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Sample records for linear enamel hypolasias

  1. Abrasion, erosion, and abfraction combined with linear enamel hypoplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boston, D W; al-bargi, H; Bogert, M

    1999-10-01

    Linear enamel hypoplasia is a developmental disturbance of enamel resulting in clinically visible horizontal defects in enamel that are present on eruption of the tooth. Nondevelopmental lesions of the hard tissues of the tooth, including carious, abrasion, erosion, attrition, and abfraction lesions, require varying amounts of time after tooth eruption to develop. Because linear enamel hypoplasia lesions are present on eruption and are exposed to the factors responsible for abrasion, erosion, and abfraction, nondevelopmental lesions could occur within them in any combination. This report describes a patient with multiple teeth with linear enamel hypoplasia lesions containing nondevelopmental defects as well as nondevelopmental defects that occurred separately. Severe pain and a unique lesion morphology were associated with the linear enamel hypoplasia defects. Affected teeth were extracted because of advanced periodontitis and were sectioned to determine the nature of the enamel and dentin lesions.

  2. Linear enamel hypoplasia in gibbons (Hylobates lar carpenteri).

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, D

    2000-07-01

    This study describes the expression of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), a sensitive dental indicator of physiological stress, in Thailand gibbons (Hylobates lar carpenteri). Previous studies of enamel hypoplasia in hominoids have focused on great apes, with little attention given to the expression of this stress indicator in gibbons. In that gibbons differ from both monkeys and great apes in numerous life history features, LEH expression in gibbons might be expected to show significant differences from both. In this study, 92 gibbon specimens from two sites in Thailand were compared with several samples of monkeys and great apes in their expression of LEH. The intertooth distribution of LEH in gibbons was compared to that of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Gibbon populations from both sites exhibit LEH frequencies intermediate between those of the monkey samples, in which LEH prevalence is usually low, and those of the great ape samples, in which LEH prevalence is high. Gibbons differ significantly from monkeys, but not great apes, in the number of individuals whose teeth record multiple stress events. Multiple episodes of stress are rarely recorded in the teeth of monkeys, while multiple stress events occur with higher frequency in gibbons and great apes. Taxonomic variation in the duration of crown formation, the prominence and spacing of perikymata on dental crowns, life history features, and/or experience of physiological stress may explain these patterns. The intertooth distribution of LEH in gibbons is, for different reasons, unlike that of either chimpanzees or rhesus monkeys. The mandibular canines of gibbons have significantly more LEH than any of their other teeth. Aspects of crown morphology, perikymata prominence/spacing, enamel thickness, and crown formation spans are potential causes of taxonomic variation in the intertooth distribution of LEH.

  3. Missing defects? A comparison of microscopic and macroscopic approaches to identifying linear enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Brenna R

    2014-03-01

    Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), the presence of linear defects of dental enamel formed during periods of growth disruption, is frequently analyzed in physical anthropology as evidence for childhood health in the past. However, a wide variety of methods for identifying and interpreting these defects in archaeological remains exists, preventing easy cross-comparison of results from disparate studies. This article compares a standard approach to identifying LEH using the naked eye to the evidence of growth disruption observed microscopically from the enamel surface. This comparison demonstrates that what is interpreted as evidence of growth disruption microscopically is not uniformly identified with the naked eye, and provides a reference for the level of consistency between the number and timing of defects identified using microscopic versus macroscopic approaches. This is done for different tooth types using a large sample of unworn permanent teeth drawn from several post-medieval London burial assemblages. The resulting schematic diagrams showing where macroscopic methods achieve more or less similar results to microscopic methods are presented here and clearly demonstrate that "naked-eye" methods of identifying growth disruptions do not identify LEH as often as microscopic methods in areas where perikymata are more densely packed.

  4. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  5. Variation in perikymata counts between repetitive episodes of linear enamel hypoplasia among orangutans from Sumatra and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark F

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) in apes is ecologically informative. LEH, which appears as grooves of thinner enamel often caused by malnutrition and/or disease, is a permanent record of departures from developmental homeostasis in infant and juvenile apes. Orangutans were selected for the study as they are a threatened species, have a remarkably high prevalence of rLEH, and because Sumatra is deemed a better habitat for orangutans than is Borneo, facilitating an ecological comparison. Objectives are to determine: a) whether periodicity of rLEH in orangutans corresponds to monsoon-mediated cycles in precipitation or food; and b) whether patterning of rLEH supports the view that Borneo is an inferior habitat. This study compares the counts of perikymata between adjacent LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans to estimate the periodicity of rLEH. A total of 131 nonredundant inter-LEH perikymata counts were transformed to natural log values to reveal clusters of counts in a multiplicative series. Using a value of 10 days to form one perikyma, rLEH tends to recur semiannually in both populations. However, Sumatran orangutans show significantly fewer semiannual intervals and more annually recurring episodes. Bornean orangutans show mostly semiannual intervals and are more variable in inter-LEH perikymata counts. It is concluded that: a) developmental conditions for infant orangutans in Sumatra protect them somewhat from seasonal and environmental variation; b) temporal patterning of rLEH indicates that Borneo is the poorer habitat for orangutans; and c) the study of rLEH can be ecologically informative.

  6. [Phenotype analysis and the molecular mechanism of enamel hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    Lv, Ping; Gao, Xue-jun

    2009-02-18

    Enamel hypoplasia is a surface defect of the tooth crown caused by a disturbance of enamel matrix secretion. Enamel hypoplasia may be inherited, or result from illness, malnutrition, trauma, or high concentrations of fluorides or strontium in the drinking water or food. Different types of enamel hypoplasia have been distinguished, such as pit-type, plane-type, and linear enamel hypoplasia. Hypoplasia has been related to the intensity and duration of stress events, the number of affected ameloblasts, and their position along the forming tooth crown. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects in dental enamel formation, most teeth are affected in both the primary and permanent dentition. The malformed enamel can be unusually thin, soft, rough and stained. The strict definition of AI includes only those cases where enamel defects occur in the absence of other symptoms. Currently, there are seven candidate genes for AI: amelogenin, enamelin, ameloblastin, tuftelin, distal-less homeobox 3, enamelysin, and kallikrein 4. Since the enamel is formed according to a strict chronological sequence, and once formed, undergoes no repair or regeneration. Then the analysis the phenotype of enamel hypoplasia can provide insights of the severity of inherited or environmental stress and the molecular mechanism during the period of enamel formation.

  7. Enamel craze lines.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Enamel craze lines are a common clinical finding, especially in older patients and in patients who brux. These craze lines frequently are discolored and may present as clear in color, grey, or brown. The clinical question is, when do enamel craze lines need restoration and when should we leave them untreated? This review will look at enamel structure and the effects of occlusion, bruxing, temperature, and restorations on enamel structure. Recommendations will be made on how and when to deal with these cosmetic defects of enamel.

  8. Amelogenin and Enamel Biomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Qichao; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Mature tooth enamel is acellular and does not regenerate itself. Developing technologies that rebuild tooth enamel and preserve tooth structure is therefore of great interest. Considering the importance of amelogenin protein in dental enamel formation, its ability to control apatite mineralization in vitro, and its potential to be applied in fabrication of future bio-inspired dental material this review focuses on two major subjects: amelogenin and enamel biomimetics. We review the most recent findings on amelogenin secondary and tertiary structural properties with a focus on its interactions with different targets including other enamel proteins, apatite mineral, and phospholipids. Following a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and its mechanical properties we will present the state-of-the-art strategies in the biomimetic reconstruction of human enamel. PMID:26251723

  9. Human enamel thickness and ENAM polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Daubert, Diane M; Kelley, Joanna L; Udod, Yuriy G; Habor, Carolina; Kleist, Chris G; Furman, Ilona K; Tikonov, Igor N; Swanson, Willie J; Roberts, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    The tooth enamel development gene, enamelin (ENAM), showed evidence of positive selection during a genome-wide scan of human and primate DNA for signs of adaptive evolution. The current study examined the hypothesis that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C14625T (rs7671281) in the ENAM gene identified in the genome-wide scan is associated with a change in enamel phenotype. African Americans were selected as the target population, as they have been reported to have a target SNP frequency of approximately 50%, whereas non-Africans are predicted to have a 96% SNP frequency. Digital radiographs and DNA samples from 244 teeth in 133 subjects were analysed, and enamel thickness was assessed in relation to SNP status, controlling for age, sex, tooth number and crown length. Crown length was found to increase with molar number, and females were found to have thicker enamel. Teeth with larger crowns also had thicker enamel, and older subjects had thinner enamel. Linear regression and generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the relationship between enamel thickness of the mandibular molars and ENAM SNP status; enamel in subjects with the derived allele was significantly thinner (P=0.040) when the results were controlled for sex, age, tooth number and crown length. The derived allele demonstrated a recessive effect on the phenotype. The data indicate that thinner dental enamel is associated with the derived ENAM genotype. This is the first direct evidence of a dental gene implicated in human adaptive evolution as having a phenotypic effect on an oral structure. PMID:27357321

  10. The erosive susceptibility of cervical versus occlusal enamel.

    PubMed

    Hammadeh, M; Rees, J S

    2001-03-01

    Clinical studies have strongly suggested a multifactorial aetiology for abfraction lesions or non-carious cervical tooth loss, with a contribution from erosive agents. Structural studies have shown that cervical enamel is more porous with a poorly developed crystal structure that may be more prone to erosion. The aim of this study was to examine the susceptibility to erosion of cervical and occlusal enamel from human premolar and molar teeth. Small blocks of cervical and cuspal enamel were immersed in either orange juice or Coca-Cola and the surface enamel loss was measured using profilometry. The enamel loss was essentially linear at a rate of 2.2-8.8 microns/hr. It was concluded that there was little difference in the susceptibility to erosion between cervical and cuspal enamel, even when the surface hypermineralised layer was removed.

  11. Biomimetic Enamel Regeneration Mediated by Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide.

    PubMed

    Kwak, S Y; Litman, A; Margolis, H C; Yamakoshi, Y; Simmer, J P

    2017-01-01

    We report here a novel biomimetic approach to the regeneration of human enamel. The approach combines the use of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to control the onset and rate of enamel regeneration and the use of leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP), a nonphosphorylated 56-amino acid alternative splice product of amelogenin, to regulate the shape and orientation of growing enamel crystals. This study builds on our previous findings that show LRAP can effectively guide the formation of ordered arrays of needle-like hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in vitro and on the known role mineralization inhibitors, like PPi, play in the regulation of mineralized tissue formation. Acid-etched enamel surfaces of extracted human molars, cut perpendicular or parallel to the direction of the enamel rods, were exposed to a PPi-stabilized supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution containing 0 to 0.06 mg/mL LRAP for 20 h. In the absence of LRAP, PPi inhibition was reversed by the presence of etched enamel surfaces and led to the formation of large, randomly distributed plate-like HA crystals that were weakly attached, regardless of rod orientation. In the presence of 0.04 mg/mL LRAP, however, densely packed mineral layers, comprising bundles of small needle-like HA crystals, formed on etched surfaces that were cut perpendicular to the enamel rods. These crystals were strongly attached, and their arrangement reflected to a significant degree the underlying enamel prism pattern. In contrast, under the same conditions with LRAP, little to no crystal formation was found on enamel surfaces that were cut parallel to the direction of the enamel rods. These results suggest that LRAP preferentially interacts with ab surfaces of mature enamel crystals, inhibiting their directional growth, thus selectively promoting linear growth along the c-axis of enamel crystals. The present findings demonstrate a potential for the development of a new approach to regenerate enamel structure and properties.

  12. Liquid White Enamel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  13. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  14. Enamel thickness and development in a third permanent molar of Gigantopithecus blacki.

    PubMed

    Dean, M Christopher; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2003-11-01

    A ground section was prepared from a lower right M3 attributed to Gigantopithecus blacki as close as possible to axial plane of the mesial cusps. Daily cross striations were imaged, measured and counted in each cusp using polarised light microscopy. Long-period striae of Retzius were counted in the lateral enamel and their periodicity determined from counts and measurements of daily cross striations between adjacent striae. Cross striation spacings in the cusps were between 3.8 microm at the enamel dentine junction and 6 microm close to the enamel surface. Cuspal enamel formation times were long (800 days in the protoconid and 620 days in the metaconid). Linear enamel thickness was as much as 3.75 mm in the protoconid. There were 63 and 61 long-period striae of Retzius in the mesial aspects of the lateral enamel and the periodicity was 11 days. Lateral enamel formation took 1493 and 1291 days and when summed with cuspal enamel formation times totalled 4 years in the protoconid and 3.5 in the metaconid. Relative enamel thickness was 23, calculated through the mesial cusps. This falls short of that in the so-called 'thick hyper-thick' enamel described in 'robust' australopithecines to which Gigantopithecus blacki has previously been compared in both its dental and mandibular morphology. With respect to enamel thickness, therefore, Gigantopithecus blacki falls squarely among an increasingly large number of Miocene hominoids that can all be described as having 'thick enamel'.

  15. Dental enamel hypoplasias in prehistoric populations.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A H

    1989-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed an impressive increase in research on enamel hypoplasias in archaeological populations. By reviewing a series of studies of enamel hypoplasias at Dickson Mounds, Illinois, North America (950-1300 A.D.), a prehistoric site involved in the transition from gathering-hunting to agriculture, this paper provides an illustration of this type of research. The location of linear hypoplasias on labial tooth surfaces of 111 adults was studied with a thin-tipped caliper, and this location was converted to an age at development. Most defects developed between two and four years of developmental age. Hypoplasias increased in prevalence from 45% in the pre-agriculture group to 80% in the agricultural group (p less than 0.01). The transition to agriculture occurred at a cost to infant and childhood health. Defects are associated with decreased longevity. Individuals with defects have a life expectancy of nearly ten years fewer than those without defects, suggesting that the development of a defect marks a significant and lasting health event. Enamel hypoplasias occur most frequently on anterior teeth, polar teeth in developmental fields, and the middle developmental thirds of teeth. Analysis of these data suggests that enamel may be differentially susceptible to growth disruption and that susceptibility varies both within and among teeth. The study of enamel defects at Dickson provides insights into the health and nutritional consequences of the economic change from hunting and gathering to agriculture. More generally, with the availability of teeth from genetically homogeneous populations, studies of enamel hypoplasias in prehistory should provide a useful complement to research on this condition in contemporary peoples.

  16. Abiotic tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M; Arruda, Ellen M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability-especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues-suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels-we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth's normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  17. Abiotic tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability—especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues—suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels—we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth’s normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  18. Enamel formation and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jan C-C; Chun, Yong-Hee P; Al Hazzazzi, Turki; Simmer, James P

    2007-01-01

    Dental enamel is the epithelial-derived hard tissue covering the crowns of teeth. It is the most highly mineralized and hardest tissue in the body. Dental enamel is acellular and has no physiological means of repair outside of the protective and remineralization potential provided by saliva. Enamel is comprised of highly organized hydroxyapatite crystals that form in a defined extracellular space, the contents of which are supplied and regulated by ameloblasts. The entire process is under genetic instruction. The genetic control of amelogenesis is poorly understood, but requires the activities of multiple components that are uniquely important for dental enamel formation. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collective designation for the variety of inherited conditions displaying isolated enamel malformations, but the designation is also used to indicate the presence of an enamel phenotype in syndromes. Recently, genetic studies have demonstrated the importance of genes encoding enamel matrix proteins in the etiology of isolated AI. Here we review the essential elements of dental enamel formation and the results of genetic analyses that have identified disease-causing mutations in genes encoding enamel matrix proteins. In addition, we provide a fresh perspective on the roles matrix proteins play in catalyzing the biomineralization of dental enamel.

  19. Amelogenin-chitosan matrix promotes assembly of an enamel-like layer with a dense interface

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Qichao; Zhang, Yuzheng; Yang, Xiudong; Nutt, Steven; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic reconstruction of tooth enamel is a significant topic of study in material science and dentistry as a novel approach for prevention, restoration, and treatment of defective enamel. We developed a new amelogenin-containing chitosan hydrogel for enamel reconstruction that works through amelogenin supramolecular assembly, stabilizing Ca-P clusters and guiding their arrangement into linear chains. These amelogenin Ca-P composite chains further fuse with enamel crystals and eventually evolve into enamel-like co-aligned crystals, anchoring to the natural enamel substrate through a cluster growth process. A dense interface between the newly-grown layer and natural enamel was formed and the enamel-like layer had improved hardness and elastic modulus compared to etched enamel. We anticipate that chitosan hydrogel will provide effective protection against secondary caries because of its pH-responsive and antimicrobial properties. Our studies introduce amelogenin-containing chitosan hydrogel as a promising biomaterial for enamel repair and demonstrate the potential of applying protein-directed assembly to biomimetic reconstruction of complex biomaterials. PMID:23571002

  20. Stress and strain distribution in demineralized enamel: A micro-CT based finite element study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline Almeida; Coutinho, Eduardo; Alves, Haimon Diniz Lopes; de Assis, Joaquim Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Physiological oral mechanical forces may play a role on the progression of enamel carious lesions to cavitation. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe, by 3D finite element analysis, stress, and strain patterns in sound and carious enamel after a simulated occlusal load. Micro-CT based models were created and meshed with tetrahedral elements (based on an extracted third molar), namely: a sound (ST) and a carious tooth (CT). For the CT, enamel material properties were assigned according to the micro-CT gray values. Below the threshold corresponding to the enamel lesion (2.5 g/cm(3) ) lower and isotropic elastic modulus was assigned (E = 18 GPa against E1  = 80 GPa, E2  = E3  = 20 GPa for sound enamel). Both models were imported into a FE solver where boundary conditions were assigned and a pressure load (500 MPa) was applied at the occlusal surface. A linear static analysis was performed, considering anisotropy in sound enamel. ST showed a more efficient transfer of maximum principal stress from enamel to the dentin layer, while for the CT, enamel layer was subjected to higher and concentrated loads. Maximum principal strain distributions were seen at the carious enamel surface, especially at the central fossa, correlating to the enamel cavity seen at the original micro-CT model. It is possible to conclude that demineralized enamel compromises appropriate stress transfer from enamel to dentin, contributing to the odds of fracture and cavitation. Enamel fracture over a dentin lesion may happen as one of the normal pathways to caries progression and may act as a confounding factor during clinical diagnostic decisions.

  1. Dental Enamel Development: Proteinases and Their Enamel Matrix Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

  2. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  3. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  4. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  5. Laser soldering of enameled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Hemken, G.; Noack, K.

    2009-02-01

    In electrical connections with enameled copper wires, isolation material residue can be found in the solder area when the coating is not stripped. This residue can lead to mechanical and electrical problems. In electronic devices and MEMS, quality requirements increase with rising thermal requirements for electrical contacts made from enameled copper wire. Examples for this exist in the area of automotive electronics, consumer electronics and in the field of machine design. Typical products with electrical connecting which use enameled wires include: micro-phones and speakers (especially for mobile phones), coil forms, small transformers, relays, clock coils, and so on. Due to increasing thermal and electrical requirements, the manufacturer of enameled wires continuously develops new isolating materials for the improvement of isolation classes, thermal resistance, etc. When using current bonding and solder processes, there exist problems for contacting enameled copper wire with these insulation layers. Therefore the Institute of Joining and Welding, Department Micro Joining developed a laser based solder process with which enamels copper wires can enable high quality electrical connections without a preceding stripping process.

  6. Environmental causes of enamel defects.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H; Fearne, J M; Smith, J M

    1997-01-01

    A large number of causes of enamel defects, both environmental and genetic, have been described. However, many of these are derived from case histories and studies of individual conditions. What is needed now is a systematic investigation of the problem. The first requirement in exploring the aetiology further is the standardization of both the clinical diagnosis and the descriptive terminology. This has been provided by the Fédération Dentaire Internationale Developmental Defects of Enamel Index. Comparing studies using standardized methods, including this index, has highlighted areas for closer investigation. The total prevalence of enamel defects in a population needs to be established as a baseline for studies on aetiology. Sixty-eight per cent of 1518 school children in London have enamel defects in the permanent dentition, with 10.5% having 10 or more teeth affected and 14.6% having hypoplasia, i.e. missing enamel. These findings are in contrast to the 37% with hypoplasia found in a group of third to fifth century Romano-Britons from Dorset, England, suggesting further consideration of possible environmental and genetic differences between the two populations. An overall long-term study of dental development in low birth weight children has shown significantly more (P < 0.001) enamel defects related to major health problems during the neonatal period. By using standardized, reproducible criteria in prevalence studies to gain an overview of the problem and then studying specific groups or conditions, it is possible to identify general and specific factors in the aetiology of enamel defects and investigate further the varying role of genetic and environmental effects.

  7. Amelogenin in Enamel Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter the basic premises, the recent findings and the future challenges in the use of amelogenin for enamel tissue engineering are being discoursed on. Results emerging from the experiments performed to assess the fundamental physicochemical mechanisms of the interaction of amelogenin, the main protein of the enamel matrix, and the growing crystals of apatite, are mentioned, alongside a moderately comprehensive literature review of the subject at hand. The clinical importance of understanding this protein/mineral interaction at the nanoscale are highlighted as well as the potential for tooth enamel to act as an excellent model system for studying some of the essential aspects of biomineralization processes in general. The dominant paradigm stating that amelogenin directs the uniaxial growth of apatite crystals in enamel by slowing down the growth of (hk0) faces on which it adheres is being questioned based on the results demonstrating the ability of amelogenin to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of apatite under constant titration conditions designed to mimic those present in the developing enamel matrix. The role of numerous minor components of the enamel matrix is being highlighted as essential and impossible to compensate for by utilizing its more abundant ingredients only. It is concluded that the three major aspects of amelogenesis outlined hereby – (1) the assembly of amelogenin and other enamel matrix proteins, (2) the proteolytic activity, and (3) crystallization – need to be in precise synergy with each other in order for the grounds for the proper imitation of amelogenesis in the lab to be created. PMID:26545753

  8. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified.

  9. The chemistry of enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C; Shore, R C; Brookes, S J; Strafford, S; Wood, S R; Kirkham, J

    2000-01-01

    The chemical changes which occur during the process of carious destruction of enamel are complex due to a number of factors. First, substituted hydroxyapatite, the main component of dental enamel, can behave in a very complex manner during dissolution. This is due not only to its ability to accept substituent ions but also to the wide range of calcium phosphate species which can form following dissolution. In addition, the composition, i.e., the extent of substitution, changes throughout enamel in the direction of carious attack, i.e., from surface to interior. Both surface and positively birefringent zones of the lesion clearly illustrate that carious destruction is not simple dissolution. Selective dissolution of soluble minerals occurs, and there is the probability of reprecipitation. The role of fluoride here is crucial in that not only does it protect enamel per se but also its presence in solution means that rather insoluble fluoridated species can form very easily, encouraging redeposition. The role of organic material clearly needs further investigation, but there is the real possibility of both inhibition of repair and facilitation of redeposition. For the future, delivering fluoride deep into the lesion would appear to offer the prospect of improved repair. This would entail a delivery vehicle which solved the problem of fluoride uptake by apatite at the tooth surface. Elucidation of the role of organic material may also reveal putative mechanisms for encouraging repair and/or protecting the enamel mineral.

  10. Fraunhofer diffraction of light by human enamel.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, W J

    1988-02-01

    Fraunhofer diffraction patterns of human enamel samples were photographed with a helium-neon laser beam (lambda = 633 nm). The first-order diffraction angle was in reasonable agreement with a prediction based upon enamel prisms acting as a two-dimensional grating. These results support the hypothesis that enamel diffracts light because of the periodic structure of enamel prisms with interprismatic spaces, which act as slits.

  11. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  12. In vitro evaluation of abrasion of eroded enamel by different manual, power and sonic toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Begic, M; Attin, T

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of eroded enamel to brushing abrasion performed by manual, power or sonic toothbrushes. Bovine enamel samples were subjected to 5 cycles, each consisting of 5 min demineralisation, 15 min remineralisation and 10 min brushing in a machine. Toothbrushing with the activated electric devices was supplemented with 20 linear strokes/min. Furthermore, enamel specimens were brushed with 20 linear strokes/min or 80 linear strokes/min with the electric toothbrushes without their individual operating action. A manual brush was applied at 100, 20 or 80 linear strokes/min. Specimens of the control group were not brushed after demineralisation. Loss of enamel was determined by profilometry. For all groups, substrate loss for linear brushing treatment applying 20 or 80 strokes/min did not differ significantly from the control (4.97 +/- 1.49 microm). Three power toothbrushing treatments significantly increased abrasion compared to linear brushing treatment with 20 or 80 strokes/min in their inactivated condition. The results indicate that brushing treatment with power or sonic toothbrushes may lead to significantly higher loss of demineralised enamel compared to toothbrushing without power or sonic support.

  13. The effect of enamel proteins on erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, T.; Carvalho, T. S.; Lussi, A.

    2015-10-01

    Enamel proteins form a scaffold for growing hydroxyapatite crystals during enamel formation. They are then almost completely degraded during enamel maturation, resulting in a protein content of only 1% (w/v) in mature enamel. Nevertheless, this small amount of remaining proteins has important effects on the mechanical and structural properties of enamel and on the electrostatic properties of its surface. To analyze how enamel proteins affect tooth erosion, human enamel specimens were deproteinated. Surface microhardness (SMH), surface reflection intensity (SRI) and calcium release of both deproteinated and control specimens were monitored while continuously eroding them. The deproteination itself already reduced the initial SMH and SRI of the enamel significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). During the course of erosion, the progression of all three evaluated parameters differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001 for each). The deproteinated enamel lost its SMH and SRI faster, and released more calcium than the control group, but these differences were only significant at later stages of erosion, where not only surface softening but surface loss can be observed. We conclude that enamel proteins have a significant effect on erosion, protecting the enamel and slowing down the progression of erosion when irreversible surface loss starts to occur.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of dental enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Simmer, J P; Fincham, A G

    1995-01-01

    Tooth enamel is a unique mineralized tissue in that it is acellular, is more highly mineralized, and is comprised of individual crystallites that are larger and more oriented than other mineralized tissues. Dental enamel forms by matrix-mediated biomineralization. Enamel crystallites precipitate from a supersaturated solution within a well-delineated biological compartment. Mature enamel crystallites are comprised of non-stoichiometric carbonated calcium hydroxyapatite. The earliest crystallites appear suddenly at the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ) as rapidly growing thin ribbons. The shape and growth patterns of these crystallites can be interpreted as evidence for a precursor phase of octacalcium phosphate (OCP). An OCP crystal displays on its (100) face a surface that may act as a template for hydroxyapatite (OHAp) precipitation. Octacalcium phosphate is less stable than hydroxyapatite and can hydrolyze to OHAp. During this process, one unit cell of octacalcium phosphate is converted into two unit cells of hydroxyapatite. During the precipitation of the mineral phase, the degree of saturation of the enamel fluid is regulated. Proteins in the enamel matrix may buffer calcium and hydrogen ion concentrations as a strategy to preclude the precipitation of competing calcium phosphate solid phases. Tuftelin is an acidic enamel protein that concentrates at the DEJ and may participate in the nucleation of enamel crystals. Other enamel proteins may regulate crystal habit by binding to specific faces of the mineral and inhibiting growth. Structural analyses of recombinant amelogenin are consistent with a functional role in establishing and maintaining the spacing between enamel crystallites.

  15. The effect of enamel proteins on erosion

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, T.; Carvalho, T. S.; Lussi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Enamel proteins form a scaffold for growing hydroxyapatite crystals during enamel formation. They are then almost completely degraded during enamel maturation, resulting in a protein content of only 1% (w/v) in mature enamel. Nevertheless, this small amount of remaining proteins has important effects on the mechanical and structural properties of enamel and on the electrostatic properties of its surface. To analyze how enamel proteins affect tooth erosion, human enamel specimens were deproteinated. Surface microhardness (SMH), surface reflection intensity (SRI) and calcium release of both deproteinated and control specimens were monitored while continuously eroding them. The deproteination itself already reduced the initial SMH and SRI of the enamel significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). During the course of erosion, the progression of all three evaluated parameters differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001 for each). The deproteinated enamel lost its SMH and SRI faster, and released more calcium than the control group, but these differences were only significant at later stages of erosion, where not only surface softening but surface loss can be observed. We conclude that enamel proteins have a significant effect on erosion, protecting the enamel and slowing down the progression of erosion when irreversible surface loss starts to occur. PMID:26468660

  16. Mineral density of hypomineralised and sound enamel.

    PubMed

    Garot, Elsa; Rouas, Patrick; D'Incau, Emmanuel; Lenoir, Nicolas; Manton, David; Couture-Veschambre, Christine

    2016-06-28

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a structural anomaly that affects the quality of tooth enamel and has important consequences for oral health. The developmentally hypomineralised enamel has normal thickness and can range in colour from white to yellow or brown. The purpose of the present study is to compare the mineral density of hypomineralised and normal enamel. The sample included eight MIH teeth from seven patients. MIH teeth were scanned using high resolution microtomography. Non-parametric statistical tests (Wilcoxon test for paired samples) were carried out. Hypomineralised enamel has decreased mineral density (mean 19%; p < 0.0001) compared to normal enamel. This weak enamel has implications in clinical management of MIH lesions.

  17. Enamel proteins mitigate mechanical and structural degradations in mature human enamel during acid attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V.; Lemoine, Patrick; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta; Mutreja, Isha; Carolan, Patrick; Petkov, Nikolay

    2014-04-01

    A hydrazine deproteination process was used to investigate the role of enamel proteins in the acid erosion of mature human dental enamel. Bright field high resolution transmission electron micrographs and x-ray diffraction analysis show no crystallographic changes after the hydrazine treatment with similar nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystallite size and orientation for sound and de-proteinated enamel. However, the presence of enamel proteins reduces the erosion depth, the loss of hardness and the loss of structural order in enamel, following exposure to citric acid. Nanoindentation creep is larger for sound enamel than for deproteinated enamel but it reduces in sound enamel after acid attack. These novel results are consistent with calcium ion-mediated visco-elasticty in enamel matrix proteins as described previously for nacre, bone and dental proteins. They are also in good agreement with a previous double layer force spectroscopy study by the authors which found that the proteins electrochemically buffer enamel against acid attack. Finally, this suggests that acid attack, and more specifically dental erosion, is influenced by ionic permeation through the enamel layer and that it is mitigated by the enamel protein matrix.

  18. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  19. The evolution of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sunny H

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in both extinct and extant mammalian groups has been extensively documented, but is poorly known in reptiles, including dinosaurs. Previous intensive sampling of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure revealed that: (1) the three-dimensional arrangement of enamel types and features within a tooth-the schmelzmuster-is most useful in diagnosing dinosaur clades at or around the family level; (2) enamel microstructure complexity is correlated with tooth morphology complexity and not necessarily with phylogenetic position; and (3) there is a large amount of homoplasy within Theropoda but much less within Ornithischia. In this study, the examination of the enamel microstructure of 28 additional dinosaur taxa fills in taxonomic gaps of previous studies and reinforces the aforementioned conclusions. Additionally, these new specimens reveal that within clades such as Sauropodomorpha, Neotheropoda, and Euornithopoda, the more basal taxa have simpler enamel that is a precursor to the more complex enamel of more derived taxa and that schmelzmusters evolve in a stepwise fashion. In the particularly well-sampled clade of Euornithopoda, correlations between the evolution of dental and enamel characters could be drawn. The ancestral schmelzmuster for Genasauria remains ambiguous due to the dearth of basal ornithischian teeth available for study. These new specimens provide new insights into the evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in dinosaurs, emphasizing the importance of thorough sampling within broadly inclusive clades, especially among their more basal members.

  20. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    PubMed

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  1. Production of a nonwettable enamel surface.

    PubMed

    Reid, J S; Macdonald, D G

    1975-01-01

    A water-repellent enamel surface was achieved using a new material that is a combination of fumed silicon dioxide and a silane. The effects of this coating on enamel were studied. In vitro studies suggest that the material produces good water and saliva repellency. However, no reduction in bacterial colonization between treated and control enamel occurred. results of in vivo investigations of coated and control Styroflex strips showed a reduction in deposits on the former. Retention with or without previous acid etching of the enamel was poor.

  2. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels

    PubMed Central

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K.; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R.; Smith, Charles E.; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L.; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J.; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca2+ yet the mechanisms mediating Ca2+ dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca2+ influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular pools followed by Ca2+ entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca2+ uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca2+ release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca2+]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca2+ entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca2+ uptake in enamel formation. PMID:26515404

  3. Effect of enamel morphology on nanoscale adhesion forces of streptococcal bacteria : An AFM study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyong; Zhao, Yongqi; Zheng, Sainan; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Jinglin; Tang, Yi; Jiang, Li; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the influence of enamel surface morphology on nanoscale bacterial adhesion forces. Three dimensional morphology characteristics of enamel slices, which were treated with phosphoric acid (for 0 s, 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, and 30 s), were acquired. Adhesion forces of three initial colonizers (Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus mitis) and two cariogenic bacterial strains (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) with etched enamel surfaces were determined. Comparison of the forces was made by using bacterial probe method under atomic force microscope (AFM) in adhesion buffer. The results showed that enamel morphology was significantly altered by etching treatment. The roughness, peak-to-valley height, and valley-to-valley width of the depth profile, surface area, and volume increased linearly with acid exposure time, and reached the maximum at 30s, respectively. The adhesion forces of different strains increased accordingly with etching time. Adhesion forces of S. oralis, S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. sobrinus reached the maximum values of 0.81 nN, 0.84 nN, 0.73 nN, and 0.64 nN with enamel treated for 20s, respectively, whereas that of S. sanguinis at 10s (1.28nN), and dropped on coarser enamel surfaces. In conclusion, enamel micro-scale morphology may significantly alter the direct adhesion forces of bacteria. And there may be a threshold roughness for bacterial adhesion on enamel surface.

  4. Interproximal enamel reduction: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Corrado; Zanarini, Matteo; Pazzi, Elisabetta; Marchionni, Silvia; Visconti, Luca; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the morphology and composition of the interproximal reduced enamel after exposition to saliva and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate with sodium fluoride (CPP-ACPF). Fourteen patients undergoing an orthodontic treatment with 4 premolars extractions participated to the study. Interproximal enamel reduction (IER) was performed on mesial surfaces of 3 extractive premolars for each patient while 1 served as untreated control. Premolars were assigned to 4 groups: No-S group, sound enamel as control; S-Ex group, stripped and immediately extracted enamel; S-Sal group, stripped and exposed to saliva enamel; S-CPP group, stripped enamel treated with CPP-ACPF. Teeth were extracted at different times, depending on the group they were assigned to and sliced into mesial and distal halves. Mesial surfaces were subjected to environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (ESEM/EDX) and to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. ESEM/EDX investigations showed no statistically significant differences in the content of calcium and phosphate between the 4 groups. SEM observations showed no difference in the morphological appearance of stripped enamel after 30 days of exposure to saliva and CPP-ACPF. Saliva and CPP-ACPF effects on stripped enamel in vivo showed no difference after 30 days.

  5. Kinetic model for hydroxyapatite precipitation on human enamel surface by electrolytic deposition.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caixia; Liao, Yingmin; Feng, Zude

    2009-06-01

    The electrolytic deposition (ELD) of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on human enamel surface for different loading times at varied temperatures (ranging from 37 degrees C to 85 degrees C) and varied current densities (ranging from 0.05 mA cm(-2) to 10 mA cm(-2)) was investigated in this study. Thin film x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra analysis, as well as an environmental scanning electron microscope, were used to characterize the coating. The results showed that only the HAP phase occurred on the enamel surface after ELD experiments. The contents of HAP deposits on the enamel surface linearly changed proportional to the square root of the loading time, which was in good agreement with the kinetic model of ELD of HAP coating based on one-dimensional diffusion. The induction periods were observed on all the regression lines, and the rate of the HAP coating formation on enamel showed a linear relationship with the current density. It was implied that the diffusion process was the rate-determining step in the ELD of the HAP coating on human enamel.

  6. Compositional Determinants of Mechanical Properties of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarri, M.; Margolis, H.C.; Beniash, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dental enamel is comprised primarily of carbonated apatite, with less than 1% w/w organic matter and 4-5% w/w water. To determine the influence of each component on the microhardness and fracture toughness of rat incisor enamel, we mechanically tested specimens in which water and organic matrix were selectively removed. Tests were performed in mid-sagittal and transverse orientations to assess the effect of the structural organization on enamel micromechanical properties. While removal of organic matrix resulted in up to a 23% increase in microhardness, and as much as a 46% decrease in fracture toughness, water had a significantly lesser effect on these properties. Moreover, removal of organic matrix dramatically weakened the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). Analysis of our data also showed that the structural organization of enamel affects its micromechanical properties. We anticipate that these findings will help guide the development of bio-inspired nanostructured materials for mineralized tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:18573984

  7. Enamel hypoplasia in the middle pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Pérez, P J

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence and chronology of enamel hypoplasias were studied in a hominid dental sample from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene site at the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, northern Spain). A total of 89 permanent maxillary teeth, 143 permanent mandibular teeth, and one deciduous lower canine, belonging to a minimum of 29 individuals, were examined. Excluding the antimeres (16 maxillary and 37 mandibular cases) from the sample, the prevalence of hypoplasias in the permanent dentition is 12.8% (23/179), whereas the deciduous tooth also showed an enamel defect. No statistically significant differences were found between both arcades and between the anterior and postcanine teeth for the prevalence of hypoplasias. In both the maxilla and the mandible the highest frequency of enamel hypoplasias was recorded in the canines. Only one tooth (a permanent upper canine) showed two different enamel defects, and most of the hypoplasias were expressed as faint linear horizontal defects. Taking into account the limitations that the incompleteness of virtually all permanent dentitions imposes, we have estimated that the frequency by individual in the SH hominid sample was not greater than 40%. Most of the hypoplasias occurred between birth and 7 years (N = 18, X = 3.5, SD = 1.3). Both the prevalence and severity of the hypoplasias of the SH hominid sample are significantly less than those of a large Neandertal sample. Furthermore, prehistoric hunter-gatherers and historic agricultural and industrial populations exhibit a prevalence of hypoplasias generally higher than that of the SH hominids. Implications for the survival strategies and life quality of the SH hominids are also discussed.

  8. Comparison of reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Ando, Masatoshi; Stookey, George K.

    2000-03-01

    Development of dental caries is associated with the loss of minerals and change in the enamel structure. In this study, we have measured and compared reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel, to investigate its utility in detection and analysis of dental caries. One hundred twenty, 3-mm diameter human enamel cores, with no sign of fluorosis, tetracycline stain, hypoplasia, fracture and restorations, were prepared. The enamel surfaces then were ground and polished. Specimens were placed on a fitted holder with either black or white color for background, with no fluorescence. The baseline spectra were measured using a spectrophotometer with enclosed diffused illumination. Spectra measured from 380 to 780 nm at 5 nm intervals. All measurements were corrected to compensate for the spectrum of illumination. The specimens were divided into two groups and exposed to a demineralizing solution, for 48 and 96 hours, respectively. Reflectance spectra of specimens were measured following lesion induction. All specimens were sectioned and analyzed by transverse microradiography (TMR), where lesion depth and mineral loss ((Delta) Z) were measured. Dimensionality of multi-spectral data was reduced through its conversion to L*a*b* color coordinates and principal component analysis (PCA). Multiple linear regression analysis showed low correlation between L*a*b* and lesion depth and mineral loss. PCA analysis showed higher correlation coefficient, compared to L*a*b*. Preliminary results of this study suggest that multi-spectral measurement and analysis of the tooth surface could be useful in predicting the depth and severity of an early carious lesion.

  9. In vitro wear of four ceramic materials and human enamel on enamel antagonist.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Jun; Taira, Yohsuke; Sawase, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the wear of four different ceramics and human enamel. The ceramics used were lithium disilicate glass (e.max Press), leucite-reinforced glass (GN-Ceram), yttria-stabilized zirconia (Aadva Zr), and feldspathic porcelain (Porcelain AAA). Hemispherical styli were fabricated with these ceramics and with tooth enamel. Flattened enamel was used for antagonistic specimens. After 100,000 wear cycles of a two-body wear test, the height and volume losses of the styli and enamel antagonists were determined. The mean and standard deviation for eight specimens were calculated and statistically analyzed using a non-parametric (Steel-Dwass) test (α = 0.05). GN-Ceram exhibited greater stylus height and volume losses than did Porcelain AAA. E.max Press, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli showed no significant differences, and Aadva Zr exhibited the smallest stylus height and volume losses. The wear of the enamel antagonist was not significantly different among GN-Ceram, e.max Press, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli. Aadva Zr resulted in significantly lower wear values of the enamel antagonist than did GN-Ceram, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli. In conclusion, leucite-reinforced glass, lithium disilicate glass, and feldspathic porcelain showed wear values closer to those for human enamel than did yttria-stabilized zirconia.

  10. Enamel organic matrix: potential structural role in enamel and relationship to residual basement membrane constituents at the dentin enamel junction

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Jacob D.; Walker, Mary P.; Dusevich, Vladimir; Wang, Yong; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    Although mature enamel is predominantly composed of mineral, a previously uncharacterized organic matrix layer remains in the post-eruptive tissue that begins at the dentin enamel junction and extends 200–300 µm towards the outer tooth surface. Identification of the composition of this layer has been hampered by its insolubility; however, we have developed a single step method to isolate the organic enamel matrix relatively intact. After dissociative dissolution of the matrix with SDS and urea, initial characterization by Western blotting and gel zymography indicates the presence of type IV and type VII basement membrane collagens and active matrix metalloproteinase-20. When combined with data from transgenic knockout mice and from human mutations, these data suggest that the enamel organic matrix (EOM) and dentin enamel junction may have a structural and functional relationship with basement membranes, e.g. skin. To clarify this relationship, we hypothesize a “foundation” model which proposes that components of the EOM form a support structure that stabilizes the crystalline enamel layer, and bonds it to the underlying dentin along the dentin enamel junction. Since we have also co-localized an active matrix metalloproteinase to this layer, our hypothesis suggests that, under pathologic conditions, MMP-mediated degradation of the EOM could destabilize the enamel–dentin interface. PMID:25158177

  11. Immediate bonding to bleached enamel.

    PubMed

    Nour El-din, Amal K; Miller, Barbara H; Griggs, Jason A; Wakefield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to determine the shear bond strength, degree of resin infiltration and failure mode when organic solvent-based adhesives (acetone or ethanol) were used in immediate bonding to enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide or 38% hydrogen peroxide systems. Seventy-two non-carious bovine incisors were randomly assigned to three groups of 24 specimens each-control group (deionized water), 38% hydrogen peroxide bleach group and 10% carbamide peroxide bleach group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 12 specimens each according to the adhesive system used to bond the resin composite to enamel surfaces. The two adhesive systems used were Single Bond, an ethanol-based adhesive, and One Step, an acetone-based adhesive. The shear bond strengths of 38% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide were significantly lower compared to the non-bleached controls. Fractography revealed an adhesive failure mode in all specimens. Qualitative comparisons of resin tags present in the bleached and unbleached specimens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed few, thin and fragmented resin tags when 38% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide were used.

  12. Enamel wear opposing polished and aged zirconia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J O; Janyavula, S; Lawson, N C; Lucas, T J; Cakir, D

    2014-01-01

    Aging of dental zirconia roughens its surface through low temperature degradation. We hypothesized that age-related roughening of zirconia crowns may cause detrimental wear to the enamel of an opposing tooth. To test our hypothesis, we subjected artificially aged zirconia and reference specimens to simulated mastication in a wear device and measured the wear of an opposing enamel cusp. Additionally, the roughness of the pretest surfaces was measured. The zirconia specimens, artificially aged by autoclave, showed no significant increase in roughness compared to the nonaged specimens. Furthermore, no significant difference in material or opposing enamel wear between the aged and nonaged zirconia was seen. All zirconia specimens showed less material and opposing enamel wear than the enamel to enamel control or veneering porcelain specimens. Scanning electron micrographs showed relatively smooth surfaces of aged and nonaged zirconia following wear testing. The micrographs of the veneering ceramic showed sharp fractured edges and fragments of wear debris. Zirconia may be considered a wear-friendly material for restorations opposing enamel, even after simulated aging.

  13. Lysosomal protease expression in mature enamel.

    PubMed

    Tye, Coralee E; Lorenz, Rachel L; Bartlett, John D

    2009-01-01

    The enamel matrix proteins (amelogenin, enamelin and ameloblastin) are degraded by matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-4 during enamel development and mature enamel is virtually protein free. The precise mechanism of removal and degradation of the enamel protein cleavage products from the matrix, however, remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that receptor-mediated endocytosis allows for the cleaved proteins to be removed from the matrix during enamel formation and then transported to the lysosome for further degradation. This study aims to identify lysosomal proteases that are present in maturation-stage enamel organ. RNA from first molars of 11-day-old mice was collected and expression was initially assessed by RT-PCR and then quantified by qPCR. The pattern of expression of selected proteases was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of demineralized mouse incisors. With the exception of cathepsin G, all lysosomal proteases assessed were expressed in maturation-stage enamel organ. Identified proteases included cathepsins B, D, F, H, K, L, O, S and Z. Tripeptidyl peptidases I and II as well as dipeptidyl peptidases I, II, III and IV were also found to be expressed. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the maturation-stage ameloblasts express cathepsins L and S and tripeptidyl peptidase II. Our results suggest that the ameloblasts are enriched by a large number of lysosomal proteases at maturation that are likely involved in the degradation of the organic matrix.

  14. Regulation of dental enamel shape and hardness.

    PubMed

    Simmer, J P; Papagerakis, P; Smith, C E; Fisher, D C; Rountrey, A N; Zheng, L; Hu, J C C

    2010-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions guide tooth development through its early stages and establish the morphology of the dentin surface upon which enamel will be deposited. Starting with the onset of amelogenesis beneath the future cusp tips, the shape of the enamel layer covering the crown is determined by five growth parameters: the (1) appositional growth rate, (2) duration of appositional growth (at the cusp tip), (3) ameloblast extension rate, (4) duration of ameloblast extension, and (5) spreading rate of appositional termination. Appositional growth occurs at a mineralization front along the ameloblast distal membrane in which amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) ribbons form and lengthen. The ACP ribbons convert into hydroxyapatite crystallites as the ribbons elongate. Appositional growth involves a secretory cycle that is reflected in a series of incremental lines. A potentially important function of enamel proteins is to ensure alignment of successive mineral increments on the tips of enamel ribbons deposited in the previous cycle, causing the crystallites to lengthen with each cycle. Enamel hardens in a maturation process that involves mineral deposition onto the sides of existing crystallites until they interlock with adjacent crystallites. Neutralization of acidity generated by hydroxyapatite formation is a key part of the mechanism. Here we review the growth parameters that determine the shape of the enamel crown as well as the mechanisms of enamel appositional growth and maturation.

  15. TRANSIENT AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMING ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Beniash, Elia; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, begins as a three-dimensional network of nanometer size mineral particles, suspended in a protein gel. This mineral network serves as a template for mature enamel formation. To further understand the mechanisms of enamel formation we characterized the forming enamel mineral at an early secretory stage using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. We show that the newly formed enamel mineral is amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which eventually transforms into apatitic crystals. Interestingly, the size, shape and spatial organization of these amorphous mineral particles and older crystals are essentially the same, indicating that the mineral morphology and organization in enamel is determined prior to its crystallization. Mineralization via transient amorphous phases has been previously reported in chiton teeth, mollusk shells, echinoderm spicules and spines, and recent reports strongly suggest the presence transient amorphous mineral in forming vertebrate bones. The present finding of transient ACP in murine tooth enamel suggests that this strategy might be universal. PMID:19217943

  16. Regulation of Dental Enamel Shape and Hardness

    PubMed Central

    Simmer, J.P.; Papagerakis, P.; Smith, C.E.; Fisher, D.C.; Rountrey, A.N.; Zheng, L.; Hu, J.C.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions guide tooth development through its early stages and establish the morphology of the dentin surface upon which enamel will be deposited. Starting with the onset of amelogenesis beneath the future cusp tips, the shape of the enamel layer covering the crown is determined by five growth parameters: the (1) appositional growth rate, (2) duration of appositional growth (at the cusp tip), (3) ameloblast extension rate, (4) duration of ameloblast extension, and (5) spreading rate of appositional termination. Appositional growth occurs at a mineralization front along the ameloblast distal membrane in which amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) ribbons form and lengthen. The ACP ribbons convert into hydroxyapatite crystallites as the ribbons elongate. Appositional growth involves a secretory cycle that is reflected in a series of incremental lines. A potentially important function of enamel proteins is to ensure alignment of successive mineral increments on the tips of enamel ribbons deposited in the previous cycle, causing the crystallites to lengthen with each cycle. Enamel hardens in a maturation process that involves mineral deposition onto the sides of existing crystallites until they interlock with adjacent crystallites. Neutralization of acidity generated by hydroxyapatite formation is a key part of the mechanism. Here we review the growth parameters that determine the shape of the enamel crown as well as the mechanisms of enamel appositional growth and maturation. PMID:20675598

  17. Estimation of the enamel and dentin mineral content from the refractive index.

    PubMed

    Hariri, I; Sadr, A; Nakashima, S; Shimada, Y; Tagami, J; Sumi, Y

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of optics have enabled accurate and localized measurement of optical properties of biological substrates. This work aimed to elucidate the relationship between the local refractive index (n) and mineral content (MC) of enamel and dentin. De- and remineralized lesions in bovine enamel and dentin blocks were sectioned into 300- to 400-µm-thick slices, and placed on a metal plate to capture images of sound, de- and remineralized regions transversely by optical coherence tomography. Mean n at each depth level of the lesion (20- or 40-µm steps for enamel or dentin) was measured by the optical path length-matching method and used to plot n through lesion depth. The specimens were further polished and processed for transverse microradiography for analysis of MC. The n and MC ranged from 1.52 to 1.63 and 50 to 87 (vol.%) in enamel, and from 1.43 to 1.57 and 11 to 48 (vol.%) in dentin, respectively. Strong, positive linear correlations were found between n and MC (Pearson's r = 0.95 and 0.91 for de- and remineralized enamel, and r = 0.94 and 0.91 for dentin, respectively, p < 0.001). Experimental data were validated with a theoretical calculation of n from MC. De- and remineralization of enamel and dentin resulted in measurable changes of n, and, in turn, MC changes of the tissue could be estimated with good accuracy from this long-known optical property by the new analytical approach. Compositional changes of enamel crystallites after remineralization affect n.

