24%, with the average heat-wave up to 12 days longer in the 6 ka simulation than in the control simulation. Finally, mean first and last freeze dates were later inland in the 6 ka simulation than in the control simulation. 14. Systematic Behavior of the Non-dipole Magnetic Field during the 32 ka Mono Lake Excursion NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Negrini, R. M.; McCuan, D.; Cassata, W. S.; Channell, J. E.; Verosub, K. L.; Liddicoat, J. C.; Knott, J. R.; Coe, R. S.; Benson, L. V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Lund, S.; Horton, R.; Lopez, J. 2012-12-01 Paleomagnetic excursions are enigmatic phenomena that reveal geodynamo behavior in its transitional state and provide important refinements in age control for the late Pleistocene, a critical time period for the study of paleoclimate and human evolution. We report here on two widely separated, unusually detailed records of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) from sedimentary sequences dated at 32 ka. One of the records is from Summer Lake, Oregon. The vector components of this new record faithfully reproduce the principle features of the MLE as recorded at the type localities around Mono Lake, CA, though with greater detail and higher amplitude. Radiocarbon dates on bulk organics in the Summer Lake record confirm the 32 ka age of the MLE. The other record is from the marine Irminger Basin off of eastern Greenland and is based on the measurement of discrete samples rather than u-channels. The associated VGP paths of the two records strongly suggest systematic field behavior that includes three loci of nondipole flux whose relative dominance oscillates through time. The staggered sequence followed by the two paths through each flux locus further suggests that both the demise and return of the main field floods zonally during the excursion. The composite path is also compatible with the VGPs of a 32 ka set of lavas from New Zealand and, notably, it does not include VGPs associated with the 40 ka Laschamp excursion. This confirms that these two excursions are distinct events and, more specifically, shows that it is the 32 ka Mono Lake excursion that is recorded in the sediments surrounding Mono Lake rather than the ~40 ka Laschamp excursion. 15. The pKa of the protonated Schiff bases of gecko cone and octopus visual pigments. PubMed Central Liang, J; Steinberg, G; Livnah, N; Sheves, M; Ebrey, T G; Tsuda, M 1994-01-01 A visual pigment is composed of retinal bound to its apoprotein by a protonated Schiff base linkage. Light isomerizes the chromophore and eventually causes the deprotonation of this Schiff base linkage at the meta II stage of the bleaching cycle. The meta II intermediate of the visual pigment is the active form of the pigment that binds to and activates the G protein transducin, starting the visual cascade. The deprotonation of the Schiff base is mandatory for the formation of meta II intermediate. We studied the proton binding affinity, pKa, of the Schiff base of both octopus rhodopsin and the gecko cone pigment P521 by spectral titration. Several fluorinated retinal analogs have strong electron withdrawing character around the Schiff base region and lower the Schiff base pKa in model compounds. We regenerated octopus and gecko visual pigments with these fluorinated and other retinal analogs. Experiments on these artificial pigments showed that the spectral changes seen upon raising the pH indeed reflected the pKa of the Schiff base and not the denaturation of the pigment or the deprotonation of some other group in the pigment. The Schiff base pKa is 10.4 for octopus rhodopsin and 9.9 for the gecko cone pigment. We also showed that although the removal of Cl- ions causes considerable blue-shift in the gecko cone pigment P521, it affects the Schiff base pKa very little, indicating that the lambda max of visual pigment and its Schiff base pKa are not tightly coupled. PMID:7948697 16. Ka-Band TWT High-Efficiency Power Combiner for High-Rate Data Transmission NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee; Vaden, Karl R.; Lesny, Gary G.; Glass, Jeffrey L. 2007-01-01 A four-port magic-T hybrid waveguide junction serves as the central component of a high-efficiency two-way power combiner circuit for transmitting a high-rate phase-modulated digital signal at a carrier frequency in the Ka-band (between 27 and 40 GHz). This power combiner was developed to satisfy a specific requirement to efficiently combine the coherent outputs of two traveling-wavetube (TWT) amplifiers that are typically characterized by power levels on the order of 100 W or more. In this application, the use of a waveguide-based power combiner (instead of a coaxial-cable- or microstrip-based power combiner, for example) is dictated by requirements for low loss, high power-handling capability, and broadband response. Combiner efficiencies were typically 90 percent or more over both the linear and saturated output power regions of operation of the TWTs . Figure 1 depicts the basic configuration of the magic-T hybrid junction. The coherent outputs of the two TWTs enter through ports 1 and 4. As a result of the orientations of the electromagnetic fields, which also provides a needed high port-to-port isolation, of these two input signals and the interior design of the magic-T junction, the input powers are divided so as to add in phase at one output port (port 2), and to be opposite in phase and hence cancel each other at the opposite coplanar output port (port 3). The net result is that the output power at port 2 is essentially double that of the output of one TWT, minus the power lost in the magic-T hybrid junction. Optimum performance as a high-efficiency power combiner thus requires a balance of both power and phase at the input ports of the magic-T. Replicas of this two-way combiner can be arranged in a binary configuration to obtain a 2n-way (where n is an integer) combiner. For example, Figure 2 illustrates the use of three two-way combiners to combine the outputs of four TWTs. 17. Novel linear piezoelectric motor for precision position stage NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Chen, Chao; Shi, Yunlai; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Junshan 2016-03-01 Conventional servomotor and stepping motor face challenges in nanometer positioning stages due to the complex structure, motion transformation mechanism, and slow dynamic response, especially directly driven by linear motor. A new butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric motor for linear motion is presented. A two-degree precision position stage driven by the proposed linear ultrasonic motor possesses a simple and compact configuration, which makes the system obtain shorter driving chain. Firstly, the working principle of the linear ultrasonic motor is analyzed. The oscillation orbits of two driving feet on the stator are produced successively by using the anti-symmetric and symmetric vibration modes of the piezoelectric composite structure, and the slider pressed on the driving feet can be propelled twice in only one vibration cycle. Then with the derivation of the dynamic equation of the piezoelectric actuator and transient response model, start-upstart-up and settling state characteristics of the proposed linear actuator is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and is applicable to evaluate step resolution of the precision platform driven by the actuator. Moreover the structure of the two-degree position stage system is described and a special precision displacement measurement system is built. Finally, the characteristics of the two-degree position stage are studied. In the closed-loop condition the positioning accuracy of plus or minus <0.5 μm is experimentally obtained for the stage propelled by the piezoelectric motor. A precision position stage based the proposed butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric is theoretically and experimentally investigated. 18. Inversion for the driving forces of plate tectonics NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Richardson, R. M. 1983-01-01 Inverse modeling techniques have been applied to the problem of determining the roles of various forces that may drive and resist plate tectonic motions. Separate linear inverse problems have been solved to find the best fitting pole of rotation for finite element grid point velocities and to find the best combination of force models to fit the observed relative plate velocities for the earth's twelve major plates using the generalized inverse operator. Variance-covariance data on plate motion have also been included. Results emphasize the relative importance of ridge push forces in the driving mechanism. Convergent margin forces are smaller by at least a factor of two, and perhaps by as much as a factor of twenty. Slab pull, apparently, is poorly transmitted to the surface plate as a driving force. Drag forces at the base of the plate are smaller than ridge push forces, although the sign of the force remains in question. 19. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Ka Band Radio Science Experiments and the Effect of the Troposphere NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Asmar, Sami W.; Morabito, David 2006-01-01 This viewgraph presentation reviews the possibilities of utilizing the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and polarization of radio signals to investigate, specifically for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)mission utilizes X-band coherent (uplink and downlink) carrier Doppler and range for its gravity investigation Gravity team will also take advantage of Ka-band downlink signal Tropospheric calibration data from Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) will be used. The calibration of the received Ka band signal for the effect of the troposphere is discussed. 20. A portfolio of fine resolution Ka-band SAR images : part l. SciTech Connect Thompson, Martin; Gutierrez, Vivian Dee; Dubbert, Dale Francis; Doerry, Armin Walter 2005-03-01 Sandia National Laboratories designs and builds Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems capable of forming high-quality exceptionally fine resolution images. During the spring of 2004 a series of test flights were completed with a Ka-band testbed SAR on Sandia's DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. A large data set was collected including real-time fine-resolution images of a variety of target scenes. This paper offers a sampling of high quality images representative of the output of Sandia's Ka-band testbed radar with resolutions as fine as 4 inches. Images will be annotated with descriptions of collection geometries and other relevant image parameters. 1. Microvibrations in a 20 M Long Ka-Band SAR Interferometer NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Rodriques, G.; Ludwig, M.; Santiago-Prowald, J. 2014-06-01 Interferometric SAR operating at Ka-band has the potential for offering high-resolution 3D images of the surface of the Earth taken from a single-platform.The stability of the mechanical baseline of such an instrument has been considered as a key critical area for the feasibility of the concept.This paper is devoted to the analysis of the micro- vibrations in a 20-m long Ka-band SAR interferometer arising during typical attitude changing manoeuvers and the mechanical noise transmitted from reaction wheels. It is preliminarily concluded that the expected microvibration levels are within the requirements of the instrument. 2. Accurate calculation of the p Ka of trifluoroacetic acid using high-level ab initio calculations NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Namazian, Mansoor; Zakery, Maryam; Noorbala, Mohammad R.; Coote, Michelle L. 2008-01-01 The p Ka value of trifluoroacetic acid has been successfully calculated using high-level ab initio methods such as G3 and CBS-QB3. Solvation energies have been calculated using CPCM continuum model of solvation at the HF and B3-LYP levels of theory with various basis sets. Excellent agreement with experiment (to within 0.4 p Ka units) was obtained using CPCM solvation energies at the B3-LYP/6-31+G(d) level (or larger) in conjunction with CBS-QB3 or G3 gas-phase energies of trifluoroacetic acid and its anion. 