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Sample records for linear enamel hypolasias

  1. Age at death and linear enamel hypoplasias: testing the effects of childhood stress and adult socioeconomic circumstances in premature mortality.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, Alexandra; Garcia, Susana J; Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the association between linear enamel hypolasias and adult socioeconomic circumstances with age at death in a modern skeletal sample of known age. Specifically, this study wishes to test whether there is a relationship between early life stressors, environmental quality in adult life and premature mortality. The presence/absence of LEH and the number of LEH episodes were recorded in 113 adult males from the Lisbon identified skeletal collection. The association between LEH and age was quantified using linear regression and binary logistic regression models, calculating crude and adjusted linear regression coefficients and odds ratios. The models were adjusted for year of birth, socioeconomic and migration status, and cause of death. The presence and number of LEH were related to premature mortality. Individuals expressing at least one enamel defect survived 9.0 years less or were 2.5 times more likely to die before 53 years of age compared to individuals with no LEH. However, when controlling for the confounding factors considered, the association between LEH and age became nonsignificant. The results indicate that although early life stressors, identified as LEH, seem strongly associated with premature mortality, adulthood socioeconomic circumstances accounts for most of the decreased longevity. This suggests that either macroscopically identified LEH in the permanent canine do not measure stressors early in life, or that a cumulative adversity model is a more adequate explanation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Abrasion, erosion, and abfraction combined with linear enamel hypoplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boston, D W; al-bargi, H; Bogert, M

    1999-10-01

    Linear enamel hypoplasia is a developmental disturbance of enamel resulting in clinically visible horizontal defects in enamel that are present on eruption of the tooth. Nondevelopmental lesions of the hard tissues of the tooth, including carious, abrasion, erosion, attrition, and abfraction lesions, require varying amounts of time after tooth eruption to develop. Because linear enamel hypoplasia lesions are present on eruption and are exposed to the factors responsible for abrasion, erosion, and abfraction, nondevelopmental lesions could occur within them in any combination. This report describes a patient with multiple teeth with linear enamel hypoplasia lesions containing nondevelopmental defects as well as nondevelopmental defects that occurred separately. Severe pain and a unique lesion morphology were associated with the linear enamel hypoplasia defects. Affected teeth were extracted because of advanced periodontitis and were sectioned to determine the nature of the enamel and dentin lesions.

  3. Linear enamel hypoplasia in gibbons (Hylobates lar carpenteri).

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, D

    2000-07-01

    This study describes the expression of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), a sensitive dental indicator of physiological stress, in Thailand gibbons (Hylobates lar carpenteri). Previous studies of enamel hypoplasia in hominoids have focused on great apes, with little attention given to the expression of this stress indicator in gibbons. In that gibbons differ from both monkeys and great apes in numerous life history features, LEH expression in gibbons might be expected to show significant differences from both. In this study, 92 gibbon specimens from two sites in Thailand were compared with several samples of monkeys and great apes in their expression of LEH. The intertooth distribution of LEH in gibbons was compared to that of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Gibbon populations from both sites exhibit LEH frequencies intermediate between those of the monkey samples, in which LEH prevalence is usually low, and those of the great ape samples, in which LEH prevalence is high. Gibbons differ significantly from monkeys, but not great apes, in the number of individuals whose teeth record multiple stress events. Multiple episodes of stress are rarely recorded in the teeth of monkeys, while multiple stress events occur with higher frequency in gibbons and great apes. Taxonomic variation in the duration of crown formation, the prominence and spacing of perikymata on dental crowns, life history features, and/or experience of physiological stress may explain these patterns. The intertooth distribution of LEH in gibbons is, for different reasons, unlike that of either chimpanzees or rhesus monkeys. The mandibular canines of gibbons have significantly more LEH than any of their other teeth. Aspects of crown morphology, perikymata prominence/spacing, enamel thickness, and crown formation spans are potential causes of taxonomic variation in the intertooth distribution of LEH.

  4. Missing defects? A comparison of microscopic and macroscopic approaches to identifying linear enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Brenna R

    2014-03-01

    Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), the presence of linear defects of dental enamel formed during periods of growth disruption, is frequently analyzed in physical anthropology as evidence for childhood health in the past. However, a wide variety of methods for identifying and interpreting these defects in archaeological remains exists, preventing easy cross-comparison of results from disparate studies. This article compares a standard approach to identifying LEH using the naked eye to the evidence of growth disruption observed microscopically from the enamel surface. This comparison demonstrates that what is interpreted as evidence of growth disruption microscopically is not uniformly identified with the naked eye, and provides a reference for the level of consistency between the number and timing of defects identified using microscopic versus macroscopic approaches. This is done for different tooth types using a large sample of unworn permanent teeth drawn from several post-medieval London burial assemblages. The resulting schematic diagrams showing where macroscopic methods achieve more or less similar results to microscopic methods are presented here and clearly demonstrate that "naked-eye" methods of identifying growth disruptions do not identify LEH as often as microscopic methods in areas where perikymata are more densely packed.

  5. Linear measurements of cortical bone and dental enamel by computed tomography: applications and problems.

    PubMed

    Spoor, C F; Zonneveld, F W; Macho, G A

    1993-08-01

    This paper explores the potential of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) as a morphometric tool in paleoanthropology. The accuracy of linear measurements of enamel thickness and cortical bone thickness taken from CT scans is evaluated by making comparison with measurements taken directly from physical sections. The measurements of cortical bone are taken on extant and fossil specimens with and without attached matrix, and the dental specimens studied include a sample of 12 extant human molars. Local CT numbers (representing X-ray attenuation) are used to determine the exact position of the boundaries of a structure. Using this technique most studied dimensions, including four of human molar enamel thickness, could be obtained from CT scans with a maximum error range of +/- 0.1 mm. The limitations of the method are discussed with special reference to problems associated with highly mineralized fossils.

  6. Applying standard perikymata profiles to Pongo pygmaeus canines to estimate perikymata counts between linear enamel hypoplasias.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mackie

    2017-05-01

    Recently, studies have interpreted regular spacing and average number of perikymata between dental enamel defects in orangutans to reflect seasonal episodes of physiological stress. To estimate the amount of time between developmental defects (enamel hypoplasia), studies have relied on perikymata counts. Unfortunately, perikymata are frequently not continuously visible between defects, significantly reducing data sets. A method is presented here for estimating the number of perikymata between defects using standard perikymata profiles (SPP) that allow the number of perikymata between all pairs of defects across a tooth to be analyzed. The SPP method should allow the entire complement of defects to be analyzed within the context of an individual's crown formation time. The average number of perikymata were established per decile and charted to create male and female Pongo pygmaeus SPPs. The position of the beginning of each defect was recorded for lower canines from males (n = 6) and females (n = 17). The number of perikymata between defects estimated by the SPP was compared to the actual count (where perikymata were continuously visible). The number of perikymata between defects estimated by the SPPs was accurate within three perikymata and highly correlated with the actual counts, significantly increasing the number of analyzable defect pairs. SPPs allow all defect pairs to be included in studies of defect timing, not just those with continuously visible perikymata. Establishing an individual's entire complement of dental defects makes it possible to calculate the regularity (and potential seasonality) of defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  8. Variation in perikymata counts between repetitive episodes of linear enamel hypoplasia among orangutans from Sumatra and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark F

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) in apes is ecologically informative. LEH, which appears as grooves of thinner enamel often caused by malnutrition and/or disease, is a permanent record of departures from developmental homeostasis in infant and juvenile apes. Orangutans were selected for the study as they are a threatened species, have a remarkably high prevalence of rLEH, and because Sumatra is deemed a better habitat for orangutans than is Borneo, facilitating an ecological comparison. Objectives are to determine: a) whether periodicity of rLEH in orangutans corresponds to monsoon-mediated cycles in precipitation or food; and b) whether patterning of rLEH supports the view that Borneo is an inferior habitat. This study compares the counts of perikymata between adjacent LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans to estimate the periodicity of rLEH. A total of 131 nonredundant inter-LEH perikymata counts were transformed to natural log values to reveal clusters of counts in a multiplicative series. Using a value of 10 days to form one perikyma, rLEH tends to recur semiannually in both populations. However, Sumatran orangutans show significantly fewer semiannual intervals and more annually recurring episodes. Bornean orangutans show mostly semiannual intervals and are more variable in inter-LEH perikymata counts. It is concluded that: a) developmental conditions for infant orangutans in Sumatra protect them somewhat from seasonal and environmental variation; b) temporal patterning of rLEH indicates that Borneo is the poorer habitat for orangutans; and c) the study of rLEH can be ecologically informative. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Linear enamel hypoplasia at Xcambó, Yucatán, during the Maya Classic period: An evaluation of coastal marshland impact on ancient human populations.

    PubMed

    Méndez Collí, C; Sierra Sosa, T N; Tiesler, V; Cucina, A

    2009-01-01

    Non-specific stress markers such as linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) have been associated in the literature with a large number of possible conditions disrupting the individual's homeostasis, though metabolic strain originating synergistically by disease and malnutrition has been held to be the main cause behind enamel disruption. The analysis of LEH in the Maya Classic period site of Xcambó, located along the northern coast of the Yucatán peninsula, reveals high exposure to stressful conditions during infancy regardless of age and sex. Yet, the inhabitants of the site were of a medium to high social and economic status, with access to balanced and protein-rich nutritional resources, which should have functioned as a cultural buffer to the impact of stress. In the light of this apparent contradiction, this paper discusses the impact of environmental conditions on the record of metabolic stress. Our conclusions pose a cautionary caveat for inferring nutrition and status in ancient pre-antibiotic populations solely from the occurrence of linear enamel hypoplasia.

  10. The effect of the season of birth and of selected maternal factors on linear enamel thickness in modern human deciduous incisors.

    PubMed

    Żądzińska, E; Kurek, M; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Lorkiewicz, W; Rosset, I; Sitek, A

    2013-08-01

    Development of human tooth enamel is a part of a foetus's development; its correctness is the outcome of genetic and maternal factors shaping its prenatal environment. Many authors reported that individuals born in different seasons experience different early developmental conditions during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the effects of season of birth and selected maternal factors on enamel thickness of deciduous incisors. Dental sample comprises 60 deciduous incisors. The parents who handed over their children's teeth for research fill in questionnaires containing questions about the course of pregnancy. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-linqual plane using diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). The final specimens were observed by way of scanning electron microscopy at magnifications 80× and 320×. The thickness of total enamel (TE), prenatally (PE) and postnatally (PSE) formed enamel was measured. Children born in summer and in spring (whose first and second foetal life fall on autumn and winter) have the thinnest enamel. Season of birth, number of children in family, diseases and spasmolytic medicines using by mother during pregnancy explained almost 13% of the variability of TE. Regression analysis proved a significant influence of the season of birth and selected maternal factors on the PE thickness - these factors explained over 17% of its variability. Neither of analysed variables had influenced PSE. Our findings suggests that the thickness of enamel of deciduous incisors depends on the season of birth and some maternal factors. The differences were observed only in the prenatally formed enamel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological characteristics of primary enamel surfaces versus permanent enamel surfaces: SEM digital analysis.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, A; Storti, E

    2011-09-01

    The morphology of permanent and primary enamel surface merits further analysis. The objective of this study was to illustrate a method of SEM digital image processing able to quantify and discriminate between the morphological characteristics of primary and permanent tooth enamel. Sixteen extracted teeth, 8 primary teeth and 8 permanent teeth, kept in saline solution, were analysed. The teeth were observed under SEM. The SEM images were analysed by means of digitally processed algorithms. The two algorithms used were: Local standard deviation to measure surface roughness with the roughness index (RI); Hough's theorem to identify linear structures with the linear structure index (LSI). The SEM images of primary teeth enamel show smooth enamel with little areas of irregularity. No linear structures are apparent. The SEM images of permanent enamel show a not perfectly smooth surface; there are furrows and irregularities of variable depth and width. In the clinical practice a number of different situations require the removal of a thin layer of enamel. Only a good morphological knowledge of both permanent and primary tooth enamel gives the opportunity to identify and exploit the effects of rotary tools on enamel, thus allowing for a correct finishing technique.

  12. [Phenotype analysis and the molecular mechanism of enamel hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    Lv, Ping; Gao, Xue-jun

    2009-02-18

    Enamel hypoplasia is a surface defect of the tooth crown caused by a disturbance of enamel matrix secretion. Enamel hypoplasia may be inherited, or result from illness, malnutrition, trauma, or high concentrations of fluorides or strontium in the drinking water or food. Different types of enamel hypoplasia have been distinguished, such as pit-type, plane-type, and linear enamel hypoplasia. Hypoplasia has been related to the intensity and duration of stress events, the number of affected ameloblasts, and their position along the forming tooth crown. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects in dental enamel formation, most teeth are affected in both the primary and permanent dentition. The malformed enamel can be unusually thin, soft, rough and stained. The strict definition of AI includes only those cases where enamel defects occur in the absence of other symptoms. Currently, there are seven candidate genes for AI: amelogenin, enamelin, ameloblastin, tuftelin, distal-less homeobox 3, enamelysin, and kallikrein 4. Since the enamel is formed according to a strict chronological sequence, and once formed, undergoes no repair or regeneration. Then the analysis the phenotype of enamel hypoplasia can provide insights of the severity of inherited or environmental stress and the molecular mechanism during the period of enamel formation.

  13. Enamel craze lines.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Enamel craze lines are a common clinical finding, especially in older patients and in patients who brux. These craze lines frequently are discolored and may present as clear in color, grey, or brown. The clinical question is, when do enamel craze lines need restoration and when should we leave them untreated? This review will look at enamel structure and the effects of occlusion, bruxing, temperature, and restorations on enamel structure. Recommendations will be made on how and when to deal with these cosmetic defects of enamel.

  14. Amelogenin and Enamel Biomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Qichao; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Mature tooth enamel is acellular and does not regenerate itself. Developing technologies that rebuild tooth enamel and preserve tooth structure is therefore of great interest. Considering the importance of amelogenin protein in dental enamel formation, its ability to control apatite mineralization in vitro, and its potential to be applied in fabrication of future bio-inspired dental material this review focuses on two major subjects: amelogenin and enamel biomimetics. We review the most recent findings on amelogenin secondary and tertiary structural properties with a focus on its interactions with different targets including other enamel proteins, apatite mineral, and phospholipids. Following a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and its mechanical properties we will present the state-of-the-art strategies in the biomimetic reconstruction of human enamel. PMID:26251723

  15. Human enamel thickness and ENAM polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Daubert, Diane M; Kelley, Joanna L; Udod, Yuriy G; Habor, Carolina; Kleist, Chris G; Furman, Ilona K; Tikonov, Igor N; Swanson, Willie J; Roberts, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    The tooth enamel development gene, enamelin (ENAM), showed evidence of positive selection during a genome-wide scan of human and primate DNA for signs of adaptive evolution. The current study examined the hypothesis that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C14625T (rs7671281) in the ENAM gene identified in the genome-wide scan is associated with a change in enamel phenotype. African Americans were selected as the target population, as they have been reported to have a target SNP frequency of approximately 50%, whereas non-Africans are predicted to have a 96% SNP frequency. Digital radiographs and DNA samples from 244 teeth in 133 subjects were analysed, and enamel thickness was assessed in relation to SNP status, controlling for age, sex, tooth number and crown length. Crown length was found to increase with molar number, and females were found to have thicker enamel. Teeth with larger crowns also had thicker enamel, and older subjects had thinner enamel. Linear regression and generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the relationship between enamel thickness of the mandibular molars and ENAM SNP status; enamel in subjects with the derived allele was significantly thinner (P=0.040) when the results were controlled for sex, age, tooth number and crown length. The derived allele demonstrated a recessive effect on the phenotype. The data indicate that thinner dental enamel is associated with the derived ENAM genotype. This is the first direct evidence of a dental gene implicated in human adaptive evolution as having a phenotypic effect on an oral structure. PMID:27357321

  16. The erosive susceptibility of cervical versus occlusal enamel.

    PubMed

    Hammadeh, M; Rees, J S

    2001-03-01

    Clinical studies have strongly suggested a multifactorial aetiology for abfraction lesions or non-carious cervical tooth loss, with a contribution from erosive agents. Structural studies have shown that cervical enamel is more porous with a poorly developed crystal structure that may be more prone to erosion. The aim of this study was to examine the susceptibility to erosion of cervical and occlusal enamel from human premolar and molar teeth. Small blocks of cervical and cuspal enamel were immersed in either orange juice or Coca-Cola and the surface enamel loss was measured using profilometry. The enamel loss was essentially linear at a rate of 2.2-8.8 microns/hr. It was concluded that there was little difference in the susceptibility to erosion between cervical and cuspal enamel, even when the surface hypermineralised layer was removed.

  17. Biomimetic Enamel Regeneration Mediated by Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide.

    PubMed

    Kwak, S Y; Litman, A; Margolis, H C; Yamakoshi, Y; Simmer, J P

    2017-01-01

    We report here a novel biomimetic approach to the regeneration of human enamel. The approach combines the use of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to control the onset and rate of enamel regeneration and the use of leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP), a nonphosphorylated 56-amino acid alternative splice product of amelogenin, to regulate the shape and orientation of growing enamel crystals. This study builds on our previous findings that show LRAP can effectively guide the formation of ordered arrays of needle-like hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in vitro and on the known role mineralization inhibitors, like PPi, play in the regulation of mineralized tissue formation. Acid-etched enamel surfaces of extracted human molars, cut perpendicular or parallel to the direction of the enamel rods, were exposed to a PPi-stabilized supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution containing 0 to 0.06 mg/mL LRAP for 20 h. In the absence of LRAP, PPi inhibition was reversed by the presence of etched enamel surfaces and led to the formation of large, randomly distributed plate-like HA crystals that were weakly attached, regardless of rod orientation. In the presence of 0.04 mg/mL LRAP, however, densely packed mineral layers, comprising bundles of small needle-like HA crystals, formed on etched surfaces that were cut perpendicular to the enamel rods. These crystals were strongly attached, and their arrangement reflected to a significant degree the underlying enamel prism pattern. In contrast, under the same conditions with LRAP, little to no crystal formation was found on enamel surfaces that were cut parallel to the direction of the enamel rods. These results suggest that LRAP preferentially interacts with ab surfaces of mature enamel crystals, inhibiting their directional growth, thus selectively promoting linear growth along the c-axis of enamel crystals. The present findings demonstrate a potential for the development of a new approach to regenerate enamel structure and properties.

  18. Ectopic enamel pearl

    PubMed Central

    Rathva, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Enamel pearls are one of a number of different enamel structures that can be found on the roots of deciduous and permanent teeth. They have a distinct predilection for the furcation areas of molar, particularly the maxillary third and second molars. However, they have been found less commonly on the apical portions of the root. This report describes an unusual case of enamel pearl on apical third of mandibular molar teeth. Enamel pearl was confirmed as predisposing factor for the cause of localized periodontitis; it is very important to recognize their radiographic aspect to ensure proper treatment of involved teeth. PMID:24765445

  19. Triad ''Metal - Enamel - Glass''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhina, T.; Petrova, S.; Toporova, V.; Fedyaeva, T.

    2014-10-01

    This article shows how to change the color of metal and glass. Both these materials are self-sufficient, but sometimes used together. For example, enameling. In this case, the adhesion between metal substrate and stekloobraznae enamel layer, which was conducted on a stretching and a bend, was tested.

  20. Liquid White Enamel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  1. Liquid White Enamel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  2. Laser printing of enamels on tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Restrepo, J. W.; Gómez, M. A.; Serra, P.; Morenza, J. L.

    2007-07-01

    A Nd:YAG laser beam is used as a tool to print patterns of coloured enamels on tile substrates. For this, the laser beam is scanned over a layer of raw enamel previously sprayed on the tile surface. The possibility to focus the laser energy to heat a small zone without affecting the rest of the piece presents some advantages in front of traditional furnace techniques in which the whole piece has to be heated; among them, energy saving and the possibility to apply enamels with higher melting temperatures than those of the substrate. In this work, we study the effects of laser irradiation of a green enamel, based in chromium oxide pigment and lead frit, deposited on a white tile substrate. Lines obtained with different combinations of laser beam power and scan speeds were investigated with the aim to optimize the process from the point of view of the quality of the patterns. For this purpose, the morphology of the lines and their cross-sections is studied. The results show that lines with good visual properties can be printed with the laser. The characteristics of the marked lines were found to be directly related with the accumulated energy density delivered. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the accumulated energy density and the volume of melted material. A minimum accumulated energy density is required to melt a shallow zone of the glazed substrate to allow the adhesion of the enamelled lines.

  3. Enamel thickness and development in a third permanent molar of Gigantopithecus blacki.

    PubMed

    Dean, M Christopher; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2003-11-01

    A ground section was prepared from a lower right M3 attributed to Gigantopithecus blacki as close as possible to axial plane of the mesial cusps. Daily cross striations were imaged, measured and counted in each cusp using polarised light microscopy. Long-period striae of Retzius were counted in the lateral enamel and their periodicity determined from counts and measurements of daily cross striations between adjacent striae. Cross striation spacings in the cusps were between 3.8 microm at the enamel dentine junction and 6 microm close to the enamel surface. Cuspal enamel formation times were long (800 days in the protoconid and 620 days in the metaconid). Linear enamel thickness was as much as 3.75 mm in the protoconid. There were 63 and 61 long-period striae of Retzius in the mesial aspects of the lateral enamel and the periodicity was 11 days. Lateral enamel formation took 1493 and 1291 days and when summed with cuspal enamel formation times totalled 4 years in the protoconid and 3.5 in the metaconid. Relative enamel thickness was 23, calculated through the mesial cusps. This falls short of that in the so-called 'thick hyper-thick' enamel described in 'robust' australopithecines to which Gigantopithecus blacki has previously been compared in both its dental and mandibular morphology. With respect to enamel thickness, therefore, Gigantopithecus blacki falls squarely among an increasingly large number of Miocene hominoids that can all be described as having 'thick enamel'.

  4. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  5. Aluminizing in enameling

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyavskii, A.N.; Derkach, V.I.; Kachuk, V.S.; Lysenko, S.V.

    1982-11-01

    At the Scientific-Research Institute for Enameling of Chemical Machinery an investigation has been made of the process of aluminizing steel parts for the purpose of protecting unenameled surfaces from oxidation. Three methods were investigated: immersion in molten metal, painting with an aluminum suspension, and metallizing. For the investigation flat 75 X 50 X 10 mm samples of 08sp steel were used. Finds that aluminum metallizing makes it possible to eliminate losses of metal to oxidation of 5-6 kg per m/sup 2/, to decrease by no less than two times the costs for shot blasting of unenameled surfaces before painting, to increase the service life of the electrical spirals in furnaces, to significantly increase production culture, to eliminate entry of scale into the enamel coating, and consequently to increase the quality of enameled equipment. Concludes that taking into consideration the approximately equal cost of the aluminum wire used for metallizing and the enamel granulate, the high productivity of the operation, the simplicity of accomplishing it, the possibility of mechanization and combining in time the operations of annealing the enamel coating and aluminizing, and the availability of standard equipment for the process, enameling of steel equipment with the use of metallizing of the unprotected surfaces with aluminum may be recommended for introduction.

  6. Crystal Initiation Structures in Developing Enamel: Possible Implications for Caries Dissolution of Enamel Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Colin; Connell, Simon D.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of developing enamel crystals using Atomic and Chemical Force Microscopy (AFM, CFM) have revealed a subunit structure. Subunits were seen in height images as collinear swellings about 30 nM in diameter on crystal surfaces. In friction mode they were visible as positive regions. These were similar in size (30–50 nM) to collinear spherical structures, presumably mineral matrix complexes, seen in developing enamel using a freeze fracturing/freeze etching procedure. More detailed AFM studies on mature enamel suggested that the 30–50 nM structures were composed of smaller units, ~10–15 nM in diameter. These were clustered in hexagonal or perhaps a spiral arrangement. It was suggested that these could be the imprints of initiation sites for mineral precipitation. The investigation aimed at examining original freeze etched images at high resolution to see if the smaller subunits observed using AFM in mature enamel were also present in developing enamel i.e., before loss of the organic matrix. The method used was freeze etching. Briefly samples of developing rat enamel were rapidly frozen, fractured under vacuum, and ice sublimed from the fractured surface. The fractured surface was shadowed with platinum or gold and the metal replica subjected to high resolution TEM. For AFM studies high-resolution tapping mode imaging of human mature enamel sections was performed in air under ambient conditions at a point midway between the cusp and the cervical margin. Both AFM and freeze etch studies showed structures 30–50 nM in diameter. AFM indicated that these may be clusters of somewhat smaller structures ~10–15 nM maybe hexagonally or spirally arranged. High resolution freeze etching images of very early enamel showed ~30–50 nM spherical structures in a disordered arrangement. No smaller units at 10–15 nM were clearly seen. However, when linear arrangements of 30–50 nM units were visible the picture was more complex but also smaller units including

  7. Dental enamel hypoplasias in prehistoric populations.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A H

    1989-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed an impressive increase in research on enamel hypoplasias in archaeological populations. By reviewing a series of studies of enamel hypoplasias at Dickson Mounds, Illinois, North America (950-1300 A.D.), a prehistoric site involved in the transition from gathering-hunting to agriculture, this paper provides an illustration of this type of research. The location of linear hypoplasias on labial tooth surfaces of 111 adults was studied with a thin-tipped caliper, and this location was converted to an age at development. Most defects developed between two and four years of developmental age. Hypoplasias increased in prevalence from 45% in the pre-agriculture group to 80% in the agricultural group (p less than 0.01). The transition to agriculture occurred at a cost to infant and childhood health. Defects are associated with decreased longevity. Individuals with defects have a life expectancy of nearly ten years fewer than those without defects, suggesting that the development of a defect marks a significant and lasting health event. Enamel hypoplasias occur most frequently on anterior teeth, polar teeth in developmental fields, and the middle developmental thirds of teeth. Analysis of these data suggests that enamel may be differentially susceptible to growth disruption and that susceptibility varies both within and among teeth. The study of enamel defects at Dickson provides insights into the health and nutritional consequences of the economic change from hunting and gathering to agriculture. More generally, with the availability of teeth from genetically homogeneous populations, studies of enamel hypoplasias in prehistory should provide a useful complement to research on this condition in contemporary peoples.

  8. Abiotic tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M; Arruda, Ellen M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability-especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues-suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels-we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth's normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  9. Monitoring remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Mandurah, Mona M; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Kitasako, Yuichi; Nakashima, Syozi; Bakhsh, Turki A; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2013-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential clinical tool for enamel lesion monitoring. Swept-source OCT findings were compared with cross-sectional nanohardness findings of enamel. Subsurface bovine enamel lesions in three groups were subjected to (1) deionized water (control), (2) phosphoryl oligosaccharide of calcium (POs-Ca) or (3) POs-Ca with 1 ppm fluoride for 14 days. B-scans images were obtained at 1310-nm center wavelength on sound, demineralized and remineralized areas after 4, 7, and 14 days. The specimens were processed for cross-sectional nanoindentation. Reflectivity from enamel that had increased with demineralization decreased with remineralization. An OCT attenuation coefficient parameter (μt), derived based on the Beer-Lambert law as a function of backscatter signal slope, showed a strong linear regression with integrated nanohardness of all regions (p<0.001, r=-0.97). Sound enamel showed the smallest, while demineralized enamel showed the highest μt. In group three, μt was significantly lower at four days than baseline, but remained constant afterwards. In group two, the changes were rather gradual. There was no significant difference between groups two and three at 14 days in nanohardness or μt POs-Ca with fluoride-enhanced nanohardness of the superficial zone. OCT signal attenuation demonstrated a capability for monitoring changes of enamel lesions during remineralization.

  10. Sensitivity of tooth enamel to penetrating radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mel`nikov, P.V.; Moiseev, B.M.

    1994-04-01

    Since integral radiation doses are important in the causation of cancers, this article proposes that everyone should carry a dosimeter that stores accumulated information over many decades. It is further noted that tooth enamel can serve as such a dosimeter. Ionizing radiation produces carbonate radicals, with a concentration linearly related to the absorbed dose. In this paper, the sensitivities of teeth to gamma and beta radiation has been measured.

  11. Abiotic tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability—especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues—suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels—we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth’s normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  12. Amelogenin-chitosan matrix promotes assembly of an enamel-like layer with a dense interface

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Qichao; Zhang, Yuzheng; Yang, Xiudong; Nutt, Steven; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic reconstruction of tooth enamel is a significant topic of study in material science and dentistry as a novel approach for prevention, restoration, and treatment of defective enamel. We developed a new amelogenin-containing chitosan hydrogel for enamel reconstruction that works through amelogenin supramolecular assembly, stabilizing Ca-P clusters and guiding their arrangement into linear chains. These amelogenin Ca-P composite chains further fuse with enamel crystals and eventually evolve into enamel-like co-aligned crystals, anchoring to the natural enamel substrate through a cluster growth process. A dense interface between the newly-grown layer and natural enamel was formed and the enamel-like layer had improved hardness and elastic modulus compared to etched enamel. We anticipate that chitosan hydrogel will provide effective protection against secondary caries because of its pH-responsive and antimicrobial properties. Our studies introduce amelogenin-containing chitosan hydrogel as a promising biomaterial for enamel repair and demonstrate the potential of applying protein-directed assembly to biomimetic reconstruction of complex biomaterials. PMID:23571002

  13. Enamel formation and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jan C-C; Chun, Yong-Hee P; Al Hazzazzi, Turki; Simmer, James P

    2007-01-01

    Dental enamel is the epithelial-derived hard tissue covering the crowns of teeth. It is the most highly mineralized and hardest tissue in the body. Dental enamel is acellular and has no physiological means of repair outside of the protective and remineralization potential provided by saliva. Enamel is comprised of highly organized hydroxyapatite crystals that form in a defined extracellular space, the contents of which are supplied and regulated by ameloblasts. The entire process is under genetic instruction. The genetic control of amelogenesis is poorly understood, but requires the activities of multiple components that are uniquely important for dental enamel formation. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collective designation for the variety of inherited conditions displaying isolated enamel malformations, but the designation is also used to indicate the presence of an enamel phenotype in syndromes. Recently, genetic studies have demonstrated the importance of genes encoding enamel matrix proteins in the etiology of isolated AI. Here we review the essential elements of dental enamel formation and the results of genetic analyses that have identified disease-causing mutations in genes encoding enamel matrix proteins. In addition, we provide a fresh perspective on the roles matrix proteins play in catalyzing the biomineralization of dental enamel.

  14. Enamel prism-like tissue regeneration using enamel matrix derivative.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2014-12-01

    Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been shown to promote periodontal regeneration, but its effect on biomimetic mineralisation of enamel is not reported. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of commercially available EMD on promoting biomimetic mineralisation in demineralised enamel using an agarose hydrogel model. Human enamel slices were demineralised with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 min. They were covered with a 2-mm-thick EMD-calcium chloride (CaCl2) agarose hydrogel. Another 2-mm-thick ion-free agarose hydrogel was added on top of the EMD-CaCl2 hydrogel. They were incubated in a phosphate solution containing fluoride at 37°C for 96 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the crystals formed on the demineralised enamel surface. A nano-indenter was used to evaluate the elastic modulus and nanohardness on the surface of the enamel slices. SEM observed enamel prism-like crystals formed on the enamel. They had typical apatite hexagonal structures, which corroborated the enamel's microstructure. EDX revealed that the elements were predominantly calcium, phosphorus, and fluorine. XRD confirmed that they were fluorinated hydroxyapatite. The mean elastic modulus before and after remineralisation was 59.1GPa and 78.5GPa (p<0.001), respectively; the mean nanohardness was 1.1GPa and 2.2GPa, respectively (p<0.001). EMD promoted in vitro biomimetic mineralisation and facilitated enamel prism-like tissue formation on demineralised human enamel. This study is the first to report on using EMD in biomimetic mineralisation, which may serve as a biomaterial for enamel repair. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress and strain distribution in demineralized enamel: A micro-CT based finite element study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline Almeida; Coutinho, Eduardo; Alves, Haimon Diniz Lopes; de Assis, Joaquim Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Physiological oral mechanical forces may play a role on the progression of enamel carious lesions to cavitation. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe, by 3D finite element analysis, stress, and strain patterns in sound and carious enamel after a simulated occlusal load. Micro-CT based models were created and meshed with tetrahedral elements (based on an extracted third molar), namely: a sound (ST) and a carious tooth (CT). For the CT, enamel material properties were assigned according to the micro-CT gray values. Below the threshold corresponding to the enamel lesion (2.5 g/cm(3) ) lower and isotropic elastic modulus was assigned (E = 18 GPa against E1  = 80 GPa, E2  = E3  = 20 GPa for sound enamel). Both models were imported into a FE solver where boundary conditions were assigned and a pressure load (500 MPa) was applied at the occlusal surface. A linear static analysis was performed, considering anisotropy in sound enamel. ST showed a more efficient transfer of maximum principal stress from enamel to the dentin layer, while for the CT, enamel layer was subjected to higher and concentrated loads. Maximum principal strain distributions were seen at the carious enamel surface, especially at the central fossa, correlating to the enamel cavity seen at the original micro-CT model. It is possible to conclude that demineralized enamel compromises appropriate stress transfer from enamel to dentin, contributing to the odds of fracture and cavitation. Enamel fracture over a dentin lesion may happen as one of the normal pathways to caries progression and may act as a confounding factor during clinical diagnostic decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dental Enamel: Genes Define Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Rauth, Rick J.; Potter, Karen S.; Ngan, Amanda Y.-W.; Saad, Deema M.; Mehr, Rana; Luong, Vivian Q.; Schuetter, Verna L.; Miklus, Vetea G.; Chang, PeiPei; Paine, Michael L.; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Snead, Malcolm L.; White, Shane N.

    2010-01-01

    Regulated gene expression assembles an extracellular proteinaceous matrix to control biomineralization and the resultant biomechanical function of tooth enamel. The importance of the dominant enamel matrix protein, amelogenin (Amel); a minor transiently expressed protein, dentin sialoprotein (Dsp); an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1); the timely removal of the proteinaceous matrix by a serine protease, Kallikrein-4 (Klk4); and the late-stage expression of Amelotin (Amtn) on enamel biomechanical function were demonstrated and measured using mouse models. PMID:20066874

  17. Enamel thickness in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Chandra, Biswaroop; Hariharan, V S; Vishnurekha; Jeevarathan; Vijayaprabha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the enamel thickness of all primary teeth in both maxilla and mandible. An in vitro study was performed with fifty primary teeth including five each of central and lateral incisor, canine, first and second primary molars in both maxillary and mandibular region. Samples were mounted on wax sheets and scanned using a 64-slice CT scanner which were then 3D reconstructed. Three serial slices were obtained from the middle of the coronal portion of each tooth. Volume rendering was done to differentiate three distinct zones of enamel, dentin and the pulp from each slice. A box was constructed touching the borders of the image on all the surfaces and the mid-point of each side was taken to measure the enamel thickness. Tests used were ANOVA, Post-hoc Tukey's test and student's paired t-test. Enamel thickness was not the same on all the sides. Intergroup comparisons between maxillary anterior and posterior teeth showed difference in enamel thickness. On comparing the mandibular anterior and posterior teeth, the posteriors showed a greater value of enamel thickness on all the sides (p < 0.05). Primary enamel does not follow the same thickness patterns on all sides. It is also different in each primary tooth. There was an increase in enamel thickness in posterior teeth on comparison to their anterior counterparts in both maxilla and mandible. Enamel thickness was more on the distal aspect compared to mesial in all samples.

  18. Dental Enamel Development: Proteinases and Their Enamel Matrix Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

  19. [Enamel hypoplasia in tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Durán-Padilla, M A; Paredes-Farreras, G F; Torres-González, C

    2001-01-01

    Dental enamel hypoplasia is a constant and pathognomonic sign in patients with TS. The defect consists in small cavities (pits) that measure average 80 microns and affect only the enamel without producing lesion to the dentin. We studied the morphology of retained dental pieces of three patients with TS. The pits showed conical and cylindrical shape and measured from 50 to 500 microns. The identification of enamel hypoplasia in deciduous and permanent teeth is of a great value for early diagnosis when other anomalies of TS are not yet produced.

  20. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  1. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  2. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  3. Incremental lines in mouse molar enamel.

    PubMed

    Sehic, Amer; Nirvani, Minou; Risnes, Steinar

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and periodicity of enamel incremental lines in mouse molars in an attempt to draw attention to some key questions about the rhythm in the activity of the secreting ameloblasts during formation of mouse molar enamel. The mouse molars were ground, etched, and studied using scanning electron microscopy. Lines interpreted as incremental lines generally appeared as grooves of variable distinctness, and were only observed cervically, in the region about 50-250μm from the enamel-cementum junction. The lines were most readily observable in the outer enamel and in the superficial prism-free layer, and were difficult to identify in the deeper parts of enamel, i.e. in the inner enamel with prism decussation. However, in areas where the enamel tended to be hypomineralized the incremental lines were observed as clearly continuous from outer into inner enamel. The incremental lines in mouse molar enamel exhibited an average periodicity of about 4μm, and the distance between the lines decreased towards the enamel surface. We conclude that incremental lines are to some extent visible in mouse molar enamel. Together with data from the literature and theoretical considerations, we suggest that they probably represent a daily rhythm in enamel formation. This study witnesses the layered apposition of mouse molar enamel and supports the theory that circadian clock probably regulates enamel development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser soldering of enameled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Hemken, G.; Noack, K.

    2009-02-01

    In electrical connections with enameled copper wires, isolation material residue can be found in the solder area when the coating is not stripped. This residue can lead to mechanical and electrical problems. In electronic devices and MEMS, quality requirements increase with rising thermal requirements for electrical contacts made from enameled copper wire. Examples for this exist in the area of automotive electronics, consumer electronics and in the field of machine design. Typical products with electrical connecting which use enameled wires include: micro-phones and speakers (especially for mobile phones), coil forms, small transformers, relays, clock coils, and so on. Due to increasing thermal and electrical requirements, the manufacturer of enameled wires continuously develops new isolating materials for the improvement of isolation classes, thermal resistance, etc. When using current bonding and solder processes, there exist problems for contacting enameled copper wire with these insulation layers. Therefore the Institute of Joining and Welding, Department Micro Joining developed a laser based solder process with which enamels copper wires can enable high quality electrical connections without a preceding stripping process.

  5. Amelogenin in Enamel Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter the basic premises, the recent findings and the future challenges in the use of amelogenin for enamel tissue engineering are being discoursed on. Results emerging from the experiments performed to assess the fundamental physicochemical mechanisms of the interaction of amelogenin, the main protein of the enamel matrix, and the growing crystals of apatite, are mentioned, alongside a moderately comprehensive literature review of the subject at hand. The clinical importance of understanding this protein/mineral interaction at the nanoscale are highlighted as well as the potential for tooth enamel to act as an excellent model system for studying some of the essential aspects of biomineralization processes in general. The dominant paradigm stating that amelogenin directs the uniaxial growth of apatite crystals in enamel by slowing down the growth of (hk0) faces on which it adheres is being questioned based on the results demonstrating the ability of amelogenin to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of apatite under constant titration conditions designed to mimic those present in the developing enamel matrix. The role of numerous minor components of the enamel matrix is being highlighted as essential and impossible to compensate for by utilizing its more abundant ingredients only. It is concluded that the three major aspects of amelogenesis outlined hereby--(1) the assembly of amelogenin and other enamel matrix proteins, (2) the proteolytic activity, and (3) crystallization--need to be in precise synergy with each other in order for the grounds for the proper imitation of amelogenesis in the lab to be created.

  6. Environmental causes of enamel defects.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H; Fearne, J M; Smith, J M

    1997-01-01

    A large number of causes of enamel defects, both environmental and genetic, have been described. However, many of these are derived from case histories and studies of individual conditions. What is needed now is a systematic investigation of the problem. The first requirement in exploring the aetiology further is the standardization of both the clinical diagnosis and the descriptive terminology. This has been provided by the Fédération Dentaire Internationale Developmental Defects of Enamel Index. Comparing studies using standardized methods, including this index, has highlighted areas for closer investigation. The total prevalence of enamel defects in a population needs to be established as a baseline for studies on aetiology. Sixty-eight per cent of 1518 school children in London have enamel defects in the permanent dentition, with 10.5% having 10 or more teeth affected and 14.6% having hypoplasia, i.e. missing enamel. These findings are in contrast to the 37% with hypoplasia found in a group of third to fifth century Romano-Britons from Dorset, England, suggesting further consideration of possible environmental and genetic differences between the two populations. An overall long-term study of dental development in low birth weight children has shown significantly more (P < 0.001) enamel defects related to major health problems during the neonatal period. By using standardized, reproducible criteria in prevalence studies to gain an overview of the problem and then studying specific groups or conditions, it is possible to identify general and specific factors in the aetiology of enamel defects and investigate further the varying role of genetic and environmental effects.

  7. Amelogenin in Enamel Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter the basic premises, the recent findings and the future challenges in the use of amelogenin for enamel tissue engineering are being discoursed on. Results emerging from the experiments performed to assess the fundamental physicochemical mechanisms of the interaction of amelogenin, the main protein of the enamel matrix, and the growing crystals of apatite, are mentioned, alongside a moderately comprehensive literature review of the subject at hand. The clinical importance of understanding this protein/mineral interaction at the nanoscale are highlighted as well as the potential for tooth enamel to act as an excellent model system for studying some of the essential aspects of biomineralization processes in general. The dominant paradigm stating that amelogenin directs the uniaxial growth of apatite crystals in enamel by slowing down the growth of (hk0) faces on which it adheres is being questioned based on the results demonstrating the ability of amelogenin to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of apatite under constant titration conditions designed to mimic those present in the developing enamel matrix. The role of numerous minor components of the enamel matrix is being highlighted as essential and impossible to compensate for by utilizing its more abundant ingredients only. It is concluded that the three major aspects of amelogenesis outlined hereby – (1) the assembly of amelogenin and other enamel matrix proteins, (2) the proteolytic activity, and (3) crystallization – need to be in precise synergy with each other in order for the grounds for the proper imitation of amelogenesis in the lab to be created. PMID:26545753

  8. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified.

  9. The chemistry of enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C; Shore, R C; Brookes, S J; Strafford, S; Wood, S R; Kirkham, J

    2000-01-01

    The chemical changes which occur during the process of carious destruction of enamel are complex due to a number of factors. First, substituted hydroxyapatite, the main component of dental enamel, can behave in a very complex manner during dissolution. This is due not only to its ability to accept substituent ions but also to the wide range of calcium phosphate species which can form following dissolution. In addition, the composition, i.e., the extent of substitution, changes throughout enamel in the direction of carious attack, i.e., from surface to interior. Both surface and positively birefringent zones of the lesion clearly illustrate that carious destruction is not simple dissolution. Selective dissolution of soluble minerals occurs, and there is the probability of reprecipitation. The role of fluoride here is crucial in that not only does it protect enamel per se but also its presence in solution means that rather insoluble fluoridated species can form very easily, encouraging redeposition. The role of organic material clearly needs further investigation, but there is the real possibility of both inhibition of repair and facilitation of redeposition. For the future, delivering fluoride deep into the lesion would appear to offer the prospect of improved repair. This would entail a delivery vehicle which solved the problem of fluoride uptake by apatite at the tooth surface. Elucidation of the role of organic material may also reveal putative mechanisms for encouraging repair and/or protecting the enamel mineral.

  10. Fraunhofer diffraction of light by human enamel.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, W J

    1988-02-01

    Fraunhofer diffraction patterns of human enamel samples were photographed with a helium-neon laser beam (lambda = 633 nm). The first-order diffraction angle was in reasonable agreement with a prediction based upon enamel prisms acting as a two-dimensional grating. These results support the hypothesis that enamel diffracts light because of the periodic structure of enamel prisms with interprismatic spaces, which act as slits.

  11. In vitro evaluation of abrasion of eroded enamel by different manual, power and sonic toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Begic, M; Attin, T

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of eroded enamel to brushing abrasion performed by manual, power or sonic toothbrushes. Bovine enamel samples were subjected to 5 cycles, each consisting of 5 min demineralisation, 15 min remineralisation and 10 min brushing in a machine. Toothbrushing with the activated electric devices was supplemented with 20 linear strokes/min. Furthermore, enamel specimens were brushed with 20 linear strokes/min or 80 linear strokes/min with the electric toothbrushes without their individual operating action. A manual brush was applied at 100, 20 or 80 linear strokes/min. Specimens of the control group were not brushed after demineralisation. Loss of enamel was determined by profilometry. For all groups, substrate loss for linear brushing treatment applying 20 or 80 strokes/min did not differ significantly from the control (4.97 +/- 1.49 microm). Three power toothbrushing treatments significantly increased abrasion compared to linear brushing treatment with 20 or 80 strokes/min in their inactivated condition. The results indicate that brushing treatment with power or sonic toothbrushes may lead to significantly higher loss of demineralised enamel compared to toothbrushing without power or sonic support.

  12. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  13. Plasma fluoride and enamel fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Angmar-Månsson, B; Ericsson, Y; Ekberg, O

    1976-11-24

    It is postulated that tissue fluid F concentrations are the primary determinants of flouride effects on bones and developing teeth and that these concentrations are dependent on, or mirrored by, blood plasma F. It has earlier been shown that the plasma F levels are dependent on the dietary F supply as well as on skeletal F concentration. Fasting and post-ingestion or postinjection plasma F levels have been determined in rats on F doses that cause different degrees of enamel fluorosis. The results indicate that temporary peak values rather than elevated fasting values are responsible for the occurrence of enamel fluorosis and that the peak values must approach about 10 muM in order to block enamel formation by the ameloblasts. The diagnostic and prognostic importance of plasma F determinations is discussed.

  14. Effects of fluoride concentration on enamel demineralization kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Nasrine R; Lynch, Richard J M; Anderson, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the effects of fluoride concentration on the real-time in vitro demineralization of enamel during exposure to caries-simulating conditions using Scanning Microradiography (SMR). Enamel blocks obtained from non-carious human molars were fixed in SMR environmental cells, through which acidic solutions (0.1M acetic acid, pH 4.0) were circulated for periods of 48h. SMR was used to quantitatively measure continuous mineral mass loss. Subsequently, the effects of sequentially increasing fluoride concentration (0.1-4500mg/L [F(-)]) in the acidic solutions were measured on the rate of enamel demineralization. The data shows a log-linear relationship between [F(-)] and reduction in demineralization up to 135mg/L [F(-)]. Above 135mg/L, no further significant decrease in demineralization occurred. The optimum range of local fluoride concentration for reducing enamel demineralization was in the range 0.1-135mg/L [F(-)] under the conditions studied. Relatively low [F(-)] can exhibit near-optimum protection. Increasing the fluoride concentrations above 135mg/L may not necessarily give an increased cariostatic benefit. Improving the means of delivery of relatively low fluoride concentrations to the oral fluids through slow releasing mechanisms, such as the oral fluoride reservoirs, is the more appropriate way forward for sustaining long-term clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of enamel proteins on erosion

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, T.; Carvalho, T. S.; Lussi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Enamel proteins form a scaffold for growing hydroxyapatite crystals during enamel formation. They are then almost completely degraded during enamel maturation, resulting in a protein content of only 1% (w/v) in mature enamel. Nevertheless, this small amount of remaining proteins has important effects on the mechanical and structural properties of enamel and on the electrostatic properties of its surface. To analyze how enamel proteins affect tooth erosion, human enamel specimens were deproteinated. Surface microhardness (SMH), surface reflection intensity (SRI) and calcium release of both deproteinated and control specimens were monitored while continuously eroding them. The deproteination itself already reduced the initial SMH and SRI of the enamel significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). During the course of erosion, the progression of all three evaluated parameters differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001 for each). The deproteinated enamel lost its SMH and SRI faster, and released more calcium than the control group, but these differences were only significant at later stages of erosion, where not only surface softening but surface loss can be observed. We conclude that enamel proteins have a significant effect on erosion, protecting the enamel and slowing down the progression of erosion when irreversible surface loss starts to occur. PMID:26468660

  16. Atomic force microscopy study of enamel remineralization.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Lombardini, Marco; Colombo, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of two products: a CPP-ACP paste (GC Tooth Mousse, GC Corp.) and a desensitizing toothpaste (Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, Colgate-Palmolive) on preventing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca Cola) by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Thirty enamel specimens were assigned to 6 groups of 5 specimens each. 1: intact enamel, 2: enamel + soft drink, 3: intact enamel + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 4: enamel + soft drink + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 5: intact enamel + GC Tooth Mousse, 6: enamel + soft drink + GC Tooth Mousse. The surface of each specimen was imaged by AFM. The root mean-square roughness (Rrms) was obtained from the AFM images and the differences in the averaged values among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA test. Comparing groups 4 and 6 (soft drink + toothpastes) with group 2 (eroded enamel) a statistical difference (P<0.05) was registered, suggesting effectiveness in protecting enamel against erosion of the products investigated. The use of new formulation toothpastes can prevent enamel demineralization.

  17. Atomic force microscopy study of enamel remineralization

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Lombardini, Marco; Colombo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of two products: a CPP-ACP paste (GC Tooth Mousse, GC Corp.) and a desensitizing toothpaste (Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, Colgate-Palmolive) on preventing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca Cola) by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Methods Thirty enamel specimens were assigned to 6 groups of 5 specimens each. 1: intact enamel, 2: enamel + soft drink, 3: intact enamel + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 4: enamel + soft drink + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 5: intact enamel + GC Tooth Mousse, 6: enamel + soft drink + GC Tooth Mousse. The surface of each specimen was imaged by AFM. The root mean-square roughness (Rrms) was obtained from the AFM images and the differences in the averaged values among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results Comparing groups 4 and 6 (soft drink + toothpastes) with group 2 (eroded enamel) a statistical difference (P<0.05) was registered, suggesting effectiveness in protecting enamel against erosion of the products investigated. Conclusions The use of new formulation toothpastes can prevent enamel demineralization. PMID:25506414

  18. The effect of enamel proteins on erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, T.; Carvalho, T. S.; Lussi, A.

    2015-10-01

    Enamel proteins form a scaffold for growing hydroxyapatite crystals during enamel formation. They are then almost completely degraded during enamel maturation, resulting in a protein content of only 1% (w/v) in mature enamel. Nevertheless, this small amount of remaining proteins has important effects on the mechanical and structural properties of enamel and on the electrostatic properties of its surface. To analyze how enamel proteins affect tooth erosion, human enamel specimens were deproteinated. Surface microhardness (SMH), surface reflection intensity (SRI) and calcium release of both deproteinated and control specimens were monitored while continuously eroding them. The deproteination itself already reduced the initial SMH and SRI of the enamel significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). During the course of erosion, the progression of all three evaluated parameters differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001 for each). The deproteinated enamel lost its SMH and SRI faster, and released more calcium than the control group, but these differences were only significant at later stages of erosion, where not only surface softening but surface loss can be observed. We conclude that enamel proteins have a significant effect on erosion, protecting the enamel and slowing down the progression of erosion when irreversible surface loss starts to occur.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of dental enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Simmer, J P; Fincham, A G

    1995-01-01

    Tooth enamel is a unique mineralized tissue in that it is acellular, is more highly mineralized, and is comprised of individual crystallites that are larger and more oriented than other mineralized tissues. Dental enamel forms by matrix-mediated biomineralization. Enamel crystallites precipitate from a supersaturated solution within a well-delineated biological compartment. Mature enamel crystallites are comprised of non-stoichiometric carbonated calcium hydroxyapatite. The earliest crystallites appear suddenly at the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ) as rapidly growing thin ribbons. The shape and growth patterns of these crystallites can be interpreted as evidence for a precursor phase of octacalcium phosphate (OCP). An OCP crystal displays on its (100) face a surface that may act as a template for hydroxyapatite (OHAp) precipitation. Octacalcium phosphate is less stable than hydroxyapatite and can hydrolyze to OHAp. During this process, one unit cell of octacalcium phosphate is converted into two unit cells of hydroxyapatite. During the precipitation of the mineral phase, the degree of saturation of the enamel fluid is regulated. Proteins in the enamel matrix may buffer calcium and hydrogen ion concentrations as a strategy to preclude the precipitation of competing calcium phosphate solid phases. Tuftelin is an acidic enamel protein that concentrates at the DEJ and may participate in the nucleation of enamel crystals. Other enamel proteins may regulate crystal habit by binding to specific faces of the mineral and inhibiting growth. Structural analyses of recombinant amelogenin are consistent with a functional role in establishing and maintaining the spacing between enamel crystallites.

  20. A Novel Kinetic Method to Measure Apparent Solubility Product of Bulk Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Hassanali, Linda; Wong, Ferranti S.; Lynch, Richard J. M.; Anderson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tooth enamel mineral loss is influenced by its solubility product value, which is fundamental to the understanding of de- and remineralization resulting from a carious or erosive challenge. Published pKsp values for human enamel and hydroxyapatite range from 110 to 126 suggesting a heterogeneous nature of enamel solubility. However, this range of values may also result from the variety of methods used, e.g., some authors reporting values for suspensions of enamel powder and others for bulk enamel. The aim of this study was to develop a method to measure the solubility of bulk human enamel under controlled in vitro conditions simulating demineralization behavior of enamel within the oral environment using scanning microradiography (SMR). SMR was used to monitor real-time changes in enamel demineralization rates at increasing calcium concentrations in a caries simulating demineralization solution until the concentration at which thermodynamic equilibrium between enamel and solution was achieved. Method: 2 mm thick caries free erupted human enamel slabs with the natural buccal surfaces exposed were placed in SMR cells exposed to circulating caries-simulating 2.0 L 0.1 M pH = 4.0 acetic acid, at 25°C. SMR was used to continuously measure in real-time the decrease in mineral mass during the demineralization at 5 different points from on each slab. Demineralization rates were calculated from a linear regression curve of projected mineral mass against demineralization time. Changes in the demineralization rates were monitored following a series of successive increases in calcium (and phosphate at hydroxyapatite stoichiometric ratios of Ca:P 1.67) were added to the demineralizing solution, until demineralization ceased. The pH was maintained constant throughout. Results: Demineralization halted when the calcium concentration was ~30 mM. At higher calcium concentrations, mineral deposition (remineralization) occurred. By comparison with results from

  1. Effect of resin infiltration on enamel surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to artificial enamel lesions.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Soley; Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Özcan, Suat; Demirbuga, Sezer; Pala, Kansad; Percin, Duygu; Ozer, Fusun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of resin infiltration and sealant type on enamel surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to artificial enamel lesions. Artificial enamel lesions were produced on the surfaces of 120 enamel specimens, which were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B (n=60 per group). Each group was further divided into four subgroups (n=15 per subgroup) according to sealant type: Group I-Demineralized enamel (control); Group II-Enamel Pro Varnish; Group III-ExciTE F; and Group IV-Icon. In Group A, hardness and surface roughness were evaluated; in Group B, bacterial adhesion was evaluated. Icon application resulted in significantly lower surface roughness and higher hardness than the other subgroups in Group A. In Group B, Enamel Pro Varnish resulted in lowest bacterial adhesion, followed by Icon. This study showed that resin infiltration of enamel lesions could arrest lesion progress.

  2. Demineralization of Enamel in Primary Second Molars Related to Properties of the Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sabel, N.; Robertson, A.; Nietzsche, S.; Norén, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Enamel structure is of importance in demineralization. Differences in porosity in enamel effect the rate of demineralization, seen between permanent and deciduous teeth. Individual differences have been shown in the mean mineral concentration values in enamel, the role of this in demineralization is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to study variations of depths of artificial lesions of demineralization and to analyze the depth in relation to variations in the chemical and mineral composition of the enamel. A demineralized lesion was created in second primary molars from 18 individuals. Depths of lesions were then related to individual chemical content of the enamel. Enamel responded to demineralization with different lesion depths and this was correlated to the chemical composition. The carbon content in sound enamel was shown to be higher where lesions developed deeper. The lesion was deeper when the degree of porosity of the enamel was higher. PMID:22629152

  3. Mineral density of hypomineralised and sound enamel.

    PubMed

    Garot, Elsa; Rouas, Patrick; D'Incau, Emmanuel; Lenoir, Nicolas; Manton, David; Couture-Veschambre, Christine

    2016-06-28

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a structural anomaly that affects the quality of tooth enamel and has important consequences for oral health. The developmentally hypomineralised enamel has normal thickness and can range in colour from white to yellow or brown. The purpose of the present study is to compare the mineral density of hypomineralised and normal enamel. The sample included eight MIH teeth from seven patients. MIH teeth were scanned using high resolution microtomography. Non-parametric statistical tests (Wilcoxon test for paired samples) were carried out. Hypomineralised enamel has decreased mineral density (mean 19%; p < 0.0001) compared to normal enamel. This weak enamel has implications in clinical management of MIH lesions.

  4. [The study on the enamel remineralization by enamel matrix proteins' inducing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Zhao, Yue-ping; Zhou, Chang-ren; Li, Hong

    2008-07-01

    To find the enamel matrix proteins on the impact of enamel mineralization through experiments. A combination of protein and beneficial carboxyl groups was grafted on the surface of enamel defects of rats through UV radiation then put into the enamel matrix proteins of calcium phosphate agar acetate solution systems, through scanning enamel surface with the electron microscopy to observe the morphological changes of enamel then analyse the regulation that enamel matrix proteins have done to the white hydroxyapatite crystals on the composition and morphology. In the enamel matrix protein added gel system, we can see the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals, and crystal showed a good degree of crystallinity and contained a small amount of CO3(2-) substituted hydroxyapatite crystals. The temperature at 37 degrees C water bath, after adding the enamel matrix proteins to gel system, the new hydroxyapatite crystals were numerous which proved that enamel matrix proteins played an important role in nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystal, so it could be indicated that enamel matrix proteins could induce the enamel remineralization.