  18. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  19. Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Chou, Po-Hung; Chen, Shu-Yu; Liao, Hua-Yang; Chang, Che-Chen

    2015-01-01

    There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries. PMID:26293361

  20. Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Chou, Po-Hung; Chen, Shu-Yu; Liao, Hua-Yang; Chang, Che-Chen

    2015-08-21

    There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries.

  1. Accuracy of Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory applied to human dentin and enamel.

    PubMed

    Ragain, J C; Johnston, W M

    2001-02-01

    The Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory provides a reflectance model for translucent materials placed on backings of different colors. We hypothesize that Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theoretical diffuse reflectance spectra of dentin and enamel are in good agreement with observed diffuse reflectance. The aim of this study was to measure the reflectance of enamel and dentin specimens and to compare the measured values of reflectance with K-M theoretical values. Disc-shaped specimens of enamel, dentin, and enamel/dentin were prepared from extracted teeth. Diffuse reflectance spectra were measured on three backings by means of a reflectance spectrophotometer over every wavelength (lambda) from 400 to 700 nm at three thicknesses. The measured reflectance values were fit by non-linear regression to corrected K-M theory. The low value of the reported errors associated with the application of K-M theory illustrated that the theoretical diffuse reflectance spectra of dentin and enamel are in good agreement with the observed diffuse reflectance.

  2. Materials science: Lessons from tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Horacio D.; Soler-Crespo, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    A remarkable composite material has been made that mimics the structure of tooth enamel. This achievement opens up the exploration of new composite materials and of computational methods that reliably predict their properties. See Letter p.95

  3. Effective property of tooth enamel: monoclinic behavior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cunyou; Nakamura, Toshio; Korach, Chad S

    2012-05-11

    Human tooth enamel possesses a unique morphology characterized by a repeated cell arrangement, which is composed of varying orientations of hydroxyapatite crystals. In the past, various investigators have reported diverse mechanical properties based on isotropic or orthotropic mechanical models in their experimental and numerical studies. However, these models are insufficient to capture the accurate microstructural effects on the enamel mechanical response. In this paper, a monoclinic anisotropic model, which offers correct descriptions of enamel deformation behaviors, is introduced. The model takes into account the 3D orientation changes of the hydroxyapatite crystals and their spatial elastic property variations. The proposed approach is based on a unit-cell and periodic boundary conditions, and it utilizes the collective deformation characteristics of many rods to determine 13 independent material constants required for the monoclinic model. These constants are necessary to utilize the effective property model to study various mechanical conditions such as abrasion, erosion, wear and fracture of whole tooth enamel.

  4. Aesthetic approach for anterior teeth with enamel hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Josué; Gewehr, Andréa; Paim, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Enamel hypoplasia is a developmental defect of the enamel that is produced by a disturbance in the formation of the organic enamel matrix, clinically visible as enamel defects. Disorders that occur during the stages of enamel development and maturation reduce the amount or thickness of the enamel, resulting in white spots, tiny grooves, depressions and fissures in the enamel surface. The complexity and intensity of the dental deformity lesions will conduct the ideal treatment-associating conservative techniques. This article presents a case report of a restorative treatment of enamel hypoplasia using hybrid composite resin to mask color alteration and enamel defects. An aesthetic appearance that respects the tooth polychromatic and the self-esteem of the patient can be achieved with this approach. PMID:22629075

  5. Correlation of ameloblastin with enamel mineral content

    PubMed Central

    Teepe, John D.; Schmitz, James E.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Fajardo, Roberto J.; Smith, Charles E.; Chun, Yong-Hee P.

    2015-01-01

    In enamel formation, the deposition of minerals as crystallites starts when the mineralization front first forms at the start of the secretory stage. During maturation, the enamel layer accumulates significant amounts of new mineral as the crystallites grow in volume. Inversely related to mineral gain is loss of protein and water from the forming enamel. Both ameloblastin (Ambn) and enamelin are essential components for formation of a functional enamel layer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of mineral and non-mineral material present in developing enamel relative to Ambn concentration using Ambn mutant mice mated with others overexpressing full-length Ambn from the mouse amelogenin promoter at lower (+), similar (++) or higher (+++) concentration than normal. Mandibular incisors (age: 7 weeks, n=8) were imaged by micro-computed tomography and the enamel was analyzed from the apical region to the incisal edge in sequential 1.0 mm volumes of interest. Mineral density was determined using a series of hydroxyapatite (HA) phantoms to calibrate enamel density measurements. At the site where the mandibular incisor emerged into the oral cavity, the enamel volume, mineral weight, and mineral density were reduced when Tg Ambn was expressed at lower or higher levels than normal. While in wild-type the % mineral was >95%, it was negligible in Ambn−/−, 22.3% in Ambn−/−, Tg(+), 75.4% in Ambn−/−, Tg(++), and 45.2% in Ambn−/−, Tg(+++). These results document that the deposition of mineral and removal of non-mineral components are both very sensitive to expressed Ambn concentrations. PMID:25158178

  6. In vitro enamel thickness measurements with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Khalid Hussain; Bubb, Nigel Lawrence; Gutteridge, Diana Lynn; Evans, Joseph Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In the work described here, agreement between ultrasound and histologic measurements of enamel thickness in vitro was investigated. Fifteen extracted human premolars were sectioned coronally to produce 30 sections. The enamel thickness of each specimen was measured with a 15-MHz hand-held ultrasound probe and verified with histology. The speed of sound in enamel was established. Bland-Altman analysis, intra-class correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon sign rank test were used to assess agreement. The mean speed of sound in enamel was 6191 ± 199 m s(-1). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were -0.16 to 0.18 mm when the speed of sound for each specimen was used, and -0.17 to 0.21 mm when the mean speed of sound was used. Intra-class correlation coefficient agreement was 0.97, and the Wilcoxon sign rank test yielded a p-value of 0.55. Using the speed of sound for each specimen results in more accurate measurement of enamel thickness. Ultrasound measurements were in good agreement with histology, which highlights its potential for monitoring the progressive loss of enamel thickness in erosive tooth surface loss.

  7. Enamel hypomineralization due to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Jedeon, Katia; Marciano, Clémence; Loiodice, Sophia; Boudalia, Sofiane; Canivenc Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-08-01

    There has been increasing concerns over last 20 years about the potential adverse effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Bisphenol A (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) are three widely used EDs having similar effects. Tooth enamel has recently been found to be an additional target of BPA that may be a causal agent of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). However, populations are exposed to many diverse EDs simultaneously. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the effects of the combination of G, V and BPA on tooth enamel. Rats were exposed daily in utero and after birth to low doses of EDs mimicking human exposure during the critical fetal and suckling periods when amelogenesis takes place. The proportion of rats presenting opaque areas of enamel hypomineralization was higher when rats were treated with BPA alone than with a combination of EDs. The levels of mRNAs encoding the main enamel proteins varied with BPA treatment alone and did not differ significantly between controls and combined treatment groups. In vitro, rat ameloblastic HAT-7 cells were treated with the three EDs. BPA induced enamelin and reduced klk4 expression, G had no such effects and V reduced enamelin expression. These findings suggest that combinations of EDs may affect enamel less severely than BPA alone, and indicate that enamel hypomineralization may differ according to the characteristics of the ED exposure.

  8. The Circadian Clock Modulates Enamel Development

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Boyde, Alan; Lei, Yaping; Xu, Yucheng; Miller, Joseph D.; Paine, Michael L.; Snead, Malcolm L.

    2012-01-01

    Fully mature enamel is about 98% mineral by weight. While mineral crystals appear very early during its formative phase, the newly secreted enamel is a soft gel-like matrix containing several enamel matrix proteins of which the most abundant is amelogenin (Amelx). Histological analysis of mineralized dental enamel reveals markings called cross-striations associated with daily increments of enamel formation, as evidenced by injections of labeling dyes at known time intervals. The daily incremental growth of enamel has led to the hypothesis that the circadian clock might be involved in the regulation of enamel development. To identify daily rhythms of clock genes and Amelx, we subjected murine ameloblast cells to serum synchronization to analyze the expression of the circadian transcription factors Per2 and Bmal1 by real-time PCR. Results indicate that these key genetic regulators of the circadian clock are expressed in synchronized murine ameloblast cell cultures and that their expression profile follows a circadian pattern with acrophase and bathyphase for both gene transcripts in antiphase. Immunohistological analysis confirms the protein expression of Bmal and Cry in enamel cells. Amelx expression in 2-day postnatal mouse molars dissected every 4 hours for a duration of 48 hours oscillated with an approximately 24-hour period, with a significant approximately 2-fold decrease in expression during the dark period compared to the light period. The expression of genes involved in bicarbonate production (Car2) and transport (Slc4a4), as well as in enamel matrix endocytosis (Lamp1), was greater during the dark period, indicating that ameloblasts express these proteins when Amelx expression is at the nadir. The human and mouse Amelx genes each contain a single nonconserved E-box element within 10 kb upstream of their respective transcription start sites. We also found that within 2 kb of the transcription start site of the human NFYA gene, which encodes a positive

  9. Enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns after 6 months of clinical use.

    PubMed

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Rammelsberg, P; Schmitter, M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia crowns were placed in 20 patients requiring full molar crowns. For measurement of wear, impressions of both jaws were made at baseline after crown cementation and at 6-month follow-up. Mean and maximum wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists and of the two contralateral natural antagonists were measured by the use of plaster replicas and 3D laser scanning methods. Wear differences were investigated by the use of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and by linear regression analysis. Mean vertical loss (maximum vertical loss in parentheses) was 10 (43) μm for the zirconia crowns, 33 (112) μm for the opposing enamel, 10 (58) μm for the contralateral teeth and 10 (46) μm for the contralateral antagonists. Both mean and maximum enamel wear were significantly different between the antagonists of the zirconia crowns and the contralateral antagonists. Gender and activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were identified as possible confounders which significantly affected wear. Under clinical conditions, monolithic zirconia crowns seem to be associated with more wear of opposed enamel than are natural teeth. With regard to wear behaviour, clinical application of monolithic zirconia crowns is justifiable because the amount of antagonistic enamel wear after 6 months is comparable with, or even lower than, that caused by other ceramic materials in previous studies.

  10. The effect of washing water on bonding to etched enamel.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D J; Combe, E C; Martens, L V

    2004-01-01

    There is current concern about bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines. This research hypothesized that the presence of increasing concentrations of bacteria in water used to wash etched enamel would result in a corresponding decrease in both shear bond strength (SBS) and critical surface tension (gammaC) of enamel. A further hypothesis was made that there is a correlation between SBS and gammaC. The effect of 3.5 ppm iodine in the water as a bacteriostatic agent was also assessed. Five groups of 10 samples of bovine enamel were etched, washed, and a resin composite bonded to them. The control group was washed with distilled water. Another group was washed with the dilute iodine solution. The remaining three groups used a different concentration of Escherichia coli DH5alpha as follows (in cfu mL(-1)): group 1: 10(2); group 2: 10(4); group 3: 10(6). Shear bond strength data were measured on an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1). Adhesion data were (MPa): control: 24.6 +/- 6.0; with iodine: 20.8 +/- 2.7; group 1: 19.8 +/- 2.7; group 2: 13.5 +/- 3.0; group 3: 13.9 +/- 3.6. The F-test yielded a highly significant difference between control group, iodine group and group 1, compared with groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.0001). Tukey's Studentized Range Test was used for pairwise comparison testing between groups. Using a Cahn dynamic contact angle analyzer and linear regression analysis, the plots of surface tension versus costheta were extrapolated to costheta = 1 to give gammaC data for the control group and groups 1-3. In all cases reasonable linearity was observed (r2 > or = 0.87). Data (mN m(-1)) were: control group: 50.8; group 1: 45.1; group 2: 43.2; group 3: 39.5. The SBS and gammaC were then plotted against each other and linear regression analysis performed. It was concluded that increasing concentrations of bacteria in wash water decreased both SBS and gammaC and that a linear correlation (R2 = 0.84) was found between the values of

  11. The fracture behaviour of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Bechtle, Sabine; Habelitz, Stefan; Klocke, Arndt; Fett, Theo; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-01-01

    Enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body covering the crowns of teeth. Whereas the underlying dental material dentin is very well characterized in terms of mechanical and fracture properties, available data for enamel are quite limited and are apart from the most recent investigation mainly based on indentation studies. Within the current study, stable crack-growth experiments in bovine enamel have been performed, to measure fracture resistance curves for enamel. Single edge notched bending specimens (SENB) prepared out of bovine incisors were tested in 3-point bending and subsequently analysed using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Cracks propagated primarily within the protein-rich rod sheaths and crack propagation occurred under an inclined angle to initial notch direction not only due to enamel rod and hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation but potentially also due to protein shearing. Determined mode I fracture resistance curves ranged from 0.8-1.5 MPa*m(1/2) at the beginning of crack propagation up to 4.4 MPa*m(1/2) at 500 microm crack extension; corresponding mode II values ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 MPa*m(1/2).

  12. Enamel surface changes caused by hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takao; Hanabusa, Masao; Hosoya, Noriyasu; Chiba, Toshie; Yoshida, Takumasa; Morito, Akiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced inside the mouth are a well-known cause of halitosis. Recent studies have suggested that VSCs modify the pathology of periodontitis by encouraging the migration of bacterial toxins associated with increased permeability of gingival epithelia, and enhancing the production of matrix metalloproteinases in gingival connective tissue. Nonetheless, the effects on the enamel of direct exposure to VSCs within the oral cavity remain unclear. In the present study, we observed the effects of VSCs in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on enamel surfaces and determined their effects on restorations. Materials and Methods: Extracted human tooth and bovine tooth samples were divided into the H2S experimental side and the control side. We observed the effects of H2S on enamel surfaces using electron microscopy and conducted a shear test. Results: We found that exposure to H2S obscured the enamel surface's crystal structure. The surface also exhibited coarseness and reticular changes. Shear testing did not reveal any differences in bond strength. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that H2S occurring inside the mouth causes changes to the crystal structure of the enamel surface that can lead to tooth wear, but that it does not diminish the effects of dental bonding in adhesive restorations. PMID:26752833

  13. Esthetic restorative materials and opposing enamel wear.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Anna Belsuzarri; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effects of a gold alloy (Degulor M), four dental ceramics (IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, Duceram Plus, Duceram LFC) and a laboratory-processed composite (Targis) on the wear of human enamel. The amount of wear of the enamel (dental cusps) and restorative materials (disks) were tested in water at 37 degrees C under standard load (20 N), with a chewing rate of 1.3 Hz and was determined after 150,000 and 300,000 cycles. Before the test, the average surface roughness of the restorative materials was analyzed using the Ra parameter. The results of this study indicate that Targis caused enamel wear similar to Degulor M and resulted in significantly less wear than all the ceramics tested. IPS Empress provoked the greatest amount of enamel wear and Degulor M caused less vertical dimension loss. Targis could be an appropriate alternative material to ceramic, because it is esthetic and produces opposing enamel wear comparable to gold alloy.

  14. Effect of Removal of Enamel on Rebonding Strength of Resin Composite to Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, L.; Varrela, J.; Vallittu, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effect of removing the surface layer of enamel on the rebonding strength of resin composite. Methods. Teeth in four groups (n = 10) were etched, a small amount of resin composite was bonded and debonded, then specimens in three groups were ground for different lengths of time (10 s, 20 s, 30 s) to remove an increasing amount of enamel, one group was left untouched. The teeth were bonded again and the bond strengths of 1st and 2nd bonding were compared and analysed against the amount of enamel loss in different groups (7 µm (±2); 12 µm (±1); 16 µm (±3)). Specimens were examined with SEM and by noncontacting optical profilometer. Results. Although results indicated higher rebonding strength with increasing enamel removal ANOVA showed low statistical differences between the groups (p > 0.05). However, values between first bonding and rebonding strengths differed significantly (p < 0.05) in the group that was not ground. SEM revealed that enamel-surfaces that were ground after debonding etched well, compared to the surfaces that still contained adhesive remnants. Conclusions. Removal of small amount of enamel refreshed the surface for rebonding. Rebonding strengths without grinding the surface before bonding were lower than bond strength to intact enamel. PMID:27725932

  15. In vitro inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization by enamel matrix derivative.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jin Mei; Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Xiang, Chen Yang; Lv, Xue Ping; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) affects the demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro and to assess the agent's anti-caries potential. Bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group), which were treated with distilled water (negative control), NaF (positive control), or Emdogain. All three groups were pH-cycled 12 times over 6 days. The percentage of surface enamel microhardness reduction (%SMHR), calcium demineralization rate (CDR), surface roughness, lesion depth and mineral loss after demineralization were examined. Surface morphology of specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The Emdogain and positive control groups showed similar surface roughness, lesion depths and mineral loss, which were significantly lower than those in the negative control group. In addition, the enamel surfaces of both the Emdogain and NaF groups showed much narrower intercrystalline spaces than the surfaces of the negative control group, which exhibited extensive microfractures along the crystal edges. %SMHR differed significantly among all three groups, with the smallest value in the Emdogain group and the greatest in the negative control group. These results indicate that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) can significantly inhibit demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro, suggesting that it has potential as an anti-caries agent.

  16. To What Extent is Primate Second Molar Enamel Occlusal Morphology Shaped by the Enamel-Dentine Junction?

    PubMed Central

    Gilissen, Emmanuel; Thiery, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    The form of two hard tissues of the mammalian tooth, dentine and enamel, is the result of a combination of the phylogenetic inheritance of dental traits and the adaptive selection of these traits during evolution. Recent decades have been significant in unveiling developmental processes controlling tooth morphogenesis, dental variation and the origination of dental novelties. The enamel-dentine junction constitutes a precursor for the morphology of the outer enamel surface through growth of the enamel cap which may go along with the addition of original features. The relative contribution of these two tooth components to morphological variation and their respective response to natural selection is a major issue in paleoanthropology. This study will determine how much enamel morphology relies on the form of the enamel-dentine junction. The outer occlusal enamel surface and the enamel-dentine junction surface of 76 primate second upper molars are represented by polygonal meshes and investigated using tridimensional topometrical analysis. Quantitative criteria (elevation, inclination, orientation, curvature and occlusal patch count) are introduced to show that the enamel-dentine junction significantly constrains the topographical properties of the outer enamel surface. Our results show a significant correlation for elevation, orientation, inclination, curvature and occlusal complexity between the outer enamel surface and the enamel dentine junction for all studied primate taxa with the exception of four modern humans for curvature (p<0.05). Moreover, we show that, for all selected topometrical parameters apart from occlusal patch count, the recorded correlations significantly decrease along with enamel thickening in our sample. While preserving tooth integrity by providing resistance to wear and fractures, the variation of enamel thickness may modify the curvature present at the occlusal enamel surface in relation to enamel-dentine junction, potentially modifying

  17. To What Extent is Primate Second Molar Enamel Occlusal Morphology Shaped by the Enamel-Dentine Junction?

    PubMed

    Guy, Franck; Lazzari, Vincent; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Thiery, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    The form of two hard tissues of the mammalian tooth, dentine and enamel, is the result of a combination of the phylogenetic inheritance of dental traits and the adaptive selection of these traits during evolution. Recent decades have been significant in unveiling developmental processes controlling tooth morphogenesis, dental variation and the origination of dental novelties. The enamel-dentine junction constitutes a precursor for the morphology of the outer enamel surface through growth of the enamel cap which may go along with the addition of original features. The relative contribution of these two tooth components to morphological variation and their respective response to natural selection is a major issue in paleoanthropology. This study will determine how much enamel morphology relies on the form of the enamel-dentine junction. The outer occlusal enamel surface and the enamel-dentine junction surface of 76 primate second upper molars are represented by polygonal meshes and investigated using tridimensional topometrical analysis. Quantitative criteria (elevation, inclination, orientation, curvature and occlusal patch count) are introduced to show that the enamel-dentine junction significantly constrains the topographical properties of the outer enamel surface. Our results show a significant correlation for elevation, orientation, inclination, curvature and occlusal complexity between the outer enamel surface and the enamel dentine junction for all studied primate taxa with the exception of four modern humans for curvature (p<0.05). Moreover, we show that, for all selected topometrical parameters apart from occlusal patch count, the recorded correlations significantly decrease along with enamel thickening in our sample. While preserving tooth integrity by providing resistance to wear and fractures, the variation of enamel thickness may modify the curvature present at the occlusal enamel surface in relation to enamel-dentine junction, potentially modifying

  18. Enamel hypoplasia: challenges of esthetic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Araújo, Élito; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2016-01-01

    Enamel defects, such as white or yellow-brown spots, usually cause problems that are more esthetic than functional. Enamel hypoplasia may be the result of hereditary, systemic, or local factors. Dental trauma is a local etiologic factor. It is relatively common in the primary dentition and can cause defects on the surface of permanent successors. Treatment for such defects can differ, depending on the depth of the spots. For deeper white-spot lesions, a composite resin restoration may be necessary. This is an excellent mode of treatment, due to both its low cost and its conservation of healthy tooth structure. The objective of this case report is to describe composite resin restoration of a maxillary central incisor affected by enamel hypoplasia.

  19. Powder electrostatic enamelling of household appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragina, L.; Shalygina, O.; Kuryakin, N.; Annenkov, V.; Guzenko, N.; Kupriyanenko, K.; Hudyakov, V.; Landik, A.

    2011-12-01

    Principles and practices of contemporary resource and energy saving technology of powder electrostatic application (POESTA)of vitreous enamel coatings are described. Its technological, economic and ecological advantages over slip enamelling in household appliances manufacture are discussed. We develop the principles of synthesis of special glass frits with high electric resistivity for POESTA and discuss the results of studies aimed at the development and industrial implementation of ground, direct-on and coloured cover enamels for household appliances and direct-on thermally resistant chemically durable coatings with antibacterial effect for protection of inner tanks of water heaters. Finally, we describe the development of compositions for easy-to-clean, catalytic and pyrolytic coatings.

  20. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  1. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes.

  2. IR laser ablation of dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    An overview of the basic mechanisms of IR laser ablation of dental enamel is presented. Enamel is a highly structured tissue consisting of an heterogeneous distribution of water, mineral, protein and lipid. Absorption bands of water and carbonated hydroxyapatite can be selectively targeted from 2.7 to 11-micrometer via several laser wavelengths. Mechanistic differences in the nature of ablation and the varying surface morphology produced can be explained by the microstructure of the tissue. Suggested criteria for the choice of the optimum laser parameters for clinical use, the influence of plasma shielding and the role of exogenous water on the mechanism of ablation are discussed.

  3. Restitution of enamel after interdental stripping.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, T; Milleding, P; Mohlin, B; Nannmark, U

    1993-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of interdental stripping on the enamel surface and evaluates methods to restitute the treated surface. Extracted teeth mounted in a semielastic material were subjected to stripping by different kinds of steel strips. The treated enamel surfaces were then polished in several different ways. The effects were studied by SEM and profilometry. It was concluded that the coarsest strips produced irregularities of such a magnitude that polishing had very limited effect. Polishing starting with coarse polishing strips followed by gradually finer gave the best result. An increase in number of strokes and use of all grades of polishing strips slightly improved the result.

  4. Rugometric and microtopographic inspection of teeth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Pereira, Pedro B.

    2013-06-01

    The roughness of teeth' enamel is an important parameter in orthodontics. One example is the application in the process of decreasing tooth-size by reducing the interproximal enamel surfaces (stripping) of teeth. In order to achieve smooth surfaces clinicians have been testing various methods and progressively improved this therapeutic technique. The evaluation the surface roughness following teeth interproximal reduction is fundamental in the process. In general tooth' surface is not flat presenting a variety of complex geometries. In this communication we will report on the metrological procedure employed on the rugometric and microtopographic inspection by optical active triangulation of raw and processed (interproximal stripping) tooth surfaces.

  5. Survey of coatings for solar collectors. [ceramic enamels and chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic enamel is found to be more solar selective, (i.e., has high solar absorptance in combination with low infrared emittance) than organic enamel, but neither is as solar selective as black chrome, black copper, black zinc, or black nickel. Ceramic enamel is matched only by black chrome in durability and wide availability. Ceramic enamel and organic enamel have approximately the same cost, and both are currently slightly lower in cost than black chrome, black copper, or black zinc. Black nickel is relatively unavailable and, because of that, realistic cost comparisons are not possible.

  6. Porcelain enamelled absorbers, coated by spectral selective tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Simonis, F.; Faber, A.J.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.

    1987-02-01

    The use of porcelain enamelled absorbers in flat plate collectors features longevity thanks to the durability and thermal stability of the enamel finish. The porcelain enamel can be made spectral selective by coating with doped tin oxide or indium oxide. The application procedure involves an enamelling step followed by a pyrosol process with tin or indium compounds. The optical properties of tin oxide coated enamel yield values of 0.90-0.92 absorptance and 0.13-0.18 hemispherical emittance. The temperature dependence of the emittance is very small. The thermal stability has been proved up to 400/sup 0/C in air.

  7. Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Glena, Richard E.; Featherstone, John D. B.; Seka, Wolf

    1995-03-01

    The light-scattering properties of dental enamel and dentin were measured at 543, 632, and 1053 nm. Angularly resolved scattering distributions for these materials were measured from 0 deg to 180 deg using a rotating goniometer. Surface scattering was minimized by immersing the samples in an index-matching bath. The scattering and absorption coefficients and the scattering phase function were deduced by comparing the measured scattering data with angularly resolved Monte Carlo light-scattering simulations. Enamel and dentin were best represented by a linear combination of a highly forward-peaked Henyey-Greenstein (HG) phase function and an isotropic phase function. Enamel weakly scatters light between 543 nm and 1.06 mu m, with the scattering coefficient ( mu s) ranging from mu s = 15 to 105 cm-1. The phase function is a combination of a HG function with g = 0.96 and a 30-60% isotropic phase function. For enamel, absorption is negligible. Dentin scatters strongly in the visible and near IR ( mu s approximately equals 260 cm-1) and absorbs weakly ( mu a approximately equals 4 cm-1). The scattering phase function for dentin is described by a HG function with g = 0.93 and a very weak isotropic scattering component ( approximately 2%).

  8. Comparison between a profilometer and a measuring microscope for measurement of enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Chuenarrom, Chanya; Benjakul, Pojjanut

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the difference in the erosion depth of enamel measured by profilometry (PM) and a measuring microscope (MM). Sixty enamel specimens were divided into ten groups. Each specimen group was exposed to 50 ml of a carbonated drink with pH 2.38 or orange juice with pH 3.67 for 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Depths of eroded areas were measured with a profilometer and a measuring microscope. Data of average enamel loss were measured by PM and MM for all erosion times and were scatter plotted on a graph with regression fit. Correlations between the enamel loss measured by PM and MM were analyzed with a paired sample t-test to compare the discriminatory abilities of the two methods of analysis for all erosion times. The regression fit in all study cases showed a high linear relationship (R(2) = 0.90) between measurements by PM and MM, but in cases where the erosion depth was lower than the depth of focus (DOF) of the MM objective lens, there were weak correlation coefficients (-0.007 - 0.303) for comparison between the two measurement methods.

  9. Towards enamel biomimetics: Structure, mechanical properties and biomineralization of dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Hanson Kwok

    Dental enamel is the most mineralized tissue in the human body. This bioceramic, composed largely of hydroxyapatite (HAp), is also one of the most durable tissues despite a lifetime of masticatory loading and bacterial attack. The biosynthesis of enamel, which occurs in physiological conditions is a complex orchestration of protein assembly and mineral formation. The resulting product is the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body with the longest and most organized arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals known to biomineralizing systems. Detail understanding of the structure of enamel in relationship to its mechanical function and the biomineralization process will provide a framework for enamel regeneration as well as potential lessons in the design of engineering materials. The objective of this study, therefore, is twofold: (1) establish the structure-function relationship of enamel as well as the dentine-enamel junction (DEJ) and (2) determine the effect of proteins on the enamel biomineralization process. A hierarchy in the enamel structure was established by means of various microscopy techniques (e.g. SEM, TEM, AFM). Mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) associated with the microstructural features were also determined by nanoindentation. Furthermore, the DEJ was found to have a width in the range of micrometers to 10s of micrometers with continuous change in structure and mechanical properties. Indentation tests and contact fatigue tests using a spherical indenter have revealed that the structural features in the enamel and the DEJ played important roles in containing crack propagation emanating from the enamel tissue. To further understand the effect of this protein on the biominerailzation process, we have studied genetically engineered animals that express altered amelogenin which lack the known self-assembly properties. This in vivo study has revealed that, without the proper self-assembly of the amelogenin protein as demonstrated by the

  10. Ceramic-like wear behaviour of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Arsecularatne, J A; Hoffman, M

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of subsurfaces of enamel specimens following in vitro reciprocating wear tests with an enamel cusp sliding on a flat enamel specimen under hydrated conditions. The obtained results show that crack formation occurred in the wear scar subsurface. The path followed by these cracks seems to be dictated either by the histological structure of enamel or by the contact stress field. Moreover, the analysis of a set of enamel wear results obtained from the literature and application of fracture-based models, originally developed for ceramics, correlate well, confirming the similar wear processes taking place in these materials. This analysis also reveals a marked influence of coefficient of friction on the enamel wear rate: for a higher coefficient of friction value, enamel wear can be severe even under forces generated during normal operation of teeth.

  11. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained.

  12. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; Horst, Jeremy A.; Sitlin, Melody; Nguyen, Mychi; Wagner, Martin; Simpliciano, Cheryl; Milder, Melissa; Chen, Chun-Long; Ashby, Paul; Bonde, Johan; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-like structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. We propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development. PMID:27009419

  13. Enamel Formation Genes Influence Enamel Microhardness Before and After Cariogenic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takehiko; Ho, Bao; Deeley, Kathleen; Briseño-Ruiz, Jessica; Faraco, Italo M.; Schupack, Brett I.; Brancher, João A.; Pecharki, Giovana D.; Küchler, Erika C.; Tannure, Patricia N.; Lips, Andrea; Vieira, Thays C. S.; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Seymen, Figen; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, José M.; Trevilatto, Paula C.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence for a genetic component in caries susceptibility, and studies in humans have suggested that variation in enamel formation genes may contribute to caries. For the present study, we used DNA samples collected from 1,831 individuals from various population data sets. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers were genotyped in selected genes (ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin, and tuftelin interacting protein 11) that influence enamel formation. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between groups with distinct caries experience. Associations with caries experience can be detected but they are not necessarily replicated in all population groups and the most expressive results was for a marker in AMELX (p = 0.0007). To help interpret these results, we evaluated if enamel microhardness changes under simulated cariogenic challenges are associated with genetic variations in these same genes. After creating an artificial caries lesion, associations could be seen between genetic variation in TUFT1 (p = 0.006) and TUIP11 (p = 0.0006) with enamel microhardness. Our results suggest that the influence of genetic variation of enamel formation genes may influence the dynamic interactions between the enamel surface and the oral cavity. PMID:23028741

  14. Deformation behavior of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction under compression.

    PubMed

    Zaytsev, Dmitry; Panfilov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Deformation behavior under uniaxial compression of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is considered in comparison with human dentin. This deformation scheme allows estimating the total response from all levels of the hierarchical composite material in contrast with the indentation, which are limited by the mesoscopic and microscopic scales. It was shown for the first time that dental enamel is the strength (up to 1850MPa) hard tissue, which is able to consider some elastic (up to 8%) and plastic (up to 5%) deformation under compression. In so doing, it is almost undeformable substance under the creep condition. Mechanical properties of human enamel depend on the geometry of sample. Human dentin exhibits the similar deformation behavior under compression, but the values of its elasticity (up to 40%) and plasticity (up to 18%) are much more, while its strength (up to 800MPa) is less in two times. Despite the difference in mechanical properties, human enamel is able to suppress the cracking alike dentin. Deformation behavior under the compression of the samples contained DEJ as the same to dentin. This feature allows a tooth to be elastic-plastic (as dentin) and wear resistible (as enamel), simultaneously.

  15. Enamel for high-temperature superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Desired optical and high temperature enamel properties are obtained with glasses prepared from the system Li2O-ZrO2-nSiO2. Molar compositions range from n=4 to n=1.3, to which are added minor amounts in varying combinations of alumina, alkali fluorides, boric oxide, alkali oxides, and akaline earth oxides.

  16. Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana, P. A.; Bachmann, L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether laser irradiation is able to reduce caries incidence. For this purpose, the effects of laser on enamel and on fluoride uptake were discussed. Current literature regarding the preventive effect of laser irradiation on dental hard tissue has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of anticaries and induced changes on enamel by laser irradiation were also performed. Articles were selected using the Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases, and the results of these studies were described. The most common lasers employed for caries prevention on enamel are Nd:YAG; CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; and argon. The percentage of inhibition of dental caries varied from 30 to 97.2%, and the association with fluoride has demonstrated the best results on inhibition of caries development. Laser irradiation under specific conditions can change the crystallographic properties of apatite crystals, increasing the acid resistance of lased enamel. The combined treatment of laser irradiation with fluoride propitiates an expressive fluoride uptake, reducing the progression of carieslike lesions, and this treatment is more effective than laser or fluoride alone. Available data suggest that lasers combined with fluoride is a promising treatment in caries prevention.

  17. Tooth enamel hypoplasia in PHACE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yvonne E; Siegel, Dawn H; Drolet, Beth A; Hodgson, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with PHACE syndrome (posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, eye abnormalities, sternal cleft, and supraumbilical raphe syndrome) have reported dental abnormalities to their healthcare providers and in online forums, but dental involvement has not been comprehensively studied. A study was conducted at the third PHACE Family Conference, held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in July 2012. A pediatric dentist examined subjects at enrollment. Eighteen subjects were enrolled. The median age was 4.2 years (range 9 mos-9 yrs; 14 girls, 4 boys). Eleven of 18 patients had intraoral hemangiomas and five of these (50%) had hypomature enamel hypoplasia. None of the seven patients without intraoral hemangiomas had enamel hypoplasia. No other dental abnormalities were seen. Enamel hypoplasia may be a feature of PHACE syndrome when an intraoral hemangioma is present. Enamel hypoplasia increases the risk of caries, and clinicians should refer children with PHACE syndrome to a pediatric dentist by 1 year of age.

  18. Remineralization of Demineralized Enamel via Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Weir, M.D.; Chow, L.C.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary caries remains the main problem limiting the longevity of composite restorations. The objective of this study was to investigate the remineralization of demineralized human enamel in vitro via a nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). NACP were synthesized by a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a dental resin. First, caries-like subsurface enamel lesions were created via an acidic solution. Then, NACP nanocomposite or a commercial fluoride-releasing control composite was placed on the demineralized enamel, along with control enamel without a composite. These specimens were then treated with a cyclic demineralization/remineralization regimen for 30 days. Quantitative microradiography showed typical enamel subsurface demineralization before cyclic demineralization/remineralization treatment, and significant remineralization in enamel under the NACP nanocomposite after the demineralization/remineralization treatment. The NACP nanocomposite had the highest enamel remineralization (mean ± SD; n = 6) of 21.8 ± 3.7%, significantly higher than the 5.7 ± 6.9% for fluoride-releasing composite (p < 0.05). The enamel group without composite had further demineralization of −26.1 ± 16.2%. In conclusion, a novel NACP nanocomposite was effective in remineralizing enamel lesions in vitro. Its enamel remineralization was 4-fold that of a fluoride-releasing composite control. Combined with the good mechanical and acid-neutralization properties reported earlier, the new NACP nanocomposite is promising for remineralization of demineralized tooth structures. PMID:22933607

  19. Appositional enamel growth in molars of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-07-01

    Enamel is formed incrementally by the secretory activity of ameloblast cells. Variable stages of secretion result in the formation of structures known as cross striations along enamel prisms, for which experimental data demonstrate a correspondence with daily periods of secretion. Patterns of variation in this daily growth are important to understanding mechanisms of tooth formation and the development of enamel thickness. Transmitted light microscopy (TLM) of histological ground sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of bulk specimens or their surface replicas are the usual methods for investigating cross striations. However, these methods pose some constraints on the study of these features in Plio-Pleistocene hominid enamel, the specimens of which may only rarely be sectioned for TLM or examined on only their most superficial surfaces for SEM. The recent development of portable confocal scanning optical microscopy (PCSOM) resolves some of the restrictions on fractured enamel surfaces, allowing the visualization of cross striations by direct examination. This technology has been applied here to the study of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus hominid molars from the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa. We hypothesize that these taxa have increased enamel appositional rates compared with modern humans, because despite having thicker enamelled molars (particularly P. robustus), the enamel crowns of these fossil taxa take an equivalent or reduced amount of time to form. Cross striations were measured in cuspal, lateral and cervical regions of the enamel crowns, and, within each region, the inner, middle and outer zones. Values obtained for A. africanus outer zones of the enamel crown are, in general, lower than those for P. robustus, indicating faster forming enamel in the latter, while both taxa show higher rates of enamel growth than modern humans and the African great apes. This demonstrates a relatively high degree of variability in the

  20. Enamelin Directs Crystallite Organization at the Enamel-Dentine Junction.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Al-Jawad, M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel is an acellular material formed by the intricate process of amelogenesis. Disruption caused at the initial stages of development, by means of mutations in the ENAM gene encoding the enamelin protein, results in enamel hypoplasia. Little is known about the consequence of ENAM mutation on the enamel structure at a crystallographic level. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure of ENAM-mutated enamel to develop a deeper understanding of the role of enamelin protein during formation with regard to crystal organization. Synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to measure and correlate enamel crystallography and microstructure in hypoplastic and healthy enamel. Rietveld refinement carried out on 2-dimensional diffraction patterns, collected from the Advanced Photon Source, were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) within the labial regions of each tooth slice and then correlated with the local microstructure. In general, healthy deciduous incisors displayed a higher degree of crystal organization across the labial surface in comparison with the hypoplastic enamel. ENAM plays the greatest functional role at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ), as it was the region that exhibited lowest texture relative to unaffected controls. Other areas within the tooth, however, such as the cusp tip, displayed greater organization in line with healthy enamel, suggesting its effects are restricted to the early stages of enamel secretion. Observed clinically, the surface of ENAM-mutated hypoplastic enamel can appear to be normal, yet severe sub-nano and microstructural defects appear beneath the subsurface layer. Quantitative characterization of the crystallographic properties from enamel with known genotype expands the understanding of enamel formation processes and can aid better clinical diagnosis and tailor-made treatment.

  1. The Molecular Basis of Hereditary Enamel Defects in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, I.A.; Morris, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. PMID:25389004

  2. Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.

    PubMed

    Maas, M C

    1994-10-01

    This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies

  3. Longitudinal correlation of 3D OCT to detect early stage erosion in bovine enamel.

    PubMed

    Aden, Abdirahman; Anderson, Paul; Burnett, Gary R; Lynch, Richard J M; Tomlins, Peter H

    2017-02-01

    Erosive tissue-loss in dental enamel is of significant clinical concern because the net loss of enamel is irreversible, however, initial erosion is reversible. Micro-hardness testing is a standard method for measuring initial erosion, but its invasive nature has led to the investigation of alternative measurement techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative because of its ability to non-invasively image three-dimensional volumes. In this study, a four-dimensional OCT system is used to longitudinally measure bovine enamel undergoing a continuous erosive challenge. A new method of analyzing 3D OCT volumes is introduced that compares intensity projections of the specimen surface by calculating the slope of a linear regression line between corresponding pixel intensities and the associated correlation coefficient. The OCT correlation measurements are compared to micro-hardness data and found to exhibit a linear relationship. The results show that this method is a sensitive technique for the investigation of the formation of early stage erosive lesions.

  4. Longitudinal correlation of 3D OCT to detect early stage erosion in bovine enamel

    PubMed Central

    Aden, Abdirahman; Anderson, Paul; Burnett, Gary R.; Lynch, Richard J. M.; Tomlins, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Erosive tissue-loss in dental enamel is of significant clinical concern because the net loss of enamel is irreversible, however, initial erosion is reversible. Micro-hardness testing is a standard method for measuring initial erosion, but its invasive nature has led to the investigation of alternative measurement techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative because of its ability to non-invasively image three-dimensional volumes. In this study, a four-dimensional OCT system is used to longitudinally measure bovine enamel undergoing a continuous erosive challenge. A new method of analyzing 3D OCT volumes is introduced that compares intensity projections of the specimen surface by calculating the slope of a linear regression line between corresponding pixel intensities and the associated correlation coefficient. The OCT correlation measurements are compared to micro-hardness data and found to exhibit a linear relationship. The results show that this method is a sensitive technique for the investigation of the formation of early stage erosive lesions. PMID:28270996

  5. Surface integrity governs the proteome of hypomineralized enamel.

    PubMed

    Mangum, J E; Crombie, F A; Kilpatrick, N; Manton, D J; Hubbard, M J

    2010-10-01

    Growing interest in the treatment and prevention of Molar/Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) warrants investigation into the protein composition of hypomineralized enamel. Hypothesizing abnormality akin to amelogenesis imperfecta, we profiled proteins in hypomineralized enamel from human permanent first molars using a biochemical approach. Hypomineralized enamel was found to have from 3- to 15-fold higher protein content than normal, but a near-normal level of residual amelogenins. This distinguished MIH from hypomaturation defects with high residual amelogenins (amelogenesis imperfecta, fluorosis) and so typified it as a hypocalcification defect. Second, hypomineralized enamel was found to have accumulated various proteins from oral fluid and blood, with differential incorporation depending on integrity of the enamel surface. Pathogenically, these results point to a pre-eruptive disturbance of mineralization involving albumin and, in cases with post-eruptive breakdown, subsequent protein adsorption on the exposed hydroxyapatite matrix. These insights into the pathogenesis and properties of hypomineralized enamel hold significance for prevention and treatment of MIH.

  6. Dose rate assessment in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, A.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.; Vogenauer, A.

    A mammoth found in the southern part of Germany was dated by ESR spectroscopy. This dating method is based on the measurement of the accumulated dose in tooth enamel and assessment of the annual dose. The accumulated dose is obtained from the radiation induced ESR signal at g = 2.0018 of the enamel. The annual dose was first determined by measuring the 238U, 232Th and 40K content of the tooth and of the surrounding soil. As a crosscheck, the dose rate from the tooth was measured by inserting TL dosimeters in the dentine and storing them at 'zero' background in a salt mine. The cosmic dose rate and the gamma dose rate from the soil was evaluated from TL dosimeters buried at the excavation site. The results are discussed with respect to the applicability of ESR dating on teeth.

  7. Enamel surfaces after orthodontic bracket debonding.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P M

    1995-01-01

    The enamel surfaces of extracted teeth were studied clinically and with a scanning electron microscope following debonding of orthodontic attachments and subsequent polishing. Excess orthodontic resin was removed with tungsten carbide burs and abrasive discs. Several combinations of polishing agents were evaluated. The no. 30 fluted tungsten carbide bur appeared to be the most efficient method of removing highly filled resin, and it produced the least amount of scarring. A polishing sequence was developed which used resin points and cups followed by a water slurry of fine pumice and brown and green cups. This procedure was tested clinically and appeared to return the enamel to an acceptable condition. This procedure is fast, efficient, and comfortable for the patient.

  8. Influence of self-made saliva substitutes on tribological characteristics of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Andrysewicz, Edyta; Mystkowska, Joanna; Dąbrowski, Jan Ryszard; Olchowik, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of tests on the influence of human saliva and its substitutes on tribological characteristics of friction pairs. Each pair consists of enamel and one of the following materials: ceramics, the Meridian B2 dental composite, the GK dental amalgam, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The saliva substitutes used were prepared using pyrophosphates, xanthan gum, and mucins dissolved in a saline buffer. The results of the tribological tests show that the values of the parameters under investigation (coefficient of friction and linear wear) were different from each other. Some similarity was observed between the evaluated level of wear characteristics after the friction process in the environment of human saliva and that in the environment of one of the mucins tested. Microscopic observations of the surfaces of the enamel samples after friction revealed varied forms of tribological wear.

  9. Ablation Studies of Enamel Tissue Using Pulsed HF Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and enamel has been successful. The reason is thought to be due to high absorption coefficients of hydroxyapatite [Ca10(Po4)6(OH2)] with a total...secondary absorption peak of hydroxyapatite lies, a less violent and cleaner ablation of enamel compared with its main absorption peak at 9.6 µm is...1 of 4 Ablation Studies of Enamel Tissue using Pulsed HF Laser M.E. Khosroshahi, B.A. Ghasemi Amirkabir University of Technology, School of

  10. Evolutionary and functional significance of hominoid tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Gantt, D G; Rafter, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate enamel thickness in extant and extinct hominoids. The material used in this study spans the evolutionary history of this group, from 20 million years ago to the present. The objectives of this investigation are to test three hypotheses: (1) the Loading Hypothesis: loading areas of the crown have thicker enamel than non-loading areas; (2) the Phyletic Hypothesis: differences in enamel thickness provide a basis for determining evolutionary relationships; and (3) the Functional Hypothesis: differences among hominoids result from adaptations to differing dietary and ecological habitats, that is from folivory to frugivory to hard object feeding and from tropical to forest to savanna habitats. Thin sections were prepared and polished to approximately 100 microm in thickness. Each section was then enlarged and digitally captured to the computer. Image processing and analysis software, SigmaImage (was used to measure the sections. Subsequent statistical analysis was conducted with SigmaStat and SPSS statistical software programs. The data provides statistical support for all hypotheses. In particular, the data support the proposal that "thick" enamel is the ancestral condition for the great apes and human clade. Therefore, Pongo would have retained its enamel thickness from the common ancestor of the great apes and Gorilla and Pan would have secondarily reduced enamel thickness to "thin." The common ancestor of the hominids, the australopithecines, would have "thick" enamel. The "hyper-thick" enamel of the australopithecines would be a derived character for this clade due to increased crushing and grinding and adaptation to savanna habitat. Homo would have secondarily reduced enamel thickness to "thick." Evolutionary biology of enamel differs markedly in hominids from that found in other hominoids and primates. Increased enamel thickness involved both increases in absolute thickness of enamel and crown size in response to

  11. Controlled toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel.

    PubMed

    Voronets, J; Jaeggi, T; Buergin, W; Lussi, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare toothbrush abrasion of softened enamel after brushing with two (soft and hard) toothbrushes. One hundred and fifty-six human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Salivary pellicle was formed in vitro over a period of 3 h. Erosive lesions were produced by means of 1% citric acid. A force-measuring device allowed a controlled toothbrushing force of 1.5 N. The specimens were brushed either in toothpaste slurry or with toothpaste in artificial saliva for 15 s. Enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth of the same indent before and after abrasion. Mean surface losses (95% CI) were recorded in ten treatment groups: (1) soft toothbrush only [28 (17-39) nm]; (2) hard toothbrush only [25 (16-34) nm]; (3) soft toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [46 (27-65) nm]; (4) hard toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [45 (24-66) nm]; (5) soft toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [71 (55-87) nm]; (6) hard toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [85 (60-110) nm]; (7) soft toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [48 (39-57) nm]; (8) hard toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [40 (29-51) nm]; (9) soft toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [51 (37-65) nm]; (10) hard toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [52 (36-68) nm]. Neither soft nor hard toothbrushes produced significantly different toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel in this model (p > 0.05).

  12. Regional Odontodysplasia with Generalised Enamel Defect

    PubMed Central

    Toumba, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia (ROD) is uncommon developmental anomaly, which tends to be localised and involves the ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components. A five-year-old female was referred to Department of Child Dental Health at the Leeds Dental Institute regarding malformed primary teeth. On examination 64, 74, and 72 had localised hypomineralized enamel defect. The crown of 55 was broken down with only the root remaining below the gingival level. 54 has a yellowish brown discolouration with rough irregular surface. The upper anterior teeth show mild enamel opacity. Radiographically, 55 and 54 had thin radioopaque contour, showing poor distinction between the enamel and dentine and the classic feature of a wide pulp chamber. 15, 16, and 17 were developmentally delayed and were displaying the characteristic “ghost appearance.” Comprehensive dental care was done under local anaesthesia and it included extraction of the primary molars affected by ROD, stainless steel crown on 64, and caries prevention program. Fifteen months following the initial assessment the patient's oral condition remains stable and she is under regular follow-up at the department. Paediatric dentists should be aware of this anomaly as it involves both dentitions and usually requires multidisciplinary care. PMID:28097027

  13. Investigation of EPR signals on tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Polakov, M.; Riekstina, D.

    2007-12-01

    Calcified tissues are involved in continues metabolic process in human organism exchanging a number of chemical elements with environment. The rate of biochemical reactions is tissue dependent and the slowest one at the tooth enamel, the most mineralized tissue of human organism. The long time stability and unique chemical composition make tooth enamel suitable for number of application. The assessment of individual radiation dose by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and evaluations of elemental composition by Instrumentation Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are the well known procedures where properties of tooth enamel intensively used. The current work is focused on investigation of EPR signals and determination of chemical composition on several teeth samples having different origin. The EPR spectra and INAA element content of milk tooth, caries tooth, and paradantose tooth have been compared to each other. The results showed that the intensity of EPR signal is much higher for the caries tooth than the for paradantose tooth that is in agreement with depleted Ca content.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of softened enamel.