3. First Results from an Airborne Ka-Band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Sadowy, Gregory A.; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott C. 2012-01-01 SweepSAR is a wide-swath synthetic aperture radar technique that is being studied for application on the future Earth science radar missions. This paper describes the design of an airborne radar demonstration that simulates an 11-m L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz) reflector geometry at Ka-band (35.6 GHz) using a 40-cm reflector. The Ka-band SweepSAR Demonstration system was flown on the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory and used to study engineering performance trades and array calibration for SweepSAR configurations. We present an instrument and experiment overview, instrument calibration and first results. 4. Design of a Ka-Band Propagation Terminal for Atmospheric Measurements in Polar Regions NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Houts, Jacquelynne R.; Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael J. 2016-01-01 This paper describes the design and performance of a Ka-Band beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed alongside an existing Ka-Band Radiometer [2] located at the east end of the Svalbard Near Earth Network (NEN) complex. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation [3] receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation by directly measuring the propagated signal from the satellite Thor 7. 5. Design of a Ka-band Propagation Terminal for Atmospheric Measurements in Polar Regions NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Houts, Jacquelynne R.; Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael J. 2016-01-01 This paper describes the design and performance of a Ka-Band beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed alongside an existing Ka-Band Radiometer located at the east end of the Svalbard Near Earth Network (NEN) complex. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation by directly measuring the propagated signal from the satellite Thor 7. 6. Driving performance and driver discomfort in an elevated and standard driving position during a driving simulation. PubMed Smith, Jordan; Mansfield, Neil; Gyi, Diane; Pagett, Mark; Bateman, Bob 2015-07-01 The primary purposes of a vehicle driver's seat, is to allow them to complete the driving task comfortably and safely. Within each class of vehicle (e.g. passenger, commercial, industrial, agricultural), there is an expected driving position to which a vehicle cabin is designed. This paper reports a study that compares two driving positions, in relation to Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs), in terms of driver performance and driver discomfort. In the 'elevated' driving position, the seat is higher than usually used in road vehicles; this is compared to a standard driving position replicating the layout for a commercially available vehicle. It is shown that for a sample of 12 drivers, the elevated position did not, in general, show more discomfort than the standard position over a 60 min driving simulation, although discomfort increased with duration. There were no adverse effects shown for emergency stop reaction time or for driver headway for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture. The only body part that showed greater discomfort for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture was the right ankle. A second experiment confirmed that for 12 subjects, a higher pedal stiffness eliminated the ankle discomfort problem. 7. Power Supply to Drive a Magnetron for PFC Gas Resolution NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Iwabuki, Hiroyasu; Iwata, Akihiko; Yoshiyasu, Hajimu A power supply to drive a magnetron for a PFC gas resolution has been developed. The power supply (ratings 5kV, 1A) is composed of a full bridge inverter and a voltage doubler rectifier circuit. The characteristics of the current and electric power of a magnetron with the non-linear load were analyzed. As a result, it was found that the magnetron power and the magnetron peak current are approximately linear to the pulse width when the reactor, which controls the current of magnetron, was inserted in the inverter output. We constructed a trial power supply to drive magnetron. It was confirmed that the trial power supply could continuously control the magnetron output up to 3.5kW. The PFC gas resolution efficiency with microwave plasma is larger than the silent discharge method. Therefore we can expect the realization of a small, highly efficient gas resolution device using microwave plasma. 8. Linear collider: a preview SciTech Connect Wiedemann, H. 1981-11-01 Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. 9. Relationships between driving simulator performance and driving test results. PubMed de Winter, J C F; de Groot, S; Mulder, M; Wieringa, P A; Dankelman, J; Mulder, J A 2009-02-01 This article is considered relevant because: 1) car driving is an everyday and safety-critical task; 2) simulators are used to an increasing extent for driver training (related topics: training, virtual reality, human-machine interaction); 3) the article addresses relationships between performance in the simulator and driving test results--a relevant topic for those involved in driver training and the virtual reality industries; 4) this article provides new insights about individual differences in young drivers' behaviour. Simulators are being used to an increasing extent for driver training, allowing for the possibility of collecting objective data on driver proficiency under standardised conditions. However, relatively little is known about how learner drivers' simulator measures relate to on-road driving. This study proposes a theoretical framework that quantifies driver proficiency in terms of speed of task execution, violations and errors. This study investigated the relationships between these three measures of learner drivers' (n=804) proficiency during initial simulation-based training and the result of the driving test on the road, occurring an average of 6 months later. A higher chance of passing the driving test the first time was associated with making fewer steering errors on the simulator and could be predicted in regression analysis with a correlation of 0.18. Additionally, in accordance with the theoretical framework, a shorter duration of on-road training corresponded with faster task execution, fewer violations and fewer steering errors (predictive correlation 0.45). It is recommended that researchers conduct more large-scale studies into the reliability and validity of simulator measures and on-road driving tests. 10. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status? PubMed Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C 2014-07-01 Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking. 11. Linear phase compressive filter DOEpatents McEwan, Thomas E. 1995-01-01 A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 12. Linear phase compressive filter DOEpatents McEwan, T.E. 1995-06-06 A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs. 13. Recombineering linear BACs. PubMed Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran 2015-01-01 Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells. 14. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation PubMed Central Petrides, K. V. 2016-01-01 This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773 15. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE DOEpatents Smits, R.G. 1964-01-28 This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC) 16. Multi-propeller drive system NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Belenger, Robert V. 1995-05-01 A multipropeller drive system having a single input shaft for connection to an engine system, a differential gear assembly for dividing the driving force from the input drive shaft between a pair of output shafts, and a pair of laterally spaced propellers driven by the output shafts of the differential gear assembly is disclosed. The differential gear assembly operates in a manner wherein one output shaft, if required, is permitted to revolve at a different rate than the other output shaft. A pair of brake mechanisms acting on the output shafts of the differential gear assembly enable an operator to control the rotational speed of the respective propellers without modifying the engine speed or transmission settings. 17. Optimum contact conditions for miniaturized surface acoustic wave linear motor PubMed Takasaki; Kurosawa; Higuchi 2000-03-01 This paper reports the successful operation of a 70 MHz driving surface acoustic wave (SAW) linear motor with a miniaturized stator transducer. This paper also deals with an investigation into an optimized slider design for the miniaturized SAW linear motor. The performance of three silicon type sliders, with different projection size, was compared. Output forces of the three sliders were measured with change of pre-load. It was found that the slider with smaller projection tended to produce greater output force. 18. A new method for SARAL/AltiKa waveform classification: contextual analysis over the Maithon Reservoir, Jharkhand, India NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ghosh, Surajit; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Dutta, Suvajit; Sharma, Rashmi; Nandy, Subrata; Garg, Vaibhav; Aggarwal, Shivprasad; Bhattacharyya, Soumya 2016-05-01 The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Centre National d'etudes Spatiales (CNES) jointly launched SARAL/AltiKa (Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa) in February 2013. AltiKa is the first mono frequency (Ka-band) radar altimeter with dual frequency radiometer. SARAL/AltiKa promises reliable results on retrieving water level of inland water and coastal bodies, though recognition pattern as well as interpreting and modeling of AltiKa waveforms at land water boundary is still a challenge. Different Retracking methods are widely used for determining the water level more correctly. An altimetry waveform also gives vital information about the reflecting surface. So, waveform classification is many times needed for retrieving surface information or before applying retracking method. In this paper, SARAL/AltiKa 40 Hz waveform dataset (Pass #152) over the Maithon Reservoir, Jharkhand, India were classified using evolutionary minimize indexing function (EMIF) with k-means. A fitness function was used in EMIF to map sampled AltiKa waveforms into single valued scalar. Four waveform groups were identified according to reflection from water, land and land-water boundary. Land-water boundary again divided into two classes viz., land-to-water and water-to-land based on direction of the AltiKa pass over the reservoir. Normalized Differenced Water Index (NDWI) derived from Landsat 8 OLI and Google Earth imagery of nearest date of AltiKa pass was used for accuracy assessment of the proposed method. It was found that the waveforms were classified with 85.7 kappa accuracy. The results of the proposed EMIF will be helpful for identify the SARAL/AltiKa waveforms classes over the inland water bodies. 19. Future hard disk drive systems NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Wood, Roger 2009-03-01 This paper briefly reviews the evolution of today's hard disk drive with the additional intention of orienting the reader to the overall mechanical and electrical architecture. The modern hard disk drive is a miracle of storage capacity and function together with remarkable economy of design. This paper presents a personal view of future customer requirements and the anticipated design evolution of the components. There are critical decisions and great challenges ahead for the key technologies of heads, media, head-disk interface, mechanics, and electronics. 