  5. Enamel proteins mitigate mechanical and structural degradations in mature human enamel during acid attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V.; Lemoine, Patrick; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta; Mutreja, Isha; Carolan, Patrick; Petkov, Nikolay

    2014-04-01

    A hydrazine deproteination process was used to investigate the role of enamel proteins in the acid erosion of mature human dental enamel. Bright field high resolution transmission electron micrographs and x-ray diffraction analysis show no crystallographic changes after the hydrazine treatment with similar nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystallite size and orientation for sound and de-proteinated enamel. However, the presence of enamel proteins reduces the erosion depth, the loss of hardness and the loss of structural order in enamel, following exposure to citric acid. Nanoindentation creep is larger for sound enamel than for deproteinated enamel but it reduces in sound enamel after acid attack. These novel results are consistent with calcium ion-mediated visco-elasticty in enamel matrix proteins as described previously for nacre, bone and dental proteins. They are also in good agreement with a previous double layer force spectroscopy study by the authors which found that the proteins electrochemically buffer enamel against acid attack. Finally, this suggests that acid attack, and more specifically dental erosion, is influenced by ionic permeation through the enamel layer and that it is mitigated by the enamel protein matrix.

  6. The evolution of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sunny H

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in both extinct and extant mammalian groups has been extensively documented, but is poorly known in reptiles, including dinosaurs. Previous intensive sampling of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure revealed that: (1) the three-dimensional arrangement of enamel types and features within a tooth-the schmelzmuster-is most useful in diagnosing dinosaur clades at or around the family level; (2) enamel microstructure complexity is correlated with tooth morphology complexity and not necessarily with phylogenetic position; and (3) there is a large amount of homoplasy within Theropoda but much less within Ornithischia. In this study, the examination of the enamel microstructure of 28 additional dinosaur taxa fills in taxonomic gaps of previous studies and reinforces the aforementioned conclusions. Additionally, these new specimens reveal that within clades such as Sauropodomorpha, Neotheropoda, and Euornithopoda, the more basal taxa have simpler enamel that is a precursor to the more complex enamel of more derived taxa and that schmelzmusters evolve in a stepwise fashion. In the particularly well-sampled clade of Euornithopoda, correlations between the evolution of dental and enamel characters could be drawn. The ancestral schmelzmuster for Genasauria remains ambiguous due to the dearth of basal ornithischian teeth available for study. These new specimens provide new insights into the evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in dinosaurs, emphasizing the importance of thorough sampling within broadly inclusive clades, especially among their more basal members.

  7. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels

    PubMed Central

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K.; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R.; Smith, Charles E.; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L.; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J.; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca2+ yet the mechanisms mediating Ca2+ dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca2+ influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular pools followed by Ca2+ entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca2+ uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca2+ release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca2+]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca2+ entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca2+ uptake in enamel formation. PMID:26515404

  8. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    PubMed

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  9. Effect of lead on dental enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Raquel F; Cury, Jaime A; Krug, Francisco J; Line, Sérgio R P

    2002-06-14

    In this work the effects of lead toxicity on dental enamel formation were studied. Epidemiological data and animal studies show an association between lead exposure and higher caries prevalence, but the mechanism underlying this association is still unknown. Here we present data on enamel formation in rats exposed to lead for 70 days in the drinking water. Enamel matrix was used for protein analysis and dry weight determination, while mature enamel was used for microhardness testing. Enamel matrix was scraped from the teeth and analyzed by electrophoresis in bulk or according to developing stage. Increased amounts of protein were observed in animals exposed to lead when the same weight of matrix was electrophoresed by protein electrophoresis. When extracts were prepared according to developing stages, no differences in the amount of protein or band pattern were observed. Upper incisors were cut longitudinally for Knoop enamel microhardness determination in four regions of the teeth. Microhardness analysis revealed statistically significant (P<0.05) decrease in the microhardness values of enamel from rats exposed to lead in regions of maturation but not of fully mature enamel. These results indicate a delay in enamel mineralization in incisor teeth from animals exposed to lead, highlighting a potentially important effect of lead toxicity not yet explored.

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  11. Effect of enamel morphology on nanoscale adhesion forces of streptococcal bacteria : An AFM study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyong; Zhao, Yongqi; Zheng, Sainan; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Jinglin; Tang, Yi; Jiang, Li; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the influence of enamel surface morphology on nanoscale bacterial adhesion forces. Three dimensional morphology characteristics of enamel slices, which were treated with phosphoric acid (for 0 s, 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, and 30 s), were acquired. Adhesion forces of three initial colonizers (Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus mitis) and two cariogenic bacterial strains (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) with etched enamel surfaces were determined. Comparison of the forces was made by using bacterial probe method under atomic force microscope (AFM) in adhesion buffer. The results showed that enamel morphology was significantly altered by etching treatment. The roughness, peak-to-valley height, and valley-to-valley width of the depth profile, surface area, and volume increased linearly with acid exposure time, and reached the maximum at 30s, respectively. The adhesion forces of different strains increased accordingly with etching time. Adhesion forces of S. oralis, S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. sobrinus reached the maximum values of 0.81 nN, 0.84 nN, 0.73 nN, and 0.64 nN with enamel treated for 20s, respectively, whereas that of S. sanguinis at 10s (1.28nN), and dropped on coarser enamel surfaces. In conclusion, enamel micro-scale morphology may significantly alter the direct adhesion forces of bacteria. And there may be a threshold roughness for bacterial adhesion on enamel surface. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Role of enamel matrix proteins in inducing biomimetic mineralization of the enamel: a study with quartz crystal microbalance technique].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Zhao, Yue-ping; Zhou, Chang-ren; Liao, Guo-wei

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the adsorption behavior of enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) on the enamel surface and study their effect on biomineralization of enamel using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. The EMPs were adsorbed on the enamel surface to form a protein film, which was soaked in simulated body fluid solutions. After 30 days of biomimetic mineralization, the hydroxyapatite nucleation, growth and aggregation occurred with hydroxyapatite crystal formation on the enamel surface. The EMPs play a key role in regulating enamel mineralization.

  13. Kinetic model for hydroxyapatite precipitation on human enamel surface by electrolytic deposition.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caixia; Liao, Yingmin; Feng, Zude

    2009-06-01

    The electrolytic deposition (ELD) of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on human enamel surface for different loading times at varied temperatures (ranging from 37 degrees C to 85 degrees C) and varied current densities (ranging from 0.05 mA cm(-2) to 10 mA cm(-2)) was investigated in this study. Thin film x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra analysis, as well as an environmental scanning electron microscope, were used to characterize the coating. The results showed that only the HAP phase occurred on the enamel surface after ELD experiments. The contents of HAP deposits on the enamel surface linearly changed proportional to the square root of the loading time, which was in good agreement with the kinetic model of ELD of HAP coating based on one-dimensional diffusion. The induction periods were observed on all the regression lines, and the rate of the HAP coating formation on enamel showed a linear relationship with the current density. It was implied that the diffusion process was the rate-determining step in the ELD of the HAP coating on human enamel.

  14. Enamel Regeneration - Current Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Baswaraj; H.K, Navin; K.B, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Dental Enamel is the outermost covering of teeth. It is hardest mineralized tissue present in the human body. Enamel faces the challenge of maintaining its integrity in a constant demineralization and remineralization within the oral environment and it is vulnerable to wear, damage, and decay. It cannot regenerate itself, because it is formed by a layer of cells that are lost after the tooth eruption. Conventional treatment relies on synthetic materials to restore lost enamel that cannot mimic natural enamel. With advances in material science and understanding of basic principles of organic matrix mediated mineralization paves a way for formation of synthetic enamel. The knowledge of enamel formation and understanding of protein interactions and their gene products function along with the isolation of postnatal stem cells from various sources in the oral cavity, and the development of smart materials for cell and growth factor delivery, makes possibility for biological based enamel regeneration. This article will review the recent endeavor on biomimetic synthesis and cell based strategies for enamel regeneration. PMID:25386548

  15. Interproximal enamel reduction: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Corrado; Zanarini, Matteo; Pazzi, Elisabetta; Marchionni, Silvia; Visconti, Luca; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the morphology and composition of the interproximal reduced enamel after exposition to saliva and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate with sodium fluoride (CPP-ACPF). Fourteen patients undergoing an orthodontic treatment with 4 premolars extractions participated to the study. Interproximal enamel reduction (IER) was performed on mesial surfaces of 3 extractive premolars for each patient while 1 served as untreated control. Premolars were assigned to 4 groups: No-S group, sound enamel as control; S-Ex group, stripped and immediately extracted enamel; S-Sal group, stripped and exposed to saliva enamel; S-CPP group, stripped enamel treated with CPP-ACPF. Teeth were extracted at different times, depending on the group they were assigned to and sliced into mesial and distal halves. Mesial surfaces were subjected to environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (ESEM/EDX) and to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. ESEM/EDX investigations showed no statistically significant differences in the content of calcium and phosphate between the 4 groups. SEM observations showed no difference in the morphological appearance of stripped enamel after 30 days of exposure to saliva and CPP-ACPF. Saliva and CPP-ACPF effects on stripped enamel in vivo showed no difference after 30 days.

  16. Mineralization Potential of Polarized Dental Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Background Management of human teeth has moved from a surgical to a more conservative approach of inhibiting or preventing lesion progression. Increasing enamel mineralization is crucial in this regard. A potential difficulty is the preferential mineralization of the outermost portion of the enamel that can prevent overall mineralization. We describe a strategy for increasing the mineralization potential of dental enamel. Methodology/Principal Findings Extracted human premolar teeth enamel (n = 5) were exposed to a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide with an energizing source. Samples were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 1 wk. A desktop X-ray micro-CT system was used to evaluate the mineral density of samples. Mineral distribution was polarized between the lower and the higher mineralized portion of enamel by charged oxygen free radicals due to activation of permeated hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of energy absorption in the deeper enamel region demonstrated improvement of preferential mineralization into the region without restricting overall mineralization of the enamel. Subsequent increasing mineralization, even in the dense mineralized outer portion of enamel, was also achieved. Conclusions/Significance This increased mineralization may promote resistance to acidic deterioration of the structure. The present study is one of the primary steps towards the development of novel application in reparative and restorative dentistry. PMID:19543391

  17. Mineralization potential of polarized dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2009-06-19

    Management of human teeth has moved from a surgical to a more conservative approach of inhibiting or preventing lesion progression. Increasing enamel mineralization is crucial in this regard. A potential difficulty is the preferential mineralization of the outermost portion of the enamel that can prevent overall mineralization. We describe a strategy for increasing the mineralization potential of dental enamel. Extracted human premolar teeth enamel (n = 5) were exposed to a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide with an energizing source. Samples were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 1 wk. A desktop X-ray micro-CT system was used to evaluate the mineral density of samples. Mineral distribution was polarized between the lower and the higher mineralized portion of enamel by charged oxygen free radicals due to activation of permeated hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of energy absorption in the deeper enamel region demonstrated improvement of preferential mineralization into the region without restricting overall mineralization of the enamel. Subsequent increasing mineralization, even in the dense mineralized outer portion of enamel, was also achieved. This increased mineralization may promote resistance to acidic deterioration of the structure. The present study is one of the primary steps towards the development of novel application in reparative and restorative dentistry.

  18. Compositional Determinants of Mechanical Properties of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarri, M.; Margolis, H.C.; Beniash, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dental enamel is comprised primarily of carbonated apatite, with less than 1% w/w organic matter and 4-5% w/w water. To determine the influence of each component on the microhardness and fracture toughness of rat incisor enamel, we mechanically tested specimens in which water and organic matrix were selectively removed. Tests were performed in mid-sagittal and transverse orientations to assess the effect of the structural organization on enamel micromechanical properties. While removal of organic matrix resulted in up to a 23% increase in microhardness, and as much as a 46% decrease in fracture toughness, water had a significantly lesser effect on these properties. Moreover, removal of organic matrix dramatically weakened the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). Analysis of our data also showed that the structural organization of enamel affects its micromechanical properties. We anticipate that these findings will help guide the development of bio-inspired nanostructured materials for mineralized tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:18573984

  19. Enamel color changes following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Akshaya; Ranganathan, Sukanya; Padmanabhan, Sridevi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effect of various orthodontic bonding systems and clean up procedures on quantitative enamel colour change. A literature search was done to identify the studies that assessed the quantitative enamel colour change associated with the various bonding systems and cleanup procedures. Electronic database (Pub Med, Cochrane and Google Scholar) were searched. First stage screening was performed and the abstracts were selected according to the initial selection criteria. Full text articles were retrieved and analyzed during second stage screening. The bibliographies were reviewed to identify additional relevant studies. Sixteen full text articles were retrieved. Six were rejected because the methodology was different. There was significant enamel colour change following orthodontic bonding, debonding and clean up procedures. Self-etching primers produce less enamel colour change compared to conventional etching. Resin Modified GIC produces least colour change compared to other light cure and chemical cure systems. Polishing following the clean-up procedure reduces the colour change of the enamel.

  20. Comparison of reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Ando, Masatoshi; Stookey, George K.

    2000-03-01

    Development of dental caries is associated with the loss of minerals and change in the enamel structure. In this study, we have measured and compared reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel, to investigate its utility in detection and analysis of dental caries. One hundred twenty, 3-mm diameter human enamel cores, with no sign of fluorosis, tetracycline stain, hypoplasia, fracture and restorations, were prepared. The enamel surfaces then were ground and polished. Specimens were placed on a fitted holder with either black or white color for background, with no fluorescence. The baseline spectra were measured using a spectrophotometer with enclosed diffused illumination. Spectra measured from 380 to 780 nm at 5 nm intervals. All measurements were corrected to compensate for the spectrum of illumination. The specimens were divided into two groups and exposed to a demineralizing solution, for 48 and 96 hours, respectively. Reflectance spectra of specimens were measured following lesion induction. All specimens were sectioned and analyzed by transverse microradiography (TMR), where lesion depth and mineral loss ((Delta) Z) were measured. Dimensionality of multi-spectral data was reduced through its conversion to L*a*b* color coordinates and principal component analysis (PCA). Multiple linear regression analysis showed low correlation between L*a*b* and lesion depth and mineral loss. PCA analysis showed higher correlation coefficient, compared to L*a*b*. Preliminary results of this study suggest that multi-spectral measurement and analysis of the tooth surface could be useful in predicting the depth and severity of an early carious lesion.

  1. Enamel hypoplasia in the middle pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Pérez, P J

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence and chronology of enamel hypoplasias were studied in a hominid dental sample from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene site at the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, northern Spain). A total of 89 permanent maxillary teeth, 143 permanent mandibular teeth, and one deciduous lower canine, belonging to a minimum of 29 individuals, were examined. Excluding the antimeres (16 maxillary and 37 mandibular cases) from the sample, the prevalence of hypoplasias in the permanent dentition is 12.8% (23/179), whereas the deciduous tooth also showed an enamel defect. No statistically significant differences were found between both arcades and between the anterior and postcanine teeth for the prevalence of hypoplasias. In both the maxilla and the mandible the highest frequency of enamel hypoplasias was recorded in the canines. Only one tooth (a permanent upper canine) showed two different enamel defects, and most of the hypoplasias were expressed as faint linear horizontal defects. Taking into account the limitations that the incompleteness of virtually all permanent dentitions imposes, we have estimated that the frequency by individual in the SH hominid sample was not greater than 40%. Most of the hypoplasias occurred between birth and 7 years (N = 18, X = 3.5, SD = 1.3). Both the prevalence and severity of the hypoplasias of the SH hominid sample are significantly less than those of a large Neandertal sample. Furthermore, prehistoric hunter-gatherers and historic agricultural and industrial populations exhibit a prevalence of hypoplasias generally higher than that of the SH hominids. Implications for the survival strategies and life quality of the SH hominids are also discussed.

  2. Human deciduous mandibular molar incremental enamel development.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    Quantitative studies of incremental markings retained within human enamel have reconstructed the duration and rate (crown and cusp formation times, initiation and completion, daily enamel secretion rates) of permanent tooth development. This approach has provided one way of estimating human age-at-death, and facilitated comparative dental studies of primate evolution. Similar applications from deciduous enamel are inhibited because developmental reconstructions from incremental markings for these teeth are less frequently reported in the literature. This study quantified the duration and rate of enamel development for mesial (protoconid, metaconid) and distal cusps (hypoconid, entoconid) for first (dm1) and second (dm2) deciduous mandibular molars from an archaeological sample of modern human juveniles. Crown formation time can be calculated from the dm1 protoconid because growth initiates and completes in this cusp, and from the dm2 protoconid combined with the final period of hypoconid growth. The dm1 postnatal crown formation time included the time taken for the tubercle of Zuckerkandl to develop, and differed slightly compared to radiographic methods. The majority of dm1 protoconid cuspal (occlusal region) enamel formed before birth. The dm2 entoconid enamel formed mainly after birth. Birth reduced daily enamel secretion rates, changed the visibility of incremental markings, and disrupted enamel growth for 3 to 8 days. Findings presented here can contribute to age-at-death estimates for human infants aged 13-postnatal months or less, and should facilitate comparisons of primate deciduous incremental enamel development in an evolutionary context. Regression equations are included so that cuspal formation time can be estimated from enamel thickness. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Enamel wear of modified porcelains.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Suzuki, S; Fukushima, S

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the wear of three different modified ceramics along with a conventional porcelain and the wear of opposing enamel at initial wear cycle on a two-body and a three-body wear simulation. Modified ceramics used in this study included a low fusing/low crystal porcelain (Finesse), a high fusing/low crystal porcelain (Softspar), and a heat-pressable ceramic (IPS Empress). A conventional porcelain (Ceramco II) was used as the control material. Hemispherical shaped ceramic styli (1/8 inch in diameter) made of respective materials were fabricated according to the manufacturers' directions. Proximal surfaces of non-carious human molars were ground flat within the enamel with a silicon carbide paper to 600 grit with copious irrigation. They were perpendicularly opposed to each other with or without intermediate material as a food bolus and subjected to in vitro wear test by a UAB wear simulator. A 75.6 N load was applied vertically onto the surface at 1.2 Hz. The surface was duplicated after respective wear cycles. Seven specimens were tested for each group of both simulations. The enamel wear loss when opposing the modified ceramics was less than the Ceramco II control which exhibited the greatest values. The IPS Empress material showed the least amount of wear among them. Statistically significant differences were seen between the IPS Empress and the Ceramco II for every cycle interval evaluated (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Although the enamel wear loss when opposing the IPS Empress was significantly less (ANOVA, P < 0.05) than the others until 20,000 wear cycles, no significant differences were found among the modified ceramics at the end of 50,000 wear cycles. The concentric wear patterns were already prominent at 5,000 wear cycles on two-body wear, however, the wear facet of the three-body wear was smaller (the wear depth of 0-5 microm) than the two-body wear test, as it was quite similar to the one of the two-body wear test at 100 wear cycles. On the other hand

  4. In vitro wear of four ceramic materials and human enamel on enamel antagonist.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Jun; Taira, Yohsuke; Sawase, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the wear of four different ceramics and human enamel. The ceramics used were lithium disilicate glass (e.max Press), leucite-reinforced glass (GN-Ceram), yttria-stabilized zirconia (Aadva Zr), and feldspathic porcelain (Porcelain AAA). Hemispherical styli were fabricated with these ceramics and with tooth enamel. Flattened enamel was used for antagonistic specimens. After 100,000 wear cycles of a two-body wear test, the height and volume losses of the styli and enamel antagonists were determined. The mean and standard deviation for eight specimens were calculated and statistically analyzed using a non-parametric (Steel-Dwass) test (α = 0.05). GN-Ceram exhibited greater stylus height and volume losses than did Porcelain AAA. E.max Press, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli showed no significant differences, and Aadva Zr exhibited the smallest stylus height and volume losses. The wear of the enamel antagonist was not significantly different among GN-Ceram, e.max Press, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli. Aadva Zr resulted in significantly lower wear values of the enamel antagonist than did GN-Ceram, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli. In conclusion, leucite-reinforced glass, lithium disilicate glass, and feldspathic porcelain showed wear values closer to those for human enamel than did yttria-stabilized zirconia.

  5. Enamel organic matrix: potential structural role in enamel and relationship to residual basement membrane constituents at the dentin enamel junction

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Jacob D.; Walker, Mary P.; Dusevich, Vladimir; Wang, Yong; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    Although mature enamel is predominantly composed of mineral, a previously uncharacterized organic matrix layer remains in the post-eruptive tissue that begins at the dentin enamel junction and extends 200–300 µm towards the outer tooth surface. Identification of the composition of this layer has been hampered by its insolubility; however, we have developed a single step method to isolate the organic enamel matrix relatively intact. After dissociative dissolution of the matrix with SDS and urea, initial characterization by Western blotting and gel zymography indicates the presence of type IV and type VII basement membrane collagens and active matrix metalloproteinase-20. When combined with data from transgenic knockout mice and from human mutations, these data suggest that the enamel organic matrix (EOM) and dentin enamel junction may have a structural and functional relationship with basement membranes, e.g. skin. To clarify this relationship, we hypothesize a “foundation” model which proposes that components of the EOM form a support structure that stabilizes the crystalline enamel layer, and bonds it to the underlying dentin along the dentin enamel junction. Since we have also co-localized an active matrix metalloproteinase to this layer, our hypothesis suggests that, under pathologic conditions, MMP-mediated degradation of the EOM could destabilize the enamel–dentin interface. PMID:25158177

  6. [Scanning electron microscopic study of fluorotic permanent teeth enamel].

    PubMed

    Gajić, M

    1990-06-01

    The materia comprised 8 caries-free fluorotic permanent teeth (4 with severe and 4 with very mild fluorosis) and 4 caries-free non-fluorotic permanent teeth. The surface of teeth with severe fluorosis was mainly rought with discrete pitting and small parts of relative sound enamel. The subsurface enamel of teeth with severe fluorosis was with irregular cross-sectional shape of rod and more extensive inter-rod enamel spaces in comparison with other parts of enamel. The surface enamel of teeth with very mild fluorosis was mainly smooth, similar to the sound enamel, with small parts of rough enamel. In subsurface enamel of teeth with very mild fluorosis no difference was found between cross-sectional shape of rod and dimension of inter-rod enamel spaces in comparison with other parts of enamel.

  7. Immediate bonding to bleached enamel.

    PubMed

    Nour El-din, Amal K; Miller, Barbara H; Griggs, Jason A; Wakefield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to determine the shear bond strength, degree of resin infiltration and failure mode when organic solvent-based adhesives (acetone or ethanol) were used in immediate bonding to enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide or 38% hydrogen peroxide systems. Seventy-two non-carious bovine incisors were randomly assigned to three groups of 24 specimens each-control group (deionized water), 38% hydrogen peroxide bleach group and 10% carbamide peroxide bleach group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 12 specimens each according to the adhesive system used to bond the resin composite to enamel surfaces. The two adhesive systems used were Single Bond, an ethanol-based adhesive, and One Step, an acetone-based adhesive. The shear bond strengths of 38% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide were significantly lower compared to the non-bleached controls. Fractography revealed an adhesive failure mode in all specimens. Qualitative comparisons of resin tags present in the bleached and unbleached specimens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed few, thin and fragmented resin tags when 38% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide were used.

  8. Estimation of the enamel and dentin mineral content from the refractive index.

    PubMed

    Hariri, I; Sadr, A; Nakashima, S; Shimada, Y; Tagami, J; Sumi, Y

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of optics have enabled accurate and localized measurement of optical properties of biological substrates. This work aimed to elucidate the relationship between the local refractive index (n) and mineral content (MC) of enamel and dentin. De- and remineralized lesions in bovine enamel and dentin blocks were sectioned into 300- to 400-µm-thick slices, and placed on a metal plate to capture images of sound, de- and remineralized regions transversely by optical coherence tomography. Mean n at each depth level of the lesion (20- or 40-µm steps for enamel or dentin) was measured by the optical path length-matching method and used to plot n through lesion depth. The specimens were further polished and processed for transverse microradiography for analysis of MC. The n and MC ranged from 1.52 to 1.63 and 50 to 87 (vol.%) in enamel, and from 1.43 to 1.57 and 11 to 48 (vol.%) in dentin, respectively. Strong, positive linear correlations were found between n and MC (Pearson's r = 0.95 and 0.91 for de- and remineralized enamel, and r = 0.94 and 0.91 for dentin, respectively, p < 0.001). Experimental data were validated with a theoretical calculation of n from MC. De- and remineralization of enamel and dentin resulted in measurable changes of n, and, in turn, MC changes of the tissue could be estimated with good accuracy from this long-known optical property by the new analytical approach. Compositional changes of enamel crystallites after remineralization affect n.

  9. Regulation of Dental Enamel Shape and Hardness

    PubMed Central

    Simmer, J.P.; Papagerakis, P.; Smith, C.E.; Fisher, D.C.; Rountrey, A.N.; Zheng, L.; Hu, J.C.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions guide tooth development through its early stages and establish the morphology of the dentin surface upon which enamel will be deposited. Starting with the onset of amelogenesis beneath the future cusp tips, the shape of the enamel layer covering the crown is determined by five growth parameters: the (1) appositional growth rate, (2) duration of appositional growth (at the cusp tip), (3) ameloblast extension rate, (4) duration of ameloblast extension, and (5) spreading rate of appositional termination. Appositional growth occurs at a mineralization front along the ameloblast distal membrane in which amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) ribbons form and lengthen. The ACP ribbons convert into hydroxyapatite crystallites as the ribbons elongate. Appositional growth involves a secretory cycle that is reflected in a series of incremental lines. A potentially important function of enamel proteins is to ensure alignment of successive mineral increments on the tips of enamel ribbons deposited in the previous cycle, causing the crystallites to lengthen with each cycle. Enamel hardens in a maturation process that involves mineral deposition onto the sides of existing crystallites until they interlock with adjacent crystallites. Neutralization of acidity generated by hydroxyapatite formation is a key part of the mechanism. Here we review the growth parameters that determine the shape of the enamel crown as well as the mechanisms of enamel appositional growth and maturation. PMID:20675598

  10. TRANSIENT AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMING ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Beniash, Elia; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, begins as a three-dimensional network of nanometer size mineral particles, suspended in a protein gel. This mineral network serves as a template for mature enamel formation. To further understand the mechanisms of enamel formation we characterized the forming enamel mineral at an early secretory stage using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. We show that the newly formed enamel mineral is amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which eventually transforms into apatitic crystals. Interestingly, the size, shape and spatial organization of these amorphous mineral particles and older crystals are essentially the same, indicating that the mineral morphology and organization in enamel is determined prior to its crystallization. Mineralization via transient amorphous phases has been previously reported in chiton teeth, mollusk shells, echinoderm spicules and spines, and recent reports strongly suggest the presence transient amorphous mineral in forming vertebrate bones. The present finding of transient ACP in murine tooth enamel suggests that this strategy might be universal. PMID:19217943

  11. Lysosomal protease expression in mature enamel.

    PubMed

    Tye, Coralee E; Lorenz, Rachel L; Bartlett, John D

    2009-01-01

    The enamel matrix proteins (amelogenin, enamelin and ameloblastin) are degraded by matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-4 during enamel development and mature enamel is virtually protein free. The precise mechanism of removal and degradation of the enamel protein cleavage products from the matrix, however, remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that receptor-mediated endocytosis allows for the cleaved proteins to be removed from the matrix during enamel formation and then transported to the lysosome for further degradation. This study aims to identify lysosomal proteases that are present in maturation-stage enamel organ. RNA from first molars of 11-day-old mice was collected and expression was initially assessed by RT-PCR and then quantified by qPCR. The pattern of expression of selected proteases was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of demineralized mouse incisors. With the exception of cathepsin G, all lysosomal proteases assessed were expressed in maturation-stage enamel organ. Identified proteases included cathepsins B, D, F, H, K, L, O, S and Z. Tripeptidyl peptidases I and II as well as dipeptidyl peptidases I, II, III and IV were also found to be expressed. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the maturation-stage ameloblasts express cathepsins L and S and tripeptidyl peptidase II. Our results suggest that the ameloblasts are enriched by a large number of lysosomal proteases at maturation that are likely involved in the degradation of the organic matrix.

  12. Regulation of dental enamel shape and hardness.

    PubMed

    Simmer, J P; Papagerakis, P; Smith, C E; Fisher, D C; Rountrey, A N; Zheng, L; Hu, J C C

    2010-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions guide tooth development through its early stages and establish the morphology of the dentin surface upon which enamel will be deposited. Starting with the onset of amelogenesis beneath the future cusp tips, the shape of the enamel layer covering the crown is determined by five growth parameters: the (1) appositional growth rate, (2) duration of appositional growth (at the cusp tip), (3) ameloblast extension rate, (4) duration of ameloblast extension, and (5) spreading rate of appositional termination. Appositional growth occurs at a mineralization front along the ameloblast distal membrane in which amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) ribbons form and lengthen. The ACP ribbons convert into hydroxyapatite crystallites as the ribbons elongate. Appositional growth involves a secretory cycle that is reflected in a series of incremental lines. A potentially important function of enamel proteins is to ensure alignment of successive mineral increments on the tips of enamel ribbons deposited in the previous cycle, causing the crystallites to lengthen with each cycle. Enamel hardens in a maturation process that involves mineral deposition onto the sides of existing crystallites until they interlock with adjacent crystallites. Neutralization of acidity generated by hydroxyapatite formation is a key part of the mechanism. Here we review the growth parameters that determine the shape of the enamel crown as well as the mechanisms of enamel appositional growth and maturation.

  13. Enamel wear opposing polished and aged zirconia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J O; Janyavula, S; Lawson, N C; Lucas, T J; Cakir, D

    2014-01-01

    Aging of dental zirconia roughens its surface through low temperature degradation. We hypothesized that age-related roughening of zirconia crowns may cause detrimental wear to the enamel of an opposing tooth. To test our hypothesis, we subjected artificially aged zirconia and reference specimens to simulated mastication in a wear device and measured the wear of an opposing enamel cusp. Additionally, the roughness of the pretest surfaces was measured. The zirconia specimens, artificially aged by autoclave, showed no significant increase in roughness compared to the nonaged specimens. Furthermore, no significant difference in material or opposing enamel wear between the aged and nonaged zirconia was seen. All zirconia specimens showed less material and opposing enamel wear than the enamel to enamel control or veneering porcelain specimens. Scanning electron micrographs showed relatively smooth surfaces of aged and nonaged zirconia following wear testing. The micrographs of the veneering ceramic showed sharp fractured edges and fragments of wear debris. Zirconia may be considered a wear-friendly material for restorations opposing enamel, even after simulated aging.

  14. Fluoride Does Not Inhibit Enamel Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tye, C.E.; Antone, J.V.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorosed enamel can be porous, mottled, discolored, hypomineralized, and protein-rich if the enamel matrix is not completely removed. Proteolytic processing by matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4) is critical for enamel formation, and homozygous mutation of either protease results in hypomineralized, protein-rich enamel. Herein, we demonstrate that the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin K is expressed in the enamel organ in a developmentally defined manner that suggests a role for cathepsin K in degrading re-absorbed enamel matrix proteins. We therefore asked if fluoride directly inhibits the activity of MMP20, KLK4, dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) (an in vitro activator of KLK4), or cathepsin K. Enzyme kinetics were studied with quenched fluorescent peptides with purified enzyme in the presence of 0–10 mM NaF, and data were fit to Michaelis-Menten curves. Increasing concentrations of known inhibitors showed decreases in enzyme activity. However, concentrations of up to 10 mM NaF had no effect on KLK4, MMP20, DPPI, or cathepsin K activity. Our results show that fluoride does not directly inhibit enamel proteolytic activity. PMID:21118795

  15. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  16. Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th-18th century London graveyard.

    PubMed

    Ogden, A R; Pinhasi, R; White, W J

    2007-07-01

    Dental Enamel Hypoplasia has long been used as a common nonspecific stress indicator in teeth from archaeological samples. Most researchers report relatively minor linear and pitted hypoplastic defects on tooth crown surfaces. In this work we report a high prevalence and early age of onset of extensive enamel defects in deciduous and permanent molars in the subadults from the post-medieval cemetery of Broadgate, east central London. Analysis of the dentition of all 45 subadults from the cemetery, using both macroscopic and microscopic methods, reveals disturbed cusp patterns and pitted, abnormal and arrested enamel formation. Forty-one individuals from this group (93.2%) showed some evidence of enamel hypoplasia, 28 of them showing moderate or extensive lesions of molars, deciduous or permanent (63.6% of the sample). Scanning Electron Microscope images reveal many molars with grossly deformed cuspal architecture, multiple extra cusps and large areas of exposed Tomes' process pits, where the ameloblasts have abruptly ceased matrix production, well before normal completion. This indented, rough and poorly mineralized surface facilitates both bacterial adhesion and tooth wear, and when such teeth erupt fully into the mouth they are likely to wear and decay rapidly. We suggest that this complex combination of pitted and plane-form lesions, combined with disruption of cusp pattern and the formation of multiple small cusps, should henceforth be identified as "Cuspal Enamel Hypoplasia." (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Accuracy of Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory applied to human dentin and enamel.

    PubMed

    Ragain, J C; Johnston, W M

    2001-02-01

    The Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory provides a reflectance model for translucent materials placed on backings of different colors. We hypothesize that Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theoretical diffuse reflectance spectra of dentin and enamel are in good agreement with observed diffuse reflectance. The aim of this study was to measure the reflectance of enamel and dentin specimens and to compare the measured values of reflectance with K-M theoretical values. Disc-shaped specimens of enamel, dentin, and enamel/dentin were prepared from extracted teeth. Diffuse reflectance spectra were measured on three backings by means of a reflectance spectrophotometer over every wavelength (lambda) from 400 to 700 nm at three thicknesses. The measured reflectance values were fit by non-linear regression to corrected K-M theory. The low value of the reported errors associated with the application of K-M theory illustrated that the theoretical diffuse reflectance spectra of dentin and enamel are in good agreement with the observed diffuse reflectance.

  18. Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Chou, Po-Hung; Chen, Shu-Yu; Liao, Hua-Yang; Chang, Che-Chen

    2015-08-21

    There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries.

  19. MMP20 Promotes a Smooth Enamel Surface, a Strong DEJ, and a Decussating Enamel Rod Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.; Skobe, Ziedonis; Nanci, Antonio; Smith, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20, enamelysin) gene cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta and Mmp20 ablated mice also have malformed dental enamel. Here we show that Mmp20 null mouse secretory stage ameloblasts maintained a columnar shape and were present as a single layer of cells. However, the null maturation stage ameloblasts covered extraneous nodules of ectopic calcified material formed at the enamel surface. Remarkably, nodule formation occurs in null mouse enamel when MMP20 is normally no longer expressed. The malformed enamel in Mmp20 null teeth was loosely attached to the dentin and the entire enamel layer tended to separate from the dentin indicative of a faulty DEJ. The enamel rod pattern was also altered in Mmp20 null mice. Each enamel rod is formed by a single ameloblast and is a mineralized record of the migration path of the ameloblast that formed it. The Mmp20 null mouse enamel rods were grossly malformed or were absent indicating that the ameloblasts do not migrate properly when backing away from the DEJ. Thus, MMP20 is required for ameloblast cell movement necessary to form the decussating enamel rod patterns, for the prevention of ectopic mineral formation, and to maintain a functional DEJ. PMID:22243247

  20. Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Chou, Po-Hung; Chen, Shu-Yu; Liao, Hua-Yang; Chang, Che-Chen

    2015-01-01

    There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries. PMID:26293361

  1. Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Follow Us Home Health Information Digestive Diseases Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ...

  2. Effective property of tooth enamel: monoclinic behavior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cunyou; Nakamura, Toshio; Korach, Chad S

    2012-05-11

    Human tooth enamel possesses a unique morphology characterized by a repeated cell arrangement, which is composed of varying orientations of hydroxyapatite crystals. In the past, various investigators have reported diverse mechanical properties based on isotropic or orthotropic mechanical models in their experimental and numerical studies. However, these models are insufficient to capture the accurate microstructural effects on the enamel mechanical response. In this paper, a monoclinic anisotropic model, which offers correct descriptions of enamel deformation behaviors, is introduced. The model takes into account the 3D orientation changes of the hydroxyapatite crystals and their spatial elastic property variations. The proposed approach is based on a unit-cell and periodic boundary conditions, and it utilizes the collective deformation characteristics of many rods to determine 13 independent material constants required for the monoclinic model. These constants are necessary to utilize the effective property model to study various mechanical conditions such as abrasion, erosion, wear and fracture of whole tooth enamel.

  3. Materials science: Lessons from tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Horacio D.; Soler-Crespo, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    A remarkable composite material has been made that mimics the structure of tooth enamel. This achievement opens up the exploration of new composite materials and of computational methods that reliably predict their properties. See Letter p.95

  4. Aesthetic approach for anterior teeth with enamel hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Josué; Gewehr, Andréa; Paim, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Enamel hypoplasia is a developmental defect of the enamel that is produced by a disturbance in the formation of the organic enamel matrix, clinically visible as enamel defects. Disorders that occur during the stages of enamel development and maturation reduce the amount or thickness of the enamel, resulting in white spots, tiny grooves, depressions and fissures in the enamel surface. The complexity and intensity of the dental deformity lesions will conduct the ideal treatment-associating conservative techniques. This article presents a case report of a restorative treatment of enamel hypoplasia using hybrid composite resin to mask color alteration and enamel defects. An aesthetic appearance that respects the tooth polychromatic and the self-esteem of the patient can be achieved with this approach. PMID:22629075

  5. Correlation of ameloblastin with enamel mineral content.

    PubMed

    Teepe, John D; Schmitz, James E; Hu, Yuanyuan; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Fajardo, Roberto J; Smith, Charles E; Chun, Yong-Hee P

    2014-08-01

    In enamel formation, the deposition of minerals as crystallites starts when the mineralization front first forms at the start of the secretory stage. During maturation, the enamel layer accumulates significant amounts of new mineral as the crystallites grow in volume. Inversely related to mineral gain is loss of protein and water from the forming enamel. Both ameloblastin (Ambn) and enamelin are essential components for formation of a functional enamel layer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of mineral and non-mineral material present in developing enamel relative to Ambn concentration using Ambn mutant mice mated with others overexpressing full-length Ambn from the mouse amelogenin promoter at lower (+), similar (++) or higher (+++) concentration than normal. Mandibular incisors (age: 7 weeks, n = 8) were imaged by micro-computed tomography and the enamel was analyzed from the apical region to the incisal edge in sequential 1.0 mm volumes of interest. Mineral density was determined using a series of hydroxyapatite (HA) phantoms to calibrate enamel density measurements. At the site where the mandibular incisor emerged into the oral cavity, the enamel volume, mineral weight, and mineral density were reduced when Tg Ambn was expressed at lower or higher levels than normal. While in wild-type the % mineral was >95%, it was negligible in Ambn-/-, 22.3% in Ambn-/-, Tg(+), 75.4% in Ambn-/-, Tg(++), and 45.2% in Ambn-/-, Tg(+++). These results document that the deposition of mineral and removal of non-mineral components are both very sensitive to expressed Ambn concentrations.

  6. Correlation of ameloblastin with enamel mineral content

    PubMed Central

    Teepe, John D.; Schmitz, James E.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Fajardo, Roberto J.; Smith, Charles E.; Chun, Yong-Hee P.

    2015-01-01

    In enamel formation, the deposition of minerals as crystallites starts when the mineralization front first forms at the start of the secretory stage. During maturation, the enamel layer accumulates significant amounts of new mineral as the crystallites grow in volume. Inversely related to mineral gain is loss of protein and water from the forming enamel. Both ameloblastin (Ambn) and enamelin are essential components for formation of a functional enamel layer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of mineral and non-mineral material present in developing enamel relative to Ambn concentration using Ambn mutant mice mated with others overexpressing full-length Ambn from the mouse amelogenin promoter at lower (+), similar (++) or higher (+++) concentration than normal. Mandibular incisors (age: 7 weeks, n=8) were imaged by micro-computed tomography and the enamel was analyzed from the apical region to the incisal edge in sequential 1.0 mm volumes of interest. Mineral density was determined using a series of hydroxyapatite (HA) phantoms to calibrate enamel density measurements. At the site where the mandibular incisor emerged into the oral cavity, the enamel volume, mineral weight, and mineral density were reduced when Tg Ambn was expressed at lower or higher levels than normal. While in wild-type the % mineral was >95%, it was negligible in Ambn−/−, 22.3% in Ambn−/−, Tg(+), 75.4% in Ambn−/−, Tg(++), and 45.2% in Ambn−/−, Tg(+++). These results document that the deposition of mineral and removal of non-mineral components are both very sensitive to expressed Ambn concentrations. PMID:25158178

  7. In vitro enamel thickness measurements with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Khalid Hussain; Bubb, Nigel Lawrence; Gutteridge, Diana Lynn; Evans, Joseph Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In the work described here, agreement between ultrasound and histologic measurements of enamel thickness in vitro was investigated. Fifteen extracted human premolars were sectioned coronally to produce 30 sections. The enamel thickness of each specimen was measured with a 15-MHz hand-held ultrasound probe and verified with histology. The speed of sound in enamel was established. Bland-Altman analysis, intra-class correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon sign rank test were used to assess agreement. The mean speed of sound in enamel was 6191 ± 199 m s(-1). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were -0.16 to 0.18 mm when the speed of sound for each specimen was used, and -0.17 to 0.21 mm when the mean speed of sound was used. Intra-class correlation coefficient agreement was 0.97, and the Wilcoxon sign rank test yielded a p-value of 0.55. Using the speed of sound for each specimen results in more accurate measurement of enamel thickness. Ultrasound measurements were in good agreement with histology, which highlights its potential for monitoring the progressive loss of enamel thickness in erosive tooth surface loss.

  8. Enamel hypomineralization due to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Jedeon, Katia; Marciano, Clémence; Loiodice, Sophia; Boudalia, Sofiane; Canivenc Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-08-01

    There has been increasing concerns over last 20 years about the potential adverse effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Bisphenol A (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) are three widely used EDs having similar effects. Tooth enamel has recently been found to be an additional target of BPA that may be a causal agent of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). However, populations are exposed to many diverse EDs simultaneously. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the effects of the combination of G, V and BPA on tooth enamel. Rats were exposed daily in utero and after birth to low doses of EDs mimicking human exposure during the critical fetal and suckling periods when amelogenesis takes place. The proportion of rats presenting opaque areas of enamel hypomineralization was higher when rats were treated with BPA alone than with a combination of EDs. The levels of mRNAs encoding the main enamel proteins varied with BPA treatment alone and did not differ significantly between controls and combined treatment groups. In vitro, rat ameloblastic HAT-7 cells were treated with the three EDs. BPA induced enamelin and reduced klk4 expression, G had no such effects and V reduced enamelin expression. These findings suggest that combinations of EDs may affect enamel less severely than BPA alone, and indicate that enamel hypomineralization may differ according to the characteristics of the ED exposure.

  9. The Circadian Clock Modulates Enamel Development

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Boyde, Alan; Lei, Yaping; Xu, Yucheng; Miller, Joseph D.; Paine, Michael L.; Snead, Malcolm L.

    2012-01-01

    Fully mature enamel is about 98% mineral by weight. While mineral crystals appear very early during its formative phase, the newly secreted enamel is a soft gel-like matrix containing several enamel matrix proteins of which the most abundant is amelogenin (Amelx). Histological analysis of mineralized dental enamel reveals markings called cross-striations associated with daily increments of enamel formation, as evidenced by injections of labeling dyes at known time intervals. The daily incremental growth of enamel has led to the hypothesis that the circadian clock might be involved in the regulation of enamel development. To identify daily rhythms of clock genes and Amelx, we subjected murine ameloblast cells to serum synchronization to analyze the expression of the circadian transcription factors Per2 and Bmal1 by real-time PCR. Results indicate that these key genetic regulators of the circadian clock are expressed in synchronized murine ameloblast cell cultures and that their expression profile follows a circadian pattern with acrophase and bathyphase for both gene transcripts in antiphase. Immunohistological analysis confirms the protein expression of Bmal and Cry in enamel cells. Amelx expression in 2-day postnatal mouse molars dissected every 4 hours for a duration of 48 hours oscillated with an approximately 24-hour period, with a significant approximately 2-fold decrease in expression during the dark period compared to the light period. The expression of genes involved in bicarbonate production (Car2) and transport (Slc4a4), as well as in enamel matrix endocytosis (Lamp1), was greater during the dark period, indicating that ameloblasts express these proteins when Amelx expression is at the nadir. The human and mouse Amelx genes each contain a single nonconserved E-box element within 10 kb upstream of their respective transcription start sites. We also found that within 2 kb of the transcription start site of the human NFYA gene, which encodes a positive

  10. Enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns after 6 months of clinical use.

    PubMed

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Rammelsberg, P; Schmitter, M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia crowns were placed in 20 patients requiring full molar crowns. For measurement of wear, impressions of both jaws were made at baseline after crown cementation and at 6-month follow-up. Mean and maximum wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists and of the two contralateral natural antagonists were measured by the use of plaster replicas and 3D laser scanning methods. Wear differences were investigated by the use of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and by linear regression analysis. Mean vertical loss (maximum vertical loss in parentheses) was 10 (43) μm for the zirconia crowns, 33 (112) μm for the opposing enamel, 10 (58) μm for the contralateral teeth and 10 (46) μm for the contralateral antagonists. Both mean and maximum enamel wear were significantly different between the antagonists of the zirconia crowns and the contralateral antagonists. Gender and activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were identified as possible confounders which significantly affected wear. Under clinical conditions, monolithic zirconia crowns seem to be associated with more wear of opposed enamel than are natural teeth. With regard to wear behaviour, clinical application of monolithic zirconia crowns is justifiable because the amount of antagonistic enamel wear after 6 months is comparable with, or even lower than, that caused by other ceramic materials in previous studies.

  11. The effect of washing water on bonding to etched enamel.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D J; Combe, E C; Martens, L V

    2004-01-01

    There is current concern about bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines. This research hypothesized that the presence of increasing concentrations of bacteria in water used to wash etched enamel would result in a corresponding decrease in both shear bond strength (SBS) and critical surface tension (gammaC) of enamel. A further hypothesis was made that there is a correlation between SBS and gammaC. The effect of 3.5 ppm iodine in the water as a bacteriostatic agent was also assessed. Five groups of 10 samples of bovine enamel were etched, washed, and a resin composite bonded to them. The control group was washed with distilled water. Another group was washed with the dilute iodine solution. The remaining three groups used a different concentration of Escherichia coli DH5alpha as follows (in cfu mL(-1)): group 1: 10(2); group 2: 10(4); group 3: 10(6). Shear bond strength data were measured on an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1). Adhesion data were (MPa): control: 24.6 +/- 6.0; with iodine: 20.8 +/- 2.7; group 1: 19.8 +/- 2.7; group 2: 13.5 +/- 3.0; group 3: 13.9 +/- 3.6. The F-test yielded a highly significant difference between control group, iodine group and group 1, compared with groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.0001). Tukey's Studentized Range Test was used for pairwise comparison testing between groups. Using a Cahn dynamic contact angle analyzer and linear regression analysis, the plots of surface tension versus costheta were extrapolated to costheta = 1 to give gammaC data for the control group and groups 1-3. In all cases reasonable linearity was observed (r2 > or = 0.87). Data (mN m(-1)) were: control group: 50.8; group 1: 45.1; group 2: 43.2; group 3: 39.5. The SBS and gammaC were then plotted against each other and linear regression analysis performed. It was concluded that increasing concentrations of bacteria in wash water decreased both SBS and gammaC and that a linear correlation (R2 = 0.84) was found between the values of

  12. Diffusion of fluoride through the rat enamel organ in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bawden, J.W.; Deaton, T.G.; Crenshaw, M.A.

    1987-08-01

    This study investigated the diffusion of fluoride through the enamel organ in vitro. The rat molar explants used were entirely in the secretory stage or predominantly in the maturation stage of enamel formation. The removal of the enamel organ or metabolic inhibition with iodoacetate caused significant increases in enamel fluoride uptake at both stages of enamel formation. Inhibition with dinitrophenol caused a significant increase only in the maturation phase. Uptake of fluoride in enamel was related to the fluoride concentration in the medium, except in the maturation stage explants, where increasing the medium fluoride concentration from 0.05 ppm to 0.08 ppm did not significantly increase fluoride uptake at any of the three observation times. The findings indicate that the enamel organ exists as a diffusion-limiting membrane to the movement of fluoride from the extracellular fluid compartment to the developing enamel.

  13. The fracture behaviour of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Bechtle, Sabine; Habelitz, Stefan; Klocke, Arndt; Fett, Theo; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-01-01

    Enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body covering the crowns of teeth. Whereas the underlying dental material dentin is very well characterized in terms of mechanical and fracture properties, available data for enamel are quite limited and are apart from the most recent investigation mainly based on indentation studies. Within the current study, stable crack-growth experiments in bovine enamel have been performed, to measure fracture resistance curves for enamel. Single edge notched bending specimens (SENB) prepared out of bovine incisors were tested in 3-point bending and subsequently analysed using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Cracks propagated primarily within the protein-rich rod sheaths and crack propagation occurred under an inclined angle to initial notch direction not only due to enamel rod and hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation but potentially also due to protein shearing. Determined mode I fracture resistance curves ranged from 0.8-1.5 MPa*m(1/2) at the beginning of crack propagation up to 4.4 MPa*m(1/2) at 500 microm crack extension; corresponding mode II values ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 MPa*m(1/2).

  14. Esthetic restorative materials and opposing enamel wear.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Anna Belsuzarri; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effects of a gold alloy (Degulor M), four dental ceramics (IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, Duceram Plus, Duceram LFC) and a laboratory-processed composite (Targis) on the wear of human enamel. The amount of wear of the enamel (dental cusps) and restorative materials (disks) were tested in water at 37 degrees C under standard load (20 N), with a chewing rate of 1.3 Hz and was determined after 150,000 and 300,000 cycles. Before the test, the average surface roughness of the restorative materials was analyzed using the Ra parameter. The results of this study indicate that Targis caused enamel wear similar to Degulor M and resulted in significantly less wear than all the ceramics tested. IPS Empress provoked the greatest amount of enamel wear and Degulor M caused less vertical dimension loss. Targis could be an appropriate alternative material to ceramic, because it is esthetic and produces opposing enamel wear comparable to gold alloy.

  15. Enamel surface changes caused by hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takao; Hanabusa, Masao; Hosoya, Noriyasu; Chiba, Toshie; Yoshida, Takumasa; Morito, Akiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced inside the mouth are a well-known cause of halitosis. Recent studies have suggested that VSCs modify the pathology of periodontitis by encouraging the migration of bacterial toxins associated with increased permeability of gingival epithelia, and enhancing the production of matrix metalloproteinases in gingival connective tissue. Nonetheless, the effects on the enamel of direct exposure to VSCs within the oral cavity remain unclear. In the present study, we observed the effects of VSCs in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on enamel surfaces and determined their effects on restorations. Materials and Methods: Extracted human tooth and bovine tooth samples were divided into the H2S experimental side and the control side. We observed the effects of H2S on enamel surfaces using electron microscopy and conducted a shear test. Results: We found that exposure to H2S obscured the enamel surface's crystal structure. The surface also exhibited coarseness and reticular changes. Shear testing did not reveal any differences in bond strength. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that H2S occurring inside the mouth causes changes to the crystal structure of the enamel surface that can lead to tooth wear, but that it does not diminish the effects of dental bonding in adhesive restorations. PMID:26752833

  16. Developmental defects of enamel in phenylketonuria patients.

    PubMed

    de Marco Salvadori, Carina; Pereira, Rosana Marques; Raichert, Caroline; de Morais Ferreira, Fernanda; de Menezes, José Vitor Nogara Borges

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in patients diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU). The study group consisted of 24 four- to 24-year-old subjects with PKU. The control group consisted of 24 healthy individuals. An examination for the detection of developmental defects of enamel was conducted at the university pediatric dentistry clinic by a single examiner. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test (P<.05) and odds ratios. The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel was 36 percent in the study group and 15 percent in the control group. The maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth in patients with PKU, while the maxillary and mandibular first molars were the most affected teeth in the control group. Patients with PKU had a 3.3-fold greater chance of exhibiting developmental defects of enamel versus the healthy controls, which was statistically significant (P<.001). The study findings suggest that PKU increases the risk of developmental defects of enamel.

  17. Observations on the enamel of odontomas.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, C; Piacentini, C; Menghini, P; Reguzzoni, M

    1993-09-01

    The morphological study of odontomas provides an alternative model for observing the formation of dental tissues, since different maturing stages are present simultaneously. Investigations were performed on decalcified samples (using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and on undecalcified samples of complex odontoma enamel (using transmission electron microscopy). Simultaneous presence of prismatic enamel at various maturing stages with different structural characteristics was observed. Such enamel was sometimes associated with layers of ameloblastic cells with characteristics of cells in functional activity. In other sites, the enamel did not present a prismatic structure but it appeared as unstructured material clusters with abundant organic component. It was concluded that the theory according to which an ecto-mesenchymal inductive failure occurs in odontomas is not confirmed. The defect seen at the beginning of the differentiated and anomalous tissue maturation may be related to latest events in the development of the enamel organ. In this regard, it was concluded that such events involve the efficiency of the ameloblasts and the possible alterations in the organic matrix.

  18. In vitro inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization by enamel matrix derivative.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jin Mei; Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Xiang, Chen Yang; Lv, Xue Ping; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) affects the demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro and to assess the agent's anti-caries potential. Bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group), which were treated with distilled water (negative control), NaF (positive control), or Emdogain. All three groups were pH-cycled 12 times over 6 days. The percentage of surface enamel microhardness reduction (%SMHR), calcium demineralization rate (CDR), surface roughness, lesion depth and mineral loss after demineralization were examined. Surface morphology of specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The Emdogain and positive control groups showed similar surface roughness, lesion depths and mineral loss, which were significantly lower than those in the negative control group. In addition, the enamel surfaces of both the Emdogain and NaF groups showed much narrower intercrystalline spaces than the surfaces of the negative control group, which exhibited extensive microfractures along the crystal edges. %SMHR differed significantly among all three groups, with the smallest value in the Emdogain group and the greatest in the negative control group. These results indicate that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) can significantly inhibit demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro, suggesting that it has potential as an anti-caries agent.

  19. Effect of Removal of Enamel on Rebonding Strength of Resin Composite to Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, L.; Varrela, J.; Vallittu, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effect of removing the surface layer of enamel on the rebonding strength of resin composite. Methods. Teeth in four groups (n = 10) were etched, a small amount of resin composite was bonded and debonded, then specimens in three groups were ground for different lengths of time (10 s, 20 s, 30 s) to remove an increasing amount of enamel, one group was left untouched. The teeth were bonded again and the bond strengths of 1st and 2nd bonding were compared and analysed against the amount of enamel loss in different groups (7 µm (±2); 12 µm (±1); 16 µm (±3)). Specimens were examined with SEM and by noncontacting optical profilometer. Results. Although results indicated higher rebonding strength with increasing enamel removal ANOVA showed low statistical differences between the groups (p > 0.05). However, values between first bonding and rebonding strengths differed significantly (p < 0.05) in the group that was not ground. SEM revealed that enamel-surfaces that were ground after debonding etched well, compared to the surfaces that still contained adhesive remnants. Conclusions. Removal of small amount of enamel refreshed the surface for rebonding. Rebonding strengths without grinding the surface before bonding were lower than bond strength to intact enamel. PMID:27725932

  20. Morphology of the cemento-enamel junction in premolar teeth.

    PubMed

    Arambawatta, Kapila; Peiris, Roshan; Nanayakkara, Deepthi

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to describe the distribution of the mineralized tissues that compose the cemento-enamel junction, with respect to both the different types of permanent premolars of males and females and the various surfaces of individual teeth. The cervical region of ground sections of 67 premolars that had been extracted for orthodontic reasons were analyzed using transmitted light microscopy to identify which of the following tissue interrelationships was present at the cemento-enamel junction: cementum overlapping enamel; enamel overlapping cementum; edge-to-edge relationship between cementum and enamel; or the presence of gaps between the enamel and cementum with exposed dentin. An edge-to-edge interrelation between root cementum and enamel was predominant (55.1%). In approximately one-third of the sample, gaps between cementum and enamel with exposed dentin were observed. Cementum overlapping enamel was less prevalent than previously reported, and enamel overlapping cementum was seen in a very small proportion of the sample. In any one tooth, the distribution of mineralized tissues at the cemento-enamel junction was irregular and unpredictable. The frequency of gaps between enamel and cementum with exposure of dentin was higher than previously reported, which suggests that this region is fragile and strongly predisposed to pathological changes. Hence, this region should be protected and carefully managed during routine clinical procedures such as dental bleaching, orthodontic treatment, and placement of restorative materials.

  1. Enamel thickness trends in Plio-Pleistocene hominin mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Matthew M; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Gaunitz, Charleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Enamel thickness continues to be an important morphological character in hominin systematics and is frequently invoked in dietary reconstructions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa. However, to date, the majority of published data on molar enamel thickness of Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins derive from naturally fractured random surfaces of a small number of specimens. In this study we systematically analyze enamel thickness in a large sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins (n = 99), extant hominoids (n = 57), and modern humans (n = 30). Based on analysis of 2D mesial planes of section derived from microtomography, we examine both average and relative enamel thickness, and the distribution of enamel across buccal, occlusal, and lingual components of mandibular molars. Our results confirm the trend of increasing enamel thickness during the Pliocene that culminates in the thick enamel of the robust Australopithecus species, and then decreases from early Homo to recent modern humans. All hominin taxa share a regional average enamel thickness pattern of thick occlusal enamel and greater buccal than lingual enamel thickness. Pan is unique in exhibiting the thinnest average enamel thickness in the occlusal basin. Statistical analysis indicates that among Pliocene hominins enamel thickness is a weak taxonomic discriminator. The data underlying these results are included in a table in the Supplementary Online Material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ultramicroscopic evaluation of teeth enamel de- and remineralization].