    PubMed

    Eisenburger, M; Shellis, R P; Addy, M

    2004-01-01

    After exposing enamel specimens to 0.3% citric acid at pH 3.2 for various times, the acid was titrated to pH 7 before rinsing the specimens in water. After freeze-drying the specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. This procedure eliminates artefacts due to drying and mineral precipitation. The results showed that the outer region of softened enamel is much more delicate than previously thought, even after short (5- to 20-min) etching times. Mineral was lost from both prism boundaries and the prism bodies, resulting in a surface presenting thin, separate crystal bundles. In further studies, replicas of subsurface pores, created by resin impregnation, showed the softening depth to be several times greater than is suggested by techniques based on removing the softened enamel by physical forces. The results point to a need for improved methods of measuring softening depth. More importantly, it appears that the outer region of the softened layer remaining after an erosive challenge might be too fragile to resist frictional forces in vivo.

  15. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases. PMID:26491574

  16. Enamel Defects and Salivary Methylmalonate in Methylmalonic Acidemia

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, CW; Wright, JT; Guadagnini, JP; Muralidharan, R; Sloan, J; Domingo, DL; Venditti, CP; Hart, TC

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Objective To characterize enamel defects in patients with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and cobalamin metabolic disorders and to examine salivary methylmalonate levels in MMA. Subjects and Methods Teeth from patients (n=32) were evaluated for enamel defects and compared with age- and gender-matched controls (n=55). Complementation class (mut, cblA, cblB, cblC) and serum methylmalonate levels were examined. Primary teeth from two patients were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and salivary methylmalonate levels from two patients were analyzed. Results Enamel defects were significantly more prevalent per tooth in the affected group than the control group, across complementation types (p<0.0001). The mut MMA subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence per individual of severe enamel defects than controls (p=0.021), and those with enamel defects exhibited higher serum methylmalonate levels than those without (p=0.017). Salivary methylmalonate levels were extremely elevated and were significantly higher than controls (p=0.002). Primary teeth were free of enamel defects except for two cblC patients who exhibited severe enamel hypoplasia. One primary tooth from a cblC patient manifested markedly altered crystal microstructure. Conclusion Enamel anomalies represent a phenotypic manifestation of MMA and cobalamin metabolic disorders. These findings suggest an association between enamel developmental pathology and disordered metabolism. PMID:19143946

  17. Influence of trace elements on dental enamel properties: A review.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Zeeshan; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Chew, Hooi Pin; Fatima, Tayyaba

    2017-01-01

    Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties.

  18. Barrier formation: potential molecular mechanism of enamel fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Lyaruu, D M; Medina, J F; Sarvide, S; Bervoets, T J M; Everts, V; Denbesten, P; Smith, C E; Bronckers, A L J J

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl(-) for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b (-/-) mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b(-/-) mice and was strongly correlated with Cl(-). Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl(-) levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins.

  19. On the R-curve behavior of human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2009-08-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is a function of distance from the dentin enamel junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67+/-0.12 MPam(0.5)), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPam(0.5)/mm to 3.93 MPam(0.5)/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (K(c))) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPam(0.5). Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by a host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone.

  20. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in “overbuilt” enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczumow, A.; Nowak, J.; ChaŁas, R.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing "core" enamel (˜93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining "overbuilt" enamel. The material in the "core" enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the "overbuilt enamel", with dynamic changes in the composition. In the "overbuilt" layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO 32- present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO 32-. In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with the most characteristic changes occurring in Mg and Na concentrations. Mg

  1. Targeted p120-catenin ablation disrupts dental enamel development.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John D; Dobeck, Justine M; Tye, Coralee E; Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Stokes, Nicole; Reynolds, Albert B; Fuchs, Elaine; Skobe, Ziedonis

    2010-09-16

    Dental enamel development occurs in stages. The ameloblast cell layer is adjacent to, and is responsible for, enamel formation. When rodent pre-ameloblasts become tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts, they secrete enamel matrix proteins, and the ameloblasts start moving in rows that slide by one another. This movement is necessary to form the characteristic decussating enamel prism pattern. Thus, a dynamic system of intercellular interactions is required for proper enamel development. Cadherins are components of the adherens junction (AJ), and they span the cell membrane to mediate attachment to adjacent cells. p120 stabilizes cadherins by preventing their internalization and degradation. So, we asked if p120-mediated cadherin stability is important for dental enamel formation. Targeted p120 ablation in the mouse enamel organ had a striking effect. Secretory stage ameloblasts detached from surrounding tissues, lost polarity, flattened, and ameloblast E- and N-cadherin expression became undetectable by immunostaining. The enamel itself was poorly mineralized and appeared to be composed of a thin layer of merged spheres that abraded from the tooth. Significantly, p120 mosaic mouse teeth were capable of forming normal enamel demonstrating that the enamel defects were not a secondary effect of p120 ablation. Surprisingly, blood-filled sinusoids developed in random locations around the developing teeth. This has not been observed in other p120-ablated tissues and may be due to altered p120-mediated cell signaling. These data reveal a critical role for p120 in tooth and dental enamel development and are consistent with p120 directing the attachment and detachment of the secretory stage ameloblasts as they move in rows.

  2. On the relationship between enamel band complexity and occlusal surface area in Equids (Mammalia, Perissodactyla)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Edward Byrd

    2016-01-01

    Enamel patterns on the occlusal surfaces of equid teeth are asserted to have tribal-level differences. The most notable example compares the Equini and Hipparionini, where Equini have higher crowned teeth with less enamel-band complexity and less total occlusal enamel than Hipparionini. Whereas previous work has successfully quantified differences in enamel band shape by dividing the length of enamel band by the square root of the occlusal surface area (Occlusal Enamel Index, OEI), it was clear that OEI only partially removes the effect of body size. Because enamel band length scales allometrically, body size still has an influence on OEI, with larger individuals having relatively longer enamel bands than smaller individuals. Fractal dimensionality (D) can be scaled to any level, so we have used it to quantify occlusal enamel complexity in a way that allows us to get at an accurate representation of the relationship between complexity and body size. To test the hypothesis of tribal-level complexity differences between Equini and Hipparionini, we digitally traced a sample of 98 teeth, one tooth per individual; 31 Hipparionini and 67 Equini. We restricted our sampling to the P3-M2 to reduce the effect of tooth position. After calculating the D of these teeth with the fractal box method which uses the number of boxes of various sizes to calculate the D of a line, we performed a t-test on the individual values of D for each specimen, comparing the means between the two tribes, and a phylogenetically informed generalized least squares regression (PGLS) for each tribe with occlusal surface area as the independent variable and D as the dependent variable. The slopes of both PGLS analyses were compared using a t-test to determine if the same linear relationship existed between the two tribes. The t-test between tribes was significant (p < 0.0001), suggesting different D populations for each lineage. The PGLS for Hipparionini was a positive but not significant (p = 0

  3. Conservative approach for esthetic treatment of enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Reston, E G; Corba, D V; Ruschel, K; Tovo, M F; Barbosa, A N

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a minimally invasive technique for removal of intrinsic enamel stains and discoloration. The technique is based on enamel microabrasion with application of an acid-abrasive gel. Treatment may be complemented with composite resin to compensate for the effects of acid or to finish the masking effect.

  4. Role of crystal arrangement on the mechanical performance of enamel.

    PubMed

    An, Bingbing; Wang, Raorao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The superior mechanical properties of enamel, such as excellent penetration and crack resistance, are believed to be related to the unique microscopic structure. In this study, the effects of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallite orientation on the mechanical behavior of enamel have been investigated through a series of multiscale numerical simulations. A micromechanical model, which considers the HAP crystal arrangement in enamel prisms, the hierarchical structure of HAP crystals and the inelastic mechanical behavior of protein, has been developed. Numerical simulations revealed that, under compressive loading, plastic deformation progression took place in enamel prisms, which is responsible for the experimentally observed post-yield strain hardening. By comparing the mechanical responses for the uniform and non-uniform arrangement of HAP crystals within enamel prisms, it was found that the stiffness for the two cases was identical, while much greater energy dissipation was observed in the enamel with the non-uniform arrangement. Based on these results, we propose an important mechanism whereby the non-uniform arrangement of crystals in enamel rods enhances energy dissipation while maintaining sufficient stiffness to promote fracture toughness, mitigation of fracture and resistance to penetration deformation. Further simulations indicated that the non-uniform arrangement of the HAP crystals is a key factor responsible for the unique mechanical behavior of enamel, while the change in the nanostructure of nanocomposites could dictate the Young's modulus and yield strength of the biocomposite.

  5. Targeted overexpression of amelotin disrupts the microstructure of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Nakayama, Yohei; Holcroft, James; Nguyen, Van; Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter; Snead, Malcolm L; White, Shane N; Paine, Michael L; Ganss, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We have previously identified amelotin (AMTN) as a novel protein expressed predominantly during the late stages of dental enamel formation, but its role during amelogenesis remains to be determined. In this study we generated transgenic mice that produce AMTN under the amelogenin (Amel) gene promoter to study the effect of AMTN overexpression on enamel formation in vivo. The specific overexpression of AMTN in secretory stage ameloblasts was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The gross histological appearance of ameloblasts or supporting cellular structures as well as the expression of the enamel proteins amelogenin (AMEL) and ameloblastin (AMBN) was not altered by AMTN overexpression, suggesting that protein production, processing and secretion occurred normally in transgenic mice. The expression of Odontogenic, Ameloblast-Associated (ODAM) was slightly increased in secretory stage ameloblasts of transgenic animals. The enamel in AMTN-overexpressing mice was much thinner and displayed a highly irregular surface structure compared to wild type littermates. Teeth of transgenic animals underwent rapid attrition due to the brittleness of the enamel layer. The microstructure of enamel, normally a highly ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals, was completely disorganized. Tomes' process, the hallmark of secretory stage ameloblasts, did not form in transgenic mice. Collectively our data demonstrate that the overexpression of amelotin has a profound effect on enamel structure by disrupting the formation of Tomes' process and the orderly growth of enamel prisms.

  6. Mass-transport processes at the steel-enamel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Jha, A.; Cochrane, R. C.; Ali, S.

    2006-02-01

    Mass-transport processes at the enamel-steel interface were investigated by studying the rheological properties of the enamel and the microstructure of the enamel-steel interface. The thermophysical properties, e.g., the viscosity and spreading behavior of enamel were measured using the rotating bob and the sessile drop techniques, respectively. The results show that the viscosity of the enamel decreases sharply as the FeO concentration increases from 0 to 25 wt pct, while the contact angle changes with the increasing thickness of the NiO precoat. Microstructural characterization also revealed evidence for the presence of an interfacial gradient force (more specifically referred to as the Marangoni convection) confined within the 0- to 80-µm thickness at the enamel-steel interface. This force is responsible for a convective flow, which determines the formation of flow striae at the interface. The striae act as a sink for evolved gases and provide transport away from the enamel-steel interface. In addition, experimental simulation of Marangoni convection (interfacial-gradient force) was carried out by selectively doping the steel surface with excess Fe2O3 powder. The presence of convection flow was confirmed by analyzing the pattern of iron oxide particles dispersed across the surrounding enamel layers. Based on the microstructural characterization and the thermophysical data, we propose a mechanism for mass transport at the glass-steel interface.

  7. New genomic and fossil data illuminate the origin of enamel.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qingming; Haitina, Tatjana; Zhu, Min; Ahlberg, Per Erik

    2015-10-01

    Enamel, the hardest vertebrate tissue, covers the teeth of almost all sarcopterygians (lobe-finned bony fishes and tetrapods) as well as the scales and dermal bones of many fossil lobe-fins. Enamel deposition requires an organic matrix containing the unique enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) amelogenin (AMEL), enamelin (ENAM) and ameloblastin (AMBN). Chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) lack both enamel and EMP genes. Many fossil and a few living non-teleost actinopterygians (ray-finned bony fishes) such as the gar, Lepisosteus, have scales and dermal bones covered with a proposed enamel homologue called ganoine. However, no gene or transcript data for EMPs have been described from actinopterygians. Here we show that Psarolepis romeri, a bony fish from the the Early Devonian period, combines enamel-covered dermal odontodes on scales and skull bones with teeth of naked dentine, and that Lepisosteus oculatus (the spotted gar) has enam and ambn genes that are expressed in the skin, probably associated with ganoine formation. The genetic evidence strengthens the hypothesis that ganoine is homologous with enamel. The fossil evidence, further supported by the Silurian bony fish Andreolepis, which has enamel-covered scales but teeth and odontodes on its dermal bones made of naked dentine, indicates that this tissue originated on the dermal skeleton, probably on the scales. It subsequently underwent heterotopic expansion across two highly conserved patterning boundaries (scales/head-shoulder and dermal/oral) within the odontode skeleton.

  8. Evolutionary aspects of reptilian and mammalian enamel structure.

    PubMed

    Sahni, A

    1987-12-01

    The evolution of enamel structure is dealt with here on the basis of fossil reptiles and mammals ranging from the Triassic to the present. The evidence suggests that prismatic enamel had developed in some therapsid reptiles and the mammal, Eozostrodon about 180 million years ago. For the next 100 million years, mammalian evolutionary history is sparingly documented and this is reflected in the poor record of enamel evolution during this period. The few Jurassic reptiles and mammals studied suggest a preprismatic structure. In the Late Cretaceous (80 to 65 million years ago) when the fossil record improves, mammalian enamel investigated from North American localities, are found to be prismatic; allotherian (multituberculate) and metatherian (marsupial) enamels are usually tubular, while eutherian (placental) ones are not. Prism structure in Tertiary mammals in general, conforms to that of their present day descendants, but there are discernible exceptions. The record of evolutionary change in Tertiary mammals is obscured by functional modifications related to biomechanical stresses. Enamel structure may be secondarily modified; similar in phylogenetically unrelated groups (eg., pauciserial enamel of early rodents) or dissimilar at the intra-familial level (eg., rodent families Ctenodactylidae and Ischryomyicae). Prismatic enamel is recorded from the tooth of a hatchling of the gavial, Gavialis gangeticus.

  9. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references.

  10. Optical coherence tomography use in the diagnosis of enamel defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azri, Khalifa; Melita, Lucia N.; Strange, Adam P.; Festy, Frederic; Al-Jawad, Maisoon; Cook, Richard; Parekh, Susan; Bozec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) affects the permanent incisors and molars, whose undermineralized matrix is evidenced by lesions ranging from white to yellow/brown opacities to crumbling enamel lesions incapable of withstanding normal occlusal forces and function. Diagnosing the condition involves clinical and radiographic examination of these teeth, with known limitations in determining the depth extent of the enamel defects in particular. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging hard and soft tissue imaging technique, which was investigated as a new potential diagnostic method in dentistry. A comparison between the diagnostic potential of the conventional methods and OCT was conducted. Compared to conventional imaging methods, OCT gave more information on the structure of the enamel defects as well as the depth extent of the defects into the enamel structure. Different types of enamel defects were compared, each type presenting a unique identifiable pattern when imaged using OCT. Additionally, advanced methods of OCT image analysis including backscattered light intensity profile analysis and enface reconstruction were performed. Both methods confirmed the potential of OCT in enamel defects diagnosis. In conclusion, OCT imaging enabled the identification of the type of enamel defect and the determination of the extent of the enamel defects in MIH with the advantage of being a radiation free diagnostic technique.

  11. Developmental Defects of Enamel in Children with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Erika, Vesna; Modrić; Karlović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the frequency of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in children with intellectual disability. Subjects and methods Children aged 5–18 years (72 children with intellectual disabilities and 72 controls) were included in the study. All the teeth were screened for developmental defects of enamel using the modified Developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) index. Results Out of the 72 children with intellectual disabilities in this study, 20 (27.78%) presented dental defects of enamel, compared with 8 (11.11%) of those in the control group, which was considered statistically significant (p = 0.021). The majority of children in both groups had white demarcated opacities. Children in both groups were more likely to have maxillary teeth affected than the mandibular teeth and the asymmetrical demarcated enamel defects were more common than the symmetric ones. Majority of opacities in children in both groups were on the maxillary incisors. Conclusions Children with intellectual disabilities have more developmental defects of enamel than children in the control group. Enamel defects increase caries risk and cause reduction in enamel mechanical properties leading to restoration failures. PMID:27688428

  12. Effects of ethnicity and birth month on localized enamel hypoplasia of the primary canine.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M F; Hadaway, W; Dickie, J

    1994-01-01

    Localized enamel hypoplasia of the primary canine (LHPC) is produced by a different mechanism from that causing linear enamel hypoplasia, and yet contributes disproportionately to epidemiological studies of enamel hypoplasia in childhood that do not separate the two etiological types. LHPC results from impact, probably self-inflicted by infants mouthing objects, to the unerupted primary canine crown through abnormally fenestrated cortical bone overlying the crypt. Examination of the primary teeth of ninety-six children whose mothers were enrolled in the Healthiest Babies Possible Program in Vancouver showed an average prevalence of 31 percent with LHPC (ranging from 19 percent in Vietnamese Canadians to 56 percent among Indocanadians). This is much higher than previously reported for unselected samples from Vancouver, but equivalent to studies in the USA. Mean hours of sunshine in the birth month of children with LHPC is 141.7 hours and those without is 169.4 hours; the difference is statistically significant (p = .0383). Seasonal increase in food costs and reduced availability of fresh foods containing vitamin A are thought to contribute to facial osteopenia predisposing the infant to LHPC.

  13. OSL and thermally assisted OSL response in dental enamel for its possible application in retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anuj; Mishra, D R; Polymeris, G S; Bhatt, B C; Kulkarni, M S

    2014-11-01

    Dental enamel was studied for its thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) defects. The TL studies showed a wide glow curve with multiple peaks. The thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) studies showed that the integrated TA-OSL and thus OSL signal increases with readout temperature between 100 and 250 °C, due to the temperature dependence of OSL. The thermally assisted energy E A associated with this increase is found to be 0.21 ± 0.015 eV. On the other hand, the signal intensity decreases with temperature between 260 and 450 °C. This decrease could be due to depletion of OSL active traps or possible thermal quenching. The increase of the OSL signal at increased temperature can be used to enhance the sensitivity of dental enamel for ex vivo measurements in retrospective dosimetry. The emission and excitation spectra of its luminescence centers were studied by photoluminescence and were found to be at 412 and 324 nm, respectively. It was found to possess multiple OSL active traps having closely lying photoionization cross sections characterized by continuous wave OSL and nonlinear OSL methods. The investigated dental enamel samples showed a linear OSL dose response up to 500 Gy. The dose threshold was found to be 100 mGy using a highly sensitive compact OSL reader with blue LED (470 nm) stimulation.

  14. Near-IR polarization imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.1 The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  15. Near-IR Polarization Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Darling, Cynthia L; Jiao, Jane J; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.(1) The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  16. Comparative analysis of optical coherence tomography signal and microhardness for demineralization evaluation of human tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet; Zezell, Denise Maria; Ana, Patricia A.; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Dias Vieira, Nilson, Jr.; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi

    2012-06-01

    The diagnosis of dental caries at an early stage enables the implementation of conservative treatments based on dental preservation. Several diagnostic methods have been developed, like visual-tactile and radiographic are the most commons but are limited for this application. The Optical Coherence Tomography is a technique that provides information of optical properties of enamel, which may change due to the decay process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of OCT to detect different stages of demineralization of tooth enamel during the development of artificial caries lesions, taking as a reference standard for comparison sectional microhardness testing. Different stages of caries lesions were simulated using the pH cycling model suggested Feathestone and modified by Argenta. The samples were exposed to 0 (control group), 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days at a daily regimen of three hours demineralization followed by remineralization during 20 hours. It was used an OCT system with at 930nm. Sectional images were generated in all lesion region. The results obtained from the OCT technique presented similar behavior to microhardness, except for the group 25 days, due to inability to perform indentations reading in areas of more intense demineralization. A linear relationship was observed between the OCT and microhardness techniques for detection of demineralization in enamel. This relationship will allow the use of OCT technique in quantitative assessment of mineral loss and for the evaluation of incipient caries lesions.

  17. Prevalence and possible etiology of dental enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    El-Najjar, M Y; DeSanti, M V; Ozebek, L

    1978-02-01

    Two hundred black and white adult human skeletons and 200 living black and white children from the greater Cleveland area were examined for evidence of enamel hypoplasia. Enamel hypoplasia, present in varying expressings (pits, lines and grooves), was found to be more prevalent in both skeletal samples, than in the living groups. In the majority of cases, sex differences between white and black males and females through time and space are highly significant for all tooth catagories. Regardless of the mechanisms behind it, prevalence of enamel hypoplasia for both white and black group has significantly declined through time. No evidence suggesting specific etiologies responsible for enamel hypoplasia can be found. In the majority of previously published reports, the etiology is still idiopathic. The reduction in the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in the groups examined through time may be related to improved nutritional conditions and the elimination or decline of childhood diseases that have been implicated in this condition.

  18. On the wear mechanism of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Arsecularatne, J A; Hoffman, M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanisms and controlling factors in human enamel wear are not fully understood yet. To address this problem, we have used focused ion beam (FIB) milling and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to investigate the processes taking place below the wear surface of enamel specimens from in vitro wear tests. These reveal the generation of subsurface cracks during wear of enamel. An analysis of published qualitative and quantitative experimental wear results for enamel as well as for ceramics shows the similarities of the wear processes taking place under similar contact conditions, despite the differences that exist between these two materials. It is shown that, for the considered conditions, fracture under elastic contact is responsible for enamel wear.

  19. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results.

  20. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  1. Nanolayering of phosphoric acid ester monomer on enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Irie, Masao; Ogawa, Tatsuyuki; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Minagi, Shogo; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-08-01

    Following the "adhesion-decalcification" concept, specific functional monomers possess the capacity to primary chemically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Such ionic bonding with synthetic HAp has been demonstrated for 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP), manifest as self-assembled "nanolayering". In continuation of that basic research this study aimed to explore whether nanolayering also occurs on enamel and dentin when a 10-MDP primer is applied following a common clinical application protocol. Therefore, the interaction of an experimental 10-MDP primer and a control, commercially available, 10-MDP-based primer (Clearfil SE Bond primer (C-SE), Kuraray) with enamel and dentin was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), complemented with transmission electron microscopy interfacial ultrastructural data upon their reaction with enamel and dentin. In addition, XRD was used to study the effect of the concentration of 10-MDP on nanolayering on dentin. Finally, the stability of the nanolayers was determined by measuring the bond strength to enamel and dentin when a photoinitiator was added to the experimental primer or when interfacial polymerization depended solely on the photoinitiator supplied with the subsequently applied adhesive resin. XRD confirmed nanolayering on enamel and dentin, which was significantly greater on dentin than on enamel, and also when the surface was actively rubbed with the primer. Nanolayering was also proportional to the concentration of 10-MDP in the primer. Finally, the experimental primer needed the photoinitiator to obtain a tensile bond strength to dentin comparable with that of the control C-SE primer (which also contains a photoinitiator), but not when bonded to enamel. It is concluded that self-assembled nanolayering occurs on enamel and dentin, even when following a clinically used application protocol. The lower bonding effectiveness of mild self-etch adhesives to enamel should be ascribed in part to a lower

  2. Enamel thickness in Bornean and Sumatran orangutan dentitions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M; Kupczik, Kornelius; Machanda, Zarin; Skinner, Matthew M; Zermeno, John P

    2012-03-01

    Dental enamel thickness has received considerable attention in ecological models of the adaptive significance of primate morphology. Several authors have theorized that the degree of enamel thickness may reflect selective pressures related to the consumption of fallback foods (dietary items that may require complex processing and/or have low nutritional value) during times of preferred food scarcity. Others have speculated that enamel thickness reflects selection during mastication of foods with particular material properties (i.e., toughness and hardness). Orangutans prefer ripe fruit when available, but show interspecific and sex differences in the consumption of fallback foods (bark, leaves, and figs) and other preferred foods (certain seeds). Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) have also been reported to masticate more mechanically demanding foods than Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). To test these ecological models, we assessed two-dimensional enamel thickness in orangutan full dentitions using established histological and virtual quantification methods. No significant differences in average enamel thickness (AET) were found between species. We found significant differences in the components of enamel thickness indices between sexes, with males showing greater enamel-dentine junction lengths and dentine core areas, and thus relatively thinner enamel than females. Comparisons of individuals of known sex and species revealed a dentition-wide trend for Bornean females to show greater AET than Sumatran females. Differences between small samples of males were less evident. These data provide only limited support for ecological explanations of enamel thickness patterns within great ape genera. Future studies of dietary ecology and enamel thickness should consider sex differences more systematically.

  3. Keratins as components of the enamel organic matrix.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Beniash, Elia; Morasso, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Dental enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body, and although it starts as a tissue rich in proteins, by the time of eruption of the tooth in the oral cavity only a small fraction of the protein remains. While this organic matrix of enamel represents less than 1% by weight it plays essential roles in improving both toughness and resilience to chemical attacks. Despite the fact that the first studies of the enamel matrix began in the 19th century, its exact composition and mechanisms of its function remain poorly understood. It was proposed that keratin or a keratin-like primitive epithelial component exists in mature enamel, however due to the extreme insolubility of its organic matrix the presence of keratins there was never clearly established. We have recently identified expression of a number of hair keratins in ameloblasts, the enamel secreting cells, and demonstrated their incorporation into mature enamel. Mutation in epithelial hair keratin KRT75 leads to a skin condition called pseudofollicularis barbae. Carriers of this mutation have an altered enamel structure and mechanical properties. Importantly, these individuals have a much higher prevalence of caries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a direct link between a mutation in a protein-coding region of a gene and increased caries rates. In this paper we present an overview of the evidence of keratin-like material in enamel that has accumulated over the last 150years. Furthermore, we propose potential mechanisms of action of KTR75 in enamel and highlight the clinical implications of the link between mutations in KRT75 and caries. Finally, we discuss the potential use of keratins for enamel repair.

  4. Mammalian enamel maturation: Crystallographic changes prior to tooth eruption

    PubMed Central

    Kallistová, Anna; Horáček, Ivan; Šlouf, Miroslav; Skála, Roman; Fridrichová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Using the distal molar of a minipig as a model, we studied changes in the microstructural characteristics of apatite crystallites during enamel maturation (16-23 months of postnatal age), and their effects upon the mechanical properties of the enamel coat. The slow rate of tooth development in a pig model enabled us to reveal essential heterochronies in particular components of the maturation process. The maturation changes began along the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of the trigonid, spreading subsequently to the outer layers of the enamel coat to appear at the surface zone with a 2-month delay. Correspondingly, at the distal part of the tooth the timing of maturation processes is delayed by 3-5 month compared to the mesial part of the tooth. The early stage of enamel maturation (16-20 months), when the enamel coat is composed almost exclusively of radial prismatic enamel, is characterized by a gradual increase in crystallite thickness (by a mean monthly increment of 3.8 nm); and an increase in the prism width and thickness of crystals composed of elementary crystallites. The late stage of maturation (the last two months prior to tooth eruption), marked with the rapid appearance of the interprismatic matrix (IPM) during which the crystals densely infill spaces between prisms, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in microstrain and abrupt changes in the micromechanical properties of the enamel: a rapid increase in its ability to resist long-term load and its considerable hardening. The results suggest that in terms of crystallization dynamics the processes characterizing the early and late stage of mammalian enamel maturation represent distinct entities. In regards to common features with enamel formation in the tribosphenic molar we argue that the separation of these processes could be a common apomorphy of mammalian amelogenetic dynamics in general. PMID:28196135

  5. Effectiveness of Combination of Dentin and Enamel Layers on the Masking Ability of Porcelain.

    PubMed

    Boscato, Noéli; Hauschild, Fernando Gabriel; Kaizer, Marina da Rosa; De Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the masking ability of different porcelain thicknesses and combination of enamel and/or dentin porcelain layers over simulated background dental substrates with higher (A2) and lower (C4) color values. Combination of the enamel (E) and dentin (D) monolayer porcelain disks with different thicknesses (0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1 mm) resulted in the following bilayer groups (n=10): D1E1, D1E0.8; D1E0.5; D0.8E0.8; D0.8E0.5, and D0.5E0.5. CIELAB color coordinates were measured with a spectrophotometer. The translucency parameter of mono and bilayer specimens and the masking ability estimated by color variation (ΔE*ab) of bilayer specimens over simulated dental substrates were evaluated. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships translucency parameter × ΔE*, translucency parameter × porcelain thickness, and ΔE* × porcelain thickness. Data were analyzed statistically (α= 0.05). Thinner porcelain disks were associated with higher translucency. Porcelain monolayers were considerably more translucent than bilayers (enamel + dentin). Dentin porcelain was less translucent than enamel porcelain with same thickness. ΔE* was always lower when measured over A2 background. Higher ΔE* was observed for the C4 background, indicating poorer masking ability. Increased ΔE* was significantly associated with increased translucency for both backgrounds. Decreased translucency and ΔE* were associated with increased total porcelain thickness or increased dentin thickness for both backgrounds. In conclusion, increased porcelain thickness (particularly increased dentin layer) and increased porcelain opacity resulted in better masking ability of the dental backgrounds.

  6. The effect of brushing time and dentifrice quantity on fluoride delivery in vivo and enamel surface microhardness in situ.

    PubMed

    Zero, D T; Creeth, J E; Bosma, M L; Butler, A; Guibert, R G; Karwal, R; Lynch, R J M; Martinez-Mier, E A; González-Cabezas, C; Kelly, S A

    2010-01-01

    While the clinical anticaries efficacy of fluoride toothpaste is now without question, our understanding of the relation of fluoride efficacy to brushing time and dentifrice quantity is limited. The aim of this in situ study was to determine how differences in brushing time and dentifrice quantity influence (i) fluoride distribution immediately after brushing, (ii) clearance of fluoride in saliva, (iii) enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) and (iv) enamel strengthening, via the increase in surface microhardness. The study compared brushing times of 30, 45, 60, 120 and 180 s with 1.5 g of dentifrice containing 1,100 microg/g fluoride as sodium fluoride. In addition, 60 s of brushing with 0.5 g dentifrice was evaluated. A longer brushing time progressively reduced retention of dentifrice in the brush, thereby increasing the amount delivered into the mouth. A longer brushing time also increased fluoride concentrations in saliva for at least 2 h after the conclusion of brushing, showing that increased contact time promoted fluoride retention in the oral cavity. There was a statistically significant positive linear relationship between brushing time and both enamel strengthening and EFU. Compared to 0.5 g dentifrice, brushing with 1.5 g dentifrice more than doubled the fluoride recovered in saliva after brushing and increased EFU. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary, short-term usage study suggest for the first time that both brushing time and dentifrice quantity may be important determinants both of fluoride retention in the oral cavity and consequent enamel remineralization.

  7. Microhardness and Roughness of Enamel Bleached with 10% Carbamide Peroxide and Brushed with Different Toothpastes: An In Situ Study

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Carolina França de Medeiros; Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: This in situ study evaluated the roughness and microhardness of enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide (PC10) and brushed with different toothpastes. Materials and Methods: Two groups of volunteers received PC10 and placebo agents for 21 days in two phases in a crossover 2 × 3 study. Fragments of human enamel were distributed among intraoral removable appliances (IRA). Nine fragments, divided into three triplets, were used in each IRA, and these were brushed with toothpastes R (Colgate), W (Colgate Total 12 Whiteness Gel) or BS (Colgate Whitening Oxygen Bubbles Fluoride). Treatments agents were applied for 8 h overnight. After brushing, the volunteers used the IRA for about 16 h/day. After a washout period, new IRAs were distributed and the volunteers were crossed over to the alternate agent for 21 days. Roughness and microhardness were measured before and after each phase. Results: According to the paired Student’s t-test, roughness of enamel increased and microhardness decreased (P < 0.05). According to analysis of variance generalized linear models, only the toothpaste factor was significant (P = 0.037) for roughness. Conclusion: Enamel microhardness and surface roughness are altered when PC10 bleaching is associated with tooth brushing using toothpastes BS, R, and W. PMID:25214727

  8. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure.

    PubMed

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W; Constantino, Paul J; Bromage, Timothy G; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged.

  9. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W.; Constantino, Paul J.; Bromage, Timothy G.; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged. PMID:25319817

  10. Toothpaste Prevents Debonded Brackets on Erosive Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Érico Luiz Damasceno; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Ellwood, Roger Phillip; Pretty, Ian; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high fluoride dentifrice on the bond strength of brackets after erosive challenge. Eighty-four enamel specimens were divided into seven groups (n = 12): WN (distilled water/no acid challenge), W3C (distilled water/3 cycles of acid challenge), and W6C (distilled water/6 cycles of acid challenge) were not submitted to dentifrice treatment. Groups RF3C (regular fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and RF6C (regular fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were treated with dentifrices containing 1450 μg F−/g and HF3C (high fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and HF6C (high fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were with 5000 μg F−/g. Acid challenges were performed for seven days. After bond strength test, there was no significant difference among groups submitted to 3 cycles of acid challenge (P > 0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between the regular and high fluoride dentifrices after 6 cycles of acid challenge (<0.05). Similar areas of adhesive remaining were found among control groups and among groups W6C, RF3C, RF6C, HF3C, and HF6C. The high fluoride dentifrice was able to prevent the reduction of bond strength values of brackets submitted to acid challenge. Clinical relevance: the high fluoride toothpaste prevents debonded brackets on erosive enamel. PMID:25879058

  11. Mechanics of microwear traces in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Lopez, Oscar; Pajares, Antonia; Constantino, Paul J; Lawn, Brian R

    2015-03-01

    It is hypothesized that microwear traces in natural tooth enamel can be simulated and quantified using microindentation mechanics. Microcontacts associated with particulates in the oral wear medium are modeled as sharp indenters with fixed semi-apical angle. Distinction is made between markings from static contacts (pits) and translational contacts (scratches). Relations for the forces required to produce contacts of given dimensions are derived, with particle angularity and compliance specifically taken into account so as to distinguish between different abrasives in food sources. Images of patterns made on human enamel with sharp indenters in axial and sliding loading are correlated with theoretical predictions. Special attention is given to threshold conditions for transition from a microplasticity to a microcracking mode, corresponding to mild and severe wear domains. It is demonstrated that the typical microwear trace is generated at loads on the order of 1N - i.e. much less than the forces exerted in normal biting - attesting to the susceptibility of teeth to wear in everyday mastication, especially in diets with sharp, hard and large inclusive intrinsic or extraneous particulates.

  12. Thermal treatments modulate bacterial adhesion to dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Hu, X L; Ho, B; Lim, C T; Hsu, C S

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of laser-induced heat on demineralization of enamel; however, no studies have investigated the link between heat/laser-induced changes in physicochemical properties and bacterial adhesion. In this study, we investigated the effects of thermal treatment on surface properties of enamel such as hydrophobicity and zeta potential. Bacterial adhesion to treated surfaces was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and adhesion force was quantified by atomic force microscopy. The hydrophobicity of enamel increased after heating (p < 0.05), and the zeta potential of heated enamel became more negative than that of the control (p < 0.01). Streptococcus oralis and S. mitis were more hydrophilic than S. sanguis, with more negative zeta potential (all p < 0.01). S. mitis and S. oralis occupied significantly less area on enamel after being heated (p < 0.05). Heating reduced the adhesion force of both S. mitis and S. oralis to enamel with or without saliva coating. Reduction of adhesion force was statistically significant for S. mitis (p < 0.01), whereas that of S. oralis was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Heating did not affect the adhesion of S. sanguis with or without saliva coating. In conclusion, thermal treatment and photothermal/laser treatments may modulate the physicochemical properties of enamel, preventing the adhesion of some bacterial species.

  13. Evolution of Klk4 and enamel maturation in eutherians

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Hu, Jan C.-C; Simmer, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) is a secreted serine protease that degrades residual enamel proteins to facilitate their removal by ameloblasts, which increases mineralization and hardens the enamel. Mutations in human KLK4 cause hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. Enamel formed by Klk4 null mice is normal in thickness and prism structure, but the enamel layer retains proteins, is hypomineralized, and undergoes rapid attrition following tooth eruption. We searched multiple databases, retrieved Klk4 and Klk5 from various mammalian genomes, and identified Klk4 in 47 boreoeutherian genomes. In non-Boreoeutheria, Klk4 was detected in only one afrotherian genome (as a pseudogene), and not in the other six afrotherian, two xenarthran, or three marsupial genomes. In contrast, Klk5 was detected in both marsupial and eutherian mammals. Our phylogenetic and mutation rate analyses support the hypothesis that Klk4 arose from Klk5 by gene duplication near the divergence of Afrotheria, Xenarthra and Boreoeutheria, and that functionally- differentiated Klk4 survived only in Boreoeutheria. Afrotherian mammals share the feature of delayed dental eruption relative to boreoeutherian mammals. KLK4 shortens the time required for enamel maturation and could have alleviated negative selection following mutations that resulted in thicker enamel or earlier tooth eruption, without reducing enamel hardness or causing dental attrition. PMID:25153384

  14. Kinetic cavity preparation: protection of the cavo-surface enamel.

    PubMed

    Goto, G; Zhang, Y

    1996-01-01

    A significant defect of kinetic cavity preparation systems is damage to cavo-surface sound tooth enamel. The purpose of this study is to establish a protective method for cavo-surface sound tooth enamel during air-powder abrasive system cavity preparation, using protective varnish. A total of 39 extracted human primary teeth were used for this experiment. Protective varnish was applied to the tooth surface in single, double and triple coats. The kinetic instrument was used for cavity preparation. Class V cavities were prepared on the border area of varnish coated and intact tooth surface. After removal of varnish with a supersonic washer, specimens were dried and gold plated with ion-spatter, following which cavity margin enamel was observed through a SEM. Tooth surface enamel where coated with varnish appeared intact and the cavo-surface margin remained at a right angle form. However, tooth surface enamel without varnish coating appeared rough, and the cavo-surface margin exhibited a round shape. It seems likely that kinetic energy was absorbed by the soft varnish coating, thereby protecting the enamel. Protective varnish was found to provide a protective effect for cavo-surface sound enamel, and was also found to promote a sharp edge at the cavo-surface margin, during kinetic cavity preparation.

  15. Development of fluorapatite cement for dental enamel defects repair.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Wang, Jiecheng; Shan, Wenpeng; Liu, Xiaochen; Ma, Jian; Liu, Changsheng; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2011-06-01

    In order to restore the badly carious lesion of human dental enamel, a crystalline paste of fluoride substituted apatite cement was synthesized by using the mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and ammonium fluoride. The apatite cement paste could be directly filled into the enamel defects (cavities) to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the hardened cement was fluorapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)F(2), FA] with calcium to phosphorus atom molar ratio (Ca/P) of 1.67 and Ca/F ratio of 5. The solubility of FA cement in Tris-HCl solution (pH = 5) was slightly lower than the natural enamel, indicating the FA cement was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solutions. The FA cement was tightly combined with the enamel surface, and there was no obvious difference of the hardness between the FA cement and natural enamel. The extracts of FA cement caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. In addition, the results showed that the FA cement had good mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, and anti-bacterial adhesion properties. The study suggested that using FA cement was simple and promising approach to effectively and conveniently restore enamel defects.

  16. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; Horst, Jeremy A.; Sitlin, Melody; Nguyen, Mychi; Wagner, Martin; Simpliciano, Cheryl; Milder, Melissa; Chen, Chun-Long; Ashby, Paul; Bonde, Johan; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2016-03-24

    We report that enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-like structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. Lastly, we propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development.

  17. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    DOE PAGES

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; ...

    2016-03-24

    We report that enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-likemore » structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. Lastly, we propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development.« less

  18. Enamel Defects Reflect Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Jedeon, Katia; De la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Brookes, Steven J.; Loiodice, Sophia; Marciano, Clémence; Kirkham, Jennifer; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Boudalia, Sofiane; Bergès, Raymond; Harada, Hidemitsu; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are environmental ubiquitous pollutants and associated with a growing health concern. Anecdotally, molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is increasing concurrently with EDC-related conditions, which has led us to investigate the effect of BPA on amelogenesis. Rats were exposed daily to BPA from conception until day 30 or 100. At day 30, BPA-affected enamel exhibited hypomineralization similar to human MIH. Scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed an abnormal accumulation of organic material in erupted enamel. BPA-affected enamel had an abnormal accumulation of exogenous albumin in the maturation stage. Quantitative real-timePCR, Western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays revealed increased expression of enamelin but decreased expression of kallikrein 4 (protease essential for removing enamel proteins) via transcriptional regulation. Data suggest that BPA exerts its effects on amelogenesis by disrupting normal protein removal from the enamel matrix. Interestingly, in 100-day-old rats, erupting incisor enamel was normal, suggesting amelogenesis is only sensitive to MIH-causing agents during a specific time window during development (as reported for human MIH). The present work documents the first experimental model that replicates MIH and presents BPA as a potential causative agent of MIH. Because human enamel defects are irreversible, MIH may provide an easily accessible marker for reporting early EDC exposure in humans. PMID:23764278

  19. Enamel microabrasion: An overview of clinical and scientific considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Sundfeld-Neto, Daniel; Aguiar, Flavio Henrique Baggio; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes; Lovadino, José Roberto; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2015-01-01

    Superficial stains and irregularities of the enamel are generally what prompt patients to seek dental intervention to improve their smile. These stains or defects may be due to hypoplasia, amelogenesis imperfecta, mineralized white spots, or fluorosis, for which enamel microabrasion is primarily indicated. Enamel microabrasion involves the use of acidic and abrasive agents, such as with 37% phosphoric acid and pumice or 6% hydrochloric acid and silica, applied to the altered enamel surface with mechanical pressure from a rubber cup coupled to a rotatory mandrel of a low-rotation micromotor. If necessary, this treatment can be safely combined with bleaching for better esthetic results. Recent studies show that microabrasion is a conservative treatment when the enamel wear is minimal and clinically imperceptible. The most important factor contributing to the success of enamel microabrasion is the depth of the defect, as deeper, opaque stains, such as those resulting from hypoplasia, cannot be resolved with microabrasion, and require a restorative approach. Surface enamel alterations that result from microabrasion, such as roughness and microhardness, are easily restored by saliva. Clinical studies support the efficacy and longevity of this safe and minimally invasive treatment. The present article presents the clinical and scientific aspects concerning the microabrasion technique, and discusses the indications for and effects of the treatment, including recent works describing microscopic and clinical evaluations. PMID:25610848

  20. ON THE BRITTLENESS OF ENAMEL AND SELECTED DENTAL MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Park, S.; Quinn, J. B; Romberg, E.; Arola, D.

    2008-01-01

    Although brittle material behavior is often considered undesirable, a quantitative measure of “brittleness” is currently not used in assessing the clinical merits of dental materials. Objective To quantify and compare the brittleness of human enamel and common dental restorative materials used for crown replacement. Methods Specimens of human enamel were prepared from the 3rd molars of “young” (18≤age≤25) and “old” (50≤age) patients. The hardness, elastic modulus and apparent fracture toughness were characterized as a function of distance from the DEJ using indentation approaches. These properties were then used in estimating the brittleness according to a model that accounts for the competing dissipative processes of deformation and fracture. The brittleness of selected porcelain, ceramic and Micaceous Glass Ceramic (MGC) dental materials was estimated and compared with that of the enamel. Results The average brittleness of the young and old enamel increased with distance from the DEJ. For the old enamel the average brittleness increased from approximately 300 µm−1 at the DEJ to nearly 900 µm−1 at the occlusal surface. While there was no significant difference between the two age groups at the DEJ, the brittleness of the old enamel was significantly greater (and up to 4 times higher) than that of the young enamel near the occlusal surface. The brittleness numbers for the restorative materials were up to 90% lower than that of young occlusal enamel. Significance The brittleness index could serve as a useful scale in the design of materials used for crown replacement, as well as a quantitative tool for characterizing degradation in the mechanical behavior of enamel. PMID:18436299

  1. ON THE R-CURVE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is function of distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67 ± 0.12 MPa·m0.5), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPa·m0.5/mm to 3.93 MPa·m0.5/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (Kc)) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPa·m0.5. Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone. PMID:19427691

  2. Retinoic Acid Excess Impairs Amelogenesis Inducing Enamel Defects

    PubMed Central

    Morkmued, Supawich; Laugel-Haushalter, Virginie; Mathieu, Eric; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Dollé, Pascal; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Niederreither, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities of enamel matrix proteins deposition, mineralization, or degradation during tooth development are responsible for a spectrum of either genetic diseases termed Amelogenesis imperfecta or acquired enamel defects. To assess if environmental/nutritional factors can exacerbate enamel defects, we investigated the role of the active form of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA). Robust expression of RA-degrading enzymes Cyp26b1 and Cyp26c1 in developing murine teeth suggested RA excess would reduce tooth hard tissue mineralization, adversely affecting enamel. We employed a protocol where RA was supplied to pregnant mice as a food supplement, at a concentration estimated to result in moderate elevations in serum RA levels. This supplementation led to severe enamel defects in adult mice born from pregnant dams, with most severe alterations observed for treatments from embryonic day (E)12.5 to E16.5. We identified the enamel matrix proteins enamelin (Enam), ameloblastin (Ambn), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (Odam) as target genes affected by excess RA, exhibiting mRNA reductions of over 20-fold in lower incisors at E16.5. RA treatments also affected bone formation, reducing mineralization. Accordingly, craniofacial ossification was drastically reduced after 2 days of treatment (E14.5). Massive RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on E14.5 and E16.5 lower incisors. Reductions in Runx2 (a key transcriptional regulator of bone and enamel differentiation) and its targets were observed at E14.5 in RA-exposed embryos. RNA-seq analysis further indicated that bone growth factors, extracellular matrix, and calcium homeostasis were perturbed. Genes mutated in human AI (ENAM, AMBN, AMELX, AMTN, KLK4) were reduced in expression at E16.5. Our observations support a model in which elevated RA signaling at fetal stages affects dental cell lineages. Thereafter enamel protein production is impaired, leading to permanent enamel alterations. PMID:28111553

  3. Enamel stripping and the spring aligner appliance--an update.

    PubMed

    Lew, K K

    1993-12-01

    Irregularity of the mandibular incisors in an otherwise good occlusion is quite common in young adult patients. Through use of enamel stripping in the incisor region, it is possible to create sufficient space to align the teeth with a mandibular sectional removable appliance, commonly known as the spring aligner. This article reviews the methods of enamel stripping and describes the author's preferred technique of enamel stripping and the various modifications of the spring aligner appliances that can be prescribed by the general practitioner to correct mandibular anterior crowding.

  4. Influence of water-layer thickness on Er:YAG laser ablation of enamel of bovine anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Mir, Maziar; Meister, Joerg; Franzen, Rene; Sabounchi, Shabnam S; Lampert, Friedrich; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2008-10-01

    Different ideas have been presented to describe the mechanism of augmented laser ablation of dental enamel with different shapes by adding water to the working environment. In this study, the influence of water-laser interaction on the surface of enamel during ablation was investigated at a wavelength of 2.94 microm with different distances between the laser tip and the enamel surface. A motion-control system was used to produce linear incisions uniformly on flat enamel surfaces of bovine anterior teeth, with free-running Er:YAG laser very short pulses (pulse length = 90-120 micros, repetition rate = 10 pulses per second). Four different output energies (100, 200, 300 and 400 mJ) were radiated on samples under distilled water from different distances (0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.00 mm). The tooth slices were prepared with a cutting machine, and the surfaces of the ablated areas were measured with software under a light microscope. The average and standard deviation of all cut areas in different groups were reported. There was no significant difference when using a different pulse ablation speed (cm(3)/J) and a water-layer thickness between the tip and enamel surface of 0.5-1.25 mm with energy densities of 30-60 J/cm(2) (200-400 mJ). However, using an output energy of 15 J/cm(2) (100 mJ) and a thicker water layer than 1 mm, a linear ablation did not take place. This information led to a clearer view of the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the conditions of this study. There are several hypotheses which describe a hydrokinetic effect of Er,Cr:YSGG. These basic studies could guide us to have a correct attitude regarding hydro-mechanical effects of water, although the wavelength of 2.78 microm has a better absorption in hydroxyl branch of water molecules. Therefore, our results do not directly interrupt with the series of investigations done with Er,Cr:YSGG. Water propagation and channel formation under water are investigated during the ablation of tooth enamel with

  5. Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B.