20. Results from Two Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Zemba, Michael 2014-01-01 Over the several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) Polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 6 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at multiple elevation angles: 45 deg, 20 deg, and 10 deg. Two year data collection results indicate comparable performance to previously characterized northern latitude sites in the United States, i.e., Fairbanks, Alaska. It is observed that cloud cover at the Svalbard site remains the dominant loss mechanism for Ka-band links, resulting in a margin requirement of 4.1 dB to maintain link availability of 99% at 10 deg elevation. 1. High Power High Efficiency Ka-Band Power Combiners for Solid-State Devices NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Freeman, Jon C.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Chevalier, Christine T. 2006-01-01 Wide-band power combining units for Ka-band are simulated for use as MMIC amplifier applications. Short-slot couplers as well as magic-tees are the basic elements for the combiners. Wide bandwidth (5 GHz) and low insertion (approx.0.2 dB) and high combining efficiencies (approx.90 percent) are obtained. 2. Determination of pKa values by capillary zone electrophoresis with a dynamic coating procedure. PubMed Geiser, Laurent; Henchoz, Yveline; Galland, Alexandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc 2005-11-01 CZE allows to measure the acidic dissociation constant (pKa) of many drug substances. However, determining the EOF intensity may be time-consuming, especially at a low pH. In order to overcome this drawback, a dynamic coating procedure of the capillary was carried out to increase microEOF, and thus to reduce the analysis time. In addition, this coating procedure enhanced migration time stability. The effective mobilities of 15 compounds were measured at different pH, producing pK'a values dependent on BGE ionic strength. The latter values were corrected with the activity coefficient to obtain a "true" pKa value. The 15 investigated compounds were (i) five acids: namely, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, ketoprofen, phenobarbital, and phenol, (ii) four bases: lidocaine, propafenone, propranolol, and quinine, (iii), five ampholytes: sulfanilamide, sulfabenzamide, sulfadimethoxine, sulfadoxine, and sulfisoxazole, and (iv) one zwitterion: cetirizine. The range of determined pKa values was between 1.2 and 11.2, and close to the pKa values available from the literature. 3. Determination of pKa values for deprotonable nucleobases in short model oligonucleotides. PubMed González-Olvera, Julio C; Martínez-Reyes, José; González-Jasso, Eva; Pless, Reynaldo C 2015-11-01 The deprotonation of ionizable nucleobases centrally placed in short model oligonucleotides was examined under different physical conditions, using UV absorption spectroscopy. The oligonucleotide sequences were designed so that only the central base would be ionized over the pH range examined. pKa values of 9.90±0.01 and 9.34±0.04 were determined for the guanine group in the oligomer d-ACAGCAC and 2'-deoxyguanosine, respectively, both at 25°C and 0.1M NaCl. Lengthening the oligonucleotide up to the tridecamer stage further increases the pKa of the central guanine moiety. Electrolyte concentration, temperature, and mixed water-ethanol solvents affect the acidity of the central base. Changes in the sequence surrounding the central guanine can also have a significant effect, especially in the case of strongly stacking sequences. The pKa values were also determined for the hepta(2'-O-methyl)ribonucleotide and the heptamer PNA of identical sequence, as well as for oligodeoxyribonucleotides with different deprotonable bases, viz. thymine, uracil, or hypoxanthine, in the central position. The results are interpreted in terms of the electric-field effect exerted on the departing proton by the negative electric charges located on the internucleotide phosphate groups, and calculations show this effect to approximately explain the magnitude of the pKa difference observed between the deoxyriboheptanucleotide and its electroneutral PNA analogue. 4. Design of a Ka-band gyro-TWT amplifier for broadband operation SciTech Connect Alaria, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, A. K.; Choyal, Y. 2013-07-15 In this paper, the design of a Ka-band periodically ceramic loaded gyro-TWT amplifier has been carried out. The design predict that the interaction structure can produce more than 80 kW output power, 50 dB saturated gain, and 3 dB bandwidth for 65 kV and 5 A electron beam with velocity ratio (α) of 1.2. This paper describes the design and simulation of a high performance 35 GHz TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWT that applies the same technique of employing a periodic dielectric loaded interaction structure to achieve stability and wide bandwidth. The design of input coupler with loaded interaction structure for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using Ansoft hfss. The return loss (S{sub 11}) and transmission loss (S{sub 21}) of the Ka-band gyro-TWT input coupler have been found to be −27.3 dB and −0.05 dB, respectively. The design of output window for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using cst microwave studio. 5. Steerable K/Ka-Band Antenna For Land-Mobile Satellite Applications NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Densmore, Arthur; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Woo, Kenneth 1994-01-01 Prototype steerable microwave antenna tracks and communicates with geostationary satellite. Designed to mount on roof of vehicle and only 10 cm tall. K/Ka-band antenna rugged and compact to suit rooftop mobile operating environment. More-delicate signal-processing and control equipment located inside vehicle. 6. Configuration management and monitoring of the middleware at GridKa NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Nilsen, Dimitri; Weber, Pavel 2012-12-01 GridKa is a computing centre located in Karlsruhe. It serves as Tier-1 centre for the four LHC experiments and also provides its computing and storage resources for other non-LHC HEP and astroparticle physics experiments as well as for several communities of the German Grid Initiative D-Grid. The middleware layer at GridKa comprises three main flavours: Globus, gLite and UNICORE. This layer provides the access to the several clusters, according to the requirements of the corresponding communities. The heterogeneous structure of middleware resources and services requires their effective administration for stable and sustainable operation of the whole computing centre. In the presentation the overview of the middleware system at GridKa is given with focus on the configuration management and monitoring. These are the crucial components of the administration task for the system with high-availability setup. The various configuration tools used at GridKa, their benefits and limitations as well as developed automation procedures of the configuration management will be discussed. The overview of the monitoring system which evaluates the information delivered by central and local grid information services and provides status and detailed diagnostics for the middleware services is presented. 7. Ka-Band High-Rate Telemetry System Upgrade for the NASA Deep Space Network NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) LaBelle, Remi; Bernardo, Abner; Bowen, James; Britcliffe, Michael; Bucknam, Neil; Link, Christopher; Long, Ezra; Manalo, Leslie; O'Dea, James A.; Rochblatt, David; Sosnowski, John; Veruttipong, Watt 2009-01-01 The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a new requirement to support high-data-rate Category A (Cat A) missions (within 2 million kilometers of Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional TT&C (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band system combines the use of proven DSN cryogenic designs, for low system temperature, and high data rate capability using commercial telemetry receivers. The initial Cat A support is required for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2013 and possibly other missions. The upgrade has been implemented into 3 different 34-meter Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas in the DSN, one at each of the complexes in Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). System test data is presented to show that the requirements were met and the DSN is ready for Cat A Ka-band operational support. 8. An integrated Ka/Ku-band payload for personal, mobile and private business communications NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Hayes, Edward J.; Keelty, J. Malcolm 1991-01-01 The Canadian Department of Communications has been studying options for a government-sponsored demonstration payload to be launched before the end of the century. A summary of the proposed system concepts and network architectures for providing an advanced private business network service at Ku-band and personal and mobile communications at Ka-band is presented. The system aspects addressed include coverage patterns, traffic capacity, and grade of service, multiple access options as well as special problems, such as Doppler in mobile applications. Earth terminal types and the advanced payload concept proposed in a feasibility study for the demonstration mission are described. This concept is a combined Ka-band/Ku-band payload which incorporates a number of advanced satellite technologies including a group demodulator to convert single-channel-per-carrier frequency division multiple access uplink signals to a time division multiplex downlink, on-board signal regeneration, and baseband switching to support packet switched data operation. The on-board processing capability of the payload provides a hubless VSAT architecture which permits single-hop full mesh interconnectivity. The Ka-band and Ku-band portions of the payload are fully integrated through an on-board switch, thereby providing the capability for fully integrated services, such as using the Ku-band VSAT terminals as gateway stations for the Ka-band personal and mobile communications services. 9. Social Metaphorical Mapping of the Concept of Force "CHI-KA-RA" in Japanese ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Suzuki, Mariko 2005-01-01 This research focused on the concept of "force" ("CHI-KA-RA" in Japanese) in Newtonian mechanics. The primary objective was to develop a tool, based on metaphor, to interpret student thinking in learning scientific topics. The study provides an example of using the tool to trace the process of mutual changes in thinking during a dialog among… 10. A dual-cavity ruby maser for the Ka-band link experiment NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Shell, J.; Quinn, R. B. 1994-01-01 A 33.68-GHz dual-cavity ruby maser was built to support the Ka-Band Link Experiment (KABLE) conducted with the Mars Observer spacecraft. It has 25 dB of net gain and a 3-dB bandwidth of 85 MHz. Its noise temperature in reference to the cooled feedhorn aperture is 5 K. 11. The All Sky Celestial Reference Frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Horiuchi, S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Jacobs, Christopher S.; Maddè, R.; Mercolino, M.; Snedeker, L. G.; Sotuela, I.; White, L. A. 2014-08-01 We have constructed an X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) celestial reference frame using over seventy ~24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network. We detected 646 sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and the full range of declinations. Comparison of 520 X/Ka sources in common with the S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of 167 micro-arcsec Î¼as in RA cos(dec) and 219 Î¼as in Dec. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 Î¼as level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of phase calibration, troposphere mismodelling. We recently began a collaboration with ESA using their Malargüe, Argentina antenna. This site greatly improves our geometry in the south. Compared to X-band, Ka-band allows access to more compact source morphology and reduced core shift. Existing X/Ka data and simulated Gaia data predict a frame tie precision of 7 Î¼as (1-sigma, per 3-D rotation component) with anticipated improvements reducing that to ~5 Î¼as per component. 12. Computer Aided Design of Ka-Band Waveguide Power Combining Architectures for Interplanetary Spacecraft NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Vaden, Karl R. 2006-01-01 Communication systems for future NASA interplanetary spacecraft require transmitter power ranging from several hundred watts to kilowatts. Several hybrid junctions are considered as elements within a corporate combining architecture for high power Ka-band space traveling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs). This report presents the simulated transmission characteristics of several hybrid junctions designed for a low loss, high power waveguide based power combiner. 13. Ka-Band, RF MEMS Switches on CMOS Grade Silicon with a Polyimide Interface Layer NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Ponchak, George E.; Varaljay, Nicholas C.; Papapolymerou, John 2003-01-01 For the first time, RF MEMS switcbes on CMOS grade Si witb a polyimide interface layer are fabricated and characterized. At Ka-Band (36.6 GHz), an insertion loss of 0.52 dB and an isolation of 20 dB is obtained. 14. SLAC Linear Collider SciTech Connect Richter, B. 1985-12-01 A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The status of the machine and the detectors are discussed and an overview is given of the physics which can be done at this new facility. Some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built are given. 15. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Baratta, Wendy 2011-01-01 The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than… 16. Linear drug eruption. PubMed Alfonso, R; Belinchon, I 2001-01-01 Linear eruptions are sometimes associated with systemic diseases and they may also be induced by various drugs. Paradoxically, such acquired inflammatory skin diseases tend to follow the system of Blaschko's lines. We describe a case of unilateral linear drug eruption caused by ibuprofen, which later became bilateral and generalized. 17. Linearization of Robot Manipulators NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Kreutz, Kenneth 1987-01-01 Four nonlinear control schemes equivalent. Report discusses theory of nonlinear feedback control of robot manipulator, emphasis on control schemes making manipulator input and output behave like decoupled linear system. Approach, called "exact external linearization," contributes efforts to control end-effector trajectories, positions, and orientations. 18. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records. Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR 2011-07-01 ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... intoxicating liquor (0.08% or greater on DOD installations; violation of civil law off post). C. Driving a... the same as the date of civil conviction, or the date that State or host-nation driving privileges... 19. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records. Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR 2010-07-01 ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges... 20. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records. Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR 2014-07-01 ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges... 1. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records. Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR 2013-07-01 ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges... 2. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records. Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR 2012-07-01 ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges... 3. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr. 2008-01-01 This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,… 4. Basic principles of variable speed drives NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Loewenthal, S. H. 1973-01-01 An understanding of the principles which govern variable speed drive operation is discussed for successful drive application. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power as they relate to drive selection are discussed. The basic types of variable speed drives, their operating characteristics and their applications are also presented. 5. The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology - Part 1: Methane synchronization (68-31 ka BP) and the gas age-ice age difference NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Buizert, C.; Cuffey, K. M.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Baggenstos, D.; Fudge, T. J.; Steig, E. J.; Markle, B. R.; Winstrup, M.; Rhodes, R. H.; Brook, E. J.; Sowers, T. A.; Clow, G. D.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Sigl, M.; McConnell, J. R.; Taylor, K. C. 2015-02-01 The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS Divide, WD) ice core is a newly drilled, high-accumulation deep ice core that provides Antarctic climate records of the past ∼68 ka at unprecedented temporal resolution. The upper 2850 m (back to 31.2 ka BP) have been dated using annual-layer counting. Here we present a chronology for the deep part of the core (67.8-31.2 ka BP), which is based on stratigraphic matching to annual-layer-counted Greenland ice cores using globally well-mixed atmospheric methane. We calculate the WD gas age-ice age difference (Δage) using a combination of firn densification modeling, ice-flow modeling, and a data set of δ15N-N2, a proxy for past firn column thickness. The largest Δage at WD occurs during the Last Glacial Maximum, and is 525 ± 120 years. Internally consistent solutions can be found only when assuming little to no influence of impurity content on densification rates, contrary to a recently proposed hypothesis. We synchronize the WD chronology to a linearly scaled version of the layer-counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology (GICC05), which brings the age of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events into agreement with the U/Th absolutely dated Hulu Cave speleothem record. The small Δage at WD provides valuable opportunities to investigate the timing of atmospheric greenhouse gas variations relative to Antarctic climate, as well as the interhemispheric phasing of the "bipolar seesaw". 6. Results from Three Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Nessel, James; Zemba, Michael; Morse, Jacquelynne 2015-01-01 Over the next several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the Svalbard site. Svalbard was chosen as the appropriate site for two primary reasons: (1) Svalbard will be the first site to be upgraded to Ka-band operations within the NEN Polar Network enhancement plan, and (2) there exists a complete lack of Ka-band propagation data at this site (as opposed to the Fairbanks, AK NEN site, which has 5 years of characterization collected during the Advanced Communications Technology becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system Satellite (ACTS) campaign). processing and provide the Herein, we discuss the data three-year measurement results performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) from the ongoing Ka-band propagation characterization where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 4 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at a fixed 10 deg elevation angle. Three-year data collection results indicate good campaign at Svalbard, Norway. Comparison of these results with the ITU models and existing ERA profile data indicates very good agreement when the 2010 rain maps and cloud statistics are used. Finally, the Svalbard data is used to derive the expected 7. Results from Three Years of Ka-band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael; Morse, Jacquelynne 2015-01-01 Over the next several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the Svalbard site. Svalbard was chosen as the appropriate site for two primary reasons: (1) Svalbard will be the first site to be upgraded to Ka-band operations within the NEN Polar Network enhancement plan, and (2) there exists a complete lack of Ka-band propagation data at this site (as opposed to the Fairbanks, AK NEN site, which has 5 years of characterization collected during the Advanced Communications Technology becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system Satellite (ACTS) campaign). processing and provide the Herein, we discuss the data three-year measurement results performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) from the ongoing Ka-band propagation characterization where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 4 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at a fixed 10 deg elevation angle. Three-year data collection results indicate good campaign at Svalbard, Norway. Comparison of these results with the ITU models and existing ERA profile data indicates very good agreement when the 2010 rain maps and cloud statistics are used. Finally, the Svalbard data is used to derive the expected 8. Tephra record from the Sea of Marmara for the last 70 ka and its paleoceanographic implications NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Cagatay, M.; Wulf, S.; Guichard, F.; Ozmaral, A.; Sancar; Akçer-Ön, S.; Henry, P.; Gasperini, L. 2013-12-01 Sea of Marmara (SoM) is a gateway between the Mediterraean and Black seas, and a tectonically active basin located on a transform plate boundary. Tephra record in the SoM is therefore very important for dating palaeoceanographic, paleoclimatic and tectonic events. We report three tephra units in cores from the SoM extending back to ca 70 ka BP and including an upper marine and a lower lacustrine units separated by a 12 ka (uncalib.) boundary. The uppermost tephra unit is up to 8 mm thick layer in the marine unit. It is heterogenous phonolitic with high total alkali content of 12.4-15.7 wt % and K2O/Na2O of 0.9 to 1.2. The middle and lower tephra layers occur in the lacustrine unit in ca 29 m-long Core MD-01-2430. The middle tephra (MT-1) is a 70 mm-thick homogeneously rhyolitic layer. The lower tephra (MT-2) is 140 mm thick and has a phonolitic-trachytic composition with CaO content of 1.7-1.9 wt % and bimodal K2O/Na2O of 1.0-1.4. Using their geochemical composition and stratigraphic analysis, we assign the tephra units, from top to bottom, to Vesuvius AP2 Pumice, Santorini Cape Riva and Campanian Ignimbrite, which have been previously dated at 3.5 ka BP, 21.95 ka BP, and 39.3 ka BP (all calender ka). The continuous sedimentary record in the Core MD-01-2430 covering the last ca 70 ka indicates that the SoM was lacustrine, disconnected from the Mediterraean Sea during MIS4, MIS3 and most of MIS2. This implies that the sill depth of the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) was shallower than the present-day -65 m sill depth during MIS3 and MIS4. Figure 1: Morphotectonic map of the Sea of Marmara showing location of the studied cores (red stars). Figure 2: Geochemical biplots of tephra glass composition. a) Total alkali silica diagram b) FeO versus total alkalies for allocating cryptotephras from core MNTKS34 and ML01 to the AP2 tephra from Vesuvius. c) FeO versus CaO for correlating tephra MT1 with the Y-2 tephra from Santorini. d) SiO2 versus CaO for discriminating the 9. SARAL/AltiKa observations for the studies of ice cover on lakes and oceans NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Kouraev, Alexei; Zakharova, Elena; Remy, Frederique; Fleury, Sara; Guerreiro, Kevin; Willmes, Sascha; Suknev, Andrei 2015-04-01 With the launch of SARAL/AltiKa satellite mission scientific community has now a new source of information to study ice cover on water bodies and oceans. AltiKa