    PubMed

    Bulkina, N V; Pudovkina, E A; Zakharevich, A M; Matasov, M D; Galushka, V V; Polosukhina, E N; Kitaeva, V N

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of scanning electronic microscopy evaluation of teeth enamel surface. The method allows studying objects at huge magnification and without preliminary preparation. Research was conducted in vitro on extracted teeth. Morphological features of tooth enamel were studied, as well as changes of enamel surface after application of remineralization agent.

  3. To What Extent is Primate Second Molar Enamel Occlusal Morphology Shaped by the Enamel-Dentine Junction?

    PubMed Central

    Gilissen, Emmanuel; Thiery, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    The form of two hard tissues of the mammalian tooth, dentine and enamel, is the result of a combination of the phylogenetic inheritance of dental traits and the adaptive selection of these traits during evolution. Recent decades have been significant in unveiling developmental processes controlling tooth morphogenesis, dental variation and the origination of dental novelties. The enamel-dentine junction constitutes a precursor for the morphology of the outer enamel surface through growth of the enamel cap which may go along with the addition of original features. The relative contribution of these two tooth components to morphological variation and their respective response to natural selection is a major issue in paleoanthropology. This study will determine how much enamel morphology relies on the form of the enamel-dentine junction. The outer occlusal enamel surface and the enamel-dentine junction surface of 76 primate second upper molars are represented by polygonal meshes and investigated using tridimensional topometrical analysis. Quantitative criteria (elevation, inclination, orientation, curvature and occlusal patch count) are introduced to show that the enamel-dentine junction significantly constrains the topographical properties of the outer enamel surface. Our results show a significant correlation for elevation, orientation, inclination, curvature and occlusal complexity between the outer enamel surface and the enamel dentine junction for all studied primate taxa with the exception of four modern humans for curvature (p<0.05). Moreover, we show that, for all selected topometrical parameters apart from occlusal patch count, the recorded correlations significantly decrease along with enamel thickening in our sample. While preserving tooth integrity by providing resistance to wear and fractures, the variation of enamel thickness may modify the curvature present at the occlusal enamel surface in relation to enamel-dentine junction, potentially modifying

  4. To What Extent is Primate Second Molar Enamel Occlusal Morphology Shaped by the Enamel-Dentine Junction?

    PubMed

    Guy, Franck; Lazzari, Vincent; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Thiery, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    The form of two hard tissues of the mammalian tooth, dentine and enamel, is the result of a combination of the phylogenetic inheritance of dental traits and the adaptive selection of these traits during evolution. Recent decades have been significant in unveiling developmental processes controlling tooth morphogenesis, dental variation and the origination of dental novelties. The enamel-dentine junction constitutes a precursor for the morphology of the outer enamel surface through growth of the enamel cap which may go along with the addition of original features. The relative contribution of these two tooth components to morphological variation and their respective response to natural selection is a major issue in paleoanthropology. This study will determine how much enamel morphology relies on the form of the enamel-dentine junction. The outer occlusal enamel surface and the enamel-dentine junction surface of 76 primate second upper molars are represented by polygonal meshes and investigated using tridimensional topometrical analysis. Quantitative criteria (elevation, inclination, orientation, curvature and occlusal patch count) are introduced to show that the enamel-dentine junction significantly constrains the topographical properties of the outer enamel surface. Our results show a significant correlation for elevation, orientation, inclination, curvature and occlusal complexity between the outer enamel surface and the enamel dentine junction for all studied primate taxa with the exception of four modern humans for curvature (p<0.05). Moreover, we show that, for all selected topometrical parameters apart from occlusal patch count, the recorded correlations significantly decrease along with enamel thickening in our sample. While preserving tooth integrity by providing resistance to wear and fractures, the variation of enamel thickness may modify the curvature present at the occlusal enamel surface in relation to enamel-dentine junction, potentially modifying

  5. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  6. Powder electrostatic enamelling of household appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragina, L.; Shalygina, O.; Kuryakin, N.; Annenkov, V.; Guzenko, N.; Kupriyanenko, K.; Hudyakov, V.; Landik, A.

    2011-12-01

    Principles and practices of contemporary resource and energy saving technology of powder electrostatic application (POESTA)of vitreous enamel coatings are described. Its technological, economic and ecological advantages over slip enamelling in household appliances manufacture are discussed. We develop the principles of synthesis of special glass frits with high electric resistivity for POESTA and discuss the results of studies aimed at the development and industrial implementation of ground, direct-on and coloured cover enamels for household appliances and direct-on thermally resistant chemically durable coatings with antibacterial effect for protection of inner tanks of water heaters. Finally, we describe the development of compositions for easy-to-clean, catalytic and pyrolytic coatings.

  7. Enamel hypoplasia: challenges of esthetic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Araújo, Élito; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2016-01-01

    Enamel defects, such as white or yellow-brown spots, usually cause problems that are more esthetic than functional. Enamel hypoplasia may be the result of hereditary, systemic, or local factors. Dental trauma is a local etiologic factor. It is relatively common in the primary dentition and can cause defects on the surface of permanent successors. Treatment for such defects can differ, depending on the depth of the spots. For deeper white-spot lesions, a composite resin restoration may be necessary. This is an excellent mode of treatment, due to both its low cost and its conservation of healthy tooth structure. The objective of this case report is to describe composite resin restoration of a maxillary central incisor affected by enamel hypoplasia.

  8. Dental enamel dissolution after alendronate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria G; Nucci, Cesare; Prati, Carlo; Mongiorgi, Romano

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of treatment with a bisphosphonate (alendronate) on human dental enamel dissolution in vitro. The dissolution of each enamel sample was evaluated by monitoring the calcium release in 0.1M lactic acid solution at pH 4.5 (acidic solution) during dissolution tests, after topical alendronate treatment with 0.1M alendronate solutions at pH 5.0, pH 7.4 and pH 9.0. Data showed that alendronate treatment, both at pH 5.0 and pH 7.4, obtained a statistically significant reduction of enamel demineralization during dissolution test reaction time (45 minutes). The protective effect was not present after treatment at pH 9.

  9. Effect of fluoride toothpastes on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Dorow, Andreas; Langenhorst, Stephanie; Gintner, Zeno; Bánóczy, Jolan; Gaengler, Peter

    2006-06-15

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization. A 3 x 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1); remineralization solution (group 2); Elmex Anticaries (group 3); Elmex Sensitive (group 4); Blend-a-med Complete (group 5) and Colgate GRF (group 6). Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM) and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations.

  10. Effect of fluoride toothpastes on enamel demineralization

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Dorow, Andreas; Langenhorst, Stephanie; Gintner, Zeno; Bánóczy, Jolan; Gaengler, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization. Methods A 3 × 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1); remineralization solution (group 2); Elmex Anticaries (group 3); Elmex Sensitive (group 4); Blend-a-med Complete (group 5) and Colgate GRF (group 6). Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM) and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Results The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Conclusion It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations. PMID:16776820

  11. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes.

  12. Enamel Hypomineralization and Structural Defects in Amelotin-deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Holcroft, J; Ganss, B

    2015-05-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a relatively recently discovered enamel protein that is predominantly expressed by ameloblasts during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and is present at lower levels in the junctional epithelium of erupted teeth. Previous studies have suggested a function of this protein in enamel mineralization and cell attachment. Genetic mouse models have been instrumental in defining the role of many enamel-related proteins, but a genetic mouse model lacking the Amtn gene has not been reported. Here, we describe the generation of amelotin-deficient mice and the analysis of their enamel phenotype in comparison with that of wild-type animals. Ablation of AMTN expression resulted in mechanically inferior enamel of mandibular incisors that showed chipping and fractures at the incisal edge. Enamel mineralization was delayed, resulting in hypomineralized inner enamel and structural defects in the outer enamel. Erupted enamel close to the gingival margin showed increased surface roughness. The expression levels of the enamel matrix proteins AMEL, AMBN, ENAM, and ODAM and the enamel proteases MMP-20 and KLK-4 were not significantly altered, although the expression of KLK-4 was delayed. The morphology of ameloblasts showing prominent Tomes' processes during the secretory stage was not altered, and there was no indication of disruption of cell structures or activities, but a residual layer, presumably consisting of organic material, remained at the enamel surface close to the gingival margin. The integrity of the dentogingival attachment at the junctional epithelium appeared unaffected by AMTN deficiency. These observations indicate that AMTN plays a subtle yet critical role in enamel biomineralization, particularly during the establishment of the outer and surface enamel layers. This role appears to be largely independent of other enamel proteins. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  13. Rugometric and microtopographic inspection of teeth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Pereira, Pedro B.

    2013-06-01

    The roughness of teeth' enamel is an important parameter in orthodontics. One example is the application in the process of decreasing tooth-size by reducing the interproximal enamel surfaces (stripping) of teeth. In order to achieve smooth surfaces clinicians have been testing various methods and progressively improved this therapeutic technique. The evaluation the surface roughness following teeth interproximal reduction is fundamental in the process. In general tooth' surface is not flat presenting a variety of complex geometries. In this communication we will report on the metrological procedure employed on the rugometric and microtopographic inspection by optical active triangulation of raw and processed (interproximal stripping) tooth surfaces.

  14. Restitution of enamel after interdental stripping.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, T; Milleding, P; Mohlin, B; Nannmark, U

    1993-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of interdental stripping on the enamel surface and evaluates methods to restitute the treated surface. Extracted teeth mounted in a semielastic material were subjected to stripping by different kinds of steel strips. The treated enamel surfaces were then polished in several different ways. The effects were studied by SEM and profilometry. It was concluded that the coarsest strips produced irregularities of such a magnitude that polishing had very limited effect. Polishing starting with coarse polishing strips followed by gradually finer gave the best result. An increase in number of strokes and use of all grades of polishing strips slightly improved the result.

  15. IR laser ablation of dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    An overview of the basic mechanisms of IR laser ablation of dental enamel is presented. Enamel is a highly structured tissue consisting of an heterogeneous distribution of water, mineral, protein and lipid. Absorption bands of water and carbonated hydroxyapatite can be selectively targeted from 2.7 to 11-micrometer via several laser wavelengths. Mechanistic differences in the nature of ablation and the varying surface morphology produced can be explained by the microstructure of the tissue. Suggested criteria for the choice of the optimum laser parameters for clinical use, the influence of plasma shielding and the role of exogenous water on the mechanism of ablation are discussed.

  16. Cervical enamel projection related to furcation involvement.

    PubMed

    Lima, A F; Hebling, E

    1994-01-01

    Reviewing the literature the authors show the importance of cervical enamel projections (CEP) in the involvement of molar furcation. The dento-gingival relationship of CEP structure is peculiar for not having connective attachment but only long junctional epithelium. In numerous studies, most mandibular and maxillary molars presented CEP, mainly of little extension, with an incidence ranging from 8.8 to 87.4%. The studies showed a relationship between cervical enamel projection and the presence of inflammatory periodontal disease, and furcation involvement of molars. These data suggest that a detailed clinical trial must be carried out as well as early diagnosis of periodontal disease at the region of furcation.

  17. Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Glena, Richard E.; Featherstone, John D. B.; Seka, Wolf

    1995-03-01

    The light-scattering properties of dental enamel and dentin were measured at 543, 632, and 1053 nm. Angularly resolved scattering distributions for these materials were measured from 0 deg to 180 deg using a rotating goniometer. Surface scattering was minimized by immersing the samples in an index-matching bath. The scattering and absorption coefficients and the scattering phase function were deduced by comparing the measured scattering data with angularly resolved Monte Carlo light-scattering simulations. Enamel and dentin were best represented by a linear combination of a highly forward-peaked Henyey-Greenstein (HG) phase function and an isotropic phase function. Enamel weakly scatters light between 543 nm and 1.06 mu m, with the scattering coefficient ( mu s) ranging from mu s = 15 to 105 cm-1. The phase function is a combination of a HG function with g = 0.96 and a 30-60% isotropic phase function. For enamel, absorption is negligible. Dentin scatters strongly in the visible and near IR ( mu s approximately equals 260 cm-1) and absorbs weakly ( mu a approximately equals 4 cm-1). The scattering phase function for dentin is described by a HG function with g = 0.93 and a very weak isotropic scattering component ( approximately 2%).

  18. Comparison between a profilometer and a measuring microscope for measurement of enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Chuenarrom, Chanya; Benjakul, Pojjanut

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the difference in the erosion depth of enamel measured by profilometry (PM) and a measuring microscope (MM). Sixty enamel specimens were divided into ten groups. Each specimen group was exposed to 50 ml of a carbonated drink with pH 2.38 or orange juice with pH 3.67 for 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Depths of eroded areas were measured with a profilometer and a measuring microscope. Data of average enamel loss were measured by PM and MM for all erosion times and were scatter plotted on a graph with regression fit. Correlations between the enamel loss measured by PM and MM were analyzed with a paired sample t-test to compare the discriminatory abilities of the two methods of analysis for all erosion times. The regression fit in all study cases showed a high linear relationship (R(2) = 0.90) between measurements by PM and MM, but in cases where the erosion depth was lower than the depth of focus (DOF) of the MM objective lens, there were weak correlation coefficients (-0.007 - 0.303) for comparison between the two measurement methods.

  19. Survey of coatings for solar collectors. [ceramic enamels and chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic enamel is found to be more solar selective, (i.e., has high solar absorptance in combination with low infrared emittance) than organic enamel, but neither is as solar selective as black chrome, black copper, black zinc, or black nickel. Ceramic enamel is matched only by black chrome in durability and wide availability. Ceramic enamel and organic enamel have approximately the same cost, and both are currently slightly lower in cost than black chrome, black copper, or black zinc. Black nickel is relatively unavailable and, because of that, realistic cost comparisons are not possible.

  20. Porcelain enamelled absorbers, coated by spectral selective tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Simonis, F.; Faber, A.J.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.

    1987-02-01

    The use of porcelain enamelled absorbers in flat plate collectors features longevity thanks to the durability and thermal stability of the enamel finish. The porcelain enamel can be made spectral selective by coating with doped tin oxide or indium oxide. The application procedure involves an enamelling step followed by a pyrosol process with tin or indium compounds. The optical properties of tin oxide coated enamel yield values of 0.90-0.92 absorptance and 0.13-0.18 hemispherical emittance. The temperature dependence of the emittance is very small. The thermal stability has been proved up to 400/sup 0/C in air.

  1. Lubrication of saliva substitutes at enamel-to-enamel contacts in an artificial mouth.

    PubMed

    Reeh, E S; Douglas, W H; Levine, M J

    1996-06-01

    Mechanisms of salivary lubrication can be quantitatively measured by a reduction in the coefficient of friction. It is important that lubrication be assessed under the conditions of the oral cavity to properly assess lubrication regimes. The relative lubricity of three artificial salivas and two controls were assessed at a bovine enamel interface in an artificial mouth with a range of conditions that approximate oral function. Statistical analysis indicated that the enamel lubricity of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and Oracare-D saliva substitutes were different from the other saliva substitutes and water. The low friction with Oracare-D and SDS saliva substitutes was because of resident amphipaths adsorbed at the enamel interface. Amphipaths adsorbed on enamel may provide a reduction in interocculsal friction and its resulting complications for patients with xerostomia.

  2. Towards enamel biomimetics: Structure, mechanical properties and biomineralization of dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Hanson Kwok

    Dental enamel is the most mineralized tissue in the human body. This bioceramic, composed largely of hydroxyapatite (HAp), is also one of the most durable tissues despite a lifetime of masticatory loading and bacterial attack. The biosynthesis of enamel, which occurs in physiological conditions is a complex orchestration of protein assembly and mineral formation. The resulting product is the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body with the longest and most organized arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals known to biomineralizing systems. Detail understanding of the structure of enamel in relationship to its mechanical function and the biomineralization process will provide a framework for enamel regeneration as well as potential lessons in the design of engineering materials. The objective of this study, therefore, is twofold: (1) establish the structure-function relationship of enamel as well as the dentine-enamel junction (DEJ) and (2) determine the effect of proteins on the enamel biomineralization process. A hierarchy in the enamel structure was established by means of various microscopy techniques (e.g. SEM, TEM, AFM). Mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) associated with the microstructural features were also determined by nanoindentation. Furthermore, the DEJ was found to have a width in the range of micrometers to 10s of micrometers with continuous change in structure and mechanical properties. Indentation tests and contact fatigue tests using a spherical indenter have revealed that the structural features in the enamel and the DEJ played important roles in containing crack propagation emanating from the enamel tissue. To further understand the effect of this protein on the biominerailzation process, we have studied genetically engineered animals that express altered amelogenin which lack the known self-assembly properties. This in vivo study has revealed that, without the proper self-assembly of the amelogenin protein as demonstrated by the

  3. Effect of enamel pretreatments on bond strength of compomer.

    PubMed

    Glasspoole, E A; Erickson, R L; Davidson, C L

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various enamel surface treatments on the bond strength of a compomer to enamel. Ground bovine enamel specimens were divided into four groups. A compomer (F2000, 3M) was bonded to the specimens using different enamel surface treatments. Two groups examined the effect of application of the F2000 self-etching primer/adhesive (3M) with respect to static or dynamic priming. A third examined use of the primer/adhesive after phosphoric acid etching, and the fourth (control) group provided bond strength of the compomer to phosphoric acid etched enamel with a resin bonding system (Single Bond, 3M). Shear bond strengths for the specimens were measured after 24h storage in water at 37 degrees C. Effects of the various surface treatments on enamel were examined by SEM. Significant differences in bond strength of compomer to enamel were found that were related to the various surface pretreatments. Dynamic priming resulted in higher enamel bond strengths than static priming, and the best bond strengths were obtained when the enamel was etched with phosphoric acid. SEM analysis showed that depth of etch and resin penetration was also directly related to the bond strengths measured. Bond strength of compomer to enamel is significantly affected by the method of pretreatment of the enamel.

  4. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ceramic-like wear behaviour of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Arsecularatne, J A; Hoffman, M

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of subsurfaces of enamel specimens following in vitro reciprocating wear tests with an enamel cusp sliding on a flat enamel specimen under hydrated conditions. The obtained results show that crack formation occurred in the wear scar subsurface. The path followed by these cracks seems to be dictated either by the histological structure of enamel or by the contact stress field. Moreover, the analysis of a set of enamel wear results obtained from the literature and application of fracture-based models, originally developed for ceramics, correlate well, confirming the similar wear processes taking place in these materials. This analysis also reveals a marked influence of coefficient of friction on the enamel wear rate: for a higher coefficient of friction value, enamel wear can be severe even under forces generated during normal operation of teeth.

  6. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; Horst, Jeremy A.; Sitlin, Melody; Nguyen, Mychi; Wagner, Martin; Simpliciano, Cheryl; Milder, Melissa; Chen, Chun-Long; Ashby, Paul; Bonde, Johan; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-like structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. We propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development. PMID:27009419

  7. [Effect to demineralization and remineralization of enamel surface by fluorine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Zhou, Xuedong; Hao, Yuqing

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the mechanism of fluorine by systemic analysis of fluorination-demineralization-remineralization experiments. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to untreated group (group A), non-fluoride group (group B), low-fluoride group (group C) and high-fluoride group (group D). The in vitro model of fluoride enamel was established in group C and D. Based on that, the establishment of demineralization model and remineralization experiment by pH-cycling in group B, C and D were followed. All enamel specimens were observed by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope and compared in surface microhardness value. There was distinct difference in micro-morphologic appearance on fluoride enamel surface. Artificial caries of fluoride enamel showed a relatively complete surface, the surface microhardness after demineralization and remineralization in fluoride group was higher than non-fluoride group (P < 0.05). The fluorinated enamel can enhance cariostatic potential and remineralization capacity of dental enamel.

  8. Regulated fracture in tooth enamel: a nanotechnological strategy from nature.

    PubMed

    Ghadimi, Elnaz; Eimar, Hazem; Song, Jun; Marelli, Benedetto; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Stähli, Christoph; Nazhat, Showan N; Vali, Hojatollah; Tamimi, Faleh

    2014-07-18

    Tooth enamel is a very brittle material; however it has the ability to sustain cracks without suffering catastrophic failure throughout the lifetime of mechanical function. We propose that the nanostructure of enamel can play a significant role in defining its unique mechanical properties. Accordingly we analyzed the nanostructure and chemical composition of a group of teeth, and correlated it with the crack resistance of the same teeth. Here we show how the dimensions of apatite nanocrystals in enamel can affect its resistance to crack propagation. We conclude that the aspect ratio of apatite nanocrystals in enamel determines its resistance to crack propagation. According to this finding, we proposed a new model based on the Hall-Petch theory that accurately predicts crack propagation in enamel. Our new biomechanical model of enamel is the first model that can successfully explain the observed variations in the behavior of crack propagation of tooth enamel among different humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deviations of inorganic and organic carbon content in hypomineralised enamel.

    PubMed

    Taube, F; Marczewski, M; Norén, J G

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to discriminate hypomineralised enamel of permanent first molars from normal enamel by means of spectroscopic methods. The present study was conducted using Multi spot Raman Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Raman spectroscopy indicated significantly more B-type carbonate and hydrocarbons in hypomineralised enamel diagnosed as MIH (Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation). From XRD analysis, no changes in crystallinity of the enamel apatite could be found. Using multi spot Raman-spectroscopy, a significant molecular discrimination between normal and hypomineralised enamel could be made. Detailed surface studies are needed in order to achieve better restorative materials, specifically designed for restoration of hypomineralised enamel, and are also needed in order to understand and predict the clinical consequences of hypomineralised enamel with the condition MIH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enamel Formation Genes Influence Enamel Microhardness Before and After Cariogenic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takehiko; Ho, Bao; Deeley, Kathleen; Briseño-Ruiz, Jessica; Faraco, Italo M.; Schupack, Brett I.; Brancher, João A.; Pecharki, Giovana D.; Küchler, Erika C.; Tannure, Patricia N.; Lips, Andrea; Vieira, Thays C. S.; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Seymen, Figen; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, José M.; Trevilatto, Paula C.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence for a genetic component in caries susceptibility, and studies in humans have suggested that variation in enamel formation genes may contribute to caries. For the present study, we used DNA samples collected from 1,831 individuals from various population data sets. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers were genotyped in selected genes (ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin, and tuftelin interacting protein 11) that influence enamel formation. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between groups with distinct caries experience. Associations with caries experience can be detected but they are not necessarily replicated in all population groups and the most expressive results was for a marker in AMELX (p = 0.0007). To help interpret these results, we evaluated if enamel microhardness changes under simulated cariogenic challenges are associated with genetic variations in these same genes. After creating an artificial caries lesion, associations could be seen between genetic variation in TUFT1 (p = 0.006) and TUIP11 (p = 0.0006) with enamel microhardness. Our results suggest that the influence of genetic variation of enamel formation genes may influence the dynamic interactions between the enamel surface and the oral cavity. PMID:23028741

  11. Deformation behavior of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction under compression.

    PubMed

    Zaytsev, Dmitry; Panfilov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Deformation behavior under uniaxial compression of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is considered in comparison with human dentin. This deformation scheme allows estimating the total response from all levels of the hierarchical composite material in contrast with the indentation, which are limited by the mesoscopic and microscopic scales. It was shown for the first time that dental enamel is the strength (up to 1850MPa) hard tissue, which is able to consider some elastic (up to 8%) and plastic (up to 5%) deformation under compression. In so doing, it is almost undeformable substance under the creep condition. Mechanical properties of human enamel depend on the geometry of sample. Human dentin exhibits the similar deformation behavior under compression, but the values of its elasticity (up to 40%) and plasticity (up to 18%) are much more, while its strength (up to 800MPa) is less in two times. Despite the difference in mechanical properties, human enamel is able to suppress the cracking alike dentin. Deformation behavior under the compression of the samples contained DEJ as the same to dentin. This feature allows a tooth to be elastic-plastic (as dentin) and wear resistible (as enamel), simultaneously.

  12. Enamel structural changes induced by hydrochloric and phosphoric acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Bertacci, Angelica; Lucchese, Alessandra; Taddei, Paola; Gherlone, Enrico F; Chersoni, Stefano

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate enamel acid-induced structural changes after 2 different treatments, by means of Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy analyses, and to correlate these findings with permeability measured as fluid discharge from outer enamel. Two different treatments were investigated: 10 enamel slices were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl) for 120 seconds and 10 slices with 37% phosphoric acid gel (H3PO4) for 30 seconds, rinsed for 30 seconds and then air-dried for 20 seconds. Powders of enamel treated as previously described were produced. Replicas of enamel subjected to the same treatments were obtained to evaluate the presence of fluid droplets on enamel surface. Raman and IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with both hydrochloric and phosphoric acids induced a decrease in the carbonate content of the enamel apatite. At the same time, both acids induced the formation of HPO42- ions. After H3PO4 treatment, the bands due to the organic component of enamel decreased in intensity, while they increased after HCl treatment. Replicas of H3PO4 treated enamel showed a strongly reduced permeability. Replicas of HCl 15% treated samples showed a maintained permeability. A decrease of the enamel organic component, as resulted after H3PO4 treatment, involves a decrease in enamel permeability, while the increase of the organic matter (achieved by HCl treatment) still maintains enamel permeability.The results suggested a correlation between organic matter and enamel permeability. Permeability was affected by etching technique and could be involved in marginal seal, gap and discoloration at the enamel interface, still causes of restoration failure.

  13. Amelogenin-Ameloblastin Spatial Interaction around Maturing Enamel Rods.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, P; Prajapati, S; Bapat, R; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2016-08-01

    Amelogenin and ameloblastin are 2 extracellular matrix proteins that are essential for the proper development of enamel. We recently reported that amelogenin and ameloblastin colocalized during the secretory stage of enamel formation when nucleation of enamel crystallites occurs. Direct interactions between the 2 proteins have been also demonstrated in our in vitro studies. Here, we explore interactions between their fragments during enamel maturation. We applied in vivo immunofluorescence imaging, quantitative co-localization analysis, and a new FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) technique to demonstrate ameloblastin and amelogenin interaction in the maturing mouse enamel. Using immunochemical analysis of protein samples extracted from 8-d-old (P8) first molars from mice as a model for maturation-stage enamel, we identified the ~17-kDa ameloblastin (Ambn-N) and the TRAP (tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide) fragments. We used Ambn-N18 and Ambn-M300 antibodies raised against the N-terminal and C-terminal segments of ameloblastin, as well as Amel-FL and Amel-C19 antibodies against full-length recombinant mouse amelogenin (rM179) and C-terminal amelogenin, respectively. In transverse sections, co-localization images of N-terminal fragments of amelogenin and ameloblastin around the prism boundary revealed the "fish net" pattern of the enamel matrix. Using in vivo FRET microscopy, we further demonstrated spatial interactions between amelogenin and ameloblastin N-terminal fragments. In the maturing mouse enamel, the association of these residual protein fragments created a discontinuity between enamel rods, which we suggest is important for support and maintenance of enamel rods and eventual contribution to unique enamel mechanical properties. We present data that support cooperative functions of enamel matrix proteins in mediating the structural hierarchy of enamel and that contribute to our efforts to design and develop enamel biomimetic material.

  14. Enamel for high-temperature superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Desired optical and high temperature enamel properties are obtained with glasses prepared from the system Li2O-ZrO2-nSiO2. Molar compositions range from n=4 to n=1.3, to which are added minor amounts in varying combinations of alumina, alkali fluorides, boric oxide, alkali oxides, and akaline earth oxides.

  15. Nanoindentation creep behavior of human enamel.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Hong; Swain, Michael V

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the indentation creep behavior of human enamel was investigated with a nanoindentation system and a Berkovich indenter at a force of 250 mN with one-step loading and unloading method. A constant hold period of 900 s was incorporated into each test at the maximum load as well at 5 mN minimum load during unloading. The indentation creep at the maximum load and creep recovery at the minimum load was described with a double exponential function and compared with other classic viscoelastic models (Debye/Maxwell and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts). Indentation creep rate sensitivity, m, of human enamel was measured for the first time with a value of approximately 0.012. Enamel displayed both viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior similar to that of bone. These results indicate that, associated with entrapment of particulates between teeth under functional loading and sliding wear conditions, the enamel may inelastically deform but recover upon its release. This behavior may be important in explaining the excellent wear resistance, antifatigue, and crack resistant abilities of natural tooth structure. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana, P. A.; Bachmann, L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether laser irradiation is able to reduce caries incidence. For this purpose, the effects of laser on enamel and on fluoride uptake were discussed. Current literature regarding the preventive effect of laser irradiation on dental hard tissue has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of anticaries and induced changes on enamel by laser irradiation were also performed. Articles were selected using the Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases, and the results of these studies were described. The most common lasers employed for caries prevention on enamel are Nd:YAG; CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; and argon. The percentage of inhibition of dental caries varied from 30 to 97.2%, and the association with fluoride has demonstrated the best results on inhibition of caries development. Laser irradiation under specific conditions can change the crystallographic properties of apatite crystals, increasing the acid resistance of lased enamel. The combined treatment of laser irradiation with fluoride propitiates an expressive fluoride uptake, reducing the progression of carieslike lesions, and this treatment is more effective than laser or fluoride alone. Available data suggest that lasers combined with fluoride is a promising treatment in caries prevention.

  17. Tooth enamel hypoplasia in PHACE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yvonne E; Siegel, Dawn H; Drolet, Beth A; Hodgson, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with PHACE syndrome (posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, eye abnormalities, sternal cleft, and supraumbilical raphe syndrome) have reported dental abnormalities to their healthcare providers and in online forums, but dental involvement has not been comprehensively studied. A study was conducted at the third PHACE Family Conference, held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in July 2012. A pediatric dentist examined subjects at enrollment. Eighteen subjects were enrolled. The median age was 4.2 years (range 9 mos-9 yrs; 14 girls, 4 boys). Eleven of 18 patients had intraoral hemangiomas and five of these (50%) had hypomature enamel hypoplasia. None of the seven patients without intraoral hemangiomas had enamel hypoplasia. No other dental abnormalities were seen. Enamel hypoplasia may be a feature of PHACE syndrome when an intraoral hemangioma is present. Enamel hypoplasia increases the risk of caries, and clinicians should refer children with PHACE syndrome to a pediatric dentist by 1 year of age.

  18. Exon4 amelogenin transcripts in enamel biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Stahl, J; Nakano, Y; Horst, J; Zhu, L; Le, M; Zhang, Y; Liu, H; Li, W; Den Besten, P K

    2015-06-01

    Amelogenins are proteins formed by alternative splicing of the amelogenin gene, and are essential for tooth enamel formation. However, the unique functions of various alternatively spliced amelogenins in enamel formation are not well understood. In this study, we determined the spatiotemporal location of amelogenins derived from transcripts containing exon4 (AMG+4) in the enamel matrix, and the relative binding of recombinant AMG+4 to hydroxyapatite (HAP). Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analyses showed that AMG+4 proteins were secreted into the enamel matrix at the early maturation stage. A stage-specific increase in the synthesis of AMG+4 was further supported by our observation that in mice overexpressing leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (TgLRAP), in which ameloblasts differentiate earlier, AMG+4 transcripts were also upregulated earlier. In vitro binding studies, supported by in silico modeling of protein binding to calcium and phosphate, showed that more recombinant AMG+4 bound to hydroxyapatite (HAP) as compared with recombinant AMG-4. The temporal and spatial localization of amelogenins containing exon4 peptide, and their functional differences in HAP binding, suggests that the unique properties of amelogenins containing exon4 cause a specific enhancement of biomineralization related to stabilization of early-formed HAP at the maturation stage. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  19. Enamel morphology after microabrasion with experimental compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia I.P.; Costa, Rafaela; Bertoldo, Carlos E.S.; Aguiar, Flavio H. B.; Lovadino, José R.; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enamel microabrasion is an esthetic treatment for removing superficial stains or defects of enamel. Aim: This study evaluated the roughness after enamel microabrasion using experimental microabrasive systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten samples (5 × 5 mm) were obtained from bovine incisors and divided into 11 groups (n = 10) in accordance with the treatment: Microabrasion using 6.6% hydrochloric acid (HCl) or 35% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) associated with aluminum oxide (AlO3) or pumice (Pum) with active application (using rubber cup coupled with a micro-motor of low rotation) or passive application (just placing the mixture on the enamel surface); just the use of acids in a passive application (negative control), and a group without treatment (positive control). Roughness analysis was performed before and after treatments. The statistical analysis used analysis of variance (PROC MIXED), Tukey-Kramer and Dunnet tests (P < 0.05). Representative specimens were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: There was no significant difference between the acids used (P = 0.0510) and the applications (P = 0.8989). All of the treated groups were statistically different from the positive control. When using passive application, the use of HCl + AlO3 resulted in higher roughness when compared with HCl + Pum. Additionally, this treatment was statistically different from the passive application of H3PO4 (negative control) (P < 0.05). However, SEM analysis showed that the treatment with AlO3 resulted in an enamel surface with a more polished aspect when compared with Pum. Conclusion: AlO3 may be a suitable particle for use in microabrasive systems. PMID:26097350

  20. Characterisation of developmentally hypomineralised human enamel.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Felicity A; Manton, David J; Palamara, Joseph E A; Zalizniak, Ilya; Cochrane, Nathan J; Reynolds, Eric C

    2013-07-01

    To investigate and clarify physical and chemical properties of enamel affected by molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). A series of in vitro studies were performed on extracted molars affected by MIH and sound teeth for controls. Tooth sections underwent Vickers microhardness testing before lapping and subsequent transverse microradiographic analysis and examination under polarised light microscopy. Carbonate content was determined by CO2 release from acid digestion. Unprepared and fractured surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscopy. MIH-affected molars demonstrated a severe degree of hypomineralisation with an average mineral content of only 58.8%vol% mineral. Vickers microhardness was significantly reduced in MIH compared with controls (1.8±1.1 v 4.4±1.0 GPa, p<0.05) and polarised light microscopy revealed the bulk of MIH lesions had a porosity of ≤5% but also substantial areas of ≥10% and smaller areas exceeding 25% porosity. A surface layer was frequently observed on both intact and broken-down lesions and cervical regions of MIH teeth were typically spared. Carbonate content of MIH enamel was higher than control samples (6.6±2.1 v 4.4±1.1 wt%, p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy showed that both the enamel rod and surface ultrastructure were defective. Clinical characteristics did not consistently correlate with all properties. The properties of MIH-affected enamel significantly differ from those of normal enamel and were highly variable, however some common characteristics were observed. Implications for aetiology and clinical management are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo wear of enamel by a lithia disilicate-based core ceramic used for posterior fixed partial dentures: first-year results.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F; Young, Henry; Jones, Jack; Yang, Mark; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed (1) to test the hypothesis that no significant relationship exists between the magnitude of occlusal clenching force and wear rates of enamel opposing a new core ceramic (e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) used in posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs); and (2) to test the hypothesis that mean annual enamel wear by an experimental core ceramic is comparable to the mean annual enamel wear by enamel of 38 microm. Baseline data were obtained for patients in addition to preliminary impressions of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Thirty ceramic FPDs were processed from a new core ceramic (e.max Press) that was hot pressed and glazed. Patients were recalled 1 year after cementation and evaluated using clinical criteria that included wear assessment of opposing teeth. Impressions were made of the opposing teeth with polyvinylsiloxane impression material and photographs were taken of intraoral occlusal contacts marked with articulating ribbon. Baseline casts and casts made at each recall exam of opposing dentitions were scanned using a 3-dimensional laser scanner (Laserscan 3D, Willytec) and evaluated for wear. A total of 21 occlusal surfaces were analyzed for the presence of wear. Statistical analysis using a linear and quadratic model revealed no significant relationship between occlusal forces and wear rate assuming either a linear model (R2 = 0.018) or a quadratic model (R2 = 0.023). The maximum annual wear of enamel by the glazed core ceramic (e.max Press) was 88.3 microm, which is significantly greater than the annual enamel-by-enamel wear of 38 microm (P < .0001). Further analysis with a larger sample size is needed to determine the relationship between occlusal clenching force and wear rate and the influence of other factors that cause increased wear of enamel by opposing ceramic restorations.

  2. Two-body wear rate of CAD/CAM resin blocks and their enamel antagonists.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Özcan, Mutlu; Trottmann, Albert; Schmutz, Felix; Roos, Malgorzata; Hämmerle, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resins exhibit good mechanical properties and can be used as long-term restorations. The wear rate of such resins and their enamel antagonists is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the 2-body wear rate of CAD/CAM resin blocks. Wear specimens (N=42, n=6) were made from 5 CAD/CAM resins: ZENO PMMA (ZP), artBloc Temp (AT), Telio CAD (TC), Blanc High-class (HC), CAD-Temp (CT); 1 manually polymerized resin: Integral esthetic press (negative control group, IEP); and 1 glass-ceramic: VITA Mark II (positive control group, VM2). The specimens for the wear resistance were aged in a thermomechanical loading machine (49 N, 1.67 Hz, 5/50°C) with human enamel antagonists. The material loss of all specimens before, during, and after aging was evaluated with a 3DS profilometer. The measured material loss data of all tested groups were statistically evaluated with linear mixed model analysis (a=.05). Manually polymerized resin showed significantly higher material wear (P<.001) than all other tested groups. Glass-ceramic showed significantly lower wear values (P<.001) than CAD/CAM resins ZP, AT, HC, CT, and IES. CAD/CAM resin TC was not significantly different from the positive control group. Glass-ceramic showed the highest enamel wear values (P<.001) of all tested resins. No differences were found in the enamel wear among all resins. The glass-ceramic group showed damage in the form of cracks on the worn enamel surface in 50% of specimens. CAD/CAM resins showed lower wear rates than those conventionally polymerized. Only one CAD/CAM resin, TC, presented material wear values comparable with glass-ceramic. The tested glass-ceramic developed cracks in the enamel antagonist and showed the highest enamel wear values of all other tested groups. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Remineralization of Demineralized Enamel via Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Weir, M.D.; Chow, L.C.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary caries remains the main problem limiting the longevity of composite restorations. The objective of this study was to investigate the remineralization of demineralized human enamel in vitro via a nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). NACP were synthesized by a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a dental resin. First, caries-like subsurface enamel lesions were created via an acidic solution. Then, NACP nanocomposite or a commercial fluoride-releasing control composite was placed on the demineralized enamel, along with control enamel without a composite. These specimens were then treated with a cyclic demineralization/remineralization regimen for 30 days. Quantitative microradiography showed typical enamel subsurface demineralization before cyclic demineralization/remineralization treatment, and significant remineralization in enamel under the NACP nanocomposite after the demineralization/remineralization treatment. The NACP nanocomposite had the highest enamel remineralization (mean ± SD; n = 6) of 21.8 ± 3.7%, significantly higher than the 5.7 ± 6.9% for fluoride-releasing composite (p < 0.05). The enamel group without composite had further demineralization of −26.1 ± 16.2%. In conclusion, a novel NACP nanocomposite was effective in remineralizing enamel lesions in vitro. Its enamel remineralization was 4-fold that of a fluoride-releasing composite control. Combined with the good mechanical and acid-neutralization properties reported earlier, the new NACP nanocomposite is promising for remineralization of demineralized tooth structures. PMID:22933607

  4. The Molecular Basis of Hereditary Enamel Defects in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, I.A.; Morris, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. PMID:25389004

  5. Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.

    PubMed

    Maas, M C

    1994-10-01

    This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies

  6. Appositional enamel growth in molars of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-07-01

    Enamel is formed incrementally by the secretory activity of ameloblast cells. Variable stages of secretion result in the formation of structures known as cross striations along enamel prisms, for which experimental data demonstrate a correspondence with daily periods of secretion. Patterns of variation in this daily growth are important to understanding mechanisms of tooth formation and the development of enamel thickness. Transmitted light microscopy (TLM) of histological ground sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of bulk specimens or their surface replicas are the usual methods for investigating cross striations. However, these methods pose some constraints on the study of these features in Plio-Pleistocene hominid enamel, the specimens of which may only rarely be sectioned for TLM or examined on only their most superficial surfaces for SEM. The recent development of portable confocal scanning optical microscopy (PCSOM) resolves some of the restrictions on fractured enamel surfaces, allowing the visualization of cross striations by direct examination. This technology has been applied here to the study of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus hominid molars from the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa. We hypothesize that these taxa have increased enamel appositional rates compared with modern humans, because despite having thicker enamelled molars (particularly P. robustus), the enamel crowns of these fossil taxa take an equivalent or reduced amount of time to form. Cross striations were measured in cuspal, lateral and cervical regions of the enamel crowns, and, within each region, the inner, middle and outer zones. Values obtained for A. africanus outer zones of the enamel crown are, in general, lower than those for P. robustus, indicating faster forming enamel in the latter, while both taxa show higher rates of enamel growth than modern humans and the African great apes. This demonstrates a relatively high degree of variability in the

  7. Effects of regional enamel and prism orientation on resin bonding.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji

    2003-01-01

    Human enamel, with its prismatic, rod-like apatitic morphology, is an anisotropic material. Because of this structural anisotropy, variation in enamel bonding sites might influence the bonding ability of current adhesive systems. This study investigated the effects of regional enamel and the direction of enamel sectioning on the bonding ability of two commercially available resin adhesives: a self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a one-bottle adhesive system intended for use with a total-etch wet bonding technique (Single Bond). Two regions of enamel, cuspal and mid-coronal enamel, were chosen, then sectioned in three different directions, horizontally, axially and tangentially. Slices of the sectioned enamel were then bonded with each adhesive system and submitted to a micro-shear bond test. The results of a micro-shear bond testing showed that the bonding of a one-bottle adhesive system (Single Bond) to enamel was high at the surface perpendicular to the enamel prisms (40 MPa to 51 MPa) and low at the surface parallel to the enamel prisms (24 MPa to 27 MPa). In the case of a self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond), 35 MPa to 45 MPa bond strengths were obtained from all surfaces. The bond strengths of the two adhesive systems were significantly influenced by the anisotropic structure of enamel (p < 0.05). However, the effect of a self-etching primer system was less influenced by the orientation of the prismatic structure of enamel than that of a one-bottle adhesive system (p < 0.05). SEM and CLSM microphotographs showed that the self-etching primer effectively modified the smear layer without being excessively destructive to the enamel.

  8. Enamelin Directs Crystallite Organization at the Enamel-Dentine Junction.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Al-Jawad, M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel is an acellular material formed by the intricate process of amelogenesis. Disruption caused at the initial stages of development, by means of mutations in the ENAM gene encoding the enamelin protein, results in enamel hypoplasia. Little is known about the consequence of ENAM mutation on the enamel structure at a crystallographic level. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure of ENAM-mutated enamel to develop a deeper understanding of the role of enamelin protein during formation with regard to crystal organization. Synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to measure and correlate enamel crystallography and microstructure in hypoplastic and healthy enamel. Rietveld refinement carried out on 2-dimensional diffraction patterns, collected from the Advanced Photon Source, were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) within the labial regions of each tooth slice and then correlated with the local microstructure. In general, healthy deciduous incisors displayed a higher degree of crystal organization across the labial surface in comparison with the hypoplastic enamel. ENAM plays the greatest functional role at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ), as it was the region that exhibited lowest texture relative to unaffected controls. Other areas within the tooth, however, such as the cusp tip, displayed greater organization in line with healthy enamel, suggesting its effects are restricted to the early stages of enamel secretion. Observed clinically, the surface of ENAM-mutated hypoplastic enamel can appear to be normal, yet severe sub-nano and microstructural defects appear beneath the subsurface layer. Quantitative characterization of the crystallographic properties from enamel with known genotype expands the understanding of enamel formation processes and can aid better clinical diagnosis and tailor-made treatment.

  9. Longitudinal correlation of 3D OCT to detect early stage erosion in bovine enamel.

    PubMed

    Aden, Abdirahman; Anderson, Paul; Burnett, Gary R; Lynch, Richard J M; Tomlins, Peter H

    2017-02-01

    Erosive tissue-loss in dental enamel is of significant clinical concern because the net loss of enamel is irreversible, however, initial erosion is reversible. Micro-hardness testing is a standard method for measuring initial erosion, but its invasive nature has led to the investigation of alternative measurement techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative because of its ability to non-invasively image three-dimensional volumes. In this study, a four-dimensional OCT system is used to longitudinally measure bovine enamel undergoing a continuous erosive challenge. A new method of analyzing 3D OCT volumes is introduced that compares intensity projections of the specimen surface by calculating the slope of a linear regression line between corresponding pixel intensities and the associated correlation coefficient. The OCT correlation measurements are compared to micro-hardness data and found to exhibit a linear relationship. The results show that this method is a sensitive technique for the investigation of the formation of early stage erosive lesions.

  10. Longitudinal correlation of 3D OCT to detect early stage erosion in bovine enamel

    PubMed Central

    Aden, Abdirahman; Anderson, Paul; Burnett, Gary R.; Lynch, Richard J. M.; Tomlins, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Erosive tissue-loss in dental enamel is of significant clinical concern because the net loss of enamel is irreversible, however, initial erosion is reversible. Micro-hardness testing is a standard method for measuring initial erosion, but its invasive nature has led to the investigation of alternative measurement techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative because of its ability to non-invasively image three-dimensional volumes. In this study, a four-dimensional OCT system is used to longitudinally measure bovine enamel undergoing a continuous erosive challenge. A new method of analyzing 3D OCT volumes is introduced that compares intensity projections of the specimen surface by calculating the slope of a linear regression line between corresponding pixel intensities and the associated correlation coefficient. The OCT correlation measurements are compared to micro-hardness data and found to exhibit a linear relationship. The results show that this method is a sensitive technique for the investigation of the formation of early stage erosive lesions. PMID:28270996

  11. Influence of self-made saliva substitutes on tribological characteristics of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Andrysewicz, Edyta; Mystkowska, Joanna; Dąbrowski, Jan Ryszard; Olchowik, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of tests on the influence of human saliva and its substitutes on tribological characteristics of friction pairs. Each pair consists of enamel and one of the following materials: ceramics, the Meridian B2 dental composite, the GK dental amalgam, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The saliva substitutes used were prepared using pyrophosphates, xanthan gum, and mucins dissolved in a saline buffer. The results of the tribological tests show that the values of the parameters under investigation (coefficient of friction and linear wear) were different from each other. Some similarity was observed between the evaluated level of wear characteristics after the friction process in the environment of human saliva and that in the environment of one of the mucins tested. Microscopic observations of the surfaces of the enamel samples after friction revealed varied forms of tribological wear.

  12. Effect of different bleaching techniques on enamel surface microhardness.

    PubMed

    Ulukapi, Hasmet

    2007-04-01

    Conservative techniques for treatment of discolored human enamel include in-office bleaching with heat-activated 35% hydrogen peroxide, Nightguard vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide, and enamel microabrasion with 18% hydrochloric acid. In this study, these bleaching techniques were performed on 30 extracted teeth to evaluate their effects on microhardness of enamel surfaces. The enamel surface microhardness measurements were performed 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours and 1 week after treatment. Paired t tests were performed in the statistical analyses. No changes were found on specimens treated with carbamide peroxide. There was a significant decrease in the surface microhardness of enamel after 0 and 24 hours when the specimens were treated with 18% hydrochloric acid (softening 85.7 and rehardening 99.4) or with 35% hydrogen peroxide (softening 85.7). However, after 72 hours, significant rehardening was observed in these groups (P <.001). According to the results, except Nightguard vital bleaching, all other techniques softened the enamel surface.

  13. Surface integrity governs the proteome of hypomineralized enamel.

    PubMed

    Mangum, J E; Crombie, F A; Kilpatrick, N; Manton, D J; Hubbard, M J

    2010-10-01

    Growing interest in the treatment and prevention of Molar/Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) warrants investigation into the protein composition of hypomineralized enamel. Hypothesizing abnormality akin to amelogenesis imperfecta, we profiled proteins in hypomineralized enamel from human permanent first molars using a biochemical approach. Hypomineralized enamel was found to have from 3- to 15-fold higher protein content than normal, but a near-normal level of residual amelogenins. This distinguished MIH from hypomaturation defects with high residual amelogenins (amelogenesis imperfecta, fluorosis) and so typified it as a hypocalcification defect. Second, hypomineralized enamel was found to have accumulated various proteins from oral fluid and blood, with differential incorporation depending on integrity of the enamel surface. Pathogenically, these results point to a pre-eruptive disturbance of mineralization involving albumin and, in cases with post-eruptive breakdown, subsequent protein adsorption on the exposed hydroxyapatite matrix. These insights into the pathogenesis and properties of hypomineralized enamel hold significance for prevention and treatment of MIH.

  14. Amelogenin evolution and tetrapod enamel structure.

    PubMed

    Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Jin, Tianquan; Wang, Xinping; Ito, Yoshihiro; Schmidt, Marcella; Druzinsky, Robert; Yamane, Akira; Luan, Xianghong

    2009-01-01

    Amelogenins are the major proteins involved in tooth enamel formation. In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced four novel amelogenins from three amphibian species in order to analyze similarities and differences between mammalian and non-mammalian amelogenins. The newly sequenced amphibian amelogenin sequences were from a red-eyed tree frog (Litoria chloris) and a Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We identified two amelogenin isoforms in the Eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Sequence comparisons confirmed that non-mammalian amelogenins are overall shorter than their mammalian counterparts, contain less proline and less glutamine, and feature shorter polyproline tripeptide repeat stretches than mammalian amelogenins. We propose that unique sequence parameters of mammalian amelogenins might be a pre-requisite for complex mammalian enamel prism architecture. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Dose rate assessment in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, A.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.; Vogenauer, A.

    A mammoth found in the southern part of Germany was dated by ESR spectroscopy. This dating method is based on the measurement of the accumulated dose in tooth enamel and assessment of the annual dose. The accumulated dose is obtained from the radiation induced ESR signal at g = 2.0018 of the enamel. The annual dose was first determined by measuring the 238U, 232Th and 40K content of the tooth and of the surrounding soil. As a crosscheck, the dose rate from the tooth was measured by inserting TL dosimeters in the dentine and storing them at 'zero' background in a salt mine. The cosmic dose rate and the gamma dose rate from the soil was evaluated from TL dosimeters buried at the excavation site. The results are discussed with respect to the applicability of ESR dating on teeth.

  16. Enamel surfaces after orthodontic bracket debonding.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P M

    1995-01-01

    The enamel surfaces of extracted teeth were studied clinically and with a scanning electron microscope following debonding of orthodontic attachments and subsequent polishing. Excess orthodontic resin was removed with tungsten carbide burs and abrasive discs. Several combinations of polishing agents were evaluated. The no. 30 fluted tungsten carbide bur appeared to be the most efficient method of removing highly filled resin, and it produced the least amount of scarring. A polishing sequence was developed which used resin points and cups followed by a water slurry of fine pumice and brown and green cups. This procedure was tested clinically and appeared to return the enamel to an acceptable condition. This procedure is fast, efficient, and comfortable for the patient.

  17. Amelogenin Evolution and Tetrapod Enamel Structure

    PubMed Central

    Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Jin, Tianquan; Wang, Xinping; Ito, Yoshihiro; Schmidt, Marcella; Druzinsky, Robert; Yamane, Akira; Luan, Xianghong

    2009-01-01

    Amelogenins are the major proteins involved in tooth enamel formation. In the present study we have cloned and sequenced four novel amelogenins from three amphibian species in order to analyze similarities and differences between mammalian and non-mammalian amelogenins. The newly sequenced amphibian amelogenin sequences were from a Red-eyed tree frog (Litoria chloris) and a Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We identified two amelogenin isoforms in the Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Sequence comparisons confirmed that non-mammalian amelogenins are overall shorter than their mammalian counterparts, contain less proline and less glutamine, and feature shorter polyproline tripeptide repeat stretches than mammalian amelogenins. We propose that unique sequence parameters of mammalian amelogenins might be a pre-requisite for complex mammalian enamel prism architecture. PMID:19828974

  18. Enamelin Is Critical for Ameloblast Integrity and Enamel Ultrastructure Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jan C.-C.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yuhe; Smith, Charles E.; Lertlam, Rangsiyakorn; Wright, John Timothy; Suggs, Cynthia; McKee, Marc D.; Beniash, Elia; Kabir, M. Enamul; Simmer, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human enamelin gene cause autosomal dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta in which the affected enamel is thin or absent. Study of enamelin knockout NLS-lacZ knockin mice revealed that mineralization along the distal membrane of ameloblast is deficient, resulting in no true enamel formation. To determine the function of enamelin during enamel formation, we characterized the developing teeth of the Enam−/− mice, generated amelogenin-driven enamelin transgenic mouse models, and then introduced enamelin transgenes into the Enam−/− mice to rescue enamel defects. Mice at specific stages of development were subjected to morphologic and structural analysis using β-galactosidase staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Enamelin expression was ameloblast-specific. In the absence of enamelin, ameloblasts pathology became evident at the onset of the secretory stage. Although the aggregated ameloblasts generated matrix-containing amelogenin, they were not able to create a well-defined enamel space or produce normal enamel crystals. When enamelin is present at half of the normal quantity, enamel was thinner with enamel rods not as tightly arranged as in wild type suggesting that a specific quantity of enamelin is critical for normal enamel formation. Enamelin dosage effect was further demonstrated in transgenic mouse lines over expressing enamelin. Introducing enamelin transgene at various expression levels into the Enam−/− background did not fully recover enamel formation while a medium expresser in the Enam+/− background did. Too much or too little enamelin abolishes the production of enamel crystals and prism structure. Enamelin is essential for ameloblast integrity and enamel formation. PMID:24603688

  19. Evolutionary and functional significance of hominoid tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Gantt, D G; Rafter, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate enamel thickness in extant and extinct hominoids. The material used in this study spans the evolutionary history of this group, from 20 million years ago to the present. The objectives of this investigation are to test three hypotheses: (1) the Loading Hypothesis: loading areas of the crown have thicker enamel than non-loading areas; (2) the Phyletic Hypothesis: differences in enamel thickness provide a basis for determining evolutionary relationships; and (3) the Functional Hypothesis: differences among hominoids result from adaptations to differing dietary and ecological habitats, that is from folivory to frugivory to hard object feeding and from tropical to forest to savanna habitats. Thin sections were prepared and polished to approximately 100 microm in thickness. Each section was then enlarged and digitally captured to the computer. Image processing and analysis software, SigmaImage (was used to measure the sections. Subsequent statistical analysis was conducted with SigmaStat and SPSS statistical software programs. The data provides statistical support for all hypotheses. In particular, the data support the proposal that "thick" enamel is the ancestral condition for the great apes and human clade. Therefore, Pongo would have retained its enamel thickness from the common ancestor of the great apes and Gorilla and Pan would have secondarily reduced enamel thickness to "thin." The common ancestor of the hominids, the australopithecines, would have "thick" enamel. The "hyper-thick" enamel of the australopithecines would be a derived character for this clade due to increased crushing and grinding and adaptation to savanna habitat. Homo would have secondarily reduced enamel thickness to "thick." Evolutionary biology of enamel differs markedly in hominids from that found in other hominoids and primates. Increased enamel thickness involved both increases in absolute thickness of enamel and crown size in response to

  20. Ablation Studies of Enamel Tissue Using Pulsed HF Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and enamel has been successful. The reason is thought to be due to high absorption coefficients of hydroxyapatite [Ca10(Po4)6(OH2)] with a total...secondary absorption peak of hydroxyapatite lies, a less violent and cleaner ablation of enamel compared with its main absorption peak at 9.6 µm is...1 of 4 Ablation Studies of Enamel Tissue using Pulsed HF Laser M.E. Khosroshahi, B.A. Ghasemi Amirkabir University of Technology, School of

  1. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in “overbuilt” enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczumow, A.; Nowak, J.; ChaŁas, R.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing "core" enamel (˜93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining "overbuilt" enamel. The material in the "core" enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the "overbuilt enamel", with dynamic changes in the composition. In the "overbuilt" layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO 32- present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO 32-. In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with the most characteristic changes occurring in Mg and Na concentrations. Mg

  2. Controlled toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel.

    PubMed

    Voronets, J; Jaeggi, T; Buergin, W; Lussi, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare toothbrush abrasion of softened enamel after brushing with two (soft and hard) toothbrushes. One hundred and fifty-six human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Salivary pellicle was formed in vitro over a period of 3 h. Erosive lesions were produced by means of 1% citric acid. A force-measuring device allowed a controlled toothbrushing force of 1.5 N. The specimens were brushed either in toothpaste slurry or with toothpaste in artificial saliva for 15 s. Enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth of the same indent before and after abrasion. Mean surface losses (95% CI) were recorded in ten treatment groups: (1) soft toothbrush only [28 (17-39) nm]; (2) hard toothbrush only [25 (16-34) nm]; (3) soft toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [46 (27-65) nm]; (4) hard toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [45 (24-66) nm]; (5) soft toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [71 (55-87) nm]; (6) hard toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [85 (60-110) nm]; (7) soft toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [48 (39-57) nm]; (8) hard toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [40 (29-51) nm]; (9) soft toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [51 (37-65) nm]; (10) hard toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [52 (36-68) nm]. Neither soft nor hard toothbrushes produced significantly different toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel in this model (p > 0.05).

  3. COMPOSITION OF MINERALIZING INCISOR ENAMEL IN CFTR-DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, ALJJ; Lyaruu, DM; Guo, J; Bijvelds, MJC; Bervoets, TJM; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; Medina, JF; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; DenBesten, PK

    2014-01-01

    Formation of crystals in the enamel space releases protons that need to be buffered to sustain mineral accretion. We hypothesized that apical Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into forming enamel as critical step to secrete bicarbonates. We tested this by determining the calcium, chloride and fluoride levels of developing enamel of Cftr-null mice by quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Maturation stage Cftr–null enamel contained less chloride and calcium than wild-type enamel, was more acidic when stained with pH dyes ex vivo and formed no fluorescent modulation bands after in vivo injection of the mice with calcein. To further acidify the enamel we exposed Cftr-null mice to fluoride in drinking water to stimulate proton release during formation of hypermineralized lines. In enamel of Cftr-deficient mice fluoride further lowered enamel calcium without further reducing chloride levels. The data support the view that apical Cftr in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into developing enamel as part of the machinery to buffer protons released during mineral accretion. PMID:25557910

  4. Influence of trace elements on dental enamel properties: A review.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Zeeshan; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Chew, Hooi Pin; Fatima, Tayyaba

    2017-01-01

    Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties.