    1996-10-01

    High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

  6. Innovative approaches to regenerate enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi; Papagerakis, Silvana; Ma, Peter X; Papagerakis, Petros

    2012-01-01

    The process of tooth mineralization and the role of molecular control of cellular behavior during embryonic tooth development have attracted much attention the last few years. The knowledge gained from the research in these fields has improved the general understanding about the formation of dental tissues and the entire tooth and set the basis for teeth regeneration. Tissue engineering using scaffold and cell aggregate methods has been considered to produce bioengineered dental tissues, while dental stem/progenitor cells, which can differentiate into dental cell lineages, have been also introduced into the field of tooth mineralization and regeneration. Some of the main strategies for making enamel, dentin, and complex tooth-like structures are presented in this paper. However, there are still significant barriers that obstruct such strategies to move into the regular clinic practice, and these should be overcome in order to have the regenerative dentistry as the important mean that can treat the consequences of tooth-related diseases.

  7. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.Th.

    1981-04-01

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. One hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analysed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analysed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population.

  8. Do pediatric medicines induce topographic changes in dental enamel?

    PubMed

    Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Meckelburg, Nicolli de Araujo; Puetter, Ursula Tavares; Salles, Jordan Trugilho; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of common pediatric liquid medicines on surface roughness and tooth structure loss and to evaluate the pH values of these medicines at room and cold temperatures in vitro. Eighty-four bovine enamel blocks were divided into seven groups (n = 12): G1-Alivium®, G2-Novalgina®, G3-Betamox®, G4-Clavulin®, G5-Claritin®, G6-Polaramine® and G7-Milli-Q water (negative control). The pH was determined and the samples were immersed in each treatment 3x/day for 5 min. 3D non-contact profilometry was used to determine surface roughness (linear Ra, volumetric Sa) and the Gap formed between treated and control areas in each block. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were also performed. The majority of liquid medicines had pH ≤ 5.50. G1, G4, and G5 showed alterations in Ra when compared with G7 (p < 0.05). According to Sa and Gap results, only G5 was different from G7 (p < 0.05). Alteration in surface was more evident in G5 SEM images. EDS revealed high concentrations of carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, and calcium in all tested groups. Despite the low pH values of all evaluated medicines, only Alivium®, Clavulin®, and Claritin® increased linear surface roughness, and only Claritin® demonstrated the in vitro capacity to produce significant tooth structure loss.

  9. [Enamel: a unique self-assembling in mineral world].

    PubMed

    Lignon, Guilhem; de la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Dessombz, Arnaud; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    Enamel is a unique tissue in vertebrates, acellular, formed on a labile scaffolding matrix and hypermineralized. The ameloblasts are epithelial cells in charge of amelogenesis. They secrete a number of matrix proteins degraded by enzymes during enamel mineralization. This ordered cellular and extracellular events imply that any genetic or environmental perturbation will produce indelible and recognizable defects. The specificity of defects will indicate the affected cellular process. Thus, depending on the specificity of alterations, the teratogenic event can be retrospectively established. Advances in the field allow to use enamel defects as diagnostic tools for molecular disorders. The multifunctionality of enamel peptides is presently identified from their chemical roles in mineralization to cell signaling, constituting a source of concrete innovations in regenerative medicine.

  10. Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.

    PubMed

    Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

    2013-09-01

    The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique.

  11. Amorphous intergranular phases control the properties of rodent tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Lyle M.; Cohen, Michael J.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Pasteris, Jill D.; Seda, Takele; Joester, Derk

    2015-02-01

    Dental enamel, a hierarchical material composed primarily of hydroxylapatite nanowires, is susceptible to degradation by plaque biofilm-derived acids. The solubility of enamel strongly depends on the presence of Mg2+, F-, and CO32-. However, determining the distribution of these minor ions is challenging. We show—using atom probe tomography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and correlative techniques—that in unpigmented rodent enamel, Mg2+ is predominantly present at grain boundaries as an intergranular phase of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP). In the pigmented enamel, a mixture of ferrihydrite and amorphous iron-calcium phosphate replaces the more soluble Mg-ACP, rendering it both harder and more resistant to acid attack. These results demonstrate the presence of enduring amorphous phases with a dramatic influence on the physical and chemical properties of the mature mineralized tissue.

  12. Biological synthesis of tooth enamel instructed by an artificial matrix

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z.; Newcomb, C.J.; Bringas, P.; Stupp, S.I.; Snead, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The regenerative capability of enamel, the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body, is fundamentally limited due to cell apoptosis following maturation of the tissue. Synthetic strategies to promote enamel formation have the potential to repair damage, increase the longevity of teeth and improve the understanding of the events leading to tissue formation. Using a self-assembling bioactive matrix, we demonstrate the ability to induce ectopic formation of enamel at chosen sites adjacent to a mouse incisor cultured in vivo under the kidney capsule. The resulting material reveals the highly organized, hierarchical structure of hydroxyapatite crystallites similar to native enamel. This artificially triggered formation of organized mineral demonstrates a pathway for developing cell fabricated materials for treatment of dental caries, the most ubiquitous disease in man. Additionally, the artificial matrix provides a unique tool to probe cellular mechanisms involved in tissue formation further enabling the development of tooth organ replacements. PMID:20869764

  13. In phantom Dosimetric response of tooth enamel to neutrons.

    PubMed

    Fattibene, P; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; De Coste, V

    2004-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance dosimetry based on tooth enamel has one important application in dose reconstruction of nuclear plant workers, where the contribution of neutrons to individual dose is often important. Evaluation of tooth enamel response to neutrons is thus an important goal. A few experimental data at thermal and fast neutron energies are available. A first evaluation of the tooth enamel relative response to 60Co in monoenergetic neutron flux of 2.8 and of 14 MeV, published elsewhere, has provided results apparently non-consistent with the results obtained at lower and higher energies. A comparison of those results in the 2.8 and 14 MeV beams with those available in the literature for other beams is reported and possible reasons for incongruities are discussed. Dose conversion factors of enamel to the water and air are also calculated and reported.

  14. Enamel structure in some therapsids and mesozoic mammals.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J W; Hillman, J

    1979-11-01

    The distribution of enamel tubules, the shapes and arrangements of prisms, and the orientation of crystals in ground sections from several therapsids and mesozoic mammals have been investigated by conventional and polarizing microscopy. Along each of three separate phylogenetic lines which evolved occluding teeth, there was a progressive increase in the numbers of enamel tubules. In the investigation, the arcade-shaped prisms typical of recent mammals were first seen in material from the Cretaceous period. All the enamels investigated from the Triassic contained columns of crystals, which were deduced as hexagonal. The inner ends of the crystals within each column deviated towards the center of the column. It is concluded that the existence of an interprismatic region provides the most important distinction between prismatic enamels and the hexagonal columns of crystals in the Triassic material.

  15. Agarose hydrogel biomimetic mineralization model for the regeneration of enamel prismlike tissue.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2014-01-08

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that enamel-like mineralized tissue can be regenerated and used to repair enamel loss. This has implications for the management of noncarious tooth loss resulting from dental erosion, attrition, and abrasion. In this study, we designed a hydrogel biomimetic mineralization model for the regeneration of enamel-like mineralized tissue with a prismatic structure. The mineralized tissue, which was generated by the model on an etched enamel surface in the presence of 500 ppm fluoride, was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the nanoindentation hardness test. The generated tissue had enamel prismlike layers containing well-defined hexagonal hydroxyapatite crystals. The modulus of elasticity and the nanohardness of the regenerated enamel prismlike tissue were similar to those of natural enamel. Thus, the regeneration of enamel using this hydrogel biomimetic mineralization model is a promising approach for the management of enamel loss.

  16. Biological organization of hydroxyapatite crystallites into a fibrous continuum toughens and controls anisotropy in human enamel.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Luo, W; Paine, M L; Fong, H; Sarikaya, M; Snead, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enamel forms the outer surface of teeth, which are of complex shape and are loaded in a multitude of ways during function. Enamel has previously been assumed to be formed from discrete rods and to be markedly aniostropic, but marked anisotropy might be expected to lead to frequent fracture. Since frequent fracture is not observed, we measured enamel organization using histology, imaging, and fracture mechanics modalities, and compared enamel with crystalline hydroxyapatite (Hap), its major component. Enamel was approximately three times tougher than geologic Hap, demonstrating the critical importance of biological manufacturing. Only modest levels of enamel anisotropy were discerned; rather, our measurements suggest that enamel is a composite ceramic with the crystallites oriented in a complex three-dimensional continuum. Geologic apatite crystals are much harder than enamel, suggesting that inclusion of biological contaminants, such as protein, influences the properties of enamel. Based on our findings, we propose a new structural model.

  17. The enamel protein amelotin is a promoter of hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Abbarin, Nastaran; San Miguel, Symone; Holcroft, James; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ganss, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered protein that is specifically expressed during the maturation stage of dental enamel formation. It is localized at the interface between the enamel surface and the apical surface of ameloblasts. AMTN knock-out mice have hypomineralized enamel, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing AMTN have a compact but disorganized enamel hydroxyapatite (HA) microstructure, indicating a possible involvement of AMTN in regulating HA mineralization directly. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant human (rh) AMTN dissolved in a metastable buffer system, based on light scattering measurements, promotes HA precipitation. The mineral precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of AMTN in the mineral deposits showed that protein molecules were associated with HA crystals. The binding affinity of rh-AMTN to HA was found to be comparable to that of amelogenin, the major protein of the forming enamel matrix. Overexpression of AMTN in mouse calvaria cells also increased the formation of calcium deposits in the culture medium. Overexpression of AMTN during the secretory stage of enamel formation in vivo resulted in rapid and uncontrolled enamel mineralization. Site-specific mutagenesis of the potential serine phosphorylation motif SSEEL reduced the in vitro mineral precipitation to less than 25%, revealing that this motif is important for the HA mineralizing function of the protein. A synthetic short peptide containing the SSEEL motif was only able to facilitate mineralization in its phosphorylated form ((P)S(P) SEEL), indicating that this motif is necessary but not sufficient for the mineralizing properties of AMTN. These findings demonstrate that AMTN has a direct influence on biomineralization by promoting HA mineralization and suggest a critical role for AMTN in the formation of the compact aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation

  18. Enhanced transport of materials into enamel nanopores via electrokinetic flow.

    PubMed

    Gan, H Y; Sousa, F B; Carlo, H L; Maciel, P P; Macena, M S; Han, J

    2015-04-01

    The ability to infiltrate various molecules and resins into dental enamel is highly desirable in dentistry, yet transporting materials into dental enamel is limited by the nanometric scale of their pores. Materials that cannot be infiltrated into enamel by diffusion/capillarity are often considered molecules with sizes above a critical threshold, which are often considered to be larger than the pores of enamel. We challenge this notion by reporting the use of electrokinetic flow to transport solutions with molecules with sizes above a critical threshold-namely, an aqueous solution with a high refractive index (Thoulet's solution) and a curable fluid resin infiltrant (without acid etching)-deep into the normal enamel layer. Volume infiltration by Thoulet's solution is increased by 5- to 6-fold, and resin infiltration depths as large as 600 to 2,000 µm were achieved, in contrast to ~10 µm resulting from diffusion/capillarity. Incubation with demineralization solution for 192 h resulted in significant demineralization at noninfiltrated histologic points but not at resin infiltrated. These results open new avenues for the transport of materials in dental enamel.

  19. Gene expression and dental enamel structure in developing mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Sehic, Amer; Risnes, Steinar; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Khuu, Cuong; Osmundsen, Harald

    2010-04-01

    At the mouse incisor tip the initially differentiated ameloblasts produce a thin, prism-free enamel, while further apically, in the immediate adjacent segment, the enamel thickness increases and the four-layered enamel of mouse incisor is formed. Comparative gene-expression profiling was carried out on RNA isolated from these two segments of incisor tooth germs at embryonic day (E)17.5 and at postnatal days (P)0, 1, 2, and 10 using microarrays to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) species present in the segments. Validation of expression data was achieved using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Bioinformatic data suggested enhanced cellular apoptosis in the incisal tip segment, which, together with diminished expression of the Amelx and Enam genes, may contribute to the production of the thin enamel seen in this tooth segment. For genes exhibiting higher levels of expression in the adjacent segment where complex enamel is being formed, bioinformatic analysis suggested significant associations with cellular functions involving the actin cytoskeleton, cellular development, morphology, and movement. This is suggested to reflect that ameloblasts with Tomes' process are being organized in transverse rows, facilitating the transverse movement that results in prism decussation in the inner enamel of the adjacent segment. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA expression data lends support to these suggestions.

  20. Partial rescue of the amelogenin null dental enamel phenotype.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Suggs, Cynthia; Wright, J Timothy; Yuan, Zhi-an; Aragon, Melissa; Fong, Hanson; Simmons, Darrin; Daly, Bill; Golub, Ellis E; Harrison, Gerald; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Gibson, Carolyn W

    2008-05-30

    The amelogenins are the most abundant secreted proteins in developing dental enamel. Enamel from amelogenin (Amelx) null mice is hypoplastic and disorganized, similar to that observed in X-linked forms of the human enamel defect amelogenesis imperfecta resulting from amelogenin gene mutations. Both transgenic strains that express the most abundant amelogenin (TgM180) have relatively normal enamel, but strains of mice that express a mutated amelogenin (TgP70T), which leads to amelogenesis imperfecta in humans, have heterogeneous enamel structures. When Amelx null (KO) mice were mated with transgenic mice that produce M180 (TgM180), the resultant TgM180KO offspring showed evidence of rescue in enamel thickness, mineral density, and volume in molar teeth. Rescue was not observed in the molars from the TgP70TKO mice. It was concluded that a single amelogenin protein was able to significantly rescue the KO phenotype and that one amino acid change abrogated this function during development.

  1. A model for predicting wear rates in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Lopez, Oscar; Pajares, Antonia; Constantino, Paul J; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-09-01

    It is hypothesized that wear of enamel is sensitive to the presence of sharp particulates in oral fluids and masticated foods. To this end, a generic model for predicting wear rates in brittle materials is developed, with specific application to tooth enamel. Wear is assumed to result from an accumulation of elastic-plastic micro-asperity events. Integration over all such events leads to a wear rate relation analogous to Archard׳s law, but with allowance for variation in asperity angle and compliance. The coefficient K in this relation quantifies the wear severity, with an arbitrary distinction between 'mild' wear (low K) and 'severe' wear (high K). Data from the literature and in-house wear-test experiments on enamel specimens in lubricant media (water, oil) with and without sharp third-body particulates (silica, diamond) are used to validate the model. Measured wear rates can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on contact asperity conditions, accounting for the occurrence of severe enamel removal in some human patients (bruxing). Expressions for the depth removal rate and number of cycles to wear down occlusal enamel in the low-crowned tooth forms of some mammals are derived, with tooth size and enamel thickness as key variables. The role of 'hard' versus 'soft' food diets in determining evolutionary paths in different hominin species is briefly considered. A feature of the model is that it does not require recourse to specific material removal mechanisms, although processes involving microplastic extrusion and microcrack coalescence are indicated.

  2. Influence of potentially remineralizing agents on bleached enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Samezima, Leticia Yumi; Fonseca, Léila Pereira; Yui, Karen Cristina Kazue; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the addition of calcium and fluoride into a 35% hydrogen peroxide gel on enamel surface and subsurface microhardness. Twenty extracted human third molars were sectioned to obtain enamel fragments and they were divided into four groups (n = 20) according to the bleaching treatment. Group 1 received no bleaching procedure (control). Group 2 was treated with a 35% hydrogen peroxide gel (Total Bleach), Groups 3 and 4 were bleached with Total Bleach modified by the addition of sodium fluoride and calcium chloride, respectively. The microhardness of the enamel surface was assessed using a Vickers microdurometer immediately after the bleaching treatment. The specimens were sectioned in the central portion, polished and evaluated to determine the microhardness of the enamel subsurface to a depth of 125 microm, with an interval of 25 microm between measures. There were significant differences among the groups. In terms of surface microhardness, the bleached group exhibited the lowest means, and the calcium-modified bleached group exhibited the highest means. Regarding subsurface microhardness, there were no significant differences among the groups for the depth and interaction factors. The bleached group exhibited the lowest means, and the calcium-modified bleached group presented the highest means. It was concluded that the bleaching treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced the surface and subsurface microhardness of the enamel, and the addition of fluoride and calcium in the bleaching agent increased the microhardness means of the bleached enamel.

  3. Effects of sports drinks and other beverages on dental enamel.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J Anthony; Rogers, Matthew M

    2005-01-01

    A high percentage of people consume soft drinks that contain sugar or artificial sweeteners, flavorings, and various additives. The popularity of sports (energy) drinks is growing and this pilot study compares enamel dissolution in these and a variety of other beverages. Enamel blocks (approximately 7.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 mm) were sectioned from sound extracted human premolars and molars and measured, weighed, and immersed in the selected beverages for a total of 14 days. The pH of all beverages was measured. The enamel sections were weighed at regular intervals throughout the immersion period with the solutions being changed daily; all studies were performed in duplicate. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe testing. Enamel dissolution occurred in all of the tested beverages, with far greater attack occurring in flavored and energy (sports) drinks than previously noted for water and cola drinks. No correlation was found between enamel dissolution and beverage pH. Non-cola drinks, commercial lemonades, and energy/sports drinks showed the most aggressive dissolution effect on dental enamel. Reduced residence times of beverages in the mouth by salivary clearance or rinsing would appear to be beneficial.

  4. Polarized light propagation through sound and carious enamel at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. Stokes polarimetry was used to monitor the state of polarization (SOP) and degree of polarization (DOP) of incident linearly and circularly polarized light as it propagates through extracted human whole teeth, thin tooth sections and single apatite crystals. These measurements at 1310-nm suggest that the DOP is maintained through sound tooth enamel and transparent dentin and that circularly polarized light is typically depolarized more rapidly than linearly light. Polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel and sound and demineralized dentin. The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection.

  5. 3D photomechanical model of tooth enamel ablation by Er-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.

    2014-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) photomechanical model of human tooth enamel ablation is described. It takes into account: the structural peculiarities of enamel, Er-laser beam energy spatial distribution and laser radiation attenuation in the tissue. Dynamics change of enamel coefficient of absorption during ablation is also discussed. We consider the 3D photomechanical model of incomplete removal (modification) of the enamel rods by the pressure of water contained in the enamel pores and heated by laser radiation, and complete removal (ablation) of the enamel rods as result of hydroxyapatite heated by laser radiation and evaporation. Modeling results are in close agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Separation and partial purification of acid phosphates of the enamel organ of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T R; Toverud, S U; Yung, R C; Hanks, M H; Palik, J F

    1982-01-01

    At least two types of acid phosphatases with markedly different properties were separated from the enamel organ of rat molar tooth buds. One enzyme (A) bound weakly to the CM-cellulose column and was eluted with a combined linear salt and pH gradient; another enzyme (B) bound strongly to the column and was eluted with a second linear salt gradient at constant pH. Enzyme A was identified as a phosphomonoester hydrolase (3.1.3.2) similar to the lysosomal enzyme of soft tissues and the tartrate-sensitive enzyme of bone. Enzyme B did not hydrolyse aliphatic monophosphate ester substrates but, like enzyme A, it did split the aryl monophosphate ester substrate, para-nitrophenylphosphate, as well as the phosphate esters of casein and the acid anhydride substrates, ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate. This enzyme is similar to the low molecular weight tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases of bone and soft tissues.

  7. Variation in enamel development of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Rozzi, Fernando Ramirez; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-12-01

    Dental tissues provide important insights into aspects of hominid palaeobiology that are otherwise difficult to obtain from studies of the bony skeleton. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings called striae of Retzius. These enamel features were studied in the molars of two well known South African hominid species, Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. Using newly developed portable confocal microscopy, we have obtained cross striation periodicities (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) for the largest sample of hominid teeth reported to date. These data indicate a mean periodicity of seven days in these small-bodied hominids. Important differences were observed in the inferred mechanisms of enamel development between these taxa. Ameloblasts maintain high rates of differentiation throughout cervical enamel development in P. robustus but not in A. africanus. In our sample, there were fewer lateral striae of Retzius in P. robustus than in A. africanus. In a molar of P. robustus, lateral enamel formed in a much shorter time than cuspal enamel, and the opposite was observed in two molars of A. africanus. In spite of the greater occlusal area and enamel thickness of the molars of both fossil species compared with modern humans, the total crown formation time of these three fossil molars was shorter than the corresponding tooth type in modern humans. Our results provide support for previous conclusions that molar crown formation time was short in Plio-Pleistocene hominids, and strongly suggest the presence of different mechanisms of amelogenesis, and thus tooth development, in these taxa.

  8. Mesiodistal width and proximal enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids.

    PubMed

    Macha, Aurélio de Carvalho; Vellini-Ferreira, Flávio; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Ferreira, Rívea Inês

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating measurements relative to the mesiodistal crown width and enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids. The sample consisted of 40 extracted sound bicuspids (20 right and 20 left), selected from white patients (mean age: 23.7 +/- 4.2 years), who were treated orthodontically with tooth extraction at a private clinic in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. All teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axis through the proximal surfaces, parallel to the buccal side, to obtain 0.6-mm central sections. The mesiodistal crown width and proximal enamel thickness were measured using a stereoscopic microscope connected to a computer. Measurements for right and left teeth, as well as the mesial and distal enamel thicknesses in the total sample, were compared by the Wilcoxon test (alpha = 0.05). The mesiodistal crown width mean values found were 7.51 mm (+/- 0.54) on the right side and 7.53 mm (+/- 0.35) on the left side. The mean enamel thickness on the distal surfaces for both sides was 1.29 mm (right: s.d. = 0.12 and left: s.d. = 0.18). The mean values for the mesial surfaces were 1.08 mm (+/- 0.14) and 1.19 mm (+/- 0.25), on the right and the left sides, respectively. No significant differences were found between the crown measurements and enamel thicknesses on the left and right sides. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces. Reliable measurements of enamel thickness are useful to guide stripping, which may be an attractive alternative to tooth extraction because it allows the transverse arch dimension to be maintained.

  9. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hamkens, Arne; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The present study intended to investigate minimal erosive effects of different acids on enamel during short time incubation via determination of calcium and phosphate dissolution. Bovine enamel specimens were eroded for 1-5 min with eight different acids of pH 2, 2.3 and 3 (citric (CA), maleic (MA), lactic (LA), tartaric (TA), phosphoric (PA), oxalic (OA), acetic (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) release were determined photometrically using arsenazo III (calcium) and malachite green (phosphate) as substrates. Each subgroup contained eight enamel specimens. Amount of titratable acid was determined for all acidic solutions. MA, LA, TA, AA and HCl caused linear release of Ca and P, PA of Ca, CA of P. For CA, MA, LA, TA, AA, PA and HCl mineral loss was shown to be pH-dependent. Ca dissolution varied between 28.6+/-4.4 (LA, pH 2) and 2.4+/-0.7 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3), P dissolution ranged between 17.2+/-2.6 (LA, pH 2) and 1.4+/-0.4 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3). LA was one of the most erosive acids. AA was very erosive at pH 3. HCl and MA were shown to have the lowest erosive effects. There was only a weak correlation (r=0.28) between P and Ca release and the amount of titratable acid. The method of the present study allows investigation of minimal erosive effects via direct determination of P and Ca dissolution. During short time exposition at constant pH level, erosive effects mainly depend on pH and type of acid but not on amount of titratable acid.

  10. Enamel pearl on an unusual location associated with localized periodontal disease: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shivani; Malhotra, Sumit; Baliga, Vidya; Hans, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial plaque has been implicated as the primary etiologic factor in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Anatomic factors (such as enamel pearls) are often associated with advanced localized periodontal destruction. The phenomenon of ectopic development of enamel on the root surface, variedly referred to as enameloma, enamel pearl, enamel drop or enamel nodule, is not well-understood. Such an anomaly may facilitate the progression of periodontal breakdown. A rare case of enamel pearl on the lingual aspect of mandibular central incisor associated with localized periodontal disease is presented. Removal and treatment of enamel pearl along with possible mechanisms to account for the pathogenesis of ectopic enamel formation are also discussed. PMID:24554894

  11. Enamel fusion using a carbon dioxide laser: A technique for sealing pits and fissures

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, L.J.; Perham, S.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The well-established enhanced resistance of lased enamel to demineralization is the basis for clinical application of the carbon dioxide laser to caries prevention. This in vitro study examined the effect of focused infrared laser radiation on sound enamel and early pit and fissure caries. Low power levels (2-5 W) induced localized melting and resolidification of enamel with little surface destruction. For sound fissures, fusion of enamel from the lateral walls of the fissure eliminated the fissure space, providing a sealant effect; while in carious fissures, carious enamel was vaporized and adjacent sound enamel fused to partially eliminate the defect. The technique for enamel fusion using CO2 lasers has potential application for sealing pits and fissures and producing physicochemical alterations in enamel which may have preventive benefits.

  12. Variations in the mechanical properties of Alouatta palliata molar enamel.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Laura A; Teaford, Mark F; Livi, Kenneth J T; Weihs, Timothy P

    2010-01-01

    Teeth have provided insights into many topics including primate diet, paleobiology, and evolution, due to the fact that they are largely composed of inorganic materials and may remain intact long after an animal is deceased. Previous studies have reported that the mechanical properties, chemistry, and microstructure of human enamel vary with location. This study uses nanoindentation to map out the mechanical properties of Alouatta palliata molar enamel on an axial cross-section of an unworn permanent third molar, a worn permanent first molar, and a worn deciduous first molar. Variations were then correlated with changes in microstructure and chemistry using scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe techniques. The hardness and Young's modulus varied with location throughout the cross-sections from the occlusal surface to the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), from the buccal to lingual sides, and also from one tooth to another. These changes in mechanical properties correlated with changes in the organic content of the tooth, which was shown to increase from approximately 6% near the occlusal surface to approximately 20% just before the DEJ. Compared to human enamel, the Alouatta enamel showed similar microstructures, chemical constituents, and magnitudes of mechanical properties, but showed less variation in hardness and Young's modulus, despite the very different diet of this species.

  13. Year of birth determination using radiocarbon dating of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2010-05-01

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ((14)C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, (14)C levels in the enamel represent (14)C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  14. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2009-03-10

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, {sup 14}C levels in the enamel represent {sup 14}C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  15. Magnesium and carbonate in enamel and synthetic apatites.

    PubMed

    LeGeros, R Z; Sakae, T; Bautista, C; Retino, M; LeGeros, J P

    1996-11-01

    This study aimed to: determine the Mg and CO3 distribution in the outer (surface), middle, and inner (closest to the enamel-dentin junction, EDJ) layers of human enamel; and determine the factors affecting the incorporation of Mg into synthetic apatites and the consequence of such incorporation on the properties of the apatites. Results demonstrated that the concentrations of Mg, CO3, and organic components increased from the surface to the inner layers close to the EDJ and a difference in crystallinity from the outer to the inner layers. Initial results indicated that the extent of dissolution of the inner layer enamel is greater than that in the outer or surface enamel. Results on synthetic apatites showed the following: (1) Limited Mg incorporation into apatite was dependent on solution [Mg/Ca] molar ratio, temperature, pH, and the presence of CO3 or fluoride (F); (2) incorporation of Mg causes reduction in crystallinity and an increase in the extent of dissolution of the apatite; (3) the negative effect of Mg on the properties of apatites is synergistic to that of CO3 and antagonistic to that of F; and (4) exposure to acid of Mg-containing apatites causes the dissolution of Mg-rich apatite and precipitation of Mg-poor apatite. The observed decrease in the [Mg/Ca] of enamel and synthetic apatites after acid exposure may explain the observed 'preferential loss' of Mg and CO3 in the initial stages of caries.

  16. Increased enamel hypoplasia and very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S; Albert, J M; Geng, C; Curtan, S; Lang, K; Miadich, S; Heima, M; Malik, A; Ferretti, G; Eggertsson, H; Slayton, R L; Milgrom, P

    2013-09-01

    Birth cohort studies of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) and early childhood caries (ECC) in very low birthweight (VLBW) and normal birthweight (NBW) infants are rare. In this birth cohort of 234 VLBW and 234 NBW infants, we report the incidence of ECC and DDE at 8 and 18-20 mos of corrected age. Infant medical and maternal socio-demographic data were abstracted from medical records at birth. Dental assessments for ECC and DDE (enamel hypoplasia, demarcated and diffuse opacities) were completed at 8 and 18-20 mos. The incidence of hypoplasia was significantly higher in VLBW compared with NBW infants (8 mos, 19% vs. 2%; 18 mos, 31% vs. 8%). The incidence of ECC (International Caries Detection and Assessment System: ICDAS ≥ 2) was 1.4% (8 mos) and 12% (18-20 mos) and was similar between the VLBW and NBW groups. At both ages, using a beta-binomial regression model to control for potential confounders (maternal and infant characteristics), we found increased risk for enamel hypoplasia among the VLBW infants compared with the NBW infants. African Americans had a lower risk for enamel hypoplasia at 18-20 mos. The VLBW infants should be monitored for ECC due to the presence of enamel hypoplasia.

  17. Enamel prism morphology in molar teeth of small eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Dumont, E R

    1996-01-01

    Data summarizing enamel prism shape, size and spacing are reported for the molar enamel of 55 species of small eutherian mammals including primates, bats, tree shrews, flying lemurs, insectivorans and representatives of a variety of fossil families. Confocal photomicrographs reveal that the subsurface enamel of most species is characterized by arc-shaped prisms. The lack of a clear distinction between pattern 2 and pattern 3 prism configurations within single specimens suggests that the broad category "arc-shaped prisms" is the most appropriate descriptive grouping for these species. Of the total sample, three species exhibit only circular prisms while no evidence of prismatic enamel was found in two bats. Prism shape is not an informative phylogenetic character at the ordinal level for these morphologically primitive and relatively thin-enameled taxa. Significant differences between species in several prism size and spacing variables (central distance between prisms, prism diameter, prism area and the ratio of prism area to estimated ameloblast area) suggest the potential for further analyses of quantitative variation to document evolutionary relationships within or among family-level groups.

  18. Effect of three nanobiomaterials on microhardness of bleached enamel

    PubMed Central

    Kaveh, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of incorporating three different nanobiomaterials into bleaching material on microhardness of bleached enamel. Materials and Methods The crowns of 24 extracted sound human molars were sectioned. Sixty enamel specimens (2 × 3 × 4 mm) were selected and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 received no bleaching procedure (control); Group 2 underwent bleaching with a 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP) gel; Groups 3, 4, and 5 were bleached with a 40% HP gel modified by incorporation of bioactive glass (BAG), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and hydroxyapatite (HA), respectively. The enamel microhardness was evaluated. The differences in Knoop microhardness data of each group were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey tests. Results Significant differences were observed between the study groups. The enamel microhardness changes in Groups 1, 3, 4, and 5 were significantly lower than that of Group 2 (p < 0.001). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that incorporation of each one of the three tested biomaterials as remineralizing agents might be effective in decreasing enamel microhardness changes subsequent to in-office bleaching. PMID:27508161

  19. Enzyme replacement prevents enamel defects in hypophosphatasia mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Manisha C.; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Foster, Brian L.; Fong, Hanson; Cory, Esther; Narisawa, Sonoko; Sah, Robert L.; Somerman, Martha; Whyte, Michael P.; Millán, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficiency of alkaline phosphatase activity leading to rickets or osteomalacia and to dental defects. HPP occurs from loss-of-function mutations within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). TNAP knockout (Alpl−/−, a.k.a. Akp2−/−) mice closely phenocopy infantile HPP, including the rickets, vitamin B6-responsive seizures, improper dentin mineralization, and lack of acellular cementum. Here, we report that lack of TNAP in Alpl−/− mice also causes severe enamel defects, which are preventable by enzyme replacement with mineral-targeted TNAP (ENB-0040). Immunohistochemistry was used to map the spatiotemporal expression of TNAP in the tissues of the developing enamel organ of healthy mouse molars and incisors. We found strong, stage-specific expression of TNAP in ameloblasts. In the Alpl−/− mice, histological, μCT, and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed reduced mineralization and disrupted organization of the rods and inter-rod structures in enamel of both the molars and incisors. All of these abnormalities were prevented in mice receiving from birth daily subcutaneous injections of mineral-targeting, human TNAP (sALP-FcD10, a.k.a. ENB-0040) at 8.2 mg/kg/day for up to 44 days. These data reveal an important role for TNAP in enamel mineralization, and demonstrate the efficacy of mineral-targeted TNAP to prevent enamel defects in HPP. PMID:22461224

  20. Ultrastructural evaluation of enamel after dental bleaching associated with fluoride.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, John A; Bittencourt, Bruna; Michel, Milton; Sabino, Nilson; Gomes, João Carlos; Gomes, Osnara M M

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects on human enamel after two bleaching procedures: with a fluoridated bleaching agent and with topical fluoride application postbleaching. It used 43 enamel blocks (3 mm(2) ) that were ground flat (600-2,000 grit) and polished with polishing paste (one and one-fourth). Specimens were randomly divided into three groups according to the bleaching procedure: (1) control group, (2) hydrogen peroxide 35% (HPF) and topical application of fluoride 1.23%, and (3) HP 38% (OP) with fluoride in its composition. Bleaching agents were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three methodologies were used: nanoindentation, to observe surface hardness and elastic modulus; atomic force microscopy, to observe surface roughness (R(a) - R(z)); and scanning electron microscopy, to observe the enamel surface effects. Group OP had a decrease in the elastic modulus after bleaching, which was recovered at 14 days. An increased roughness (R(a); 32%) was observed on group HPF and had an increased erosion on enamel surface (67%). It was concluded that topical application of fluoride, after using the nonfluoridated whitening agent, increased the roughness values and erosion of enamel.

  1. Dental bleaching with ozone: effects on color and enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Santana, Manuella Sca; Bridi, Enrico C; Navarro, Ricardo S; de Lima, Carlos J; Fernandes, Adriana B; do Amaral, Flávia Lb; França, Fabiana Mg; Turssi, Cecilia P; Basting, Roberta T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of dental bleaching with ozone (O3) on color change and enamel microhardness. Enamel blocks (3 x 3 x 3mm) were randomly distributed for treatments (n=10). Color change (ΔE) and Knoop microhardness of the enamel blocks were evaluated before and after the following treatments: C - deionized water (control); HP - 37.5% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office+/ SDI); PLA - placebo gel; O3 - ozone; and O2 - oxygen. Four 8-minute applications were used for HP and PLA, and one 19-minute application for O3 and O2.One-way ANOVA revealed that ΔE was not significantly influenced by the treatment (p = 0.112). For the treatments with HP, PLA, O3 andO2, ΔE was greater than 3.3. The paired t test showed significant decrease in microhardness after treatments (p < 0.001) but no significant difference between treatments (ANOVA; p = 0.313). Dental bleaching treatments with O3, HP, O2 and PLA induced enamel color changes that may be clinically discernible, although enamel microhardeness decreased.

  2. Indentation Damage and Crack Repair in Human Enamel*

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, C.; Arola, D.; Ossa, A.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. While there have been a number of studies aimed at understanding the hardness and crack growth resistance behavior of this tissue, no study has evaluated if cracks in this tissue undergo repair. In this investigation the crack repair characteristics of young human enamel were evaluated as a function of patient gender and as a function of the distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). Cracks were introduced via microindentation along the prism direction and evaluated as a function of time after the indentation. Microscopic observations indicated that the repair of cracks began immediately after crack initiation and reaches saturation after approximately 48 hours. During this process he crack length decreased up to 10% of the initial length, and the largest degree of reduction occurred in the deep enamel, nearest the DEJ. In addition, it was found that the degree of repair was significantly greater in the enamel of female patients. PMID:23541701

  3. Tooth enamel maturation reequilibrates oxygen isotope compositions and supports simple sampling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayler, Robin B.; Kohn, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen isotope and major element zoning patterns of several disparate ungulate teeth were collected to evaluate the timing and geometry of enamel formation, records of isotope zoning, and tooth enamel sampling strategies. Isotopic zoning in mammalian tooth enamel encodes a sub-annual time series of isotopic variation of an animal's body water composition, with a damping factor that depends on the specifics of how enamel mineralizes. Enamel formation comprises two stages: precipitation of appositional enamel with a high CO3:PO4 ratio, followed by precipitation of maturational enamel with a lower CO3:PO4. If appositional and maturational enamel both contribute to isotope compositions (but with different CO3:PO4), and if isotope compositions vary seasonally, paired δ18O values from CO3 and PO4 profiles should show a spatial separation. CO3 isotope patterns should be shifted earlier seasonally than PO4 isotope patterns. Such paired profiles for new and published data show no resolvable shifts, i.e. CO3 and PO4 δ18O profiles show coincident maxima and minima. This coincidence suggests that enamel maturation reequilibrates appositional isotope compositions. If enamel maturation establishes enamel isotope compositions, the geometry of maturation, not apposition, should be considered when devising sampling protocols. X-ray maps of Ca zoning show that the majority of enamel (inner and middle layers) mineralizes heavily at a high angle to the external tooth surface and the enamel-dentine junction over length scales of 2-4 mm, while the outer enamel surface mineralizes more slowly. These data suggest that isotopic sampling strategies should parallel maturational geometry and focus on interior enamel to improve data fidelity. The magnitude of isotopic damping is also smaller than implied in previous studies, so tooth enamel zoning more closely reflects original body water isotopic variations than previously assumed.

  4. Susceptibility of acid-softened enamel to mechanical wear--ultrasonication versus toothbrushing abrasion.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Wegehaupt, F; Werner, C; Attin, T

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the amounts of softened enamel removable by ultrasonication and by toothbrushing abrasion of briefly eroded samples. Thirty bovine enamel samples were demineralized in hydrochloric acid (pH 2.1) for 60 s and were then either brushed with 350 brushing strokes in toothpaste slurry (group A) or distilled water (group B) or were ultrasonicated for 120 s (group C). Enamel loss was measured after 10, 20, 50 and then after every 50 brushing strokes or after 5, 30, 60 and 120 s ultrasonication. Samples were indented with a Knoop diamond after erosion, and enamel loss due to abrasion or wear was calculated from the change in indentation depth after mechanical treatment. Within- and between-group comparisons were performed by ANOVA or t test. Initially, enamel loss increased with increasing brushing treatment or ultrasonication time. Enamel loss did not increase after 300 brushing strokes in group A (534 +/- 169 nm) or 250 brushing strokes in group B (423 +/- 80 nm), or after 60 s ultrasonication (231 +/- 72 nm). Enamel loss was significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C. The results confirm that ultrasonication removes only the outer, more highly demineralized part of the softened enamel layer. Results also indicate that toothbrushing abrasion removes more softened enamel from briefly eroded enamel than ultrasonication, and therefore probably removes partly demineralized enamel from the deeper part of the softened layer. In vivo, excessive toothbrushing might remove the softened enamel layer almost completely.

  5. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E. . E-mail: jeericso@uci.edu

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope {sup 206}Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of {sup 204}Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research.

  6. A Microbeam Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study on Enamel Crystallites in Subsurface Lesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, N.; Ohta, N.; Matsuo, T.; Tanaka, T.; Terada, Y.; Kamasaka, H.; Kometani, T.

    2010-10-01

    The early caries lesion in bovine tooth enamel was studied by two different X-ray diffraction systems at the SPring-8 third generation synchrotron radiation facility. Both allowed us simultaneous measurement of the small and large angle regions. The beam size was 6μm at BL40XU and 50μm at BL45XU. The small-angle scattering from voids in the hydroxyapatite crystallites and the wide-angle diffraction from the hydroxyapatite crystals were observed simultaneously. At BL40XU an X-ray image intensifier was used for the small-angle and a CMOS flatpanel detector for the large-angle region. At BL45XU, a large-area CCD detector was used to cover both regions. A linear microbeam scan at BL40XU showed a detailed distribution of voids and crystals and made it possible to examine the structural details in the lesion. The two-dimensional scan at BL45XU showed distribution of voids and crystals in a wider region in the enamel. The simultaneous small- and wide-angle measurement with a microbeam is a powerful tool to elucidate the mechanisms of demineralization and remineralization in the early caries lesion.

  7. Enamel hypoplasias and physiological stress in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene hominins.

    PubMed

    Cunha, E; Rozzi, F Ramirez; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Wasterlain, S N; Sarmiento, S

    2004-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH) and plane-form defects (PFD) in the hominine dental sample from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene site in Atapuerca (Spain). The SH sample comprises 475 teeth, 467 permanent and 8 deciduous, belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals. The method for recording PFD and LEH is discussed, as well as the definition of LEH. The prevalence of LEH and PFD in SH permanent dentition (unilateral total count) is 4.6% (13/280). Only one deciduous tooth (lower dc) showed an enamel disruption. Prevalence by individual ranges from 18.7-30%. The most likely explanation for the relatively low LEH and PFD prevalence in the SH sample suggests that the SH population exhibited a low level of developmental stress. The age at occurrence of LEH and PFD was determined by counting the number of perikymata between each lesion and the cervix of the tooth. Assuming a periodicity of nine days for the incremental lines, the majority of LEH in the SH sample occurred during the third year of life and may be related to the metabolic stress associated with weaning.

  8. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, G; Colacicchi, S; Sgattoni, R; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  9. Hypoplastic area method for analyzing dental enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ensor, B E; Irish, J D

    1995-12-01

    Most analyses of dental enamel hypoplasia compare frequencies of disturbed tooth types, which do not account for variability in the area of affected enamel. An alternate methodology, hypoplastic area, is presented here that accounts for this variability by combining acute and continuous enamel hypoplasia into an interval-level variable. The method compares samples based on individuals, by multiple tooth type variables, or by a single value rather than by tooth types. Use of the hypoplastic area method is illustrated by analyzing human skeletal dentitions in three archaeological samples: Meroitic Nubians from Semna South, Sudan; Anasazi from Navajo Reservoir, New Mexico; and Mogollon from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. Both univariate and multivariate statistical tests are employed to assess variation in defects between individuals and samples. By incorporating measurements of continuous defects, the hypoplastic area method provides information beyond that of frequency data in comparing levels of stress. Flexibility of the method is also discussed.

  10. Adhesion of different resin cements to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Ella A; Ernst, Saskia; Schaper, Katharina; Arnold, Wolfgang H; Piwowarczyk, Andree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of five different resin cements to human enamel and dentin under different storage conditions. Five resin cements and their dedicated systems were tested. Teeth were embedded, ground flat to expose enamel or dentin and polished with sandpaper. Adhesive systems were applied according to the manufacturers'instructions. V2A steel cylinders with were silicated, coated, and cemented onto the teeth. Specimens were stored at three different conditions and subsequently thermocycled. SBS was measured. Significant differences were observed between the tested resin cements depending on the tooth surface. Different storage conditions influenced the bond strength, independent of the tooth surface, in all test cements. The bond strength of all experimental materials to enamel is higher than that to dentin surfaces. Furthermore, the adhesiveness decreases after wetness (hydro-) and hydrothermal stress, regardless of the tooth surface.

  11. Recovery of crystallographic texture in remineralized dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Samera; Anderson, Paul; Al-Jawad, Maisoon

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease encountered by people of all ages around the world. Chemical changes occurring in the oral environment during the caries process alter the crystallography and microstructure of dental enamel resulting in loss of mechanical function. Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization. The motivation for this study was to develop understanding of the caries process at the crystallographic level in order to contribute towards a long term solution. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning electron microscopy and scanning microradiography have been used to correlate enamel crystallography, microstructure and mineral concentration respectively in enamel affected by natural caries and following artificial demineralization and remineralization regimes. In particular, the extent of destruction and re-formation of this complex structure has been measured. 2D diffraction patterns collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) and position of the (002) Bragg reflection within selected regions of interest in each tooth slice, and then correlated with the microstructure and local mineral mass. The results revealed that caries and artificial demineralization cause a large reduction in crystallographic texture which is coupled with the loss of mineral mass. Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density. The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel. Combining microstructural and crystallographic characterization aids the understanding of caries and erosion processes and assists in the progress towards developing therapeutic treatments to allow affected enamel to regain

  12. Recovery of Crystallographic Texture in Remineralized Dental Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Samera; Anderson, Paul; Al-Jawad, Maisoon

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease encountered by people of all ages around the world. Chemical changes occurring in the oral environment during the caries process alter the crystallography and microstructure of dental enamel resulting in loss of mechanical function. Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization. The motivation for this study was to develop understanding of the caries process at the crystallographic level in order to contribute towards a long term solution. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning electron microscopy and scanning microradiography have been used to correlate enamel crystallography, microstructure and mineral concentration respectively in enamel affected by natural caries and following artificial demineralization and remineralization regimes. In particular, the extent of destruction and re-formation of this complex structure has been measured. 2D diffraction patterns collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) and position of the (002) Bragg reflection within selected regions of interest in each tooth slice, and then correlated with the microstructure and local mineral mass. The results revealed that caries and artificial demineralization cause a large reduction in crystallographic texture which is coupled with the loss of mineral mass. Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density. The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel. Combining microstructural and crystallographic characterization aids the understanding of caries and erosion processes and assists in the progress towards developing therapeutic treatments to allow affected enamel to regain

  13. CO₂ laser emission modes to control enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Alonso-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Galo, Rodrigo; Rios, Daniela; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance and prevalence of dental erosion, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different modes of pulse emission of CO2 laser associated or not to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1.23% gel, in controlling enamel erosion by profilometry. Ninety-six fragments of bovine enamel were flattened and polished, and the specimens were subjected to initial erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid (pH = 2). Specimens were randomly assigned according to surface treatment: APF 1.23% gel and gel without fluoride (control), and subdivided according to the modes of pulse CO2 laser irradiation: no irradiation (control), continuous, ultrapulse, and repeated pulse (n = 12). After surface treatment, further erosive challenges were performed for 5 days, 4 × 2 min/day. Enamel structure loss was quantitatively determined by a profilometer, after surface treatment and after 5 days of erosive challenges. Two-away ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the pulse emission mode of the CO2 laser and the presence of fluoride (P ≤ 0.05). The Duncan's test showed that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode and the specimens only received fluoride, promoted lower enamel loss than that other treatments. A lower dissolution of the enamel prisms was observed when it was irradiated with CO2 laser in continuous mode compared other groups. It can be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode was the most effective to control the enamel structure loss submitted to erosive challenges with hydrochloric acid.

  14. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPHYLAXIS METHODS ON SOUND AND DEMINERALIZED ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Abdo, Ruy César Camargo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of professional plaque control for caries prevention, this study comprised an in vitro evaluation of wear by two prophylaxis methods (sodium bicarbonate jet – Profident and pumice and brush) on sound bovine enamel and with artificial carious lesions. Sixty enamel fragments were employed (4x4mm), which were divided into 4 groups: GI – 15 sound blocks treated with pumice and brush; GII – 15 sound blocks treated with Profident; GIII – 15 demineralized blocks treated with pumice and brush, and GIV – 15 demineralized blocks treated with Profident. In the fragments of Groups III and IV, artificial carious lesions were simulated by immersion in 0.05M acetic acid solution 50% saturated with bovine enamel powder at 37oC for 16h. The specimens were submitted to the prophylactic treatments for 10 seconds. Wear analysis was performed by profilometer and revealed the following results: 0.91μm – GI; 0.42μm – GII; 1.6μm – GIII, and 0.94μm – GIV. The two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05) revealed significant difference between all groups. Scanning electron microscopy images were employed to illustrate the wear pattern, with observation of larger alteration on the demineralized enamel surface (GIII; GIV), round-shaped wear on GI and GIII and blasted aspect on GII and GIV. The study indicated that the demineralized enamel presented more wear than the sound enamel, and the brush led to larger wear when compared to Profident. PMID:19089042

  15. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti).

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Kieser, Jules A; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  16. Enamel Reduction Techniques in Orthodontics: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Livas, Christos; Jongsma, Albert Cornelis; Ren, Yijin

    2013-01-01

    Artificial abrasion of interproximal surfaces has been described for almost seventy years as orthodontic intervention for achievement and maintenance of ideal treatment outcome. A variety of terms and approaches have been introduced throughout this period implying a growing clinicians’ interest. Nevertheless, the widespread recognition of enamel stripping technique was initiated by the advent of bonded orthodontic attachments and a 2-article series of Sheridan in the 80’s. Since then, experimental and clinical research has been focused on the investigation of instrumentation efficacy and potential iatrogenic sequelae related to interproximal stripping. This review discusses the evolution, technical aspects and trends of enamel reduction procedures as documented in the literature. PMID:24265652

  17. Finishing of enamel surfaces after debonding of orthodontic attachments.

    PubMed

    Retief, D H; Denys, F R

    1979-01-01

    The finishing of enamel surfaces after removal of directly bonded attachments is essential. The following procedures are suggested: 1. The bonding of mesh-backed stainless steel brackets with a lightly filled resin system. 2. Debonding of attachments with a direct bonding bracket remover. 3. Removal of the bulk of the remaining resin with a 12-bladed tungsten carbide bur operated at high speed with adequate air cooling. 4. Finishing of the residual resin and underlying enamel with graded polishing discs or Ceramisté wheels used with light pressure and adequate air cooling. 5. Final finishing with a rubber cup and a water slurry of pumice.

  18. Crystal structure of human tooth enamel studied by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouladdiaf, Bachir; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan; Goutaudier, Christelle; Ouladdiaf, Selma; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Pradelle, Nelly; Colon, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Crystal structure of human tooth enamel was investigated using high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. Excellent agreement between observed and refined patterns is obtained, using the hexagonal hydroxyapatite model for the tooth enamel, where a large hydroxyl deficiency ˜70% is found in the 4e site. Rietveld refinements method combined with the difference Fourier maps have revealed, however, that the hydroxyl ions are not only disordered along the c-axis but also within the basal plane. Additional H ions located at the 6h site and forming HPO42- anions were found.