observations provide a continuity with the previous satellite radar altimetry observations from ERS-1, -2 and ENVISAT mission that have the same orbit. Moreover, with the new Ka-band altimeter it gives new insights into the ice cover structure and properties. We present studies of ice cover on lakes (Lake Baikal) and Arctic ocean (for leads and polynyas detection). For Lake Baikal we use the synergy of simultaneous active (radar altimeter) and passive (radiometer) observations from radar altimetric satellites - SARAL/Altika and also TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, ENVISAT and Geosat Follow-On. We present ice discrimination methodology from different satellite missions and discuss specificity of AltiKa observations. We analyse temporal variability of altimetric waveform parameters over ice-covered and ice-free surface for AltiKa and complement this analysis by satellite imagery (MODIS, Landsat), as well as our dedicated field observations of ice cover properties along the AltiKa tracks in spring 2013 and 2014. For the Arctic ocean we investigate the performance of SARAL/AltiKa to detect the leads and the coastal polynyas as well as its ability to represent spatial and temporal dynamic of water openings. The method consists first in analysis of along-track radar waveforms with collocated high-resolution Landsat images in order to localise ice/water transitions. We discuss the potential of several techniques that could be used for leads and polynya studies and for freeboard estimation. This research has been done in the framework of the Russian-French cooperation GDRI "CAR-WET-SIB", CNES TOSCA AO, ANR "CLASSIQUE", IDEX Transversalité InHERA, CNRS-Russia "Franco-Siberian Center for Research and Education" and PICS BaLaLaICA, ESA Proposal C1P.13132, Russian FZP 1.5 and EU FP7 "MONARCH-A" projects. 10. Prediction of the pKa's of aqueous metal ion +2 complexes. PubMed Jackson, Virgil E; Felmy, Andrew R; Dixon, David A 2015-03-26 Aqueous metal ions play an important role in many areas of chemistry. The acidities of [Be(H2O)4](2+), [M(H2O)6](2+), M = Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+), and [M(H2O)n](2+), M = Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), n = 7 and 8, complexes have been predicted using density functional theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory in the gas phase. pKa's in aqueous solution were predicted by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models. The most common binding motif of the majority of the metal +2 complexes is coordination number (CN) 6, with each hexaaquo cluster having reasonably high symmetry for the best arrangement of the water molecules in the first solvation shell. Be(2+) is tetracoordinated, but a second solvation shell of 8 waters is needed to predict the pKa. The Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) aquo clusters have a coordination number of 7 or 8 as found in terms of the energy of the reaction M(H2O)7(2+) + H2O → M(H2O)8(2+) and the pKa values. The calculated geometries are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The SCRF calculations with the conductor-like screening model (COSMO), and the conductor polarized continuum model (CPCM) using COSMO-RS radii, consistently agree best with experiment at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. The CCSD(T) level provides the most accurate pKa's, and the MP2 level also provides reliable predictions. Our predictions were used to elucidate the properties of metal +2 ion complexes. The pKa predictions provide confirmation of the size of the first solvation shell sizes. The calculations show that it is still difficult to predict pKa's using this cluster/implicit solvent approach to better than 1 pKa unit. 11. Linear models: permutation methods USGS Publications Warehouse Cade, B.S.; Everitt, B.S.; Howell, D.C. 2005-01-01 Permutation tests (see Permutation Based Inference) for the linear model have applications in behavioral studies when traditional parametric assumptions about the error term in a linear model are not tenable. Improved validity of Type I error rates can be achieved with properly constructed permutation tests. Perhaps more importantly, increased statistical power, improved robustness to effects of outliers, and detection of alternative distributional differences can be achieved by coupling permutation inference with alternative linear model estimators. For example, it is well-known that estimates of the mean in linear model are extremely sensitive to even a single outlying value of the dependent variable compared to estimates of the median [7, 19]. Traditionally, linear modeling focused on estimating changes in the center of distributions (means or medians). However, quantile regression allows distributional changes to be estimated in all or any selected part of a distribution or responses, providing a more complete statistical picture that has relevance to many biological questions [6]... 12. Linear force device NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Clancy, John P. 1988-01-01 The object of the invention is to provide a mechanical force actuator which is lightweight and manipulatable and utilizes linear motion for push or pull forces while maintaining a constant overall length. The mechanical force producing mechanism comprises a linear actuator mechanism and a linear motion shaft mounted parallel to one another. The linear motion shaft is connected to a stationary or fixed housing and to a movable housing where the movable housing is mechanically actuated through actuator mechanism by either manual means or motor means. The housings are adapted to releasably receive a variety of jaw or pulling elements adapted for clamping or prying action. The stationary housing is adapted to be pivotally mounted to permit an angular position of the housing to allow the tool to adapt to skewed interfaces. The actuator mechanisms is operated by a gear train to obtain linear motion of the actuator mechanism. 13. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory SciTech Connect Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian 2015-10-23 A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times. 14. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory DOE PAGES Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian 2015-10-23 A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less 15. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S. 1984-01-01 The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant. 16. Roller/Gear Drives For Robotic Manipulators NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William 1995-01-01 Pitch/yaw roller/gear drive and wrist-roll roller/gear drive designed to incorporate several features desirable in robotic-joint actuators. Includes zero backlash, high efficiency, smooth motion (little ripple in torque and in speed ratio), and high degree of back-drivability. Pitch/yaw drive is novel two-axis drive containing combination of gears, rollers, and springs acting together eliminating backlash and cogging. Wrist-roll drive more-conventional single-axis drive offering advantages like those of pitch/yaw drive. 17. Drive reconfiguration mechanism for tracked robotic vehicle DOEpatents Willis, W. David 2000-01-01 Drive reconfiguration apparatus for changing the configuration of a drive unit with respect to a vehicle body may comprise a guide system associated with the vehicle body and the drive unit which allows the drive unit to rotate about a center of rotation that is located at about a point where the drive unit contacts the surface being traversed. An actuator mounted to the vehicle body and connected to the drive unit rotates the drive unit about the center of rotation between a first position and a second position. 18. Reproducing basic pKa values for turkey ovomucoid third domain using a polarizable force field PubMed Central Click, Timothy H.; Kaminski, George A. 2009-01-01 We have extended our previous studies of calculating acidity constants for the acidic residues found in the turkey ovomucoid third domain protein (OMTKY3) by determining the relative pKa values for the basic residues (Lys13, Arg21, Lys29, Lys34, His52, and Lys55). A polarizable force field (PFF) was employed. The values of the pKa were found by direct comparison of energies of solvated protonated and deprotonated forms of the protein. Poisson Boltzmann (PBF) and Generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvation models represent the hydration, and a non-polarizable fixed-charges OPLS-AA force field was used for comparison. Our results indicate that (i) the pKa values of the basic residues can be found in close agreement with the experimental values when a PFF is used in conjunction with the PBF solvation model, (ii) it is sufficient to take into the account only the residues which are in close proximity (hydrogen bonded) to the residue in question, and (iii) The PBF solvation model is superior to the SGB solvation model for these pKa calculations. The average error with the PBF/PFF model is only 0.7 pH units, compared with 2.2 and 6.1 units for the PBF/OPLS and SGB/OPLS, respectively. The maximum deviation of the PBF/PFF results from the experimental values is 1.7 pH units compared with 6.0 pH units for the PBF/OPLS. Moreover, the best results were obtained while using an advanced non-polar energy calculation scheme. The overall conclusion is that this methodology and force field are suitable for accurate assessment of pKa shifts for both acidic basic protein residues. PMID:19432439 19. Molecular determinants of KA1 domain-mediated autoinhibition and phospholipid activation of MARK1 kinase PubMed Central Emptage, Ryan P.; Lemmon, Mark A.; Ferguson, Kathryn M. 2017-01-01 Protein kinases are frequently regulated by intramolecular autoinhibitory interactions between protein modules that are reversed when these modules bind other ‘activating’ protein or membrane-bound targets. One group of kinases, the MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs) contain a poorly understood regulatory module, the KA1 (kinase associated-1) domain, at their C-terminus. KA1 domains from MARK1 and several related kinases from yeast to humans have been shown to bind membranes containing anionic phospholipids, and peptide ligands have also been reported. Deleting or mutating the C-terminal KA1 domain has been reported to activate the kinase in which it is found — also suggesting an intramolecular autoinhibitory role. Here, we show that the KA1 domain of human MARK1 interacts with, and inhibits, the MARK1 kinase domain. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identify residues in the KA1 domain required for this auto-inhibitory activity, and find that residues involved in autoinhibition and in anionic phospholipid binding are the same. We also demonstrate that a ‘mini’ MARK1 becomes activated upon association with vesicles containing anionic phospholipids, but only if the protein is targeted to these vesicles by a second signal. These studies provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how MARK1 and its relatives may require more than one signal at the membrane surface to control their activation at the correct location and time. MARK family kinases have been implicated in a plethora of disease states including Alzheimer’s, cancer, and autism, so advancing our understanding of their regulatory mechanisms may ultimately have therapeutic value. PMID:27879374 20. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Pritchard, Josh 2010-01-01 Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a… 1. Test-Driving Their Passions ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Davis, Noah 2007-01-01 This article describes how the Watson fellowships give recipients an opportunity to test-drive their passions and see if they could lead to a career path. Over the last 40 years, the Thomas J. Watson Foundation has awarded29 million in fellowships to seniors graduating from 50 mostly top-tier colleges with fewer than 3,000 students. In 2007, 50…