  5. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-12-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder-associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75(A161T) and KRT75(E337K), are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75(A161T) variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries.

  6. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R.; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder–associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75A161T and KRT75E337K, are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75A161T variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

  7. On the R-curve behavior of human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2009-08-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is a function of distance from the dentin enamel junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67+/-0.12 MPam(0.5)), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPam(0.5)/mm to 3.93 MPam(0.5)/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (K(c))) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPam(0.5). Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by a host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone.

  8. Region-dependent micro damage of enamel under indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Bing-Bing; Wang, Rao-Rao; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this investigation is to explore the region-dependent damage behavior of enamel, as well as to develop a good understanding of the deformation mechanisms of enamel with numerical modeling. Nanoindentation experiments have been performed to investigate the load-penetration depth responses for outer and inner enamel. Results show that the unloading curve does not follow the loading curve, and degradation of stiffness in the unloading curve is observed. Based on the experimental data, a physical quantity, the chain density in protein, has been introduced to the Drucker-Prager plastic model. Numerical simulations show that the simulated load-penetration depth curves agree with the experiments, and the stiffness degradation behaviors of outer and inner enamel are captured by the numerical model. The region-dependent damage behavior of enamel could be revealed by the numerical model. The micro damage affected area at inner enamel is larger than that at outer enamel, indicating that the inner enamel experiences more micro damage than the outer one. Compared with its outer counterpart, the inner enamel which is rich in organic protein could break more internal protein chains to dissipate energy and to enhance its resistance to fracture accordingly.

  9. Enamel Defects and Salivary Methylmalonate in Methylmalonic Acidemia

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, CW; Wright, JT; Guadagnini, JP; Muralidharan, R; Sloan, J; Domingo, DL; Venditti, CP; Hart, TC

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Objective To characterize enamel defects in patients with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and cobalamin metabolic disorders and to examine salivary methylmalonate levels in MMA. Subjects and Methods Teeth from patients (n=32) were evaluated for enamel defects and compared with age- and gender-matched controls (n=55). Complementation class (mut, cblA, cblB, cblC) and serum methylmalonate levels were examined. Primary teeth from two patients were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and salivary methylmalonate levels from two patients were analyzed. Results Enamel defects were significantly more prevalent per tooth in the affected group than the control group, across complementation types (p<0.0001). The mut MMA subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence per individual of severe enamel defects than controls (p=0.021), and those with enamel defects exhibited higher serum methylmalonate levels than those without (p=0.017). Salivary methylmalonate levels were extremely elevated and were significantly higher than controls (p=0.002). Primary teeth were free of enamel defects except for two cblC patients who exhibited severe enamel hypoplasia. One primary tooth from a cblC patient manifested markedly altered crystal microstructure. Conclusion Enamel anomalies represent a phenotypic manifestation of MMA and cobalamin metabolic disorders. These findings suggest an association between enamel developmental pathology and disordered metabolism. PMID:19143946

  10. Barrier formation: potential molecular mechanism of enamel fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Lyaruu, D M; Medina, J F; Sarvide, S; Bervoets, T J M; Everts, V; Denbesten, P; Smith, C E; Bronckers, A L J J

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl(-) for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b (-/-) mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b(-/-) mice and was strongly correlated with Cl(-). Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl(-) levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins.

  11. Energy absorption characterization of human enamel using nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    He, Li Hong; Swain, Michael V

    2007-05-01

    Enamel is a natural composite, which has much higher toughness than its major component, crystalline hydroxyapatite. In this study, the energy absorption behavior of human sound enamel was investigated with nanoindentation techniques. A UMIS nanoindenter system as well as a Berkovich and two spherical indenters with nominal tip radii of 5 and 20 microm were used to indent enamel at different loading forces in the direction parallel to enamel prisms. Inelastic energy dissipation versus depth of indenter penetration (U%-h(p) curve) as well as a function of indentation strain (U%-epsilon curve) of enamel was determined. Enamel showed much higher energy absorption capacity than a ceramic material with equivalent modulus (fused silica). Even at the lowest forces (1 mN) for the 20 microm indenter, inelastic response was found. Additional tests done at different force loading rates illustrated that load rate has little influence on P-h response of enamel. The top surface of enamel has the plastic work of indentation of approximately 5.2 nJ/microm(3). The energy absorbing ability is influenced by the very small protein rich component that exists between the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals as well as within the sheath structure surrounding the enamel rods. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases.

  13. Regional Odontodysplasia with Generalised Enamel Defect

    PubMed Central

    Toumba, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia (ROD) is uncommon developmental anomaly, which tends to be localised and involves the ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components. A five-year-old female was referred to Department of Child Dental Health at the Leeds Dental Institute regarding malformed primary teeth. On examination 64, 74, and 72 had localised hypomineralized enamel defect. The crown of 55 was broken down with only the root remaining below the gingival level. 54 has a yellowish brown discolouration with rough irregular surface. The upper anterior teeth show mild enamel opacity. Radiographically, 55 and 54 had thin radioopaque contour, showing poor distinction between the enamel and dentine and the classic feature of a wide pulp chamber. 15, 16, and 17 were developmentally delayed and were displaying the characteristic “ghost appearance.” Comprehensive dental care was done under local anaesthesia and it included extraction of the primary molars affected by ROD, stainless steel crown on 64, and caries prevention program. Fifteen months following the initial assessment the patient's oral condition remains stable and she is under regular follow-up at the department. Paediatric dentists should be aware of this anomaly as it involves both dentitions and usually requires multidisciplinary care. PMID:28097027

  14. Investigation of EPR signals on tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Polakov, M.; Riekstina, D.

    2007-12-01

    Calcified tissues are involved in continues metabolic process in human organism exchanging a number of chemical elements with environment. The rate of biochemical reactions is tissue dependent and the slowest one at the tooth enamel, the most mineralized tissue of human organism. The long time stability and unique chemical composition make tooth enamel suitable for number of application. The assessment of individual radiation dose by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and evaluations of elemental composition by Instrumentation Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are the well known procedures where properties of tooth enamel intensively used. The current work is focused on investigation of EPR signals and determination of chemical composition on several teeth samples having different origin. The EPR spectra and INAA element content of milk tooth, caries tooth, and paradantose tooth have been compared to each other. The results showed that the intensity of EPR signal is much higher for the caries tooth than the for paradantose tooth that is in agreement with depleted Ca content.

  15. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases. PMID:26491574

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of softened enamel.

    PubMed

    Eisenburger, M; Shellis, R P; Addy, M

    2004-01-01

    After exposing enamel specimens to 0.3% citric acid at pH 3.2 for various times, the acid was titrated to pH 7 before rinsing the specimens in water. After freeze-drying the specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. This procedure eliminates artefacts due to drying and mineral precipitation. The results showed that the outer region of softened enamel is much more delicate than previously thought, even after short (5- to 20-min) etching times. Mineral was lost from both prism boundaries and the prism bodies, resulting in a surface presenting thin, separate crystal bundles. In further studies, replicas of subsurface pores, created by resin impregnation, showed the softening depth to be several times greater than is suggested by techniques based on removing the softened enamel by physical forces. The results point to a need for improved methods of measuring softening depth. More importantly, it appears that the outer region of the softened layer remaining after an erosive challenge might be too fragile to resist frictional forces in vivo. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. On the scaling relationship between enamel prism length and enamel thickness in primate molars: a comment.

    PubMed

    Macho, Gabriele A

    2004-12-01

    As part of a larger study we developed a computer programme which allows the recreation of the complex 3-dimensional arrangement of prisms. Data presented in these earlier publications are re-analyzed to assess the relationship between projected prism length (i. e., enamel thickness) and the true prism length. Across primates, proportional prism deviation increases as the enamel becomes thicker. This supports suggestions that prism decussation may be particularly marked in large-bodied and thick-enameled species. There are differences, however, in scaling relationships between species, which correspond to the species' dietary adaptations. Finally, the findings highlight the importance of employing species-specific correction factors for the calculation of prism length (i.e., life-span of the ameloblast) for life history enquiry.

  18. Enamel pearl on an unusual location associated with localized periodontal disease: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Malhotra, Sumit; Baliga, Vidya; Hans, Manoj

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial plaque has been implicated as the primary etiologic factor in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Anatomic factors (such as enamel pearls) are often associated with advanced localized periodontal destruction. The phenomenon of ectopic development of enamel on the root surface, variedly referred to as enameloma, enamel pearl, enamel drop or enamel nodule, is not well-understood. Such an anomaly may facilitate the progression of periodontal breakdown. A rare case of enamel pearl on the lingual aspect of mandibular central incisor associated with localized periodontal disease is presented. Removal and treatment of enamel pearl along with possible mechanisms to account for the pathogenesis of ectopic enamel formation are also discussed.

  19. Effects of enamel matrix derivative on remineralisation of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Chenyang; Ran, Jinmei; Yang, Qingqing; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xuedong; Zhang, Linglin

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of enamel matrix derivative on remineralisation of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro. Initial enamel carious lesions were created in bovine enamel blocks in vitro. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime of 24days. Each daily cycle included 4×3-min applications with one of four treatments: 1g/L NaF aqueous solution (positive control), 6% propylene glycol alginate (PGA) or distilled and deionised water (DDW) (both negative controls), and a gel of enamel matrix derivative and PGA (EMDgel). Samples were subjected to surface microhardness (SMH) testing, polarised light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR) to measure SMH, mineral loss, lesion depth and mineral content of the surface layer and lesion body before and after pH-cycling. NaF samples showed the highest SMH recovery of all the groups (P<0.05). EMDgel samples showed significantly higher SMH recovery than did PGA ones (P<0.05). NaF samples showed significantly less mineral loss and shallower lesions than all other groups (P<0.05). The DDW and EMDgel samples showed significantly less mineral loss and shallower lesions than PGA samples. Mineral deposition predominated much more at the surface layer in the EMDgel group than in the PGA group (P<0.05). EMD, the active ingredient of EMDgel, may play an essential role in promoting remineralisation of initial enamel carious lesions. However, EMDgel as a whole did not cause detectable remineralisation of such lesions in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    PubMed

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement uncertainty associated with chromatic confocal profilometry for 3D surface texture characterization of natural human enamel.

    PubMed

    Mullan, F; Bartlett, D; Austin, R S

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the measurement performance of a chromatic confocal profilometer for quantification of surface texture of natural human enamel in vitro. Contributions to the measurement uncertainty from all potential sources of measurement error using a chromatic confocal profilometer and surface metrology software were quantified using a series of surface metrology calibration artifacts and pre-worn enamel samples. The 3D surface texture analysis protocol was optimized across 0.04mm(2) of natural and unpolished enamel undergoing dietary acid erosion (pH 3.2, titratable acidity 41.3mmolOH/L). Flatness deviations due to the x, y stage mechanical movement were the major contribution to the measurement uncertainty; with maximum Sz flatness errors of 0.49μm. Whereas measurement noise; non-linearity's in x, y, z and enamel sample dimensional instability contributed minimal errors. The measurement errors were propagated into an uncertainty budget following a Type B uncertainty evaluation in order to calculate the Standard Combined Uncertainty (uc), which was ±0.28μm. Statistically significant increases in the median (IQR) roughness (Sa) of the polished samples occurred after 15 (+0.17 (0.13)μm), 30 (+0.12 (0.09)μm) and 45 (+0.18 (0.15)μm) min of erosion (P<0.001 vs. baseline). In contrast, natural unpolished enamel samples revealed a statistically significant decrease in Sa roughness of -0.14 (0.34) μm only after 45min erosion (P<0.05s vs. baseline). The main contribution to measurement uncertainty using chromatic confocal profilometry was from flatness deviations however by optimizing measurement protocols the profilometer successfully characterized surface texture changes in enamel from erosive wear in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of toothpaste on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel: An in vitro white light interferometer study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maria; Kitasako, Yuichi; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of brushing using toothpastes marketed under different categories on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel in vitro at nanometer scale using a white light interferometer (WLI). Enamel surface of resin-embedded bovine incisors were fine polished with diamond slurry and divided into testing area (approximately 2 mm x 4 mm) and reference area using a nail varnish. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n = 10 each); six of which were subjected to erosive challenge. The testing area in these eroded groups was exposed to 10 ml of Coca-Cola for 90 seconds and then rinsed for 10 seconds in deionized water (DW). Enamel specimens, except for those in one eroded group, were brushed by an automatic brushing machine with 120 linear motion strokes in 60 seconds under load of 250 g with/without toothpaste slurry. After the toothbrushing abrasion, each specimen was rinsed for 10 seconds with DW followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 2 hours. Toothpaste slurries were prepared containing one of the four toothpastes used and DW in a ratio of 1:2. The erosion-abrasion cycle was repeated three times. Then, the nail varnish was removed and enamel surface loss (SL) was measured by the WLI. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's correction at significance level of 0.05. For eroded specimens, the mean SL values of groups not brushed and brushed with no toothpaste were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those of whitening, anti-erosion and anti-caries toothpaste groups (P < 0.001). The whitening toothpaste group showed significantly higher SL than all other groups (P < 0.001). For sound enamel specimens, SL was not measured except for the whitening toothpaste group.

  3. Enamel thickness, microstructure and development in Afropithecus turkanensis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M; Martin, Lawrence B; Leakey, Meave G

    2003-03-01

    Afropithecus turkanensis, a 17-17.5 million year old large-bodied hominoid from Kenya, has previously been reported to be the oldest known thick-enamelled Miocene ape. Most investigations of enamel thickness in Miocene apes have been limited to opportunistic or destructive studies of small samples. Recently, more comprehensive studies of enamel thickness and microstructure in Proconsul, Lufengpithecus, and Dryopithecus, as well as extant apes and fossil humans, have provided information on rates and patterns of dental development, including crown formation time, and have begun to provide a comparative context for interpretation of the evolution of these characters throughout the past 20 million years of hominoid evolution. In this study, enamel thickness and aspects of the enamel microstructure in two A. turkanensis second molars were quantified and provide insight into rates of enamel apposition, numbers of cells actively secreting enamel, and the time required to form regions of the crown. The average value for relative enamel thickness in the two molars is 21.4, which is a lower value than a previous analysis of this species, but which is still relatively thick compared to extant apes. This value is similar to those of several Miocene hominoids, a fossil hominid, and modern humans. Certain aspects of the enamel microstructure are similar to Proconsul nyanzae, Dryopithecus laietanus, Lufengpithecus lufengensis, Graecopithecus freybergi and Pongo pygmaeus, while other features differ from extant and fossil hominoids. Crown formation times for the two teeth are 2.4-2.6 years and 2.9-3.1 years respectively. These times are similar to a number of extant and fossil hominoids, some of which appear to show additional developmental similarities, including thick enamel. Although thick enamel may be formed through several developmental pathways, most Miocene hominoids and fossil hominids with relatively thick enamel are characterized by a relatively long period of cuspal

  4. Targeted p120-Catenin Ablation Disrupts Dental Enamel Development

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.; Dobeck, Justine M.; Tye, Coralee E.; Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Stokes, Nicole; Reynolds, Albert B.; Fuchs, Elaine; Skobe, Ziedonis

    2010-01-01

    Dental enamel development occurs in stages. The ameloblast cell layer is adjacent to, and is responsible for, enamel formation. When rodent pre-ameloblasts become tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts, they secrete enamel matrix proteins, and the ameloblasts start moving in rows that slide by one another. This movement is necessary to form the characteristic decussating enamel prism pattern. Thus, a dynamic system of intercellular interactions is required for proper enamel development. Cadherins are components of the adherens junction (AJ), and they span the cell membrane to mediate attachment to adjacent cells. p120 stabilizes cadherins by preventing their internalization and degradation. So, we asked if p120-mediated cadherin stability is important for dental enamel formation. Targeted p120 ablation in the mouse enamel organ had a striking effect. Secretory stage ameloblasts detached from surrounding tissues, lost polarity, flattened, and ameloblast E- and N-cadherin expression became undetectable by immunostaining. The enamel itself was poorly mineralized and appeared to be composed of a thin layer of merged spheres that abraded from the tooth. Significantly, p120 mosaic mouse teeth were capable of forming normal enamel demonstrating that the enamel defects were not a secondary effect of p120 ablation. Surprisingly, blood-filled sinusoids developed in random locations around the developing teeth. This has not been observed in other p120-ablated tissues and may be due to altered p120-mediated cell signaling. These data reveal a critical role for p120 in tooth and dental enamel development and are consistent with p120 directing the attachment and detachment of the secretory stage ameloblasts as they move in rows. PMID:20862276

  5. Targeted p120-catenin ablation disrupts dental enamel development.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John D; Dobeck, Justine M; Tye, Coralee E; Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Stokes, Nicole; Reynolds, Albert B; Fuchs, Elaine; Skobe, Ziedonis

    2010-09-16

    Dental enamel development occurs in stages. The ameloblast cell layer is adjacent to, and is responsible for, enamel formation. When rodent pre-ameloblasts become tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts, they secrete enamel matrix proteins, and the ameloblasts start moving in rows that slide by one another. This movement is necessary to form the characteristic decussating enamel prism pattern. Thus, a dynamic system of intercellular interactions is required for proper enamel development. Cadherins are components of the adherens junction (AJ), and they span the cell membrane to mediate attachment to adjacent cells. p120 stabilizes cadherins by preventing their internalization and degradation. So, we asked if p120-mediated cadherin stability is important for dental enamel formation. Targeted p120 ablation in the mouse enamel organ had a striking effect. Secretory stage ameloblasts detached from surrounding tissues, lost polarity, flattened, and ameloblast E- and N-cadherin expression became undetectable by immunostaining. The enamel itself was poorly mineralized and appeared to be composed of a thin layer of merged spheres that abraded from the tooth. Significantly, p120 mosaic mouse teeth were capable of forming normal enamel demonstrating that the enamel defects were not a secondary effect of p120 ablation. Surprisingly, blood-filled sinusoids developed in random locations around the developing teeth. This has not been observed in other p120-ablated tissues and may be due to altered p120-mediated cell signaling. These data reveal a critical role for p120 in tooth and dental enamel development and are consistent with p120 directing the attachment and detachment of the secretory stage ameloblasts as they move in rows.

  6. On the relationship between enamel band complexity and occlusal surface area in Equids (Mammalia, Perissodactyla)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Edward Byrd

    2016-01-01

    Enamel patterns on the occlusal surfaces of equid teeth are asserted to have tribal-level differences. The most notable example compares the Equini and Hipparionini, where Equini have higher crowned teeth with less enamel-band complexity and less total occlusal enamel than Hipparionini. Whereas previous work has successfully quantified differences in enamel band shape by dividing the length of enamel band by the square root of the occlusal surface area (Occlusal Enamel Index, OEI), it was clear that OEI only partially removes the effect of body size. Because enamel band length scales allometrically, body size still has an influence on OEI, with larger individuals having relatively longer enamel bands than smaller individuals. Fractal dimensionality (D) can be scaled to any level, so we have used it to quantify occlusal enamel complexity in a way that allows us to get at an accurate representation of the relationship between complexity and body size. To test the hypothesis of tribal-level complexity differences between Equini and Hipparionini, we digitally traced a sample of 98 teeth, one tooth per individual; 31 Hipparionini and 67 Equini. We restricted our sampling to the P3-M2 to reduce the effect of tooth position. After calculating the D of these teeth with the fractal box method which uses the number of boxes of various sizes to calculate the D of a line, we performed a t-test on the individual values of D for each specimen, comparing the means between the two tribes, and a phylogenetically informed generalized least squares regression (PGLS) for each tribe with occlusal surface area as the independent variable and D as the dependent variable. The slopes of both PGLS analyses were compared using a t-test to determine if the same linear relationship existed between the two tribes. The t-test between tribes was significant (p < 0.0001), suggesting different D populations for each lineage. The PGLS for Hipparionini was a positive but not significant (p = 0

  7. On the relationship between enamel band complexity and occlusal surface area in Equids (Mammalia, Perissodactyla).

    PubMed

    Famoso, Nicholas A; Davis, Edward Byrd

    2016-01-01

    Enamel patterns on the occlusal surfaces of equid teeth are asserted to have tribal-level differences. The most notable example compares the Equini and Hipparionini, where Equini have higher crowned teeth with less enamel-band complexity and less total occlusal enamel than Hipparionini. Whereas previous work has successfully quantified differences in enamel band shape by dividing the length of enamel band by the square root of the occlusal surface area (Occlusal Enamel Index, OEI), it was clear that OEI only partially removes the effect of body size. Because enamel band length scales allometrically, body size still has an influence on OEI, with larger individuals having relatively longer enamel bands than smaller individuals. Fractal dimensionality (D) can be scaled to any level, so we have used it to quantify occlusal enamel complexity in a way that allows us to get at an accurate representation of the relationship between complexity and body size. To test the hypothesis of tribal-level complexity differences between Equini and Hipparionini, we digitally traced a sample of 98 teeth, one tooth per individual; 31 Hipparionini and 67 Equini. We restricted our sampling to the P3-M2 to reduce the effect of tooth position. After calculating the D of these teeth with the fractal box method which uses the number of boxes of various sizes to calculate the D of a line, we performed a t-test on the individual values of D for each specimen, comparing the means between the two tribes, and a phylogenetically informed generalized least squares regression (PGLS) for each tribe with occlusal surface area as the independent variable and D as the dependent variable. The slopes of both PGLS analyses were compared using a t-test to determine if the same linear relationship existed between the two tribes. The t-test between tribes was significant (p < 0.0001), suggesting different D populations for each lineage. The PGLS for Hipparionini was a positive but not significant (p = 0

  8. Bond strength and etching pattern of adhesive systems to enamel: effects of conditioning time and enamel preparation.

    PubMed

    Pivetta, Marcela Riguera; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Lascala, Antonio Carlos; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2008-01-01

    The performance of self-etch systems on enamel is controversial and seems to be dependent on the application technique and the enamel preparation. To examine the effects of conditioning time and enamel surface preparation on bond strength and etching pattern of adhesive systems to enamel. Ninety-six teeth were divided into 16 conditions (N=6) in function of enamel preparation and conditioning time for bond strength test. The adhesive systems OptiBond FL (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), OptiBond SOLO Plus (Kerr), Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) were applied on unground or ground enamel following the manufacturers' directions or doubling the conditioning time. Cylinders of Filtek Flow (0.5-mm height) were applied to each bonded enamel surface using a Tygon tube (0.7 mm in diameter; Saint-Gobain Corp., Aurora, OH, USA). After storage (24 h/37 degrees C), the specimens were subjected to shear force (0.5 mm/min). The data were treated by a three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The failure modes of the debonded interfaces and the etching pattern of adhesives were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Only the main factor "adhesive" was statistically significant (p<0.001). The lowest bond strength value was observed for OptiBond FL. The most defined etching pattern was observed for 35% phosphoric acid and for Adper Prompt L-Pop. Mixed failures were observed for all adhesives, but OptiBond FL showed cohesive failures in resin predominantly. The increase in the conditioning time as well as the enamel pretreatment did not provide an increase in the resin-enamel bond strength values for the studied adhesives. The surface enamel preparation and the conditioning time do not affect the performance of self-etch systems to enamel.

  9. The effect of a vital bleaching technique on enamel surface morphology and the bonding of composite resin to enamel.

    PubMed

    Josey, A L; Meyers, I A; Romaniuk, K; Symons, A L

    1996-04-01

    This study examined the effect of a nightguard vital bleaching procedure on enamel surface morphology and the shear bond strength of a composite resin luting cement to enamel. Extracted human teeth were bleached for 1 week using a vital bleaching product. Control teeth were brushed with a fluoride toothpaste and processed similarly to the bleached teeth, however the bleaching product was substituted with artificial saliva in the night guards. Teeth were stored in artificial saliva for 24 h, 1, 6 or 12 weeks and then examined for any surface changes using light and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of etching surfaces with 37% phosphoric acid was examined at the scanning electron microscope level. The shear bond strength of composite resin luting cement to both buccal and lingual surfaces of bleached and control teeth was determined. Light microscopy investigation suggested the bleaching process resulted in a loss of mineral from enamel which was evident 24 h after bleaching and was sustained following 12 weeks storage in artificial saliva. Scanning electron microscopy showed a definite change in the surface texture of the bleached enamel surface. Acid etching of the bleached enamel surface produced loss of prismatic form and the enamel appeared overetched. The mean shear bond strength between composite resin luting cement and etched enamel tended to be lower for bleached enamel surfaces, however no significant difference in shear bond strength was noted between control and experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that bleaching resulted in changes to the surface and subsurface layers of enamel. Although surface changes were observed in the etched enamel, the shear bond strength of composite resin luting cement to etched bleached enamel appeared to be clinically acceptable.

  10. Comparative analysis of optical coherence tomography signal and microhardness for demineralization evaluation of human tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet; Zezell, Denise Maria; Ana, Patricia A.; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Dias Vieira, Nilson, Jr.; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi

    2012-06-01

    The diagnosis of dental caries at an early stage enables the implementation of conservative treatments based on dental preservation. Several diagnostic methods have been developed, like visual-tactile and radiographic are the most commons but are limited for this application. The Optical Coherence Tomography is a technique that provides information of optical properties of enamel, which may change due to the decay process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of OCT to detect different stages of demineralization of tooth enamel during the development of artificial caries lesions, taking as a reference standard for comparison sectional microhardness testing. Different stages of caries lesions were simulated using the pH cycling model suggested Feathestone and modified by Argenta. The samples were exposed to 0 (control group), 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days at a daily regimen of three hours demineralization followed by remineralization during 20 hours. It was used an OCT system with at 930nm. Sectional images were generated in all lesion region. The results obtained from the OCT technique presented similar behavior to microhardness, except for the group 25 days, due to inability to perform indentations reading in areas of more intense demineralization. A linear relationship was observed between the OCT and microhardness techniques for detection of demineralization in enamel. This relationship will allow the use of OCT technique in quantitative assessment of mineral loss and for the evaluation of incipient caries lesions.

  11. OSL and thermally assisted OSL response in dental enamel for its possible application in retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anuj; Mishra, D R; Polymeris, G S; Bhatt, B C; Kulkarni, M S

    2014-11-01

    Dental enamel was studied for its thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) defects. The TL studies showed a wide glow curve with multiple peaks. The thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) studies showed that the integrated TA-OSL and thus OSL signal increases with readout temperature between 100 and 250 °C, due to the temperature dependence of OSL. The thermally assisted energy E A associated with this increase is found to be 0.21 ± 0.015 eV. On the other hand, the signal intensity decreases with temperature between 260 and 450 °C. This decrease could be due to depletion of OSL active traps or possible thermal quenching. The increase of the OSL signal at increased temperature can be used to enhance the sensitivity of dental enamel for ex vivo measurements in retrospective dosimetry. The emission and excitation spectra of its luminescence centers were studied by photoluminescence and were found to be at 412 and 324 nm, respectively. It was found to possess multiple OSL active traps having closely lying photoionization cross sections characterized by continuous wave OSL and nonlinear OSL methods. The investigated dental enamel samples showed a linear OSL dose response up to 500 Gy. The dose threshold was found to be 100 mGy using a highly sensitive compact OSL reader with blue LED (470 nm) stimulation.

  12. Near-IR polarization imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.1 The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  13. Near-IR Polarization Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Darling, Cynthia L; Jiao, Jane J; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.(1) The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  14. Effects of ethnicity and birth month on localized enamel hypoplasia of the primary canine.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M F; Hadaway, W; Dickie, J

    1994-01-01

    Localized enamel hypoplasia of the primary canine (LHPC) is produced by a different mechanism from that causing linear enamel hypoplasia, and yet contributes disproportionately to epidemiological studies of enamel hypoplasia in childhood that do not separate the two etiological types. LHPC results from impact, probably self-inflicted by infants mouthing objects, to the unerupted primary canine crown through abnormally fenestrated cortical bone overlying the crypt. Examination of the primary teeth of ninety-six children whose mothers were enrolled in the Healthiest Babies Possible Program in Vancouver showed an average prevalence of 31 percent with LHPC (ranging from 19 percent in Vietnamese Canadians to 56 percent among Indocanadians). This is much higher than previously reported for unselected samples from Vancouver, but equivalent to studies in the USA. Mean hours of sunshine in the birth month of children with LHPC is 141.7 hours and those without is 169.4 hours; the difference is statistically significant (p = .0383). Seasonal increase in food costs and reduced availability of fresh foods containing vitamin A are thought to contribute to facial osteopenia predisposing the infant to LHPC.

  15. Efficacy of fluoride varnishes for preventing enamel demineralization after interproximal enamel reduction. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    González Paz, Belén Manuela; García López, José

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the changes produced to enamel after interproximal reduction and subjected to demineralization cycles, after applying a fluoride varnish (Profluorid) and a fluoride varnish containing tricalcium phosphate modified by fumaric acid (Clinpro White). Materials and methods 138 interproximal dental surfaces were divided into six groups: 1) Intact enamel; 2) Intact enamel + demineralization cycles (DC); 3) Interproximal Reduction (IR); 4) IR + DC; 5) IR + Profluorid + DC; 6) IR + Clinpro White + DC. IR was performed with a 0.5 mm cylindrical diamond bur. The weight percentage of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and fluoride (F) were quantified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Samples were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The weight percentage of Ca was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Groups 1, 2 and 5 than Groups 4 and 6. No significant differences were detected in the weight percentage of Ca between Group 3 and the other groups (p>0.05). The weight percentage of P was similar among all six groups (p>0.05). F was detected on 65% of Group 6 surfaces. SEM images of Groups 4 and 6 showed signs of demineralization, while Group 5 did not. Conclusions Profluorid application acts as a barrier against the demineralization of interproximally reduced enamel. PMID:28430810

  16. Conservative approach for esthetic treatment of enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Reston, E G; Corba, D V; Ruschel, K; Tovo, M F; Barbosa, A N

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a minimally invasive technique for removal of intrinsic enamel stains and discoloration. The technique is based on enamel microabrasion with application of an acid-abrasive gel. Treatment may be complemented with composite resin to compensate for the effects of acid or to finish the masking effect.

  17. Developmental Defects of Enamel in Children with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Erika, Vesna; Modrić; Karlović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the frequency of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in children with intellectual disability. Subjects and methods Children aged 5–18 years (72 children with intellectual disabilities and 72 controls) were included in the study. All the teeth were screened for developmental defects of enamel using the modified Developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) index. Results Out of the 72 children with intellectual disabilities in this study, 20 (27.78%) presented dental defects of enamel, compared with 8 (11.11%) of those in the control group, which was considered statistically significant (p = 0.021). The majority of children in both groups had white demarcated opacities. Children in both groups were more likely to have maxillary teeth affected than the mandibular teeth and the asymmetrical demarcated enamel defects were more common than the symmetric ones. Majority of opacities in children in both groups were on the maxillary incisors. Conclusions Children with intellectual disabilities have more developmental defects of enamel than children in the control group. Enamel defects increase caries risk and cause reduction in enamel mechanical properties leading to restoration failures. PMID:27688428

  18. Evolutionary aspects of reptilian and mammalian enamel structure.

    PubMed

    Sahni, A

    1987-12-01

    The evolution of enamel structure is dealt with here on the basis of fossil reptiles and mammals ranging from the Triassic to the present. The evidence suggests that prismatic enamel had developed in some therapsid reptiles and the mammal, Eozostrodon about 180 million years ago. For the next 100 million years, mammalian evolutionary history is sparingly documented and this is reflected in the poor record of enamel evolution during this period. The few Jurassic reptiles and mammals studied suggest a preprismatic structure. In the Late Cretaceous (80 to 65 million years ago) when the fossil record improves, mammalian enamel investigated from North American localities, are found to be prismatic; allotherian (multituberculate) and metatherian (marsupial) enamels are usually tubular, while eutherian (placental) ones are not. Prism structure in Tertiary mammals in general, conforms to that of their present day descendants, but there are discernible exceptions. The record of evolutionary change in Tertiary mammals is obscured by functional modifications related to biomechanical stresses. Enamel structure may be secondarily modified; similar in phylogenetically unrelated groups (eg., pauciserial enamel of early rodents) or dissimilar at the intra-familial level (eg., rodent families Ctenodactylidae and Ischryomyicae). Prismatic enamel is recorded from the tooth of a hatchling of the gavial, Gavialis gangeticus.

  19. New genomic and fossil data illuminate the origin of enamel.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qingming; Haitina, Tatjana; Zhu, Min; Ahlberg, Per Erik

    2015-10-01

    Enamel, the hardest vertebrate tissue, covers the teeth of almost all sarcopterygians (lobe-finned bony fishes and tetrapods) as well as the scales and dermal bones of many fossil lobe-fins. Enamel deposition requires an organic matrix containing the unique enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) amelogenin (AMEL), enamelin (ENAM) and ameloblastin (AMBN). Chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) lack both enamel and EMP genes. Many fossil and a few living non-teleost actinopterygians (ray-finned bony fishes) such as the gar, Lepisosteus, have scales and dermal bones covered with a proposed enamel homologue called ganoine. However, no gene or transcript data for EMPs have been described from actinopterygians. Here we show that Psarolepis romeri, a bony fish from the the Early Devonian period, combines enamel-covered dermal odontodes on scales and skull bones with teeth of naked dentine, and that Lepisosteus oculatus (the spotted gar) has enam and ambn genes that are expressed in the skin, probably associated with ganoine formation. The genetic evidence strengthens the hypothesis that ganoine is homologous with enamel. The fossil evidence, further supported by the Silurian bony fish Andreolepis, which has enamel-covered scales but teeth and odontodes on its dermal bones made of naked dentine, indicates that this tissue originated on the dermal skeleton, probably on the scales. It subsequently underwent heterotopic expansion across two highly conserved patterning boundaries (scales/head-shoulder and dermal/oral) within the odontode skeleton.

  20. Targeted Overexpression of Amelotin Disrupts the Microstructure of Dental Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Nakayama, Yohei; Holcroft, James; Nguyen, Van; Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter; Snead, Malcolm L.; White, Shane N.; Paine, Michael L.; Ganss, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We have previously identified amelotin (AMTN) as a novel protein expressed predominantly during the late stages of dental enamel formation, but its role during amelogenesis remains to be determined. In this study we generated transgenic mice that produce AMTN under the amelogenin (Amel) gene promoter to study the effect of AMTN overexpression on enamel formation in vivo. The specific overexpression of AMTN in secretory stage ameloblasts was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The gross histological appearance of ameloblasts or supporting cellular structures as well as the expression of the enamel proteins amelogenin (AMEL) and ameloblastin (AMBN) was not altered by AMTN overexpression, suggesting that protein production, processing and secretion occurred normally in transgenic mice. The expression of Odontogenic, Ameloblast-Associated (ODAM) was slightly increased in secretory stage ameloblasts of transgenic animals. The enamel in AMTN-overexpressing mice was much thinner and displayed a highly irregular surface structure compared to wild type littermates. Teeth of transgenic animals underwent rapid attrition due to the brittleness of the enamel layer. The microstructure of enamel, normally a highly ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals, was completely disorganized. Tomes' process, the hallmark of secretory stage ameloblasts, did not form in transgenic mice. Collectively our data demonstrate that the overexpression of amelotin has a profound effect on enamel structure by disrupting the formation of Tomes' process and the orderly growth of enamel prisms. PMID:22539960

  1. Targeted overexpression of amelotin disrupts the microstructure of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Nakayama, Yohei; Holcroft, James; Nguyen, Van; Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter; Snead, Malcolm L; White, Shane N; Paine, Michael L; Ganss, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We have previously identified amelotin (AMTN) as a novel protein expressed predominantly during the late stages of dental enamel formation, but its role during amelogenesis remains to be determined. In this study we generated transgenic mice that produce AMTN under the amelogenin (Amel) gene promoter to study the effect of AMTN overexpression on enamel formation in vivo. The specific overexpression of AMTN in secretory stage ameloblasts was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The gross histological appearance of ameloblasts or supporting cellular structures as well as the expression of the enamel proteins amelogenin (AMEL) and ameloblastin (AMBN) was not altered by AMTN overexpression, suggesting that protein production, processing and secretion occurred normally in transgenic mice. The expression of Odontogenic, Ameloblast-Associated (ODAM) was slightly increased in secretory stage ameloblasts of transgenic animals. The enamel in AMTN-overexpressing mice was much thinner and displayed a highly irregular surface structure compared to wild type littermates. Teeth of transgenic animals underwent rapid attrition due to the brittleness of the enamel layer. The microstructure of enamel, normally a highly ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals, was completely disorganized. Tomes' process, the hallmark of secretory stage ameloblasts, did not form in transgenic mice. Collectively our data demonstrate that the overexpression of amelotin has a profound effect on enamel structure by disrupting the formation of Tomes' process and the orderly growth of enamel prisms.

  2. Optical coherence tomography use in the diagnosis of enamel defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azri, Khalifa; Melita, Lucia N.; Strange, Adam P.; Festy, Frederic; Al-Jawad, Maisoon; Cook, Richard; Parekh, Susan; Bozec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) affects the permanent incisors and molars, whose undermineralized matrix is evidenced by lesions ranging from white to yellow/brown opacities to crumbling enamel lesions incapable of withstanding normal occlusal forces and function. Diagnosing the condition involves clinical and radiographic examination of these teeth, with known limitations in determining the depth extent of the enamel defects in particular. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging hard and soft tissue imaging technique, which was investigated as a new potential diagnostic method in dentistry. A comparison between the diagnostic potential of the conventional methods and OCT was conducted. Compared to conventional imaging methods, OCT gave more information on the structure of the enamel defects as well as the depth extent of the defects into the enamel structure. Different types of enamel defects were compared, each type presenting a unique identifiable pattern when imaged using OCT. Additionally, advanced methods of OCT image analysis including backscattered light intensity profile analysis and enface reconstruction were performed. Both methods confirmed the potential of OCT in enamel defects diagnosis. In conclusion, OCT imaging enabled the identification of the type of enamel defect and the determination of the extent of the enamel defects in MIH with the advantage of being a radiation free diagnostic technique.

  3. [Microretention of plastic filling materials on acid etched enamel].

    PubMed

    Raadal, M

    1975-11-01

    In order to study the strength of the physical bond between composite materials and acid etched enamel, various commonly used composites were applied to the conditioned surface of extracted young permanent bicuspids. The specimens were stored in saline at 37 degrees C for one week and nine weeks and then subjected to tensile strength test. The following composites were tested: Restodent, Nuva Seal/Nuva Fil, Cosmic, Smile, Adaptic and Concise Enamel Bond. The latter was used in 4 different ways. The results of the study indicate that all the tested materials have a fairly good retention on the conditioned enamel. However, when using Concise Enamel Bond, care must be taken not to let the pure, liquid resin polymerize on the enamel before applying the composite, because this will give a poor bonding between the enamel and the filling. In addition to the tensile strength test, the materials were submitted to scanning electron microscop, to examine their penetration ability into conditioned enamel. The results of this study seem to indicate that the resin part of viscous composites (Cosmic and Concise pastes) was able to penetrate into the crevices of the etched enamel as well as the more fluid types (Restodent, Nuva Seal and diluted Concise).

  4. Mass-transport processes at the steel-enamel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Jha, A.; Cochrane, R. C.; Ali, S.

    2006-02-01

    Mass-transport processes at the enamel-steel interface were investigated by studying the rheological properties of the enamel and the microstructure of the enamel-steel interface. The thermophysical properties, e.g., the viscosity and spreading behavior of enamel were measured using the rotating bob and the sessile drop techniques, respectively. The results show that the viscosity of the enamel decreases sharply as the FeO concentration increases from 0 to 25 wt pct, while the contact angle changes with the increasing thickness of the NiO precoat. Microstructural characterization also revealed evidence for the presence of an interfacial gradient force (more specifically referred to as the Marangoni convection) confined within the 0- to 80-µm thickness at the enamel-steel interface. This force is responsible for a convective flow, which determines the formation of flow striae at the interface. The striae act as a sink for evolved gases and provide transport away from the enamel-steel interface. In addition, experimental simulation of Marangoni convection (interfacial-gradient force) was carried out by selectively doping the steel surface with excess Fe2O3 powder. The presence of convection flow was confirmed by analyzing the pattern of iron oxide particles dispersed across the surrounding enamel layers. Based on the microstructural characterization and the thermophysical data, we propose a mechanism for mass transport at the glass-steel interface.

  5. Role of crystal arrangement on the mechanical performance of enamel.

    PubMed

    An, Bingbing; Wang, Raorao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The superior mechanical properties of enamel, such as excellent penetration and crack resistance, are believed to be related to the unique microscopic structure. In this study, the effects of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallite orientation on the mechanical behavior of enamel have been investigated through a series of multiscale numerical simulations. A micromechanical model, which considers the HAP crystal arrangement in enamel prisms, the hierarchical structure of HAP crystals and the inelastic mechanical behavior of protein, has been developed. Numerical simulations revealed that, under compressive loading, plastic deformation progression took place in enamel prisms, which is responsible for the experimentally observed post-yield strain hardening. By comparing the mechanical responses for the uniform and non-uniform arrangement of HAP crystals within enamel prisms, it was found that the stiffness for the two cases was identical, while much greater energy dissipation was observed in the enamel with the non-uniform arrangement. Based on these results, we propose an important mechanism whereby the non-uniform arrangement of crystals in enamel rods enhances energy dissipation while maintaining sufficient stiffness to promote fracture toughness, mitigation of fracture and resistance to penetration deformation. Further simulations indicated that the non-uniform arrangement of the HAP crystals is a key factor responsible for the unique mechanical behavior of enamel, while the change in the nanostructure of nanocomposites could dictate the Young's modulus and yield strength of the biocomposite.

  6. Developmental enamel defects in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Pernille E; Haubek, Dorte; Henriksen, Tine B; Østergaard, John R; Poulsen, Sven

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the association between developmental enamel defects and children born preterm. An identical search was performed in PubMed and Embase and was limited to human studies and studies written in English, German, Danish, Swedish, or Norwegian. Reviews, case studies, and case series were excluded. A total of 283 articles were identified. Twenty-three publications, of which 19 were follow-up studies, two were case-control studies, and two were cross-sectional surveys, were enrolled in the review. The majority of the studies (n = 17) dealt with enamel hypoplasia of the primary teeth. Thirteen studies reported an association between preterm birth and enamel hypoplasia, and, in addition, few studies reported an increased risk of enamel opacities in the primary teeth, in children with a birth weight <1500 g. Seven studies dealt with enamel disturbances of the permanent teeth, four of which suggested an increased risk of enamel opacities. This systematic review suggests an increased risk of enamel hypoplasia in primary teeth of children born preterm and enamel opacities in very-low birth-weight children. A larger number of well-designed studies are, however, needed in order to increase the validity of the studies. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references.

  8. Enamel pearls as a predisposing factor to localized periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Umberto; Palaia, Gaspare; Botti, Ricciarda; Nardi, Alessandro; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Tenore, Gianluca; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Enamel pearls are enamel anomalies on primary and permanent teeth roots that usually appear at furcation areas, especially in maxillary second and third molars. Enamel pearls usually occur singularly, but as many as four have been observed on the same tooth. This report describes an unusual case of multiple enamel pearls associated with periodontal pockets localized on all maxillary first and second molars. Because the patient had an advanced stage of periodontitis, the maxillary right first and left second molars were extracted. The remaining two maxillary molars were included in a strict follow-up protocol. Enamel pearls were confirmed as the cause of localized periodontitis; therefore, it is very important to recognize their radiologic aspect to ensure proper treatment of the involved teeth.

  9. On the wear mechanism of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Arsecularatne, J A; Hoffman, M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanisms and controlling factors in human enamel wear are not fully understood yet. To address this problem, we have used focused ion beam (FIB) milling and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to investigate the processes taking place below the wear surface of enamel specimens from in vitro wear tests. These reveal the generation of subsurface cracks during wear of enamel. An analysis of published qualitative and quantitative experimental wear results for enamel as well as for ceramics shows the similarities of the wear processes taking place under similar contact conditions, despite the differences that exist between these two materials. It is shown that, for the considered conditions, fracture under elastic contact is responsible for enamel wear.

  10. Prevalence and possible etiology of dental enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    El-Najjar, M Y; DeSanti, M V; Ozebek, L

    1978-02-01

    Two hundred black and white adult human skeletons and 200 living black and white children from the greater Cleveland area were examined for evidence of enamel hypoplasia. Enamel hypoplasia, present in varying expressings (pits, lines and grooves), was found to be more prevalent in both skeletal samples, than in the living groups. In the majority of cases, sex differences between white and black males and females through time and space are highly significant for all tooth catagories. Regardless of the mechanisms behind it, prevalence of enamel hypoplasia for both white and black group has significantly declined through time. No evidence suggesting specific etiologies responsible for enamel hypoplasia can be found. In the majority of previously published reports, the etiology is still idiopathic. The reduction in the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in the groups examined through time may be related to improved nutritional conditions and the elimination or decline of childhood diseases that have been implicated in this condition.

  11. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results.

  12. Relationship between degree of polymerization and enamel bonding strength with self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J; Hoffmann, Marcus; Endo, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Masashi

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between the degree of conversion of double bonds of all-in-one adhesives and their shear bond strength on ground human enamel. Six commercially available systems and one experimental adhesive were tested: Absolute (ABS; Dentsply-Sankin), Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB; Kuraray), G-Bond (GBO; GC), Hybrid Bond (HYB; Sun Medical), iBond (IBO; Heraeus Kulzer), Xeno IV (XEN; Dentsply Caulk), and experimental iBond NG (ING; Heraeus Kulzer). Conventional shear bond strengths (SBS, n=8) of adhesive-coated enamel specimens bonded to Venus composite (Heraeus Kulzer) and degrees of conversion (DC) (FTIR, n=5) were determined after 1 and 10 min, 1, 2, and 24 h of storage. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test (0 < 0.05). The adhesives' SBS (MPa) and DC (%) by testing time followed logarithmic regression lines established by the least square method. Mean shear bond strengths after 1 min/24 h were: ABS 9.8/14.9; CSB 14.7/23.4; GBO 14.8/22.0; HYB 9.7/17.0; IBO 11.3/22.3; XEN 9.1/17.3; ING 9.7/25.6. The corresponding mean DC values were: ABS 51.3/66.2; CSB 83.1/90.8; GBO 75.8/87.7; HYB 49.6/67.2; IBO 72.6/93.7; XEN 61.6/74.1; ING 64.9/89.1. Linear regressions for the relationship DC vs. SBS were significant with coefficients of determination (r2) between 0.72 and 0.97. Despite similar acidity, the adhesives showed different SBSs on enamel. Based on the relationships between DC and SBS, the cohesive failure patterns observed, and the composition-property relations discussed, it is concluded that the percentage DC is the main parameter influencing an adhesive's bonding efficacy to ground enamel.

  13. Effectiveness of Combination of Dentin and Enamel Layers on the Masking Ability of Porcelain.

    PubMed

    Boscato, Noéli; Hauschild, Fernando Gabriel; Kaizer, Marina da Rosa; De Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the masking ability of different porcelain thicknesses and combination of enamel and/or dentin porcelain layers over simulated background dental substrates with higher (A2) and lower (C4) color values. Combination of the enamel (E) and dentin (D) monolayer porcelain disks with different thicknesses (0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1 mm) resulted in the following bilayer groups (n=10): D1E1, D1E0.8; D1E0.5; D0.8E0.8; D0.8E0.5, and D0.5E0.5. CIELAB color coordinates were measured with a spectrophotometer. The translucency parameter of mono and bilayer specimens and the masking ability estimated by color variation (ΔE*ab) of bilayer specimens over simulated dental substrates were evaluated. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships translucency parameter × ΔE*, translucency parameter × porcelain thickness, and ΔE* × porcelain thickness. Data were analyzed statistically (α= 0.05). Thinner porcelain disks were associated with higher translucency. Porcelain monolayers were considerably more translucent than bilayers (enamel + dentin). Dentin porcelain was less translucent than enamel porcelain with same thickness. ΔE* was always lower when measured over A2 background. Higher ΔE* was observed for the C4 background, indicating poorer masking ability. Increased ΔE* was significantly associated with increased translucency for both backgrounds. Decreased translucency and ΔE* were associated with increased total porcelain thickness or increased dentin thickness for both backgrounds. In conclusion, increased porcelain thickness (particularly increased dentin layer) and increased porcelain opacity resulted in better masking ability of the dental backgrounds.

  14. Enamel roughness and depth profile after phosphoric acid etching of healthy and fluorotic enamel.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gallegos, I; Zavala-Alonso, V; Patiño-Marín, N; Martinez-Castañon, G A; Anusavice, K; Loyola-Rodríguez, J P

    2012-06-01

    Dental fluorosis requires aesthetic treatment to improve appearance and etching of enamel surfaces with phosphoric acid is a key step for adhesive restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate surface roughness and a depth profile in healthy and fluorotic enamel before and after phosphoric acid etching at 15, 30 and 60 seconds. One hundred and sixty enamel samples from third molars with no fluorosis to severe fluorosis were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Healthy enamel showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between mean surface roughness at 15 seconds (180.3 nm), 30 seconds (260.9 nm) and 60 seconds (346.5 nm); depth profiles revealed a significant difference for the 60 second treatment (4240.2 nm). For mild fluorosis, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between mean surface roughness for 30 second (307.8 nm) and 60 second (346.6 nm) treatments; differences in depth profiles were statistically significant at 15 seconds (2546.7 nm), 30 seconds (3884.2 nm) and 60 seconds (3612.1 nm). For moderate fluorosis, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed for surface roughness for 30 second (324.5 nm) and 60 second (396.6 nm) treatments. Surface roughness and depth profile analyses revealed that the best etching results were obtained at 15 seconds for the no fluorosis and mild fluorosis groups, and at 30 seconds for the moderate fluorosis group. Increasing the etching time for severe fluorosis decreased surface roughness and the depth profile, which suggests less micromechanical enamel retention for adhesive bonding applications. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Susceptibility of enamel to initial erosion in relation to tooth type, tooth surface and enamel depth.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago S; Lussi, A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the susceptibility of different tooth types (molar/premolar), surfaces (buccal/lingual) and enamel depths (100, 200, 400 and 600 μm) to initial erosion measured by surface microhardness loss (ΔSMH) and calcium (Ca) release. Twenty molars and 20 premolars were divided into experimental and control groups, cut into lingual/ buccal halves, and ground/polished, removing 100 μm of enamel. The initial surface microhardness (SMH 0 ) was measured on all halves. The experimental group was subjected to 3 consecutive erosive challenges (30 ml/tooth of 1% citric acid, pH 3.6, 25 ° C, 1 min). After each challenge, ΔSMH and Ca release were measured. The same teeth were consecutively ground to 200, 400 and 600 μm depths, and the experimental group underwent 3 erosive challenges at each depth. No difference was found in SMH 0 between experimental and control groups. Multivariate nonparametric ANOVA showed no significant differences between lingual and buccal surfaces in ΔSMH (p = 0.801) or Ca release (p = 0.370). ΔSMH was significantly greater in premolars than in molars (p < 0.05), but not different with respect to enamel depth. Ca release decreased significantly with increasing depth. Regression between Ca release and ΔSMH at 100 μm depth showed lower slope and r 2 value, associated with greater Ca release values. At 200-600 μm depths, moderately large r 2 values were observed (0.651-0.830). In conclusion, different teeth and enamel depths have different susceptibility to erosion, so when Ca release is used to measure erosion, the depth of the test facet in enamel should be standardized, whereas this is less important if ΔSMH is used.

  16. Keratins as components of the enamel organic matrix.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Beniash, Elia; Morasso, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Dental enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body, and although it starts as a tissue rich in proteins, by the time of eruption of the tooth in the oral cavity only a small fraction of the protein remains. While this organic matrix of enamel represents less than 1% by weight it plays essential roles in improving both toughness and resilience to chemical attacks. Despite the fact that the first studies of the enamel matrix began in the 19th century, its exact composition and mechanisms of its function remain poorly understood. It was proposed that keratin or a keratin-like primitive epithelial component exists in mature enamel, however due to the extreme insolubility of its organic matrix the presence of keratins there was never clearly established. We have recently identified expression of a number of hair keratins in ameloblasts, the enamel secreting cells, and demonstrated their incorporation into mature enamel. Mutation in epithelial hair keratin KRT75 leads to a skin condition called pseudofollicularis barbae. Carriers of this mutation have an altered enamel structure and mechanical properties. Importantly, these individuals have a much higher prevalence of caries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a direct link between a mutation in a protein-coding region of a gene and increased caries rates. In this paper we present an overview of the evidence of keratin-like material in enamel that has accumulated over the last 150years. Furthermore, we propose potential mechanisms of action of KTR75 in enamel and highlight the clinical implications of the link between mutations in KRT75 and caries. Finally, we discuss the potential use of keratins for enamel repair.

  17. Nanolayering of phosphoric acid ester monomer on enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Irie, Masao; Ogawa, Tatsuyuki; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Minagi, Shogo; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-08-01

    Following the "adhesion-decalcification" concept, specific functional monomers possess the capacity to primary chemically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Such ionic bonding with synthetic HAp has been demonstrated for 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP), manifest as self-assembled "nanolayering". In continuation of that basic research this study aimed to explore whether nanolayering also occurs on enamel and dentin when a 10-MDP primer is applied following a common clinical application protocol. Therefore, the interaction of an experimental 10-MDP primer and a control, commercially available, 10-MDP-based primer (Clearfil SE Bond primer (C-SE), Kuraray) with enamel and dentin was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), complemented with transmission electron microscopy interfacial ultrastructural data upon their reaction with enamel and dentin. In addition, XRD was used to study the effect of the concentration of 10-MDP on nanolayering on dentin. Finally, the stability of the nanolayers was determined by measuring the bond strength to enamel and dentin when a photoinitiator was added to the experimental primer or when interfacial polymerization depended solely on the photoinitiator supplied with the subsequently applied adhesive resin. XRD confirmed nanolayering on enamel and dentin, which was significantly greater on dentin than on enamel, and also when the surface was actively rubbed with the primer. Nanolayering was also proportional to the concentration of 10-MDP in the primer. Finally, the experimental primer needed the photoinitiator to obtain a tensile bond strength to dentin comparable with that of the control C-SE primer (which also contains a photoinitiator), but not when bonded to enamel. It is concluded that self-assembled nanolayering occurs on enamel and dentin, even when following a clinically used application protocol. The lower bonding effectiveness of mild self-etch adhesives to enamel should be ascribed in part to a lower

  18. Mammalian enamel maturation: Crystallographic changes prior to tooth eruption

    PubMed Central

    Kallistová, Anna; Horáček, Ivan; Šlouf, Miroslav; Skála, Roman; Fridrichová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Using the distal molar of a minipig as a model, we studied changes in the microstructural characteristics of apatite crystallites during enamel maturation (16-23 months of postnatal age), and their effects upon the mechanical properties of the enamel coat. The slow rate of tooth development in a pig model enabled us to reveal essential heterochronies in particular components of the maturation process. The maturation changes began along the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of the trigonid, spreading subsequently to the outer layers of the enamel coat to appear at the surface zone with a 2-month delay. Correspondingly, at the distal part of the tooth the timing of maturation processes is delayed by 3-5 month compared to the mesial part of the tooth. The early stage of enamel maturation (16-20 months), when the enamel coat is composed almost exclusively of radial prismatic enamel, is characterized by a gradual increase in crystallite thickness (by a mean monthly increment of 3.8 nm); and an increase in the prism width and thickness of crystals composed of elementary crystallites. The late stage of maturation (the last two months prior to tooth eruption), marked with the rapid appearance of the interprismatic matrix (IPM) during which the crystals densely infill spaces between prisms, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in microstrain and abrupt changes in the micromechanical properties of the enamel: a rapid increase in its ability to resist long-term load and its considerable hardening. The results suggest that in terms of crystallization dynamics the processes characterizing the early and late stage of mammalian enamel maturation represent distinct entities. In regards to common features with enamel formation in the tribosphenic molar we argue that the separation of these processes could be a common apomorphy of mammalian amelogenetic dynamics in general. PMID:28196135

  19. Keratins as components of the enamel organic matrix

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Beniash, Elia; Morasso, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Dental enamel is a hardest tissue in the human body, and although it starts as a tissue rich in proteins, by the time of eruption of the tooth in the oral cavity only a small fraction of the protein remains. While this organic matrix of enamel represents less than 1% by weight it plays essential roles in improving both toughness and resilience to chemical attacks. Despite the fact that the first studies of the enamel matrix began in the 19th century its exact composition and mechanisms of its function remain poorly understood. It was proposed that keratin or a keratin-like primitive epithelial component exists in mature enamel, however due to the extreme insolubility of its organic matrix the presence of keratins there was never clearly established. We have recently identified expression of a number of hair keratins in ameloblasts, the enamel secreting cells, and demonstrated their incorporation into mature enamel. Mutation in epithelial hair keratin KRT75 leads to a skin condition called pseudofollicularis barbae. Carriers of this mutation have an altered enamel structure and mechanical properties. Importantly, these individuals have a much higher prevalence of caries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a direct link between a mutation in a protein-coding region of a gene and increased caries rates. In this paper we present an overview of the evidence of keratin-like material in enamel that has accumulated over the last 150 years. Furthermore, we propose potential mechanisms of action of KTR75 in enamel and highlight the clinical implications of the link between mutations in KRT75 and caries. Finally, we discuss the potential use of keratins for enamel repair. PMID:26709044

  20. Enamel thickness in Bornean and Sumatran orangutan dentitions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M; Kupczik, Kornelius; Machanda, Zarin; Skinner, Matthew M; Zermeno, John P

    2012-03-01

    Dental enamel thickness has received considerable attention in ecological models of the adaptive significance of primate morphology. Several authors have theorized that the degree of enamel thickness may reflect selective pressures related to the consumption of fallback foods (dietary items that may require complex processing and/or have low nutritional value) during times of preferred food scarcity. Others have speculated that enamel thickness reflects selection during mastication of foods with particular material properties (i.e., toughness and hardness). Orangutans prefer ripe fruit when available, but show interspecific and sex differences in the consumption of fallback foods (bark, leaves, and figs) and other preferred foods (certain seeds). Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) have also been reported to masticate more mechanically demanding foods than Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). To test these ecological models, we assessed two-dimensional enamel thickness in orangutan full dentitions using established histological and virtual quantification methods. No significant differences in average enamel thickness (AET) were found between species. We found significant differences in the components of enamel thickness indices between sexes, with males showing greater enamel-dentine junction lengths and dentine core areas, and thus relatively thinner enamel than females. Comparisons of individuals of known sex and species revealed a dentition-wide trend for Bornean females to show greater AET than Sumatran females. Differences between small samples of males were less evident. These data provide only limited support for ecological explanations of enamel thickness patterns within great ape genera. Future studies of dietary ecology and enamel thickness should consider sex differences more systematically.