  19. Color masking of developmental enamel defects: a case series.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Borges, A B

    2015-01-01

    Developmental defects involving color alteration of enamel frequently compromise the esthetic appearance of the tooth. The resin infiltration technique represents an alternative treatment for color masking of these lesions and uniformization of tooth color. This technique is considered relatively simple and microinvasive, since only a minimal portion of enamel is removed. This article illustrates the color-masking effect with resin infiltration of fluorosis and traumatic hypomineralization lesions with a case series. The final esthetic outcomes demonstrated the ability of the resin infiltrant to mask the color of white developmental defect lesions, resulting in satisfactory clinical esthetic improvements. However, in more severe cases, the color-masking effect was not complete.

  20. Making human enamel and dentin surfaces superwetting for enhanced adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2011-11-01

    Good wettability of enamel and dentin surfaces is an important factor in enhancing adhesion of restorative materials in dentistry. In this study, we developed a femtosecond laser surface texturing approach that makes both the enamel and dentine surfaces superwetting. In contrast to the traditional chemical etching that yields random surface structures, this approach produces engineered surface structures. The surface structure engineered and tested here is an array of parallel microgrooves that generates a strong capillary force. Due to the powerful capillary action, water is rapidly sucked into this engineered surface structure and spreads even on a vertical surface.

  1. Enamel reduction techniques in orthodontics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Livas, Christos; Jongsma, Albert Cornelis; Ren, Yijin

    2013-01-01

    Artificial abrasion of interproximal surfaces has been described for almost seventy years as orthodontic intervention for achievement and maintenance of ideal treatment outcome. A variety of terms and approaches have been introduced throughout this period implying a growing clinicians' interest. Nevertheless, the widespread recognition of enamel stripping technique was initiated by the advent of bonded orthodontic attachments and a 2-article series of Sheridan in the 80's. Since then, experimental and clinical research has been focused on the investigation of instrumentation efficacy and potential iatrogenic sequelae related to interproximal stripping. This review discusses the evolution, technical aspects and trends of enamel reduction procedures as documented in the literature.

  2. Critical roles for WDR72 in calcium transport and matrix protein removal during enamel maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Kai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jie; Smith, Charles E; Nunez, Stephanie M; Richardson, Amelia S; Pal, Soumya; Samann, Andrew C; Hu, Jan C-C; Simmer, James P

    2015-01-01

    Defects in WDR72 (WD repeat-containing protein 72) cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We generated and characterized Wdr72-knockout/lacZ-knockin mice to investigate the role of WDR72 in enamel formation. In all analyses, enamel formed by Wdr72 heterozygous mice was indistinguishable from wild-type enamel. Without WDR72, enamel mineral density increased early during the maturation stage but soon arrested. The null enamel layer was only a tenth as hard as wild-type enamel and underwent rapid attrition following eruption. Despite the failure to further mineralize enamel deposited during the secretory stage, ectopic mineral formed on the enamel surface and penetrated into the overlying soft tissue. While the proteins in the enamel matrix were successfully degraded, the digestion products remained inside the enamel. Interactome analysis of WDR72 protein revealed potential interactions with clathrin-associated proteins and involvement in ameloblastic endocytosis. The maturation stage mandibular incisor enamel did not stain with methyl red, indicating that the enamel did not acidify beneath ruffle-ended ameloblasts. Attachment of maturation ameloblasts to the enamel layer was weakened, and SLC24A4, a critical ameloblast calcium transporter, did not localize appropriately along the ameloblast distal membrane. Fewer blood vessels were observed in the papillary layer supporting ameloblasts. Specific WDR72 expression by maturation stage ameloblasts explained the observation that enamel thickness and rod decussation (established during the secretory stage) are normal in the Wdr72 null mice. We conclude that WDR72 serves critical functions specifically during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and is required for both protein removal and enamel mineralization. PMID:26247047

  3. Microabrasion in tooth enamel discoloration defects: three cases with long-term follow-ups

    PubMed Central

    SUNDFELD, Renato Herman; SUNDFELD-NETO, Daniel; MACHADO, Lucas Silveira; FRANCO, Laura Molinar; FAGUNDES, Ticiane Cestari; BRISO, André Luiz Fraga

    2014-01-01

    Superficial irregularities and certain intrinsic stains on the dental enamel surfaces can be resolved by enamel microabrasion, however, treatment for such defects need to be confined to the outermost regions of the enamel surface. Dental bleaching and resin-based composite repair are also often useful for certain situations for tooth color corrections. This article presented and discussed the indications and limitations of enamel microabrasion treatment. Three case reports treated by enamel microabrasion were also presented after 11, 20 and 23 years of follow-ups. PMID:25141208

  4. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    PubMed Central

    Sabokseir, Aira

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm), and low (0.24–0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001). After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3%) of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  5. Characterization of enamel incremental markings and crown growth parameters in minipig molars.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Breuer, Friederike; Richards, Alan; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    We studied the structure and periodicity of regular incremental markings in third molar enamel of minipigs. Light microscopy of ground sections revealed the presence of incremental markings matching the description of laminations. Their number within the section planes closely paralleled crown formation time (CFT) in days reported for minipig third molars, thereby indicating the daily nature of laminations. Spacing of consecutive laminations increased from lowest values in the inner to highest values in the outer enamel, where mean daily secretion rates of about 20 µm were recorded. Mean enamel extension rates determined for deciles along the enamel-dentin junction varied between highest values (155 µm/day) in the most cuspally located and lowest values (19 µm/day) in cervical enamel. Backscattered electron imaging in the SEM revealed the presence of thin, regularly spaced hypermineralized incremental lines in the outer enamel portion. These lines exhibited the same spacing as the laminations and were, thus, likewise regarded as daily incremental markings. Between two successive daily incremental markings, subdaily growth marks were discernible in light microscopic and in BSE-SEM images. These subdaily growth marks closely resembled the (daily) prism-cross striations of human enamel. Supra-daily growth marks were not identified in the minipig enamel. The results of this study parallels previous findings in sheep enamel. It is cautioned that CFT of ungulate teeth may be considerably overestimated if the periodicity established for growth marks in human enamel is uncritically transferred to the analysis of morphologically similar growth marks in ungulate enamel.

  6. Evaluation of the Esthetic Properties of Developmental Defects of Enamel: A Spectrophotometric Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fabrizio; Mazur, Marta; Corridore, Denise; Pasqualotto, Debora; Nardi, Gianna Maria; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Detailed clinical quantification of optical properties of developmental defect of enamel is possible with spectrophotometric evaluation. Developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are daily encountered in clinical practice. DDE are an alteration in quality and quantity of the enamel, caused by disruption and/or damage to the enamel organ during amelogenesis. Methods. Several clinical indices have been developed to categorize enamel defects based on their nature, appearance, microscopic features, or cause. A sample of 39 permanent teeth presenting DDE on labial surface was examined using the DDE Modified Index and SpectroShade evaluation. The spectrophotometric approach quantifies L* (luminosity), a* (quantity of green-red), and b* (quantity of blue-yellow) of different DDE. Conclusions. SpectroShade evaluation of the optical properties of the enamel defect enhances clinical understanding of severity and extent of the defect and characterizes the enamel alteration in terms of color discrepancy and surface characterization. PMID:25874260

  7. Developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition: aetiology and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Salanitri, S; Seow, W K

    2013-06-01

    Developmental enamel defects, presenting as enamel hypoplasia or opacities are caused by damage or disruption to the developing enamel organ as a result of inherited and acquired systemic conditions. The high prevalence of these defects in the primary dentition demonstrates the vulnerability of the teeth to changes in the pre- and postnatal environment. The presence of enamel hypoplasia increases the risk of primary teeth to early childhood caries and tooth wear as the defective enamel is thinner, more plaque retentive and less resistant to dissolution in acid compared to normal enamel. The purpose of this paper was to critically review the aetiology and clinical complications of developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition and propose recommendations for the clinical management of affected teeth.

  8. Does fluoride gel/foam application time affect enamel demineralization?

    PubMed

    Braxton, Ashanti; Garrett, Latasha; Versluis-Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2014-01-01

    The American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs recommends a four-minute application of professionally applied topical fluoride, based on clinical evidence for caries reduction. However, some product manufacturers imply that a one-minute application is sufficient. The purpose of this laboratory study was to ascertain if a one-minute application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) is equivalent to a four-minute application for reduction of enamel demineralization. We measured baseline hardness of polished bovine enamel before treatment with APF gel or foam for one or four minutes (N = 10). A control group received no fluoride treatment. The teeth were then immersed in pooled human saliva for 30 minutes, rinsed, and subjected to lactic acid gel to simulate the initial stage of dental caries. After three hours, the hardness was measured and the difference in hardness was determined as an indication of demineralization. We found that enamel hardness was significantly reduced after exposure to lactic acid gel. The reduction was significantly less in all APF-treatment groups compared to the control. However, there was no significant difference between a tooth exposed to APF gel or foam for 1 minute or for 4 minutes (ANOVA/Student-Newman-Keuls, significance level 0.05). In conclusion, APF gel and foam reduced enamel demineralization regardless of a one- or four-minute application time.

  9. Composition of enamel pellicle from dental erosion patients.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, G; Cotroneo, E; Moazzez, R; Rojas-Serrano, M; Donaldson, N; Austin, R; Zaidel, L; Bartlett, D; Proctor, G

    2014-01-01

    Oral health is dependent upon a thin mobile film of saliva on soft and hard tissues. Salivary proteins adhere to teeth to form the acquired enamel pellicle which is believed to protect teeth from acid erosion. This study investigated whether patients suffering diet-induced dental erosion had altered enamel pellicles. Thirty patients suffering erosion were compared to healthy age-matched controls. Subjects wore a maxillary splint holding hydroxyapatite and human enamel blocks for 1 h. The acquired enamel pellicle was removed from the blocks and compared to the natural incisor pellicle. Basic Erosive Wear Examination scores confirmed that dental erosion was present in erosion patients and absent from healthy age-matched controls. Erosion patients had half the amount of proteins (BCA assay) within the acquired pellicle forming on splint blocks compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). In particular, statherin, a calcium-binding protein, was 35% less abundant (p < 0.05). Calcium concentration within the acquired pellicle was also reduced by 50% in erosion patients (p < 0.001). In contrast, the natural pellicle on the incisor had similar amounts of total protein in erosion patients and healthy controls. In summary, the formation of new acquired pellicles on surfaces was reduced in erosion patients, which may explain their greater susceptibility to acid erosion of teeth.

  10. Nonlinear Simulation of the Tooth Enamel Spectrum for EPR Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, V. A.; Dubovsky, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Software was developed where initial EPR spectra of tooth enamel were deconvoluted based on nonlinear simulation, line shapes and signal amplitudes in the model initial spectrum were calculated, the regression coefficient was evaluated, and individual spectra were summed. Software validation demonstrated that doses calculated using it agreed excellently with the applied radiation doses and the doses reconstructed by the method of additive doses.

  11. Laser-matrix-fluoride effects on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C Y; Jordan, T H; Dederich, D N; Wefel, J S

    2001-09-01

    Laser and fluoride have been shown to inhibit enamel demineralization. However, the role of organic matrix and their interactions remains unclear. This study investigated the interaction among CO2 laser irradiation, fluoride, and the organic matrix on the demineralization of human enamel. Twenty-four molars were selected and cut into halves. One half of each tooth was depleted of its lipid and protein. The other half served as a matched control. Each tooth half had two window areas, treated with a 2.0% NaF gel. All left windows then received a laser treatment. Next, the tooth halves were subjected to a four-day pH-cycling procedure that created caries-like lesions. Tooth sections were cut from the windows, and microradiographs were used for quantification of the demineralization. The combined fluoride-laser treatment led to 98.3% and 95.1% reductions in mineral loss for enamel with and without organic matrix, respectively, when compared with sound enamel.

  12. Is It Necessary to Prepare the Enamel before Dental Bleaching?

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Erika Michele dos Santos; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of distinct surface treatments on the microhardness and color of enamel that will be bleached. Surface treatments are tested, accordingly: G1, no treatment; G2, 2% sodium fluoride; G3, casein phosphopeptide paste; G4, 2% fluoride+Nd:YAG laser. Forty blocks from bovine teeth composed the sample that were tested in Knoop microhardness (n = 10) and in color change (n = 10). After 24 h, bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was performed for 45 min. Microhardness and color changes (using parameters ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb) were assessed before and after bleaching. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Despite all surface treatments, a reduction of enamel microhardness occurred immediately after bleaching in all groups, being greater in G1. Enamel color changed in all groups. Immediately after bleaching, there was a decrease on enamel microhardness. However, after 7 days, some of those specimens previously treated before bleaching significantly recovered their initial microhardness without influencing the esthetic results of bleaching. PMID:28280508

  13. Metamorphic modifications and EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Brik, A; Radchuk, V; Scherbina, O; Matyash, M; Gaver, O

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that metamorphic modifications in tooth enamel have an essential influence on the results of EPR dosimetry. The metamorphic modifications in minerals of biological origin proceed more quickly than in usual natural minerals. The approaches which at present are applied for reconstruction of doses connected with Chernobyl accident need additional investigation.

  14. Evaluation of bond strength of orthodontic brackets without enamel etching

    PubMed Central

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Motaghi, Shiva; Moghaddas, Mohmmadjavad

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the shear bond strength of brackets with and without enamel etching. Material and Methods In this study, 60 sound premolars were randomly divided into four different groups: 1- TXE group: Enamel etching+Transbond XT adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 2- TXS group: Transbond plus self-etch adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 3- PQ1E group: Enamel etching+ PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 4- PQ1 group: PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. The shear bond strengths of brackets were evaluated using universal testing machine at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also measured. One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Witney U test were used for data analysis. Results There was a significant difference between etched and unetched groups respect to SBS and ARI (p<0.05), however; no significant difference was observed between unetched group and self-etch adhesive group (p>> 0.05). The shear bond strength of PQ1 group was the least but in acceptable range and its ARI was less than other groups. Conclusions PQ1 adhesive can be used for bracket bonding without enamel etching with adequate bond strength and minimal ARI. Key words:Bracket, shear bond strength, filled-adhesive, self-etch adhesive. PMID:26535100

  15. CO₂-lased enamel microhardness after brushing and cariogenic challenge.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Afonso, Alessandra Marques; Bachmann, Luciano; de Almeida, Cíntia Guimarães; Dibb, Regina Guenka Palma; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to assess how the wear that brushing promotes affects CO₂ laser-irradiated enamel microhardness after cariogenic challenge in vitro. Forty fragments measuring 4 × 4 mm were randomly assigned to four groups according to the enamel surface treatment: G1-control, G2-CO₂-laser irradiation, G3-brushing, and G4-CO₂ laser irradiation + brushing. A laser device emitting at 10.6 μm was used (power=0.5 W, energy per pulse=0.05 mJ, and frequency=10 kHz). Specimens belonging to groups G3 and G4 were brushed (80,000 strokes) with a brushing simulator using toothpaste. Next, the samples were challenged with acid: the specimens were immersed in demineralizing and remineralizing solutions for 8 days. The acid resistance of enamel was evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness tests. The area under the curve (KHN × μm) was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) one-away and Fisher's test were performed for the statistical analysis (p<0.05). Group G2 specimens (31,185 ± 4706) were statistically different from specimens belonging to groups G1 (26,723 ± 2446), G3 (28,194 ± 1376), and G4 (28,207 ± 2234), which were statistically similar. The brushing time used in the present study probably wore the CO₂-lased enamel, so demineralization could not be prevented in the brushed group.

  16. Cariogenic Potential of Sucrose Associated with Maltodextrin on Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Gabriela; Arthur, Rodrigo A; Grando, Debora; Hashizume, Lina N

    2017-01-26

    Maltodextrin is a hydrolysate of cornstarch and has been widely used in the food industry associated with sucrose. The addition of starch can increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose; however, there are sparse data regarding the cariogenicity of sucrose associated with maltodextrin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test in situ if maltodextrin could increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose. This was an in situ, randomized, crossover, split-mouth, and double-blind study. Volunteers wore palatal appliances containing bovine enamel blocks for 2 periods of 14 days. They dripped the following solutions on the enamel blocks 8 times per day: deionized distilled water (DDW), maltodextrin (M), sucrose + maltodextrin (S+M), or sucrose (S). At the end of each experimental period, biofilms were collected and analyzed for microbiological (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total microorganisms counts) and biochemical (calcium, inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides concentrations) compositions. The enamel demineralization was assessed by microhardness. Treatments S and S+M resulted in a lower inorganic composition and higher concentration of insoluble extracellular polysaccharides in the biofilms, and higher enamel mineral loss compared to DDW and M. It can be concluded that the cariogenic potential of sucrose is not changed when this carbohydrate is associated with maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent 13-17).

  17. Spectrally enhanced image resolution of tooth enamel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Short-wavelength 405 nm laser illumination of surface dental enamel using an ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) produced enhanced detail of dental topography. The surfaces of human extracted teeth and artificial erosions were imaged with 405 nm, 444 nm, 532 nm, or 635 nm illumination lasers. The obtained images were then processed offline to compensate for any differences in the illumination beam diameters between the different lasers. Scattering and absorption coefficients for a Monte Carlo model of light propagation in dental enamel for 405 nm were scaled from published data at 532 nm and 633 nm. The value of the scattering coefficient used in the model was scaled from the coefficients at 532 nm and 633 nm by the inverse third power of wavelength. Simulations showed that the penetration depth of short-wavelength illumination is localized close to the enamel surface, while long-wavelength illumination travels much further and is backscattered from greater depths. Therefore, images obtained using short wavelength laser are not contaminated by the superposition of light reflected from enamel tissue at greater depths. Hence, the SFE with short-wavelength illumination may make it possible to visualize surface manifestations of phenomena such as demineralization, thus better aiding the clinician in the detection of early caries.

  18. Is It Necessary to Prepare the Enamel before Dental Bleaching?

    PubMed

    Lago, Andréa Dias Neves; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Araújo, Erika Michele Dos Santos; Matos, Adriana Bona; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of distinct surface treatments on the microhardness and color of enamel that will be bleached. Surface treatments are tested, accordingly: G1, no treatment; G2, 2% sodium fluoride; G3, casein phosphopeptide paste; G4, 2% fluoride+Nd:YAG laser. Forty blocks from bovine teeth composed the sample that were tested in Knoop microhardness (n = 10) and in color change (n = 10). After 24 h, bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was performed for 45 min. Microhardness and color changes (using parameters ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb) were assessed before and after bleaching. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Despite all surface treatments, a reduction of enamel microhardness occurred immediately after bleaching in all groups, being greater in G1. Enamel color changed in all groups. Immediately after bleaching, there was a decrease on enamel microhardness. However, after 7 days, some of those specimens previously treated before bleaching significantly recovered their initial microhardness without influencing the esthetic results of bleaching.

  19. Contact fatigue of human enamel: Experiments, mechanisms and modeling.

    PubMed

    Gao, S S; An, B B; Yahyazadehfar, M; Zhang, D; Arola, D D

    2016-07-01

    Cyclic contact between natural tooth structure and engineered ceramics is increasingly common. Fatigue of the enamel due to cyclic contact is rarely considered. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the fatigue behavior of human enamel by cyclic contact, and to assess the extent of damage over clinically relevant conditions. Cyclic contact experiments were conducted using the crowns of caries-free molars obtained from young donors. The cuspal locations were polished flat and subjected to cyclic contact with a spherical indenter of alumina at 2Hz. The progression of damage was monitored through the evolution in contact displacement, changes in the contact hysteresis and characteristics of the fracture pattern. The contact fatigue life diagram exhibited a decrease in cycles to failure with increasing cyclic load magnitude. Two distinct trends were identified, which corresponded to the development and propagation of a combination of cylindrical and radial cracks. Under contact loads of less than 400N, enamel rod decussation resisted the growth of subsurface cracks. However, at greater loads the damage progressed rapidly and accelerated fatigue failure. Overall, cyclic contact between ceramic appliances and natural tooth structure causes fatigue of the enamel. The extent of damage is dependent on the magnitude of cyclic stress and the ability of the decussation to arrest the fatigue damage.

  20. Fracture-mechanics parameters of the composite-enamel bond.

    PubMed

    de Groot, R; van Elst, H C; Peters, M C

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, the critical values of the opening mode stress intensity factor (K1), its equivalent, the strain energy-release rate (G1), and the J integral (J1) (in the elastic case being equal to that of G1) were determined for resin composite. In this study, the strength of the composite-tooth interface was investigated. The critical values of K1 and J1 were measured with single-edge notched-bend (SENB) specimens of resin composite bonded to enamel, with the notch at midspan at the bonded interface. Due to enamel's anisotropy, the values of Klc and Jlc to be used in a fracture-mechanics application for failure prediction of a structure depend on the enamel prism orientation relative to the adhesive interface. Where interfacial failure is to be expected, the following values for Jlc and Klc can be used: Silux, Jlc = 145 +/- 35 Jm-2 and Klc = 0.84 +/- 0.16 MNm-3/2; P-30, Jlc = 163 +/- 13 Jm-2 and Klc = 1.02 +/- 0.07 MNm-3/2. Where enamel failure is expected or where the failure mode cannot be predicted, the following values can be applied: Silux, Jlc = 89 +/- 15 Jm-2 and Klc = 0.84 +/- 0.16 MNm-3/2; P-30, Jlc = 89 +/- 15 Jm-2 and Klc = 0.75 +/- 0.10 MNm-3/2.

  1. Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bechtle, Sabine; Özcoban, Hüseyin; Lilleodden, Erica T; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Swain, Michael V; Schneider, Gerold A

    2012-06-07

    Hard, biological materials are generally hierarchically structured from the nano- to the macro-scale in a somewhat self-similar manner consisting of mineral units surrounded by a soft protein shell. Considerable efforts are underway to mimic such materials because of their structurally optimized mechanical functionality of being hard and stiff as well as damage-tolerant. However, it is unclear how different hierarchical levels interact to achieve this performance. In this study, we consider dental enamel as a representative, biological hierarchical structure and determine its flexural strength and elastic modulus at three levels of hierarchy using focused ion beam (FIB) prepared cantilevers of micrometre size. The results are compared and analysed using a theoretical model proposed by Jäger and Fratzl and developed by Gao and co-workers. Both properties decrease with increasing hierarchical dimension along with a switch in mechanical behaviour from linear-elastic to elastic-inelastic. We found Gao's model matched the results very well.

  2. Shear bond strength of porcelain veneers rebonded to enamel.

    PubMed

    St Germain, H A; St Germain, T H

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory research, shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of veneers rebonded to enamel in shear compression were determined. Three groups (A, B, and C; n=10 each) of mounted molar teeth were finished flat using wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper, and 30 leucite-reinforced porcelain veneers (5.0 × 0.75 mm) were air abraded on the internal surface with 50 μm aluminum oxide, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid, and silanated. The control group (A) veneer specimens were bonded to enamel after etching with 37% phosphoric acid using bonding resin and a dual cure resin composite cement. Groups B and C were prepared similarly to group A with the exception that a release agent was placed before the veneer was positioned on the prepared enamel surface and the resin cement was subsequently light activated. The debonded veneers from groups B and C were placed in a casting burnout oven and heated to 454°C/850°F for 10 minutes to completely carbonize the resin cement and stay below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the leucite-reinforced porcelain. The recovered veneers were then prepared for bonding. The previously bonded enamel surfaces in group B were air abraded using 50 μm aluminum oxide followed by 37% phosphoric acid etching, while group C enamel specimens were acid etched only. All specimens were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 2000 cycles using a 30-second dwell time and stored in 37°C deionized water for 2 weeks. SBS was determined at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. SBS results in MPa for the groups were (A) = 20.6±5.1, (B) = 18.1±5.5, and (C) = 17.2±6.1. One-way analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant interactions (α=0.05), and Tukey-Kramer post hoc comparisons (α=0.05) detected no significant pairwise differences. An adhesive mode of failure at the enamel interface was observed to occur more often in the experimental groups (B = 40%, C = 50%). Rebonding the veneers produced SBS values that were not

  3. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ44Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ26Mg, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ26Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this 26Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a 26Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ26Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ26Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages.

  4. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C. )

    1990-09-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness.

  5. Effect of mineral supplements to citric acid on enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Meyer, K; Hellwig, E; Buchalla, W; Lennon, A M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral supplements to citric acid (1%; pH 2.21) on enamel erosion under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. From each of 156 bovine incisors one polished enamel sample was prepared. The samples were divided among 13 experimental groups (n=12). In group 1 citric acid only was used (control). In groups 2-10 either calcium, phosphate or fluoride in various low concentrations was admixed to the citric acid. In groups 11-13 the citric acid was supplemented with a mixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. For demineralisation the specimens were rinsed with the respective solution for 1 min, immediately followed by a remineralisation period with artificial saliva (1 min). The specimens were cycled through this alternating procedure five times followed by rinsing for 8 h with artificial saliva. The de- and remineralisation cycle was repeated three times for each specimen interrupted by the 8 h-remineralisation periods. Before and after the experiments, the specimens were examined using microhardness testing (Knoop hardness) and laser profilometry. Hardness loss and enamel dissolution was significantly higher for the controls as compared to the remaining groups. Significantly lowest hardness loss for all groups was recorded for group 12 with admixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride to citric acid. The significantly highest enamel loss was recorded for the controls compared to all other samples. Groups 3 and 4 revealed significantly lower and higher tissue loss compared to the remaining groups (2-13), respectively. The other groups did not differ significantly from each other. Modification of citric acid with calcium, phosphate and fluoride exerts a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. However, with the low concentrations applied enamel dissolution could not be completely prevented.

  6. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeremy E; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-13

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ(44)Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ(26)Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ(26)Mg, δ(13)C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ(26)Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this (26)Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a (26)Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ(26)Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ(26)Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages.

  7. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ44Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ26Mg, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ26Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this 26Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a 26Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ26Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ26Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages. PMID:25535375

  8. Crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness of mandibular second bicuspids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sérgio Augusto; Vellini-Ferreira, Flávio; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Ferreira, Rívea Inês

    2011-01-01

    To achieve proper recontouring of anterior and posterior teeth, to obtain optimal morphology during enamel stripping, it is important to be aware of dental anatomy. This study aimed at evaluating crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness in a sample of 40 extracted sound, human, mandibular, second bicuspids (20 right and 20 left). Mesiodistal, cervico-occlusal and buccolingual crown dimensions were measured using a digital caliper, accurate to 0.01 mm. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axes through the proximal surfaces to obtain 0.7 mm-thick central sections. Enamel thickness on the cut sections was measured using a perfilometer. Comparative analyses were carried out using the Student's-t test (α= 5%). The mean mesiodistal crown widths for right and left teeth were 7.79 mm (± 0.47) and 7.70 mm (± 0.51), respectively. Mean cervico-occlusal heights ranged from 8.31 mm (± 0.75) on the right to 8.38 mm (± 0.85) on the left teeth. The mean values for the buccolingual dimension were 8.67 mm (± 0.70) on the right and 8.65 mm (± 0.54) on the left teeth. The mean enamel thickness on the mesial surfaces ranged from 1.35 mm (± 0.22) to 1.40 mm (± 0.17), on the left and right sides, respectively. On the distal surfaces, the corresponding values were 1.44 mm (± 0.21) and 1.46 mm (± 0.12). No significant differences were found between measurements for right and left teeth. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces, compared with the mesial surfaces.

  9. Enamel formation genes associated with dental erosive wear.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Jenny B; Vieira, Alexandre R; Tveit, A B; Mulic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosive wear is a multifactorial condition that is greatly affected by environmental factors. So far, no study has investigated how dental erosive wear is influenced by variations in enamel formation genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate polymorphisms in genes involved in enamel formation and their influence on enamel susceptibility to dental erosion. DNA samples were collected from 795 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years. Five single-nucleotide polymorphism markers were genotyped in selected candidate genes (ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin 1 and tuftelin interacting protein 11), reported to influence enamel formation. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared within two patient groups with dental erosions; all participants with dental erosion and only those with severe dental erosion (erosion extending into dentine). Overrepresentation of the G allele of the enamelin marker was seen in the erosion group compared to the unaffected group (p = 0.047). When erosion severity was considered, statistical significant difference in allele frequency was observed for amelogenin, with the C allele suggesting a protective role (p = 0.02). A suggestive overrepresentation of the TT genotype of the amelogenin marker was also seen in cases with severe erosion (p = 0.049) when compared to cases with no dentine erosion. Amelogenin was also associated with severe erosion in the recessive model; the TT genotype was significantly more frequent in the affected group than in the unaffected group (p = 0.01). The present study suggests that polymorphisms in enamel formation genes are statistically associated with an individual's susceptibility to dental erosive wear.

  10. Relationship between enamel fluorosis severity and fluoride content

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A.; Shone, Devin B.; Buckley, Christine M.; Ando, Masatoshi; Lippert, Frank; Soto-Rojas, Armando E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enamel fluorosis is a hypomineralization caused by chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride during tooth development. Previous research on the relationship between enamel fluoride content and fluorosis severity has been equivocal. The current study aimed at comparing visually and histologically assessed fluorosis severity with enamel fluoride content. Methods Extracted teeth (n=112) were visually examined using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index for fluorosis. Eruption status of each tooth was noted. Teeth were cut into 100 μm slices to assess histological changes with polarized light microscopy. Teeth were categorized as sound, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis, visually and histologically. They were cut into squares (2×2 mm) for the determination of fluoride content (microbiopsy) at depths of 30, 60 and 90 μm from the external surface. Results Erupted teeth with severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content at 30, 60 and 90 μm than sound teeth. Unerupted teeth with mild, moderate and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 30 μm; unerupted teeth with mild and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 60 μm, while only unerupted teeth severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 90 μm. Conclusions Both erupted and unerupted severely fluorosed teeth presented higher mean enamel fluoride content than sound teeth. Clinical Significance Data on fluoride content in enamel will further our understanding of its biological characteristics which play a role in the management of hard tissue diseases and conditions. PMID:26808157

  11. Do different bleaching protocols affect the enamel microhardness?

    PubMed Central

    Lia Mondelli, Rafael Francisco; Garrido Gabriel, Taisa R. Conti; Piola Rizzante, Fabio Antonio; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Soares Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tooth bleaching tends to increase enamel roughness and porosity, in addition to reducing surface microhardness. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of bleaching treatments using different hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentrations, with and without light activation on bovine enamel microhardness. Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of sixty bovine incisors were flattened and polished and the enamel specimens were divided into six groups: G1 : c0 ontrol, exposed to artificial saliva; G2: 35% HP applied in two sessions (45’ each); G3: 35% HP applied in two sessions (3 × 15’ each); G4: 35% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus hybrid light (HL); G5: 25% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus HL; and G6: 15% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus HL. After the treatment, the enamel specimens were stored in artificial saliva. The surface microhardness (Knoop) was measured at the baseline, 24 h and 7 days after bleaching. The data was analyzed using the ANOVA test, followed by the Tukey–Krummer test (P < 0.05). Results: All bleaching procedures lead to a decrease in surface microhardness when compared with the control group after 24 h. The lowest change in surface microhardness was found in the specimens treated with 15% HP plus HL. However, 35% HP plus HL induced the highest decrease in surface microhardness. After 7 days of remineralization, the surface microhardness returned to normal levels for all bleached specimens. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that the bleaching protocols caused a slight enamel surface alteration. However, the remineralization process minimized these effects. PMID:25713480

  12. Incremental enamel development in modern human deciduous anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    This study reconstructs incremental enamel development for a sample of modern human deciduous mandibular (n = 42) and maxillary (n = 42) anterior (incisors and canines) teeth. Results are compared between anterior teeth, and with previous research for deciduous molars (Mahoney: Am J Phys Anthropol 144 (2011) 204-214) to identify developmental differences along the tooth row. Two hypotheses are tested: Retzius line periodicity will remain constant in teeth from the same jaw and range from 6 to 12 days among individuals, as in human permanent teeth; daily enamel secretion rates (DSRs) will not vary between deciduous teeth, as in some human permanent tooth types. A further aim is to search for links between deciduous incremental enamel development and the previously reported eruptionsequence. Retzius line periodicity in anterior teeth ranged between 5 and 6 days, but did not differ between an incisor and molar of one individual. Intradian line periodicity was 12 h. Mean cuspal DSRs varied slightly between equivalent regions along the tooth row. Mandibular incisors initiated enamel formation first, had the fastest mean DSRs, the greatest prenatal formation time, and based upon prior studies are the first deciduous tooth to erupt. Relatively rapid development in mandibular incisors in advance of early eruption may explain some of the variation in DSRs along the tooth row that cannot be explained by birth. Links between DSRs, enamel initiation times, and the deciduous eruption sequence are proposed. Anterior crown formation times presented here can contribute toward human infant age-at-death estimates. Regression equations for reconstructing formation time in worn incisors are given.

  13. Analysis of some elements in primary enamel during postnatal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Nina; Klinberg, Gunilla; Nietzsche, Sandor; Robertson, Agneta; Odelius, Hans; Norén, Jörgen G

    2009-01-01

    The primary teeth start to mineralize in utero and continue development and maturation during the first year of life.The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of some elements, C, F, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Sr, by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in human primary incisors at different stages of mineralization.The teeth derived from an autopsy material from children who had died in sudden infant death.The buccal enamel of specimens from the ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 19 months, respectively, was analyzed. It was evident that posteruptive effects play an important role in composition of the outermost parts of the enamel. Before the tooth erupts, the concentrations of the elements vary with the maturation grade of the mineralization in the enamel. Sodium was the element with the highest concentration of the measured elements and chlorine was the element of lowest concentration.The 19 month old specimen, considered as the only mature and erupted tooth, showed to differ from the other specimens.The concentration of fluorine, in the 19 month old specimen's outermost surface, is readily seen higher compared with the other specimens at this depth zone. In the 19 month old specimen the concentration of carbon is lower. Potassium, sodium and chlorine have higher concentrations, in general, in the 19 month old specimen compared with the immature specimens. The thickness of the enamel during mineralization was calculated from data from SIMS.The thickness of the buccal enamel of primary incisors seemed to be fully developed between 3-4 months after birth, reaching a thickness of 350-400 microm.

  14. Influence of toothbrushing on enamel softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel: an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Machado, Maria Aparecida De Andrade Moreira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the surface softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel with or without the influence of toothbrushing. Five volunteers took part in this in situ study of 5 days. They wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 6 bovine enamel blocks divided in two rows with 3 blocks, which corresponded to the studied groups: erosion without toothbrushing (GI) and erosion with toothbrushing (GII). The blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion of the appliances in a cola drink for 10 minutes, 4 times a day. After that, no treatment was performed in one row (GI), whereas the other row was brushed (GII). The appliance was then replaced into the mouth. Enamel alterations were determined using profilometry and microhardness tests. Data were tested using paired Students t test (p < 0.05). The mean wear values (microm) and percentage of superficial microhardness change (%SMHC) were respectively: GI--2.77 +/- 1.21/91.61 +/- 3.68 and GII--3.80 +/- 0.91/58.77 +/- 11.47. There was a significant difference in wear (p = 0.001) and %SMHC (p = 0.001) between the groups. It was concluded that the wear was more pronounced when associated to toothbrushing abrasion. However, toothbrushing promoted less %SMHC due to the removal of the altered superficial enamel layer.

  15. The potential of deciduous and permanent bovine enamel as substitute for deciduous and permanent human enamel: Erosion-abrasion experiments.

    PubMed

    Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian; Gries, David; Wiegand, Annette

    2007-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare toothbrushing abrasion of eroded human and bovine enamel utilizing a toothpaste slurry. The surfaces of each 36 teeth from cattle and calves and from each 36 human wisdom teeth and deciduous teeth were polished. Each 12 specimens from the respective tooth type were used for assessing toothbrushing abrasion only (A), erosion only (E) and the combination of erosion and toothbrushing abrasion (EA). The EA samples were subjected to 20 cycles comprising a demineralization/remineralization procedure directly followed by toothbrushing abrasion (100 strokes, 300 g load, toothpaste slurry: 3 ml artificial saliva mixed with 1g dentifrice). Demineralization in form of erosion was performed with 1% citric acid (1 min), remineralization with artificial saliva (15 min). Between the cycles, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. Wear of the treated surfaces with reference to untreated areas was determined profilometrically. The samples subjected to abrasion only (A) did not show a significantly different wear between the different kinds of teeth. The comparisons of substance loss between teeth of different species revealed that hard tissue loss of the human deciduous teeth was significantly lower as compared to calves' teeth after both erosion and erosion-abrasion. Also, both erosion only and erosion-abrasion caused higher enamel loss in cattle's teeth than in human wisdom teeth. It is concluded that human eroded enamel offers better resistance against brushing than bovine enamel.

  16. A comparison of terahertz-pulsed imaging with transverse microradiography and microhardness to measure mineral changes in enamel after treatment with fluoride dentifrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchley, David; Lippert, Frank; Lynch, Richard; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, C.; Eder, J.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) to measure mineral changes in enamel lesions during de/remineralisation studies. A comparison was made between transverse microradiography (TMR) and microhardness measurements. Artificial lesions were formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid (pH 5.0) containing 0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite. The 20 day experimental protocol consisted of four, one-minute treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385 and 2700ppm fluoride, a 4 h/day acid challenge, and for the remaining time specimens were stored in a 50:50 pooled human / artificial saliva mixture. Terahertz images were generated by positioning the specimens at the focus of the beam and raster scanning the optics to collect the reflections from the air / enamel (AEI) and lesion / enamel (LEI) interface. Significant differences were observed in the intensity change from baseline of the AEI and LEI reflections upon treatment with the four dentifrices. A linear correlation was observed between ΔAEI vs ΔVHN (r2 = 0.997), ΔAEI vs ΔKHN (r2 =0.964), ΔII (ratio of LEI to AEI) vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.875) and ΔLEI vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.870). Statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 Pearson correlation coefficient) were also found between the TPI and microhardness / microradiography data. This study has demonstrated that TPI is a useful technology to measure in vitro (and possibly in situ) mineral changes in enamel and is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the levels of remineralization produced by the different dentifrices.

  17. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher Mg

  18. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  19. Structural Morphology of Molars in Large Mammalian Herbivores: Enamel Content Varies between Tooth Positions

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Daniela E.; Kaiser, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of dental tissues in mammalian herbivores can be very different from taxon to taxon. While grazers tend to have more elaborated and complexly folded enamel ridges, browsers have less complex enamel ridges which can even be so far reduced that they are completely lost. The gradient in relative enamel content and complexity of structures has so far not been addressed within a single species. However, several studies have noted tooth position specific wear rates in small mammals (rabbits, guinea pigs) which may be related to individual tooth morphology. We investigate whether differentiated enamel content by tooth position is also to be found in large herbivores. We use CT-scanning techniques to quantify relative enamel content in upper and lower molar teeth of 21 large herbivorous mammal species. By using a broad approach and including both perissodactyls and artiodactyls, we address phylogenetic intraspecific differences in relative enamel content. We find that enamel is highly unevenly distributed among molars (upper M1, M2, M3 and lower m1, m2, m3) in most taxa and that relative enamel content is independent of phylogeny. Overall, relative enamel content increases along the molar tooth row and is significantly higher in lower molars compared to upper molars. We relate this differential enamel content to prolonged mineralisation in the posterior tooth positions and suggest a compensatory function of m3 and M3 for functional losses of anterior teeth. PMID:26313359

  20. Heat Transfer Behavior across the Dentino-Enamel Junction in the Human Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lin; Dong, Shao-Jie; Kong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Rong; Zou, Rui; Liu, Qi-Da

    2016-01-01

    During eating, the teeth usually endure the sharply temperature changes because of different foods. It is of importance to investigate the heat transfer and heat dissipation behavior of the dentino–enamel junction (DEJ) of human tooth since dentine and enamel have different thermophysical properties. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the enamel, dentine, and pulpal chamber of both the human tooth and its discontinuous boundaries, were measured using infrared thermography using a stepped temperature increase on the outer boundary of enamel crowns. The thermal diffusivities for enamel and dentine were deduced from the time dependent temperature change at the enamel and dentine layers. The thermal conductivities for enamel and dentine were calculated to be 0.81 Wm-1K-1 and 0.48 Wm-1K-1 respectively. The observed temperature discontinuities across the interfaces between enamel, dentine and pulp-chamber layers were due to the difference of thermal conductivities at interfaces rather than to the phase transformation. The temperature gradient distributes continuously across the enamel and dentine layers and their junction below a temperature of 42°C, whilst a negative thermal resistance is observed at interfaces above 42°C. These results suggest that the microstructure of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) junction play an important role in tooth heat transfer and protects the pulp from heat damage. PMID:27662186

  1. Estimating mineral changes in enamel formation by ashing/BSE and microCT.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J E; Teepe, J D; Hu, Y; Smith, C E; Fajardo, R J; Chun, Y-H P

    2014-03-01

    Enamel formation produces the most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. The growth of enamel crystallites is assisted by enamel proteins and proteinases. As enamel formation progresses from secretory to maturation stages, the composition of the matrix with its mineral and non-mineral components dynamically changes in an inverse fashion. We hypothesized that appropriately calibrated micro-computed tomography (µCT) technology is suitable to estimate the mineral content (weight and/or density) and volume comparable in accuracy with that for directly weighed and sectioned enamel. Different sets of mouse mandibular incisors of C57BL/6 mice were used for dissections and µCT reconstructions. Calibration phantoms corresponding to the range of enamel mineral densities were used. Secretory-stage enamel contained little mineral and was consequently too poor in contrast for enamel volumes to be accurately estimated by µCT. Maturation-stage enamel, however, showed remarkable correspondence for total mineral content per volume where comparisons were possible between and among the different analytical techniques used. The main advantages of the µCT approach are that it is non-destructive, time-efficient, and can monitor changes in mineral content of the most mature enamel, which is too physically hard to dissect away from the tooth.

  2. Nanoindentation of lemur enamel: an ecological investigation of mechanical property variations within and between sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sara E; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Sponheimer, Matt; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2012-06-01

    The common morphological metrics of size, shape, and enamel thickness of teeth are believed to reflect the functional requirements of a primate's diet. However, the mechanical and material properties of enamel also contribute to tooth function, yet are rarely studied. Substantial wear and tooth loss previously documented in Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve suggests that their dental morphology, structure, and possibly their enamel are not adapted for their current fallback food (the mechanically challenging tamarind fruit). In this study, we investigate the nanomechanical properties, mineralization, and microstructure of the enamel of three sympatric lemur species to provide insight into their dietary functional adaptations. Mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation were compared to measurements of mineral content, prism orientation, prism size, and enamel thickness using electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of all species were similar near the enamel dentin junction and variations correlated with changes in microstructure (e.g., prism size) and mineral content. Severe wear and microcracking within L. catta's enamel were associated with up to a 43% reduction in nanomechanical properties in regions of cracking versus intact enamel. The mechanical and material properties of L. catta's enamel are similar to those of sympatric folivores and suggest that they are not uniquely mechanically adapted to consume the physically challenging tamarind fruit. An understanding of the material and mechanical properties of enamel is required to fully elucidate the functional and ecological adaptations of primate teeth.

  3. Testing functional and morphological interpretations of enamel thickness along the deciduous tooth row in human children.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    The significance of a gradient in enamel thickness along the human permanent molar row has been debated in the literature. Some attribute increased enamel thickness from first to third molars to greater bite force during chewing. Others argue that thicker third molar enamel relates to a smaller crown size facilitated by a reduced dentin component. Thus, differences in morphology, not function, explains enamel thickness. This study draws on these different interpretive models to assess enamel thickness along the entire human deciduous tooth row. Average enamel thickness (AET), the area and proportion of crown enamel and dentin, and a crown size proxy are calculated for incisors, canines, and molars. Allometric scaling relationships are assessed within each tooth class, and then comparisons are undertaken along the row. Generally, AET was correlated with crown size and scaled with isometry, except for second molars which scaled with positive allometry. Mean AET increased along the row and was greater on molars, where bite forces are reported to be higher. Second molars combined the largest crown size with the thickest enamel and the smallest proportion of dentin, which is consistent with a reduction in the potential for cusp fracture under high bite forces. Resistance to wear may also account for some enamel thickness variation between tooth classes. Dental reduction did not explain the trend in AET from central to lateral incisors, or from first to second molars. The gradient in AET along the deciduous tooth row is partly consistent with a functional interpretation of enamel thickness.

  4. Shear bond strength of dentin and deproteinized enamel of AI mouse incisors

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Ozer, F.; Mulmadgi, R.; Li, Y.; Suggs, C.; Wright, J.T.; Bartlett, J.D.; Gibson, C.W.; Lindemeyer, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the adhesion through shear bond strength (SBS) testing of a resin composite bonded with a self-etching bonding system (SEB) to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-affected deproteinized mouse enamel or dentin; and to compare wild-type (WT), amelogenin null (AmelxKO) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 null (Mmp20KO) enamel and dentin phenotypes using microCT and nanoindentation. Methods Enamel incisor surfaces of WT, AmelxKO and Mmp20KO mice were treated with SEB with and without NaOCl and tested for SBS. Incisor dentin was also treated with SEB and tested for SBS. These surfaces were further examined by SEM. MicroCT and nanoindentation analyses were performed on mouse dentin and enamel. Data were analyzed for significance by ANOVA. Results Deproteinization did not improve SBS of SEB to these AI-affected enamel surfaces. SBS of AmelxKO teeth was similar in dentin and enamel; however, it was higher in Mmp20KO dentin. The nanohardness of knockout enamel was significantly lower than WT, while knockout dentin nanohardness was not different from WT. Conclusions Using animal AI models, it was demonstrated that enamel NaOCl deproteinization of hypoplastic and hypoplastic-hypomaturation enamel did not increase shear bond strength while removal of the defective enamel allowed optimal dentin bonding. PMID:25303500

  5. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  6. Surface effects after a combination of dental bleaching and enamel microabrasion: An in vitro and in situ study.

    PubMed

    Franco, Laura Molinar; Machado, Lucas Silveira; Salomão, Fabio Martins; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld, Renato Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of combining enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching on the physical properties of enamel, using in vitro and in situ conditions and evaluating surface roughness, enamel microhardness and scanning electron microscopy images. One hundred sound bovine teeth were sectioned and cut into discs and randomly divided into 10 study groups (n=10). The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures, followed by the Tukey test, with significance at 5%. Enamel surface roughness was significantly influenced by microabrasion, regardless of being combined with dental bleaching, for both HS (Human Saliva) or AS (Artificial Saliva) condition. Enamel microhardness was significantly decreased in the groups in which enamel microabrasion was performed, regardless its combination with dental bleaching; although storage in HS reestablished the initial enamel microhardness. It was concluded that dental bleaching does not cause major damage to microabraided enamel, and that only human saliva recovered the initial enamel microhardness.

  7. Photomechanical model of tooth enamel ablation by Er-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Vostryakov, R. G.; Maykapar, N. O.

    2012-03-01

    The photomechanical model of ablation of human tooth enamel is described in this work. It takes into account the structural peculiarities of enamel: free water in the enamel pores or cracks. We consider the photomechanical destruction of the enamel rods of hydroxyapatite by the pressure of water contained in the enamel pores and heated by laser radiation. This model takes into account attenuation by the Lambert-Beer law when radiation passes through the tissue and the fact that the tissue removal occurs when a unit volume of water was heated to the critical temperature. Decreasing logarithmic dependence of the enamel removal efficiency on the energy density was obtained as a result of the calculations. The shape of this function follows the shape of the experimental curve.

  8. The wear of enamel opposing shaded ceramic restorative materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Delong, R; Pintado, M R; Douglas, W H

    1992-07-01

    The wear rate of intact human enamel opposed by Olympia porcelain gold, Dicor, Ceramco porcelain, and externally shaded Dicor and Ceramco was investigated with an artificial oral environment. The enamel-material couples were subjected to 300,000 masticatory cycles at a maximal occlusal force of 13.4 N while they were continuously bathed with 37 degrees C deionized water. Both the enamel and material surfaces were analyzed by use of a three-dimensional surface monitoring computer program, AnSur, to record the removal of the material and the maximal loss of vertical height. The enamel opposing the externally shaded materials abraded two to five times more than that opposing the unshaded materials and 10 to 15 times more than enamel opposing gold. The wear rates for enamel opposing the gold and unshaded Dicor were similar both in the removal of material and in the loss in vertical height.

  9. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

  10. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  11. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Factors associated with shear bond strength of composite resin to human enamel.

    PubMed

    Gray, G B; MacMillan, S; Payne, A P; McGadey, J

    1996-12-01

    The preparation of enamel surfaces before etching by removing 0.5 mm of surface tooth structure is common-place in modern restorative dentistry. This study was designed to measure and compare the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to prepared and unprepared enamel using various proprietary bonding systems. The analysed results failed to show significant differences between the shear bond strengths of the prepared and unprepared enamel specimens. Conditioning enamel surfaces for 60 seconds using 2.5% nitric acid where the solution was allowed to desiccate, resulted in significantly lower bond strengths compared to the other regimes. A correlation of the etchant pH with the mean shear bond strength of the adhesive systems to enamel was observed. The surface topography of the etched enamel surfaces correlated moderately well with the bond strengths obtained.