2. Driving and working with syncope.

PubMed

Barbic, Franca; Casazza, Giovanni; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Costantino, Giorgio; Orlandi, Mauro; Dipaola, Franca; Capitanio, Chiara; Achenza, Sara; Sheldon, Robert; Furlan, Raffaello

2014-09-01

Syncope is usually addressed in the Emergency Department (ED) by the doctor in charge of the clinical picture, i.e. the patient's risk is stratified, a diagnostic work-up is done and a prognosis is set. Patients are ultimately admitted to hospital or discharged. However, other aspects related to syncope may deeply affect their daily lives. These include how and when to return to work and to driving, the feelings about a recent loss of consciousness, and the potential relapse of syncope. This is particularly significant if the work setting is intrinsically hazardous. These patients need adequate clinical and psychological support. For patients with syncope, two main parameters should be considered regarding returning to work and to driving. The first is to evaluate the risk of syncope recurrence and the second is to consider the expected harm if syncope does indeed occur during these activities. In the present paper we detail the problem of driving (including professional driving) and work after syncope. We propose a new quantitative model that will guide the physician in stratifying the risk for patients who have had a previous syncope event. The new model considers the syncope recurrence risk, the job task duration, and features that facilitate a syncope during work. On the basis of these variables, the global risk index for a worker is calculated. Following appropriate validation, this method might help ED and occupational physicians in their decision-making process with the goal of safely readmitting syncope patients to the workplace.

3. Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive

DOEpatents

Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

1979-01-01

This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.

4. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dudley, Michael R.

2010-01-01

An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

5. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kish, J.

1991-01-01

Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

6. Mechanical planetary compensating drive system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zeiger, R. J.; Gerdts, J. C., Jr.

1973-01-01

Drive enables two concentric output shafts to be controlled independently or rotated as a unit. Possible uses are pointing and tracking devices, rotary camera shutters with variable light control, gimbal systems with yaw and pitch movement, spectrometer mirror scanning devices, etc.

7. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

DOEpatents

Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

1986-04-25

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

8. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

PubMed

Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

2015-07-01

Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types.

9. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

1990-01-01

The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

10. Externally resonated linear microvibromotor for microassembly

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saitou, Kazuhiro; Wou, Soungjin J.

1998-10-01

A new design of a linear micro vibromotor for on-substrate fine positioning of micro-scale components is presented where a micro linear slider is actuated by vibratory impacts exerted by micro cantilever impacters. These micro cantilever impacters are selectively resonated by shaking the entire substrate with a piezoelectric vibrator, requiring no need for built-in driving mechanisms such as electrostatic comb actuators as reported previously. This selective resonance of the micro cantilever impacters via an external vibration energy field provides with a very simple means of controlling forward and backward motion of the micro linear slider, facilitating assembly and disassembly of a micro component on a substrate. The double-V beam suspension design is employed in the micro cantilever impacters for larger displacement in the lateral direction while achieving higher stiffness in the transversal direction. An analytical model of the device is derived in order to obtain, through the Simulated Annealing algorithm, an optimal design which maximizes translation speed of the linear slider at desired external input frequencies. Prototypes of the externally-resonated linear micro vibromotor are fabricated using the three-layer polysilicon surface micro machining process provided by the MCNC MUMPS service.

11. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

PubMed Central

Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

12. Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays

DOEpatents

Post, Richard Freeman

2014-12-23

A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.

13. Accurate pKa calculation of the conjugate acids of alkanolamines, alkaloids and nucleotide bases by quantum chemical methods.

PubMed

Gangarapu, Satesh; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Zuilhof, Han

2013-04-02

The pKa of the conjugate acids of alkanolamines, neurotransmitters, alkaloid drugs and nucleotide bases are calculated with density functional methods (B3LYP, M08-HX and M11-L) and ab initio methods (SCS-MP2, G3). Implicit solvent effects are included with a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and universal solvation models (SMD, SM8). G3, SCS-MP2 and M11-L methods coupled with SMD and SM8 solvation models perform well for alkanolamines with mean unsigned errors below 0.20 pKa units, in all cases. Extending this method to the pKa calculation of 35 nitrogen-containing compounds spanning 12 pKa units showed an excellent correlation between experimental and computational pKa values of these 35 amines with the computationally low-cost SM8/M11-L density functional approach.

14. Optimal Linear Control.

DTIC Science & Technology

1979-12-01

OPTIMAL LINEAR CONTROL C.A. HARVEY M.G. SAFO NOV G. STEIN J.C. DOYLE HONEYWELL SYSTEMS & RESEARCH CENTER j 2600 RIDGWAY PARKWAY j [ MINNEAPOLIS...RECIPIENT’S CAT ALC-’ W.IMIJUff’? * J~’ CR2 15-238-4F TP P EI)ŕll * (~ Optimal Linear Control ~iOGRPR UBA m a M.G Lnar o Con_ _ _ _ _ _ R PORT__ _ _ I RE...Characterizations of optimal linear controls have been derived, from which guides for selecting the structure of the control system and the weights in

15. Linear magnetic bearing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.

16. Eolian depositional phases during the past 50 ka and inferred climate variability for the Pampean Sand Sea, western Pampas, Argentina

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Forman, Steven L.

2016-05-01

The Pampean Sand Sea, which occurs from the Argentinian Pampas to the eastern Andean piedmont, hosts presently stabilized dune fields spanning the late Quaternary. This study integrates previous results and presents new geomorphic, stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronologic data for nineteen >2 m-thick eolian successions for the San Luis paleo-dune field, western Pampas, to better constrain the depositional history. Six eolian depositional phases are identified spanning the past 50 ka, interposed with paleosols and/or bounded by erosive surfaces. Age control was from 61 OSL ages of small aliquots of quartz grains from eolian stratigraphic units. The inferred timing of eolian phases are at ca. 70 ± 10 yr, 190 ± 20 yr, 12 to 1 ka, 22 to 17 ka, 29 to 24 ka, and 40 to 32 ka. A maximum span for periods of pedogenesis at ca. 12 to 17 ka, 22 to 24 ka, and 29 to 32 ka was provided by bounding OSL ages, which broadly overlap with high stands of pluvial lakes and glacier advances in the central Andes. We infer that the added precipitation may reflect expansion of the Southern Hemisphere monsoon, associated with Northern Hemisphere Heinrich events, leading to episodes of significantly wetter conditions (>350 mm MAP) to at least 35° S. Most of the Holocene (12 ka to 0.8 ka) was characterized by sand sheet deposit under drier than present conditions (100-450 mm MAP), associated with Monte-type vegetation (shrub steppe). The latest two eolian depositional phases, occurred at ca. 190 and 70 yr ago, during the historic period with European settlement and are related to anthropogenic landscape disturbance, though the youngest phase was concomitant with 1930s drought. Wet conditions dominated since ca. AD 1970 with new lakes and rivers forming across this eolian terrain; an incongruous environmental response in reference to drier conditions for most of the Holocene.

17. Simple analytic potentials for linear ion traps

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Janik, G. R.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

1989-01-01

A simple analytical model was developed for the electric and ponderomotive (trapping) potentials in linear ion traps. This model was used to calculate the required voltage drive to a mercury trap, and the result compares well with experiments. The model gives a detailed picture of the geometric shape of the trapping potenital and allows an accurate calculation of the well depth. The simplicity of the model allowed an investigation of related, more exotic trap designs which may have advantages in light-collection efficiency.

18. Simple analytic potentials for linear ion traps

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Janik, G. R.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

1990-01-01

A simple analytical model was developed for the electric and ponderomotive (trapping) potentials in linear ion traps. This model was used to calculate the required voltage drive to a mercury trap, and the result compares well with experiments. The model gives a detailed picture of the geometric shape of the trapping potential and allows an accurate calculation of the well depth. The simplicity of the model allowed an investigation of related, more exotic trap designs which may have advantages in light-collection efficiency.