  1. The Presence of MMP-20 Reinforces Biomimetic Enamel Regrowth.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, S; Ruan, Q; Mukherjee, K; Nutt, S; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2017-08-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of artificial enamel is a promising strategy for the prevention and restoration of defective enamel. We have recently reported that a hydrogel system composed of chitosan-amelogenin (CS-AMEL) and calcium phosphate is effective in forming an enamel-like layer that has a seamless interface with natural tooth surfaces. Here, to improve the mechanical system function and to facilitate the biomimetic enamel regrowth, matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) was introduced into the CS-AMEL hydrogel. Inspired by our recent finding that MMP-20 prevents protein occlusion inside enamel crystals, we hypothesized that addition of MMP-20 to CS-AMEL hydrogel could reinforce the newly grown layer. Recombinant human MMP-20 was added to the CS-AMEL hydrogel to cleave full-length amelogenin during the growth of enamel-like crystals on an etched enamel surface. The MMP-20 proteolysis of amelogenin was studied, and the morphology, composition, and mechanical properties of the newly grown layer were characterized. We found that amelogenin was gradually degraded by MMP-20 in the presence of chitosan. The newly grown crystals in the sample treated with MMP-20-CS-AMEL hydrogel showed more uniform orientation and greater crystallinity than the samples treated with CS-AMEL hydrogel without MMP-20. Stepwise processing of amelogenin by MMP-20 in the CS-AMEL hydrogel prevented undesirable protein occlusion within the newly formed crystals. As a result, both the modulus and hardness of the repaired enamel were significantly increased (1.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively) by the MMP-20-CS-AMEL hydrogel. Although future work is needed to further incorporate other enamel matrix proteins into the system, this study brings us one step closer to biomimetic enamel regrowth.

  2. Spectrophotometric comparison of translucent composites and natural enamel.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Xu, B T; Li, R; Wang, Y N

    2010-01-01

    To compare the optical characters of four translucent composites and natural enamel. Thirty natural enamel slabs and 120 composite replicas (n=30) using four brands of translucent composites (Polofil Supra, Brilliant Esthetic, Gradia Direct, and Vit-l-escence) were evaluated at the thicknesses of 1.0mm and 0.8mm. The colors of the enamel slabs or corresponding composite specimens placed on an A3 shade, white and black backgrounds were measured using a spectrophotometer. Color differences (ΔE*) of the enamel-composite pairs and translucency parameter (TP) of each specimen were calculated. Reflection spectrums were recorded in the wavelength from 380nm to 780nm. Paired-t tests were performed to evaluate the differences of color coordinates (L*, a*, and b*) and TP values between the translucent composites and natural enamel. There were significant differences of color coordinates (L*, a*, and b*) between the enamel and translucent composites (P<0.05). Although no statistical difference of TP values were found in the enamel-composite pairs with Polofil Supra and Brilliant Esthetic composites. The main peaks of the reflectance spectrums of the enamel are different from the four brands of the translucent composites. A reddish shifting of the main reflection peaks was observed, while the thickness of the composite specimens decreasing from 1.0mm to 0.8mm. Whereas, the main reflection peak was not changed in the teeth enamel. The color and the translucency of translucent composites are different from the teeth enamel. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mammalian enamel maturation: Crystallographic changes prior to tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Kallistová, Anna; Horáček, Ivan; Šlouf, Miroslav; Skála, Roman; Fridrichová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Using the distal molar of a minipig as a model, we studied changes in the microstructural characteristics of apatite crystallites during enamel maturation (16-23 months of postnatal age), and their effects upon the mechanical properties of the enamel coat. The slow rate of tooth development in a pig model enabled us to reveal essential heterochronies in particular components of the maturation process. The maturation changes began along the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of the trigonid, spreading subsequently to the outer layers of the enamel coat to appear at the surface zone with a 2-month delay. Correspondingly, at the distal part of the tooth the timing of maturation processes is delayed by 3-5 month compared to the mesial part of the tooth. The early stage of enamel maturation (16-20 months), when the enamel coat is composed almost exclusively of radial prismatic enamel, is characterized by a gradual increase in crystallite thickness (by a mean monthly increment of 3.8 nm); and an increase in the prism width and thickness of crystals composed of elementary crystallites. The late stage of maturation (the last two months prior to tooth eruption), marked with the rapid appearance of the interprismatic matrix (IPM) during which the crystals densely infill spaces between prisms, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in microstrain and abrupt changes in the micromechanical properties of the enamel: a rapid increase in its ability to resist long-term load and its considerable hardening. The results suggest that in terms of crystallization dynamics the processes characterizing the early and late stage of mammalian enamel maturation represent distinct entities. In regards to common features with enamel formation in the tribosphenic molar we argue that the separation of these processes could be a common apomorphy of mammalian amelogenetic dynamics in general.

  4. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  5. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  6. The effect of brushing time and dentifrice quantity on fluoride delivery in vivo and enamel surface microhardness in situ.

    PubMed

    Zero, D T; Creeth, J E; Bosma, M L; Butler, A; Guibert, R G; Karwal, R; Lynch, R J M; Martinez-Mier, E A; González-Cabezas, C; Kelly, S A

    2010-01-01

    While the clinical anticaries efficacy of fluoride toothpaste is now without question, our understanding of the relation of fluoride efficacy to brushing time and dentifrice quantity is limited. The aim of this in situ study was to determine how differences in brushing time and dentifrice quantity influence (i) fluoride distribution immediately after brushing, (ii) clearance of fluoride in saliva, (iii) enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) and (iv) enamel strengthening, via the increase in surface microhardness. The study compared brushing times of 30, 45, 60, 120 and 180 s with 1.5 g of dentifrice containing 1,100 microg/g fluoride as sodium fluoride. In addition, 60 s of brushing with 0.5 g dentifrice was evaluated. A longer brushing time progressively reduced retention of dentifrice in the brush, thereby increasing the amount delivered into the mouth. A longer brushing time also increased fluoride concentrations in saliva for at least 2 h after the conclusion of brushing, showing that increased contact time promoted fluoride retention in the oral cavity. There was a statistically significant positive linear relationship between brushing time and both enamel strengthening and EFU. Compared to 0.5 g dentifrice, brushing with 1.5 g dentifrice more than doubled the fluoride recovered in saliva after brushing and increased EFU. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary, short-term usage study suggest for the first time that both brushing time and dentifrice quantity may be important determinants both of fluoride retention in the oral cavity and consequent enamel remineralization.

  7. Microhardness and Roughness of Enamel Bleached with 10% Carbamide Peroxide and Brushed with Different Toothpastes: An In Situ Study

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Carolina França de Medeiros; Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: This in situ study evaluated the roughness and microhardness of enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide (PC10) and brushed with different toothpastes. Materials and Methods: Two groups of volunteers received PC10 and placebo agents for 21 days in two phases in a crossover 2 × 3 study. Fragments of human enamel were distributed among intraoral removable appliances (IRA). Nine fragments, divided into three triplets, were used in each IRA, and these were brushed with toothpastes R (Colgate), W (Colgate Total 12 Whiteness Gel) or BS (Colgate Whitening Oxygen Bubbles Fluoride). Treatments agents were applied for 8 h overnight. After brushing, the volunteers used the IRA for about 16 h/day. After a washout period, new IRAs were distributed and the volunteers were crossed over to the alternate agent for 21 days. Roughness and microhardness were measured before and after each phase. Results: According to the paired Student’s t-test, roughness of enamel increased and microhardness decreased (P < 0.05). According to analysis of variance generalized linear models, only the toothpaste factor was significant (P = 0.037) for roughness. Conclusion: Enamel microhardness and surface roughness are altered when PC10 bleaching is associated with tooth brushing using toothpastes BS, R, and W. PMID:25214727

  8. Fatigue limits of enamel bonds with moist and dry techniques.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Shear fatigue limit (SFL) testing, coupled with shear bond strength (SBS) measurements can provide valuable information regarding the ability of adhesive systems to bond to mineralized tooth structures. The clinical technique for enamel bonding with adhesive resins has shifted from bonding to a thoroughly dried acid conditioned surface to a moist surface to facilitate dentin bonding. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of ethanol-containing etch-and-rinse adhesive (ERA) systems on moist and dry enamel by determining the resin composite to enamel SBS and SFL, and examining the relationship of SBS and SFL. Twelve specimens each were used to determine 24-h resin composite (Z100 - 3M ESPE) to enamel SBS to moist and dry surfaces with two ERA systems, Adper Single Bond Plus (SBP) and OptiBond Solo Plus (OBP). A staircase method of fatigue testing was used in a four-station fatigue cycler to determine the SFL of resin composite to enamel bonds (moist and dry) with the two ERA systems (20 specimens for each test condition) at 0.25Hz for 40,000 cycles. ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were used for the SBS data and a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for comparisons of SFL. The two ERA systems each generated statistically similar SBS (p>0.05) to moist and dry enamel and the SBS of SBP was significantly higher than OBP on dry enamel (p<0.05). The SFL of SBP was significantly greater to dry enamel when compared to moist enamel and there was not a significant difference in the SFL of OBP on dry and moist enamel. There were no significant differences in SFL values between SBP on either moist or dry enamel and OBP on both moist and dry enamel. Fatigue testing may provide more useful information than SBS tests regarding the performance of dental adhesive systems. The chemical composition, solvents and filler components of ERA systems may influence their ability to develop long-term durable bonds to both moist and dry enamel surfaces.

  9. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W.; Constantino, Paul J.; Bromage, Timothy G.; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged. PMID:25319817

  10. Toothpaste Prevents Debonded Brackets on Erosive Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Érico Luiz Damasceno; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Ellwood, Roger Phillip; Pretty, Ian; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high fluoride dentifrice on the bond strength of brackets after erosive challenge. Eighty-four enamel specimens were divided into seven groups (n = 12): WN (distilled water/no acid challenge), W3C (distilled water/3 cycles of acid challenge), and W6C (distilled water/6 cycles of acid challenge) were not submitted to dentifrice treatment. Groups RF3C (regular fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and RF6C (regular fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were treated with dentifrices containing 1450 μg F−/g and HF3C (high fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and HF6C (high fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were with 5000 μg F−/g. Acid challenges were performed for seven days. After bond strength test, there was no significant difference among groups submitted to 3 cycles of acid challenge (P > 0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between the regular and high fluoride dentifrices after 6 cycles of acid challenge (<0.05). Similar areas of adhesive remaining were found among control groups and among groups W6C, RF3C, RF6C, HF3C, and HF6C. The high fluoride dentifrice was able to prevent the reduction of bond strength values of brackets submitted to acid challenge. Clinical relevance: the high fluoride toothpaste prevents debonded brackets on erosive enamel. PMID:25879058

  11. Mechanics of microwear traces in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Lopez, Oscar; Pajares, Antonia; Constantino, Paul J; Lawn, Brian R

    2015-03-01

    It is hypothesized that microwear traces in natural tooth enamel can be simulated and quantified using microindentation mechanics. Microcontacts associated with particulates in the oral wear medium are modeled as sharp indenters with fixed semi-apical angle. Distinction is made between markings from static contacts (pits) and translational contacts (scratches). Relations for the forces required to produce contacts of given dimensions are derived, with particle angularity and compliance specifically taken into account so as to distinguish between different abrasives in food sources. Images of patterns made on human enamel with sharp indenters in axial and sliding loading are correlated with theoretical predictions. Special attention is given to threshold conditions for transition from a microplasticity to a microcracking mode, corresponding to mild and severe wear domains. It is demonstrated that the typical microwear trace is generated at loads on the order of 1N - i.e. much less than the forces exerted in normal biting - attesting to the susceptibility of teeth to wear in everyday mastication, especially in diets with sharp, hard and large inclusive intrinsic or extraneous particulates. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Development of fluorapatite cement for dental enamel defects repair.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Wang, Jiecheng; Shan, Wenpeng; Liu, Xiaochen; Ma, Jian; Liu, Changsheng; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2011-06-01

    In order to restore the badly carious lesion of human dental enamel, a crystalline paste of fluoride substituted apatite cement was synthesized by using the mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and ammonium fluoride. The apatite cement paste could be directly filled into the enamel defects (cavities) to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the hardened cement was fluorapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)F(2), FA] with calcium to phosphorus atom molar ratio (Ca/P) of 1.67 and Ca/F ratio of 5. The solubility of FA cement in Tris-HCl solution (pH = 5) was slightly lower than the natural enamel, indicating the FA cement was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solutions. The FA cement was tightly combined with the enamel surface, and there was no obvious difference of the hardness between the FA cement and natural enamel. The extracts of FA cement caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. In addition, the results showed that the FA cement had good mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, and anti-bacterial adhesion properties. The study suggested that using FA cement was simple and promising approach to effectively and conveniently restore enamel defects.

  13. Assessment of enamel damage after removal of ceramic brackets.

    PubMed

    Kitahara-Céia, Flávia Mitiko Fernandes; Mucha, José Nelson; Marques dos Santos, Paulo Acioly

    2008-10-01

    Since the introduction of ceramic brackets, research has been performed to evaluate enamel damage caused during their removal. One problem in comparing treated and control groups is the absence of assurance that the surfaces were undamaged before the brackets were bonded and debonded, or that superficial treatment applied to the enamel could hinder damage detection. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate enamel injuries during debonding of 3 types of ceramic brackets. Forty-five premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes, were divided into 3 groups of 15. The enamel surfaces were photographed with a magnifying loupe (60 times) in an optical stereomicroscope (Stemi 2000-C, Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) with a digital camera. A different type of backet was bonded and debonded in each group: mechanical retention, mechanical retention with a polymer base, and chemical retention. After debonding, the surfaces were again photographed. The photographs were evaluated for quality of enamel surface according to a predetermined scale. The results were tested by method error and the chi-square test. The damage evaluation comparing the same surface before bonding and after debonding showed no significant statistical difference between the mechanical retention group and the polymer base retention group. There was a significant statistical difference (P <0.05) for the chemical adhesion ceramic bracket group. The difference between the enamel surfaces before bonding and after debonding brackets with chemical retention was statistically significant; bonding and debonding these brackets resulted in enamel damage.

  14. Thermal treatments modulate bacterial adhesion to dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Hu, X L; Ho, B; Lim, C T; Hsu, C S

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of laser-induced heat on demineralization of enamel; however, no studies have investigated the link between heat/laser-induced changes in physicochemical properties and bacterial adhesion. In this study, we investigated the effects of thermal treatment on surface properties of enamel such as hydrophobicity and zeta potential. Bacterial adhesion to treated surfaces was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and adhesion force was quantified by atomic force microscopy. The hydrophobicity of enamel increased after heating (p < 0.05), and the zeta potential of heated enamel became more negative than that of the control (p < 0.01). Streptococcus oralis and S. mitis were more hydrophilic than S. sanguis, with more negative zeta potential (all p < 0.01). S. mitis and S. oralis occupied significantly less area on enamel after being heated (p < 0.05). Heating reduced the adhesion force of both S. mitis and S. oralis to enamel with or without saliva coating. Reduction of adhesion force was statistically significant for S. mitis (p < 0.01), whereas that of S. oralis was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Heating did not affect the adhesion of S. sanguis with or without saliva coating. In conclusion, thermal treatment and photothermal/laser treatments may modulate the physicochemical properties of enamel, preventing the adhesion of some bacterial species.

  15. Enamel microabrasion: An overview of clinical and scientific considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Sundfeld-Neto, Daniel; Aguiar, Flavio Henrique Baggio; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes; Lovadino, José Roberto; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2015-01-01

    Superficial stains and irregularities of the enamel are generally what prompt patients to seek dental intervention to improve their smile. These stains or defects may be due to hypoplasia, amelogenesis imperfecta, mineralized white spots, or fluorosis, for which enamel microabrasion is primarily indicated. Enamel microabrasion involves the use of acidic and abrasive agents, such as with 37% phosphoric acid and pumice or 6% hydrochloric acid and silica, applied to the altered enamel surface with mechanical pressure from a rubber cup coupled to a rotatory mandrel of a low-rotation micromotor. If necessary, this treatment can be safely combined with bleaching for better esthetic results. Recent studies show that microabrasion is a conservative treatment when the enamel wear is minimal and clinically imperceptible. The most important factor contributing to the success of enamel microabrasion is the depth of the defect, as deeper, opaque stains, such as those resulting from hypoplasia, cannot be resolved with microabrasion, and require a restorative approach. Surface enamel alterations that result from microabrasion, such as roughness and microhardness, are easily restored by saliva. Clinical studies support the efficacy and longevity of this safe and minimally invasive treatment. The present article presents the clinical and scientific aspects concerning the microabrasion technique, and discusses the indications for and effects of the treatment, including recent works describing microscopic and clinical evaluations. PMID:25610848

  16. Effect of surface treatment on enamel surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Ersahan, Seyda; Alakus Sabuncuoglu, Fidan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of different methods of surface treatment on enamel roughness. Ninety human maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n=30) according to type of enamel surface treatment: I, acid etching; II, Er:YAG laser; III, Nd:YAG laser. The surface roughness of enamel was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each enamel sample, two readings were taken across the sample-before enamel surface treatment (T1) and after enamel surface treatment (T2). The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra). Statistical analysis was performed using a Paired sample t test and the post-hoc Mann- Whitney U test, with the significance level set at 0.05. The highest Ra (average roughness) values were observed for Group II, with a significant difference with Groups I and III (P<0.001). Ra values for the acid etching group (Group I) were significantly lower than other groups (P<0.001). Surface treatment of enamel with Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser results in significantly higher Ra than acid-etching. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  17. Primary tooth enamel loss after manual and mechanical microabrasion.

    PubMed

    Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Azevedo, Elcilaine Rizzato; Lima, Luciana Monti

    2008-01-01

    This study's purpose was to assess the amount of dental enamel loss on primary incisors after manual or mechanical microabrasion with a phosphoric acid/pumice paste. Ten exfoliated primary maxillary incisors were bisected faciolingually and the resulting 20 halves were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group 1 (N = 10)-manual technique (plastic spatula); and group 2 (N = 10)-mechanical technique (rubber cup attached to a low-speed handpiece). Microabrasion was performed on the buccal surface using an abrasive paste prepared with 37% phosphoric acid and pumice. Ten 20-second applications alternated with 20-second risings were performed in each group. Enamel thickness measurements made under stereomicroscopy before and after microabrasion were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and pairwise t test. There was a statistically significant difference (P = .003) between the manual and mechanical techniques. The mechanical technique produced a mean enamel loss of 274.16 microm (66% of total enamel thickness), while the mean enamel loss with the manual technique was 152.59 microm (39% of total enamel thickness). Manual microabrasion using a plastic spatula removed less enamel, but was sufficient to eliminate most superficial stains and defects, and may be a viable option for the microabrasive technique on primary teeth.

  18. Kinetic cavity preparation: protection of the cavo-surface enamel.

    PubMed

    Goto, G; Zhang, Y

    1996-01-01

    A significant defect of kinetic cavity preparation systems is damage to cavo-surface sound tooth enamel. The purpose of this study is to establish a protective method for cavo-surface sound tooth enamel during air-powder abrasive system cavity preparation, using protective varnish. A total of 39 extracted human primary teeth were used for this experiment. Protective varnish was applied to the tooth surface in single, double and triple coats. The kinetic instrument was used for cavity preparation. Class V cavities were prepared on the border area of varnish coated and intact tooth surface. After removal of varnish with a supersonic washer, specimens were dried and gold plated with ion-spatter, following which cavity margin enamel was observed through a SEM. Tooth surface enamel where coated with varnish appeared intact and the cavo-surface margin remained at a right angle form. However, tooth surface enamel without varnish coating appeared rough, and the cavo-surface margin exhibited a round shape. It seems likely that kinetic energy was absorbed by the soft varnish coating, thereby protecting the enamel. Protective varnish was found to provide a protective effect for cavo-surface sound enamel, and was also found to promote a sharp edge at the cavo-surface margin, during kinetic cavity preparation.

  19. Enamel mineral content in patients with severe tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Sierpinska, Teresa; Orywal, Karolina; Kuc, Joanna; Golebiewska, Maria; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The amounts of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in enamel may be crucial for maintaining its integrity and to attenuate potential environmental effects on teeth. The aim of this study was to examine whether the mineral composition of enamel could influence tooth wear. A total of 50 patients with severe tooth wear were compared with 20 healthy volunteers. Tooth wear was assessed using clinical examination according to the protocol of Smith and Knight. Subsequently, the maxillary central incisors of each subject were subjected to acid biopsies to assess the mineral composition in the enamel. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame was used to analyze for Ca, Zn, and Mg. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze for Cu. The concentrations of Ca and Mg in tooth enamel were comparable in the study and control groups. Zn enamel content was higher in patients with tooth wear, and Cu enamel content was lower in these patients compared with the control group. The differing Zn and Cu contents in tooth enamel might offer a reason for excessive tooth wear in these patients. However, the results require further, more detailed study.

  20. Evolution of Klk4 and enamel maturation in eutherians

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Hu, Jan C.-C; Simmer, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) is a secreted serine protease that degrades residual enamel proteins to facilitate their removal by ameloblasts, which increases mineralization and hardens the enamel. Mutations in human KLK4 cause hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. Enamel formed by Klk4 null mice is normal in thickness and prism structure, but the enamel layer retains proteins, is hypomineralized, and undergoes rapid attrition following tooth eruption. We searched multiple databases, retrieved Klk4 and Klk5 from various mammalian genomes, and identified Klk4 in 47 boreoeutherian genomes. In non-Boreoeutheria, Klk4 was detected in only one afrotherian genome (as a pseudogene), and not in the other six afrotherian, two xenarthran, or three marsupial genomes. In contrast, Klk5 was detected in both marsupial and eutherian mammals. Our phylogenetic and mutation rate analyses support the hypothesis that Klk4 arose from Klk5 by gene duplication near the divergence of Afrotheria, Xenarthra and Boreoeutheria, and that functionally- differentiated Klk4 survived only in Boreoeutheria. Afrotherian mammals share the feature of delayed dental eruption relative to boreoeutherian mammals. KLK4 shortens the time required for enamel maturation and could have alleviated negative selection following mutations that resulted in thicker enamel or earlier tooth eruption, without reducing enamel hardness or causing dental attrition. PMID:25153384

  1. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    DOE PAGES

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; ...

    2016-03-24

    We report that enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-likemore » structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. Lastly, we propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development.« less

  2. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; Horst, Jeremy A.; Sitlin, Melody; Nguyen, Mychi; Wagner, Martin; Simpliciano, Cheryl; Milder, Melissa; Chen, Chun-Long; Ashby, Paul; Bonde, Johan; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2016-03-24

    We report that enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-like structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. Lastly, we propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development.

  3. Enamel Defects Reflect Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Jedeon, Katia; De la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Brookes, Steven J.; Loiodice, Sophia; Marciano, Clémence; Kirkham, Jennifer; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Boudalia, Sofiane; Bergès, Raymond; Harada, Hidemitsu; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are environmental ubiquitous pollutants and associated with a growing health concern. Anecdotally, molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is increasing concurrently with EDC-related conditions, which has led us to investigate the effect of BPA on amelogenesis. Rats were exposed daily to BPA from conception until day 30 or 100. At day 30, BPA-affected enamel exhibited hypomineralization similar to human MIH. Scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed an abnormal accumulation of organic material in erupted enamel. BPA-affected enamel had an abnormal accumulation of exogenous albumin in the maturation stage. Quantitative real-timePCR, Western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays revealed increased expression of enamelin but decreased expression of kallikrein 4 (protease essential for removing enamel proteins) via transcriptional regulation. Data suggest that BPA exerts its effects on amelogenesis by disrupting normal protein removal from the enamel matrix. Interestingly, in 100-day-old rats, erupting incisor enamel was normal, suggesting amelogenesis is only sensitive to MIH-causing agents during a specific time window during development (as reported for human MIH). The present work documents the first experimental model that replicates MIH and presents BPA as a potential causative agent of MIH. Because human enamel defects are irreversible, MIH may provide an easily accessible marker for reporting early EDC exposure in humans. PMID:23764278

  4. Retinoic Acid Excess Impairs Amelogenesis Inducing Enamel Defects

    PubMed Central

    Morkmued, Supawich; Laugel-Haushalter, Virginie; Mathieu, Eric; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Dollé, Pascal; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Niederreither, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities of enamel matrix proteins deposition, mineralization, or degradation during tooth development are responsible for a spectrum of either genetic diseases termed Amelogenesis imperfecta or acquired enamel defects. To assess if environmental/nutritional factors can exacerbate enamel defects, we investigated the role of the active form of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA). Robust expression of RA-degrading enzymes Cyp26b1 and Cyp26c1 in developing murine teeth suggested RA excess would reduce tooth hard tissue mineralization, adversely affecting enamel. We employed a protocol where RA was supplied to pregnant mice as a food supplement, at a concentration estimated to result in moderate elevations in serum RA levels. This supplementation led to severe enamel defects in adult mice born from pregnant dams, with most severe alterations observed for treatments from embryonic day (E)12.5 to E16.5. We identified the enamel matrix proteins enamelin (Enam), ameloblastin (Ambn), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (Odam) as target genes affected by excess RA, exhibiting mRNA reductions of over 20-fold in lower incisors at E16.5. RA treatments also affected bone formation, reducing mineralization. Accordingly, craniofacial ossification was drastically reduced after 2 days of treatment (E14.5). Massive RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on E14.5 and E16.5 lower incisors. Reductions in Runx2 (a key transcriptional regulator of bone and enamel differentiation) and its targets were observed at E14.5 in RA-exposed embryos. RNA-seq analysis further indicated that bone growth factors, extracellular matrix, and calcium homeostasis were perturbed. Genes mutated in human AI (ENAM, AMBN, AMELX, AMTN, KLK4) were reduced in expression at E16.5. Our observations support a model in which elevated RA signaling at fetal stages affects dental cell lineages. Thereafter enamel protein production is impaired, leading to permanent enamel alterations. PMID:28111553

  5. ON THE R-CURVE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is function of distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67 ± 0.12 MPa·m0.5), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPa·m0.5/mm to 3.93 MPa·m0.5/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (Kc)) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPa·m0.5. Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone. PMID:19427691

  6. Effect of Kallikrein 4 Loss on Enamel Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Charles E.; Richardson, Amelia S.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bartlett, John D.; Hu, Jan C-C.; Simmer, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Enamel formation depends on a triad of tissue-specific matrix proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) to help initiate and stabilize progressively elongating, thin mineral ribbons of hydroxyapatite formed during an appositional growth phase. Subsequently, these proteins are eradicated to facilitate lateral expansion of the hydroxyapatite crystallites. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in enamel mineralization occurring in mice unable to produce kallikrein 4 (Klk4), a proteinase associated with terminal extracellular degradation of matrix proteins during the maturation stage. Mice lacking functional matrix metalloproteinase 20 (Mmp20), a proteinase associated with early cleavage of matrix proteins during the secretory stage, were also analyzed as a frame of reference. The results indicated that mice lacking Klk4 produce enamel that is normal in thickness and overall organization in terms of layers and rod/inter-rod structure, but there is a developmental defect in enamel rods where they first form near the dentinoenamel junction. Mineralization is normal up to early maturation after which the enamel both retains and gains additional proteins and is unable to mature beyond 85% mineral by weight. The outmost enamel is hard, but inner regions are soft and contain much more protein than normal. The rate of mineral acquisition overall is lower by 25%. Mice lacking functional Mmp20 produce enamel that is thin and structurally abnormal. Relatively high amounts of protein remain throughout maturation, but the enamel is able to change from 67 to 75% mineral by weight during maturation. These findings reaffirm the importance of secreted proteinases to enamel mineral acquisition. PMID:21454549

  7. ON THE BRITTLENESS OF ENAMEL AND SELECTED DENTAL MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Park, S.; Quinn, J. B; Romberg, E.; Arola, D.

    2008-01-01

    Although brittle material behavior is often considered undesirable, a quantitative measure of “brittleness” is currently not used in assessing the clinical merits of dental materials. Objective To quantify and compare the brittleness of human enamel and common dental restorative materials used for crown replacement. Methods Specimens of human enamel were prepared from the 3rd molars of “young” (18≤age≤25) and “old” (50≤age) patients. The hardness, elastic modulus and apparent fracture toughness were characterized as a function of distance from the DEJ using indentation approaches. These properties were then used in estimating the brittleness according to a model that accounts for the competing dissipative processes of deformation and fracture. The brittleness of selected porcelain, ceramic and Micaceous Glass Ceramic (MGC) dental materials was estimated and compared with that of the enamel. Results The average brittleness of the young and old enamel increased with distance from the DEJ. For the old enamel the average brittleness increased from approximately 300 µm−1 at the DEJ to nearly 900 µm−1 at the occlusal surface. While there was no significant difference between the two age groups at the DEJ, the brittleness of the old enamel was significantly greater (and up to 4 times higher) than that of the young enamel near the occlusal surface. The brittleness numbers for the restorative materials were up to 90% lower than that of young occlusal enamel. Significance The brittleness index could serve as a useful scale in the design of materials used for crown replacement, as well as a quantitative tool for characterizing degradation in the mechanical behavior of enamel. PMID:18436299

  8. Influence of water-layer thickness on Er:YAG laser ablation of enamel of bovine anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Mir, Maziar; Meister, Joerg; Franzen, Rene; Sabounchi, Shabnam S; Lampert, Friedrich; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2008-10-01

    Different ideas have been presented to describe the mechanism of augmented laser ablation of dental enamel with different shapes by adding water to the working environment. In this study, the influence of water-laser interaction on the surface of enamel during ablation was investigated at a wavelength of 2.94 microm with different distances between the laser tip and the enamel surface. A motion-control system was used to produce linear incisions uniformly on flat enamel surfaces of bovine anterior teeth, with free-running Er:YAG laser very short pulses (pulse length = 90-120 micros, repetition rate = 10 pulses per second). Four different output energies (100, 200, 300 and 400 mJ) were radiated on samples under distilled water from different distances (0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.00 mm). The tooth slices were prepared with a cutting machine, and the surfaces of the ablated areas were measured with software under a light microscope. The average and standard deviation of all cut areas in different groups were reported. There was no significant difference when using a different pulse ablation speed (cm(3)/J) and a water-layer thickness between the tip and enamel surface of 0.5-1.25 mm with energy densities of 30-60 J/cm(2) (200-400 mJ). However, using an output energy of 15 J/cm(2) (100 mJ) and a thicker water layer than 1 mm, a linear ablation did not take place. This information led to a clearer view of the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the conditions of this study. There are several hypotheses which describe a hydrokinetic effect of Er,Cr:YSGG. These basic studies could guide us to have a correct attitude regarding hydro-mechanical effects of water, although the wavelength of 2.78 microm has a better absorption in hydroxyl branch of water molecules. Therefore, our results do not directly interrupt with the series of investigations done with Er,Cr:YSGG. Water propagation and channel formation under water are investigated during the ablation of tooth enamel with

  9. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  10. The precision of three enamel biopsy methods for fluoride determination.

    PubMed

    Spörri, S; Belser, U; Mühlemann, H R

    1975-10-01

    3 different enamel biopsy methods were tested on 2 maxillary permanent incisors on each of 90 schoolchildren. In methods A and B the round biopsy field was bordered by copalite varnish, while method C utilized a scotch tape border. The biopsy itself resulted from etching the enamel surface with 2N perchloric acid for 7 sec for method A, and 14 sec for methods B and C. Flouride was measured with the fluoride activity electrode. The doubled etching time caused only a 30 to 40% increase of enamel removal. Method C showed the best reproducibility.

  11. In Vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Tooth Dosimetry: Dependence of Radiation-Induced Signal Amplitude on the Enamel Thickness and Surface Area of Ex Vivo Human Teeth.

    PubMed

    Umakoshi, Michitaka; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Hirata, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Williams, Benjamin B; Swartz, Harold M; Miyake, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    In vivo L-band electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry is a newly developed and very promising method for retrospective biodosimetry in individuals who may have been exposed to significant levels of ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to determine the relationships among enamel thickness, enamel area, and measured electron paramagnetic resonance signal amplitude with a view to improve the quantitative accuracy of the dosimetry technique. Ten isolated incisors were irradiated using well-characterized doses, and their radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signals were measured. Following the measurements, the enamel thickness and area of each tooth were measured using micro-focus computed tomography. Linear regression showed that the enamel area at each measurement position significantly affected the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal amplitude (p < 0.001). Simulation data agreed well with this result. These results indicate that it is essential to properly consider enamel thickness and area when interpreting electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry measurements to optimize the accuracy of dose estimation.

  12. Resin bonding using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives to decalcified deciduous enamel after bioactive glass air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-09-01

    Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique for removal of initial decalcified enamel superficial layer and caries vs alumina air abrasion. This study evaluated shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified deciduous enamel using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives after alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. Ninety-six fat enamel surfaces, mounted in acrylic resin, were prepared from 48 deciduous molars. Half of the specimens were decalcified with a demineralizing solution. Both intact and decalcified specimens were assigned to two groups for alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two groups for application of Clearfil SE Bond or Optibond FL adhesives (n = 12). After composite resin bonding, the specimens underwent shear bond test. Data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear regression model and independent-sample t-test (α = 0.05). No significant differences were noted in bond strength of composite resin after alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion (p = 0.272). Optibond FL adhesive and enamel decalcification produced higher bond strength (p = 0.000, p = 0.001 respectively). In this study, bioactive glass air abrasion produced bond strength comparable to the conventional method. This technique might be an alternative method for preparation of normal and/or decalcified enamel of deciduous teeth for resin bonding.

  13. Natural enamel caries in polarized light microscopy: differences in histopathological features derived from a qualitative versus a quantitative approach to interpret enamel birefringence.

    PubMed

    De Medeiros, R C G; Soares, J D; De Sousa, F B

    2012-05-01

    Lesion area measurement of enamel caries using polarized light microscopy (PLM) is currently performed in a large number of studies, but measurements are based mainly on a mislead qualitative interpretation of enamel birefringence in a single immersion medium. Here, five natural enamel caries lesions are analysed by microradiography and in PLM, and the differences in their histopathological features derived from a qualitative versus a quantitative interpretation of enamel birefringence are described. Enamel birefringence in different immersion media (air, water and quinoline) is interpreted by both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the former leading to an underestimation of the depth of enamel caries mainly when the criterion of validating sound enamel as a negatively birefringent area in immersion in water is used (a current common practice in dental research). Procedures to avoid the shortcomings of a qualitative interpretation of enamel birefringence are presented and discussed. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. In vitro evaluation of the erosive potential of orange juice modified by food additives in enamel and dentine.

    PubMed

    Scaramucci, Taís; Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T; Ferreira, Stella S; Aoki, Idalina V; Sobral, Maria Angela P

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the erosive potential of orange juice modified by food additives in enamel and dentine. Calcium lactate pentahydrate (CLP), xanthan gum (XG), sodium linear polyphosphate (LPP), sodium pyrophosphate tetrabasic (PP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) and some of their combinations were added to an orange juice. Pure orange juice and a calcium-modified juice were used as negative (C-) and positive (C+) controls, respectively. In phase 1, 15 modified orange juices were tested for erosive potential using pH-stat analysis. In phase 2, the additives alone and the combination with good results in phase 1 and in previous studies (CLP+LPP) were tested in an erosion-remineralization cycling model. In phase 3, the erosion and remineralization episodes were studied independently. Enamel was analysed by surface microhardness (SMH) and profilometry, whilst dentine by profilometry. In phase 1, reduction of the erosive potential was observed for all additives and their combinations, except XG alone. In phase 2, no detectable enamel loss was observed when CLP, LPP and CLP+LPP were added to the juice. XG, STP and PP had enamel loss similar to C- (p>0.05). Amongst additives, the combination CLP+LPP showed the highest SMH values followed by CLP (p<0.05). All the other groups presented SMH values similar to C- (p>0.05). For dentine, only CLP+LPP lead to surface loss values lower than C- (p<0.05). In phase 3, CLP, LPP and CLP+LPP seemed to protect against erosion; whilst none of the tested compounds seemed to interfere with the remineralization process. CLP and LPP reduced erosion on enamel and this effect was enhanced by their combination. For dentine, only the combination CLP+LPP reduced erosion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined Tin-Containing Fluoride Solution and CO2 Laser Treatment Reduces Enamel Erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Witulski, Nadine; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Apel, Christian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of combined CO2 laser and tin-containing fluoride treatment on the formation and progression of enamel erosive lesions. Ninety-six human enamel samples were obtained, stored in thymol solution and, after surface polishing, randomly divided into 6 different surface treatment groups (n = 16 in each group) as follows: no treatment, control (C); one CO2 laser irradiation (L1); two CO2 laser irradiations (L2); daily application of fluoride solution (F); combined daily fluoride solution + one CO2 laser irradiation (L1F), and combined daily fluoride solution + two CO2 laser irradiations (L2F). Laser irradiation was performed at 0.3 J/cm2 (5 µs/226 Hz/10.6 µm) on day 1 (L1) and day 6 (L2). The fluoride solution contained AmF/NaF (500 ppm F), and SnCl2 (800 ppm Sn) at pH 4.5. After surface treatment the samples were submitted to an erosive cycling over 10 days, including immersion in citric acid (2 min/0.05 M/pH = 2.3) 6 times daily and storage in remineralization solution (≥1 h) between erosive attacks. At the end of each cycling day, the enamel surface loss (micrometers) was measured using a 3D laser profilometer. Data were statistically analyzed by means of a 2-level mixed effects model and linear contrasts (α = 0.05). Group F (-3.3 ± 2.0 µm) showed significantly lower enamel surface loss than groups C (-27.22 ± 4.1 µm), L1 (-18.3 ± 4.4 µm) and L2 (-16.3 ± 5.3 µm) but higher than L1F (-1.0 ± 4.4 µm) and L2F (1.4 ± 3.2 µm, p < 0.05). Under the conditions of this in vitro study, the tin-containing fluoride solution caused 88% reduction of enamel surface loss, while its combination with CO2 laser irradiation at 0.3 J/cm2 hampered erosive loss almost completely. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Microshear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Enamel Remineralized Using Casein Phosphopeptide Agents.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, E H; Ali, N; Daifalla, L E

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the difference between bonding to demineralized enamel and remineralized enamel using casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACFP) or without fluoride (CPP-ACP) compared to normal enamel. Another aim was to test if the newly introduced Single Bond Universal adhesive system would show better bonding to any enamel condition in comparison to the other tested adhesive systems. The lingual enamel surfaces of 40 non carious human third molars were divided into four main groups according to the enamel condition (ground normal enamel [negative control]; demineralized enamel [positive control]; and remineralized enamel with CPP-ACP or with CPP-ACFP, respectively). Within each main group, the lingual enamel surface of each tooth was sectioned into three slabs, resulting in 30 slabs that were distributed into three subgroups according to the adhesive system utilized (Clearfil S(3) Bond Plus, Single Bond Universal, or G-aenial Bond). Two resin composite microcylinder buildups were made on each enamel slab using Filtek Z350 XT. The μSBS was evaluated at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Modes of failure were detected using an environmental scanning electron microscope at 300× magnification. The two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed a significant effect for the enamel condition. However, there was no significant effect for the type of adhesive system. The interaction between the enamel condition and the type of adhesive system was also not significant. Modes of failure were mainly adhesive except for the demineralized enamel. It showed a mixed type of failure, in which cohesive failure in enamel was recorded. All single-step self-etch adhesives revealed comparable μSBS values to ground enamel and enamel remineralized with CPP-ACP or CPP-ACFP. Bonding to demineralized enamel was ineffective. With any enamel condition, no tested single-step self-etch adhesive was superior in its bonding.

  17. Do pediatric medicines induce topographic changes in dental enamel?

    PubMed

    Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Meckelburg, Nicolli de Araujo; Puetter, Ursula Tavares; Salles, Jordan Trugilho; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of common pediatric liquid medicines on surface roughness and tooth structure loss and to evaluate the pH values of these medicines at room and cold temperatures in vitro. Eighty-four bovine enamel blocks were divided into seven groups (n = 12): G1-Alivium®, G2-Novalgina®, G3-Betamox®, G4-Clavulin®, G5-Claritin®, G6-Polaramine® and G7-Milli-Q water (negative control). The pH was determined and the samples were immersed in each treatment 3x/day for 5 min. 3D non-contact profilometry was used to determine surface roughness (linear Ra, volumetric Sa) and the Gap formed between treated and control areas in each block. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were also performed. The majority of liquid medicines had pH ≤ 5.50. G1, G4, and G5 showed alterations in Ra when compared with G7 (p < 0.05). According to Sa and Gap results, only G5 was different from G7 (p < 0.05). Alteration in surface was more evident in G5 SEM images. EDS revealed high concentrations of carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, and calcium in all tested groups. Despite the low pH values of all evaluated medicines, only Alivium®, Clavulin®, and Claritin® increased linear surface roughness, and only Claritin® demonstrated the in vitro capacity to produce significant tooth structure loss.

  18. Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B.

    1996-10-01

    High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

  19. Innovative approaches to regenerate enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi; Papagerakis, Silvana; Ma, Peter X; Papagerakis, Petros

    2012-01-01

    The process of tooth mineralization and the role of molecular control of cellular behavior during embryonic tooth development have attracted much attention the last few years. The knowledge gained from the research in these fields has improved the general understanding about the formation of dental tissues and the entire tooth and set the basis for teeth regeneration. Tissue engineering using scaffold and cell aggregate methods has been considered to produce bioengineered dental tissues, while dental stem/progenitor cells, which can differentiate into dental cell lineages, have been also introduced into the field of tooth mineralization and regeneration. Some of the main strategies for making enamel, dentin, and complex tooth-like structures are presented in this paper. However, there are still significant barriers that obstruct such strategies to move into the regular clinic practice, and these should be overcome in order to have the regenerative dentistry as the important mean that can treat the consequences of tooth-related diseases.

  20. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.Th.

    1981-04-01

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. One hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analysed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analysed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population.

  1. Biological synthesis of tooth enamel instructed by an artificial matrix

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z.; Newcomb, C.J.; Bringas, P.; Stupp, S.I.; Snead, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The regenerative capability of enamel, the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body, is fundamentally limited due to cell apoptosis following maturation of the tissue. Synthetic strategies to promote enamel formation have the potential to repair damage, increase the longevity of teeth and improve the understanding of the events leading to tissue formation. Using a self-assembling bioactive matrix, we demonstrate the ability to induce ectopic formation of enamel at chosen sites adjacent to a mouse incisor cultured in vivo under the kidney capsule. The resulting material reveals the highly organized, hierarchical structure of hydroxyapatite crystallites similar to native enamel. This artificially triggered formation of organized mineral demonstrates a pathway for developing cell fabricated materials for treatment of dental caries, the most ubiquitous disease in man. Additionally, the artificial matrix provides a unique tool to probe cellular mechanisms involved in tissue formation further enabling the development of tooth organ replacements. PMID:20869764

  2. Amorphous intergranular phases control the properties of rodent tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Lyle M.; Cohen, Michael J.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Pasteris, Jill D.; Seda, Takele; Joester, Derk

    2015-02-01

    Dental enamel, a hierarchical material composed primarily of hydroxylapatite nanowires, is susceptible to degradation by plaque biofilm-derived acids. The solubility of enamel strongly depends on the presence of Mg2+, F-, and CO32-. However, determining the distribution of these minor ions is challenging. We show—using atom probe tomography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and correlative techniques—that in unpigmented rodent enamel, Mg2+ is predominantly present at grain boundaries as an intergranular phase of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP). In the pigmented enamel, a mixture of ferrihydrite and amorphous iron-calcium phosphate replaces the more soluble Mg-ACP, rendering it both harder and more resistant to acid attack. These results demonstrate the presence of enduring amorphous phases with a dramatic influence on the physical and chemical properties of the mature mineralized tissue.

  3. Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.

    PubMed

    Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

    2013-09-01

    The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique.

  4. Resin-to-enamel bond strengths with various etching times.

    PubMed

    Gilpatrick, R O; Ross, J A; Simonsen, R J

    1991-01-01

    It has been advocated recently that etching times of enamel be reduced from 60 seconds to as low as 15 seconds. However, the minimal etching time needed to achieve adequate retention of composite resin to enamel has not been identified. In this study, an attempt was made to find the minimal enamel-etching time that still allowed adequate bond strength of composite resin to enamel surfaces. Adequate bond strength was defined as equivalent to the bond strength established for the conventional 60-second etch. Results seemed to indicate that a 5-second etch was sufficient to allow adequate bond strength; however, further study is required to determine the effects of short etching times on microleakage.

  5. Factors affecting enamel and ceramic wear: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suck; Delong, Ralph; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-04-01

    Enamel wear by ceramics may adversely affect maintenance of the vertical dimension of occlusion and can increase the potential for thermal sensitivity. In this article, factors related to the abrasion of enamel by dental ceramics are critically reviewed. Concepts of physical, microstructural, chemical, and surface characteristics of dental ceramics on wear are presented based on research published since 1950. A PubMed search for key words (wear of enamel and ceramic) was supplemented with a hand search to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published in English. Based on the literature, it can be concluded that material factors, their proper handling, and control of the patient's intrinsic risk factors related to wear are critically important to the reduction of enamel wear by dental ceramics.

  6. [Enamel: a unique self-assembling in mineral world].

    PubMed

    Lignon, Guilhem; de la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Dessombz, Arnaud; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    Enamel is a unique tissue in vertebrates, acellular, formed on a labile scaffolding matrix and hypermineralized. The ameloblasts are epithelial cells in charge of amelogenesis. They secrete a number of matrix proteins degraded by enzymes during enamel mineralization. This ordered cellular and extracellular events imply that any genetic or environmental perturbation will produce indelible and recognizable defects. The specificity of defects will indicate the affected cellular process. Thus, depending on the specificity of alterations, the teratogenic event can be retrospectively established. Advances in the field allow to use enamel defects as diagnostic tools for molecular disorders. The multifunctionality of enamel peptides is presently identified from their chemical roles in mineralization to cell signaling, constituting a source of concrete innovations in regenerative medicine.

  7. Biglycan Overexpression on Tooth Enamel Formation in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; Zou, YanMing; Luo, Wen; Goldberg, Michel; Moats, Rex; Conti, Peter S.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Paine, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Previously it was shown that the volume of forming enamel of molar teeth in biglycan-null mice was greater than in genetically matched wild-type mice. This phenotypic change appeared to result from an increase in amelogenin expression, implying that biglycan directly influences amelogenin synthesis. To determine whether biglycan over-expression resulted in decreased amelogenin expression, we engineered transgenic mice to over-express biglycan in the enamel organ epithelium. Biglycan over-expression did not significantly affect the amelogenin expression in incisor and molar teeth in 3-day transgenic mice. In the transgenic animals we observed that the immature and mature enamel appeared normal. These results suggested that increasing the biglycan expression, in the cells that synthesize the precursor protein matrix for enamel, has a negligible influence on amelogenesis. PMID:18727043

  8. Dental enamel as a dietary indicator in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter; Constantino, Paul; Wood, Bernard; Lawn, Brian

    2008-04-01

    The considerable variation in shape, size, structure and properties of the enamel cap covering mammalian teeth is a topic of great evolutionary interest. No existing theories explain how such variations might be fit for the purpose of breaking food particles down. Borrowing from engineering materials science, we use principles of fracture and deformation of solids to provide a quantitative account of how mammalian enamel may be adapted to diet. Particular attention is paid to mammals that feed on 'hard objects' such as seeds and dry fruits, the outer casings of which appear to have evolved structures with properties similar to those of enamel. These foods are important in the diets of some primates, and have been heavily implicated as a key factor in the evolutionary history of the hominin clade. As a tissue with intrinsic weakness yet exceptional durability, enamel could be especially useful as a dietary indicator for extinct taxa.

  9. In phantom Dosimetric response of tooth enamel to neutrons.

    PubMed

    Fattibene, P; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; De Coste, V

    2004-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance dosimetry based on tooth enamel has one important application in dose reconstruction of nuclear plant workers, where the contribution of neutrons to individual dose is often important. Evaluation of tooth enamel response to neutrons is thus an important goal. A few experimental data at thermal and fast neutron energies are available. A first evaluation of the tooth enamel relative response to 60Co in monoenergetic neutron flux of 2.8 and of 14 MeV, published elsewhere, has provided results apparently non-consistent with the results obtained at lower and higher energies. A comparison of those results in the 2.8 and 14 MeV beams with those available in the literature for other beams is reported and possible reasons for incongruities are discussed. Dose conversion factors of enamel to the water and air are also calculated and reported.

  10. Enamel structure in some therapsids and mesozoic mammals.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J W; Hillman, J

    1979-11-01

    The distribution of enamel tubules, the shapes and arrangements of prisms, and the orientation of crystals in ground sections from several therapsids and mesozoic mammals have been investigated by conventional and polarizing microscopy. Along each of three separate phylogenetic lines which evolved occluding teeth, there was a progressive increase in the numbers of enamel tubules. In the investigation, the arcade-shaped prisms typical of recent mammals were first seen in material from the Cretaceous period. All the enamels investigated from the Triassic contained columns of crystals, which were deduced as hexagonal. The inner ends of the crystals within each column deviated towards the center of the column. It is concluded that the existence of an interprismatic region provides the most important distinction between prismatic enamels and the hexagonal columns of crystals in the Triassic material.

  11. Functions of KLK4 and MMP-20 in dental enamel formation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuhe; Papagerakis, Petros; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Hu, Jan C-C.; Bartlett, John D.; Simmer, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Two proteases are secreted into the enamel matrix of developing teeth. The early protease is enamelysin (MMP-20). The late protease is kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Mutations in MMP20 and KLK4 both cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta, a condition featuring soft, porous enamel containing residual protein. MMP-20 is secreted along with enamel proteins by secretory stage ameloblasts. Enamel protein cleavage products accumulate in the space between the crystal ribbons, helping to support them. MMP-20 steadily cleaves accumulated enamel proteins, so their concentration decreases with depth. Kallikrein 4 is secreted by transition and maturation stage ameloblasts. KLK4 aggressively degrades the retained organic matrix following the termination of enamel protein secretion. The principle functions of MMP-20 and KLK4 in dental enamel formation are to facilitate the orderly replacement of organic matrix with mineral, generating an enamel layer that is harder, less porous, and unstained by retained enamel proteins. PMID:18627287

  12. Biological organization of hydroxyapatite crystallites into a fibrous continuum toughens and controls anisotropy in human enamel.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Luo, W; Paine, M L; Fong, H; Sarikaya, M; Snead, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enamel forms the outer surface of teeth, which are of complex shape and are loaded in a multitude of ways during function. Enamel has previously been assumed to be formed from discrete rods and to be markedly aniostropic, but marked anisotropy might be expected to lead to frequent fracture. Since frequent fracture is not observed, we measured enamel organization using histology, imaging, and fracture mechanics modalities, and compared enamel with crystalline hydroxyapatite (Hap), its major component. Enamel was approximately three times tougher than geologic Hap, demonstrating the critical importance of biological manufacturing. Only modest levels of enamel anisotropy were discerned; rather, our measurements suggest that enamel is a composite ceramic with the crystallites oriented in a complex three-dimensional continuum. Geologic apatite crystals are much harder than enamel, suggesting that inclusion of biological contaminants, such as protein, influences the properties of enamel. Based on our findings, we propose a new structural model.

  13. Agarose hydrogel biomimetic mineralization model for the regeneration of enamel prismlike tissue.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2014-01-08

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that enamel-like mineralized tissue can be regenerated and used to repair enamel loss. This has implications for the management of noncarious tooth loss resulting from dental erosion, attrition, and abrasion. In this study, we designed a hydrogel biomimetic mineralization model for the regeneration of enamel-like mineralized tissue with a prismatic structure. The mineralized tissue, which was generated by the model on an etched enamel surface in the presence of 500 ppm fluoride, was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the nanoindentation hardness test. The generated tissue had enamel prismlike layers containing well-defined hexagonal hydroxyapatite crystals. The modulus of elasticity and the nanohardness of the regenerated enamel prismlike tissue were similar to those of natural enamel. Thus, the regeneration of enamel using this hydrogel biomimetic mineralization model is a promising approach for the management of enamel loss.

  14. Analysis of enamel development using murine model systems: approaches and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, Megan K.; Gibson, Carolyn W.

    2014-01-01

    A primary goal of enamel research is to understand and potentially treat or prevent enamel defects related to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Rodents are ideal models to assist our understanding of how enamel is formed because they are easily genetically modified, and their continuously erupting incisors display all stages of enamel development and mineralization. While numerous methods have been developed to generate and analyze genetically modified rodent enamel, it is crucial to understand the limitations and challenges associated with these methods in order to draw appropriate conclusions that can be applied translationally, to AI patient care. We have highlighted methods involved in generating and analyzing rodent enamel and potential approaches to overcoming limitations of these methods: (1) generating transgenic, knockout, and knockin mouse models, and (2) analyzing rodent enamel mineral density and functional properties (structure and mechanics) of mature enamel. There is a need for a standardized workflow to analyze enamel phenotypes in rodent models so that investigators can compare data from different studies. These methods include analyses of gene and protein expression, developing enamel histology, enamel pigment, degree of mineralization, enamel structure, and mechanical properties. Standardization of these methods with regard to stage of enamel development and sample preparation is crucial, and ideally investigators can use correlative and complementary techniques with the understanding that developing mouse enamel is dynamic and complex. PMID:25278900

  15. [Considerations in orthodontic bracket adhesion to hypoplastic and hypomineralized enamel].

    PubMed

    Sapir, S

    2007-01-01

    Developmental defects of enamel are frequently observed in the pediatric and orthodontic dental clinic. Proper diagnosis may improve the clinician's dental care. The importance of prevention is emphasized as well as the proper management of adhesion of orthodontic brackets to hypoplastic and hypominerilized enamel. A review of recent research findings in this field is discussed as well as recommendations for clinical management of some common dental defects: hypoplasia, diffuse and demarcated opacities, and amelogenesis imperfecta.

  16. Materials chemistry: A synthetic enamel for rapid tooth repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Kazue; Onuma, Kazuo; Suzuki, Takashi; Okada, Fumio; Tagami, Junji; Otsuki, Masayuki; Senawangse, Pisol

    2005-02-01

    The conventional treatment of dental caries involves mechanical removal of the affected part and filling of the hole with a resin or metal alloy. But this method is not ideal for tiny early lesions because a disproportionate amount of healthy tooth must be removed to make the alloy or resin stick. Here we describe a dental paste of synthetic enamel that rapidly and seamlessly repairs early caries lesions by nanocrystalline growth, with minimal wastage of the natural enamel.