  13. Enamel wear caused by three different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J D; Goldstein, G R; Georgescu, M

    1995-12-01

    The ideal restorative material should cause minimal wear of opposing enamel. This study compared the effects of gold alloy, glazed porcelain, and a laboratory-processed composite on opposing enamel. Ten samples of a type III gold alloy, a porcelain, and a visible-light, heat, and vacuum-processed composite were abraded against cusps of extracted molars for 10,000 cycles on an abrading machine. Pretest and posttest profilometric measurements of the restorative materials demonstrated no statistical difference. Pretest and posttest tracings of the cusps were made on an optical comparator to determine loss of vertical height and surface area. The porcelain caused significantly more loss of vertical height and surface area than the gold alloy or the composite, which were similar.

  14. Characterization of enameled glass excavated from Laem Pho, southern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanmanonda, W.; Won-in, K.; Tancharakorn, S.; Tantanuch, W.; Thongleurm, C.; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.

    2012-07-01

    Laem Pho in Surat Thani, southern province of Thailand is one of the most important historic site on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. In this work, the enameled glass fragments which looked-like Islamic glass mainly excavated from this site were analyzed using SEM-EDS, PIXE and μ-XRF, in order to understand the chemical composition by comparing the archaeological data and topology. The structure of the enameled decoration was also studied. The resulting data indicated that high-magnesia alkali-lime silicate glass was produced. The presence of transition metals such as copper, iron and manganese were affected on the glass colorations. Typological classifications, technological observations and comparative studies serve to clarify the development and cultural inter-relationships of various glass objects along the trade and exchange networks in ancient maritime.

  15. Protective effect of zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpastes on enamel erosion: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gulino, Chiara; Mirando, Maria; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to test the impact of different toothpastes with Zinc-Hydroxyapatite (Zn-HAP) on preventing and repairing enamel erosion compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride. Material and Methods The following four toothpastes were tested: two toothpastes with Zn-HAP, one toothpaste with fluoride and one toothpaste without fluoride. An additional control group was used in which enamel specimens were not treated with toothpaste. Repeated erosive challenges were provided by immersing bovine enamel specimens (10 per group) in a soft drink for 2 min (6mL, room temperature) at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h. After each erosive challenge, the toothpastes were applied neat onto the surface of specimens for 3 min without brushing and removed with distilled water. Between treatments the specimens were kept in artificial saliva. Enamel hardness, after the erosive challenge and toothpaste treatment was monitored using surface micro-hardness measurements. Results As expected, repeated erosive challenge by a soft drink for total of 8 min significantly reduced enamel surface hardness (ANOVA, p < 0.05). No re-hardening of the surface softened enamel was observed in the group treated with fluoride-free toothpaste. Surface hardness of the softened enamel increased when the specimens were treated with the fluoride toothpaste and the two toothpastes with Zn-HAP (p < 0.05). Conclusions Toothpaste with Zn-HAP resulted in significant enamel remineralisation of erosively challenged enamel, indicating that these toothpastes could provide enamel health benefits relevant to enamel erosion. Key words:Enamel, erosion, remineralization, surface hardness, toothpastes. PMID:28149475

  16. Conservative approach for a clinical resolution of enamel white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Nahsan, Flavia Pardo Salata; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Baseggio, Wagner; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Wang, Linda

    2011-05-01

    Enamel white spot lesions in anterior teeth that compromise esthetics are common. Microabrasion is indicated, since it affects enamel superficially. An acid-abrasive slurry with 37% phosphoric acid with pumice was used on the enamel for a controlled time period. Home bleaching with hydrogen peroxide was then used, further improving the final result. The method is safe, easy, and conservative and provides good esthetic results.

  17. Bond strength of resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements after enamel etching.

    PubMed

    Cortes, O; Garcia-Godoy, F; Boj, J R

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of resin-reinforced glass ionomers to enamel etched or unetched. Human, non-carious extracted permanent molars stored in distilled water were used. Flat buccal and lingual enamel surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. The teeth were then distributed at random into six groups of 5 teeth (10 surfaces) each: Group 1: Fuji II LC, no enamel etching; Group 2: Fuji II LC, enamel etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 10 seconds; Group 3: Dyract, no enamel etching; Group 4: Dyract, enamel etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 10 seconds; Group 5: Photac-Fil, no enamel etching; Group 6: Photac-Fil, enamel etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 10 seconds. Cylindrical samples of the glass ionomers were prepared in plastic molds and bonded to the enamel surface according to the manufacturers' instructions. All samples were placed in distilled water for 24 hours, and sheared with an Instron at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results (in MPa) were: Group 1: 11.29 +/- 4.84; Group 2: 19.64 +/- 5.43; Group 3: 8.26 +/- 3.61; Group 4: 22.04 +/- 5.40; Group 5: 2.05 +/- 3.05; Group 6: 9.12 +/- 6.61. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls procedure revealed that on etched enamel, Fuji II LC and Dyract had a significantly higher bond strength than all the other groups tested (P < 0.0001), but not significantly different between each other. With these two groups, cohesive failure within the material was recorded in all samples while in the unetched samples, all specimens displayed an adhesive failure (glass ionomer-enamel interface). All samples with Photac-Fil, with or without enamel etching had adhesive failures.

  18. Critical appraisal. Options for dentin/enamel bonding: part IV.

    PubMed

    Swift, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    Four categories of resin-based dentin/enamel adhesives are currently available. These include the three-step etch-&-rinse, "one-bottle" etch-&-rinse, two-step self-etch primer systems, and "all-in-one" self-etch adhesives. In consecutive issues of the Journal, the Critical Appraisal series is presenting salient publications on research in each of the categories. This final installment of the series focuses on the all-in-one self-etch adhesives.

  19. Critical appraisal. Options for dentin/enamel bonding: Part I.

    PubMed

    Swift, Edward J

    2010-02-01

    Four categories of resin-based dentin/enamel adhesives are currently available. These include the three-step etch-and-rinse, "one-bottle" etch-and-rinse, two-step self-etch primer systems, and "all-in-one" self-etch adhesives. In consecutive issues of the Journal, the Critical Appraisal series will present salient publications on research in each of the categories, beginning with this issue's piece on the three-step etch-and-rinse systems.

  20. Permeability of enamel following light-activated power bleaching.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Schiavoni, Renato J; Serra, Monica C; Froner, Izabel C

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain whether in-office photocured bleaching techniques would increase permeability to enamel. A 7.1 mm2 circular area located in the middle third of the coronal portion of 90 human canines was isolated by applying an acid-resistant varnish to the remaining surfaces of the tooth. According to a randomized complete block design (n = 15), specimens were treated using a 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching product activated by an integrated LED/diode laser (LED/laser) source or a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light. Bleaching was accomplished by applying the 35% hydrogen peroxide agent to the enamel surface in three 10-minute sessions, conducted at one-week intervals over a period of three weeks. For the photocured bleached groups, a bleaching agent was applied to the specimen and irradiated with the LED/laser device or the QTH light for 30 seconds. Negative control groups were exposed to artificial saliva or irradiated by the LED/laser device or the QTH light. Specimens were subjected to a histochemical coloring method that employed copper sulfate and dithio-oxamide solutions. Three 300-microm thick sections taken from the exposed area were imaged in an optical microscope. Permeability was measured in the digitized images as the percentage of copper ions penetration over the total enamel thickness. Friedman's test (alpha = 0.05) showed significant difference among groups. Least significant difference test revealed that in comparison with the group treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide only, there was no significant increase in enamel permeability when bleaching was activated by either the LED/laser or QTH light devices but all bleached groups showed higher permeability than the unbleached/nonirradiated group.

  1. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.

  2. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Willing, Marcia C.; Reis, Steven E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of nonamelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N=3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-byfluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p<0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p<0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  3. Wear and surface roughness of bovine enamel submitted to bleaching.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Azevedo, Juliana Felippi David E Góes De; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Mondelli, José

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated surface roughness and wear of bovine enamel following three different bleaching techniques and simulated brushing. Initial surface roughness (Ra) was evaluated and teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10): Group 1, control; Group 2, 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) activated by a hybrid light; Group 3, 35% HP activated by a halogen light; and Group 4, 16% carbamide peroxide. After bleaching, surface roughness was measured and teeth were subjected to 100,000 cycles of simulated brushing. After brushing, the final roughness and wear was determined. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups comparing initial and postbleaching roughness. After brushing, significant differences were found between the control and experimental groups. Group 4 showed a significant increase in roughness values compared with Group 2. The control group showed significantly less wear than other groups. Bleaching techniques promoted increased roughness and wear of bovine enamel, when submitted to simulated brushing. Tooth enamel after bleaching can present a larger alteration in the amount of roughness due to brushing.

  4. Optical coherence tomography for evaluation of enamel and protective coatings.

    PubMed

    Alsayed, Ehab Z; Hariri, Ilnaz; Sadr, Alireza; Nakashima, Syozi; Bakhsh, Turki A; Shimada, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric imaging technique. This study aimed to employ OCT to evaluate four different resin-based materials including a coating containing glass-ionomer filler and calcium, a giomer, and two fluoride-releasing self-etch resins. The coating and its underlying and adjacent enamel were monitored using swept-source OCT (center wavelength: 1330 nm) at baseline, after 5,000 thermal cycles, and after 1, 4 and 7 days of demineralization (pH 4.5). The coatings showed different thicknesses (60-250 micrometers) and various levels of structural and interfacial integrity. OCT could detect a demineralization inhibition zone adjacent to the edge of the fluoride- and calcium-releasing material. Localized demineralization was occasionally observed under thinner coatings. Protection of susceptible enamel surfaces by thin resin-based bioactive coatings provides protection from demineralization. OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the integrity of such coatings, as well as enamel changes beneath and adjacent to them.

  5. Enamel inspired nano-composite fabrication through amelogenin supramolecular assembly

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuwei; Sun, Zhi; Wang, Rizhi; Abbott, Christopher; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Fabricating the structures similar to dental enamel through the in vitro preparation method is of great interest in the field of dentistry and material science. Developing enamel is composed of calcium phosphate mineral, water, and enamel matrix proteins, mainly amelogenins. To prepare a material mimicking such composition a novel approach of simultaneously assembling amelogenin and calcium phosphate precipitates by electrolytic deposition was established. It was found that recombinant full-length amelogenin (rP172) self-assembled into nanochain structures during electrolytic deposition (following increase in solution pH), and had significant effect on the induction of the parallel bundles of calcium phosphate nanocrystals, grown on semiconductive silicon wafer surface. When a truncated amelogenin (rP148) was used; no nano-chain assembly was observed, neither parallel bundles were formed. The coating obtained in the presence of rP172 had improved elastic modulus and hardness when compared to the coating incorporated with rP148. Our data suggest that the formation of organized bundles in amelogenin-apatite composites is mainly driven by amelogenin nanochain assembly and highlights the potential of such composite for future application as dental restorative materials. PMID:17382381

  6. EPR properties of synthetic apatites, deorganified dentine, and enamel.

    PubMed

    Kenner, G H; Haskell, E H; Hayes, R B; Baig, A; Higuchi, W I

    1998-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) was used to study synthetic hydroxyapatite and approximately 1, 2, and 6% synthetic carbonated apatites, deorganified dentine, and enamel. The carbonated apatites were synthesized by hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate. Comparisons were made with spectra from enamel and deorganified dentine. Microwave power saturation and dose responses were determined for the synthetic materials. The Marquardt version of the Levenberg decomposition method was used to extract individual signals from the apatite data. Two samples of dentine were irradiated with 25 and 100 Gy, respectively, from a 60Co source. The first sample was then deorganified at 200 degreesC using the Soxhlet extraction technique. A third sample was irradiated with 100 Gy after deorganification. The resulting EPR spectra were then compared. It was determined that the dosimetric signal of 2% synthetic carbonated apatite was approximately the same as that of enamel. It was also verified that the dosimetric signal saturates at about 2% in synthetic carbonated apatites. The study established that the precenters responsible for the dosimetric signal (g perpendicular = 2.0018, g parallel = 1.9985) are preferentially concentrated in the surface-accessible region of the mineral component, as shown by the approximately 80% attenuation of the dosimetric signal in dentine following deorganification. The precenters responsible are not destroyed by the deorganification since the magnitude of the dosimetric signal from the dentine specimen irradiated following deorganification was approximately twice that of the comparable untreated, irradiated sample. Finally, the dose response of 2 and 6% synthetic carbonated apatites was determined.

  7. Subpicosecond and picosecond laser ablation of dental enamel: comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Andrei V.; Madsen, Nathan R.; Kolev, Vesselin Z.; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Luther-Davies, Barry; Dawes, Judith M.; Chan, A.

    2004-06-01

    We report the use of sub-picosecond near-IR and ps UV pulsed lasers for precision ablation of freshly extracted human teeth. The sub-picosecond laser wavelength was ~800nm, with pulsewidth 150 fs and pulse repetition rate of 1kHz; the UV laser produced 10 ps pulses at 266 nm with pulse rate of ~1.2x105 pulses/s; both lasers produced ~1 W of output energy, and the laser fluence was kept at the same level of 10-25 J/cm2. Laser radiation from both laser were effectively absorbed in the teeth enamel, but the mechanisms of absorption were radically different: the near-IR laser energy was absorbed in a plasma layer formed through the optical breakdown mechanism initiated by multiphoton absorption, while the UV-radiation was absorbed due to molecular photodissociation of the enamel and conventional thermal deposition. The rise in the intrapulpal temperature was monitored by embedded thermocouples, and was shown to remain low with subpicosecond laser pulses, but risen up to 30°C, well above the 5°C pain level with the UV-laser. This study demonstrates the potential for ultra-short-pulsed lasers to precision and painless ablation of dental enamel, and indicated the optimal combination of laser parameters in terms of pulse energy, duration, intensity, and repetition rate, required for the laser ablation rates comparable to that of mechanical drill.

  8. Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Christopher D; O'Sullivan, Victor R; Dockery, Peter; McGillycuddy, Catherine T; Sloan, Alastair J

    2010-08-01

    Using light microscopy, we examined Hunter-Schreger Band (HSB) patterns on the axial and occlusal/incisal surfaces of 160 human teeth, sectioned in both the buccolingual and mesiodistal planes. We found regional variations in HSB packing densities (number of HSBs per mm of amelodentinal junction length) and patterns throughout the crown of each class of tooth (maxillary and mandibular: incisor, canine, premolar, and molar) examined. HSB packing densities were greatest in areas where functional and occlusal loads are greatest, such as the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and the incisal regions of incisors and canines. From this it is possible to infer that the behaviour of ameloblasts forming enamel prisms during amelogenesis is guided by genetic/evolutionary controls that act to increase the fracture and wear resistance of human tooth enamel. It is suggested that HSB packing densities and patterns are important in modern clinical dental treatments, such as the bonding of adhesive restorations to enamel, and in the development of conditions, such as abfraction and cracked tooth syndrome.

  9. Air-rotor stripping and enamel demineralization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Twesme, D A; Firestone, A R; Heaven, T J; Feagin, F F; Jacobson, A

    1994-02-01

    This investigation sought to evaluate the effects of air-rotor stripping on the susceptibility of human enamel to demineralization using an in vitro caries model. Crowns of extracted premolar teeth were abraded (0.5 mm) on one proximal surface by air-rotor stripping. The teeth were placed in a demineralizing gel and removed at various intervals up to 336 hours. Lesion depth and mineral content on the abraded and intact surfaces was measured with contact microradiography and computerized image analysis (double window technique). For each time interval measured, lesion depth was greater (p < 0.05) on the abraded surfaces and mineral density was significantly less (p < 0.05). In a second experiment, the effect of fluoride supplements (dentifrice or topical gel) were examined on abraded and intact enamel surfaces that were exposed to the acid gel for 192 hours. The data showed that fluoride treatments significantly reduced lesion penetration on intact and abraded surfaces compared with a no fluoride group. Lesion depth on the abraded, fluoride treated surfaces was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than on the intact untreated surfaces. No significant differences (p < 0.05) were apparent between the fluoride treatment groups with respect to lesion depth and mineral density within the lesion. These results suggest that air-rotor stripping significantly increases the susceptibility of proximal enamel surfaces to demineralization. As a result, the clinician should use caution in the application of this technique until the long-term effects on caries susceptibility have been determined.

  10. Development of porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.; Buettner, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    A white porcelain enamel coating was developed for application to high temperature metallic alloy substrates on spacecraft. The coating consists of an optically opacifying zirconia pigment, a lithia-zirconia-silica frit, and an inorganic pigment dispersant. The coating is fired at 1000 to 1150 C to form the enamel. The coating has a solar absorptance of 0.22 and a total normal emittance of 0.82 for a 0.017 cm thick coating. The coating exhibits excellent adhesion, cleanability, and integrity and is thermal shock resistant to 900 C. Capability to coat large panels has been demonstrated by successful coating of 30 cm x 30 cm Hastelloy X alloy panels. Preliminary development of low temperature enamels for application to aluminum and titanium alloy substrates was initiated. It was determined that both leaded and leadless frits were feasible when applied with appropriate mill fluxes. Indications were that opacification could be achieved at firing temperatures below 540 C for extended periods of time.

  11. TGF-β1 autocrine signalling and enamel matrix components

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi-Kinoshita, Saeko; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Onuma, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is present in porcine enamel extracts and is critical for proper mineralization of tooth enamel. Here, we show that the mRNA of latent TGF-β1 is expressed throughout amelogenesis. Latent TGF-β1 is activated by matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20), coinciding with amelogenin processing by the same proteinase. Activated TGF-β1 binds to the major amelogenin cleavage products, particularly the neutral-soluble P103 amelogenin, to maintain its activity. The P103 amelogenin-TGF-β1 complex binds to TGFBR1 to induce TGF-β1 signalling. The P103 amelogenin-TGF-β1 complex is slowly cleaved by kallikrein 4 (KLK4), which is secreted into the transition- and maturation-stage enamel matrix, thereby reducing TGF-β1 activity. To exert the multiple biological functions of TGF-β1 for amelogenesis, we propose that TGF-β1 is activated or inactivated by MMP20 or KLK4 and that the amelogenin cleavage product is necessary for the in-solution mobility of TGF-β1, which is necessary for binding to its receptor on ameloblasts and retention of its activity. PMID:27633089

  12. AFM analysis of bleaching effects on dental enamel microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreira de Freitas, Ana Carolina; Espejo, Luciana Cardoso; Botta, Sergio Brossi; Teixeira, Fernanda de Sa; Luz, Maria Aparecida A. Cerqueira; Garone-Netto, Narciso; Matos, Adriana Bona; Salvadori, Maria Cecilia Barbosa da Silveira

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to test a new methodology to evaluate the effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide agent on the microtopography of sound enamel using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The buccal sound surfaces of three extracted human lower incisors were used, without polishing the surfaces to maintain them with natural morphology. These unpolished surfaces were subjected to bleaching procedure with 35% hydrogen peroxide that consisted of 4 applications of the bleaching agent on enamel surfaces for 10 min each application. Surface images were obtained in a 15 μm × 15 μm area using an AFM. The roughness (Ra and RMS) and the power spectral density (PSD) were obtained before and after the bleaching treatment. As results we could inquire that the PSD analyses were very suitable to identifying the morphological changes on the surfaces, while the Ra and RMS parameters were insufficient to represent the morphological alterations promoted by bleaching procedure on enamel. The morphological wavelength in the range of visible light spectrum (380-750 nm) was analyzed, showing a considerable increase of the PSD with the bleaching treatment.

  13. Continuum damage modeling and simulation of hierarchical dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje

    2016-05-01

    Dental enamel exhibits high fracture toughness and stiffness due to a complex hierarchical and graded microstructure, optimally organized from nano- to macro-scale. In this study, a 3D representative volume element (RVE) model is adopted to study the deformation and damage behavior of the fibrous microstructure. A continuum damage mechanics model coupled to hyperelasticity is developed for modeling the initiation and evolution of damage in the mineral fibers as well as protein matrix. Moreover, debonding of the interface between mineral fiber and protein is captured by employing a cohesive zone model. The dependence of the failure mechanism on the aspect ratio of the mineral fibers is investigated. In addition, the effect of the interface strength on the damage behavior is studied with respect to geometric features of enamel. Further, the effect of an initial flaw on the overall mechanical properties is analyzed to understand the superior damage tolerance of dental enamel. The simulation results are validated by comparison to experimental data from micro-cantilever beam testing at two hierarchical levels. The transition of the failure mechanism at different hierarchical levels is also well reproduced in the simulations.

  14. Clinical evaluation of a new technique for interdental enamel reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, M; Jost-Brinkmann, P G; Zellmann, M; Zellmann, S; Radlanski, R J

    2000-01-01

    In orthodontics, reduction of tooth-size by grinding interproximal surfaces (stripping) of teeth is a common procedure. In order to achieve perfectly smooth surfaces, clinicians have carefully tested various methods and progressively improved this therapeutic procedure. In this in-vivo study we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphologic effect of a 3-step technique using an oscillating perforated diamond-coated disc for enamel reduction and 2 Sof-Lex XT discs for polishing. This technique was applied in 32 patients with an average age of 15.5 years. A total of 296 interproximal surfaces was treated and replicas were produced for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. The scanning electron microscopy investigations demonstrated that more than 90% of the reproximated surfaces were very well or well polished, resulting in polished enamel surfaces smoother than untreated enamel. This technique proved to be clinically expedient as it finished each interproximal surface within about 2.2 minutes. At the same time, it was demonstrated to be safe and comfortable for the patient, eliminating the need for lip or cheek protectors and making injuries unlikely.

  15. Mechanical properties of human enamel under compression: On the feature of calculations.

    PubMed

    Zaytsev, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    The paper is aimed at determination of the causes of shape effect in human tooth enamel under compression and correction of the relevant mechanical characteristics. For this purpose, six groups of samples with different ratios of the compression surface diagonal to the sample height, which consisted of 10 cuboid samples in each, were prepared from the backside of human enamel. The lateral deformation of a sample was calculated at the maximum compressive stress for correction of the mechanical characteristics. It is shown that the ratio between the lateral and axial deformations decreases with an increase in the ratio of the compression surface diagonal to the sample height. This is caused by the friction between the compression plates and the working surfaces of the enamel sample when the lateral deformation is suppressed. In addition, the slope of enamel sample by about 15° occurred during compression due to the inclination of rigid and low deformable enamel rods. The corrections of the elastic modulus and the compression strength taking into account the lateral deformation and the sample slope are carried out. The mechanical properties of enamel samples with the 2.1 aspect ratio are closer to the intrinsic properties of human enamel samples. The elastic modulus and the compression strength of human enamel under compression are 5.64 GPa and 363 MPa, respectively. The lateral deformation (~10%) may be considered as the critical parameter that indicates the strength of human enamel.

  16. Near-surface structural examination of human tooth enamel subject to in vitro demineralization and remineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Carmen Veronica

    The early stages of chemical tooth decay are governed by dynamic processes of demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel that initiates along the surface of the tooth. Conventional diagnostic techniques lack the spatial resolution required to analyze near-surface structural changes in enamel at the submicron level. In this study, slabs of highly-polished, decay-free human enamel were subjected to 0.12M EDTA and buffered lactic acid demineralizing agents and MI Paste(TM) and calcifying (0.1 ppm F) remineralizing treatments in vitro. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), a technique typically used for thin film analysis, provided depth profiles of crystallinity changes in surface enamel with a resolution better than 100 nm. In conjunction with nanoindentation, a technique gaining acceptance as a means of examining the mechanical properties of sound enamel, these results were corroborated with well-established microscopy and Raman techniques to assess the nanohardness, morphologies and chemical nature of treated enamel. Interestingly, the average crystallite size of surface enamel along its c-axis dimension increased by nearly 40% after a 60 min EDTA treatment as detected by GIXD. This result was in direct contrast to the obvious surface degradation observed by microscopic and confocal Raman imaging. A decrease in nanohardness from 4.86 +/- 0.44 GPa to 0.28 +/- 0.10 GPa was observed. Collective results suggest that mineral dissolution characteristics evident on the micron scale may not be fully translated to the nanoscale in assessing the integrity of chemically-modified tooth enamel. While an intuitive decrease in enamel crystallinity was observed with buffered lactic acid-treated samples, demineralization was too slow to adequately quantify the enamel property changes seen. MI Paste(TM) treatment of EDTA-demineralized enamel showed preferential growth along the a-axis direction. Calcifying solution treatments of both demineralized sample types

  17. Enamel Protein Regulation and Dental and Periodontal Physiopathology in Msx2 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Muriel; Descroix, Vianney; Aïoub, Muhanad; Simon, Stéphane; Castañeda, Beatriz; Hotton, Dominique; Bolaños, Alba; Simon, Yohann; Lezot, Frédéric; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Signaling pathways that underlie postnatal dental and periodontal physiopathology are less studied than those of early tooth development. Members of the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msx) family encode homeoproteins that show functional redundancy during development and are known to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to crown morphogenesis and ameloblast cell differentiation. This study analyzed the MSX2 protein during mouse postnatal growth as well as in the adult. The analysis focused on enamel and periodontal defects and enamel proteins in Msx2-null mutant mice. In the epithelial lifecycle, the levels of MSX2 expression and enamel protein secretion were inversely related. Msx2+/− mice showed increased amelogenin expression, enamel thickness, and rod size. Msx2−/− mice displayed compound phenotypic characteristics of enamel defects, related to both enamel-specific gene mutations (amelogenin and enamelin) in isolated amelogenesis imperfecta, and cell-cell junction elements (laminin 5 and cytokeratin 5) in other syndromes. These effects were also related to ameloblast disappearance, which differed between incisors and molars. In Msx2−/− roots, Malassez cells formed giant islands that overexpressed amelogenin and ameloblastin that grew over months. Aberrant expression of enamel proteins is proposed to underlie the regional osteopetrosis and hyperproduction of cellular cementum. These enamel and periodontal phenotypes of Msx2 mutants constitute the first case report of structural and signaling defects associated with enamel protein overexpression in a postnatal context. PMID:20934968

  18. Remineralizing effect of cold plasma and/or bioglass on demineralized enamel.

    PubMed

    El-Wassefy, Noha A

    2017-01-20

    This study investigated the combining effect of cold plasma and bioglass-phosphoric acid paste on demineralized enamel. Fifty bovine incisors' enamel specimens were challenged by a demineralization solution of pH 4.47 for 72 h. Specimens were divided into five groups: (I) Control, demineralized enamel (C); (II) Demineralized enamel treated with fluoride varnish (F); (III) Cold plasma application to demineralized enamel (P); (IV) Demineralized enamel treated with bioglass paste (B); (V) Application of bioglass paste to cold plasma-treated demineralized enamel (PB). Specimens were then immersed in remineralizing solution for 24 h, before being examined with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and cross-sectional micro-hardness measurement. The results showed that; treating demineralized enamel with cold plasmas before bioglass application ensued a significant high mineral volume recovery and micro-hardness of demineralized region. It can be concluded that cold plasmas may improve the remineralization of bioglass on demineralized enamel.

  19. Effects of hydrogen peroxide-containing bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Ernst, C P; Marroquín, B B; Willershausen-Zönnchen, B

    1996-01-01

    The effects of four bleaching agents (Opalescence, HiLite, 30% hydrogen peroxide, and 30% hydrogen peroxide mixed with sodium perborate) and 37% phosphoric acid on the external surface of human enamel were examined with the scanning electron microscope. The materials were applied to the enamel surfaces of 60 specimens obtained from 10 teeth. Each test agent was applied to one specimen from each tooth. One specimen of each tooth was left untreated. Comparison to the untreated control surfaces revealed that enamel exposed to the bleaching agents underwent slight morphologic surface alterations. The enamel surfaces treated with phosphoric acid, in contrast, showed severe morphologic alterations.

  20. Circadian Rhythm Regulates Development of Enamel in Mouse Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jiang; Zhai, Yue; Park, Hyun; Han, Junli; Dong, Jianhui; Xie, Ming; Gu, Ting; Lewi, Keidren; Ji, Fang; Jia, William

    2016-01-01

    Rhythmic incremental growth lines and the presence of melatonin receptors were discovered in tooth enamel, suggesting possible role of circadian rhythm. We therefore hypothesized that circadian rhythm may regulate enamel formation through melatonin receptors. To test this hypothesis, we examined expression of melatonin receptors (MTs) and amelogenin (AMELX), a maker of enamel formation, during tooth germ development in mouse. Using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we found that mRNA and protein levels of both MTs and AMELX in normal mandibular first molar tooth germs increased gradually after birth, peaked at 3 or 4 day postnatal, and then decreased. Expression of MTs and AMELX by immunocytochemistry was significantly delayed in neonatal mice raised in all-dark or all-light environment as well as the enamel development. Furthermore, development of tooth enamel was also delayed showing significant immature histology in those animals, especially for newborn mice raised in all daylight condition. Interestingly, disruption in circadian rhythm in pregnant mice also resulted in delayed enamel development in their babies. Treatment with melatonin receptor antagonist 4P-PDOT in pregnant mice caused underexpression of MTs and AMELX associated with long-lasting deficiency in baby enamel tissue. Electromicroscopic evidence demonstrated increased necrosis and poor enamel mineralization in ameloblasts. The above results suggest that circadian rhythm is important for normal enamel development at both pre- and postnatal stages. Melatonin receptors were partly responsible for the regulation. PMID:27494172

  1. Bmp2 deletion causes an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype via regulating enamel gene expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Feng, Junsheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Wentong; Gao, Qingping; Chen, Zhuo; Shoff, Lisa; Donly, Kevin J; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Chun, Yong Hee Patricia; Harris, Stephen E; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Although Bmp2 is essential for tooth formation, the role of Bmp2 during enamel formation remains unknown in vivo. In this study, the role of Bmp2 in regulation of enamel formation was investigated by the Bmp2 conditional knock out (Bmp2 cKO) mice. Teeth of Bmp2 cKO mice displayed severe and profound phenotypes with asymmetric and misshaped incisors as well as abrasion of incisors and molars. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the enamel layer was hypoplastic and enamel lacked a typical prismatic pattern. Teeth from null mice were much more brittle as tested by shear and compressive moduli. Expression of enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, enamelin, and enamel-processing proteases, Mmp-20 and Klk4 was reduced in the Bmp2 cKO teeth as reflected in a reduced enamel formation. Exogenous Bmp2 up-regulated those gene expressions in mouse enamel organ epithelial cells. This result for the first time indicates Bmp2 signaling is essential for proper enamel development and mineralization in vivo.

  2. Composite fillings microleakage after TEM00 Er: YAG laser texturing of human tooth enamel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Fedotov, D. Y.

    2010-11-01

    The results of comparative investigation of methylene-blue microleakage between tooth enamel surface and light-cure composites various fluidity are presented. An enamel surface was treated by traditional methods or laser method (laser texturing). The role of adhesive systems is investigated at enamel texturing by the TEM00 Er: YAG radiation. It is shown, that microleakage was not observed when enamel was textured by the TEM00 Er: YAG laser radiation and covered with flowable composite "Revolution" (Kerr) without adhesive system. It is established, that for laser textured surfaces methylene-blue microleakage depends on distance between microcraters.

  3. Durability of enamel bonding using two-step self-etch systems on ground and unground enamel.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Pellizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Patzlaff, Rafael Tiago; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda; Reis, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the early and long-term microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) and interfacial enamel gap formation (IGW) of two-step self-etch systems to unground and ground enamel. Resin composite (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to proximal enamel surfaces (unground, bur-cut or SiC-treated enamel) of third molars after the application of four self-etch adhesives: a mild (Clearfil SE Bond [SE]), two moderate (Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etch Primer [SO] and AdheSE [AD]) and a strong adhesive (Tyrian Self Priming Etchant + One Step Plus [TY]) and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (Single Bond [SB] and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus [SBMP]). Ten tooth halves were assigned for each adhesive. After storage in water (24 hours/37 degrees C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (0.9 mm2) and subjected to microTBS (0.5 mm/minute) or interfacial gap width measurement (stereomicroscope at 400x) either immediately (IM) or after 12 months (12M) of water storage. The data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). No gap formation was observed in any experimental condition. The microTBS in the Si-C paper and diamond bur groups were similar and greater than the unground group only for the moderate self-etch systems (SO and AD). No reductions in bond strength values were observed after 12 months of water storage, regardless of the adhesive evaluated.

  4. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Patrick; Zobrist, Katja; Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the re-hardening potential of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and self-assembling peptides in vitro, hypothesizing that these materials may increase the mineralization of artificial carious lesions and improve hardness profiles. Material and Methods Forty-eight enamel samples were prepared from extracted bovine lower central incisors. After embedding and polishing, nail varnish was applied, leaving a defined test area. One third of this area was covered with a flowable composite (non-demineralized control). The remaining area was demineralized in an acidic buffer solution for 18 d to simulate a carious lesion. Half the demineralized area was then covered with composite (demineralized control), while the last third was left open for three test and one control treatments: (A) Application of enamel-matrix proteins (EMD - lyophilized protein fractions dissolved in acetic acid, Straumann), (B) self-assembling peptides (SAP, Curodont), or (C) amine fluoride solution (Am-F, GABA) for 5 min each. Untreated samples (D) served as control. After treatment, samples were immersed in artificial saliva for four weeks (remineralization phase) and microhardness (Knoop) depth profiles (25-300 µm) were obtained at sections. Two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine differences between the areas (re-hardening or softening). Results Decalcification resulted in significant softening of the subsurface enamel in all groups (A-D). A significant re-hardening up to 125 µm was observed in the EMD and SAP groups. Conclusions This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect. PMID:27008255

  5. V-type ATPase proton pump expression during enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Juni; Wen, Xin; Simanian, Emil J; Paine, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Several diseases such as proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis and osteoporosis are related to intracellular pH dysregulation resulting from mutations in genes coding for ion channels, including proteins comprising the proton-pumping V-type ATPase. V-type ATPase is a multi-subunit protein complex expressed in enamel forming cells. V-type ATPase plays a key role in enamel development, specifically lysosomal acidification, yet our understanding of the relationship between the endocytotic activities and dental health and disease is limited. The objective of this study is to better understand the ameloblast-associated pH regulatory networks essential for amelogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on tissues from secretory-stage and maturation-stage enamel organs to determine which of the V-type ATPase subunits are most highly upregulated during maturation-stage amelogenesis: a time when ameloblast endocytotic activity is highest. Western blot analyses, using specific antibodies to four of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v0d2, Atp6v1b2, Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), were then applied to validate much of the qPCR data. Immunohistochemistry using these same four antibodies was also performed to identify the spatiotemporal expression profiles of individual V-type ATPase subunits. Our data show that cytoplasmic V-type ATPase is significantly upregulated in enamel organ cells during maturation-stage when compared to secretory-stage. These data likely relate to the higher endocytotic activities, and the greater need for lysosomal acidification, during maturation-stage amelogenesis. It is also apparent from our immunolocalization data, using antibodies against two of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), that significant expression is seen at the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. Others have also identified this V-type ATPase expression profile at the apical membrane of maturation ameloblasts. Collectively, these data better define the

  6. Microstructure and mechanical changes induced by Q-Switched pulse laser on human enamel with aim of caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apsari, R.; Pratomo, D. A.; Hikmawati, D.; Bidin, N.

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser energy dose to human enamel caries. The specifications of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser as followed: wavelength of 1064 nm and 6 ns pulse width. Caries enamel samples taken from human teeth molars of 17-35 ages and the type of media caries. Energy doses used in this study were 723.65 mJ/cm2, 767.72 mJ/cm2, and 1065.515 mJ/cm2; 5 Hz repetition rate, and 20 second exposure time. Samples characterized the surface morphology and the percentage of constituent elements, especially calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) with FESEM-EDAX. The fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of hydroxyapatite (HA) with XRD and hardness value using Vickers Microhardness Test. The results indicated that exposure of Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser on enamel caries resulting cracks, holes, and melt due to plasma production effects in the surface. Plasma production effect also resulted in micro properties such as percentage of Ca/P was close to normal, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA went up but did not change the crystal structure (in terms of the lattice structure). The hardness value also rose as linear as exposure energy dose caused by phototermal effect. Based on the results, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser can be used as contactless drill dental caries replacement candidate with the additional therapy effect such as localized caries in order to avoid the spread, the ratio of Ca/P approaching healthy teeth, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA rose and established stronger teeth with peak energy dose 1065.515 mJ/cm2.

  7. Combining CPP-ACP with fluoride: a synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayad, I. I.; Sakr, A. K.; Badr, Y. A.

    2008-08-01

    Background and objective: Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) calls for early detection and remineralization of initial demineralization. Laser fluorescence is efficient in detecting changes in mineral tooth content. Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which delivers calcium and phosphate ions to enamel. A new product which also contains fluoride is launched in United States. The remineralizing potential of CPP- ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl supplied in an oral care gel on artificially demineralised enamel using laser fluorescence was investigated. Methods: Fifteen sound human molars were selected. Mesial surfaces were tested using He-Cd laser beam at 441.5nm with 18mW power as excitation source on a suitable set-up based on Spex 750 M monochromator provided with PMT for detection of collected auto-fluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces were subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel were measured. Teeth were then divided according to the remineralizing regimen into three groups: group I recaldent per se, group II recaldent combined with fluoride gel and group III artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from remineralized enamel from the three groups were measured. The spectra of enamel auto-fluorescence were recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare between spectra from sound, demineralized and remineralized enamel surfaces. Results: A slight red shift was noticed in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group II showed the highest remineralizing potential. Conclusions: Combining fluoride with CPP-ACP had a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization. In addition, laser auto-fluorescence is an accurate technique for assessment of changes in tooth enamel minerals.

  8. Three years in vivo wear: core-ceramic, veneers, and enamel antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F.; Rose, William F.; Barrett, Allyson A.; Oliveira, Erica R.; Yang, Mark C.K.; Clark, Arthur E.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Test the hypotheses that there are equivalent wear rates for enamel-versus-enamel and ceramic-versus-enamel, analyzing the in vivo wear of crown ceramics, their natural enamel antagonists, and the corresponding two contralateral teeth; and, that bite force does not correlate with the wear. Methods A controlled, clinical trial was conducted involving patients needing full coverage crowns opposing enamel antagonists. Bite forces were measured using a bilateral gnathodynamometer. Single-unit restorations of metal/ceramic (Argedent 62, Argen Corp/IPS d.SIGN veneer); or, core-ceramic/veneer from either, Empress2/Eris, or e.maxPress core/e.maxCeram glaze (ceramics: Ivoclar Vivadent, USA) were randomly assigned, fabricated and cemented. Impressions were made of the ceramic crowns, as well as each maxillary and mandibular quadrant at one week (baseline) and one, two and three years. Resulting models were scanned (3D laser scanner). Maximum wear was calculated by superimposing baseline with annual images. Results There were a total of thirty-six crowns required for thirty-one patients. Each restoration had three associated enamel teeth; 1) crown, 2) antagonist, 3) contralateral, and 4) contralateral-antagonist. SAS PROC MIXED (α=0.05) indicated no statistical significance for mean maximum wear among crown ceramics, enamel antagonists and contralaterals. However, enamel wear was statistically significant in relation to intraoral location (p=0.04) and among years (p<0.02). Analyzed alone, the enamel contralateral-antagonist exhibited significantly greater wear (p<0.001). Considering all wear sites, there was no correlation with bite force (p=0.15). Significance The ceramics and their antagonists exhibited in vivo wear rates within the range of normal enamel. Future studies should examine the wear implications of the contralateral-antagonist enamel. PMID:22410113

  9. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  10. Quantitative assessment of the enamel machinability in tooth preparation with dental diamond burs.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Jin, Chen-Xin; Yin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Enamel cutting using dental handpieces is a critical process in tooth preparation for dental restorations and treatment but the machinability of enamel is poorly understood. This paper reports on the first quantitative assessment of the enamel machinability using computer-assisted numerical control, high-speed data acquisition, and force sensing systems. The enamel machinability in terms of cutting forces, force ratio, cutting torque, cutting speed and specific cutting energy were characterized in relation to enamel surface orientation, specific material removal rate and diamond bur grit size. The results show that enamel surface orientation, specific material removal rate and diamond bur grit size critically affected the enamel cutting capability. Cutting buccal/lingual surfaces resulted in significantly higher tangential and normal forces, torques and specific energy (p<0.05) but lower cutting speeds than occlusal surfaces (p<0.05). Increasing material removal rate for high cutting efficiencies using coarse burs yielded remarkable rises in cutting forces and torque (p<0.05) but significant reductions in cutting speed and specific cutting energy (p<0.05). In particular, great variations in cutting forces, torques and specific energy were observed at the specific material removal rate of 3mm(3)/min/mm using coarse burs, indicating the cutting limit. This work provides fundamental data and the scientific understanding of the enamel machinability for clinical dental practice.

  11. Function and repair of dental enamel - Potential role of epithelial transport processes of ameloblasts.

    PubMed

    Varga, Gábor; Kerémi, Beáta; Bori, Erzsébet; Földes, Anna

    2015-07-01

    The hardest mammalian tissue, dental enamel is produced by ameloblasts, which are electrolyte-transporting epithelial cells. Although the end product is very different, they show many similarities to transporting epithelia of the pancreas, salivary glands and kidney. Enamel is produced in a multi-step epithelial secretory process that features biomineralization which is an interplay of secreted ameloblast specific proteins and the time-specific transport of minerals, protons and bicarbonate. First, "secretory" ameloblasts form the entire thickness of the enamel layer, but with low mineral content. Then they differentiate into "maturation" ameloblasts, which remove organic matrix from the enamel and in turn further build up hydroxyapatite crystals. The protons generated by hydroxyapatite formation need to be buffered, otherwise enamel will not attain full mineralization. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. The whole process has been the focus of many immunohistochemical and gene knock-out studies, but, perhaps surprisingly, no functional data existed for mineral ion transport by ameloblasts. However, recent studies including ours provided a better insight for molecular mechanism of mineral formation. The secretory regulation is not completely known as yet, but its significance is crucial. Impairing regulation retards or prevents completion of enamel mineralization and results in the development of hypomineralized enamel that easily erodes after dental eruption. Factors that impair this function are fluoride and disruption of pH regulators. Revealing these factors may eventually lead to the treatment of enamel hypomineralization related to genetic or environmentally induced malformation.

  12. Hydroxyapatite-anchored dendrimer for in situ remineralization of human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duo; Yang, Jiaojiao; Li, Jiyao; Chen, Liang; Tang, Bei; Chen, Xingyu; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2013-07-01

    In situ remineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA) on human tooth enamel surface induced by organic matrices is of great interest in the fields of material science and stomatology. In order to mimic the organic matrices induced biomineralization process in developing enamel and enhance the binding strength at the remineralization interface, carboxyl-terminated poly(amido amine) (PAMAM-COOH)-alendronate (ALN) conjugate (ALN-PAMAM-COOH) was synthesized and characterized. PAMAM-COOH has a highly ordered architecture and is capable of promoting the HA crystallization process. ALN is conjugated on PAMAM-COOH due to its specific adsorption on HA (the main component of tooth enamel), resulting in increased binding strength which is tight enough to resist phosphate buffered saline (PBS) rinsing as compared with that of PAMAM-COOH alone. While incubated in artificial saliva, ALN-PAMAM-COOH could induce in situ remineralization of HA on acid-etched enamel, and the regenerated HA has the nanorod-like crystal structure similar to that of human tooth enamel. The hardness of acid-etched enamel samples treated by ALN-PAMAM-COOH can recover up to 95.5% of the original value with strong adhesion force. In vivo experiment also demonstrates that ALN-PAMAM-COOH is effective in repairing acid-etched enamel in the oral cavity. Overall, these results suggest that ALN-PAMAM-COOH is highly promising as a restorative biomaterial for in situ remineralization of human tooth enamel.

  13. Effect of tooth bleaching agents on protein content and mechanical properties of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Elfallah, Hunida M; Bertassoni, Luiz E; Charadram, Nattida; Rathsam, Catherine; Swain, Michael V

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of two bleaching agents, 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), on the mechanical properties and protein content of human enamel from freshly extracted teeth. The protein components of control and treated enamel were extracted and examined on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Marked reduction of the protein matrix and random fragmentation of the enamel proteins after bleaching treatments was found. The mechanical properties were analyzed with Vickers indentations to characterize fracture toughness, and nanoindentation to establish enamel hardness, elastic modulus and creep deformation. Results indicate that the hardness and elastic modulus of enamel were significantly reduced after treatment with CP and HP. After bleaching, the creep deformation at maximum load increased and the recovery upon unloading reduced. Crack lengths of CP and HP treated enamel were increased, while fracture toughness decreased. Additionally, the microstructures of fractured and indented samples were examined with field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) showing distinct differences in the fracture surface morphology between pre- and post-bleached enamel. In conclusion, tooth bleaching agents can produce detrimental effects on the mechanical properties of enamel, possibly as a consequence of damaging or denaturing of its protein components.

  14. A simple model for the effect of flouride ions on remineralization of partly demineralized tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, J.; Christoffersen, M. R.; Arends, J.

    1984-06-01

    A model is presented for remineralization of partly demineralized tooth enamel, taking the effect of the presence of fluoride ions into account. The model predicts that, in the absence of precipitation of other phases than calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and fluroridized HAP, which are assumed to model enamel, there exists a maximum value of the fluoride concentration gradient, above which lesions cannot be successfully repaired.

  15. Altered inorganic composition of dental enamel and dentin in primary teeth from girls with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rizell, Sara; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Dietz, Wolfram; Norén, Jörgen G; Lundgren, Ted

    2010-04-01

    In Turner syndrome (TS) one X-chromosome is missing or defective. The amelogenin gene, located on the X-chromosome, plays a key role during the formation of dental enamel. The aim of this study was to find support for the hypothesis that impaired expression of the X-chromosome influences mineral incorporation during amelogenesis and, indirectly, during dentinogenesis. Primary tooth enamel and dentin from girls with TS were analysed and compared with the enamel and dentin of primary teeth from healthy girls. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of TS enamel were found, in addition to morphological differences. Higher frequencies of subsurface lesions and rod-free zones were seen in TS enamel using polarized light microscopy. Similarly, scanning electron microscopy showed that the enamel rods from TS teeth were of atypical sizes and directions. Using X-ray microanalysis, high levels of calcium and phosphorus, and low levels of carbon, were found in both TS enamel and dentin. Using microradiography, a lower degree of mineralization was found in TS enamel. Rule induction analysis was performed to identify characteristic element patterns for TS. Low values of carbon were the most critical attributes for the outcome TS. The conclusion was that impaired expression of the X-chromosome has an impact on dental hard tissue formation.

  16. Effect of fluoridated carbamide peroxide gels on enamel microtensile bond strength.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Fen; Chen, Hui-Ping; Chang, Chih-Han; Liu, Jia-Kuang

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the resin bond strength on enamel treated with different fluoridated bleaching agents. Forty-eight bovine incisors were divided into four groups to receive bleaching treatments, over a 14-d period, as follows: no treatment; 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching; 10% CP containing 0.11% fluoride; and 10% CP containing 0.37% fluoride. Immediately, and 7 and 14 d after bleaching, the enamel surfaces were respectively bonded with composite and sectioned to create resin-enamel beams. These beams were subjected to the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) test, then assessed for failure mode under scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the 0.37% fluoridated group demonstrated a microTBS equivalent to that of the unbleached group at all stages. Non-fluoridated and 0.11% fluoridated groups showed a weaker microTBS after bleaching but regained the bond strength after 14 or 7 d of storage, respectively. In the non-fluoridated group, adhesive failure was the predominant fracture pattern that comprised the enamel prism demineralization change and widely dispersed voids on the resin-enamel interfaces. No evident enamel erosion and fewer microporosities were found in the 0.37% fluoridated group. Accordingly, treatment with 0.37% fluoridated CP maintained the microTBS as effectively as the unbleached enamel. Additional fluoride in the bleaching agents may facilitate subsequent restorative treatment by inhibiting enamel demineralization.

  17. Shear bond strength of resin to acid/pumice-microabraded enamel.

    PubMed

    Royer, M A; Meiers, J C

    1995-01-01

    The effect of enamel microabrasion techniques consisting of either 18% hydrochloric acid in pumice or a commercially available abrasive/10% hydrochloric acid mixture, PREMA, on composite/enamel shear bond strengths was investigated. Sixty extracted third molars had the bonding surface flattened and were divided into six treatment groups (n=10) with the enamel treated prior to bonding as follows: Group 1-- untreated; Group 2--37% phosphoric acid etched for 30 seconds; Group 3--18% hydrochloric acid/pumice mixture applied for five 20-second treatments; Group 4--similar to Group 3 with additional 37% phosphoric acid etch; Group 5--treated with PREMA compound applied for five 20-second treatments; Group 6--similar to Group 5 treatment with additional 37% phosphoric acid. Herculite XR composite resin was then bonded to all samples using a VLC unit. Samples were tested in shear, and fractured enamel surfaces were evaluated using light microscopy to determine the enamel-to-resin failures. Resin bond strengths to microabraded and H3PO4-etched enamel were similar to bond strengths of untreated H3PO4-etched enamel and were significantly better than bond strengths to PREMA-treated or unetched enamel.