19. A beam scraper using a linear motor

SciTech Connect

Beadle, E.R.; Rodger, E.S.; Thern, R.E.

1989-01-01

A beam scraper using a linear motor drive has been developed for use in the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The device is used to measure beam size by moving a target to a predetermined location and measuring the intercepted beam with nearby loss monitors or by noting the decrease in the circulating beam current. This device has excellent vacuum characteristics, as the motor and sensor coils are outside the vacuum, coupled magnetically to the moving parts which are inside. There are no bellows or dynamic seals required. The position-time profile is controlled by a closed-loop servo system which uses position feedback. 2 refs., 4 figs.

20. Functional characterization of linear delay Langevin equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Budini, Adrián A.; Cáceres, Manuel O.

2004-10-01

We present an exact functional characterization of linear delay Langevin equations driven by any noise structure defined through its characteristic functional. This method relies on the possibility of finding an explicitly analytical expression for each realization of the delayed stochastic process in terms of those of the driving noise. General properties of the transient dissipative dynamics are analyzed. The corresponding interplay with a color Gaussian noise is presented. As a full application of our functional method we study a model for population growth with non-Gaussian fluctuations: the Gompertz model driven by multiplicative white shot noise.

1. A linear accelerator for simulated micrometeors.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slattery, J. C.; Becker, D. G.; Hamermesh, B.; Roy, N. L.

1973-01-01

Review of the theory, design parameters, and construction details of a linear accelerator designed to impart meteoric velocities to charged microparticles in the 1- to 10-micron diameter range. The described linac is of the Sloan Lawrence type and, in a significant departure from conventional accelerator practice, is adapted to single particle operation by employing a square wave driving voltage with the frequency automatically adjusted from 12.5 to 125 kHz according to the variable velocity of each injected particle. Any output velocity up to about 30 km/sec can easily be selected, with a repetition rate of approximately two particles per minute.

2. Advances in Steady Inductive Helicity Injection for Plasma Startup and Toroidal Current Drive

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Victor, Brian S.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Hossack, Aaron C.; Ennis, David A.; Nelson, Brian A.; Hansen, Chris J.; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (HIT-SI) has achieved a breakthrough in the development of a new method of toroidal plasma startup and current drive. HIT-SI accomplishes helicity injection current drive on a spheromak of major radius 0.3 m with two injectors driven sinusoidally at 14.5 kHz. Results include the first sustainment of toroidal plasma current of over 50 kA at up to 3 times the injected currents added in quadrature. Separatrix toroidal currents—currents not linking the helicity injectors—are sustained at up to 40 kA. Toroidal currents persist for up to 0.65 ms after the injectors are turned off. Results are achieved after helium operations condition the alumina plasma-facing surface. The conditioned alumina walls then act to pump the deuterium, thereby reducing the spheromak density. High performance discharges (Itor/Iinj ≥ 2) are characterized by a decrease in the n = 1 mode activity measured by surface probes near the midplane of the confinement volume. Suppression of internal magnetic fields (measured by an internal probe) below the predicted Taylor equilibrium indicates that the magnetic fields in HIT-SI can no longer be described by a zero pressure, constant λ equilibrium.

3. Inertial Linear Actuators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laughlin, Darren

1995-01-01

Inertial linear actuators developed to suppress residual accelerations of nominally stationary or steadily moving platforms. Function like long-stroke version of voice coil in conventional loudspeaker, with superimposed linear variable-differential transformer. Basic concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations of terrestrial platforms. For example, laboratory table equipped with such actuators plus suitable vibration sensors and control circuits made to vibrate much less in presence of seismic, vehicular, and other environmental vibrational disturbances.

4. Linear system theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

1991-01-01

The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

5. Non-Linear Control Allocation Using Piecewise Linear Functions

DTIC Science & Technology

2003-08-01

A novel method is presented for the solution of the non- linear control allocation problem. Historically, control allocation has been performed by... linear control allocation problem to be cast as a piecewise linear program. The piecewise linear program is ultimately cast as a mixed-integer linear...piecewise linear control allocation method is shown to be markedly improved when compared to the performance of a more traditional control allocation approach that assumes linearity.

6. ACTS Ka-Band Earth Stations: Technology, Performance, and Lessons Learned

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reinhart, Richard C.; Struharik, Steven J.; Diamond, John J.; Stewart, David

2000-01-01

The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project invested heavily in prototype Ka-band satellite ground terminals to conduct an experiments program with the ACTS satellite. The ACTS experiment's program proposed to validate Ka-band satellite and ground station technology. demonstrate future telecommunication services. demonstrate commercial viability and market acceptability of these new services, evaluate system networking and processing technology, and characterize Ka-band propagation effects, including development of techniques to mitigate signal fading. This paper will present a summary of the fixed ground terminals developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners, emphasizing the technology and performance of the terminals (Part 1) and the lessons learned throughout their six year operation including the inclined orbit phase of operations (Full Report). An overview of the Ka-band technology and components developed for the ACTS ground stations is presented. Next. the performance of the ground station technology and its evolution during the ACTS campaign are discussed to illustrate the technical tradeoffs made during the program and highlight technical advances by industry to support the ACTS experiments program and terminal operations. Finally. lessons learned during development and operation of the user terminals are discussed for consideration of commercial adoption into future Ka-band systems. The fixed ground stations used for experiments by government, academic, and commercial entities used reflector based offset-fed antenna systems ranging in size from 0.35m to 3.4m antenna diameter. Gateway earth stations included two systems, referred to as the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). The NGS provides tracking, telemetry, and control (TT&C) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) network control functions. The LET supports technology verification and high data rate experiments. The ground

7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the older (> 40 ka) ignimbrites on the Campanian Plain, southern Italy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Belkin, H. E.; Rolandi, G.; Jackson, J. C.; Cannatelli, C.; Doherty, A. L.; Petrosino, P.; De Vivo, B.

2016-09-01

The Campanian Plain in southern Italy has been volcanically active for at least the last 300 ka. The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) erupted at 39.3 ka, has a volume of ≥ 310 km3 and a great areal extent. However, significant, but scattered deposits of older ignimbrites underlie the CI and document a long history of volcanism. We examined the mineralogy and geochemistry of 11 older ignimbrite strata by optical petrography, electron microprobe, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and various whole-rock geochemical techniques. We have analyzed strata at Durazzano (116.1 ka), Moschiano (184.7 ka), Seiano Valley (245.9 and 289.6 ka), and Taurano - Acqua Feconia (157.4, 183.8, 205.6, and 210.4 ka) that have been previously dated on unaltered sanidine. The older ignimbrites are highly altered with loss on ignition (LOI) that ranges from 17 to 8 wt%. Whole-rock compositions reflect variable element mobility during weathering; e.g., CaO is enriched and Na2O depleted relative to hydration. X-ray diffraction identified major chabazite, kaolinite, and illite alteration products in some samples. Rhabdophane-(Nd), usually intergrown with chabazite and Mn-carbonate, indicates that some LREE were also mobilized during weathering. The phenocryst mineralogy is typical for Campanian Plain (CP) magmas and consists of plagioclase (An88 Ab11 Or1 to An32 Ab63 Or5), potassium feldspar (Or40 Ab57 An3 to Or79 Ab18 An3), biotite (TiO2 = ~ 4-7 wt%, BaO = up to 2 wt%, F = up to 2 wt%), diopside (Ca47Mg47Fe6 to Ca48Mg29Fe23), and titaniferous magnetite. Relatively immobile trace elements Zr, Hf, Th, Ta, V, and Nb were used to investigate element abundance and ratio compared to the Campanian Ignimbrite and other CP magmas. Zr/Hf of the older ignimbrites is similar to that of the CI, but Ta is depleted relative to Th and V is enriched compared to CI. Th/Ta and Nb/V distributions for most of the older ignimbrites are similar to those in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff with the exception of

8. A five-wheel wheelchair with an active-caster drive system.

PubMed

Munakata, Yu; Tanaka, Aki; Wada, Masayoshi

2013-06-01

A novel wheelchair system with an active-caster drive mechanism is presented in this paper. A manual (hand propelled) wheelchair with an external single-wheel drive system forms a five-wheel configuration. The active-caster mechanism is applied to a drive system to motorize a manual wheelchair. Two electric motors which drive a wheel axis and a steering axis of a drive wheel independently are equipped on the active-caster. A coordinated control of the two motors enables the velocity vector on the steering shaft to direct in an arbitrary direction with an arbitrary magnitude. The generated velocity vector allows a wheelchair to go straight and/or rotate completely in a same way as a standard electric wheelchair. Namely 2DOF of the wheelchair can be controlled independently by a single drive wheel without any constraint, such as the orientation of the drive wheel which is well known as a non-holonomic constraint. In addition to the 2DOF mobility, the proposed system enables wheelchair users to change drive modes, a rear drive and a front drive. The drive wheel on the back side of the wheelchair is vertically actuated by a linear motor to change the height of the drive wheel that can vary load distribution and the number of wheels contacting to the ground. The five-wheel-contact makes the wheelchair to move as the normal mode in which the center of rotation is located at the midpoint of the main wheels. Depressing the drive wheel results in lost contacts of the main wheels from the ground in which the center of rotation is jumped at the midpoint of the front wheels, namely it performs as a front drive wheelchair. In this paper, kinematic models of the wheelchair and that with an active-caster drive system are analyzed and a control method by using a 2DOF joystick is derived. Based on the kinematic model, a prototype mechanism of the active-caster is designed and mounted on a manual wheelchair to realize the five-wheel wheelchair. In the experiments, the independent 2