  17. DENTAL ENAMEL FORMATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ORAL HEALTH AND DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Habelitz, Stefan; Wright, J Timothy; Paine, Michael L

    2017-07-01

    Dental enamel is the hardest and most mineralized tissue in extinct and extant vertebrate species and provides maximum durability that allows teeth to function as weapons and/or tools as well as for food processing. Enamel development and mineralization is an intricate process tightly regulated by cells of the enamel organ called ameloblasts. These heavily polarized cells form a monolayer around the developing enamel tissue and move as a single forming front in specified directions as they lay down a proteinaceous matrix that serves as a template for crystal growth. Ameloblasts maintain intercellular connections creating a semi-permeable barrier that at one end (basal/proximal) receives nutrients and ions from blood vessels, and at the opposite end (secretory/apical/distal) forms extracellular crystals within specified pH conditions. In this unique environment, ameloblasts orchestrate crystal growth via multiple cellular activities including modulating the transport of minerals and ions, pH regulation, proteolysis, and endocytosis. In many vertebrates, the bulk of the enamel tissue volume is first formed and subsequently mineralized by these same cells as they retransform their morphology and function. Cell death by apoptosis and regression are the fates of many ameloblasts following enamel maturation, and what cells remain of the enamel organ are shed during tooth eruption, or are incorporated into the tooth's epithelial attachment to the oral gingiva. In this review, we examine key aspects of dental enamel formation, from its developmental genesis to the ever-increasing wealth of data on the mechanisms mediating ionic transport, as well as the clinical outcomes resulting from abnormal ameloblast function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization using optical profilometry

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Sarah E.; Kreth, Jens; Wali, R. Paul; Sullivan, Richard; Shi, Wenyuan; Gimzewski, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Streptococcus mutans is considered a major causative of tooth decay due to it’s ability to rapidly metabolize carbohydrates such as sucrose. One prominent excreted end product of sucrose metabolism is lactic acid. Lactic acid causes a decrease in the pH of the oral environment with subsequent demineralization of the tooth enamel. Biologically relevant bacteria-induced enamel demineralization was studied. Methods Optical profiling was used to measure tooth enamel decay with vertical resolution under one nanometer and lateral features with optical resolution as a result of S. mutans biofilm exposure. Comparison measurements were made using AFM. Results After 72 hr of biofilm exposure the enamel displayed an 8-fold increase in the observed roughness average, (Ra), as calculated over the entire measured array. Similarly, the average root mean square (RMS) roughness, RRMS, of the enamel before and after biofilm exposure for 3 days displayed a 7-fold increase. Further, the direct effect of chemically induced enamel demineralization using biologically relevant organic acids was shown. Optical profiles of the enamel surface after addition of a 30% lactic acid solution showed a significant alteration in the surface topography with a corresponding increase in respective surface roughness statistics. Similar measurements with 10% citric acid over seconds and minutes give insight into the demineralization process by providing quantitative measures for erosion rates: comparing surface height and roughness as metrics. Significance The strengths of optical profilometry as an analytical tool for understanding and analyzing biologically relevant processes such as biofilm induced tooth enamel demineralization were demonstrated. PMID:19732947

  19. The enamel protein amelotin is a promoter of hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Abbarin, Nastaran; San Miguel, Symone; Holcroft, James; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ganss, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered protein that is specifically expressed during the maturation stage of dental enamel formation. It is localized at the interface between the enamel surface and the apical surface of ameloblasts. AMTN knock-out mice have hypomineralized enamel, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing AMTN have a compact but disorganized enamel hydroxyapatite (HA) microstructure, indicating a possible involvement of AMTN in regulating HA mineralization directly. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant human (rh) AMTN dissolved in a metastable buffer system, based on light scattering measurements, promotes HA precipitation. The mineral precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of AMTN in the mineral deposits showed that protein molecules were associated with HA crystals. The binding affinity of rh-AMTN to HA was found to be comparable to that of amelogenin, the major protein of the forming enamel matrix. Overexpression of AMTN in mouse calvaria cells also increased the formation of calcium deposits in the culture medium. Overexpression of AMTN during the secretory stage of enamel formation in vivo resulted in rapid and uncontrolled enamel mineralization. Site-specific mutagenesis of the potential serine phosphorylation motif SSEEL reduced the in vitro mineral precipitation to less than 25%, revealing that this motif is important for the HA mineralizing function of the protein. A synthetic short peptide containing the SSEEL motif was only able to facilitate mineralization in its phosphorylated form ((P)S(P) SEEL), indicating that this motif is necessary but not sufficient for the mineralizing properties of AMTN. These findings demonstrate that AMTN has a direct influence on biomineralization by promoting HA mineralization and suggest a critical role for AMTN in the formation of the compact aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation

  20. Biosynthesis of rat enamel matrix components in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.; Shimokawa, H.; Tanaka, K.

    1982-12-01

    The biosynthesis of enamel matrix components of developing rat incisors was investigated by measuring the incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline, /sup 32/P-phosphate, and /sup 35/S-sulfate in vivo. /sup 3/H- and /sup 32/P-radioactivity was found in what seemed to be a prototype of enamel proteins. Subsequent shifts in other protein and peptide fractions were observed. /sup 35/S was also incorporated into components other than the above-mentioned proteins.

  1. Polarized light propagation through sound and carious enamel at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. Stokes polarimetry was used to monitor the state of polarization (SOP) and degree of polarization (DOP) of incident linearly and circularly polarized light as it propagates through extracted human whole teeth, thin tooth sections and single apatite crystals. These measurements at 1310-nm suggest that the DOP is maintained through sound tooth enamel and transparent dentin and that circularly polarized light is typically depolarized more rapidly than linearly light. Polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel and sound and demineralized dentin. The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection.

  2. Effects of sports drinks and other beverages on dental enamel.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J Anthony; Rogers, Matthew M

    2005-01-01

    A high percentage of people consume soft drinks that contain sugar or artificial sweeteners, flavorings, and various additives. The popularity of sports (energy) drinks is growing and this pilot study compares enamel dissolution in these and a variety of other beverages. Enamel blocks (approximately 7.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 mm) were sectioned from sound extracted human premolars and molars and measured, weighed, and immersed in the selected beverages for a total of 14 days. The pH of all beverages was measured. The enamel sections were weighed at regular intervals throughout the immersion period with the solutions being changed daily; all studies were performed in duplicate. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe testing. Enamel dissolution occurred in all of the tested beverages, with far greater attack occurring in flavored and energy (sports) drinks than previously noted for water and cola drinks. No correlation was found between enamel dissolution and beverage pH. Non-cola drinks, commercial lemonades, and energy/sports drinks showed the most aggressive dissolution effect on dental enamel. Reduced residence times of beverages in the mouth by salivary clearance or rinsing would appear to be beneficial.

  3. Gene expression and dental enamel structure in developing mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Sehic, Amer; Risnes, Steinar; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Khuu, Cuong; Osmundsen, Harald

    2010-04-01

    At the mouse incisor tip the initially differentiated ameloblasts produce a thin, prism-free enamel, while further apically, in the immediate adjacent segment, the enamel thickness increases and the four-layered enamel of mouse incisor is formed. Comparative gene-expression profiling was carried out on RNA isolated from these two segments of incisor tooth germs at embryonic day (E)17.5 and at postnatal days (P)0, 1, 2, and 10 using microarrays to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) species present in the segments. Validation of expression data was achieved using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Bioinformatic data suggested enhanced cellular apoptosis in the incisal tip segment, which, together with diminished expression of the Amelx and Enam genes, may contribute to the production of the thin enamel seen in this tooth segment. For genes exhibiting higher levels of expression in the adjacent segment where complex enamel is being formed, bioinformatic analysis suggested significant associations with cellular functions involving the actin cytoskeleton, cellular development, morphology, and movement. This is suggested to reflect that ameloblasts with Tomes' process are being organized in transverse rows, facilitating the transverse movement that results in prism decussation in the inner enamel of the adjacent segment. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA expression data lends support to these suggestions.

  4. MMP20 modulates cadherin expression in ameloblasts as enamel develops.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; Bartlett, J D

    2013-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (enamelysin, MMP20) is essential for dental enamel development. Seven different MMP20 mutations in humans cause non-syndromic enamel malformations, termed amelogenesis imperfecta, and ablation of Mmp20 in mice results in thin brittle enamel with a dysplastic rod pattern. Healthy enamel formation requires the sliding movement of ameloblasts in rows during the secretory stage of development. This is essential for formation of the characteristic decussating enamel rod pattern observed in rodents, and this is also when MMP20 is secreted into the enamel matrix. Therefore, we propose that MMP20 facilitates ameloblast movement by cleaving ameloblast cell-cell contacts. Here we show that MMP20 cleaves the extracellular domains of the E- and N-cadherin adherens junction proteins, that both E- and N-cadherin transcripts are expressed at significantly higher levels in Mmp20 null vs. wild-type (WT) mice, and that in Mmp20 ablated mice, high-level ameloblast N-cadherin expression persists during the maturation stage of development. Furthermore, we show that E-cadherin gene expression is down-regulated from the pre-secretory to the secretory stage, while N-cadherin levels are up-regulated. This E- to N-cadherin switch supports epithelial migration in other tissues and may be an important event necessary for the ameloblasts to start moving in rows that slide by one another.

  5. Partial rescue of the amelogenin null dental enamel phenotype.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Suggs, Cynthia; Wright, J Timothy; Yuan, Zhi-an; Aragon, Melissa; Fong, Hanson; Simmons, Darrin; Daly, Bill; Golub, Ellis E; Harrison, Gerald; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Gibson, Carolyn W

    2008-05-30

    The amelogenins are the most abundant secreted proteins in developing dental enamel. Enamel from amelogenin (Amelx) null mice is hypoplastic and disorganized, similar to that observed in X-linked forms of the human enamel defect amelogenesis imperfecta resulting from amelogenin gene mutations. Both transgenic strains that express the most abundant amelogenin (TgM180) have relatively normal enamel, but strains of mice that express a mutated amelogenin (TgP70T), which leads to amelogenesis imperfecta in humans, have heterogeneous enamel structures. When Amelx null (KO) mice were mated with transgenic mice that produce M180 (TgM180), the resultant TgM180KO offspring showed evidence of rescue in enamel thickness, mineral density, and volume in molar teeth. Rescue was not observed in the molars from the TgP70TKO mice. It was concluded that a single amelogenin protein was able to significantly rescue the KO phenotype and that one amino acid change abrogated this function during development.

  6. Enhanced transport of materials into enamel nanopores via electrokinetic flow.

    PubMed

    Gan, H Y; Sousa, F B; Carlo, H L; Maciel, P P; Macena, M S; Han, J

    2015-04-01

    The ability to infiltrate various molecules and resins into dental enamel is highly desirable in dentistry, yet transporting materials into dental enamel is limited by the nanometric scale of their pores. Materials that cannot be infiltrated into enamel by diffusion/capillarity are often considered molecules with sizes above a critical threshold, which are often considered to be larger than the pores of enamel. We challenge this notion by reporting the use of electrokinetic flow to transport solutions with molecules with sizes above a critical threshold-namely, an aqueous solution with a high refractive index (Thoulet's solution) and a curable fluid resin infiltrant (without acid etching)-deep into the normal enamel layer. Volume infiltration by Thoulet's solution is increased by 5- to 6-fold, and resin infiltration depths as large as 600 to 2,000 µm were achieved, in contrast to ~10 µm resulting from diffusion/capillarity. Incubation with demineralization solution for 192 h resulted in significant demineralization at noninfiltrated histologic points but not at resin infiltrated. These results open new avenues for the transport of materials in dental enamel.

  7. Anisotropic properties of the enamel organic extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Alexandre R; Novaes, Pedro D; Line, Sérgio R P

    2006-05-01

    Enamel biosynthesis is initiated by the secretion, processing, and self-assembly of a complex mixture of proteins. This supramolecular ensemble controls the nucleation of the crystalline mineral phase. The detection of anisotropic properties by polarizing microscopy has been extensively used to detect macromolecular organizations in ordinary histological sections. The aim of this work was to study the birefringence of enamel organic matrix during the development of rat molar and incisor teeth. Incisor and molar teeth of rats were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde/0.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.2 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and decalcified in 5% nitric acid/4% formaldehyde. After paraffin embedding, 5-microm-thick sections were obtained, treated with xylene, and hydrated. Form birefringence curves were obtained after measuring optical retardations in imbibing media, with different refractive indices. Our observations showed that enamel organic matrix of rat incisor and molar teeth is strongly birefringent, presenting an ordered supramolecular structure. The birefringence starts during the early secretion phase and disappears at the maturation phase. The analysis of enamel organic matrix birefringence may be used to detect the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the supramolecular orientation of enamel matrix and their effects on the structure of mature enamel.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of enamel after various stripping methods.

    PubMed

    Arman, Ayca; Cehreli, S Burcak; Ozel, Emre; Arhun, Neslihan; Cetinşahin, Alev; Soyman, Mubin

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we investigated ultramorphology, surface roughness, and microhardness of permanent and deciduous tooth enamel after various stripping methods. One hundred twenty deciduous and permanent teeth (n = 60 each) were used. Qualitative (scanning electron microscopy) and quantitative (surface roughness and microhardness tests) experiments were carried out in the following experimental groups: group 1, stripping disk; group 2, diamond-coated metal strip; group 3, stripping disk and Sof-Lex discs (3M-ESPE, Seefeld, Germany); group 4, diamond-coated metal strip and Sof-Lex discs; group 5 (chemical stripping), 37% orthophosphoric acid in conjunction with diamond-coated metal strip; group 6 (control), no stripping. Surface roughness values (Ra) for permanent and deciduous enamel were evaluated with Welch analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tamhane tests, and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Microhardness values were evaluated statistically with Kruskal-Wallis, 1-way ANOVA, and Duncan tests. Deciduous and permanent teeth showed similar results in terms of surface roughness and surface morphology. Groups 3 and 4 had the smoothest deciduous and permanent enamel surfaces, whereas chemical stripping (group 5) produced the roughest surfaces in both enamel types. Stripping did not lead to a significant change in the microhardness of permanent enamel. All stripping methods significantly roughened the enamel surfaces. Polishing the stripped surface with Sof-Lex discs decreased the roughness.

  9. MMP20 Modulates Cadherin Expression in Ameloblasts as Enamel Develops

    PubMed Central

    Guan, X.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (enamelysin, MMP20) is essential for dental enamel development. Seven different MMP20 mutations in humans cause non-syndromic enamel malformations, termed amelogenesis imperfecta, and ablation of Mmp20 in mice results in thin brittle enamel with a dysplastic rod pattern. Healthy enamel formation requires the sliding movement of ameloblasts in rows during the secretory stage of development. This is essential for formation of the characteristic decussating enamel rod pattern observed in rodents, and this is also when MMP20 is secreted into the enamel matrix. Therefore, we propose that MMP20 facilitates ameloblast movement by cleaving ameloblast cell-cell contacts. Here we show that MMP20 cleaves the extracellular domains of the E- and N-cadherin adherens junction proteins, that both E- and N-cadherin transcripts are expressed at significantly higher levels in Mmp20 null vs. wild-type (WT) mice, and that in Mmp20 ablated mice, high-level ameloblast N-cadherin expression persists during the maturation stage of development. Furthermore, we show that E-cadherin gene expression is down-regulated from the pre-secretory to the secretory stage, while N-cadherin levels are up-regulated. This E- to N-cadherin switch supports epithelial migration in other tissues and may be an important event necessary for the ameloblasts to start moving in rows that slide by one another. PMID:24067343

  10. Influence of potentially remineralizing agents on bleached enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Samezima, Leticia Yumi; Fonseca, Léila Pereira; Yui, Karen Cristina Kazue; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the addition of calcium and fluoride into a 35% hydrogen peroxide gel on enamel surface and subsurface microhardness. Twenty extracted human third molars were sectioned to obtain enamel fragments and they were divided into four groups (n = 20) according to the bleaching treatment. Group 1 received no bleaching procedure (control). Group 2 was treated with a 35% hydrogen peroxide gel (Total Bleach), Groups 3 and 4 were bleached with Total Bleach modified by the addition of sodium fluoride and calcium chloride, respectively. The microhardness of the enamel surface was assessed using a Vickers microdurometer immediately after the bleaching treatment. The specimens were sectioned in the central portion, polished and evaluated to determine the microhardness of the enamel subsurface to a depth of 125 microm, with an interval of 25 microm between measures. There were significant differences among the groups. In terms of surface microhardness, the bleached group exhibited the lowest means, and the calcium-modified bleached group exhibited the highest means. Regarding subsurface microhardness, there were no significant differences among the groups for the depth and interaction factors. The bleached group exhibited the lowest means, and the calcium-modified bleached group presented the highest means. It was concluded that the bleaching treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced the surface and subsurface microhardness of the enamel, and the addition of fluoride and calcium in the bleaching agent increased the microhardness means of the bleached enamel.

  11. Kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4): role in enamel formation and revelations from ablated mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.; Simmer, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel development occurs in stages. During the secretory stage, a soft protein rich enamel layer is produced that expands to reach its final thickness. During the maturation stage, proteins are removed and the enamel matures into the hardest substance in the body. KLK4 is expressed during the transition from secretory to the maturation stage and its expression continues throughout maturation. KLK4 is a glycosylated chymotrypsin-like serine protease that cleaves enamel matrix proteins prior to their export out of the hardening enamel layer. Mutations in KLK4 can cause autosomal recessive, non-syndromic enamel malformations in humans and mice. Klk4 ablated mice initially have normal-looking teeth with enamel of full thickness. However, the enamel is soft and protein-rich. Three findings are notable from Klk4 ablated mice: first, enamel rods fall from the interrod enamel leaving behind empty holes where the enamel fractures near the underlying dentin surface. Second, the ~10,000 crystallites that normally fuse to form a solid enamel rod fail to grow together in the ablated mice and can fall out of the rods. Third, and most striking, the crystallites grow substantially in width and thickness (a- and b-axis) in the ablated mice until they almost interlock. The crystallites grow in defined enamel rods, but interlocking is prevented presumably because too much protein remains. Conventional thought holds that enamel proteins bind specifically to the sides of enamel crystals to inhibit growth in width and thickness so that the thin, ribbon-like enamel crystallites grow predominantly in length. Results from Klk4 ablated mice demonstrate that this convention requires updating. An alternative mechanism is proposed whereby enamel proteins serve to form a mold or support structure that shapes and orients the mineral ribbons as they grow in length. The remnants of this support structure must be removed by KLK4 so that the crystallites can interlock to form fully hardened enamel

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF A PROTEIN-CONTAINING ENAMEL MATRIX LAYER WHICH BRIDGES WITH THE DENTIN-ENAMEL JUNCTION OF ADULT HUMAN TEETH1

    PubMed Central

    Dusevich, Vladimir; Xu, Changqi; Wang, Yong; Walker, Mary P.; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ultrastructure and chemical composition of the dentin-enamel junction and adjacent enamel of minimally processed third molar tooth sections. Design Undecalcified human third molar erupted teeth were sectioned and etched with 4% EDTA or 37% phosphoric acid prior to visualization by scanning electron microscopy. Confocal Raman spectroscopy was carried out at 50 μm and more than 400 μm away from the dentin-enamel junction before and after mild etching. Results A novel organic protein-containing enamel matrix layer was identified for the first time using scanning electron microscopy of etched bucco-lingual sections of crowns. This layer resembles a three-dimensional fibrous meshwork that is visually distinct from enamel “tufts”. Previous studies have generally used harsher solvent conditions which likely removed this layer and precluded its prior characterization. The shape of the organic enamel layer generally reflected that of sheath regions of enamel rods and extended from the dentin-enamel junction about 100–400 μm into the cuspal enamel. This layer exhibited a Raman C—H stretching peak at ~2931 cm−1 characteristic of proteins and this signal correlated directly with the presence and location of the matrix layer as identified by scanning electron microscopy. Conclusions The enamel protein layer was most prominent close to the dentin-enamel junction and was largely absent in cuspal enamel >400 μm away from the dentin enamel junction. We hypothesize that this protein containing matrix layer could provide an important biomechanical linkage between the enamel and the dentin-enamel junction and by extension, with the dentin, of the adult tooth. PMID:22609172

  13. 3D photomechanical model of tooth enamel ablation by Er-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.

    2014-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) photomechanical model of human tooth enamel ablation is described. It takes into account: the structural peculiarities of enamel, Er-laser beam energy spatial distribution and laser radiation attenuation in the tissue. Dynamics change of enamel coefficient of absorption during ablation is also discussed. We consider the 3D photomechanical model of incomplete removal (modification) of the enamel rods by the pressure of water contained in the enamel pores and heated by laser radiation, and complete removal (ablation) of the enamel rods as result of hydroxyapatite heated by laser radiation and evaporation. Modeling results are in close agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Separation and partial purification of acid phosphates of the enamel organ of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T R; Toverud, S U; Yung, R C; Hanks, M H; Palik, J F

    1982-01-01

    At least two types of acid phosphatases with markedly different properties were separated from the enamel organ of rat molar tooth buds. One enzyme (A) bound weakly to the CM-cellulose column and was eluted with a combined linear salt and pH gradient; another enzyme (B) bound strongly to the column and was eluted with a second linear salt gradient at constant pH. Enzyme A was identified as a phosphomonoester hydrolase (3.1.3.2) similar to the lysosomal enzyme of soft tissues and the tartrate-sensitive enzyme of bone. Enzyme B did not hydrolyse aliphatic monophosphate ester substrates but, like enzyme A, it did split the aryl monophosphate ester substrate, para-nitrophenylphosphate, as well as the phosphate esters of casein and the acid anhydride substrates, ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate. This enzyme is similar to the low molecular weight tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases of bone and soft tissues.

  15. Beyond the Map: Enamel Distribution Characterized from 3D Dental Topography

    PubMed Central

    Thiery, Ghislain; Lazzari, Vincent; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Guy, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Enamel thickness is highly susceptible to natural selection because thick enamel may prevent tooth failure. Consequently, it has been suggested that primates consuming stress-limited food on a regular basis would have thick-enameled molars in comparison to primates consuming soft food. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of enamel over a single tooth crown is not homogeneous, and thick enamel is expected to be more unevenly distributed in durophagous primates. Still, a proper methodology to quantitatively characterize enamel 3D distribution and test this hypothesis is yet to be developed. Unworn to slightly worn upper second molars belonging to 32 species of anthropoid primates and corresponding to a wide range of diets were digitized using high resolution microcomputed tomography. In addition, their durophagous ability was scored from existing literature. 3D average and relative enamel thickness were computed based on the volumetric reconstruction of the enamel cap. Geometric estimates of their average and relative enamel-dentine distance were also computed using 3D dental topography. Both methods gave different estimations of average and relative enamel thickness. This study also introduces pachymetric profiles, a method inspired from traditional topography to graphically characterize thick enamel distribution. Pachymetric profiles and topographic maps of enamel-dentine distance are combined to assess the evenness of thick enamel distribution. Both pachymetric profiles and topographic maps indicate that thick enamel is not significantly more unevenly distributed in durophagous species, except in Cercopithecidae. In this family, durophagous species such as mangabeys are characterized by an uneven thick enamel and high pachymetric profile slopes at the average enamel thickness, whereas non-durophagous species such as colobine monkeys are not. These results indicate that the distribution of thick enamel follows different patterns across anthropoids. Primates might

  16. [Effect of topical fluoride application on young permanent teeth enamel demineralized by juice drinks].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Niu, Xiao-Yong

    2010-12-01

    To observe the capability of enamel surface resisting juice drinks erosion and the remineralization process of etched enamel after topical fluoride application on young permanent teeth enamel. The change of surface microhardness(SMH) of young permanent teeth enamel fluoride which was immersed in orange juice in advance and then applied on its etched part was evaluated.The change of SMH of young permanent teeth enamel treated by 0.1%NaF solution and fluoride toothpaste in advance and then immersed by juice drinks was observed. The change of enamel SMH was measured by a Leitzs microhardness tester. The morphological change of enamel surface was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The change of calcium and phosphate contents in juice drinks before and after enamel immersion was analyzed by Roche biochemical analyzer. One-way ANOVA was performed using SPSS 15.0 software package. Juice drinks led to the dissolution of calcium and phosphate in young permanent teeth enamel while the SMH of enamel decreased. The SMH of young permanent teeth enamels immersed in orange juice and then topical application of fluoride increased significantly (Plt;0.05). But for those young permanent teeth enamels treated with fluoride or fluorin enhanced toothpaste, the dissolution of calcium and phosphate and the SMH decreased significantly after juice drinks immersion(P<0.05). The variable degree of etching and remineralization of the enamel either treated by juice drinks or by fluoride in each experimental group was found by SEM. Enamel demineralization can be caused by juices drinks. Topical fluoride treatment on enamel can not only enhance enamel's resistance to the acid etch caused by soft drinks but also promote the remineralization of enamel immersed by beverages. Supported by Excellent Middle-Aged Science Foundation of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine(Grant No.040407).

  17. Effects of sunlight exposure on the human tooth enamel ESR spectra used for dose reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ling; Takada, Jun; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Zhang, Wenyi; Ivannikov, Alexander; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2007-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the ESR signals in human tooth enamel were investigated. Enamel samples were exposed to the sunlight in Hiroshima, Japan, on sunny days for a total of about 228 hours over one year. The intensity of the illuminating sunlight was measured with a light meter, which then was converted to the intensity of the solar radiation. Three types of signals caused by the solar radiation were identified. The signal named S1 is identical to the gamma ray radiation-induced axially symmetrical signal and contains two signals S1( perpendicular) and S1(//) corresponding to the perpendicular and parallel components of the g-tensor characterized by g( perpendicular) = 2.0018 and g(//) = 1.9975 respectively. In addition, two other peaks named S2 and S3 are induced by the solar radiation. S2 is very near the inherent signal with g = 2.0052, possibly created by the same paramagnetic centers as the natural signal, and S3 is a weaker signal with g = 2.010. On increasing the amount of solar radiation S1 increases linearly, but S2 and S3 reach saturation. The average effect of the solar radiation on the S1( perpendicular) signal is estimated by dose equivalent gamma ray irradiation as 7.8 +/- 0.5 mGy (MJ m(-2))(-1), which corresponds to 19.6 +/- 1.3 mGy h(-1) at the latitude of Hiroshima. Signals S2 and S3 may be used to recognize the effect of solar radiation on the enamel.

  18. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hamkens, Arne; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The present study intended to investigate minimal erosive effects of different acids on enamel during short time incubation via determination of calcium and phosphate dissolution. Bovine enamel specimens were eroded for 1-5 min with eight different acids of pH 2, 2.3 and 3 (citric (CA), maleic (MA), lactic (LA), tartaric (TA), phosphoric (PA), oxalic (OA), acetic (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) release were determined photometrically using arsenazo III (calcium) and malachite green (phosphate) as substrates. Each subgroup contained eight enamel specimens. Amount of titratable acid was determined for all acidic solutions. MA, LA, TA, AA and HCl caused linear release of Ca and P, PA of Ca, CA of P. For CA, MA, LA, TA, AA, PA and HCl mineral loss was shown to be pH-dependent. Ca dissolution varied between 28.6+/-4.4 (LA, pH 2) and 2.4+/-0.7 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3), P dissolution ranged between 17.2+/-2.6 (LA, pH 2) and 1.4+/-0.4 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3). LA was one of the most erosive acids. AA was very erosive at pH 3. HCl and MA were shown to have the lowest erosive effects. There was only a weak correlation (r=0.28) between P and Ca release and the amount of titratable acid. The method of the present study allows investigation of minimal erosive effects via direct determination of P and Ca dissolution. During short time exposition at constant pH level, erosive effects mainly depend on pH and type of acid but not on amount of titratable acid.

  19. Efficacy of New Adhesion Promoters on Compromised Hypocalcified Enamel.

    PubMed

    Vamsilatha, Kurapati; Venkata, Kishore Mayakuntla Sai; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Sashidhar, Nagam Reddy

    2015-07-01

    The amount of technological progress occurred in the last few years has brought an add up to the benefits of bonding in Orthodontics. Research-based findings have constantly led to the development of new materials that are aimed to simplify the clinical procedures like bonding of brackets to compromised enamel surfaces. Hence, the present study is aimed to assess the bond strength of orthodontic brackets on fluorosed enamel using adhesion promoters. To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded on fluorosed enamel using conventional Transbond XT and new adhesion promoters such as Enhance LC and All Bond 3. The study involved 90 non carious, extracted teeth with mild to moderate fluorosis randomly divided into 3 Groups. In Group - I (control group) the teeth were bonded with conventional Transbond XT and cured with LED light. In Group - II Enhance LC was applied to fluorosed enamel before bonding and in Group - III All Bond 3 was used. Shear bond strength was tested by using Universal testing Instron machine. ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey's tests were used to compare shear bond strength. Adhesive remnant on the tooth was assessed and scored using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Results showed a reduced SBS values (9.43MPa ±3.03) with conventional Transbond XT on fluorosed enamel. Among the adhesion boosters used Enhance LC illustrated lesser SBS values (12.03 MPa ± 4.42) compared with All Bond 3 (14.38MPa ±4.92). ARI showed bond failure at bracket resin interface in group I & group II and at enamel resin interface in group III although statistically insignificant. It was concluded that using adhesion boosters on fluorosed enamel showed higher bond strength compared to the control group. Among the two adhesion promoters used All Bond 3 expressed highest bond strength compared to Enhance LC although statistically insignificant.

  20. Variation in enamel development of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Rozzi, Fernando Ramirez; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-12-01

    Dental tissues provide important insights into aspects of hominid palaeobiology that are otherwise difficult to obtain from studies of the bony skeleton. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings called striae of Retzius. These enamel features were studied in the molars of two well known South African hominid species, Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. Using newly developed portable confocal microscopy, we have obtained cross striation periodicities (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) for the largest sample of hominid teeth reported to date. These data indicate a mean periodicity of seven days in these small-bodied hominids. Important differences were observed in the inferred mechanisms of enamel development between these taxa. Ameloblasts maintain high rates of differentiation throughout cervical enamel development in P. robustus but not in A. africanus. In our sample, there were fewer lateral striae of Retzius in P. robustus than in A. africanus. In a molar of P. robustus, lateral enamel formed in a much shorter time than cuspal enamel, and the opposite was observed in two molars of A. africanus. In spite of the greater occlusal area and enamel thickness of the molars of both fossil species compared with modern humans, the total crown formation time of these three fossil molars was shorter than the corresponding tooth type in modern humans. Our results provide support for previous conclusions that molar crown formation time was short in Plio-Pleistocene hominids, and strongly suggest the presence of different mechanisms of amelogenesis, and thus tooth development, in these taxa.

  1. Microtensile bond strength to enamel affected by hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Batu Can; Ozer, Fusun; Cabukusta, Cigdem Sozen; Eren, Meltem M; Koray, Fatma; Blatz, Markus B

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) of two different self-etching (SE) and etchand- rinse (ER) adhesive systems to enamel affected by hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (HPAI) and analyzed the enamel etching patterns created by the two adhesive systems using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sixteen extracted HPAI-affected molars were used for the bond strength tests and 2 molars were examined under SEM for etching patterns. The control groups consisted of 12 healthy third molars for μTBS tests and two molars for SEM. Mesial and distal surfaces of the teeth were slightly ground flat. The adhesive systems and composite resin were applied to the flat enamel surfaces according to the manufacturers' instructions. The tooth slabs containing composite resin material on their mesial and distal surfaces were cut in the mesio-distal direction with a slow-speed diamond saw. The slabs were cut again to obtain square, 1-mm-thick sticks. Finally, each stick was divided into halves and placed in the μTBS tester. Bond strength tests were performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. There was no significant difference between the bond strength values of ER and SE adhesives (p > 0.05). However, significant differences were found between HPAI and control groups (p < 0.05). HPAI-affected enamel surfaces exhibited mild intra- and inter-prismatic enamel etching patterns after orthophosphoric acid application, while conditioning of HPAI-affected enamel with SE primer created a slightly rough and grooved surface. SE and ER adhesive systems provide similar bond strengths to HPAI-affected enamel surfaces.

  2. Enamel fusion using a carbon dioxide laser: A technique for sealing pits and fissures

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, L.J.; Perham, S.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The well-established enhanced resistance of lased enamel to demineralization is the basis for clinical application of the carbon dioxide laser to caries prevention. This in vitro study examined the effect of focused infrared laser radiation on sound enamel and early pit and fissure caries. Low power levels (2-5 W) induced localized melting and resolidification of enamel with little surface destruction. For sound fissures, fusion of enamel from the lateral walls of the fissure eliminated the fissure space, providing a sealant effect; while in carious fissures, carious enamel was vaporized and adjacent sound enamel fused to partially eliminate the defect. The technique for enamel fusion using CO2 lasers has potential application for sealing pits and fissures and producing physicochemical alterations in enamel which may have preventive benefits.

  3. Enamel pearl on an unusual location associated with localized periodontal disease: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shivani; Malhotra, Sumit; Baliga, Vidya; Hans, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial plaque has been implicated as the primary etiologic factor in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Anatomic factors (such as enamel pearls) are often associated with advanced localized periodontal destruction. The phenomenon of ectopic development of enamel on the root surface, variedly referred to as enameloma, enamel pearl, enamel drop or enamel nodule, is not well-understood. Such an anomaly may facilitate the progression of periodontal breakdown. A rare case of enamel pearl on the lingual aspect of mandibular central incisor associated with localized periodontal disease is presented. Removal and treatment of enamel pearl along with possible mechanisms to account for the pathogenesis of ectopic enamel formation are also discussed. PMID:24554894

  4. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  5. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  6. The role of enamel proteins in protecting mature human enamel against acidic environments: a double layer force spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Lubarsky, Gennady V; D'Sa, Raechelle A; Deb, Sanjukta; Meenan, Brian J; Lemoine, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Characterisation of the electrostatic properties of dental enamel is important for understanding the interfacial processes that occur on a tooth surface and how these relate to the natural ability of our teeth to withstand chemical attack from the acids in many soft drinks. Whereas, the role of the mineral component of the tooth enamel in providing this resistance to acid erosion has been studied extensively, the influence of proteins that are also present within the structure is not well understood. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of double-layer force spectroscopy to directly measure electrostatic forces on as received and hydrazine-treated (deproteinated) enamel surfaces in solutions with different pH to determine how the enamel proteins influence acid erosion surface potential and surface charge of human dental enamel. The deproteination of the treated samples was confirmed by the loss of the amide bands (~1,300-1,700 cm(-1)) in the FTIR spectrum of the sample. The force characteristics observed were found to agree with the theory of electrical double layer interaction under the assumption of constant potential and allowed the surface charge per unit area to be determined for the two enamel surfaces. The values and, importantly, the sign of these adsorbed surface charges indicates that the protein content of dental enamel contributes significantly to the electrostatic double layer formation near the tooth surface and in doing so can buffer the apatite crystals against acid attack. Moreover, the electrostatic interactions within this layer are a driving factor for the mineral transfer from the tooth surface and the initial salivary pellicle formation.

  7. Calcium and magnesium levels in primary tooth enamel and genetic variation in enamel formation genes.

    PubMed

    Halusic, Alina M; Sepich, Victoria R; Shirley, Daniel C; Granjeiro, José M; Costa, Marcelo C; Küchler, Erika C; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2014-01-01

    Evidence exists that a genetic component in caries susceptibility is related to variation in enamel formation genes. The purpose of this study was to explore the trends of demineralization and remineralization of teeth from individuals whose genotypes for selected genes (ENAM, MMP20, TUFT, TFIP, and AMBN) are known. In this study, primary baseline teeth (20) were exposed to an artificial caries solution, followed by a remineralizing solution. Biopsies of each tooth category (baseline, carious, and fluoridated) were completed via an acid wash solution. Concentrations of magnesium and calcium were measured using an optical emission spectrometer instrument. Allele and genotype frequencies for calcium and magnesium levels were compared between each tooth category. To help interpret the results, we also calculated odds ratios. Calcium levels exceeded magnesium levels in each sample. In addition, mineral concentration varied among samples. Associations could be seen between genetic variation in ENAM (P=.0003 baseline values for calcium, P<.001 baseline values for magnesium, P<.04 artificial caries values for magnesium) and AMBN (P<.02 artificial caries values for calcium) with mineral concentration. Our results suggest that genetic variation of enamel formation genes may influence calcium and magnesium concentrations of teeth and impact the development of caries.

  8. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2009-03-10

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, {sup 14}C levels in the enamel represent {sup 14}C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  9. Enamel prism morphology in molar teeth of small eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Dumont, E R

    1996-01-01

    Data summarizing enamel prism shape, size and spacing are reported for the molar enamel of 55 species of small eutherian mammals including primates, bats, tree shrews, flying lemurs, insectivorans and representatives of a variety of fossil families. Confocal photomicrographs reveal that the subsurface enamel of most species is characterized by arc-shaped prisms. The lack of a clear distinction between pattern 2 and pattern 3 prism configurations within single specimens suggests that the broad category "arc-shaped prisms" is the most appropriate descriptive grouping for these species. Of the total sample, three species exhibit only circular prisms while no evidence of prismatic enamel was found in two bats. Prism shape is not an informative phylogenetic character at the ordinal level for these morphologically primitive and relatively thin-enameled taxa. Significant differences between species in several prism size and spacing variables (central distance between prisms, prism diameter, prism area and the ratio of prism area to estimated ameloblast area) suggest the potential for further analyses of quantitative variation to document evolutionary relationships within or among family-level groups.

  10. Dental bleaching with ozone: effects on color and enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Santana, Manuella Sca; Bridi, Enrico C; Navarro, Ricardo S; de Lima, Carlos J; Fernandes, Adriana B; do Amaral, Flávia Lb; França, Fabiana Mg; Turssi, Cecilia P; Basting, Roberta T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of dental bleaching with ozone (O3) on color change and enamel microhardness. Enamel blocks (3 x 3 x 3mm) were randomly distributed for treatments (n=10). Color change (ΔE) and Knoop microhardness of the enamel blocks were evaluated before and after the following treatments: C - deionized water (control); HP - 37.5% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office+/ SDI); PLA - placebo gel; O3 - ozone; and O2 - oxygen. Four 8-minute applications were used for HP and PLA, and one 19-minute application for O3 and O2.One-way ANOVA revealed that ΔE was not significantly influenced by the treatment (p = 0.112). For the treatments with HP, PLA, O3 andO2, ΔE was greater than 3.3. The paired t test showed significant decrease in microhardness after treatments (p < 0.001) but no significant difference between treatments (ANOVA; p = 0.313). Dental bleaching treatments with O3, HP, O2 and PLA induced enamel color changes that may be clinically discernible, although enamel microhardeness decreased.

  11. Year of birth determination using radiocarbon dating of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2010-05-01

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ((14)C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, (14)C levels in the enamel represent (14)C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  12. The influence of Carisolv on enamel and dentine surface topography.

    PubMed

    Wennerberg, A; Sawase, T; Kultje, C

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the surface topography of healthy enamel and dentine before and after application of a new chemomechanical system for caries removal, Carisolv. The same surfaces were investigated with respect to the influence of phosphoric acid, plus carious dentine after removal with either Carisolv or burrs. One-hundred freshly extracted teeth were used. Surface topography was measured in two different ways in order to characterize the surfaces at different levels of resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a contact stylus profilometer. Somewhat conflicting data were obtained with the two measuring techniques. When surfaces were investigated over a small area (AFM), healthy enamel seemed unaffected by Carisolv, while healthy dentine became smoother. Etching enamel with phosphoric acid resulted in a rougher surface, while no effect was detected on etched healthy dentine. Caries removal using Carisolv resulted in a smoother surface compared with conventional caries removal. When the surfaces were monitored with the contact profilometer, no effect of Carisolv could be detected on healthy enamel or dentine. Phosphoric acid etching, in contrast, increased the surface roughness of both enamel and dentine. When compared with conventional caries removal technique, caries removal with Carisolv did increase the surface roughness.

  13. Effect of three nanobiomaterials on microhardness of bleached enamel

    PubMed Central

    Kaveh, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of incorporating three different nanobiomaterials into bleaching material on microhardness of bleached enamel. Materials and Methods The crowns of 24 extracted sound human molars were sectioned. Sixty enamel specimens (2 × 3 × 4 mm) were selected and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 received no bleaching procedure (control); Group 2 underwent bleaching with a 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP) gel; Groups 3, 4, and 5 were bleached with a 40% HP gel modified by incorporation of bioactive glass (BAG), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and hydroxyapatite (HA), respectively. The enamel microhardness was evaluated. The differences in Knoop microhardness data of each group were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey tests. Results Significant differences were observed between the study groups. The enamel microhardness changes in Groups 1, 3, 4, and 5 were significantly lower than that of Group 2 (p < 0.001). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that incorporation of each one of the three tested biomaterials as remineralizing agents might be effective in decreasing enamel microhardness changes subsequent to in-office bleaching. PMID:27508161

  14. Increased enamel hypoplasia and very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S; Albert, J M; Geng, C; Curtan, S; Lang, K; Miadich, S; Heima, M; Malik, A; Ferretti, G; Eggertsson, H; Slayton, R L; Milgrom, P

    2013-09-01

    Birth cohort studies of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) and early childhood caries (ECC) in very low birthweight (VLBW) and normal birthweight (NBW) infants are rare. In this birth cohort of 234 VLBW and 234 NBW infants, we report the incidence of ECC and DDE at 8 and 18-20 mos of corrected age. Infant medical and maternal socio-demographic data were abstracted from medical records at birth. Dental assessments for ECC and DDE (enamel hypoplasia, demarcated and diffuse opacities) were completed at 8 and 18-20 mos. The incidence of hypoplasia was significantly higher in VLBW compared with NBW infants (8 mos, 19% vs. 2%; 18 mos, 31% vs. 8%). The incidence of ECC (International Caries Detection and Assessment System: ICDAS ≥ 2) was 1.4% (8 mos) and 12% (18-20 mos) and was similar between the VLBW and NBW groups. At both ages, using a beta-binomial regression model to control for potential confounders (maternal and infant characteristics), we found increased risk for enamel hypoplasia among the VLBW infants compared with the NBW infants. African Americans had a lower risk for enamel hypoplasia at 18-20 mos. The VLBW infants should be monitored for ECC due to the presence of enamel hypoplasia.

  15. Nightguard vital bleaching and its effect on enamel surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Leonard, R H; Eagle, J C; Garland, G E; Matthews, K P; Rudd, A L; Phillips, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect that nightguard vital bleaching (NGVB) has on enamel surface morphology is a subject of debate. Previous studies that have evaluated the effect of NGVB on the enamel surface report minimal changes to changes that appear to worsen post-treatment. The purpose of this in vivo NGVB study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the effects that 10% carbamide peroxide has on enamel morphology after 2 weeks of treatment and at 6 months post-treatment. Ten patients participated in the study. Each participant wore a guard filled with an active whitening solution for 8 to 10 hours per day for 14 treatment days. An impression of the study teeth (maxillary incisors) was taken at baseline, after 14 days of treatment, and at 6 months post-treatment, and an epoxy cast made. The epoxy casts were prepared for viewing under the SEM and photographs were taken at 200 times and 2,000 times magnification. Six examiners evaluated changes in enamel surface morphology by comparing the SEM photographs taken at baseline, on treatment day 14, and at 6 months post-treatment. Still masked, the examiners also compared each patient's baseline:treatment day 14 and baseline:6 months post-treatment photographs with photographs of a known standard. This in vivo study demonstrated that a 14-day regimen of NGVB using a 10% carbamide peroxide solution had minimal effect on the surface morphology of enamel and that the effects did not worsen over time.

  16. Magnesium and carbonate in enamel and synthetic apatites.

    PubMed

    LeGeros, R Z; Sakae, T; Bautista, C; Retino, M; LeGeros, J P

    1996-11-01

    This study aimed to: determine the Mg and CO3 distribution in the outer (surface), middle, and inner (closest to the enamel-dentin junction, EDJ) layers of human enamel; and determine the factors affecting the incorporation of Mg into synthetic apatites and the consequence of such incorporation on the properties of the apatites. Results demonstrated that the concentrations of Mg, CO3, and organic components increased from the surface to the inner layers close to the EDJ and a difference in crystallinity from the outer to the inner layers. Initial results indicated that the extent of dissolution of the inner layer enamel is greater than that in the outer or surface enamel. Results on synthetic apatites showed the following: (1) Limited Mg incorporation into apatite was dependent on solution [Mg/Ca] molar ratio, temperature, pH, and the presence of CO3 or fluoride (F); (2) incorporation of Mg causes reduction in crystallinity and an increase in the extent of dissolution of the apatite; (3) the negative effect of Mg on the properties of apatites is synergistic to that of CO3 and antagonistic to that of F; and (4) exposure to acid of Mg-containing apatites causes the dissolution of Mg-rich apatite and precipitation of Mg-poor apatite. The observed decrease in the [Mg/Ca] of enamel and synthetic apatites after acid exposure may explain the observed 'preferential loss' of Mg and CO3 in the initial stages of caries.

  17. Variations in the mechanical properties of Alouatta palliata molar enamel.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Laura A; Teaford, Mark F; Livi, Kenneth J T; Weihs, Timothy P

    2010-01-01

    Teeth have provided insights into many topics including primate diet, paleobiology, and evolution, due to the fact that they are largely composed of inorganic materials and may remain intact long after an animal is deceased. Previous studies have reported that the mechanical properties, chemistry, and microstructure of human enamel vary with location. This study uses nanoindentation to map out the mechanical properties of Alouatta palliata molar enamel on an axial cross-section of an unworn permanent third molar, a worn permanent first molar, and a worn deciduous first molar. Variations were then correlated with changes in microstructure and chemistry using scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe techniques. The hardness and Young's modulus varied with location throughout the cross-sections from the occlusal surface to the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), from the buccal to lingual sides, and also from one tooth to another. These changes in mechanical properties correlated with changes in the organic content of the tooth, which was shown to increase from approximately 6% near the occlusal surface to approximately 20% just before the DEJ. Compared to human enamel, the Alouatta enamel showed similar microstructures, chemical constituents, and magnitudes of mechanical properties, but showed less variation in hardness and Young's modulus, despite the very different diet of this species.

  18. Ultrastructural evaluation of enamel after dental bleaching associated with fluoride.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, John A; Bittencourt, Bruna; Michel, Milton; Sabino, Nilson; Gomes, João Carlos; Gomes, Osnara M M

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects on human enamel after two bleaching procedures: with a fluoridated bleaching agent and with topical fluoride application postbleaching. It used 43 enamel blocks (3 mm(2) ) that were ground flat (600-2,000 grit) and polished with polishing paste (one and one-fourth). Specimens were randomly divided into three groups according to the bleaching procedure: (1) control group, (2) hydrogen peroxide 35% (HPF) and topical application of fluoride 1.23%, and (3) HP 38% (OP) with fluoride in its composition. Bleaching agents were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three methodologies were used: nanoindentation, to observe surface hardness and elastic modulus; atomic force microscopy, to observe surface roughness (R(a) - R(z)); and scanning electron microscopy, to observe the enamel surface effects. Group OP had a decrease in the elastic modulus after bleaching, which was recovered at 14 days. An increased roughness (R(a); 32%) was observed on group HPF and had an increased erosion on enamel surface (67%). It was concluded that topical application of fluoride, after using the nonfluoridated whitening agent, increased the roughness values and erosion of enamel.

  19. Enzyme replacement prevents enamel defects in hypophosphatasia mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Manisha C.; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Foster, Brian L.; Fong, Hanson; Cory, Esther; Narisawa, Sonoko; Sah, Robert L.; Somerman, Martha; Whyte, Michael P.; Millán, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficiency of alkaline phosphatase activity leading to rickets or osteomalacia and to dental defects. HPP occurs from loss-of-function mutations within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). TNAP knockout (Alpl−/−, a.k.a. Akp2−/−) mice closely phenocopy infantile HPP, including the rickets, vitamin B6-responsive seizures, improper dentin mineralization, and lack of acellular cementum. Here, we report that lack of TNAP in Alpl−/− mice also causes severe enamel defects, which are preventable by enzyme replacement with mineral-targeted TNAP (ENB-0040). Immunohistochemistry was used to map the spatiotemporal expression of TNAP in the tissues of the developing enamel organ of healthy mouse molars and incisors. We found strong, stage-specific expression of TNAP in ameloblasts. In the Alpl−/− mice, histological, μCT, and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed reduced mineralization and disrupted organization of the rods and inter-rod structures in enamel of both the molars and incisors. All of these abnormalities were prevented in mice receiving from birth daily subcutaneous injections of mineral-targeting, human TNAP (sALP-FcD10, a.k.a. ENB-0040) at 8.2 mg/kg/day for up to 44 days. These data reveal an important role for TNAP in enamel mineralization, and demonstrate the efficacy of mineral-targeted TNAP to prevent enamel defects in HPP. PMID:22461224

  20. Indentation Damage and Crack Repair in Human Enamel*

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, C.; Arola, D.; Ossa, A.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. While there have been a number of studies aimed at understanding the hardness and crack growth resistance behavior of this tissue, no study has evaluated if cracks in this tissue undergo repair. In this investigation the crack repair characteristics of young human enamel were evaluated as a function of patient gender and as a function of the distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). Cracks were introduced via microindentation along the prism direction and evaluated as a function of time after the indentation. Microscopic observations indicated that the repair of cracks began immediately after crack initiation and reaches saturation after approximately 48 hours. During this process he crack length decreased up to 10% of the initial length, and the largest degree of reduction occurred in the deep enamel, nearest the DEJ. In addition, it was found that the degree of repair was significantly greater in the enamel of female patients. PMID:23541701

  1. Tooth enamel maturation reequilibrates oxygen isotope compositions and supports simple sampling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayler, Robin B.; Kohn, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen isotope and major element zoning patterns of several disparate ungulate teeth were collected to evaluate the timing and geometry of enamel formation, records of isotope zoning, and tooth enamel sampling strategies. Isotopic zoning in mammalian tooth enamel encodes a sub-annual time series of isotopic variation of an animal's body water composition, with a damping factor that depends on the specifics of how enamel mineralizes. Enamel formation comprises two stages: precipitation of appositional enamel with a high CO3:PO4 ratio, followed by precipitation of maturational enamel with a lower CO3:PO4. If appositional and maturational enamel both contribute to isotope compositions (but with different CO3:PO4), and if isotope compositions vary seasonally, paired δ18O values from CO3 and PO4 profiles should show a spatial separation. CO3 isotope patterns should be shifted earlier seasonally than PO4 isotope patterns. Such paired profiles for new and published data show no resolvable shifts, i.e. CO3 and PO4 δ18O profiles show coincident maxima and minima. This coincidence suggests that enamel maturation reequilibrates appositional isotope compositions. If enamel maturation establishes enamel isotope compositions, the geometry of maturation, not apposition, should be considered when devising sampling protocols. X-ray maps of Ca zoning show that the majority of enamel (inner and middle layers) mineralizes heavily at a high angle to the external tooth surface and the enamel-dentine junction over length scales of 2-4 mm, while the outer enamel surface mineralizes more slowly. These data suggest that isotopic sampling strategies should parallel maturational geometry and focus on interior enamel to improve data fidelity. The magnitude of isotopic damping is also smaller than implied in previous studies, so tooth enamel zoning more closely reflects original body water isotopic variations than previously assumed.

  2. Mechanism of water augmentation during IR laser ablation of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Fried, Daniel; Ashouri, Nahal; Breunig, Thomas; Shori, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of water augmentation during IR laser ablation of dental hard tissues is controversial and poorly understood. The influence of an optically thick applied water layer on the laser ablation of enamel was investigated at wavelengths in which water is a primary absorber and the magnitude of absorption varies markedly. Q-switched and free running Er: YSGG (2.79 microm) and Er:YAG (2.94 microm), free running Ho:YAG and 9.6 microm TEA CO(2) laser systems were used to produce linear incisions in dental enamel with and without water. Synchrotron-radiation IR spectromicroscopy with the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to determine the chemical changes across the laser ablation profiles with a spatial resolution of 10-microm. The addition of water increased the rate of ablation and produced a more desirable surface morphology during enamel ablation with all the erbium systems. Moreover, ablation was markedly more efficient for Q-switched (0.15 microsecond) versus free-running (150 microsecond) erbium laser pulses with the added water layer. Although the addition of a thick water layer reduced the rate of ablation during CO(2) laser ablation, the addition of the water removed undesirable deposits of non-apatite mineral phases from the crater surface. IR spectromicroscopy indicates that the chemical composition of the crater walls deviates markedly from that of hydroxyapatite after Er:YAG and CO(2) laser irradiation without added water. New mineral phases were resolved that have not been previously observed using conventional IR spectroscopy. There was extensive peripheral damage after irradiation with the Ho:YAG laser with and without added water without effective ablation of enamel. We postulate that condensed mineral phases from the plume are deposited along the crater walls after repetitive laser pulses and such non-apatitic phases interfere with subsequent laser pulses during IR laser irradiation reducing the rate and

  3. Susceptibility of acid-softened enamel to mechanical wear--ultrasonication versus toothbrushing abrasion.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Wegehaupt, F; Werner, C; Attin, T

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the amounts of softened enamel removable by ultrasonication and by toothbrushing abrasion of briefly eroded samples. Thirty bovine enamel samples were demineralized in hydrochloric acid (pH 2.1) for 60 s and were then either brushed with 350 brushing strokes in toothpaste slurry (group A) or distilled water (group B) or were ultrasonicated for 120 s (group C). Enamel loss was measured after 10, 20, 50 and then after every 50 brushing strokes or after 5, 30, 60 and 120 s ultrasonication. Samples were indented with a Knoop diamond after erosion, and enamel loss due to abrasion or wear was calculated from the change in indentation depth after mechanical treatment. Within- and between-group comparisons were performed by ANOVA or t test. Initially, enamel loss increased with increasing brushing treatment or ultrasonication time. Enamel loss did not increase after 300 brushing strokes in group A (534 +/- 169 nm) or 250 brushing strokes in group B (423 +/- 80 nm), or after 60 s ultrasonication (231 +/- 72 nm). Enamel loss was significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C. The results confirm that ultrasonication removes only the outer, more highly demineralized part of the softened enamel layer. Results also indicate that toothbrushing abrasion removes more softened enamel from briefly eroded enamel than ultrasonication, and therefore probably removes partly demineralized enamel from the deeper part of the softened layer. In vivo, excessive toothbrushing might remove the softened enamel layer almost completely.

  4. A Microbeam Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study on Enamel Crystallites in Subsurface Lesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, N.; Ohta, N.; Matsuo, T.; Tanaka, T.; Terada, Y.; Kamasaka, H.; Kometani, T.

    2010-10-01

    The early caries lesion in bovine tooth enamel was studied by two different X-ray diffraction systems at the SPring-8 third generation synchrotron radiation facility. Both allowed us simultaneous measurement of the small and large angle regions. The beam size was 6μm at BL40XU and 50μm at BL45XU. The small-angle scattering from voids in the hydroxyapatite crystallites and the wide-angle diffraction from the hydroxyapatite crystals were observed simultaneously. At BL40XU an X-ray image intensifier was used for the small-angle and a CMOS flatpanel detector for the large-angle region. At BL45XU, a large-area CCD detector was used to cover both regions. A linear microbeam scan at BL40XU showed a detailed distribution of voids and crystals and made it possible to examine the structural details in the lesion. The two-dimensional scan at BL45XU showed distribution of voids and crystals in a wider region in the enamel. The simultaneous small- and wide-angle measurement with a microbeam is a powerful tool to elucidate the mechanisms of demineralization and remineralization in the early caries lesion.

  5. Dental enamel defects in German medieval and early-modern-age populations.

    PubMed

    Lang, J; Birkenbeil, S; Bock, S; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K

    2016-11-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in a medieval and an early-modern-age population from Thuringia, Germany. Sixty-six skeletons subdivided into 31 single burials (12(th)/13(th) c.) and 35 individuals buried in groups (15(th)/16(th) c.) were examined. DDE were classified on 1,246 teeth according to the DDE index. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH), a special type of DDE, was recorded according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria. DDE was found in 89.4% of the individuals (single burials 90.3% and group burials 88.6%). Hypoplastic pits were the most frequent defect in primary teeth and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in permanent teeth. 13 individuals (24.1%) showed at least one hypomineralised permanent tooth, 12.2% had MIH on at least one first permanent molar and 10.0% in permanent incisors. Second primary molars were affected in 8.0% of the children and juveniles. No individual suffered from affected molars and incisors in combination. Endogenous factors like nutritional deficiencies and health problems in early childhood could have been aetiological reasons of DDE and MIH. The frequency of DDE and MIH might have been masked by extended carious lesions, dental wear and ante-mortem tooth loss.

  6. Enamel hypoplasias and physiological stress in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene hominins.

    PubMed

    Cunha, E; Rozzi, F Ramirez; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Wasterlain, S N; Sarmiento, S

    2004-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH) and plane-form defects (PFD) in the hominine dental sample from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene site in Atapuerca (Spain). The SH sample comprises 475 teeth, 467 permanent and 8 deciduous, belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals. The method for recording PFD and LEH is discussed, as well as the definition of LEH. The prevalence of LEH and PFD in SH permanent dentition (unilateral total count) is 4.6% (13/280). Only one deciduous tooth (lower dc) showed an enamel disruption. Prevalence by individual ranges from 18.7-30%. The most likely explanation for the relatively low LEH and PFD prevalence in the SH sample suggests that the SH population exhibited a low level of developmental stress. The age at occurrence of LEH and PFD was determined by counting the number of perikymata between each lesion and the cervix of the tooth. Assuming a periodicity of nine days for the incremental lines, the majority of LEH in the SH sample occurred during the third year of life and may be related to the metabolic stress associated with weaning.

  7. Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin

    PubMed Central

    de ANDRADE, Andrea Mello; MOURA, Sandra Kiss; REIS, Alessandra; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (µTBS) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. Material and methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for µTBS and the other one for µSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37ºC/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/ min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05). The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91) and significant (p=0.01) correlation between the tests. Conclusions The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions. PMID:21308290

  8. Type VII Collagen is Enriched in the Enamel Organic Matrix Associated with the Dentin-Enamel Junction of Mature Human Teeth

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Jacob D.; Walker, Mary P.; Mousa, Ahmad; Wang, Yong; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2014-01-01

    The inner enamel region of erupted teeth is known to exhibit higher fracture toughness and crack growth resistance than bulk phase enamel. However, an explanation for this behavior has been hampered by the lack of compositional information for the residual enamel organic matrix. Since enamel-forming ameloblasts are known to express type VII collagen and type VII collagen null mice display abnormal amelogenesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether type VII collagen is a component of the enamel organic matrix at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) of mature human teeth. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of demineralized tooth sections localized type VII collagen to the organic matrix surrounding individual enamel rods near the DEJ. Morphologically, immunoreactive type VII collagen helical-bundles resembled the gnarled-pattern of enamel rods detected by Coomassie Blue staining. Western blotting of whole crown or enamel matrix extracts also identified characteristic Mr=280 and 230 kDa type VII dimeric forms, which resolved into 75 and 25 kDa bands upon reduction. As expected, the collagenous domain of type VII collagen was resistant to pepsin digestion, but was susceptible to purified bacterial collagenase. These results demonstrate the inner enamel organic matrix in mature teeth contains macromolecular type VII collagen. Based on its physical association with the DEJ and its well-appreciated capacity to complex with other collagens, we hypothesize that enamel embedded type VII collagen fibrils may contribute not only to the structural resilience of enamel, but may also play a role in bonding enamel to dentin. PMID:24594343

  9. Type VII collagen is enriched in the enamel organic matrix associated with the dentin-enamel junction of mature human teeth.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jacob D; Walker, Mary P; Mousa, Ahmad; Wang, Yong; Gorski, Jeff P

    2014-06-01

    The inner enamel region of erupted teeth is known to exhibit higher fracture toughness and crack growth resistance than bulk phase enamel. However, an explanation for this behavior has been hampered by the lack of compositional information for the residual enamel organic matrix. Since enamel-forming ameloblasts are known to express type VII collagen and type VII collagen null mice display abnormal amelogenesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether type VII collagen is a component of the enamel organic matrix at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) of mature human teeth. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of demineralized tooth sections localized type VII collagen to the organic matrix surrounding individual enamel rods near the DEJ. Morphologically, immunoreactive type VII collagen helical-bundles resembled the gnarled-pattern of enamel rods detected by Coomassie Blue staining. Western blotting of whole crown or enamel matrix extracts also identified characteristic Mr=280 and 230 kDa type VII dimeric forms, which resolved into 75 and 25 kDa bands upon reduction. As expected, the collagenous domain of type VII collagen was resistant to pepsin digestion, but was susceptible to purified bacterial collagenase. These results demonstrate the inner enamel organic matrix in mature teeth contains macromolecular type VII collagen. Based on its physical association with the DEJ and its well-appreciated capacity to complex with other collagens, we hypothesize that enamel embedded type VII collagen fibrils may contribute not only to the structural resilience of enamel, but may also play a role in bonding enamel to dentin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E. . E-mail: jeericso@uci.edu

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope {sup 206}Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of {sup 204}Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research.