  18. The Impact of Fluoride on Ameloblasts and the Mechanisms of Enamel Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Lyaruu, D.M.; DenBesten, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Intake of excess amounts of fluoride during tooth development cause enamel fluorosis, a developmental disturbance that makes enamel more porous. In mild fluorosis, there are white opaque striations across the enamel surface, whereas in more severe cases, the porous regions increase in size, with enamel pitting, and secondary discoloration of the enamel surface. The effects of fluoride on enamel formation suggest that fluoride affects the enamel-forming cells, the ameloblasts. Studies investigating the effects of fluoride on ameloblasts and the mechanisms of fluorosis are based on in vitro cultures as well as animal models. The use of these model systems requires a biologically relevant fluoride dose, and must be carefully interpreted in relation to human tooth formation. Based on these studies, we propose that fluoride can directly affect the ameloblasts, particularly at high fluoride levels, while at lower fluoride levels, the ameloblasts may respond to local effects of fluoride on the mineralizing matrix. A new working model is presented, focused on the assumption that fluoride increases the rate of mineral formation, resulting in a greater release of protons into the forming enamel matrix. PMID:19783795

  19. Enamel defects associated with coeliac disease: putative role of antibodies against gliadin in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Florencia; Del Río, Natalia; Sóñora, Cecilia; Tiscornia, Inés; Marco, Alicia; Hernández, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Enamel defects in the permanent teeth of patients with coeliac disease (CD) are often reported as an atypical manifestation, sometimes being suggestive of an undiagnosed atypical disease. We proposed to explore the pathogenesis of these oral defects, which are poorly studied. Sequence analyses of proteins from gluten (gliadins) and of proline-rich enamel proteins (amelogenin and ameloblastin) suggested the presence of common antigenic motifs. Therefore, we analyzed, by ELISA and western blotting, the reactivity of sera from patients with CD against gliadin and enamel-derived peptides. Correlation analyses between the levels of specific antibodies against gliadin and enamel derived peptides and inhibition experiments confirmed the presence of cross-reactive antibodies. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the most prominent component in enamel matrix derivative (of approximately 18.6 kDa), identified by an amelogenin-specific antibody, is recognized by sera from patients with CD; in addition, several fractions of pure gliadin were recognized by amelogenin-specific antibody. In agreement, sera from mice immunized with enamel matrix-derived proteins generated antibodies that recognized a peptide (of approximately 21.2 kDa) derived from gliadin. In conclusion, antibodies against gliadin generated in patients with CD can react in vitro with a major enamel protein. The involvement of anti-gliadin serum in the pathogenesis of enamel defects in children with untreated CD can be hypothesized on the basis of these novel results.

  20. SEM and profilometric evaluation of enamel surface after air rotor stripping--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Szymkowski, Janusz; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate roughness of the enamel surface after Air Rotor Stripping (ARS). Thirty interproximal surfaces of human premolars were used as the biological material. Research was conducted using a contact profilometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sets of 3D parameters and topographical maps of enamel surface before and after ARS treatment were used to define roughness of the surfaces. SEM images of stripped surfaces were taken with microscopic magnification of 100x and 1000x. The data revealed a general roughness of enamel arising after ARS procedure. Summarized values of chosen parameters increased after ARS procedure compared to the values of untreated enamel. Topographical maps showed areas of both well polished and badly polished enamel. In conclusion, comparison of the mean values of the measured parameters of ARS treated enamel surfaces indicated that roughness of the enamel arises after ARS, but it must be emphasized that on every evaluated surface well polished areas were also present. Moreover, the well polished areas were smoother than those on the untreated enamel surfaces. Contact fluoridation and improved oral hygiene after ARS appear to be necessary because of the presence of areas of increased roughness on evaluated surfaces.

  1. Effects of experimental xylitol varnishes and solutions on bovine enamel erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jonas G; Rochel, Isabela D; Pereira, Agnes F F; Silva, Thiago C; Rios, Daniela; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2010-12-01

    This in vitro study aimed to analyze the effects of application of xylitol varnishes and solutions to protect against enamel erosion. Twelve bovine enamel specimens were pre-treated with 5% NaF-Duraphat varnish, 10% xylitol varnish, 20% xylitol varnish, placebo varnish, 5% NaF solution, 10% xylitol solution or 20% xylitol solution. The varnishes and solutions were applied for 6 h and 1 min, respectively. Controls remained untreated (n = 12). Specimens were then subjected to erosive demineralization (Coca-Cola, 4 × 90 s/d) and remineralization (artificial saliva, 2 h) cycling for 10 days. After 5 days, the varnishes and solutions were reapplied. After reapplication, two specimens per group were analyzed by SEM. Enamel loss was measured profilometrically after the 5th and 10th days. Data were then analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (n = 10, P < 0.05). After the 5th day, all varnishes and 20% xylitol solution significantly reduced the enamel loss when compared to the placebo varnish/control. After 10 days of erosive pH cycling, both xylitol varnishes and solutions significantly reduced the enamel erosion when compared with the control. However, 10% xylitol solution produced a smooth layer on eroded enamel and significantly reduced the enamel erosion when compared to the placebo varnish/control. Xylitol thus appears to be a good option to partially reduce enamel erosion.

  2. Evaluating EDTA as a substitute for phosphoric acid-etching of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Imbery, Terence A; Kennedy, Matthew; Janus, Charles; Moon, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes released when dentin is acid-etched. The enzymes are capable of destroying unprotected collagen fibrils that are not encapsulated by the dentin adhesive. Chlorhexidine applied after etching inhibits the activation of released MMPs, whereas neutral ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) prevents the release of MMPs. The purpose of this study was to determine if conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA can be a substitute for treating acid-etching enamel and dentin with chlorhexidine. A column of composite resin was bonded to enamel and dentin after conditioning. Shear bond strengths were evaluated after 48 hours and after accelerated aging for three hours in 12% sodium hypochlorite. Shear bond strengths ranged from 15.6 MP a for accelerated aged EDTA enamel specimens to 26.8 MPa for dentin conditioned with EDTA and tested after 48 hours. A three-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test found statistically significant differences among the eight groups and the three independent variables (P < 0.05). EDTA was successfully substituted for phosphoric acid-etched enamel and dentin treated with chlorhexidine. Interactions of conditioning agent and aging were significant for dentin but not for enamel. In an effort to reduce the detrimental effects of MMPs, conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA is an alternative to treating acid-etched dentin and enamel with chlorhexidine.

  3. Developmental defects of enamel and dentine: challenges for basic science research and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Seow, W K

    2014-06-01

    Abnormalities of enamel and dentine are caused by a variety of interacting factors ranging from genetic defects to environmental insults. The genetic changes associated with some types of enamel and dentine defects have been mapped, and many environmental influences, including medical illnesses that can damage enamel and dentine have been identified. Developmental enamel defects may present as enamel hypoplasia or hypomineralization while dentine defects frequently demonstrate aberrant calcifications and abnormalities of the dentine-pulp complex. Clinically, developmental enamel defects often present with problems of discolouration and aesthetics, tooth sensitivity, and susceptibility to caries, wear and erosion. In contrast, dentine defects are a risk for endodontic complications resulting from dentine hypomineralization and pulpal abnormalities. The main goals of managing developmental abnormalities of enamel and dentine are early diagnosis and improvement of appearance and function by preserving the dentition and preventing complications. However, despite major advances in scientific knowledge regarding the causes of enamel and dentine defects, further research is required in order to translate the knowledge gained in the basic sciences research to accurate clinical diagnosis and successful treatment of the defects.

  4. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Enamel Surface Recovery from Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tracie; Ho, Jessica; Anbarani, Afarin Golabgir; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Takesh, Thair; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background Objective was to evaluate the in vivo effects of a novel dental gel (Livionex gelR) vs. a comparison dental gel on the surfaces of pre-eroded enamel chips. Methods On days 1–5, after toothbrushing with dentifrice, nine subjects each wore 8 enamel chips mounted on a palatal appliance for 4 h. Enamel blocks were pre-demineralized daily. After 2 day washout, subjects repeated the protocol using fresh chips and the second toothpaste on days 8–12. Samples were evaluated using electron microscopy. Results Ten standardized enamel surface photomicrographs/sample (total 1440 images) were evaluated for signs of erosion visually and on a scale of 0–3 by 1 evaluator. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups (p>0.32, 95% C.I.). Minimal surface erosion on approx. 15% of sample area was visible in both groups. Conclusion The enamel surface appeared similar after usage of a test or control dentifrice. Based on this study, the test formulation did not affect enamel surface recovery from an erosive challenge. Practical implications Dentifrices can contribute to maintaining a healthy enamel surface. An all-natural dental gel formulation with novel anti-plaque mechanism achieved similar recovery from acid challenge to enamel as a control gel. PMID:28344856

  5. Refractory porcelain enamel passive-thermal-control coating for high-temperature superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Auker, B. H.; Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    Study was conducted to match thermal expansion coefficients thereby preventing enamels from cracking. Report discusses various enamel coatings that are applied to two different high-temperature superalloys. Study may be of interest to manufacturers of chemical equipment, furnaces, and metal components intended for high-temperature applications.

  6. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  7. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray micro analysis on tooth enamel exposed to alkaline agents.

    PubMed

    Taubee, Fabian; Steiniger, Frank; Nietzsche, Sandor; Norén, Jörgen G

    2010-01-01

    The background of this study comprises two clinical cases, where patients exposed to aerosols of an alkaline and surface active cleaning agent developed loss of enamel substance on their teeth, further resulting in loss of teeth and partially destroyed soft tissues. The alkaline cleaning agent consisted of potassium hydroxide and various surfactants. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible changes in morphology and composition in human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions, by means of X-ray micro analysis (XRMA), FTIR-spectroscopic analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extracted premolars, exposed to potassium hydroxide solutions and alkaline cleaning solution,were analyzed by means of XRMA and SEM. Enamel powder, exposed to cleaning solution, was analyzed by means of FTIR. The SEM analysis revealed an increased porosity of the enamel surface and partially loss of enamel substance after exposure to alkaline solutions. The XRMA analyses revealed a decrease in carbon concentration while phosphorous and calcium showed no marked changes. The FTIR analyses showed no significant changes in peak heights or peak positions for phosphate, carbonate or hydroxide. It was concluded that human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions showed loss of organic substance, marked pores in enamel surface and loss of substance in the enamel surface.

  8. An in vitro evaluation of selective demineralised enamel removal using bio-active glass air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Avijit; Pabari, Hiten; Paolinelis, George; Thompson, Ian D; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-12-01

    Unnecessary over-preparation of carious enamel often occurs clinically during operative caries management. The working hypothesis to be investigated in this study is the potential for bio-active glass air abrasion to remove selectively only demineralised enamel in artificial enamel lesions when compared to equivalent alumina air abrasion, so potentially minimising cavity over-preparation. Bisected artificial, paired smooth surface enamel lesions on ethics-approved, extracted sound human molars were created and subsequently air abraded with 27 μm alumina (n = 19) and bio-active glass (n = 19). The difference between pre-operative lesion boundary and post-operative cavity margin was calculated following optical confocal fluorescent assessment of the lesion boundary. Data indicated mean% over-preparation (sound enamel removal) of 176% with alumina and 15.2% for bio-active glass (p = 0.005). Bio-active glass abrasion removed completely the demineralised enamel from artificial lesions with clinically insignificant over-preparation of sound tissue, indicating technique selectivity towards grossly demineralised enamel. Alumina air abrasion resulted in substantial enamel removal in both sound and demineralised tissues indicating the operator selectivity required to use the techniques effectively in clinical practice.

  9. Mapping residual organics and carbonate at grain boundaries and the amorphous interphase in mouse incisor enamel

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Lyle M.; Joester, Derk

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel has evolved to resist the most grueling conditions of mechanical stress, fatigue, and wear. Adding insult to injury, it is exposed to the frequently corrosive environment of the oral cavity. While its hierarchical structure is unrivaled in its mechanical resilience, heterogeneity in the distribution of magnesium ions and the presence of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP) as an intergranular phase have recently been shown to increase the susceptibility of mouse enamel to acid attack. Herein we investigate the distribution of two important constituents of enamel, residual organic matter and inorganic carbonate. We find that organics, carbonate, and possibly water show distinct distribution patterns in the mouse enamel crystallites, at simple grain boundaries, and in the amorphous interphase at multiple grain boundaries. This has implications for the resistance to acid corrosion, mechanical properties, and the mechanism by which enamel crystals grow during amelogenesis. PMID:25852562

  10. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses.

  11. Effects of Systemic Fluoride and in vitro Fluoride Treatment on Enamel Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H.; Czajka-Jakubowska, A.; Spencer, N.J.; Mansfield, J.F.; Robinson, C.; Clarkson, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    Systemically administered fluoride at a concentration of 75 ppm increases the surface roughness of developing enamel crystals in rats, which may be significant in advancing our understanding of the biological mechanism of fluorosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the increased surface roughness may be a result of surface restructuring by the direct action of fluoride at the crystal surface. We examined the fluoride dose-dependent roughening of enamel crystal surfaces in vivo, in the rat, and whether this roughening could be mimicked by the in vitro treatment of rat enamel crystals with neutral pH fluoride solutions. Our results showed that enamel crystal surface roughness increased after treatment with increasing fluoride ion concentrations, whether applied in vitro or administered systemically. This suggests a mechanism, alongside others, for the increased surface roughness of crystals in fluorotic enamel. PMID:17062747

  12. Atomic force microscopy observation of enamel surfaces treated with self-etching primer.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Nishiura, Aki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontists use a self-etching adhesive system when attaching brackets to enamel. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the erosion effects of common clinically used adhesive systems on human enamel surfaces by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Four commercially available adhesive systems (i. e., Kurasper F, Beauty Ortho Bond, Orthophia LC, and Transbond XT) were applied to ground enamel surfaces of extracted human teeth. Enamel surface roughness (ESR), absolute depth profile (ADP), and surface hardness were evaluated by AFM. The ESR and ADP were significantly higher after the pretreatment with the phosphoric acid-etching adhesive system than after the pretreatments with the three self-etching adhesive systems. The surface nanohardness decreased after the pretreatment with the phosphoric acid-etching adhesive system but increased after the pretreatments with the self-etching adhesive systems. These results suggest that the use of a self-etching primer for enamel conditioning might prevent decalcification caused by phosphoric acid etching.

  13. The effect of glazed and polished ceramics on human enamel wear.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Anna Belsuzarri; Matson, Edmir; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2006-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effect of glazed and polished dental ceramic on the wear of human enamel. Five ceramics were tested under standard load after 150,000 and 300,000 simulated chewing cycles. Wear was determined from collected digital data and analyzed before and after loading. Statistical comparisons were analyzed. Polished ceramics produced less enamel wear. The amount of enamel wear for opposing IPS Empress ceramic was significantly higher (P < .001) than wear provoked by the other ceramics. The enamel wear rate was higher at the first 150,000 cycles, and polishing increased ceramic roughness, except for the IPS Empress ceramic. Polishing of dental ceramics at the contact area produces less antagonistic enamel wear.

  14. Enamel hypoplasia and its role in identification of individuals: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Machado, Meghna; Rao, Ashwin; Krishan, Kewal; Garg, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of individuals is the mainstay of any forensic investigation especially in cases of mass disasters when mutilated remains are brought for examination. Dental examination helps in establishing the identity of an individual and thus, has played a vital role in forensic investigation process since long. In this regard, description on the role of enamel hypoplasia is limited in the literature. The present article reviews the literature on the enamel hypoplasia and discusses its utility in forensic identification. Enamel hypoplasia is a surface defect of the tooth crown caused by disturbance of enamel matrix secretion. Enamel defects can be congenital or acquired. In cases of mass disasters, or when the body is completely charred, putrefied and mutilated beyond recognition, the unique dental features can help in identification of the victims. PMID:26097340

  15. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Colour modification of tooth enamel has proven successful, but it is unclear how various bleaching applications affect micro-structural integrity of the whitened enamel. To investigate the internal structural integrity of human intact tooth enamel with the application of two commonly used whitening regimes (in-office power bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide), evaluations were performed on teeth of identical colour classification. After the bleaching applications, the enamel mineral density was quantified and visualised with micro-computed tomography. The micro-structural differences between the whitened tooth enamel samples were distinctive, though the colour parameter changes within the samples were equivalent. Home bleaching achieved colour modification by demineralisation, whereas in-office bleaching depended on redistribution of the minerals after treatment and subsequent enhanced mineralisation.

  16. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  17. Brushing abrasion of eroded bovine enamel pretreated with topical fluorides.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Lugtenborg, M; Ruben, J L; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-01-01

    Topical fluorides have been proposed for the prevention of erosive dental wear. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of a single professional application of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4), 1% amine fluoride (AmF) and 0.1% difluorosilane varnish (FV) in preventing wear due to combined erosion and brushing abrasion. One hundred and eight bovine enamel samples were used. Control groups were not pretreated with any product (C), pretreated with a fluoride-free varnish (FV-bl) or pretreated with fluoride varnish and subsequently submitted to varnish removal (FV-r). Wear was modeled by submitting the fluoride-treated and control groups to 3 cycles of the following regimens: erosion/remineralization (er/remin), abrasion/remineralization (abr/remin) or erosion/abrasion/remineralization (er/abr/remin). Erosion was simulated by immersion of the samples for 10 min in citric acid 50 mM (pH 3). Abrasion was carried out for 1 min (200 strokes, load 150 g) in a wear device. Remineralization (2 h artificial saliva) took place between the cycles. Two-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction (penamel loss for the TiF4 and AmF groups, but the amounts lost were not statistically significant (p=0.185 and p=1.000, respectively). Under er/abr/remin all products showed a significant protective effect, except for TiF4. It was concluded that FV and AmF protected bovine enamel against erosion followed by brushing abrasion in vitro.

  18. Nanoscale adhesion forces between enamel pellicle proteins and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Vukosavljevic, D; Hutter, J L; Helmerhorst, E J; Xiao, Y; Custodio, W; Zaidan, F C; Oppenheim, F G; Siqueira, W L

    2014-05-01

    The acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) is important for minimizing the abrasion caused by parafunctional conditions as they occur, for instance, during bruxism. It is a remarkable feature of the AEP that a protein/peptide film can provide enough protection in normofunction to prevent teeth from abrasion and wear. Despite its obvious critical role in the protection of tooth surfaces, the essential adhesion features of AEP proteins on the enamel surface are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to measure the adhesion force between histatin 5, a primary AEP component, and hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. Both biotinylated histatin 5 and biotinylated human serum albumin were allowed to adsorb to streptavidin-coated silica microspheres attached to atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. A multimode AFM with a Nanoscope IIIa controller was used to measure the adhesion force between protein-functionalized silica microspheres attached to cantilever tips and the HA surface. The imaging was performed in tapping mode with a Si3N4 AFM cantilever, while the adhesion forces were measured in AFM contact mode. A collection of force-distance curves (~3,000/replicate) was obtained to generate histograms from which the adhesion forces between histatin 5 or albumin and the HA surface were measured. We found that histatin 5 exhibited stronger adhesion forces (90% >1.830 nN) to the HA surface than did albumin (90% > 0.282 nN). This study presents an objective approach to adhesion force measurements between histatin 5 and HA, and provides the experimental basis for measuring the same parameters for other AEP constituents. Such knowledge will help in the design of synthetic proteins and peptides with preventive and therapeutic benefits for tooth enamel.

  19. On the mechanical properties of tooth enamel under spherical indentation.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties of tooth enamel generally exhibit large variations, which reflect its structural and material complexity. Some key properties were evaluated under localized contact, simulating actual functioning conditions. Prominent cusps of extracted human molar teeth were polished down ~0.7 mm below the cusp tip and indented by tungsten carbide balls. The internal damage was assessed after unloading from longitudinal or transverse sections. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) was determined using a novel bilayer specimen. The damage is characterized by penny-like radial cracks driven by hoop stresses and cylindrical cracks driven along protein-rich interrod materials by shear stresses. Shallow cone cracks typical of homogeneous materials which may cause rapid tooth wear under repeat contact are thus avoided. The mean stress vs. indentation strain curve is highly nonlinear, attributable to plastic shearing of protein between and within enamel rods. This curve is also affected by damage, especially radial cracks, the onset of which depends on ball radius. Several material properties were extracted from the tests, including shear strain at the onset of ring cracks γ(F) (=0.14), UTS (=119 MPa), toughness K(C) (=0.94 MPa m(1/2)), a crack propagation law and a constitutive response determined by trial and error with the aid of a finite-element analysis. These quantities, which are only slightly sensitive to anatomical location within the enamel region tested, facilitate a quantitative assessment of crown failure. Causes for variations in published UTS and K(C) values are discussed.

  20. Hen's teeth with enamel cap: from dream to impossibility

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability to form teeth was lost in an ancestor of all modern birds, approximately 100-80 million years ago. However, experiments in chicken have revealed that the oral epithelium can respond to inductive signals from mouse mesenchyme, leading to reactivation of the odontogenic pathway. Recently, tooth germs similar to crocodile rudimentary teeth were found in a chicken mutant. These "chicken teeth" did not develop further, but the question remains whether functional teeth with enamel cap would have been obtained if the experiments had been carried out over a longer time period or if the chicken mutants had survived. The next odontogenetic step would have been tooth differentiation, involving deposition of dental proteins. Results Using bioinformatics, we assessed the fate of the four dental proteins thought to be specific to enamel (amelogenin, AMEL; ameloblastin, AMBN; enamelin, ENAM) and to dentin (dentin sialophosphoprotein, DSPP) in the chicken genome. Conservation of gene synteny in amniotes allowed definition of target DNA regions in which we searched for sequence similarity. We found the full-length chicken AMEL and the only N-terminal region of DSPP, and both are invalidated genes. AMBN and ENAM disappeared after chromosomal rearrangements occurred in the candidate region in a bird ancestor. Conclusion These findings not only imply that functional teeth with enamel covering, as present in ancestral Aves, will never be obtained in birds, but they also indicate that these four protein genes were dental specific, at least in the last toothed ancestor of modern birds, a specificity which has been questioned in recent years. PMID:18775069

  1. Comparative evaluation of the enamel bond strength of ‘etch-and-rinse’ and ‘all-in-one’ bonding agents on cut and uncut enamel surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Deepu; Singbal, Kiran Prabhakar; Kamat, Sharad

    2011-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To compare tensile bond strength of an ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent (Single bond,3M ESPE, MN, USA) with an ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent (iBond, Heraeus Kulzer, NY, USA) on cut and uncut enamel surfaces. The null hypothesis tested is that the ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent matches the ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent in terms of tensile bond strength to enamel. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human mandibular teeth were used for the study. Twenty teeth with intact enamel surfaces were divided into two groups of 10 teeth each. The enamel surfaces of the 20 teeth were prepared and assigned to two more groups of 10 teeth each. One group each of intact and prepared enamel surfaces were used to bond with the ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent [Single bond (SB), 3M ESPE, MN, USA] and the other two groups one each of intact and prepared enamel surfaces were used to bond with the ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent [ iBond (IB), Heraeus Kulzer, NY, USA]. The tensile bond strength was measured on the universal testing machine (Unitek, 9450 PC, FIE, INDIA) at a cross head speed of 1 mm / minute. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and student ‘t’ test. The values for the ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent SB were significantly higher for both the cut and uncut surfaces, compared to the ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent IB (P < 0.05). The all-in-one bonding agent resulted in a higher bond strength on the cut enamel surfaces. Conclusions: Based on the results, it is advisable to use the ‘etch-and-rinse system’ in a clinical situation requiring bonding on enamel alone. PMID:21814355

  2. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications. PMID:24121810

  3. Critical appraisal. Options for dentin/enamel bonding: part III.

    PubMed

    Swift, Edward J

    2010-06-01

    Four categories of resin-based dentin/enamel adhesives are currently available. These include the three-step etch-&-rinse, "one-bottle" etch-&-rinse, two-step self-etch primer systems, and "all-in-one" self-etch adhesives. In consecutive issues of the Journal, the Critical Appraisal series is presenting salient publications on research in each of the categories. The first two installments focused on the etch-&-rinse systems. The series continues with this review of papers on the two-step self-etch primer systems.

  4. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis.

  5. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-10-11

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications.

  6. Dentin-enamel adhesives in pediatric dentistry: an update.

    PubMed

    García-Godoy, Franklin; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Adhesives and composite technology have made composite resins and polyacid-modified resin-based composites (compomers) very popular as materials to restore primary and permanent anterior and posterior teeth. More conservative preparations can be performed that maintain more tooth structure due to the adhesive properties of the adhesives used with composites and compomers. Meticulous care in the placement of adhesives and, subsequently, resin-based composites and compomers is necessary to produce long-term satisfactory results. The purpose of this paper is to update the current status in regards to dentin-enamel adhesives in primary teeth.

  7. Near-IR and PS-OCT imaging of developmental defects in dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2007-02-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and near-IR (NIR) imaging are promising new technologies under development for monitoring early carious lesions. Fluorosis is a growing problem in the U.S., and the more prevalent mild fluorosis can be visually mistaken for early enamel demineralization. Some initial NIR images suggest that enamel defects and dental caries manifest different optical behavior in the NIR. Unfortunately, there is little quantitative information available regarding the differences in optical properties of sound enamel, enamel developmental defects, and demineralized enamel due to caries. This study tested the hypothesis that hypomineralized enamel due to fluorosis can be differentiated from demineralized enamel due to caries using NIR and PS-OCT imaging because of different optical behavior in the NIR. Thirty extracted human teeth with various degrees of suspected fluorosis and/or caries were imaged using PS-OCT and NIR transillumination. An InGaAs camera and a near-IR diode laser were used to measure the optical attenuation through transverse tooth sections (~200 μm). Developmental defects were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved OCT images, demonstrating that PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively measure the depth and possible severity of the defects. Enamel defects on whole teeth that could be imaged with high contrast with visible light were transparent in the near-IR while demineralized areas due to caries were opaque. In contrast, dental caries could be clearly distinguished from sound enamel. This study suggests that PS-OCT and NIR methods may potentially be used as tools to assess the severity and extent of enamel defects and for the differentiation of mild fluorosis defects from early carious lesions.

  8. Effects of different pH conditions on enamel erosion repair by nano fluorapatite pastes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengjie; Zhang, Yifei; Wei, Jie; Wei, Shicheng

    2012-09-01

    The effects of different pH conditions on enamel erosion repair by nano fluorapatite (n-FA) pastes were evaluated in this study. Eighteen human dental enamel blocks with artificially-induced erosion were randomly divided into three groups that were coated with n-FA pastes with 3 different pH values (pH < 1, pH = 4.5 and pH = 7.5, respectively) for 15 minutes. SEM, XRD, XPS, Vickers microhardness test and mass measurement were performed for the enamels before and after treatment. A layer of enamel-like fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite was observed on the surface of all the samples. After treatment by n-FA pastes with 3 different pH values (pH < 1, pH = 4.5 and pH = 7.5), the Vickers micro-hardness value was respectively changed to 125.9 HV, 252.1 HV and 304.9 HV from 241.3 HV of the artificial enamel erosion, and mass loss was 0.75 mg/mm2, 0.41 mg/mm2 and 0.30 mg/mm2, respectively. SEM analysis showed that the surface of the enamels treated by n-FA pastes with pH 7.5 and pH 4.5 was smoother than those treated by n-FA pastes with pH < 1. These results suggested that the pH value had significant effects for the repairment of enamel erosion with n-FA pastes. This study demonstrated that the n-FA paste with neutral pH value (7.5) for enamel erosion repair would not only significantly enhance the enamel surface hardness, but also avoid the enamel mass loss and increased surface roughness.

  9. Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-01

    Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials.

  10. The possible correlation between dental enamel hypoplasia and a historic natural disaster in the Roman population of Herculaneum (79 AD - central Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Anastasio, R; Cesana, D T; Viciano, J; Sciubba, M; Nibaruta, P; Capasso, L

    2013-01-01

    Dental enamel hypoplasia is usually read as a sign of a systematic growth disturbance during childhood. Following the analysis of human teeth from Herculaneum (79 AD, Central Italy), the authors focused on linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) manifestations in order to delineate a possible correlation between their frequency and distribution and the earthquake that occurred in 62 AD, which is well documented in historical literature. The human remains from Herculaneum were buried at the same time as the Vesuvius eruption and represent an exceptional snapshot of life in the Roman Imperial Age. The Goodman and Rose method (1990) was used for attributing an "age at the moment of stress" for every skeleton in order to delineate the epidemiology of the enamel hypoplasia. When LEH frequency was analysed by age, two different age groups showed relevant patterns of hypoplasia: the first peak was evident in individuals between 14 and 20 years who were younger than 6 years at the time of the 62 AD earthquake, and a second peak was noted in adults of 30 +/- 5 years old, which suggests the presence of another stressful event that occurred 10 years before the earthquake, around 53 AD. The bimodal distribution of enamel hypoplasia could be the consequence of two different historical periods characterized by instability in the food supply, unhygienic conditions, and epidemic episodes; our data suggest that the first peak could be related to a decline in health status as an effect of the 62 AD earthquake. The relationship between recent natural disasters and variations in health status in modern populations is well documented in scientific literature. Our research represents the first attempt to correlate the status of health to an earthquake of known date in an archaeological population.

  11. Possibilities and potential roles of the functional peptides based on enamel matrix proteins in promoting the remineralization of initial enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Ji Yao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral diseases, and it gives a serious threat to oral and general health. Fluoride, a classic anti-caries agent, has a profound effect on caries prevention and treatment. However, fluorosis and fluoride-resistant strains limit the further application of fluoride treatment. Therefore, it is still of significant benefit to seek alternatives, bringing more effective anti-caries agents. The potential role of enamel matrix proteins(EMPs) in promoting the regeneration of periodontal tissue and inducing bone have been proved. EMPs have been successfully applied in the field of periodontal disease and dental implants in recent years. Previous researches revealed that enamel matrix proteins had an important role in the synthesis of hydroxyapatite in vitro. Some experiments about the degeneration or removal of EMP suggest that enamel matrix proteins are related to the occurrence and development of caries. Based on evidences illustrated by these experiments, this paper hypothesizes that functional peptides based on the function and structure of EMPs could promote remineralization of enamel caries, which could perform as a suitable treatment to enamel caries. The hypothesis may lead a new direction in the study on the prevention and treatment of enamel caries, and further study of the anti-caries mechanisms of EMP will enable researchers to find out the most effective anti-caries peptides, which could be developed into a bionics anti-cariogenic agent.

  12. The new Enamel Defects Index: testing and expansion.

    PubMed

    Elcock, Claire; Lath, Darren Lee; Luty, Joanna D; Gallagher, Martin G; Abdellatif, A; Bäckman, Birgitta; Brook, Alan H

    2006-05-01

    The Enamel Defects Index (EDI) was created based on three innovative principles: (i) a basic level of the three major categories of defects; (ii) more detailed subcategories of each major category; and (iii) each category scored independently as present [1] or absent [0], simplifying decision making. The aim of this investigation was to further test the index in a number of applications and to expand it to record defect subtype and treatment need. Testing was undertaken by operators with different levels of clinical experience. A computer-assisted learning (CAL) package was developed for operator training and calibration. The index was also used on clinical photographs and high-resolution digital images of exfoliated and extracted teeth. Scoring of photographs revealed substantial intra-operator agreement. Training using the CAL package resulted in significant improvement in index use. Intra-operator reproducibility was good to excellent, and interoperator reproducibility was good for buccal surfaces on digital images. Index expansion allowed information on defect subtype, location, and treatment need to be gathered readily. The EDI has high reproducibility and allows more rapid and accurate data collection from clinical and in vitro studies than the Fédération Dentaire Internationale Developmental Defects of Enamel index.

  13. Remineralizing agents: effects on acid-softened enamel.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, H Bp; Maeda, F A; Silva, B R; Miranda, W G; Cardoso, P Ec

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether remineralizing toothpastes can protect acid-softened enamel against further erosive episodes. Fifty enamel slabs of bovine teeth with preformed erosion-like lesions were randomly assigned to 1 control and 4 experimental groups (n = 10): group 1, nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) dentifrice; group 2, arginine and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dentifrice; group 3, potassium nitrate (KNO3) and high-fluoride (F) availability dentifrice; group 4, ordinary fluoridated dentifrice (OFD); and group 5, control (deionized water). Initial hardness measurements were taken after the different treatments were applied. Statistically significant mineral gains of 8.0% and 10.0% were exhibited in groups 1 and 4, respectively. Groups 2 and 3 showed mineral gains of 4.5% and 2.1%, respectively; these were not statistically significant. Group 5 showed mineral loss (-11.8%). A 1-way analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in the mean microhardness values among groups. However, there are indications that the nanoHAp and OFD toothpastes may decrease erosive lesions after treatment, while the arginine + CaCO3 and KNO3 + F pastes may prevent the progression of erosive lesions.

  14. Mimicking the Self-Organized Microstructure of Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Guan, Xiangying; Yin, Haoyong; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Nancollas, George H.

    2009-01-01

    Under near-physiological pH, temperature, and ionic strength, amelogenin (Amel) accelerates hydroxyapatite (HAP) nucleation kinetics, decreasing the induction time in a concentration-dependent manner. Hierarchically organized apatite microstructures are achieved by self-assembly involving nucleated nanocrystallites and Amel oligomers and nanospheres at low supersaturations and protein concentrations in a slow and well-controlled constant composition (CC) system. The CC method allows the capture of an intermediate structure, the nanorod, following the formation of the critical nuclei at the earliest nucleation stages of calcium phosphate crystallization. The nanorod building blocks form spontaneously by synergistic interactions between flexible Amel protein assemblies and rigid calcium phosphate nanocrystallites. These intermediate structures further assemble by a self-epitaxial growth mechanism to form the final hierarchically organized microstructures that are compositionally and morphologically similar to natural enamel. This in vitro observation provides direct evidence that Amel promotes apatite crystallization and organization. We interpret our observations to propose that in vivo Amel may maximally exert an influence on the structural control of developing enamel crystals at the earliest nucleation stages. PMID:19169386

  15. Sex differences in anthropoid mandibular canine lateral enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Spence, Jennifer; Talabere, Tiffany; Hubbard, Amelia; Schmidt, Stacey

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that great ape and macaque males achieve large canine crown sizes primarily through extended canine growth periods. Recent work has suggested, however, that platyrrhine males may achieve larger canine sizes by accelerating rather than prolonging growth. This study tested the hypothesis that the ontogenetic pathway leading to canine sexual dimorphism in catarrhines differs from that of platyrrhines. To test this hypothesis, males and females of several catarrhine genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cercopithecus, and Cercocebus) and three platyrrhine genera (Cebus, Ateles, and Callicebus) were compared in the number and spacing of perikymata (enamel growth increments) on their canine crowns. In addition, perikymata periodicities (the number of days of growth perikymata represent) were determined for five genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cebus, and Ateles) using previously published as well as original data gathered for this study. The central findings are as follows: 1) males have more perikymata than females for seven of eight genera (in five of the seven, the differences are statistically significant); 2) in general, the greater the degree of sexual dimorphism, the greater the sex difference in male and female perikymata numbers; 3) there is no evidence of a systematic sex difference in primate periodicities; and 4) there is some evidence that sex differences in enamel formation rates may make a minor contribution to canine sexual dimorphism in Papio and Cercopithecus. These findings strongly suggest that in both catarrhines and platyrrhines prolongation of male canine growth is the primary mechanism by which canine crown sexual dimorphism is achieved.

  16. In vivo rehardening of enamel eroded by a cola drink.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Jang, K T; Lee, S H; Kim, C C; Hahn, S H; García-Godoy, F

    2001-01-01

    There are many concerns about the erosive effects of acidic beverages. In this study, the effects of Pepsi-Cola (pH 2.41) on bovine enamel and the rehardening effect resulting from intraoral exposure of the teeth were determined by microhardness testing (Vicker's Hardness Number). Bovine enamel specimens (VHN 380.00 +/- 12.74) were immersed in 100 ml of Pepsi-Cola for five minutes and subsequently exposed to human intraoral environment through the use of a removable resin plate. Microhardness testing was performed on specimens after one hour, twenty-four hours and forty-eight hours of exposure to an intraoral environment. The microhardness value was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the cola beverage (VHN 262.13 +/- 20.34), and significantly (p < 0.05) increased after intraoral exposure for one hour (VHN 299.75 +/- 26.86) and twenty-four hours (VHN 328.00 +/- 18.70). The difference in the microhardness between the twenty-four-hour group and the forty-eight-hour group (VHN 333.50 +/- 15.13) was not significant (p > 0.05). The microhardness value of the forty-eight-hour group was significantly less than the values recorded during the initial pre-study measurements p < 0.05).

  17. Effect of xylitol and fluoride on enamel erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chunmuang, Siriwan; Jitpukdeebodintra, Suwanna; Chuenarrom, Chanya; Benjakul, Pojjanut

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the anti-erosive effects of xylitol, fluoride and a xylitol/fluoride combination used as an additive in an acidic drink or as mouthrinse after enamel was exposed to an acidic drink, in vitro. Human third molars were divided into 7 groups (A-G). Samples from groups A to D were immersed for 5 min in orange juice only (A), orange juice plus either 25% xylitol (B), F(-) 1 ppm (C) or a 25% xylitol/F(-) 1 ppm combination (D), respectively. Samples from groups E to G were immersed in orange juice for 5 min and then in either 40% xylitol (E), F(-) 227 ppm (F) or a 40% xylitol/F(-) 227 ppm combination (G), for 1 min respectively. This process was performed four times daily for 14 days. Mineral loss was determined from the lesion depth and surface hardness. Erosion depth progressively increased in all groups, except E, where erosion depth was significantly lower than group A. Surface microhardness progressively decreased in all groups, except E, where hardness was significantly higher than group A. This study demonstrated that addition of xylitol, fluoride or a xylitol/fluoride combination to an acidic drink or post-treatment with fluoride or a xylitol/fluoride combination could reduce, but not prevent, enamel erosion.

  18. Gum containing calcium fluoride reinforces enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

    PubMed

    Kitasako, Y; Sadr, A; Hamba, H; Ikeda, M; Tagami, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and a low concentration of fluoride (F) on the hardness of enamel subsurface lesions, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, and controlled in situ model. Fifteen individuals wore removable lingual appliances with 3 bovine-enamel insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. Three times a day for 14 days, they chewed one of the 3 chewing gums (placebo, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F). After the treatment period, cross-sectional mineral content, nanoindentation hardness, and fluoride ion mapping by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were evaluated. Although there were no statistical differences in overall mineral content and hardness recovery rates between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F subsurface lesions (p > 0.05), nanoindentation at 1-μm distance increments from the surface showed statistical differences in hardness recovery rate between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F in the superficial 20-μm region (p < 0.05). Fluoride mapping revealed distribution of the ion up to 20 μm from the surface in the POs-Ca+F group. Nanoindentation and TOF-SIMS results highlighted the benefits of bioavailability of fluoride ion on reinforcement of the superficial zone of subsurface lesions in situ (NCT01377493).

  19. Enamel-renal-gingival syndrome and FAM20A mutations.

    PubMed

    Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Khemaleelakul, Udomrat; Dejkhamron, Prapai; Sutthimethakorn, Suchitra; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Iamaroon, Anak

    2014-01-01

    The enamel-renal syndrome of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) and nephrocalcinosis, and the amelogenesis imperfecta-gingival fibromatosis syndrome have both been associated with mutations in FAM20A. We report on two unrelated Thai patients with three novel and one previously reported mutations in FAM20A with findings suggesting both disorders, including hypoplastic AI, gingival fibromatosis, unerupted teeth, aggressive periodontitis, and nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis. Additional findings consisted of a supernumerary premolar, localized aggressive periodontitis, thin alveolar bone, vitamin D deficiency-associated hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic calcification in other tissues, including lungs, dental pulp, gingiva, dental follicles, and periodontal tissues, and early cessation of limited menstruation. Greater promotory activity of urine on calcium oxalate crystal growth compared to controls may help to explain the pathogenesis, and suggest that FAM20A mutations can contribute to nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis. Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of FAM20A mutations. Since both of our patients and a large number of previously reported cases had all the important features of both syndromes, including AI, renal anomalies, and gingival fibromatosis, we are convinced that these two disorders actually are the same entity. The name of enamel-renal-gingival syndrome is suggested.

  20. Enamel ultrastructure of fossil and modern pinnipeds: evaluating hypotheses of feeding adaptations in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Carolina; Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan; Kieser, Jules

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the enamel ultrastructure in modern otariid pinnipeds and in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos. Teeth of the New Zealand fur seal ( Arctocephalus forsteri), sea lion ( Phocarctos hookeri), and fossil walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi were embedded, sectioned, etched, and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The enamel of NZ otariids and Pelagiarctos was prismatic and moderately thick, measuring 150-450 μm on average. It consisted of transversely oriented Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs) from the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to near the outer surface, where it faded into prismless enamel less than 10 μm thick. The width of HSB was variable and averaged between 6 and 10 prisms, and they presented an undulating course both in longitudinal and cross sections. The overall organization of the enamel was similar in all teeth sampled; however, the enamel was thicker in canines and postcanines than in incisors. The crowns of all teeth sampled were uniformly covered by enamel; however, the grooved incisors lacked an enamel cover on the posterior side of the buccal face. Large tubules and tuft-like structures were seen at the EDJ. HSB enamel as well as tubules and tufts at the EDJ suggest increased occlusal loads during feeding, a biomechanical adaptation to avoid enamel cracking and failure. Despite overall simplification in tooth morphology and reduced mastication, the fossil and modern pinnipeds analyzed here retained the complex undulating HSB structure of other fossils and living Carnivora, while other marine mammals such as cetaceans developed simplified radial enamel.

  1. [Enamel resistance to acid dissolution and its correlation with dental caries].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, T L; Sáenz-Martínez, L P; Gómez-López, M E; Pérez-Quiroz, J

    1995-01-01

    Enamel resistance to acid dissolution is a factor which has an influence upon dental caries susceptibility. The objectives of this study were to determine enamel resistance to acid dissolution by applying the RM technique, and to correlate data obtained to the prevalence of dental caries. Two hundred and seventy one children between seven and nine years of age were chosen by non probabilistic sampling in two city districts, (six public schools in Mexico City). These children's central permanent incisives had already erupted. The DMF-T and dmf-t indexes were recorded, and the RM enamel resistance test was performed on them. A total of 56.4% of the subjects in the sample had very resistant enamel and 27.3%, less resistant enamel. A proportion of 57.9% was free of dental caries on the permanent dentition and 10% in the temporary dentition. The average obtained for the DMF-T index was 0.93 +/- 1.34 and that for dmf-t was 4.7 +/- 3.1. Data suggest that enamel resistance distribution is not homogeneous and this increases proportionally in relation to the eruption third (p < 0.05.) Spearman's correlation coefficient was found to be negative and statistically significant at p < 0.05. The RM technique showed the presence of individuals with different enamel resistance to acid dissolution.

  2. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  3. Biomimetic remineralization of human enamel in the presence of polyamidoamine dendrimers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Yuan, He; Tang, Bei; Liang, Kunneng; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, known as artificial proteins, have unique and well-defined molecular size and structure. It has previously been used to mimic protein-crystal interaction during biomineralization. In this study, generation 4.5 (4.5G) PAMAM with carboxylic acid (PAMAM-COOH) was synthesized and utilized to remineralize the surface of etched enamel in vitro. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy we observed that 4.5G PAMAM-COOH can be absorbed on the etched enamel surface and that it can induce the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals with the same orientation as that of the enamel prisms on longitudinal and transversal enamel surfaces. The self-assembly behavior of PAMAM in the mineralization solution was also investigated and the result showed that 4.5G PAMAM can assemble to microribbon structure similar to the behavior of amelogenins. Therefore, we concluded that 4.5G PAMAM-COOH assemblies can act as the organic template on enamel surface and in mineralization solution to control the nucleation site and morphology of new-grown crystals to form the biomimetic structure of human enamel, which may open a new way for repairing damaged enamel.

  4. Raman spectroscopic studies of CO2 laser-irradiated human dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, A.; Shahabi, S.; Walsh, L. J.

    1999-06-01

    While the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser radiation on the physical properties of human dental enamel are well characterized, little is known regarding laser-induced chemical changes. In this study, enamel was exposed to CO2 laser radiation to induce fusion and recrystallization, and the Raman spectra recorded using both dispersive and Fourier-transformed (FT) Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were compared to a heat-treated specimen of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and enamel. Laser irradiation induced chemical changes which differed from those induced by heat treatment. Comparing the Raman spectra of lased enamel to HAP and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), it is evident that CO2 laser irradiation of enamel causes the partial conversion of HAP to TCP. The effect of laser irradiation is not merely a simple local heating effect as previously thought, since simple heating of enamel leads to the formation of both TCP and Ca(OH)2, while laser treatment of enamel results in the formation of TCP but not Ca(OH)2.

  5. Effect of 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching on sound and artificial enamel carious lesions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cristiane Franco; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Cavalli, Vanessa; Giannini, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching on Knoop surface microhardness (KHN) and morphology of sound enamel and enamel with early artificial caries lesions (CL) after pH-cycling model (pHcm). Human dental enamel blocks were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10): 1 - sound enamel bleached (S) with CP (Rembrandt/Den-Mat); 2 - S and submitted to pHcm; 3 - CL bleached with CP; 4 - CL stored in artificial saliva and submitted to pHcm; 5 - CL treated with placebo gel and submitted to pHcm; 6 - CL bleached with CP and submitted to pHcm. Enamel blocks with known initial KHN values were demineralized (groups 3 to 6) and submitted to 12 day pHcm (groups 2, 4, 5 and 6). After demineralization and treatments, KHN was determined and the specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. The results showed that among CL groups (3 to 6) only the group 3 presented remineralization after treatments. S groups (1 and 2) showed higher KHN and presented less formation of porosities on enamel surface than CL groups after treatments. In conclusion, bleaching procedures on enamel with CL did not exacerbate the demineralization, but should be indicated with caution.

  6. In Situ and In Vitro Effects of Two Bleaching Treatments on Human Enamel Hardness.

    PubMed

    Henn-Donassollo, Sandrina; Fabris, Cristiane; Gagiolla, Morgana; Kerber, Ícaro; Caetano, Vinícius; Carboni, Vitor; Salas, Mabel Miluska Suca; Donassollo, Tiago Aurélio; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in situ the effects of two bleaching treatments on human enamel surface microhardness. Sixty enamel slabs from recently extracted thirty molars were used. The specimens were polished with sandpapers under water-cooling. The enamel samples were randomly divided in four groups, treated with 10% hydrogen peroxide (HP) or Whitening Strips (WS) containing 10% hydrogen peroxide and using two conditions: in vitro or in situ model. For in situ condition, six volunteers wore an intra-oral appliance containing enamel slabs, while for in vitro condition the specimens were kept in deionized water after the bleaching protocols. The bleaching treatments were applied one-hour daily for 14 days. Similar amounts of bleaching agents were used in both conditions. Before and after bleaching treatments, microhardness was measured. Statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey test) showed that in the in situ condition there was no statistically significant microhardness reduction in the bleached enamel (p>0.05). Significant decrease in hardness was observed for enamel slabs bleached with both treatments in the in vitro condition (p<0.05). Regarding the bleaching agents, in situ results showed no difference between HP and WS, while in vitro WS produced the lowest hardness value. It could be concluded that there was no deleterious effect on enamel produced by any of the bleaching protocols used in the in situ model. The reduction of hardness was only observed in vitro.

  7. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, E; Osman, Y; Grobler, S R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on human enamel micro-hardness of three over-the-counter whitening oral rinses available in South Africa. Enamel fragments were gathered into three groups of 15 each. One group was exposed to Colgate Plax Whitening Blancheur, the second group to White Glo 2 in 1 and the third to Plus White, in each case for periods recommended by the respective manufacturers. Surface micro-hardness of all groups was measured before and after a 14 day treatment period. pH levels of the oral rinses were also determined with a combination pH electrode. Pre- and post- treatment data were analysed by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. According to the micro-hardness values no significant (p > 0.05) enamel damage was found as a result of treatment. However, it was observed that Colgate Pax and White Glo decreased the enamel hardness, an early sign of enamel damage, while Plus White showed a small increase in hardness. The three whitening oral rinses on the South African market do not damage the tooth enamel significantly when used as recommended by the manufacturers. However, extending the contact period and increasing the frequency of application might lead to damage of enamel.

  8. Enamel organ proteins as targets for antibodies in celiac disease: implications for oral health.

    PubMed

    Sóñora, Cecilia; Arbildi, Paula; Rodríguez-Camejo, Claudio; Beovide, Verónica; Marco, Alicia; Hernández, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Enamel defects in permanent and deciduous teeth may be oral manifestations of celiac disease. Sometimes they are the only sign that points to this underdiagnosed autoimmune pathology. However, the etiology of these specific enamel defects remains unknown. Based on previously reported cross-reactivity of antibodies to gliadin with the enamel proteins, amelogenin and ameloblastin, we analyzed (using immunohistochemistry) the ability of anti-gliadin IgG, produced during untreated disease, to recognize enamel organ structures. We used swine germ teeth as a tissue model because they are highly homologous to human teeth in terms of proteins and development biology. Strong staining of the enamel matrix and of the layer of ameloblasts was observed with serum samples from women with celiac disease; high IgG reactivity was found against both gliadin peptides and enamel matrix protein extract, but there was no IgG reactivity against tissue antigens. In line with these findings, the gamma globulin fraction from gliadin-immunized BALB/c mice showed a similar staining pattern to that of amelogenin-specific staining. These results strongly suggest a pathological role for antibodies to gliadin in enamel defect dentition for both deciduous and permanent teeth, considering that IgG can be transported through the placenta during fetal tooth development.

  9. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas.