9. The cost of linearization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morel, Danielle; Levy, William B.

2006-03-01

Information processing in the brain is metabolically expensive and energy usage by the different components of the nervous system is not well understood. In a continuing effort to explore the costs and constraints of information processing at the single neuron level, dendritic processes are being studied. More specifically, the role of various ion channel conductances is explored in terms of integrating dendritic excitatory synaptic input. Biophysical simulations of dendritic behavior show that the complexity of voltage-dependent, non-linear dendritic conductances can produce simplicity in the form of linear synaptic integration. Over increasing levels of synaptic activity, it is shown that two types of voltage-dependent conductances produce linearization over a limited range. This range is determined by the parameters defining the ion channel and the 'passive' properties of the dendrite. A persistent sodium and a transient A-type potassium channel were considered at steady-state transmembrane potentials in the vicinity of and hyperpolarized to the threshold for action potential initiation. The persistent sodium is seen to amplify and linearize the synaptic input over a short range of low synaptic activity. In contrast, the A-type potassium channel has a broader linearization range but tends to operate at higher levels of synaptic bombardment. Given equivalent 'passive' dendritic properties, the persistent sodium is found to be less costly than the A-type potassium in linearizing synaptic input.

10. Stability and skill in driving.

PubMed

Treffner, Paul; Barrett, Rod; Petersen, Andrew

2002-12-01

Two experiments addressed the relation between postural stability, perceptual sensitivity, and stability of driving performance. A vehicle was fitted with differential GPS for measuring position and speed, position sensors for measuring brake and accelerator depression, force transducers for measuring door, console and footrest bracing forces, and an accelerometer for measuring the 3D accelerations of the vehicle. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether the initiation of deceleration and the control of braking might be due to sensitivity to the perceptual variable tau, which specifies time-to-contact (TTC), and in particular, whether its first derivative, tau-dot, is used to maintain a constant deceleration profile. Using both untrained experienced drivers (EDs) and trained driving instructors from the Holden Performance Driving Centre (HPDC), results confirmed that, regardless of skill level, tau-dot was maintained at a value close to 0.5 and, as predicted by Lee [Perception 5 (1976) 437], braking was initiated when TTC approximately 5 s. In Experiment 2, we wished to quantify the purported differences in driving behaviour between EDs and HPDC instructors during a variety of everyday manoeuvres. Results indicated that instructors utilised a different cornering trajectory, a different emergency braking strategy, and were able to perform a high-speed swerve and recovery task more effectively than the EDs. In general, the instructors applied greater bracing forces using the door and console compared with EDs. The instructors also applied greater footrest forces during emergency braking than did the EDs. The greater use of bracing by instructor drivers to resist g-forces represents a strategy of active stabilisation that enhances both postural stability, as well as overall stability and consistency of driving performance. Results are discussed with regard to the dynamics of perceptual-motor coordination, and how increased stability might improve sensitivity to

11. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence☆

PubMed Central

Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A.; Bhat, Geeta

2016-01-01

Introduction Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of “worry” about their teen driver’s safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen’s driving. Methods We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental “worry,” and influence of rules regarding their teen’s driving, reported by teen’s driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver’s license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”) or perceived influence of parental rules (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”). Results Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying “a lot” was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Conclusions and Practical Applications Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver’s safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively

12. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

MedlinePlus

... Drunk Driving Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving Email Facebook Twitter July ... in a vehicle whose driver had been using marijuana or another illicit drug, or had drunk 5 ...

13. Sensory drive in cichlid speciation.

PubMed

Maan, Martine E; Hofker, Kees D; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Seehausen, Ole

2006-06-01

The role of selection in speciation is a central yet poorly understood problem in evolutionary biology. The rapid radiations of extremely colorful cichlid fish in African lakes have fueled the hypothesis that sexual selection can drive species divergence without geographical isolation. Here we present experimental evidence for a mechanism by which sexual selection becomes divergent: in two sibling species from Lake Victoria, female mating preferences for red and blue male nuptial coloration coincide with their context-independent sensitivities to red and blue light, which in turn correspond to a difference in ambient light in the natural habitat of the species. These results suggest that natural selection on visual performance, favoring different visual properties in different spectral environments, may lead to divergent sexual selection on male nuptial coloration. This interplay of ecological and sexual selection along a light gradient may provide a mechanism of rapid speciation through divergent sensory drive.

14. A square-plate ultrasonic linear motor operating in two orthogonal first bending modes.

PubMed

Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Shuxiang

2013-01-01

A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B₁) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B₁ modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

15. A double B1-mode 4-layer laminated piezoelectric linear motor.

PubMed

Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

2012-12-01

We report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor that is made of four Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layers for low-voltage work. The 4-layer piezoelectric laminate works in two orthogonal first-bending modes for producing elliptical oscillations, which are then used to drive a contacting slider into continuous linear motion. Experimental results show that the miniature linear motor (size: 4 × 4 × 12 mm, weight: 1.7 g) can generate a large driving force of 0.48 N and a linear motion speed of up to 160 mm/s, using a 40 V(pp)/mm voltage drive at its resonance frequency of 64.5 kHz. The maximum efficiency of the linear motor is 30%.

16. Electric Drive Study. Volume 1

DTIC Science & Technology

1987-12-21

necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP IElectric Drives, Motors, Homopolar Motors, Induction Motof’s, I-u I ’Propulsion Systems...E-I APPENDIX F. VEHICLE AND PROPULSION SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS ..... .F-I APPENDIX G. HOMOPOLAR MACHINE DESCRIPTION ..... ............ G-1 APPENDIX H...System (19.5 Ton) ............... .. 62 5-22. Homopolar (DC) System (19.5 Ton).... . .. . 64 5-23. HF Induction AC System (19.5 Ton) (Split Power’Pack

17. Electric vehicle drive train components

SciTech Connect

Silver, F.

1994-12-31

Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

18. A Gigabit-per-Second Ka-Band Demonstration Using a Reconfigurable FPGA Modulator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, Dennis; Gray, Andrew A.; Kang, Edward C.; Tsou, Haiping; Lay, Norman E.; Fong, Wai; Fisher, Dave; Hoy, Scott

2005-01-01

Gigabit-per-second communications have been a desired target for future NASA Earth science missions, and for potential manned lunar missions. Frequency bandwidth at S-band and X-band is typically insufficient to support missions at these high data rates. In this paper, we present the results of a 1 Gbps 32-QAM end-to-end experiment at Ka-band using a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) baseband modulator board. Bit error rate measurements of the received signal using a software receiver demonstrate the feasibility of using ultra-high data rates at Ka-band, although results indicate that error correcting coding and/or modulator predistortion must be implemented in addition. Also, results of the demonstration validate the low-cost, MOS-based reconfigurable modulator approach taken to development of a high rate modulator, as opposed to more expensive ASIC or pure analog approaches.

19. The Celestial Reference Frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jacobs, C. S.; Clark, J. E.; Heflin, M. B.; Skjerve, L. J.; Sovers, O. J.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Moll, V. E.; Horiuchi, S.

2010-01-01

A celestial reference frame at X/Kaband (8.4/32 GHz) has been constructed using fiftyone 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network. We report on observations which have detected 436 sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of 200 micro-arcsec ( mu as) in alpha cos delta and 290 mu as in delta. There is evidence for zonal errors at the 100 mu as level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of phase calibration, troposphere mismodelling, and limited southern geometry. The motivations for extending the ICRF to frequencies above 8 GHz are to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability, to provide calibrators for phase referencing, and to support spacecraft navigation at Ka-band.

20. Design Versatility Of The Prism Panoramic Camera: The KS-116 And KA-95 Cameras

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ruck, Richard

1981-12-01

The increased need for smaller and more versatile aerial reconnaissance equipment has led to the use of the KS-116 camera in the RF-4B aircraft, and the KA-95 in the RIF-5E. Both cameras use a 12-inch fl, f/4.0 lens and a 5-inch film transport. The main difference between these two cameras is their configuration. This paper describes the features of the two cameras, including: selectable scan angle, forward motion compensation (FMC), roll stabilization, exposure control, unique packaging differences and focus correction. The inherent packaging flexibility of the prism pan camera and the availability of key modules have led to multiple configurations of which the KS-116 and KA-95 are two examples.