  11. Adhesion of different resin cements to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Ella A; Ernst, Saskia; Schaper, Katharina; Arnold, Wolfgang H; Piwowarczyk, Andree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of five different resin cements to human enamel and dentin under different storage conditions. Five resin cements and their dedicated systems were tested. Teeth were embedded, ground flat to expose enamel or dentin and polished with sandpaper. Adhesive systems were applied according to the manufacturers'instructions. V2A steel cylinders with were silicated, coated, and cemented onto the teeth. Specimens were stored at three different conditions and subsequently thermocycled. SBS was measured. Significant differences were observed between the tested resin cements depending on the tooth surface. Different storage conditions influenced the bond strength, independent of the tooth surface, in all test cements. The bond strength of all experimental materials to enamel is higher than that to dentin surfaces. Furthermore, the adhesiveness decreases after wetness (hydro-) and hydrothermal stress, regardless of the tooth surface.

  12. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (p<0.05) after brushing for an equivalent of one month and an equivalent of three months. Using toothpaste containing charcoal can increase the surface roughness of tooth enamel.

  13. The influence of fallback foods on great ape tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lee, James J-W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-12-01

    Lucas and colleagues recently proposed a model based on fracture and deformation concepts to describe how mammalian tooth enamel may be adapted to the mechanical demands of diet (Lucas et al.: Bioessays 30 2008 374-385). Here we review the applicability of that model by examining existing data on the food mechanical properties and enamel morphology of great apes (Pan, Pongo, and Gorilla). Particular attention is paid to whether the consumption of fallback foods is likely to play a key role in influencing great ape enamel morphology. Our results suggest that this is indeed the case. We also consider the implications of this conclusion on the evolution of the dentition of extinct hominins.

  14. Hypoplastic area method for analyzing dental enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ensor, B E; Irish, J D

    1995-12-01

    Most analyses of dental enamel hypoplasia compare frequencies of disturbed tooth types, which do not account for variability in the area of affected enamel. An alternate methodology, hypoplastic area, is presented here that accounts for this variability by combining acute and continuous enamel hypoplasia into an interval-level variable. The method compares samples based on individuals, by multiple tooth type variables, or by a single value rather than by tooth types. Use of the hypoplastic area method is illustrated by analyzing human skeletal dentitions in three archaeological samples: Meroitic Nubians from Semna South, Sudan; Anasazi from Navajo Reservoir, New Mexico; and Mogollon from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. Both univariate and multivariate statistical tests are employed to assess variation in defects between individuals and samples. By incorporating measurements of continuous defects, the hypoplastic area method provides information beyond that of frequency data in comparing levels of stress. Flexibility of the method is also discussed.

  15. Spectroscopic study of demineralization and restoration processes in dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Surmenko, Elena L.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Kishen, A.; Chebotarevsky, Yu. V.

    2007-07-01

    The spectroscopic study of dental enamel by LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) are represented. The changes of enamel structure and composition in process of natural (caries) and artificial demineralization and restoration were studied. In comparison of sound and carious enamel LIBS showed a decrease of the content of Ca, P and change of the content of some other macro-and trace elements (Mn, Na, Fe, Zn etc). The character of the elemental composition variation was stipulated by the concrete disease. Analysis of FTIR and XRD spectra of dental samples, subjected to artificial demineralization and restoration, showed that restoration action reveals slower, than demineralization. And in some cases the damage of crystals after restoration is more significant than after demineralization.

  16. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, G; Colacicchi, S; Sgattoni, R; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  17. Enamel and dentin bond strength following gaseous ozone application.

    PubMed

    Cadenaro, Milena; Delise, Chiara; Antoniollo, Francesca; Navarra, Ottavia Chiara; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of gaseous ozone application on enamel and dentin bond strength produced by two self-etching adhesive systems. The shear bond strength test was conducted to assess adhesion on enamel (protocol 1), while the microtensile bond strength test was performed on dentin (protocol 2). Protocol 1: 96 bovine incisors were randomly divided into 4 groups, and enamel surfaces were bonded in accordance with the following treatments: (1E) ozone + Clearfil Protect Bond; (2E) Clearfil Protect Bond (control); (3E) ozone + Xeno III; (4E) Xeno III (control). Ozone gas was applied for 80 s. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine. Protocol 2: 40 noncarious human molars were selected. Middle/deep dentin was exposed and bonded in accordance with the following treatments: (1D) ozone+Clearfil Protect Bond; (2D) Clearfil Protect Bond (control); (3D) ozone+Xeno III (4D) Xeno III (control). Four-mm-thick buildups were built on the adhesives, then specimens were sectioned in accordance with the nontrimming technique. Specimens were stressed until failure occurred, and failure modes were analyzed. Shear bond and microtensile bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. No statistical differences were found between ozone treated specimens and controls, neither on enamel nor on dentin irrespective of the tested adhesive. Clearfil Protect Bond showed higher bond strength to enamel than Xeno III, irrespective of the ozone treatment (p < 0.05). The use of ozone gas to disinfect the cavity before placing a restoration had no influence on immediate enamel and dentin bond strength.

  18. CO₂ laser emission modes to control enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Alonso-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Galo, Rodrigo; Rios, Daniela; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance and prevalence of dental erosion, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different modes of pulse emission of CO2 laser associated or not to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1.23% gel, in controlling enamel erosion by profilometry. Ninety-six fragments of bovine enamel were flattened and polished, and the specimens were subjected to initial erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid (pH = 2). Specimens were randomly assigned according to surface treatment: APF 1.23% gel and gel without fluoride (control), and subdivided according to the modes of pulse CO2 laser irradiation: no irradiation (control), continuous, ultrapulse, and repeated pulse (n = 12). After surface treatment, further erosive challenges were performed for 5 days, 4 × 2 min/day. Enamel structure loss was quantitatively determined by a profilometer, after surface treatment and after 5 days of erosive challenges. Two-away ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the pulse emission mode of the CO2 laser and the presence of fluoride (P ≤ 0.05). The Duncan's test showed that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode and the specimens only received fluoride, promoted lower enamel loss than that other treatments. A lower dissolution of the enamel prisms was observed when it was irradiated with CO2 laser in continuous mode compared other groups. It can be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode was the most effective to control the enamel structure loss submitted to erosive challenges with hydrochloric acid.

  19. Recovery of Crystallographic Texture in Remineralized Dental Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Samera; Anderson, Paul; Al-Jawad, Maisoon

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease encountered by people of all ages around the world. Chemical changes occurring in the oral environment during the caries process alter the crystallography and microstructure of dental enamel resulting in loss of mechanical function. Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization. The motivation for this study was to develop understanding of the caries process at the crystallographic level in order to contribute towards a long term solution. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning electron microscopy and scanning microradiography have been used to correlate enamel crystallography, microstructure and mineral concentration respectively in enamel affected by natural caries and following artificial demineralization and remineralization regimes. In particular, the extent of destruction and re-formation of this complex structure has been measured. 2D diffraction patterns collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) and position of the (002) Bragg reflection within selected regions of interest in each tooth slice, and then correlated with the microstructure and local mineral mass. The results revealed that caries and artificial demineralization cause a large reduction in crystallographic texture which is coupled with the loss of mineral mass. Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density. The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel. Combining microstructural and crystallographic characterization aids the understanding of caries and erosion processes and assists in the progress towards developing therapeutic treatments to allow affected enamel to regain

  20. Recovery of crystallographic texture in remineralized dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Samera; Anderson, Paul; Al-Jawad, Maisoon

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease encountered by people of all ages around the world. Chemical changes occurring in the oral environment during the caries process alter the crystallography and microstructure of dental enamel resulting in loss of mechanical function. Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization. The motivation for this study was to develop understanding of the caries process at the crystallographic level in order to contribute towards a long term solution. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning electron microscopy and scanning microradiography have been used to correlate enamel crystallography, microstructure and mineral concentration respectively in enamel affected by natural caries and following artificial demineralization and remineralization regimes. In particular, the extent of destruction and re-formation of this complex structure has been measured. 2D diffraction patterns collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) and position of the (002) Bragg reflection within selected regions of interest in each tooth slice, and then correlated with the microstructure and local mineral mass. The results revealed that caries and artificial demineralization cause a large reduction in crystallographic texture which is coupled with the loss of mineral mass. Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density. The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel. Combining microstructural and crystallographic characterization aids the understanding of caries and erosion processes and assists in the progress towards developing therapeutic treatments to allow affected enamel to regain

  1. Enamel Ultrastructure in Fossil Cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti)

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Carolina; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  2. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPHYLAXIS METHODS ON SOUND AND DEMINERALIZED ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Abdo, Ruy César Camargo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of professional plaque control for caries prevention, this study comprised an in vitro evaluation of wear by two prophylaxis methods (sodium bicarbonate jet – Profident and pumice and brush) on sound bovine enamel and with artificial carious lesions. Sixty enamel fragments were employed (4x4mm), which were divided into 4 groups: GI – 15 sound blocks treated with pumice and brush; GII – 15 sound blocks treated with Profident; GIII – 15 demineralized blocks treated with pumice and brush, and GIV – 15 demineralized blocks treated with Profident. In the fragments of Groups III and IV, artificial carious lesions were simulated by immersion in 0.05M acetic acid solution 50% saturated with bovine enamel powder at 37oC for 16h. The specimens were submitted to the prophylactic treatments for 10 seconds. Wear analysis was performed by profilometer and revealed the following results: 0.91μm – GI; 0.42μm – GII; 1.6μm – GIII, and 0.94μm – GIV. The two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05) revealed significant difference between all groups. Scanning electron microscopy images were employed to illustrate the wear pattern, with observation of larger alteration on the demineralized enamel surface (GIII; GIV), round-shaped wear on GI and GIII and blasted aspect on GII and GIV. The study indicated that the demineralized enamel presented more wear than the sound enamel, and the brush led to larger wear when compared to Profident. PMID:19089042

  3. [Bonding of resin cement to bleached dental enamel].

    PubMed

    Wakami, Masanobu; Masuda, Mikiko; Kato, Hitomi; Tabei, Naoko; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Muramori, Juri; Saikawa, Takahiro; Aida, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2008-07-01

    The effects of bleaching times, types of etching agent and storage period of bleached bovine tooth on the shear bond strength of resin cement to the enamel were examined. Bovine teeth were repeatedly bleached 0, 1, 3, and 5 times then stored in 37 degrees C water for 1 week. The effect of bleaching number of the bovine tooth on the bond strength of resin cement to the enamel was investigated using 40% phosphoric acid (EG) etching technique. Next, the effects of types of etching agent and of storage period of bleached bovine tooth with three times in 37 degrees C water on the bond strength were studied using 10% citric acid-3% ferric chloride (10-3) or 10% citric acid (10-0) solution. The bleaching of bovine tooth allowed for a dramatic decrease in the bond strength from 18.3 MPa to 9.8 MPa (1 time), and 3.9 MPa (3 times), even though the bovine enamel was etched by EG. However, when 10-3 or 10-0 solution was applied to the three times bleached enamel, bond strengths were 13.9 and 10.0 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, prolonging of the storage period of the three times bleached bovine tooth in water to 2 months resulted in a increase in the bond strength from 3.9 to 10.1 MPa, even if bovine enamel was etched by EG, and close to that obtained from the 10-3 etching. To obtain the expected bond strength to bleached enamel, it is better to wait for 2 months for a restoration and use the 10-3 etching.

  4. A model for predicting wear rates in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Lopez, Oscar; Pajares, Antonia; Constantino, Paul J; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-09-01

    It is hypothesized that wear of enamel is sensitive to the presence of sharp particulates in oral fluids and masticated foods. To this end, a generic model for predicting wear rates in brittle materials is developed, with specific application to tooth enamel. Wear is assumed to result from an accumulation of elastic-plastic micro-asperity events. Integration over all such events leads to a wear rate relation analogous to Archard׳s law, but with allowance for variation in asperity angle and compliance. The coefficient K in this relation quantifies the wear severity, with an arbitrary distinction between 'mild' wear (low K) and 'severe' wear (high K). Data from the literature and in-house wear-test experiments on enamel specimens in lubricant media (water, oil) with and without sharp third-body particulates (silica, diamond) are used to validate the model. Measured wear rates can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on contact asperity conditions, accounting for the occurrence of severe enamel removal in some human patients (bruxing). Expressions for the depth removal rate and number of cycles to wear down occlusal enamel in the low-crowned tooth forms of some mammals are derived, with tooth size and enamel thickness as key variables. The role of 'hard' versus 'soft' food diets in determining evolutionary paths in different hominin species is briefly considered. A feature of the model is that it does not require recourse to specific material removal mechanisms, although processes involving microplastic extrusion and microcrack coalescence are indicated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti).

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Kieser, Jules A; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  6. Critical roles for WDR72 in calcium transport and matrix protein removal during enamel maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Kai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jie; Smith, Charles E; Nunez, Stephanie M; Richardson, Amelia S; Pal, Soumya; Samann, Andrew C; Hu, Jan C-C; Simmer, James P

    2015-01-01

    Defects in WDR72 (WD repeat-containing protein 72) cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We generated and characterized Wdr72-knockout/lacZ-knockin mice to investigate the role of WDR72 in enamel formation. In all analyses, enamel formed by Wdr72 heterozygous mice was indistinguishable from wild-type enamel. Without WDR72, enamel mineral density increased early during the maturation stage but soon arrested. The null enamel layer was only a tenth as hard as wild-type enamel and underwent rapid attrition following eruption. Despite the failure to further mineralize enamel deposited during the secretory stage, ectopic mineral formed on the enamel surface and penetrated into the overlying soft tissue. While the proteins in the enamel matrix were successfully degraded, the digestion products remained inside the enamel. Interactome analysis of WDR72 protein revealed potential interactions with clathrin-associated proteins and involvement in ameloblastic endocytosis. The maturation stage mandibular incisor enamel did not stain with methyl red, indicating that the enamel did not acidify beneath ruffle-ended ameloblasts. Attachment of maturation ameloblasts to the enamel layer was weakened, and SLC24A4, a critical ameloblast calcium transporter, did not localize appropriately along the ameloblast distal membrane. Fewer blood vessels were observed in the papillary layer supporting ameloblasts. Specific WDR72 expression by maturation stage ameloblasts explained the observation that enamel thickness and rod decussation (established during the secretory stage) are normal in the Wdr72 null mice. We conclude that WDR72 serves critical functions specifically during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and is required for both protein removal and enamel mineralization. PMID:26247047

  7. Spatial distribution of trace element Ca-normalized ratios in primary and permanent human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Tacail, Théo; Kovačiková, Lenka; Brůžek, Jaroslav; Balter, Vincent

    2017-12-15

    The trace elements distribution embedded in tooth enamel offers a means to study exposure of toxic metals and allows the reconstruction of dietary behaviors. The quantification of most of the elements with a spatial high resolution (~50μm) is routinely achieved using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). However, the lack of a comprehensive framework of trace elements distribution in enamel jeopardizes any endorsed sampling strategy using LA-ICPMS. The present work is an effort to improve our knowledge on this issue. We studied a suite of 22 sectioned teeth with known dietary history, including 12 3rd molars from 12 living individuals and 10 primary teeth from 3 living individuals. Using LA-ICPMS, we measured Ca, Cu, Zn, Ni, Sr, Ba and Pb variations along 2 or 3 rasters from cervical to occlusal enamel. Calcium concentrations are lower in primary than in permanent teeth and do not vary spatially within a tooth suggesting that enamel matures homogeneously before eruption. The Pb/Ca ratio does not vary within tooth enamel and between primary and permanent tooth enamel. The Cu/Ca and Ni/Ca ratios do not vary within tooth enamel but discriminate primary from permanent tooth enamel. The Zn/Ca ratios are higher in permanent than in primary tooth enamel, and increase up to an order of magnitude in the last hundred of microns at the enamel surface. The Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios are higher in permanent than in primary tooth enamel, and decrease from the enamel-dentine junction towards outer enamel in permanent but not in primary tooth enamel. Considering the Ca-normalized intra-tooth variations of Zn, Sr and Ba, we recommend to perform laser ablation rasters along the enamel-dentine junction because this area is likely to retain most of the original and complete chemical information related to individual's life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Making human enamel and dentin surfaces superwetting for enhanced adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2011-11-01

    Good wettability of enamel and dentin surfaces is an important factor in enhancing adhesion of restorative materials in dentistry. In this study, we developed a femtosecond laser surface texturing approach that makes both the enamel and dentine surfaces superwetting. In contrast to the traditional chemical etching that yields random surface structures, this approach produces engineered surface structures. The surface structure engineered and tested here is an array of parallel microgrooves that generates a strong capillary force. Due to the powerful capillary action, water is rapidly sucked into this engineered surface structure and spreads even on a vertical surface.

  9. Effects of etching time on enamel bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Triolo, P T; Swift, E J; Mudgil, A; Levine, A

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of etching time on bond strengths of composite to enamel. Proximal surfaces of extracted molars were etched with either a conventional etchant (35% phosphoric acid) or one of two dentin/enamel conditioners, 10% maleic acid (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Etchant), or a solution of oxalic acid, aluminum nitrate, and glycine (Gluma 1 & 2 Conditioner). Each agent was applied for 15, 30, or 60 seconds. Specimens etched with 35% phosphoric acid had the highest mean bond strengths at each etching time. At the manufacturer's recommended application times, the other two agents gave significantly lower shear bond strengths than phosphoric acid.

  10. Enamel Reduction Techniques in Orthodontics: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Livas, Christos; Jongsma, Albert Cornelis; Ren, Yijin

    2013-01-01

    Artificial abrasion of interproximal surfaces has been described for almost seventy years as orthodontic intervention for achievement and maintenance of ideal treatment outcome. A variety of terms and approaches have been introduced throughout this period implying a growing clinicians’ interest. Nevertheless, the widespread recognition of enamel stripping technique was initiated by the advent of bonded orthodontic attachments and a 2-article series of Sheridan in the 80’s. Since then, experimental and clinical research has been focused on the investigation of instrumentation efficacy and potential iatrogenic sequelae related to interproximal stripping. This review discusses the evolution, technical aspects and trends of enamel reduction procedures as documented in the literature. PMID:24265652

  11. Color masking of developmental enamel defects: a case series.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Borges, A B

    2015-01-01

    Developmental defects involving color alteration of enamel frequently compromise the esthetic appearance of the tooth. The resin infiltration technique represents an alternative treatment for color masking of these lesions and uniformization of tooth color. This technique is considered relatively simple and microinvasive, since only a minimal portion of enamel is removed. This article illustrates the color-masking effect with resin infiltration of fluorosis and traumatic hypomineralization lesions with a case series. The final esthetic outcomes demonstrated the ability of the resin infiltrant to mask the color of white developmental defect lesions, resulting in satisfactory clinical esthetic improvements. However, in more severe cases, the color-masking effect was not complete.

  12. Finishing of enamel surfaces after debonding of orthodontic attachments.

    PubMed

    Retief, D H; Denys, F R

    1979-01-01

    The finishing of enamel surfaces after removal of directly bonded attachments is essential. The following procedures are suggested: 1. The bonding of mesh-backed stainless steel brackets with a lightly filled resin system. 2. Debonding of attachments with a direct bonding bracket remover. 3. Removal of the bulk of the remaining resin with a 12-bladed tungsten carbide bur operated at high speed with adequate air cooling. 4. Finishing of the residual resin and underlying enamel with graded polishing discs or Ceramisté wheels used with light pressure and adequate air cooling. 5. Final finishing with a rubber cup and a water slurry of pumice.

  13. Crystal structure of human tooth enamel studied by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouladdiaf, Bachir; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan; Goutaudier, Christelle; Ouladdiaf, Selma; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Pradelle, Nelly; Colon, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Crystal structure of human tooth enamel was investigated using high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. Excellent agreement between observed and refined patterns is obtained, using the hexagonal hydroxyapatite model for the tooth enamel, where a large hydroxyl deficiency ˜70% is found in the 4e site. Rietveld refinements method combined with the difference Fourier maps have revealed, however, that the hydroxyl ions are not only disordered along the c-axis but also within the basal plane. Additional H ions located at the 6h site and forming HPO42- anions were found.

  14. Loading rate effect on nanohardness of human enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Nilormi; Dey, Arjun; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K.

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, nanoindentation technique has been utilised to study the physics of deformation at the scale of micro/nano-structure of tooth enamel which is basically the hardest natural biomaterial in the human body comprising of a hybrid combination of hydroxypatite ceramic nano-crystal and organic-protein matrix. We have observed about 8 % increase in the nanohardness of human enamel with the increase in loading rate from 1 × 103 μN s-1 to 3 × 105 μN s-1. The results have been explained in terms of the maximum shear stress generated underneath the nanoindenter.

  15. Microabrasion in tooth enamel discoloration defects: three cases with long-term follow-ups

    PubMed Central

    SUNDFELD, Renato Herman; SUNDFELD-NETO, Daniel; MACHADO, Lucas Silveira; FRANCO, Laura Molinar; FAGUNDES, Ticiane Cestari; BRISO, André Luiz Fraga

    2014-01-01

    Superficial irregularities and certain intrinsic stains on the dental enamel surfaces can be resolved by enamel microabrasion, however, treatment for such defects need to be confined to the outermost regions of the enamel surface. Dental bleaching and resin-based composite repair are also often useful for certain situations for tooth color corrections. This article presented and discussed the indications and limitations of enamel microabrasion treatment. Three case reports treated by enamel microabrasion were also presented after 11, 20 and 23 years of follow-ups. PMID:25141208

  16. Thermal Transformations of Iron Cations in the System Metal-Vitreous Enamel Coat. Moessbauer Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Barcova, K.; Mashlan, M.; Zboril, R.; Hrabovska, K.

    2005-04-26

    Vitreous enameling on steel is carried out to provide a protective layer against chemical corrosion from the surrounding environment. The glass bonds with the steel to form a composite material. The Moessbauer spectroscopy was firstly applied to study the vitreous enameling in which the complex of processes, as diffusion of species, adhesion between the glass and the steel, galvanic reactions, plays an important role. The Moessbauer spectroscopy provides unique information about the Fe-phase structure of the vitreous enamel layer and that of the steel-enamel interface. Diffusion of iron from steel surface towards enamel layer and formation of a new Fe2+ phase was proved.

  17. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    PubMed Central

    Sabokseir, Aira

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm), and low (0.24–0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001). After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3%) of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  18. Characterization of enamel incremental markings and crown growth parameters in minipig molars.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Breuer, Friederike; Richards, Alan; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    We studied the structure and periodicity of regular incremental markings in third molar enamel of minipigs. Light microscopy of ground sections revealed the presence of incremental markings matching the description of laminations. Their number within the section planes closely paralleled crown formation time (CFT) in days reported for minipig third molars, thereby indicating the daily nature of laminations. Spacing of consecutive laminations increased from lowest values in the inner to highest values in the outer enamel, where mean daily secretion rates of about 20 µm were recorded. Mean enamel extension rates determined for deciles along the enamel-dentin junction varied between highest values (155 µm/day) in the most cuspally located and lowest values (19 µm/day) in cervical enamel. Backscattered electron imaging in the SEM revealed the presence of thin, regularly spaced hypermineralized incremental lines in the outer enamel portion. These lines exhibited the same spacing as the laminations and were, thus, likewise regarded as daily incremental markings. Between two successive daily incremental markings, subdaily growth marks were discernible in light microscopic and in BSE-SEM images. These subdaily growth marks closely resembled the (daily) prism-cross striations of human enamel. Supra-daily growth marks were not identified in the minipig enamel. The results of this study parallels previous findings in sheep enamel. It is cautioned that CFT of ungulate teeth may be considerably overestimated if the periodicity established for growth marks in human enamel is uncritically transferred to the analysis of morphologically similar growth marks in ungulate enamel.

  19. Evaluation of the Esthetic Properties of Developmental Defects of Enamel: A Spectrophotometric Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fabrizio; Mazur, Marta; Corridore, Denise; Pasqualotto, Debora; Nardi, Gianna Maria; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Detailed clinical quantification of optical properties of developmental defect of enamel is possible with spectrophotometric evaluation. Developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are daily encountered in clinical practice. DDE are an alteration in quality and quantity of the enamel, caused by disruption and/or damage to the enamel organ during amelogenesis. Methods. Several clinical indices have been developed to categorize enamel defects based on their nature, appearance, microscopic features, or cause. A sample of 39 permanent teeth presenting DDE on labial surface was examined using the DDE Modified Index and SpectroShade evaluation. The spectrophotometric approach quantifies L* (luminosity), a* (quantity of green-red), and b* (quantity of blue-yellow) of different DDE. Conclusions. SpectroShade evaluation of the optical properties of the enamel defect enhances clinical understanding of severity and extent of the defect and characterizes the enamel alteration in terms of color discrepancy and surface characterization. PMID:25874260

  20. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure.

    PubMed

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W; Constantino, Paul J; Bromage, Timothy G; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of enamel pearls in teeth from a human teeth bank.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno R; Abreu, Mauro H N G; Custódio, Antônio L N

    2010-06-01

    Enamel pearls are anatomical structures that can bring about clinical implications if associated with the retention of plaque, in turn resulting in periodontal disease. In an attempt to avoid periodontal disease, the removal and treatment of these enamel pearls, may be a necessity in some circumstances. A total of 45,785 extracted teeth from a human teeth bank were analyzed for the presence of enamel pearls. The most prevalent anatomical location of enamel pearls was the permanent maxillary first and second molar region. An association between the prevalence of enamel pearls and dental class (P < 0.001) was observed, most frequently in the maxillary molars. In the maxillary molars, the most prevalent anatomical location of enamel pearls in the first and second molars was the furcation between the distobuccal and palatal roots. Enamel pearls are a common observation in molars in general, but are most commonly found in maxillary molars.

  2. Developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition: aetiology and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Salanitri, S; Seow, W K

    2013-06-01

    Developmental enamel defects, presenting as enamel hypoplasia or opacities are caused by damage or disruption to the developing enamel organ as a result of inherited and acquired systemic conditions. The high prevalence of these defects in the primary dentition demonstrates the vulnerability of the teeth to changes in the pre- and postnatal environment. The presence of enamel hypoplasia increases the risk of primary teeth to early childhood caries and tooth wear as the defective enamel is thinner, more plaque retentive and less resistant to dissolution in acid compared to normal enamel. The purpose of this paper was to critically review the aetiology and clinical complications of developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition and propose recommendations for the clinical management of affected teeth.

  3. Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bechtle, Sabine; Özcoban, Hüseyin; Lilleodden, Erica T; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Swain, Michael V; Schneider, Gerold A

    2012-06-07

    Hard, biological materials are generally hierarchically structured from the nano- to the macro-scale in a somewhat self-similar manner consisting of mineral units surrounded by a soft protein shell. Considerable efforts are underway to mimic such materials because of their structurally optimized mechanical functionality of being hard and stiff as well as damage-tolerant. However, it is unclear how different hierarchical levels interact to achieve this performance. In this study, we consider dental enamel as a representative, biological hierarchical structure and determine its flexural strength and elastic modulus at three levels of hierarchy using focused ion beam (FIB) prepared cantilevers of micrometre size. The results are compared and analysed using a theoretical model proposed by Jäger and Fratzl and developed by Gao and co-workers. Both properties decrease with increasing hierarchical dimension along with a switch in mechanical behaviour from linear-elastic to elastic-inelastic. We found Gao's model matched the results very well.

  4. In vivo effectiveness of enamel sealants around orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, T E; Sobiegalla, A; Markovic, M; Berneburg, M; Göz, G R

    2013-11-01

    In this randomized study, the caries-protective effect on vestibular enamel of two fluoride-containing sealants (Protecto® and Light Bond®) during multibracket treatment was investigated. In all, 40 orthodontic patients about to receive a multibracket appliance with the brackets bonded to the vestibular tooth surfaces were randomly included in this study. Each one was randomly assigned to one of four groups. A crossover design was selected in which a sealed quadrant was contralateral to an unsealed quadrant, then choosing the reverse configuration in the opposite jaw. Two sealants were, thus, tested on vestibular enamel on left and right anterior teeth and premolars in both jaws of each patient over 6 months of multibracket treatment. A DIAGNOdent® pen measuring laser fluorescence was used to analyze the relevant enamel surfaces both at baseline and after 6 months. Neither the incidence nor the characteristics of the demineralization we observed during the study differed between the 4 groups. Single application of smooth-surface sealants did not protect enamel around brackets from incipient carious lesions during the first 6 months of multibracket treatment.

  5. Resin adhesion to enamel and dentin: a review.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, Edmond R

    2003-06-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge base regarding resin adhesion to enamel and dentin. A descriptive classification system for adhesive resin products as well as clinical considerations derived from the review are also presented to assist the clinician in the selection and application of these products.

  6. Evaluation of bond strength of orthodontic brackets without enamel etching

    PubMed Central

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Motaghi, Shiva; Moghaddas, Mohmmadjavad

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the shear bond strength of brackets with and without enamel etching. Material and Methods In this study, 60 sound premolars were randomly divided into four different groups: 1- TXE group: Enamel etching+Transbond XT adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 2- TXS group: Transbond plus self-etch adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 3- PQ1E group: Enamel etching+ PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 4- PQ1 group: PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. The shear bond strengths of brackets were evaluated using universal testing machine at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also measured. One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Witney U test were used for data analysis. Results There was a significant difference between etched and unetched groups respect to SBS and ARI (p<0.05), however; no significant difference was observed between unetched group and self-etch adhesive group (p>> 0.05). The shear bond strength of PQ1 group was the least but in acceptable range and its ARI was less than other groups. Conclusions PQ1 adhesive can be used for bracket bonding without enamel etching with adequate bond strength and minimal ARI. Key words:Bracket, shear bond strength, filled-adhesive, self-etch adhesive. PMID:26535100

  7. Enamel surface roughness of preferred debonding and polishing protocols.

    PubMed

    Webb, Brian J; Koch, Jacob; Hagan, Joseph L; Ballard, Richard W; Armbruster, Paul C

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the surface roughness of enamel after debonding and instrumentation with commonly used methods. Part I: a survey was sent to active members of the American Association of Orthodontists to determine popular bonding, debonding, and polishing protocols. Part II: brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of 30 extracted human premolar teeth. After debonding, residual adhesive was removed with 12-, 16-, and 20-fluted titanium carbide burs as based upon the survey results. The teeth were scanned with a surface profilometer for surface roughness. Part III: the teeth were further polished using a Reliance Renew polishing point or a prophy cup with pumice and rescanned for surface roughness. Part I: the majority of respondents used a generic bracket-removing plier to remove fixed appliances (53%) and a high-speed handpiece for adhesive removal (85%). The most popular bur was a 12-fluted carbide bur without water spray. The majority of respondents used pumice paste and/or Reliance Renew points after adhesive removal. Part II: there was a significant difference in enamel surface roughness when 12-, 16-, and 20-fluted carbide burs were compared via surface profilometry. Part III: further polishing with a Reliance Renew point or a prophy cup and pumice did not provide a significantly smoother surface. The results show large variation in debonding and polishing techniques. Creating a smooth enamel surface is equally possible with 12- or 20-fluted carbide burs. Further polishing with pumice and prophy cup or Renew point does not provide an enamel smoother surface.

  8. Nonlinear Simulation of the Tooth Enamel Spectrum for EPR Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, V. A.; Dubovsky, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Software was developed where initial EPR spectra of tooth enamel were deconvoluted based on nonlinear simulation, line shapes and signal amplitudes in the model initial spectrum were calculated, the regression coefficient was evaluated, and individual spectra were summed. Software validation demonstrated that doses calculated using it agreed excellently with the applied radiation doses and the doses reconstructed by the method of additive doses.

  9. Micro-indentation fracture behavior of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Sanosh Kunjalukkal; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Chu, Min-Cheol; Kim, Taik Nam; Cho, Seong Jai

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the crack resistance behavior (K(R)) of human enamel in relation to its microstructure. Human molar teeth were precision cut, polished and tested using Vickers micro-indentation at different loads ranging from 0.98 to 9.8 N. Five indentation load levels were considered, 20 indentation cracks for each load level were introduced on the surface of the test specimen (10 indentations per tooth) and their variability was evaluated using Weibull statistics and an empirical model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the crack morphology and propagation mechanisms involved. The results showed that enamel exhibited increasing cracking resistance (K(R)) with increasing load. It was found that the crack propagation mainly depended on the location and the microstructure it encountered. SEM showed the formation of crack bridges and crack deflection near the indentation crack tip. The crack mode was of Palmqvist type even at larger loads of 9.8 N. This was mainly attributed to the large process zone created by the interwoven lamellar rod like microstructure exhibited by the enamel surface. This study shows that there are still considerable prospects for improving dental ceramics and for mimicking the enamel structure developed by nature.

  10. 41Ca - a possible neutron specific biomarker in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Faestermann, T.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Maier, H. J.; Nakamura, N.; Rühm, W.; Rugel, G.

    2004-08-01

    The measurement of long-lived radionuclides, produced by neutrons originating from the atomic-bomb explosions, offers the possibility to reconstruct neutron fluences to which survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were exposed. The long-lived radionuclide, 41Ca (T1/2=103 000 years), is suggested here as a means for a retrospective determination of thermal neutron fluences, directly within the human body of a survivor. As proper material tooth enamel is proposed. The 41Ca signal in tooth enamel may be correlated with the exposure to A-bomb induced thermal neutron fluences, provided the natural background level of 41Ca/Ca is significantly lower. Therefore, tooth samples of unexposed survivors of the A-bomb explosions have been examined by means of accelerator mass spectrometry, in order to quantify the natural background level of 41Ca/Ca. Measured 41Ca/Ca ratios were confirmed to be as low as about 2 × 10-15. Thus, the A-bomb induced additional signal should be detectable for survivors at epidemiological relevant distances. Since tooth enamel had already been used as a dosemeter for gamma radiation from the A-bomb explosion, the detection of 41Ca in tooth enamel would allow, for the first time, an assessment of both, γ-ray and neutron exposures in the same biological material.

  11. CO₂-lased enamel microhardness after brushing and cariogenic challenge.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Afonso, Alessandra Marques; Bachmann, Luciano; de Almeida, Cíntia Guimarães; Dibb, Regina Guenka Palma; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to assess how the wear that brushing promotes affects CO₂ laser-irradiated enamel microhardness after cariogenic challenge in vitro. Forty fragments measuring 4 × 4 mm were randomly assigned to four groups according to the enamel surface treatment: G1-control, G2-CO₂-laser irradiation, G3-brushing, and G4-CO₂ laser irradiation + brushing. A laser device emitting at 10.6 μm was used (power=0.5 W, energy per pulse=0.05 mJ, and frequency=10 kHz). Specimens belonging to groups G3 and G4 were brushed (80,000 strokes) with a brushing simulator using toothpaste. Next, the samples were challenged with acid: the specimens were immersed in demineralizing and remineralizing solutions for 8 days. The acid resistance of enamel was evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness tests. The area under the curve (KHN × μm) was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) one-away and Fisher's test were performed for the statistical analysis (p<0.05). Group G2 specimens (31,185 ± 4706) were statistically different from specimens belonging to groups G1 (26,723 ± 2446), G3 (28,194 ± 1376), and G4 (28,207 ± 2234), which were statistically similar. The brushing time used in the present study probably wore the CO₂-lased enamel, so demineralization could not be prevented in the brushed group.

  12. Methods for Biomimetic Mineralisation of Human Enamel: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chris Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic mineralisation is an alternative restorative methodology that imitates the natural process of mineralisation. We aimed to systematically review the laboratory methods on the biomimetic mineralisation of demineralised enamel. A search in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ISI Web of Science databases was performed. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, animal teeth, non-tooth substrates, and irrelevant studies were excluded. After screening the titles and abstracts of initially searched articles, 20 papers remained for full-text analysis. Eight articles were identified from the references of the remaining papers. A total of 28 studies were included in this systematic review. We found that protein or protein analogues were used to mimic the function of natural protein in 23 studies. Bioactive components inspired by mussel, an agarose hydrogel model, a glycerine-enriched gelatine technique, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, were also used for biomimetic mineralisation of enamel. These laboratory studies reported success in the biomimetic mineralisation of enamel. Potential further research on the biomimetic mineralisation of enamel was discussed.

  13. Metamorphic modifications and EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Brik, A; Radchuk, V; Scherbina, O; Matyash, M; Gaver, O

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that metamorphic modifications in tooth enamel have an essential influence on the results of EPR dosimetry. The metamorphic modifications in minerals of biological origin proceed more quickly than in usual natural minerals. The approaches which at present are applied for reconstruction of doses connected with Chernobyl accident need additional investigation.

  14. [Computerized reconstruction of the spatial organization of enamel rods].

    PubMed

    Anastasi, G; Cutroneo, G; Magaudda, L; Palmara, V; Santoro, G

    1989-01-01

    Morphometric reliefs on the enamel of the lower incisor of albino rats in correspondence with the prism compaction area during the first third of the ameloblastic modulation phase have been carried out. The reliefs were done on the longitudinal and median fracture plane and on the transversal fracture plane 8 mm from the cervical ansa. Measurements of the diameters of the honeycomb pits were carried out during the deposition phase, following removal of the ameloblastic coat. The data obtained were fed into an Apple Macintosh 512K/800 computer to obtain the geometric reconstruction of an isolated prism, the relations between each portion of the prism and the respective pits and a graphic example of the architectural organization of the enamel. It was shown that each prism consists of three distinct portion, just as there are three types of honeycomb pit. The external orifice of each pit is complementary to the interdigitant portion of the Tomes process, so the study of the pits may be used to evaluate the spatial orientation of the rods and not the morphology of their section. Cross-over between rows of contiguous rods occurs throughout the thickness of the internal enamel layer. The enamel possesses a particularly suitable structure for the transformation of surface type tangential forces into stresses or prevalently compression type.

  15. Composition of enamel pellicle from dental erosion patients.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, G; Cotroneo, E; Moazzez, R; Rojas-Serrano, M; Donaldson, N; Austin, R; Zaidel, L; Bartlett, D; Proctor, G

    2014-01-01

    Oral health is dependent upon a thin mobile film of saliva on soft and hard tissues. Salivary proteins adhere to teeth to form the acquired enamel pellicle which is believed to protect teeth from acid erosion. This study investigated whether patients suffering diet-induced dental erosion had altered enamel pellicles. Thirty patients suffering erosion were compared to healthy age-matched controls. Subjects wore a maxillary splint holding hydroxyapatite and human enamel blocks for 1 h. The acquired enamel pellicle was removed from the blocks and compared to the natural incisor pellicle. Basic Erosive Wear Examination scores confirmed that dental erosion was present in erosion patients and absent from healthy age-matched controls. Erosion patients had half the amount of proteins (BCA assay) within the acquired pellicle forming on splint blocks compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). In particular, statherin, a calcium-binding protein, was 35% less abundant (p < 0.05). Calcium concentration within the acquired pellicle was also reduced by 50% in erosion patients (p < 0.001). In contrast, the natural pellicle on the incisor had similar amounts of total protein in erosion patients and healthy controls. In summary, the formation of new acquired pellicles on surfaces was reduced in erosion patients, which may explain their greater susceptibility to acid erosion of teeth.

  16. Laser-matrix-fluoride effects on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C Y; Jordan, T H; Dederich, D N; Wefel, J S

    2001-09-01

    Laser and fluoride have been shown to inhibit enamel demineralization. However, the role of organic matrix and their interactions remains unclear. This study investigated the interaction among CO2 laser irradiation, fluoride, and the organic matrix on the demineralization of human enamel. Twenty-four molars were selected and cut into halves. One half of each tooth was depleted of its lipid and protein. The other half served as a matched control. Each tooth half had two window areas, treated with a 2.0% NaF gel. All left windows then received a laser treatment. Next, the tooth halves were subjected to a four-day pH-cycling procedure that created caries-like lesions. Tooth sections were cut from the windows, and microradiographs were used for quantification of the demineralization. The combined fluoride-laser treatment led to 98.3% and 95.1% reductions in mineral loss for enamel with and without organic matrix, respectively, when compared with sound enamel.

  17. Depth-dependent mechanical properties of enamel by nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jikou; Hsiung, Luke L

    2007-04-01

    Nanoindentation has recently emerged to be the primary method to study the mechanical behavior and reliability of human enamel. Its hardness and elastic modulus were generally reported as average values with standard deviations that were calculated from the results of multiple nanoindentation testing. In such an approach, it is assumed that the mechanical properties of human enamel are constant, independent of testing parameters, like indent depth and loading rate. However, little is known if they affect the measurements. In this study, we investigated the dependence of the hardness and elastic modulus of human enamel on the indent depth. We found that in a depth range from 100 to 2000 nm the elastic moduli continuously decreased from approximately 104 to 70 GPa, and the hardnesses decreased from approximately 5.7 to 3.6 GPa. We then considered human enamel as a fiber-reinforced composite, and used the celebrated rule of mixture theory to quantify the upper and lower bounds of the elastic moduli, which were shown to cover the values measured in the current study and previous studies. Accordingly, we attributed the depth dependence of the hardness and modulus to the continuous microstructure evolution induced by the nanoindenter tip. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Does fluoride gel/foam application time affect enamel demineralization?

    PubMed

    Braxton, Ashanti; Garrett, Latasha; Versluis-Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2014-01-01

    The American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs recommends a four-minute application of professionally applied topical fluoride, based on clinical evidence for caries reduction. However, some product manufacturers imply that a one-minute application is sufficient. The purpose of this laboratory study was to ascertain if a one-minute application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) is equivalent to a four-minute application for reduction of enamel demineralization. We measured baseline hardness of polished bovine enamel before treatment with APF gel or foam for one or four minutes (N = 10). A control group received no fluoride treatment. The teeth were then immersed in pooled human saliva for 30 minutes, rinsed, and subjected to lactic acid gel to simulate the initial stage of dental caries. After three hours, the hardness was measured and the difference in hardness was determined as an indication of demineralization. We found that enamel hardness was significantly reduced after exposure to lactic acid gel. The reduction was significantly less in all APF-treatment groups compared to the control. However, there was no significant difference between a tooth exposed to APF gel or foam for 1 minute or for 4 minutes (ANOVA/Student-Newman-Keuls, significance level 0.05). In conclusion, APF gel and foam reduced enamel demineralization regardless of a one- or four-minute application time.

  19. Optimizing the analysis of dental enamel microstructure in intact teeth.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Zulieth López; Line, Sergio Roberto Peres

    2017-07-01

    In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel. We show here that the area of intense shine can be minimized by a polarizing filter coupled to the camera objective, and the filling of enamel cracks with corn oil can reduce refraction of light in enamel cracks. These procedures can significantly increase the quality and the area of HSBs that can be recorded in intact teeth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The remineralisation of enamel: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Jinfang; Joiner, Andrew; Chang, Jiang

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and technologies for tooth remineralisation. The literature was searched using the "Scopus" and "Web of Knowledge" database from the year 1971, with principal key words of *miner*, teeth and enamel. Language was restricted to English. Original studies and reviews were included. Conference papers and posters were excluded. The importance of oral health for patients and consumers has seen a steady increase in the number of tooth remineralisation agents, products and procedures over recent years. Concomitantly, there has been continued publication of both in vivo and in vitro tooth remineralisation and demineralisation studies. It is clear that fluoride treatments are generally effective in helping to protect the dental enamel from demineralisation and enhancing remineralisation. Continued efforts to increase the efficacy of fluoride have been made, in particular, by the addition of calcium salts or calcium containing materials to oral care products which may enhance the delivery and retention of fluoride into the oral cavity. In addition, the calcium salts or materials may act as additional sources of calcium to promote enamel remineralisation or reduce demineralisation processes. Inspired by the concept of bioactive materials for bone repair and regeneration, bioglass and in particular calcium silicate type materials show potential for enamel health benefits and is a growing area of research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Argon laser induced changes to the carbonate content of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziglo, M. J.; Nelson, A. E.; Heo, G.; Major, P. W.

    2009-05-01

    Argon laser irradiation can be used to cure orthodontic brackets onto teeth in significantly less time than conventional curing lights. In addition, it has been shown that the argon laser seems to impart a demineralization resistance to the enamel. The purpose of this study was to use surface science techniques to ascertain if this demineralization resistance is possibly a result of a decrease in the carbonate content of enamel. Eleven mandibular third molars previously scheduled for extraction were collected and used in the present study. The teeth were sectioned in two and randomly assigned to either the argon laser (457-502 nm; 250 mW cm -2) or the control (no treatment) group. The sections assigned to the argon laser group were cured for 10 s and analyzed. To exaggerate any potential changes the experimental sections were then exposed to a further 110 s of argon laser irradiation. Surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results showed no statistically significant change in the carbonate content of enamel after argon laser irradiation ( p > 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that any demineralization resistance imparted to the enamel surface by argon laser irradiation is not due to alterations in carbonate content.

  2. Is It Necessary to Prepare the Enamel before Dental Bleaching?

    PubMed

    Lago, Andréa Dias Neves; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Araújo, Erika Michele Dos Santos; Matos, Adriana Bona; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of distinct surface treatments on the microhardness and color of enamel that will be bleached. Surface treatments are tested, accordingly: G1, no treatment; G2, 2% sodium fluoride; G3, casein phosphopeptide paste; G4, 2% fluoride+Nd:YAG laser. Forty blocks from bovine teeth composed the sample that were tested in Knoop microhardness (n = 10) and in color change (n = 10). After 24 h, bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was performed for 45 min. Microhardness and color changes (using parameters ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb) were assessed before and after bleaching. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Despite all surface treatments, a reduction of enamel microhardness occurred immediately after bleaching in all groups, being greater in G1. Enamel color changed in all groups. Immediately after bleaching, there was a decrease on enamel microhardness. However, after 7 days, some of those specimens previously treated before bleaching significantly recovered their initial microhardness without influencing the esthetic results of bleaching.

  3. Contact fatigue of human enamel: Experiments, mechanisms and modeling.

    PubMed

    Gao, S S; An, B B; Yahyazadehfar, M; Zhang, D; Arola, D D

    2016-07-01

    Cyclic contact between natural tooth structure and engineered ceramics is increasingly common. Fatigue of the enamel due to cyclic contact is rarely considered. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the fatigue behavior of human enamel by cyclic contact, and to assess the extent of damage over clinically relevant conditions. Cyclic contact experiments were conducted using the crowns of caries-free molars obtained from young donors. The cuspal locations were polished flat and subjected to cyclic contact with a spherical indenter of alumina at 2Hz. The progression of damage was monitored through the evolution in contact displacement, changes in the contact hysteresis and characteristics of the fracture pattern. The contact fatigue life diagram exhibited a decrease in cycles to failure with increasing cyclic load magnitude. Two distinct trends were identified, which corresponded to the development and propagation of a combination of cylindrical and radial cracks. Under contact loads of less than 400N, enamel rod decussation resisted the growth of subsurface cracks. However, at greater loads the damage progressed rapidly and accelerated fatigue failure. Overall, cyclic contact between ceramic appliances and natural tooth structure causes fatigue of the enamel. The extent of damage is dependent on the magnitude of cyclic stress and the ability of the decussation to arrest the fatigue damage.

  4. Is It Necessary to Prepare the Enamel before Dental Bleaching?

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Erika Michele dos Santos; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of distinct surface treatments on the microhardness and color of enamel that will be bleached. Surface treatments are tested, accordingly: G1, no treatment; G2, 2% sodium fluoride; G3, casein phosphopeptide paste; G4, 2% fluoride+Nd:YAG laser. Forty blocks from bovine teeth composed the sample that were tested in Knoop microhardness (n = 10) and in color change (n = 10). After 24 h, bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was performed for 45 min. Microhardness and color changes (using parameters ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb) were assessed before and after bleaching. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Despite all surface treatments, a reduction of enamel microhardness occurred immediately after bleaching in all groups, being greater in G1. Enamel color changed in all groups. Immediately after bleaching, there was a decrease on enamel microhardness. However, after 7 days, some of those specimens previously treated before bleaching significantly recovered their initial microhardness without influencing the esthetic results of bleaching. PMID:28280508

  5. Spectrally enhanced image resolution of tooth enamel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Short-wavelength 405 nm laser illumination of surface dental enamel using an ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) produced enhanced detail of dental topography. The surfaces of human extracted teeth and artificial erosions were imaged with 405 nm, 444 nm, 532 nm, or 635 nm illumination lasers. The obtained images were then processed offline to compensate for any differences in the illumination beam diameters between the different lasers. Scattering and absorption coefficients for a Monte Carlo model of light propagation in dental enamel for 405 nm were scaled from published data at 532 nm and 633 nm. The value of the scattering coefficient used in the model was scaled from the coefficients at 532 nm and 633 nm by the inverse third power of wavelength. Simulations showed that the penetration depth of short-wavelength illumination is localized close to the enamel surface, while long-wavelength illumination travels much further and is backscattered from greater depths. Therefore, images obtained using short wavelength laser are not contaminated by the superposition of light reflected from enamel tissue at greater depths. Hence, the SFE with short-wavelength illumination may make it possible to visualize surface manifestations of phenomena such as demineralization, thus better aiding the clinician in the detection of early caries.

  6. Cariogenic Potential of Sucrose Associated with Maltodextrin on Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Gabriela; Arthur, Rodrigo A; Grando, Debora; Hashizume, Lina N

    2017-01-26

    Maltodextrin is a hydrolysate of cornstarch and has been widely used in the food industry associated with sucrose. The addition of starch can increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose; however, there are sparse data regarding the cariogenicity of sucrose associated with maltodextrin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test in situ if maltodextrin could increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose. This was an in situ, randomized, crossover, split-mouth, and double-blind study. Volunteers wore palatal appliances containing bovine enamel blocks for 2 periods of 14 days. They dripped the following solutions on the enamel blocks 8 times per day: deionized distilled water (DDW), maltodextrin (M), sucrose + maltodextrin (S+M), or sucrose (S). At the end of each experimental period, biofilms were collected and analyzed for microbiological (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total microorganisms counts) and biochemical (calcium, inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides concentrations) compositions. The enamel demineralization was assessed by microhardness. Treatments S and S+M resulted in a lower inorganic composition and higher concentration of insoluble extracellular polysaccharides in the biofilms, and higher enamel mineral loss compared to DDW and M. It can be concluded that the cariogenic potential of sucrose is not changed when this carbohydrate is associated with maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent 13-17).

  7. Fracture-mechanics parameters of the composite-enamel bond.

    PubMed

    de Groot, R; van Elst, H C; Peters, M C

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, the critical values of the opening mode stress intensity factor (K1), its equivalent, the strain energy-release rate (G1), and the J integral (J1) (in the elastic case being equal to that of G1) were determined for resin composite. In this study, the strength of the composite-tooth interface was investigated. The critical values of K1 and J1 were measured with single-edge notched-bend (SENB) specimens of resin composite bonded to enamel, with the notch at midspan at the bonded interface. Due to enamel's anisotropy, the values of Klc and Jlc to be used in a fracture-mechanics application for failure prediction of a structure depend on the enamel prism orientation relative to the adhesive interface. Where interfacial failure is to be expected, the following values for Jlc and Klc can be used: Silux, Jlc = 145 +/- 35 Jm-2 and Klc = 0.84 +/- 0.16 MNm-3/2; P-30, Jlc = 163 +/- 13 Jm-2 and Klc = 1.02 +/- 0.07 MNm-3/2. Where enamel failure is expected or where the failure mode cannot be predicted, the following values can be applied: Silux, Jlc = 89 +/- 15 Jm-2 and Klc = 0.84 +/- 0.16 MNm-3/2; P-30, Jlc = 89 +/- 15 Jm-2 and Klc = 0.75 +/- 0.10 MNm-3/2.

  8. Shear bond strength of porcelain veneers rebonded to enamel.

    PubMed

    St Germain, H A; St Germain, T H

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory research, shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of veneers rebonded to enamel in shear compression were determined. Three groups (A, B, and C; n=10 each) of mounted molar teeth were finished flat using wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper, and 30 leucite-reinforced porcelain veneers (5.0 × 0.75 mm) were air abraded on the internal surface with 50 μm aluminum oxide, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid, and silanated. The control group (A) veneer specimens were bonded to enamel after etching with 37% phosphoric acid using bonding resin and a dual cure resin composite cement. Groups B and C were prepared similarly to group A with the exception that a release agent was placed before the veneer was positioned on the prepared enamel surface and the resin cement was subsequently light activated. The debonded veneers from groups B and C were placed in a casting burnout oven and heated to 454°C/850°F for 10 minutes to completely carbonize the resin cement and stay below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the leucite-reinforced porcelain. The recovered veneers were then prepared for bonding. The previously bonded enamel surfaces in group B were air abraded using 50 μm aluminum oxide followed by 37% phosphoric acid etching, while group C enamel specimens were acid etched only. All specimens were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 2000 cycles using a 30-second dwell time and stored in 37°C deionized water for 2 weeks. SBS was determined at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. SBS results in MPa for the groups were (A) = 20.6±5.1, (B) = 18.1±5.5, and (C) = 17.2±6.1. One-way analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant interactions (α=0.05), and Tukey-Kramer post hoc comparisons (α=0.05) detected no significant pairwise differences. An adhesive mode of failure at the enamel interface was observed to occur more often in the experimental groups (B = 40%, C = 50%). Rebonding the veneers produced SBS values that were not

  9. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ44Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ26Mg, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ26Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this 26Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a 26Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ26Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ26Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages.

  10. Analysis of some elements in primary enamel during postnatal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Nina; Klinberg, Gunilla; Nietzsche, Sandor; Robertson, Agneta; Odelius, Hans; Norén, Jörgen G

    2009-01-01

    The primary teeth start to mineralize in utero and continue development and maturation during the first year of life.The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of some elements, C, F, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Sr, by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in human primary incisors at different stages of mineralization.The teeth derived from an autopsy material from children who had died in sudden infant death.The buccal enamel of specimens from the ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 19 months, respectively, was analyzed. It was evident that posteruptive effects play an important role in composition of the outermost parts of the enamel. Before the tooth erupts, the concentrations of the elements vary with the maturation grade of the mineralization in the enamel. Sodium was the element with the highest concentration of the measured elements and chlorine was the element of lowest concentration.The 19 month old specimen, considered as the only mature and erupted tooth, showed to differ from the other specimens.The concentration of fluorine, in the 19 month old specimen's outermost surface, is readily seen higher compared with the other specimens at this depth zone. In the 19 month old specimen the concentration of carbon is lower. Potassium, sodium and chlorine have higher concentrations, in general, in the 19 month old specimen compared with the immature specimens. The thickness of the enamel during mineralization was calculated from data from SIMS.The thickness of the buccal enamel of primary incisors seemed to be fully developed between 3-4 months after birth, reaching a thickness of 350-400 microm.

  11. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ44Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ26Mg, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ26Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this 26Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a 26Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ26Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ26Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages. PMID:25535375

  12. Effect of mineral supplements to citric acid on enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Meyer, K; Hellwig, E; Buchalla, W; Lennon, A M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral supplements to citric acid (1%; pH 2.21) on enamel erosion under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. From each of 156 bovine incisors one polished enamel sample was prepared. The samples were divided among 13 experimental groups (n=12). In group 1 citric acid only was used (control). In groups 2-10 either calcium, phosphate or fluoride in various low concentrations was admixed to the citric acid. In groups 11-13 the citric acid was supplemented with a mixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. For demineralisation the specimens were rinsed with the respective solution for 1 min, immediately followed by a remineralisation period with artificial saliva (1 min). The specimens were cycled through this alternating procedure five times followed by rinsing for 8 h with artificial saliva. The de- and remineralisation cycle was repeated three times for each specimen interrupted by the 8 h-remineralisation periods. Before and after the experiments, the specimens were examined using microhardness testing (Knoop hardness) and laser profilometry. Hardness loss and enamel dissolution was significantly higher for the controls as compared to the remaining groups. Significantly lowest hardness loss for all groups was recorded for group 12 with admixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride to citric acid. The significantly highest enamel loss was recorded for the controls compared to all other samples. Groups 3 and 4 revealed significantly lower and higher tissue loss compared to the remaining groups (2-13), respectively. The other groups did not differ significantly from each other. Modification of citric acid with calcium, phosphate and fluoride exerts a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. However, with the low concentrations applied enamel dissolution could not be completely prevented.

  13. Enamel Bond Strength of New Universal Adhesive Bonding Agents.

    PubMed

    McLean, D E; Meyers, E J; Guillory, V L; Vandewalle, K S

    2015-01-01

    Universal bonding agents have been introduced for use as self-etch or etch-and-rinse adhesives depending on the dental substrate and clinician's preference. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to enamel using universal adhesives compared to a self-etch adhesive when applied in self-etch and etch-and-rinse modes over time. Extracted human third molars were used to create 120 enamel specimens. The specimens were ground flat and randomly divided into three groups: two universal adhesives and one self-etch adhesive. Each group was then subdivided, with half the specimens bonded in self-etch mode and half in etch-and-rinse mode. The adhesives were applied as per manufacturers' instructions, and composite was bonded using a standardized mold and cured incrementally. The groups were further divided into two subgroups with 10 specimens each. One subgroup was stored for 24 hours and the second for six months in 37°C distilled water and tested in shear. Failure mode was also determined for each specimen. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) found a significant difference between groups based on bonding agent (p<0.001) and surface treatment (p<0.001) but not on time (p=0.943), with no significant interaction (p>0.05). Clearfil SE in etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes had more mixed fractures than either universal adhesive in either mode. Etching enamel significantly increased the SBS of composite to enamel. Clearfil SE had significantly greater bond strength to enamel than either universal adhesive, which were not significantly different from each other.

  14. Enamel formation genes associated with dental erosive wear.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Jenny B; Vieira, Alexandre R; Tveit, A B; Mulic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosive wear is a multifactorial condition that is greatly affected by environmental factors. So far, no study has investigated how dental erosive wear is influenced by variations in enamel formation genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate polymorphisms in genes involved in enamel formation and their influence on enamel susceptibility to dental erosion. DNA samples were collected from 795 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years. Five single-nucleotide polymorphism markers were genotyped in selected candidate genes (ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin 1 and tuftelin interacting protein 11), reported to influence enamel formation. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared within two patient groups with dental erosions; all participants with dental erosion and only those with severe dental erosion (erosion extending into dentine). Overrepresentation of the G allele of the enamelin marker was seen in the erosion group compared to the unaffected group (p = 0.047). When erosion severity was considered, statistical significant difference in allele frequency was observed for amelogenin, with the C allele suggesting a protective role (p = 0.02). A suggestive overrepresentation of the TT genotype of the amelogenin marker was also seen in cases with severe erosion (p = 0.049) when compared to cases with no dentine erosion. Amelogenin was also associated with severe erosion in the recessive model; the TT genotype was significantly more frequent in the affected group than in the unaffected group (p = 0.01). The present study suggests that polymorphisms in enamel formation genes are statistically associated with an individual's susceptibility to dental erosive wear.

  15. Do different bleaching protocols affect the enamel microhardness?

    PubMed Central

    Lia Mondelli, Rafael Francisco; Garrido Gabriel, Taisa R. Conti; Piola Rizzante, Fabio Antonio; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Soares Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tooth bleaching tends to increase enamel roughness and porosity, in addition to reducing surface microhardness. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of bleaching treatments using different hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentrations, with and without light activation on bovine enamel microhardness. Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of sixty bovine incisors were flattened and polished and the enamel specimens were divided into six groups: G1 : c0 ontrol, exposed to artificial saliva; G2: 35% HP applied in two sessions (45’ each); G3: 35% HP applied in two sessions (3 × 15’ each); G4: 35% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus hybrid light (HL); G5: 25% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus HL; and G6: 15% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus HL. After the treatment, the enamel specimens were stored in artificial saliva. The surface microhardness (Knoop) was measured at the baseline, 24 h and 7 days after bleaching. The data was analyzed using the ANOVA test, followed by the Tukey–Krummer test (P < 0.05). Results: All bleaching procedures lead to a decrease in surface microhardness when compared with the control group after 24 h. The lowest change in surface microhardness was found in the specimens treated with 15% HP plus HL. However, 35% HP plus HL induced the highest decrease in surface microhardness. After 7 days of remineralization, the surface microhardness returned to normal levels for all bleached specimens. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that the bleaching protocols caused a slight enamel surface alteration. However, the remineralization process minimized these effects. PMID:25713480

  16. Relationship between enamel fluorosis severity and fluoride content

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A.; Shone, Devin B.; Buckley, Christine M.; Ando, Masatoshi; Lippert, Frank; Soto-Rojas, Armando E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enamel fluorosis is a hypomineralization caused by chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride during tooth development. Previous research on the relationship between enamel fluoride content and fluorosis severity has been equivocal. The current study aimed at comparing visually and histologically assessed fluorosis severity with enamel fluoride content. Methods Extracted teeth (n=112) were visually examined using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index for fluorosis. Eruption status of each tooth was noted. Teeth were cut into 100 μm slices to assess histological changes with polarized light microscopy. Teeth were categorized as sound, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis, visually and histologically. They were cut into squares (2×2 mm) for the determination of fluoride content (microbiopsy) at depths of 30, 60 and 90 μm from the external surface. Results Erupted teeth with severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content at 30, 60 and 90 μm than sound teeth. Unerupted teeth with mild, moderate and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 30 μm; unerupted teeth with mild and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 60 μm, while only unerupted teeth severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 90 μm. Conclusions Both erupted and unerupted severely fluorosed teeth presented higher mean enamel fluoride content than sound teeth. Clinical Significance Data on fluoride content in enamel will further our understanding of its biological characteristics which play a role in the management of hard tissue diseases and conditions. PMID:26808157

  17. Crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness of mandibular second bicuspids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sérgio Augusto; Vellini-Ferreira, Flávio; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Ferreira, Rívea Inês

    2011-01-01

    To achieve proper recontouring of anterior and posterior teeth, to obtain optimal morphology during enamel stripping, it is important to be aware of dental anatomy. This study aimed at evaluating crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness in a sample of 40 extracted sound, human, mandibular, second bicuspids (20 right and 20 left). Mesiodistal, cervico-occlusal and buccolingual crown dimensions were measured using a digital caliper, accurate to 0.01 mm. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axes through the proximal surfaces to obtain 0.7 mm-thick central sections. Enamel thickness on the cut sections was measured using a perfilometer. Comparative analyses were carried out using the Student's-t test (α= 5%). The mean mesiodistal crown widths for right and left teeth were 7.79 mm (± 0.47) and 7.70 mm (± 0.51), respectively. Mean cervico-occlusal heights ranged from 8.31 mm (± 0.75) on the right to 8.38 mm (± 0.85) on the left teeth. The mean values for the buccolingual dimension were 8.67 mm (± 0.70) on the right and 8.65 mm (± 0.54) on the left teeth. The mean enamel thickness on the mesial surfaces ranged from 1.35 mm (± 0.22) to 1.40 mm (± 0.17), on the left and right sides, respectively. On the distal surfaces, the corresponding values were 1.44 mm (± 0.21) and 1.46 mm (± 0.12). No significant differences were found between measurements for right and left teeth. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces, compared with the mesial surfaces.

  18. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C. )

    1990-09-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness.

  19. Relationship between enamel fluorosis severity and fluoride content.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A; Shone, Devin B; Buckley, Christine M; Ando, Masatoshi; Lippert, Frank; Soto-Rojas, Armando E

    2016-03-01

    Enamel fluorosis is a hypomineralization caused by chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride during tooth development. Previous research on the relationship between enamel fluoride content and fluorosis severity has been equivocal. The current study aimed at comparing visually and histologically assessed fluorosis severity with enamel fluoride content. Extracted teeth (n=112) were visually examined using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index for fluorosis. Eruption status of each tooth was noted. Teeth were cut into 100 μm slices to assess histological changes with polarized light microscopy. Teeth were categorized as sound, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis, visually and histologically. They were cut into squares (2 × 2 mm) for the determination of fluoride content (microbiopsy) at depths of 30, 60 and 90 μm from the external surface. Erupted teeth with severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content at 30, 60 and 90 μm than sound teeth. Unerupted teeth with mild, moderate and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 30 μm; unerupted teeth with mild and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 60 μm, while only unerupted teeth severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 90 μm. Both erupted and unerupted severely fluorosed teeth presented higher mean enamel fluoride content than sound teeth. Data on fluoride content in enamel will further our understanding of its biological characteristics which play a role in the management of hard tissue diseases and conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bond strength to surface enamel for different tooth types.

    PubMed

    Hobson, R S; McCabe, J F; Hogg, S D

    2001-03-01

    Fixed appliance therapy in orthodontics relies on the effective bonding of brackets to surface enamel. Bracket de-bonding during treatment is both inconvenient and costly to both dentist and patient. Factors which control the efficacy of the bond are not fully understood. For example, there has never been a study to determine the efficacy of bonding to different teeth in the dentition. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible differences in bond strength to acid etched enamel on the different teeth of the dentition. Two hundred and forty extracted sound human teeth were collected from white Caucasian subjects between the age of 10 and 22 years. Approximately 20 teeth of each tooth type were bonded using a standard acid etch technique with 'A company' stainless steel brackets using a light cured composite (Transbond, 3M Unitek). Shear bond strength (24 h) was measured using an Instron testing machine. Tooth type was found to have a significant effect on bond strength (p<0.001). The greatest mean bond strength was found on the lower first molar teeth, and the lowest on the upper first molar teeth. In the upper arch, bond strength was greater on anterior teeth than posterior teeth (p<0.001). In the lower arch bond strength was weaker on anterior teeth than posterior teeth (p<0.001). The results have profound implications for bond strength testing of dental composites to enamel as well as to the expectations of bond reliability in orthodontic therapy. The findings suggest that, in order to achieve meaningful comparisons, enamel bond strength measurements should be made using the same tooth type, or that appropriate stratification of groups of test teeth should be used. These findings may also explain, in part, variability in enamel bonding efficacy despite the best efforts of the dental practitioner.

  1. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeremy E; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-13

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ(44)Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ(26)Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ(26)Mg, δ(13)C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ(26)Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this (26)Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a (26)Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ(26)Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ(26)Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages.

  2. Incremental enamel development in modern human deciduous anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    This study reconstructs incremental enamel development for a sample of modern human deciduous mandibular (n = 42) and maxillary (n = 42) anterior (incisors and canines) teeth. Results are compared between anterior teeth, and with previous research for deciduous molars (Mahoney: Am J Phys Anthropol 144 (2011) 204-214) to identify developmental differences along the tooth row. Two hypotheses are tested: Retzius line periodicity will remain constant in teeth from the same jaw and range from 6 to 12 days among individuals, as in human permanent teeth; daily enamel secretion rates (DSRs) will not vary between deciduous teeth, as in some human permanent tooth types. A further aim is to search for links between deciduous incremental enamel development and the previously reported eruptionsequence. Retzius line periodicity in anterior teeth ranged between 5 and 6 days, but did not differ between an incisor and molar of one individual. Intradian line periodicity was 12 h. Mean cuspal DSRs varied slightly between equivalent regions along the tooth row. Mandibular incisors initiated enamel formation first, had the fastest mean DSRs, the greatest prenatal formation time, and based upon prior studies are the first deciduous tooth to erupt. Relatively rapid development in mandibular incisors in advance of early eruption may explain some of the variation in DSRs along the tooth row that cannot be explained by birth. Links between DSRs, enamel initiation times, and the deciduous eruption sequence are proposed. Anterior crown formation times presented here can contribute toward human infant age-at-death estimates. Regression equations for reconstructing formation time in worn incisors are given.

  3. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  4. A comparison of terahertz-pulsed imaging with transverse microradiography and microhardness to measure mineral changes in enamel after treatment with fluoride dentifrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchley, David; Lippert, Frank; Lynch, Richard; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, C.; Eder, J.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) to measure mineral changes in enamel lesions during de/remineralisation studies. A comparison was made between transverse microradiography (TMR) and microhardness measurements. Artificial lesions were formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid (pH 5.0) containing 0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite. The 20 day experimental protocol consisted of four, one-minute treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385 and 2700ppm fluoride, a 4 h/day acid challenge, and for the remaining time specimens were stored in a 50:50 pooled human / artificial saliva mixture. Terahertz images were generated by positioning the specimens at the focus of the beam and raster scanning the optics to collect the reflections from the air / enamel (AEI) and lesion / enamel (LEI) interface. Significant differences were observed in the intensity change from baseline of the AEI and LEI reflections upon treatment with the four dentifrices. A linear correlation was observed between ΔAEI vs ΔVHN (r2 = 0.997), ΔAEI vs ΔKHN (r2 =0.964), ΔII (ratio of LEI to AEI) vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.875) and ΔLEI vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.870). Statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 Pearson correlation coefficient) were also found between the TPI and microhardness / microradiography data. This study has demonstrated that TPI is a useful technology to measure in vitro (and possibly in situ) mineral changes in enamel and is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the levels of remineralization produced by the different dentifrices.

  5. Influence of toothbrushing on enamel softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel: an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Machado, Maria Aparecida De Andrade Moreira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the surface softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel with or without the influence of toothbrushing. Five volunteers took part in this in situ study of 5 days. They wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 6 bovine enamel blocks divided in two rows with 3 blocks, which corresponded to the studied groups: erosion without toothbrushing (GI) and erosion with toothbrushing (GII). The blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion of the appliances in a cola drink for 10 minutes, 4 times a day. After that, no treatment was performed in one row (GI), whereas the other row was brushed (GII). The appliance was then replaced into the mouth. Enamel alterations were determined using profilometry and microhardness tests. Data were tested using paired Students t test (p < 0.05). The mean wear values (microm) and percentage of superficial microhardness change (%SMHC) were respectively: GI--2.77 +/- 1.21/91.61 +/- 3.68 and GII--3.80 +/- 0.91/58.77 +/- 11.47. There was a significant difference in wear (p = 0.001) and %SMHC (p = 0.001) between the groups. It was concluded that the wear was more pronounced when associated to toothbrushing abrasion. However, toothbrushing promoted less %SMHC due to the removal of the altered superficial enamel layer.

  6. The potential of deciduous and permanent bovine enamel as substitute for deciduous and permanent human enamel: Erosion-abrasion experiments.

    PubMed

    Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian; Gries, David; Wiegand, Annette

    2007-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare toothbrushing abrasion of eroded human and bovine enamel utilizing a toothpaste slurry. The surfaces of each 36 teeth from cattle and calves and from each 36 human wisdom teeth and deciduous teeth were polished. Each 12 specimens from the respective tooth type were used for assessing toothbrushing abrasion only (A), erosion only (E) and the combination of erosion and toothbrushing abrasion (EA). The EA samples were subjected to 20 cycles comprising a demineralization/remineralization procedure directly followed by toothbrushing abrasion (100 strokes, 300 g load, toothpaste slurry: 3 ml artificial saliva mixed with 1g dentifrice). Demineralization in form of erosion was performed with 1% citric acid (1 min), remineralization with artificial saliva (15 min). Between the cycles, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. Wear of the treated surfaces with reference to untreated areas was determined profilometrically. The samples subjected to abrasion only (A) did not show a significantly different wear between the different kinds of teeth. The comparisons of substance loss between teeth of different species revealed that hard tissue loss of the human deciduous teeth was significantly lower as compared to calves' teeth after both erosion and erosion-abrasion. Also, both erosion only and erosion-abrasion caused higher enamel loss in cattle's teeth than in human wisdom teeth. It is concluded that human eroded enamel offers better resistance against brushing than bovine enamel.

  7. Protostylid expression at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of mandibular molars of Paranthropus robustus and Australopithecus africanus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Matthew M; Wood, Bernard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Distinctive expressions and incidences of discrete dental traits at the outer enamel surface (OES) contribute to the diagnoses of many early hominin taxa. Examination of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ), imaged non-destructively using micro-computed tomography, has elucidated the morphological development of dental traits and improved interpretations of their variability within and among taxa. The OES expressions of one of these dental traits, the protostylid, have been found to differ among African Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominin taxa. In this study protostylid expression is examined at the OES and at the EDJ of Paranthropus robustus (n=23) and Australopithecus africanus (n=28) mandibular molars, with the goals of incorporating EDJ morphology into the definition of the protostylid and assessing the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to its expression in these taxa. The results provide evidence (a) of statistically significant taxon-specific patterns of protostylid morphology at the EDJ that are not evident at the OES; (b) that in P. robustus, thick enamel reduces the morphological correspondence between the form of the protostylid seen at the EDJ and the OES, and (c) that if EDJ images can be obtained, then the protostylid retains its taxonomic value even in worn teeth.

  8. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher Mg

  9. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  10. A Fourth KLK4 Mutation Is Associated with Enamel Hypomineralisation and Structural Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Claire E. L.; Kirkham, Jennifer; Day, Peter F.; Soldani, Francesca; McDerra, Esther J.; Poulter, James A.; Inglehearn, Christopher F.; Mighell, Alan J.; Brookes, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    “Amelogenesis imperfecta” (AI) describes a group of genetic conditions that result in defects in tooth enamel formation. Mutations in many genes are known to cause AI, including the gene encoding the serine protease, kallikrein related peptidase 4 (KLK4), expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. In this study we report the fourth KLK4 mutation to be identified in autosomal recessively-inherited hypomaturation type AI, c.632delT, p.(L211Rfs*37) (NM_004917.4, NP_004908.4). This homozygous variant was identified in five Pakistani AI families and is predicted to result in a transcript with a premature stop codon that escapes nonsense mediated decay. However, the protein may misfold, as three of six disulphide bonds would be disrupted, and may be degraded or non-functional as a result. Primary teeth were obtained from one affected individual. The enamel phenotype was characterized using high-resolution computerized X-ray tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and microhardness testing (MH). Enamel from the affected individual (referred to as KLK4 enamel) was hypomineralised in comparison with matched control enamel. Furthermore, KLK4 inner enamel was hypomineralised compared with KLK4 outer enamel. SEM showed a clear structural demarcation between KLK4 inner and outer enamel, although enamel structure was similar to control tissue overall. EDX showed that KLK4 inner enamel contained less calcium and phosphorus and more nitrogen than control inner enamel and KLK4 outer enamel. MH testing showed that KLK4 inner enamel was significantly softer than KLK4 outer enamel (p < 0.001). However, the hardness of control inner enamel was not significantly different to that of control outer enamel. Overall, these findings suggest that the KLK4 c.632delT mutation may be a common cause of autosomal recessive AI in the Pakistani population. The phenotype data obtained mirror findings in the Klk4−/− mouse and

  11. Estimating mineral changes in enamel formation by ashing/BSE and microCT.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J E; Teepe, J D; Hu, Y; Smith, C E; Fajardo, R J; Chun, Y-H P

    2014-03-01

    Enamel formation produces the most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. The growth of enamel crystallites is assisted by enamel proteins and proteinases. As enamel formation progresses from secretory to maturation stages, the composition of the matrix with its mineral and non-mineral components dynamically changes in an inverse fashion. We hypothesized that appropriately calibrated micro-computed tomography (µCT) technology is suitable to estimate the mineral content (weight and/or density) and volume comparable in accuracy with that for directly weighed and sectioned enamel. Different sets of mouse mandibular incisors of C57BL/6 mice were used for dissections and µCT reconstructions. Calibration phantoms corresponding to the range of enamel mineral densities were used. Secretory-stage enamel contained little mineral and was consequently too poor in contrast for enamel volumes to be accurately estimated by µCT. Maturation-stage enamel, however, showed remarkable correspondence for total mineral content per volume where comparisons were possible between and among the different analytical techniques used. The main advantages of the µCT approach are that it is non-destructive, time-efficient, and can monitor changes in mineral content of the most mature enamel, which is too physically hard to dissect away from the tooth.

  12. Estimating Mineral Changes in Enamel Formation by Ashing/BSE and MicroCT

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, J.E.; Teepe, J.D.; Hu, Y.; Smith, C.E.; Fajardo, R.J.; Chun, Y.-H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel formation produces the most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. The growth of enamel crystallites is assisted by enamel proteins and proteinases. As enamel formation progresses from secretory to maturation stages, the composition of the matrix with its mineral and non-mineral components dynamically changes in an inverse fashion. We hypothesized that appropriately calibrated micro-computed tomography (µCT) technology is suitable to estimate the mineral content (weight and/or density) and volume comparable in accuracy with that for directly weighed and sectioned enamel. Different sets of mouse mandibular incisors of C57BL/6 mice were used for dissections and µCT reconstructions. Calibration phantoms corresponding to the range of enamel mineral densities were used. Secretory-stage enamel contained little mineral and was consequently too poor in contrast for enamel volumes to be accurately estimated by µCT. Maturation-stage enamel, however, showed remarkable correspondence for total mineral content per volume where comparisons were possible between and among the different analytical techniques used. The main advantages of the µCT approach are that it is non-destructive, time-efficient, and can monitor changes in mineral content of the most mature enamel, which is too physically hard to dissect away from the tooth. PMID:24470541

  13. Shear bond strength of dentin and deproteinized enamel of amelogenesis imperfecta mouse incisors.

    PubMed

    Pugach, Megan K; Ozer, Fusun; Mulmadgi, Raj; Li, Yong; Suggs, Cynthia; Wright, J Timothy; Bartlett, John D; Gibson, Carolyn W; Lindemeyer, Rochelle G

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) investigate adhesion through shear bond strength (SBS) testing of a resin composite bonded with a self-etching bonding system (SEB) to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-affected deproteinized mouse enamel or dentin; and (2) compare wild-type (WT), amelogenin null (AmelxKO), and matrix metalloproteinase-20 null (Mmp20KO) enamel and dentin phenotypes using micro-CT and nanoindentation. Enamel incisor surfaces of WT, AmelxKO, and Mmp20KO mice were treated with SEB with and without sodium hypochlorite and tested for SBS. Incisor dentin was also treated with SEB and tested for SBS. These surfaces were further examined by scanning electron miscroscopy. Micro-CT and nanoindentation analyses were performed on mouse dentin and enamel. Data were analyzed for significance by analysis of variance. Deproteinization did not improve SBS of SEB to these AI-affected enamel surfaces. SBS of AmelxKO teeth was similar in dentin and enamel; however, it was higher in Mmp20KO dentin. The nanohardness of knockout enamel was significantly lower than WT, while knockout dentin nanohardness was not different from WT. Using animal amelogenesis imperfecta models, enamel sodium hypochlorite deproteinization of hypoplastic and hypoplastic-hypomaturation enamel did not increase shear bond strength, while removal of the defective enamel allowed optimal dentin bonding.

  14. Shear bond strength of dentin and deproteinized enamel of AI mouse incisors

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Ozer, F.; Mulmadgi, R.; Li, Y.; Suggs, C.; Wright, J.T.; Bartlett, J.D.; Gibson, C.W.; Lindemeyer, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the adhesion through shear bond strength (SBS) testing of a resin composite bonded with a self-etching bonding system (SEB) to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-affected deproteinized mouse enamel or dentin; and to compare wild-type (WT), amelogenin null (AmelxKO) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 null (Mmp20KO) enamel and dentin phenotypes using microCT and nanoindentation. Methods Enamel incisor surfaces of WT, AmelxKO and Mmp20KO mice were treated with SEB with and without NaOCl and tested for SBS. Incisor dentin was also treated with SEB and tested for SBS. These surfaces were further examined by SEM. MicroCT and nanoindentation analyses were performed on mouse dentin and enamel. Data were analyzed for significance by ANOVA. Results Deproteinization did not improve SBS of SEB to these AI-affected enamel surfaces. SBS of AmelxKO teeth was similar in dentin and enamel; however, it was higher in Mmp20KO dentin. The nanohardness of knockout enamel was significantly lower than WT, while knockout dentin nanohardness was not different from WT. Conclusions Using animal AI models, it was demonstrated that enamel NaOCl deproteinization of hypoplastic and hypoplastic-hypomaturation enamel did not increase shear bond strength while removal of the defective enamel allowed optimal dentin bonding. PMID:25303500

  15. Microstructure and mineral composition of dental enamel of permanent and deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    De Menezes Oliveira, Maria Angélica Hueb; Torres, Carolina Paes; Gomes-Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; De Menezes, Fernando Carlos Hueb; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the microstructure and mineral composition of permanent and deciduous teeth's dental enamel. Sound third molars (n = 12) and second primary molars (n = 12) were selected and randomly assigned to the following groups, according to the analysis method performed (n = 4): Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the dental enamel were done. The microscopic findings were analyzed statistically by a nonparametric test (Kruskal-Wallis). The measurements of the prisms number and thickness were done in SEM photomicrographs. The relative amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were determined by EDS investigation. Chemical phases present in both types of teeth were observed by the XRD analysis. The mean thickness measurements observed in the deciduous teeth enamel was 1.14 mm and in the permanent teeth enamel was 2.58 mm. The mean rod head diameter in deciduous teeth was statistically similar to that of permanent teeth enamel, and a slightly decrease from the outer enamel surface to the region next to the enamel-dentine junction was assessed. The numerical density of enamel rods was higher in the deciduous teeth, mainly near EDJ, that showed statistically significant difference. The percentage of Ca and P was higher in the permanent teeth enamel. The primary enamel structure showed a lower level of Ca and P, thinner thickness and higher numerical density of rods. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Heat Transfer Behavior across the Dentino-Enamel Junction in the Human Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lin; Dong, Shao-Jie; Kong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Rong; Zou, Rui; Liu, Qi-Da

    2016-01-01

    During eating, the teeth usually endure the sharply temperature changes because of different foods. It is of importance to investigate the heat transfer and heat dissipation behavior of the dentino–enamel junction (DEJ) of human tooth since dentine and enamel have different thermophysical properties. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the enamel, dentine, and pulpal chamber of both the human tooth and its discontinuous boundaries, were measured using infrared thermography using a stepped temperature increase on the outer boundary of enamel crowns. The thermal diffusivities for enamel and dentine were deduced from the time dependent temperature change at the enamel and dentine layers. The thermal conductivities for enamel and dentine were calculated to be 0.81 Wm-1K-1 and 0.48 Wm-1K-1 respectively. The observed temperature discontinuities across the interfaces between enamel, dentine and pulp-chamber layers were due to the difference of thermal conductivities at interfaces rather than to the phase transformation. The temperature gradient distributes continuously across the enamel and dentine layers and their junction below a temperature of 42°C, whilst a negative thermal resistance is observed at interfaces above 42°C. These results suggest that the microstructure of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) junction play an important role in tooth heat transfer and protects the pulp from heat damage. PMID:27662186

  17. Testing functional and morphological interpretations of enamel thickness along the deciduous tooth row in human children.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    The significance of a gradient in enamel thickness along the human permanent molar row has been debated in the literature. Some attribute increased enamel thickness from first to third molars to greater bite force during chewing. Others argue that thicker third molar enamel relates to a smaller crown size facilitated by a reduced dentin component. Thus, differences in morphology, not function, explains enamel thickness. This study draws on these different interpretive models to assess enamel thickness along the entire human deciduous tooth row. Average enamel thickness (AET), the area and proportion of crown enamel and dentin, and a crown size proxy are calculated for incisors, canines, and molars. Allometric scaling relationships are assessed within each tooth class, and then comparisons are undertaken along the row. Generally, AET was correlated with crown size and scaled with isometry, except for second molars which scaled with positive allometry. Mean AET increased along the row and was greater on molars, where bite forces are reported to be higher. Second molars combined the largest crown size with the thickest enamel and the smallest proportion of dentin, which is consistent with a reduction in the potential for cusp fracture under high bite forces. Resistance to wear may also account for some enamel thickness variation between tooth classes. Dental reduction did not explain the trend in AET from central to lateral incisors, or from first to second molars. The gradient in AET along the deciduous tooth row is partly consistent with a functional interpretation of enamel thickness.

  18. Nanoindentation of lemur enamel: an ecological investigation of mechanical property variations within and between sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sara E; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Sponheimer, Matt; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2012-06-01

    The common morphological metrics of size, shape, and enamel thickness of teeth are believed to reflect the functional requirements of a primate's diet. However, the mechanical and material properties of enamel also contribute to tooth function, yet are rarely studied. Substantial wear and tooth loss previously documented in Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve suggests that their dental morphology, structure, and possibly their enamel are not adapted for their current fallback food (the mechanically challenging tamarind fruit). In this study, we investigate the nanomechanical properties, mineralization, and microstructure of the enamel of three sympatric lemur species to provide insight into their dietary functional adaptations. Mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation were compared to measurements of mineral content, prism orientation, prism size, and enamel thickness using electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of all species were similar near the enamel dentin junction and variations correlated with changes in microstructure (e.g., prism size) and mineral content. Severe wear and microcracking within L. catta's enamel were associated with up to a 43% reduction in nanomechanical properties in regions of cracking versus intact enamel. The mechanical and material properties of L. catta's enamel are similar to those of sympatric folivores and suggest that they are not uniquely mechanically adapted to consume the physically challenging tamarind fruit. An understanding of the material and mechanical properties of enamel is required to fully elucidate the functional and ecological adaptations of primate teeth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. In situ enamel morphology evaluation after acidic soft drink consumption: protection factor of contemporary toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Sauro, S; Mannocci, F; Piemontese, M; Mongiorgi, R

    2008-08-01

    The enamel erosion induced by acidic soft drinks is an increasingly important problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soft drinks on enamel erosion and the protection offered by representative modern toothpastes using a new 'in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-replica technique'. Six patients were selected to receive in vivo enamel replicas, fabricated with a polyvinyl-siloxane/polyether impression material. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphology of enamel surface before and after exposure to lemon juice and SPRITE. The protective effectiveness of toothpaste was further evaluated with the same method. Furthermore, to validate the effectiveness of the in situ SEM-replica technique, we compared it to a direct in vitro SEM investigation on extracted teeth. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of the in situ replicas showed severe enamel morphology alterations after acidic soft drink exposure. On the other hand, it was also showed the protective effectiveness of toothpaste in preventing enamel erosion induced by acidic soft drinks. The direct in vitro SEM investigation provided similar enamel erosion results and proved the effectiveness of the in situ SEM-replica technique. Acidic soft drinks induce enamel erosion but regular use of toothpaste might reduce the risk for enamel erosion. The in situ SEM-replica technique provides an accurate method for tracing enamel morphology alterations and erosion induced by acidic soft drinks.

  20. Structural Morphology of Molars in Large Mammalian Herbivores: Enamel Content Varies between Tooth Positions

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Daniela E.; Kaiser, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of dental tissues in mammalian herbivores can be very different from taxon to taxon. While grazers tend to have more elaborated and complexly folded enamel ridges, browsers have less complex enamel ridges which can even be so far reduced that they are completely lost. The gradient in relative enamel content and complexity of structures has so far not been addressed within a single species. However, several studies have noted tooth position specific wear rates in small mammals (rabbits, guinea pigs) which may be related to individual tooth morphology. We investigate whether differentiated enamel content by tooth position is also to be found in large herbivores. We use CT-scanning techniques to quantify relative enamel content in upper and lower molar teeth of 21 large herbivorous mammal species. By using a broad approach and including both perissodactyls and artiodactyls, we address phylogenetic intraspecific differences in relative enamel content. We find that enamel is highly unevenly distributed among molars (upper M1, M2, M3 and lower m1, m2, m3) in most taxa and that relative enamel content is independent of phylogeny. Overall, relative enamel content increases along the molar tooth row and is significantly higher in lower molars compared to upper molars. We relate this differential enamel content to prolonged mineralisation in the posterior tooth positions and suggest a compensatory function of m3 and M3 for functional losses of anterior teeth. PMID:26313359

  1. Structural Morphology of Molars in Large Mammalian Herbivores: Enamel Content Varies between Tooth Positions.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Daniela E; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of dental tissues in mammalian herbivores can be very different from taxon to taxon. While grazers tend to have more elaborated and complexly folded enamel ridges, browsers have less complex enamel ridges which can even be so far reduced that they are completely lost. The gradient in relative enamel content and complexity of structures has so far not been addressed within a single species. However, several studies have noted tooth position specific wear rates in small mammals (rabbits, guinea pigs) which may be related to individual tooth morphology. We investigate whether differentiated enamel content by tooth position is also to be found in large herbivores. We use CT-scanning techniques to quantify relative enamel content in upper and lower molar teeth of 21 large herbivorous mammal species. By using a broad approach and including both perissodactyls and artiodactyls, we address phylogenetic intraspecific differences in relative enamel content. We find that enamel is highly unevenly distributed among molars (upper M1, M2, M3 and lower m1, m2, m3) in most taxa and that relative enamel content is independent of phylogeny. Overall, relative enamel content increases along the molar tooth row and is significantly higher in lower molars compared to upper molars. We relate this differential enamel content to prolonged mineralisation in the posterior tooth positions and suggest a compensatory function of m3 and M3 for functional losses of anterior teeth.

  2. Effect of crystallization on the property of hard enamel coating on steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deqing

    2009-02-01

    Crystallization treatment was conducted to improve hardness of an enamel coating on steel. Microstructure change of the enamel steel interface was observed. Phase transformation of the glassy enamel was analyzed, and adhesion of the enamel to steel was evaluated. As crystallization time increases, the as-fired enamel/steel interface roughens, protrudes to form anchor points and develops into dendrites growing into grain boundaries of the steel substrate. An adherence factor η is proposed to predict the adherence of the enamel/substrate interface metallographically. Microhardness of the enamel increases from 582HV 0.05 as-fired to 991HV 0.05 after crystallization treatment at 840 °C for 20 min, which is attributed to the transformation of the vitreous enamel into NaAlSi 2O 6 crystals during the crystallization treatment. Microstructure observation indicates that the white needle-like NaAlSi 2O 6 crystals in the as-fired glassy enamel matrix is increased in number and their morphology change from large aspect ratio into coarsened ones with increasing time at 840 °C crystallization treatment. The as-fired enamel coating exhibits an impact energy of 0.81 J, and the crystallization treatment at 840 °C increases impact energy of the enamel coating from 1.05 to 1.56 J with changing crystallization time from 5 to 20 min. A regression formula of impact energy associated with adherence factor is obtained to evaluate adhesion of the enamel to steel substrate on the basis of metallographic measurement. The aluminum melt corrosion resistance of the enamel is increased with increasing crystallization of its glassy matrix.

  3. Clinical and laboratory surface finishing procedures for zirconia on opposing human enamel wear: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Bevan J; Thangavel, Arun K; Rolton, Shane B; Guazzato, Massimiliano; Klineberg, Iven J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of laboratory and clinical finishing procedures for zirconia on antagonistic enamel wear. Forty-eight yttria-tetragonal partially stabilised zirconia (Y-TZP) specimens were prepared and divided into four groups according to their surface preparation: laboratory polished (LP); laboratory polished and glazed (G); clinically adjusted (CA); and clinically adjusted and repolished (CAR). Enamel opposing enamel was used as a control. Pre-testing surface roughness for each group was determined using contact profilometry. Two-body wear resistance tests were conducted using a masticatory simulator. Enamel specimens were subjected to 120,000 cycles in distilled water (frequency 1.6 Hz, loading force of 49 N). Volumetric and vertical enamel losses were measured by superimposition of pre- and post-testing images using a three-dimensional laser scanner and software analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was used for qualitative surface analysis of pre- and post-testing zirconia and enamel surfaces. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Bonferroni corrections were used for statistical analysis at a significance level of α=0.05. There was no statistical difference in volumetric and vertical enamel loss between CAR, G and LP. CAR produced statistically significantly less volumetric enamel loss compared with CA and control, and statistically significantly less vertical enamel loss compared with CA. Volumetric and vertical enamel loss were highly correlated in all groups. Enamel wear by clinically ground zirconia is comparable to that of opposing enamel surfaces and greater than clinically repolished zirconia. Repolishing of zirconia restorations following clinical adjustment with diamond burs is effective in reducing antagonistic enamel wear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comparative study of friction and wear behavior of different human enamel in vitro].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yi-nong; Liu, Wei-min; Li, Tong-sheng; Liu, Lan-zhong

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the friction and wear behavior of different human enamels. 24 enamel samples selected from aged, young permanent and faded deciduous teeth were classified into 3 groups and slid against artificial porcelain teeth in the presence of artificial saliva on an oscillating friction and wear test rig. The wear volume loss, microhardness and toughness of each group of the enamel specimens were measured, the wear scars were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the elemental compositions of Ca, P, and Si of the wear scar and wear debris were determined with an energy dispersion spectrometer. The wear volume losses of aged, young permanent and deciduous tooth enamels are (2.40 +/- 1.10) x 10(-12) m(3), (3.50 +/- 1.83) x 10(-12) m(3) and (4.86 +/- 2.49) x 10(-12) m(3). The data of aged tooth enamels are statistically greater than that of deciduous tooth enamels (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference between the wear volume loss of aged and young permanent tooth enamels or between the young permanent and deciduous tooth enamels (P > 0.05). However, the friction and wear behavior of each group of enamel specimens is different from each other. In the present testing condition, the wear scars of each kind of enamel specimens is characterized by ploughing and cracking. The different wear resistance of the three kinds of enamels is attributed to the different microstructure of the enamel, while the hardness and toughness of the enamels are not correlated with the wear resistance.

  5. Surface effects after a combination of dental bleaching and enamel microabrasion: An in vitro and in situ study.

    PubMed

    Franco, Laura Molinar; Machado, Lucas Silveira; Salomão, Fabio Martins; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld, Renato Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of combining enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching on the physical properties of enamel, using in vitro and in situ conditions and evaluating surface roughness, enamel microhardness and scanning electron microscopy images. One hundred sound bovine teeth were sectioned and cut into discs and randomly divided into 10 study groups (n=10). The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures, followed by the Tukey test, with significance at 5%. Enamel surface roughness was significantly influenced by microabrasion, regardless of being combined with dental bleaching, for both HS (Human Saliva) or AS (Artificial Saliva) condition. Enamel microhardness was significantly decreased in the groups in which enamel microabrasion was performed, regardless its combination with dental bleaching; although storage in HS reestablished the initial enamel microhardness. It was concluded that dental bleaching does not cause major damage to microabraided enamel, and that only human saliva recovered the initial enamel microhardness.

  6. Copper and zinc isotope ratios in human bone and enamel.

    PubMed

    Jaouen, Klervia; Herrscher, Estelle; Balter, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bones and teeth of French people from various historical periods with the aim to understand how Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bone, a tissue that is continuously remodeled throughout life but that is prone to post-mortem diagenesis, compare with that of tooth enamel, a tissue that forms once during childhood but that is more resistant to diagenesis. Specifically, we examine (1) the potential existence of sex-related differences in the Cu isotope ratios (represented as δ(65) Cu) in the tooth enamel of identified men and women, and (2) a decrease of Zn isotope delta ratios (represented as δ(66) Zn) related to the increase of meat and fish consumption during the 20(th) century. Four series of material were studied: the archeological population of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble (17(th) -18(th) centuries AD), an anatomical collection of skulls (19(th) century AD), a contemporary anatomical collection of bones never buried, and contemporary teeth samples. The metals were purified by liquid chromatography and their isotopic ratios measured by means of multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We describe a clear offset between bone and tooth enamel for Zn isotope ratios, as previously observed in animals. There is a similar offset for Cu isotope ratios. We did not observe any difference between the δ(65) Cu values of men and women when looking at dental enamel. For the contemporary samples, the δ(66) Zn values of bioapatite decreased, which might be explained by the increase of animal product consumption among the French people during this period, notably when the access to seafood became widespread. Our study demonstrates that the Cu and Zn isotope compositions of dental enamel are promising tools for childhood diet reconstruction. Meanwhile, the Cu isotope ratio of tooth enamel is unlikely to be useful for the identification of biological sex, even in the case of populations with early menarche. Further works

  7. The effect of saliva substitutes on enamel erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aykut-Yetkiner, Arzu; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effect of saliva substitutes on enamel erosion in vitro. A total of 204 bovine enamel samples were embedded in acrylic resin and allocated to 17 groups (n=12). The specimens were eroded in an artificial mouth (3 days; 6×30 s/days, flow rate: 2 ml/min) using citric acid (pH: 2.5). Immediately after the erosive attacks, saliva substitutes (12 sprays, 3 gels) were applied. Between the erosive cycles the specimens were rinsed with artificial saliva (flowrate: 0.5 ml/min). A SnCl2/AmF/NaF-containing mouthrinse was used as positive control, water spray served as negative control. Enamel loss was measured profilometrically and the data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffé's post hoc tests (p<0.05). Four saliva substitutes increased enamel erosion, probably due to the low pH or the content of citric acid. Several saliva substitutes were able to reduce enamel erosion significantly by 60-90% (in the range of the positive control). The protective potential of these products was in the range of the positive control (reduction of enamel loss to 30% of negative control). The erosion-protective potential of these high-viscous products is probably related to their film-forming properties, leading to a mechanical protection of the surface. Saliva substitutes containing a very low pH exhibit a distinct erosive potential, while most high-viscous products present an erosion-protective effect. It can be recommended that patients suffering from xerostomia and at high risk for dental erosion should use high-viscous saliva substitutes, but should avoid saliva substitutes with low pH or containing citric acid. It can be recommended that patients suffering from xerostomia and at high risk for dental erosion should use high-viscous saliva substitutes, but should avoid saliva substitutes with low pH or containing citric acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  9. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

  10. Factors associated with shear bond strength of composite resin to human enamel.

    PubMed

    Gray, G B; MacMillan, S; Payne, A P; McGadey, J

    1996-12-01

    The preparation of enamel surfaces before etching by removing 0.5 mm of surface tooth structure is common-place in modern restorative dentistry. This study was designed to measure and compare the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to prepared and unprepared enamel using various proprietary bonding systems. The analysed results failed to show significant differences between the shear bond strengths of the prepared and unprepared enamel specimens. Conditioning enamel surfaces for 60 seconds using 2.5% nitric acid where the solution was allowed to desiccate, resulted in significantly lower bond strengths compared to the other regimes. A correlation of the etchant pH with the mean shear bond strength of the adhesive systems to enamel was observed. The surface topography of the etched enamel surfaces correlated moderately well with the bond strengths obtained.

  11. Evaluation of enamel pearls by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    PubMed

    Akgül, N; Caglayan, F; Durna, N; Sümbüllü, M-A; Akgül, H-M; Durna, D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of enamel pearls according to population, sex and tooth groups on Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) or Dental Volumetric Tomography (DVT) scans of patients, retrospectively. In this study, 15185 teeth belonging to 768 patients, 430 female and 338 male, was performed cross-sectional examination by CBCT. The volumetric Computed Tomography used in the study is Newton FP based on flat-panel. The data were analyzed with Pearson chi-squared test. Enamel pearls were detected in 36 subjects (4.69%). Of these enamel pearls, 19 were detected in male and 17 were in male. There was no statistically a significant association between prevalence of enamel pearls and sex. All of enamel pearls were detected in molar teeth, for prevalence 0.83%. All of enamel pearls are found upper and lower molar teeth, especially the most commonly in maxillary second and third molars.

  12. The wear of enamel opposing shaded ceramic restorative materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Delong, R; Pintado, M R; Douglas, W H

    1992-07-01

    The wear rate of intact human enamel opposed by Olympia porcelain gold, Dicor, Ceramco porcelain, and externally shaded Dicor and Ceramco was investigated with an artificial oral environment. The enamel-material couples were subjected to 300,000 masticatory cycles at a maximal occlusal force of 13.4 N while they were continuously bathed with 37 degrees C deionized water. Both the enamel and material surfaces were analyzed by use of a three-dimensional surface monitoring computer program, AnSur, to record the removal of the material and the maximal loss of vertical height. The enamel opposing the externally shaded materials abraded two to five times more than that opposing the unshaded materials and 10 to 15 times more than enamel opposing gold. The wear rates for enamel opposing the gold and unshaded Dicor were similar both in the removal of material and in the loss in vertical height.

  13. Evaluation of wear: enamel opposing three ceramic materials and a gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ramp, M H; Suzuki, S; Cox, C F; Lacefield, W R; Koth, D L

    1997-05-01

    The wear of human enamel and of the restorative material is often a critical concern when selecting a restorative material for any given clinical restorative treatment. This in vitro wear investigation evaluated three ceramic restorative materials and one type III gold (the control) opposing enamel. The area of enamel lost at specified time intervals, the stylus area lost, and the combined stylus and enamel vertical height lost were evaluated. Enamel wear opposing one type III gold was statistically similar to that of Dicor MGC, which was lower than that of Vita Mark II and IPS Empress, which were also statistically similar in value. The total vertical height lost from the type III gold specimens and opposing enamel was statistically lower than that of Dicor MGC and IPS Empress (alpha < 0.05).

  14. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  15. Photomechanical model of tooth enamel ablation by Er-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Vostryakov, R. G.; Maykapar, N. O.

    2012-03-01

    The photomechanical model of ablation of human tooth enamel is described in this work. It takes into account the structural peculiarities of enamel: free water in the enamel pores or cracks. We consider the photomechanical destruction of the enamel rods of hydroxyapatite by the pressure of water contained in the enamel pores and heated by laser radiation. This model takes into account attenuation by the Lambert-Beer law when radiation passes through the tissue and the fact that the tissue removal occurs when a unit volume of water was heated to the critical temperature. Decreasing logarithmic dependence of the enamel removal efficiency on the energy density was obtained as a result of the calculations. The shape of this function follows the shape of the experimental curve.

  16. The effect of single-application fluoride treatment on simulated gastric erosion and erosion-abrasion of enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Austin, Rupert S; Stenhagen, Kjersti Refsholt; Hove, Lene Hystad; Tveit, Anne Bjørg; Moazzez, Rebecca V; Bartlett, David W

    2014-01-01

    To compare single-application fluoride formulations on enamel erosion and erosion-abrasion in vitro. Enamel specimens were pretreated with either sodium, tin, titanium, or sodium/calcium fluoride and subjected to either an erosion model or an erosion-abrasion model, after which optical profilometry was used to measure enamel step height loss. For erosion, the titanium fluoride (P < .001) reduced enamel loss, whereas the calcium, tin, and sodium treatments showed no significant effects (P > .05). For erosion-abrasion, the titanium fluoride increased enamel loss in comparison to control (P < .001). Titanium fluoride has differing effects on enamel loss from erosion and erosion-abrasion models.

  17. The bond strengths of resin systems to etched enamel.

    PubMed

    Short, G M; Hembree, J H; McKnight, J P

    1976-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the resin-enamel bond strengths of seven anterior restorative resins using the acid-etch technique. Six of the materials (Restodent, Enamelite, Smile, Nuva-System, Concise, and Adaptic) were composite resins. Only one, Sevriton, was an unfilled resin. Of the seven, only Sevriton and Smile were not designed for the acid-etch technique. Of the materials tested, Sevriton and Enamelite had the weakest bonds. There was no significant difference in the bond strength among Nuva-System, Smile, and Restodent; the bonds of all these were stronger than those of Sevriton and Enamelite. Concise showed a significantly greater bond strength than all the other materials in the study except Adaptic and the Nuva-System. The resin-enamel bond strength of Adaptic was of a greater magnitude than that of all other test materials.

  18. Nightguard vital bleaching: effects on enamel surface texture and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haywood, V B; Leech, T; Heymann, H O; Crumpler, D; Bruggers, K

    1990-10-01

    A recently reported technique for bleaching vital discolored teeth involves the use of a mouthguard and 10% carbamide peroxide without preoperative etching or postoperative polishing of the enamel. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of the bleaching agent on the surface texture of the enamel. Thirty-three extracted teeth were subjected to 10% carbamide peroxide for a period equivalent to 5 weeks of nighttime wear. A control area on each tooth had been covered and sealed. All discolored teeth experienced lightening, but there was no difference in color between the treated and control areas; the color-changing effects apparently extend to portions of the tooth not in direct contact with the solution. Epoxy replicas of the teeth were examined under a scanning electron microscope. No etching was apparent, and no difference in surface texture between treated and control areas was detected.

  19. Characterization of enameled glass excavated from Laem Pho, southern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanmanonda, W.; Won-in, K.; Tancharakorn, S.; Tantanuch, W.; Thongleurm, C.; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.

    2012-07-01

    Laem Pho in Surat Thani, southern province of Thailand is one of the most important historic site on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. In this work, the enameled glass fragments which looked-like Islamic glass mainly excavated from this site were analyzed using SEM-EDS, PIXE and μ-XRF, in order to understand the chemical composition by comparing the archaeological data and topology. The structure of the enameled decoration was also studied. The resulting data indicated that high-magnesia alkali-lime silicate glass was produced. The presence of transition metals such as copper, iron and manganese were affected on the glass colorations. Typological classifications, technological observations and comparative studies serve to clarify the development and cultural inter-relationships of various glass objects along the trade and exchange networks in ancient maritime.

  20. Enamel wear caused by three different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J D; Goldstein, G R; Georgescu, M

    1995-12-01

    The ideal restorative material should cause minimal wear of opposing enamel. This study compared the effects of gold alloy, glazed porcelain, and a laboratory-processed composite on opposing enamel. Ten samples of a type III gold alloy, a porcelain, and a visible-light, heat, and vacuum-processed composite were abraded against cusps of extracted molars for 10,000 cycles on an abrading machine. Pretest and posttest profilometric measurements of the restorative materials demonstrated no statistical difference. Pretest and posttest tracings of the cusps were made on an optical comparator to determine loss of vertical height and surface area. The porcelain caused significantly more loss of vertical height and surface area than the gold alloy or the composite, which were similar.

  1. [Chemical crystal aspects of remineralization of dental enamel].

    PubMed

    Bánóczy, J; Kiss, J; Féherváry, E; Ginter, Z; Albrecht, M

    1990-05-01

    Incipient dental caries at the stage of demineralization is reversible, and remineralization can be achieved by the help of locally applied fluorides. In crystalchemical experiments, however by treating natural apatites with lanthanides Ce, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb...Y, Sc, a more resistant complex could be developed. In this study extracted human molar teeth were kept for 60 days in Cerium (III)-nitrate solution, in order to investigate the incorporation of Ce3+ into human sound and carious enamel by light-microscopic-, and electronmicroprobe methods. Ce3+ was incorporated in sound enamel as well as into the incipient carious lesions, showing the histological characteristics of a remineralizing lesion. The mean values of the microprobe analysis data showed an increase in Ce3+ changing place with the Ca2+, the developing cerium-apatite being more hard an resistant from a mineralo-physical point of view.

  2. Protective effect of zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpastes on enamel erosion: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gulino, Chiara; Mirando, Maria; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to test the impact of different toothpastes with Zinc-Hydroxyapatite (Zn-HAP) on preventing and repairing enamel erosion compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride. Material and Methods The following four toothpastes were tested: two toothpastes with Zn-HAP, one toothpaste with fluoride and one toothpaste without fluoride. An additional control group was used in which enamel specimens were not treated with toothpaste. Repeated erosive challenges were provided by immersing bovine enamel specimens (10 per group) in a soft drink for 2 min (6mL, room temperature) at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h. After each erosive challenge, the toothpastes were applied neat onto the surface of specimens for 3 min without brushing and removed with distilled water. Between treatments the specimens were kept in artificial saliva. Enamel hardness, after the erosive challenge and toothpaste treatment was monitored using surface micro-hardness measurements. Results As expected, repeated erosive challenge by a soft drink for total of 8 min significantly reduced enamel surface hardness (ANOVA, p < 0.05). No re-hardening of the surface softened enamel was observed in the group treated with fluoride-free toothpaste. Surface hardness of the softened enamel increased when the specimens were treated with the fluoride toothpaste and the two toothpastes with Zn-HAP (p < 0.05). Conclusions Toothpaste with Zn-HAP resulted in significant enamel remineralisation of erosively challenged enamel, indicating that these toothpastes could provide enamel health benefits relevant to enamel erosion. Key words:Enamel, erosion, remineralization, surface hardness, toothpastes. PMID:28149475

  3. Shear Bond Strength of DentStat(trademark) for Bracket Bonding to Gold, Ceramic, and Enamel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-21

    brackets were bonded to type III gold, feldspathic porcelain and bovine enamel by using DentStatTM as the adhesive . When DentStatTM was used as the...the demineralization of enamel around the bracket. The advent of a new dental adhesive in 1971 was presumed to help resolve some of the problems seen...porcelain, and enamel . Both adhesives will be used to bond Victory Series MBTTM.022 twin maxillary right central incisor brackets (3M Unitek Monrovia

  4. Protein and bacteria binding to exposed root surfaces and the adjacent enamel surfaces in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rüdiger, Stefan G; Dahlén, Gunnar; Carlén, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of root surfaces due to inflammatory tissue breakdown is a clinical characteristic of periodontitis. The gingival margin may further recede during treatment. Pellicles and early dental plaque on enamel surfaces of periodontitis patients have previously been described. The binding properties of exposed root surfaces, which may affect the incorporation of proteins from especially the GCF into the enamel pellicle and thereby early dental plaque formation are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine if exposed root surfaces could affect pellicle and initial dental plaque formation on the enamel surface by the analysis of proteins and early adhering bacteria binding to the exposed root surfaces and to the adjacent, gingival enamel surface. Supragingival pellicle and plaque samples were taken from exposed root surfaces and the adjacent enamel surfaces in eleven surgically treated periodontitis patients. For comparison, samples were taken from enamel surfaces of teeth not in need of treatment. Additionally, subgingival bacterial samples were taken. Pellicle proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and image analysis, and bacterial samples by culturing. Significantly more plasma proteins and bacteria were found on the exposed root surfaces than on the enamel. The depth of the gingival recessions was negatively correlated to the amount of plasma proteins in the enamel pellicle. Actinomyces spp. were most frequently found on the exposed root surfaces. The total viable counts and streptococci (%TVC) were positively correlated between subgingival samples and samples from the root surface and enamel of surgically treated teeth. A positive correlation was also found for the findings of Gram-negative anaerobes in subgingival samples and samples from the enamel surface. Our findings suggest that an exposed root surface has binding properties different from an enamel surface and could affect early biofilm formation on the adjacent enamel surface.

  5. Bonding effectiveness of different adhesion approaches to unground versus ground primary tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Knirsch, M S; Bonifácio, C C; Shimaoka, A M; Andrade, A P; Carvalho, R C R

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the bonding effectiveness of self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in on intact and ground primary tooth enamel. Sixty primary incisors were divided into 6 groups according to the adhesive system (etch-and-rinse - Adper Single Bond 2 - SB, 2 steps self-etch -Clearfil SE Bond - SE, and 1 step self-etch - One Up Bond F Plus OBF) and to the substrate (ground or intact enamel): G1-SB/intact enamel; G2-SE/intact enamel; G3- OBF/intact enamel; G4-SB/ground enamel; G5- SE/ground enamel and G6-OBF/ground enamel. Microshear bond test specimens were prepared with microhybrid composite and after 24h of water storage the microshear test was performed. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p<0.05). Comparing the enamel characteristics (ground or intact) only when SE was used a statistically significant difference was found, as G2 (21.12+/-4.52) was statistically lower than G5 (33.29+/-5.44). Among the intact enamel groups, SB (26.11+/-7.56) was statistically superior to SE (21.12+/-4.52) and OBF (17.01+/-3.96). However, when comparisons were made among groups of ground enamel, SE (33.29+/-5.44) was significantly higher than SB (26.35+/-8.18) and OBF (17.52+/-3.46). The two-step self-etch adhesive system is a reliable alternative to etch and rinse adhesive systems on both ground and intact primary enamel.

  6. Conservative approach for a clinical resolution of enamel white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Nahsan, Flavia Pardo Salata; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Baseggio, Wagner; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Wang, Linda

    2011-05-01

    Enamel white spot lesions in anterior teeth that compromise esthetics are common. Microabrasion is indicated, since it affects enamel superficially. An acid-abrasive slurry with 37% phosphoric acid with pumice was used on the enamel for a controlled time period. Home bleaching with hydrogen peroxide was then used, further improving the final result. The method is safe, easy, and conservative and provides good esthetic results.

  7. Bond strength of resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements after enamel etching.

    PubMed

    Cortes, O; Garcia-Godoy, F; Boj, J R

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of resin-reinforced glass ionomers to enamel etched or unetched. Human, non-carious extracted permanent molars stored in distilled water were used. Flat buccal and lingual enamel surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. The teeth were then distributed at random into six groups of 5 teeth (10 surfaces) each: Group 1: Fuji II LC, no enamel etching; Group 2: Fuji II LC, enamel etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 10 seconds; Group 3: Dyract, no enamel etching; Group 4: Dyract, enamel etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 10 seconds; Group 5: Photac-Fil, no enamel etching; Group 6: Photac-Fil, enamel etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 10 seconds. Cylindrical samples of the glass ionomers were prepared in plastic molds and bonded to the enamel surface according to the manufacturers' instructions. All samples were placed in distilled water for 24 hours, and sheared with an Instron at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results (in MPa) were: Group 1: 11.29 +/- 4.84; Group 2: 19.64 +/- 5.43; Group 3: 8.26 +/- 3.61; Group 4: 22.04 +/- 5.40; Group 5: 2.05 +/- 3.05; Group 6: 9.12 +/- 6.61. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls procedure revealed that on etched enamel, Fuji II LC and Dyract had a significantly higher bond strength than all the other groups tested (P < 0.0001), but not significantly different between each other. With these two groups, cohesive failure within the material was recorded in all samples while in the unetched samples, all specimens displayed an adhesive failure (glass ionomer-enamel interface). All samples with Photac-Fil, with or without enamel etching had adhesive failures.

  8. Bond strength of self-etch adhesives to pre-etched enamel.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Robert L; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Kimmes, Nicole S

    2009-10-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using four self-etch adhesive (SEA) systems were compared with the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive (ERA) system, for both polished enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to match the ERA system. Ten specimens were used for each adhesive to determine 24-h resin composite to enamel shear bond strengths (SBS) to polished (4000 grit) human enamel and this was repeated for the SEA systems for enamel that was pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 15s. SEM analysis was made to assess the degree of etching and resin penetration into enamel for each of the adhesive systems. Data were analyzed by a two factor ANOVA with a Tukey HSD post hoc test. The SBS to polished enamel for all four SEA systems were statistically significantly lower (p<0.05) than the ERA control, but with pre-etched enamel there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between any of the adhesive systems. All four of the SEA systems demonstrated statistically significant increases in bond strength between bonding to polished and pre-etched enamel, ranging from 27% to 86%. The results of SEM analysis showed no differences in the resin penetration patterns of any of the adhesives for enamel that was etched with phosphoric acid. Pre-etching enamel may enhance the bond strength of SEA systems to values comparable with those found with ERA adhesive systems, which may improve their overall performance in clinical use.

  9. The contribution of chemical bonding to the short- and long-term enamel bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Wang, Xiaomiao; Zhang, Ling; Liang, Bing; Tang, Tian; Fu, Baiping; Hannig, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    MDP (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogenphosphate) has been proven to possess chemic