  10. Enamel Thickness before and after Orthodontic Treatment Analysed in Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Koprowski, Robert; Safranow, Krzysztof; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Despite the continuous development of materials and techniques of adhesive bonding, the basic procedure remains relatively constant. The technique is based on three components: etching substance, adhesive system, and composite material. The use of etchants during bonding orthodontic brackets carries the risk of damage to the enamel. Therefore, the article examines the effect of the manner of enamel etching on its thickness before and after orthodontic treatment. The study was carried out in vitro on a group of 80 teeth. It was divided into two subgroups of 40 teeth each. The procedure of enamel etching was performed under laboratory conditions. In the first subgroup, the classic method of enamel etching and the fifth-generation bonding system were used. In the second subgroup, the seventh-generation (self-etching) bonding system was used. In both groups, metal orthodontic brackets were fixed and the enamel was cleaned with a cutter fixed on the micromotor after their removal. Before and after the treatment, two-dimensional optical coherence tomography scans were performed. The enamel thickness was assessed on the two-dimensional scans. The average enamel thickness in both subgroups was not statistically significant. PMID:28243604

  11. Influence of previous acid etching on bond strength of universal adhesives to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Silva, Tatiane Josefa; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Borges, Alessandra Bühler

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acid pretreatment on the bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin with 2 different universal self-etching adhesives. The null hypothesis was that the acid treatment performed prior to adhesive application would not significantly change the bond strength to enamel or dentin for either universal adhesive tested. A sample of 112 bovine incisors were selected and embedded in acrylic resin. Half were ground until a flat enamel surface was obtained, and the other half were polished until a 6 × 6-mm area of dentin was exposed, resulting into 2 groups (n = 56). The enamel and dentin groups were divided into 2 subgroups according to the adhesive system applied: Futurabond U or Scotchbond Universal. Each of these subgroups was divided into 2 additional subgroups (n = 14); 1 subgroup received phosphoric acid pretreatment, and 1 subgroup did not. The bond strength was assessed with a microtensile test. Data from enamel and dentin specimens were analyzed separately using 1-way analysis of variance. The acid pretreatment did not significantly change the bond strength of the adhesives tested, either to enamel (P = 0.4161) or to dentin (P = 0.4857). The acid etching pretreatment did not affect the bond strength to dentin and enamel when the tested universal multipurpose adhesive systems were used.

  12. Bioactive nanofibers enable the identification of thrombospondin 2 as a key player in enamel regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhan; Newcomb, Christina J; Lei, Yaping; Zhou, Yan; Bornstein, Paul; Amendt, Brad A; Stupp, Samuel I; Snead, Malcolm L

    2015-08-01

    Tissue regeneration and development involves highly synchronized signals both between cells and with the extracellular environment. Biomaterials can be tuned to mimic specific biological signals and control cell response(s). As a result, these materials can be used as tools to elucidate cell signaling pathways and candidate molecules involved with cellular processes. In this work, we explore enamel-forming cells, ameloblasts, which have a limited regenerative capacity. By exposing undifferentiated cells to a self-assembling matrix bearing RGDS epitopes, we elicited a regenerative signal at will that subsequently led to the identification of thrombospondin 2 (TSP2), an extracellular matrix protein that has not been previously recognized as a key player in enamel development and regeneration. Targeted disruption of the thrombospondin 2 gene (Thbs2) resulted in enamel formation with a disordered architecture that was highly susceptible to wear compared to their wild-type counterparts. To test the regenerative capacity, we injected the bioactive matrix into the enamel organ and discovered that the enamel organic epithelial cells in TSP-null mice failed to polarize on the surface of the artificial matrix, greatly reducing integrin β1 and Notch1 expression levels, which represent signaling pathways known to be associated with TSP2. These results suggest TSP2 plays an important role in regulating cell-matrix interactions during enamel formation. Exploiting the signaling pathways activated by biomaterials can provide insight into native signaling mechanisms crucial for tooth development and cell-based strategies for enamel regeneration.

  13. Role of prism decussation on fatigue crack growth and fracture of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-10-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset compact tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Regardless of the growth direction, the near-threshold region of cyclic extension was typical of "short crack" behavior (i.e. deceleration of growth with an increase in crack length). Cyclic crack growth was more stable in the forward direction and occurred over twice the spatial distance achieved in the reverse direction. In response to the monotonic loads, a rising R-curve response was exhibited by growth in the forward direction only. The total energy absorbed in fracture for the forward direction was more than three times that in the reverse. The rise in crack growth resistance was largely attributed to a combination of mechanisms that included crack bridging, crack bifurcation and crack curving, which were induced by decussation in the inner enamel. An analysis of the responses distinguished that the microstructure of enamel appears optimized for resisting crack growth initiating from damage at the tooth's surface.

  14. TGF-ß Regulates Enamel Mineralization and Maturation through KLK4 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Andrew; Haruyama, Naoto; Hall, Bradford; Danton, Mary Jo S.; Zhang, Lu; Arany, Praveen; Mooney, David J.; Harichane, Yassine; Goldberg, Michel; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling plays an important role in regulating crucial biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many of these processes are also an integral part of amelogenesis. In order to delineate a precise role of TGF-ß signaling during amelogenesis, we developed a transgenic mouse line that harbors bovine amelogenin promoter-driven Cre recombinase, and bred this line with TGF-ß receptor II floxed mice to generate ameloblast-specific TGF-ß receptor II conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Histological analysis of the teeth at postnatal day 7 (P7) showed altered enamel matrix composition in the cKO mice as compared to the floxed mice that had enamel similar to the wild-type mice. The µCT and SEM analyses revealed decreased mineral content in the cKO enamel concomitant with increased attrition and thinner enamel crystallites. Although the mRNA levels remained unaltered, immunostaining revealed increased amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin localization in the cKO enamel at the maturation stage. Interestingly, KLK4 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in the cKO teeth along with a slight increase in MMP-20 levels, suggesting that normal enamel maturation is regulated by TGF-ß signaling through the expression of KLK4. Thus, our study indicates that TGF-ß signaling plays an important role in ameloblast functions and enamel maturation. PMID:24278477

  15. Development of Amelogenin-chitosan Hydrogel for In Vitro Enamel Regrowth with a Dense Interface

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Qichao; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Biomimetic enamel reconstruction is a significant topic in material science and dentistry as a novel approach for the treatment of dental caries or erosion. Amelogenin has been proven to be a critical protein for controlling the organized growth of apatite crystals. In this paper, we present a detailed protocol for superficial enamel reconstruction by using a novel amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel. Compared to other conventional treatments, such as topical fluoride and mouthwash, this method not only has the potential to prevent the development of dental caries but also promotes significant and durable enamel restoration. The organized enamel-like microstructure regulated by amelogenin assemblies can significantly improve the mechanical properties of etched enamel, while the dense enamel-restoration interface formed by an in situ regrowth of apatite crystals can improve the effectiveness and durability of restorations. Furthermore, chitosan hydrogel is easy to use and can suppress bacterial infection, which is the major risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries. Therefore, this biocompatible and biodegradable amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel shows promise as a biomaterial for the prevention, restoration, and treatment of defective enamel. PMID:25046057

  16. Relation Between Roughness of Interface and Adherence of Porcelain Enamel to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J C; Moore, D G; Kirkpatrick, H B; Harrison, W N

    1954-01-01

    Porcelain-enamel ground coats were prepared and applied under conditions that gave various degrees of adherence between enamel and a low-carbon steel (enameling iron). The variations in adherence were produced by (a) varying the amount of cobalt-oxide addition in the frit, (b) varying the type of metallic-oxide addition in the frit, keeping the amount constant at 0.8 weight percent, (c) varying the surface treatment of the metal before application of the enamel, by pickling, sandblasting, and polishing, and (d) varying the time of firing of the enamel containing 0.8 percent of cobalt oxide. Specimens of each enamel were given the standard adherence test of the Porcelain Enamel Institute. Metallographic sections were made on which the roughness of interface was evaluated by counting the number of anchor points (undercuts) per centimeter of specimen length and also by measuring the length of the interface and expressing results as the ratio of this length to the length of a straight line parallel to the over-all direction of the interface.

  17. Mechanisms and causes of wear in tooth enamel: implications for hominin diets

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Peter W.; Omar, Ridwaan; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S.; Henry, Amanda G.; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia Arockia; Watzke, Jörg; Strait, David S.; Atkins, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    The wear of teeth is a major factor limiting mammalian lifespans in the wild. One method of describing worn surfaces, dental microwear texture analysis, has proved powerful for reconstructing the diets of extinct vertebrates, but has yielded unexpected results in early hominins. In particular, although australopiths exhibit derived craniodental features interpreted as adaptations for eating hard foods, most do not exhibit microwear signals indicative of this diet. However, no experiments have yet demonstrated the fundamental mechanisms and causes of this wear. Here, we report nanowear experiments where individual dust particles, phytoliths and enamel chips were slid across a flat enamel surface. Microwear features produced were influenced strongly by interacting mechanical properties and particle geometry. Quartz dust was a rigid abrasive, capable of fracturing and removing enamel pieces. By contrast, phytoliths and enamel chips deformed during sliding, forming U-shaped grooves or flat troughs in enamel, without tissue loss. Other plant tissues seem too soft to mark enamel, acting as particle transporters. We conclude that dust has overwhelming importance as a wear agent and that dietary signals preserved in dental microwear are indirect. Nanowear studies should resolve controversies over adaptive trends in mammals like enamel thickening or hypsodonty that delay functional dental loss. PMID:23303220

  18. Ameloblastin-rich enamel matrix favors short and randomly oriented apatite crystals.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuanyu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Kulkarni, Ashok; Gibson, Carolyn; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2011-12-01

    Molecular evolution studies suggest that amelogenin (AMELX), the principal component of the mammalian enamel matrix, emerged considerably later than ameloblastin (AMBN), and enamelin. Here, we created a transgenic mouse model to ask the question how a conceivable basal enamel lacking AMELX and enriched in the more basal AMBN might compare with recent mouse enamel. To answer this question we overexpressed AMBN using a keratin 14 (K14) promoter and removed AMELX from the genetic background by crossbreeding with amelx(-/-) mice. Enamel coverings of amelx(-/-) mice and of the squamate Iguana iguana were used for comparison. Scanning electron microscopic analysis documented that AMBN transgenic (TG) × amelx(-/-) mouse molars were covered by a 5 μm thin 'enameloid' layer resembling the thin enamel of the Iguana squamate. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the enamel of developing AMBN TG × amelx(-/-) mouse molars contained short (approximately 70 nm) and randomly oriented crystals, while WT controls, AMBN overexpressors, and AMELX(-/-) mice all featured elongated and parallel oriented crystals measuring between 300 and 600 nm in average length. Together, these studies illustrate that AMBN promotes the growth of a crystalline enamel layer with short and randomly oriented crystals, but lacks the ability to facilitate the formation of long and parallel oriented apatite crystals.

  19. Store-operated Ca2+ entry controls ameloblast cell function and enamel development

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, Miriam; Vaeth, Martin; Fornai, Cinzia; Vinu, Manikandan; Bromage, Timothy G.; Nurbaeva, Meerim K.; Sorge, Jessica L.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Idaghdour, Youssef; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) impair the activation of Ca2+ release–activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), resulting in a disease syndrome called CRAC channelopathy that is characterized by severe dental enamel defects. The cause of these enamel defects has remained unclear given a lack of animal models. We generated Stim1/2K14cre mice to delete STIM1 and its homolog STIM2 in enamel cells. These mice showed impaired SOCE in enamel cells. Enamel in Stim1/2K14cre mice was hypomineralized with decreased Ca content, mechanically weak, and thinner. The morphology of SOCE-deficient ameloblasts was altered, showing loss of the typical ruffled border, resulting in mislocalized mitochondria. Global gene expression analysis of SOCE-deficient ameloblasts revealed strong dysregulation of several pathways. ER stress genes associated with the unfolded protein response were increased in Stim1/2-deficient cells, whereas the expression of components of the glutathione system were decreased. Consistent with increased oxidative stress, we found increased ROS production, decreased mitochondrial function, and abnormal mitochondrial morphology in ameloblasts of Stim1/2K14cre mice. Collectively, these data show that loss of SOCE in enamel cells has substantial detrimental effects on gene expression, cell function, and the mineralization of dental enamel. PMID:28352661

  20. Comparative morphology of incisor enamel and dentin in humans and fat dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Konjević, Dean; Keros, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Slavica, Alen; Janicki, Zdravko; Margaletić, Josip

    2003-06-01

    The structure of teeth in all living beings is genetically predetermined, although it can change under external physiological and pathological factors. The author's hypothesis was to indicate evolutional shifts resulting from genetic, functional and other differences. A comparative study about certain characteristics of incisors in humans and myomorpha, the fat dormouse (Glis glis) being their representative as well, comprised measurements of enamel and dentin thickness in individual incisor segments, evaluation of external enamel index, and also assessment of histological structure of enamel and dentin. The study results involving dormice showed the enamel to be thicker in lower than in the upper teeth, quite contrary to enamel thickness in humans. In the upper incisors in dormice the enamel is the thickest in the medial layer of the crown, and in the cervical portion of the crown in the lower incisors. The thickness of dentin in dormice is greater in the oral than in the vestibular side. These findings significantly differ from those reported in reference literature, but they are based on the function of teeth in dormice. Histological characteristics of hard dental tissues in dormice are similar to those in humans, with exception of uniserial structure of enamel and appearance of dentinoenamel junction.

  1. Microabrasion: effect of time, number of applications, and pressure on enamel loss.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, D P; Howes, R I; Hubler, P M

    1995-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion using hydrochloric acid and pumice is an effective method to remove superficial enamel discoloration. This procedure is used in many dental offices but little is known about how different treatment combinations of hand applicator pressure on the tooth, number of applications, and duration of application affect the amount of enamel loss. This investigation studied variables of time, number of applications, and pressure individually and in combination. Twenty-seven extracted premolars were hand rubbed with an 18% HCL-pumice mixture at time intervals of 5, 10, and 20 sec and 5, 10, and 15 applications under pressures of 10, 20, and 30 g. Fifty-four longitudinal sections were cut from the treated sections and measured for enamel loss (P < 0.05). Enamel loss significantly increased as each variable separately increased. When two variables increased at the same time, a greater amount of enamel loss occurred than when one increased. The combination of 10 ten-sec applications or 15 five-sec applications with 20 g pressure resulted in enamel loss of slightly less than 250 microns.

  2. Fatigue of the Resin-Enamel Bonded Interface and the Mechanisms of Failure

    PubMed Central

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Majd, Hessam; Ryou, Heonjune; Arola, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    The durability of adhesive bonds to enamel and dentin and the mechanisms of degradation caused by cyclic loading are important to the survival of composite restorations. In this study a novel method of evaluation was used to determine the strength of resin-enamel bonded interfaces under both static and cyclic loading, and to identify the mechanisms of failure. Specimens with twin interfaces of enamel bonded to commercial resin composite were loaded in monotonic and cyclic 4-point flexure to failure within a hydrated environment. Results for the resin-enamel interface were compared with those for the resin composite (control) and values reported for resin-dentin adhesive bonds. Under both modes of loading the strength of the resin-enamel interface was significantly (p≤0.0001) lower than that of the resin composite and the resin-dentin bonded interface. Fatigue failure of the interface occurred predominately by fracture of enamel, adjacent to the interface, and not due to adhesive failures. In the absence of water aging or acid production of biofilms, the durability of adhesive bonds to enamel is lower than that achieved in dentin bonding. PMID:23571321

  3. Role of Prism Decussation on Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture of Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset Compact Tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Regardless of the growth direction, the near threshold region of cyclic extension was typical of ‘short crack’ behavior (i.e. deceleration of growth with an increase in crack length). Cyclic crack growth was more stable in the forward direction and occurred over twice the spatial distance achieved in the reverse direction. In response to the monotonic loads, a rising R-curve response was exhibited by growth in the forward direction only. The total energy absorbed in fracture for the forward direction was more than three times that in the reverse. The rise in crack growth resistance was largely attributed to a combination of mechanisms that included crack bridging, crack bifurcation and crack curving, which were induced by decussation in the inner enamel. An analysis of the responses distinguished that the microstructure of enamel appears optimized for resisting crack growth initiating from damage at the tooth’s surface. PMID:19433137

  4. Evaluation of enamel pearls by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, Nilgün; Caglayan, Fatma; Durna, Nurhan; Sümbüllü, Muhammed A.; Akgül, Hayati M.; Durna, Dogan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of enamel pearls according to population, sex and tooth groups on Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) or Dental Volumetric Tomography (DVT) scans of patients, retrospectively. Study Design: In this study, 15185 teeth belonging to 768 patients, 430 female and 338 male, was performed cross-sectional examination by CBCT. The volumetric Computed Tomography used in the study is Newton FP based on flat-panel. The data were analyzed with Pearson chi-squared test. Results: Enamel pearls were detected in 36 subjects (4.69%). Of these enamel pearls, 19 were detected in male and 17 were in male. There was no statistically a significant association between prevalence of enamel pearls and sex. All of enamel pearls were detected in molar teeth, for prevalence 0.83%. Conclusion: All of enamel pearls are found upper and lower molar teeth, especially the most commonly in maxillary second and third molars. Key words: Enamel pearls, ectopic mineralization, radiography, CBCT, DVT. PMID:22143707

  5. Improvement of enamel bond strengths for conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers: acid-etching vs. conditioning*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Tang, Tian; Zhang, Zhen-liang; Liang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-miao; Fu, Bai-ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study deals with the effect of phosphoric acid etching and conditioning on enamel micro-tensile bond strengths (μTBSs) of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs/RMGICs). Methods: Forty-eight bovine incisors were prepared into rectangular blocks. Highly-polished labial enamel surfaces were either acid-etched, conditioned with liquids of cements, or not further treated (control). Subsequently, two matching pre-treated enamel surfaces were cemented together with one of four cements [two GICs: Fuji I (GC), Ketac Cem Easymix (3M ESPE); two RMGICs: Fuji Plus (GC), RelyX Luting (3M ESPE)] in preparation for μTBS tests. Pre-treated enamel surfaces and cement-enamel interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBS of GICs/RMGICs. Conditioning with the liquids of the cements produced significantly weaker or equivalent enamel μTBS compared to the control. Regardless of etching, RMGICs yielded stronger enamel μTBS than GICs. A visible hybrid layer was found at certain enamel-cement interfaces of the etched enamels. Conclusions: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBSs of GICs/RMGICs. Phosphoric acid etching should be recommended to etch the enamel margins before the cementation of the prostheses such as inlays and onlays, using GICs/RMGICs to improve the bond strengths. RMGICs provided stronger enamel bond strength than GICs and conditioning did not increase enamel bond strength. PMID:24190447

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-20 mediates dental enamel biomineralization by preventing protein occlusion inside apatite crystals.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Saumya; Tao, Jinhui; Ruan, Qichao; De Yoreo, James J; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of enamel-like materials is a central topic of research in dentistry and material sciences. The importance of precise proteolytic mechanisms in amelogenesis to form a hard tissue with more than 95% mineral content has already been reported. A mutation in the Matrix Metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) gene results in hypomineralized enamel that is thin, disorganized and breaks from the underlying dentin. We hypothesized that the absence of MMP-20 during amelogenesis results in the occlusion of amelogenin in the enamel hydroxyapatite crystals. We used spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze occluded proteins within the isolated enamel crystals from MMP-20 null and Wild type (WT) mice. Our results showed that the isolated enamel crystals of MMP-20 null mice had more organic macromolecules occluded inside them than enamel crystals from the WT. The crystal lattice arrangements of MMP-20 null enamel crystals analyzed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were found to be significantly different from those of the WT. Raman studies indicated that the crystallinity of the MMP-20 null enamel crystals was lower than that of the WT. In conclusion, we present a novel functional mechanism of MMP-20, specifically prevention of unwanted organic material entrapped in the forming enamel crystals, which occurs as the result of precise amelogenin cleavage. MMP-20 action guides the growth morphology of the forming hydroxyapatite crystals and enhances their crystallinity. Elucidating such molecular mechanisms can be applied in the design of novel biomaterials for future clinical applications in dental restoration or repair.

  7. Polymer coated liposomes for dental drug delivery--interactions with parotid saliva and dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S; Hiorth, M; Rykke, M; Smistad, G

    2013-09-27

    The interactions between pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva and dental enamel were studied to investigate their potential to mimic the protective biofilm formed naturally on tooth surfaces. Different pectin coated liposomes with respect to pectin type (LM-, HM- and AM-pectin) and concentration (0.05% and 0.2%) were prepared. Interactions between the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were studied by turbidimetry and imaging by atomic force microscopy. The liposomes were adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HA) and human dental enamel using phosphate buffer and parotid saliva as adsorption media. A continuous flow was imposed on the enamel surfaces for various time intervals to examine their retention on the dental enamel. The results were compared to uncoated, charged liposomes. No aggregation tendencies for the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were revealed. This makes them promising as drug delivery systems to be used in the oral cavity. In phosphate buffer the adsorption to HA of pectin coated liposomes was significantly lower than the negative liposomes. The difference diminished in parotid saliva. Positive liposomes adsorbed better to the dental enamel than the pectin coated liposomes. However, when subjected to flow for 1h, no significant differences in the retention levels on the enamel were found between the formulations. For all formulations, more than 40% of the liposomes still remained on the enamel surfaces. At time point 20 min the retention of HM-pectin coated and positive liposomes were significantly higher. It was concluded that pectin coated liposomes can adsorb to HA as well as to the dental enamel. Their ability to retain on the enamel surfaces promotes the concept of using them as protective structures for the teeth.

  8. Characteristics of hydroxyapatite film formed on human enamel with the powder jet deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Ryo; Sasaki, Keiichi; Zahmaty, Mohammed Saeed Sepasy; Noji, Miyoko; Anada, Takahisa; Suzuki, Osamu; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to create hydroxyapatite (HAp) film by powder jet deposition with manipulating the blasting nozzle above human enamel and to examine the microstructural and mechanical properties of the HAp film and the bonding strength at the interface between the HAp film and the enamel substrate. HAp particles calcinated at 1200°C with an average size of 4.7 μm were used. The HAp particles were mixed with carrier gas (N₂) to form an aerosol flow and was accelerated and blasted from the nozzle onto the enamel substrate at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. To evaluate the microstructure, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the surface and cross section of the HAp films and a three-dimensional profile of the HAp films were observed. To evaluate the mechanical properties, the micro-Vickers hardness and the bonding strength of the HAp films to the enamel substrate were measured. The deposition area of the HAp film was over 3 × 4 mm. The average and maximum thickness were about 30 and 40 μm, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the hardness of the HAp film and the enamel (p > 0.05). The bonding strength of the HAp film was the same as the bonding strength between composite resin and enamel. Compared with previous reports, wider and thicker HAp film was created on the enamel substrate successfully. The HAp film, which has same hardness with enamel and same bonding strength to the enamel with composite resin, would be a candidate as dental restorative materials.

  9. Store-operated Ca2+ Entry Modulates the Expression of Enamel Genes.

    PubMed

    Nurbaeva, M K; Eckstein, M; Snead, M L; Feske, S; Lacruz, R S

    2015-10-01

    Dental enamel formation is an intricate process tightly regulated by ameloblast cells. The correct spatiotemporal patterning of enamel matrix protein (EMP) expression is fundamental to orchestrate the formation of enamel crystals, which depend on a robust supply of Ca2+. In the extracellular milieu, Ca2+ -EMP interactions occur at different levels. Despite its recognized role in enamel development, the molecular machinery involved in Ca2+ homeostasis in ameloblasts remains poorly understood. A common mechanism for Ca2+ influx is store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). We evaluated the possibility that Ca2+ influx in enamel cells might be mediated by SOCE and the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel, the prototypical SOCE channel. Using ameloblast-like LS8 cells, we demonstrate that these cells express Ca2+ -handling molecules and mediate Ca2+ influx through SOCE. As a rise in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is a versatile signal that can modulate gene expression, we assessed whether SOCE in enamel cells had any effect on the expression of EMPs. Our results demonstrate that stimulating LS8 cells or murine primary enamel organ cells with thapsigargin to activate SOCE leads to increased expression of Amelx, Ambn, Enam, Mmp20. This effect is reversed when cells are treated with a CRAC channel inhibitor. These data indicate that Ca2+ influx in LS8 cells and enamel organ cells is mediated by CRAC channels and that Ca2+ signals enhance the expression of EMPs. Ca2+ plays an important role not only in mineralizing dental enamel but also in regulating the expression of EMPs.

  10. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of developing enamel in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Barry, John C; Kemp, Anne

    2007-12-01

    The permanent tooth plates of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are covered by enamel that develops initially in a similar manner to that of other vertebrates. As the enamel layer matures, it acquires several unusual characteristics. It has radially oriented protoprismatic structures with the long axes of the protoprisms perpendicular to the enamel surface. Protoprisms can be defined as aggregations of hydroxyapatite crystals that lack the highly ordered arrangement of the rods of mammalian enamel but are not without a specific structure of their own. The protoprisms are arranged in layers of variable thickness that are deposited sequentially as the tooth plate grows. They may be confined to the separate layers, or may cross the boundary between each layer. Crystals within the protoprisms are long and thin with hydroxyapatite c-axis dimensions of between 30 and 350 nm, and with typical a-b axis dimensions of 5-10 nm. The hydroxyapatite crystals of lungfish enamel have no centre dark lines of octacalcium phosphate, an unusual character among vertebrates. As each crystal develops, arrays of atoms may change direction, and regions exist where dislocations and extra lattice planes are inserted into the long crystal. The resulting hydroxyapatite crystal is not straight, and has a rough surface. The crystals are arranged in tangled structures with their crystallographic c-axes closely aligned with the long axis of the protoprism. Lungfish enamel differs from the enamel of higher vertebrates in that the hydroxyapatite crystals are of different shape, and, in mature enamel, the protoprisms remain as protoprisms and do not develop into the conventional prismatic structures characteristic of mammalian enamel.

  11. Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel: Assessment of Two Ethanol Wet-Bonding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Rafizadeh, Mojgan; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ethanol wet-bonding (EWB) technique has been stated to decrease degradation of resin-dentin bond. This study evaluated the effect of two EWB techniques on composite resin-to-enamel bond strength. Materials and Methods: Silicon carbide papers were used to produce flat enamel surfaces on the buccal faces of forty-five molars. OptiBond FL (OFL) adhesive was applied on enamel surfaces in three groups of 15 namely: Enamel surface and OFL (control);Protocol 1 of the EWB technique: absolute ethanol was applied to water-saturated acid-etched enamel surfaces for 1 minute before the application of ethanol-solvated hydrophobic adhesive resin of OFL 3 times;Protocol 2: progressive ethanol replacement; water was gradually removed from the enamel matrix using ascending ethanol concentrations before OFL application. Composite build-ups were made and the specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Fracture patterns were evaluated microscopically. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05). Results: There were no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (P=0.73). However, regarding failure patterns, the highest cohesive enamel fractures were recorded in groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: In this study, although both methods of EWB did not influence immediate bond strength of composite resin to enamel, the majority of failure patterns occurred cohesively in enamel. PMID:24910690

  12. A refined sampling strategy for intra-tooth stable isotope analysis of mammalian enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazzo, A.; Bendrey, R.; Vella, D.; Moloney, A. P.; Monahan, F. J.; Schmidt, O.

    2012-05-01

    Serial sampling and stable isotope analysis performed along the growth axis of vertebrate tooth enamel records differences attributed to seasonal variation in diet, climate or animal movement. Because several months are required to obtain mature enamel in large mammals, modifications in the isotopic composition of environmental parameters are not instantaneously recorded, and stable isotope analysis of tooth enamel returns a time-averaged signal attenuated in its amplitude relative to the input signal. For convenience, stable isotope profiles are usually determined on the side of the tooth where enamel is thickest. Here we investigate the possibility of improving the time resolution by targeting the side of the tooth where enamel is thinnest. Observation of developing third molars (M3) in sheep shows that the tooth growth rate is not constant but decreases exponentially, while the angle between the first layer of enamel deposited and the enamel-dentine junction increases as a tooth approaches its maximal length. We also noted differences in thickness and geometry of enamel growth between the mesial side (i.e., the side facing the M2) and the buccal side (i.e., the side facing the cheek) of the M3. Carbon and oxygen isotope variations were measured along the M3 teeth from eight sheep raised under controlled conditions. Intra-tooth variability was systematically larger along the mesial side and the difference in amplitude between the two sides was proportional to the time of exposure to the input signal. Although attenuated, the mesial side records variations in the environmental signal more faithfully than the buccal side. This approach can be adapted to other mammals whose teeth show lateral variation in enamel thickness and could potentially be used as an internal check for diagenesis.

  13. X-ray microdiffraction, TEM characterization and texture analysis of human dentin and enamel.

    PubMed

    Xue, J; Zavgorodniy, A V; Kennedy, B J; Swain, M V; Li, W

    2013-08-01

    Human tooth is a complex bioceramic composite, which consists of enamel, dentin and the interface, the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The crystal properties and ultrastructure of the inorganic phase through the thickness of healthy human molar teeth were investigated using X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD), electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The XRD data were analysed using the Le Bail profile fitting approach. The size and the texture of the crystallites forming enamel and dentin in the crown part of teeth were measured using both techniques and then compared. Results showed that the thickness of dentin crystallites was found to decrease towards the DEJ, whereas the thickness of the enamel crystallites increased from the DEJ towards the outer layers. It was demonstrated that enamel exhibited an increase of texture in 002 lattice planes from the DEJ towards the outer layers. Texture was also detected in 102 lattice planes. The texture effect in 002 planes at the scale of less than 1 μm was also demonstrated in dentin. The variation of lattice parameters as a function of the position within the thickness of dentin and enamel was also observed. The values of the nonuniform microstrain in the dentin and enamel crystallites were from 1.40 × 10(-6) % to 4.44 × 10(-5) %. The good correlation between XRD and TEM indicated that μXRD is a useful technique to study crystallography and microstructure of heterogeneous enamel and dentin. The observed gradient characteristics of texture and crystallite size in enamel and dentin maybe an evolutionary outcome to resist wear and fracture, thereby contributing to the excellent mechanical properties of teeth.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-20 mediates dental enamel biomineralization by preventing protein occlusion inside apatite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Saumya; Tao, Jinhui; Ruan, Qichao; De Yoreo, James J.; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of enamel-like materials is a central topic of research in dentistry and material sciences. The importance of precise proteolytic mechanisms in amelogenesis to form a hard tissue with more than 95% mineral content has already been reported. A mutation in the Matrix Metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) gene results in hypomineralized enamel that is thin, disorganized and breaks from the underlying dentin. We hypothesized that the absence of MMP-20 during amelogenesis results in the occlusion of amelogenin in the enamel hydroxyapatite crystals. We used spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze occluded proteins within the isolated enamel crystals from MMP-20 null and Wild type (WT) mice. Our results showed that the isolated enamel crystals of MMP-20 null mice had more organic macromolecules occluded inside them than enamel crystals from the WT. The crystal lattice arrangements of MMP-20 null enamel crystals analyzed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were found to be significantly different from those of the WT. Raman studies indicated that the crystallinity of the MMP-20 null enamel crystals was lower than that of the WT. In conclusion, we present a novel functional mechanism of MMP-20, specifically prevention of unwanted organic material entrapped in the forming enamel crystals, which occurs as the result of precise amelogenin cleavage. MMP-20 action guides the growth morphology of the forming hydroxyapatite crystals and enhances their crystallinity. Elucidating such molecular mechanisms can be applied in the design of novel biomaterials for future clinical applications in dental restoration or repair. PMID:26513418

  15. Store-operated Ca2+ Entry Modulates the Expression of Enamel Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nurbaeva, M.K.; Eckstein, M.; Snead, M.L.; Feske, S.; Lacruz, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel formation is an intricate process tightly regulated by ameloblast cells. The correct spatiotemporal patterning of enamel matrix protein (EMP) expression is fundamental to orchestrate the formation of enamel crystals, which depend on a robust supply of Ca2+. In the extracellular milieu, Ca2+-EMP interactions occur at different levels. Despite its recognized role in enamel development, the molecular machinery involved in Ca2+ homeostasis in ameloblasts remains poorly understood. A common mechanism for Ca2+ influx is store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). We evaluated the possibility that Ca2+ influx in enamel cells might be mediated by SOCE and the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel, the prototypical SOCE channel. Using ameloblast-like LS8 cells, we demonstrate that these cells express Ca2+-handling molecules and mediate Ca2+ influx through SOCE. As a rise in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is a versatile signal that can modulate gene expression, we assessed whether SOCE in enamel cells had any effect on the expression of EMPs. Our results demonstrate that stimulating LS8 cells or murine primary enamel organ cells with thapsigargin to activate SOCE leads to increased expression of Amelx, Ambn, Enam, Mmp20. This effect is reversed when cells are treated with a CRAC channel inhibitor. These data indicate that Ca2+ influx in LS8 cells and enamel organ cells is mediated by CRAC channels and that Ca2+ signals enhance the expression of EMPs. Ca2+ plays an important role not only in mineralizing dental enamel but also in regulating the expression of EMPs. PMID:26232387

  16. Effects of dental bleaching on the color, translucency and fluorescence properties of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Caneppele, Taciana M; Borges, Alessandra B; Torres, Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the color, translucency and fluorescence of bovine enamel and dentin submitted to different bleaching modalities. Pairs of enamel and dentin discs (3 mm in diameter) were obtained from 150 bovine teeth. In 75 of the pairs, one specimen had the enamel removed (Dentin Group). The dentin was removed from one specimen of the remaining 75 pairs (Enamel Group) and the other specimen was left unaltered (Enamel + Dentin). The evaluation of color, translucency and fluorescence was performed with a spectrophotometer using the CIE L* a* b*. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups: Control, composed of specimens that were not bleached, and two experimental subgroups, bleached with either 10% carbamide peroxide (CP10%) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP35%). The CP10% bleaching gel was applied 2 h/day for 14 days. The HP35% bleaching agent was applied using two applications of 30 min each, with a one week interval between each application. When not being bleached, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The color, translucency and fluorescence ratings were assessed using spectrophotometry 7 days after the treatment. Regarding color, significant differences were found between bleaching techniques in the groups Enamel and Enamel + Dentin, with a higher color difference for HP35%. Bleaching did not change the translucency of the dental tissues. There were significant differences for fluorescence for the HP35% subgroups of Dentin and Enamel + Dentin, and for the CP10% subgroup of Enamel. Dental bleaching changed the color and fluorescence of the dental tissues, however translucency was not affected.

  17. Fluctuations in surface pH of maturing rat incisor enamel are a result of cycles of H(+)-secretion by ameloblasts and variations in enamel buffer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Damkier, Helle H; Josephsen, Kaj; Takano, Yoshiro; Zahn, Dirk; Fejerskov, Ole; Frische, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    It is disputed if ameloblasts in the maturation zone of the enamel organ mainly buffer protons released by hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal growth or if they periodically secrete protons to create alternating acidic and alkaline conditions. The latter hypothesis predicts alternating pH regimes in maturing enamel, which would be affected by pharmacological interference with ameloblast H(+)-secretion. This study tests these predictions. Colorimetric pH-indicators and ratiometric fluorometry were used to measure surface pH in maturation zone enamel of rat incisors. Alternating acidic (down to pH6.24±0.06) and alkaline zones (up to pH7.34±0.08) were found along the tooth coinciding with ameloblast morphological cycles. Underlying the cyclic pattern, a gradual decrease in pH towards the incisal edge was seen. Vinblastine or FR167356 (H(+)-ATPase-inhibitor) disturbed ameloblast acid-secretion, especially in the early parts of acidic zones. Enamel surface pH reflects the titration state of surface PO4(3-)-ions. At the pH-values observed, PO4(3-) would be protonated (pKa>12) and HA dissolved. However, by molecular dynamics simulations we estimate the pKa of HPO4(2-) at an ideal HA surface to be 4.3. The acidic pH measured at the enamel surface may thus only dissolve non-perfect domains of HA crystals in which PO4(3-) is less electrostatically shielded. During repeated alkaline/acidic cycles, near-perfect HA-domains may therefore gradually replace less perfect HA-domains resulting in near-perfect HA-crystals. In conclusion, cyclic changes in ameloblast H(+)-secretion and the degree of enamel maturation determine enamel surface pH. This is in accordance with a hypothesis implicating H(+)-ATPase mediated acid-secretion by ameloblasts.

  18. Polarization resolved near-IR imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light is reflected from and transmitted through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of optical imaging devices. New optical imaging tools employing non-ionizing radiation are needed for the detection and assessment of dental caries. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light is reflected from the occlusal surface or transmitted through thin sections of extracted human whole teeth. Previous near-IR imaging studies suggest that polarization imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of early dental caries due to the rapid depolarization of incident polarized light by the highly scattering areas of decay. In this study, the reflectance from tooth occlusal surfaces with demineralization and transmitted light through tooth thin sections with caries lesions were investigated. Major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel. This study suggests that polarization resolved optical imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of dental decay.

  19. Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bechtle, Sabine; Özcoban, Hüseyin; Lilleodden, Erica T.; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Swain, Michael V.; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2012-01-01

    Hard, biological materials are generally hierarchically structured from the nano- to the macro-scale in a somewhat self-similar manner consisting of mineral units surrounded by a soft protein shell. Considerable efforts are underway to mimic such materials because of their structurally optimized mechanical functionality of being hard and stiff as well as damage-tolerant. However, it is unclear how different hierarchical levels interact to achieve this performance. In this study, we consider dental enamel as a representative, biological hierarchical structure and determine its flexural strength and elastic modulus at three levels of hierarchy using focused ion beam (FIB) prepared cantilevers of micrometre size. The results are compared and analysed using a theoretical model proposed by Jäger and Fratzl and developed by Gao and co-workers. Both properties decrease with increasing hierarchical dimension along with a switch in mechanical behaviour from linear-elastic to elastic-inelastic. We found Gao's model matched the results very well. PMID:22031729

  20. The etch-bleach-seal technique for managing stained enamel defects in young permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Wright, J Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Hypomineralized enamel defects frequently are manifest as a mottled-white appearance and can be associated with variable degrees of discrete yellow-brown intrinsic staining. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed, ranging from bleaching to enamel reduction to restorative techniques. Bleaching of hypomineralized enamel lesions, using 1 to 2 applications (10 to 15 minutes each) of 5% sodium hypochlorite, has been applied clinically. Treatment using this approach has proven successful in removing yellow-brown discolorations from lesions in young permanent teeth. Young permanent incisors with yellow-brown intrinsic discolorations can often be treated by a simple and conservative bleaching protocol using sodium hypochlorite.

  1. Optical Spectroscopy Study of Transparent Non-Carious Human Dentin and Dentin-Enamel Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.; Gallagher, R.R.; Demos, S.

    1999-12-14

    Improving our knowledge of the morphology, composition and properties of the dentin, enamel, and the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is vital for the development of improved restorative materials and clinical placement techniques. Most studies of dental tissues have used light microscopy for characterization. In our investigation, the spectroscopic properties of normal and non-carious transparent human root dentin, and the dentin-enamel junction were investigated using emission imaging microscopy, and micro-spectroscopy. Experimental results reveal new information on the structural and biochemical characteristics of these dental tissues.

  2. Dependencies of the radiation sensitivity of human tooth enamel in EPR dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A; El-Faramawy, N; Meckbach, R

    2001-05-01

    The EPR dose response of tooth enamel was determined for human molars collected in Egypt. The influence of age, gender and residence of the tooth donors as well as tooth position and sample preparation on EPR sensitivity and its variability over the enamel samples was investigated. The EPR sensitivity and its variability were found to depend only on the sample preparation procedure. The variability in EPR sensitivity of enamel from Egyptian teeth was maximally 10% and the mean sensitivity was in good agreement with that of German teeth.

  3. External dose reconstruction in tooth enamel of Techa riverside residents.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Volchkova, A Yu; Timofeev, Y S; Fattibene, P; Wieser, A; Ivanov, D V; Krivoschapov, V A; Zalyapin, V I; Della Monaca, S; De Coste, V; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R

    2016-11-01

    This study summarizes the 20-year efforts for dose reconstruction in tooth enamel of the Techa riverside residents exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of radionuclide releases into the river in 1949-1956. It represents the first combined analysis of all the data available on EPR dosimetry with teeth of permanent residents of the Techa riverside territory. Results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of 302 teeth donated by 173 individuals living permanently in Techa riverside settlements over the period of 1950-1952 were analyzed. These people were residents of villages located at the free-flowing river stream or at the banks of stagnant reservoirs such as ponds or blind river forks. Cumulative absorbed doses measured using EPR are from several sources of exposure, viz., background radiation, internal exposure due to bone-seeking radionuclides ((89)Sr, (90)Sr/(90)Y), internal exposure due to (137)Cs/(137m)Ba incorporated in soft tissues, and anthropogenic external exposure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of different sources of enamel exposure and to deduce external doses to be used for validation of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS). Since various EPR methods were used, harmonization of these methods was critical. Overall, the mean cumulative background dose was found to be 63 ± 47 mGy; cumulative internal doses due to (89)Sr and (90)Sr/(90)Y were within the range of 10-110 mGy; cumulative internal doses due to (137)Cs/(137m)Ba depend on the distance from the site of releases and varied from 1 mGy up to 90 mGy; mean external doses were maximum for settlements located at the banks of stagnant reservoirs (~500 mGy); in contrast, external doses for settlements located along the free-flowing river stream did not exceed 160 mGy and decreased downstream with increasing distance from the site of release. External enamel doses calculated using the TRDS code and derived from the EPR measurements were

  4. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  5. In Vitro Acid-Mediated Initial Dental Enamel Loss Is Associated with Genetic Variants Previously Linked to Caries Experience.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Bayram, Merve; Seymen, Figen; Sencak, Regina C; Lippert, Frank; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variation and expression in whole saliva are associated with caries experience suggesting that these genes may have a functional role in protecting against caries. To further explore these results, we tested ex vivo if variants in these genes are associated with subclinical dental enamel mineral loss. DNA and enamel samples were obtained from 53 individuals. Enamel samples were analyzed for Knoop hardness of sound enamel, integrated mineral loss after subclinical carious lesion creation, and change in integrated mineral loss after remineralization. DNA samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare individuals above and below the mean sound enamel microhardness of the cohort with alpha of 0.05. The A allele of BTF3 rs6862039 appears to be associated with harder enamel at baseline (p = 0.09), enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.01), and enamel that more efficiently regain mineral and remineralize (p = 0.04). Similarly, the G allele of AQP5 marker rs3759129 and A allele of AQP5 marker rs296763 are associated with enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variations influence the initial subclinical stages of caries lesion formation in the subsurface of enamel.

  6. In Vitro Acid-Mediated Initial Dental Enamel Loss Is Associated with Genetic Variants Previously Linked to Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Bayram, Merve; Seymen, Figen; Sencak, Regina C.; Lippert, Frank; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variation and expression in whole saliva are associated with caries experience suggesting that these genes may have a functional role in protecting against caries. To further explore these results, we tested ex vivo if variants in these genes are associated with subclinical dental enamel mineral loss. DNA and enamel samples were obtained from 53 individuals. Enamel samples were analyzed for Knoop hardness of sound enamel, integrated mineral loss after subclinical carious lesion creation, and change in integrated mineral loss after remineralization. DNA samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare individuals above and below the mean sound enamel microhardness of the cohort with alpha of 0.05. The A allele of BTF3 rs6862039 appears to be associated with harder enamel at baseline (p = 0.09), enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.01), and enamel that more efficiently regain mineral and remineralize (p = 0.04). Similarly, the G allele of AQP5 marker rs3759129 and A allele of AQP5 marker rs296763 are associated with enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variations influence the initial subclinical stages of caries lesion formation in the subsurface of enamel. PMID:28275354

  7. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to understand enamel affected by metabolic disorder mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Malik Arshman; Addison, Owen; James, Alison; Hendriksz, Christian J; Al-Jawad, Maisoon

    2016-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disorder that can affect the tooth structure leading to defects. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction being a state of the art technique has been used to determine the enamel crystallite orientation in deciduous enamel affected by Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I and Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA and comparing these with that of healthy deciduous enamel. Using this technique it was observed that there is a loss of texture in deciduous enamel affected by Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I and Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA when compared to the healthy deciduous enamel. Generally it was observed that the incisal surface of the deciduous teeth possessed a higher texture or preferred orientation of enamel crystallites and on progression towards the cervical region there was a decrease in the texture or preferred orientation of enamel crystallites. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of a poorly calcified layer between the enamel and dentine at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) in MPS affected samples was likely to be responsible for rendering the tooth structure weak and prone to fracture as is often the case in MPS affected deciduous enamel.

  8. Topical laser application enhances enamel fluoride uptake and tribological properties.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Y-R; Lin, T-T; Huang, J-S; Peng, S-R; Shieh, D-B

    2013-07-01

    Topical fluoride treatment prevents dental caries. However, the resulting calcium-fluoride-like deposits are soft and have poor wear resistance; therefore, frequent treatment is required. Lasers quickly heat surfaces and can be made portable and suitable for oral remedies. We examined the morphology, nanohardness, elastic modulus, nanowear, and fluoride uptake of fluoride-treated enamel followed by CO2 laser irradiation for 5 and 10 sec, respectively. We found that laser treatments significantly increased the mechanical properties of the calcium-fluoride-like deposits. The wear resistance of the calcium-fluoride-like deposits improved about 34% after laser irradiation for 5 sec and about 40% following irradiation for 10 sec. We also found that laser treatments increased fluoride uptake by at least 23%. Overall, laser treatment significantly improved fluoride incorporation into dental tissue and the wear resistance of the protective calcium-fluoride layer.

  9. Computational modeling of ultra-short-pulse ablation of enamel

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A.

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 sec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  10. Mineralisation of developmentally hypomineralised human enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Crombie, F A; Cochrane, N J; Manton, D J; Palamara, J E A; Reynolds, E C

    2013-01-01

    Molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a problematic and costly condition. Caries remineralising agents are often recommended for MIH management despite the lack of evidence that these lesions have the capacity for increasing their mineral content. Following surface layer removal ± NaOCl pre-treatment and 14-day exposure to a CPP-ACFP solution at pH 5.5, MIH lesions were analysed using transverse microradiography and polarised light microscopy. Lesions were highly variable but treatment with the remineralising solution increased mineral content (1,828 ± 461 vol% min · µm, %R = 17.7 ± 5.7) and porosity decreased demonstrating the proof of concept that the mineral content of developmentally hypomineralised enamel can be improved after eruption.

  11. Graphene-based wireless bacteria detection on tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Tao, Hu; Clayton, Jefferson D.; Sengupta, Amartya; Kaplan, David L.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Verma, Naveen; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    Direct interfacing of nanosensors onto biomaterials could impact health quality monitoring and adaptive threat detection. Graphene is capable of highly sensitive analyte detection due to its nanoscale nature. Here we show that graphene can be printed onto water-soluble silk. This in turn permits intimate biotransfer of graphene nanosensors onto biomaterials, including tooth enamel. The result is a fully biointerfaced sensing platform, which can be tuned to detect target analytes. For example, via self-assembly of antimicrobial peptides onto graphene, we show bioselective detection of bacteria at single-cell levels. Incorporation of a resonant coil eliminates the need for onboard power and external connections. Combining these elements yields two-tiered interfacing of peptide-graphene nanosensors with biomaterials. In particular, we demonstrate integration onto a tooth for remote monitoring of respiration and bacteria detection in saliva. Overall, this strategy of interfacing graphene nanosensors with biomaterials represents a versatile approach for ubiquitous detection of biochemical targets.

  12. A neutron-absorbing porcelain enamel for coating nuclear equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, nuclear safety analyses showed that under upset conditions, strict administrative controls were necessary to limit access to a new processing vessel for enriched uranium service at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In order to increase the level of nuclear safety associated with that vessel, the traditional methods of incorporating neutron absorbers (borated stainless steel, boral, cadmium foil, etc.) were reviewed, however, process conditions did not permit their use. A neutron-absorbing porcelain enamel containing large amounts of cadmium and boron was developed as a safe, cost-effective alternative to traditional neutron-absorbing methods. Several pieces of coated process equipment have been installed or are planned for installation at SRP.

  13. Corrosion resistance of enamel coating modified by calcium silicate and sand particle for steel reinforcement in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fujian

    Porcelain enamel has stable chemical property in harsh environments such as high temperature, acid and alkaline, and it can also chemically react with substrate reinforcing steel resulting in improved adherence strength. In this study, the corrosion resistances of enamel coating modified by calcium silicate and sand particles, which are designed for improved bond strength with surrounding concrete, were investigated in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. It consists of two papers that describe the results of the study. The first paper investigates the corrosion behavior of enamel coating modified by calcium silicate applied to reinforcing steel bar in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution by OCP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The coatings include a pure enamel, a mixed enamel that consists of 50% pure enamel and 50% calcium silicate by weight, and a double enamel that has an inner pure enamel layer and an outer mixed enamel layer. Electrochemical tests demonstrates that both pure and double enamel coatings can significantly improve corrosion resistance, while the mixed enamel coating offers very little protection due to connected channels. The second paper is focused on the electrochemical characteristics of enamel coating modified by sand particle applied to reinforcing steel bar in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution by EIS. Six percentages by weight are considered including 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. Results reveal that addition of sand particle does not affect its corrosion resistance significantly. Most of the sand particles can wet very well with enamel body, while some have a weak zone which is induced during the cooling stage due to different coefficient of thermal expansion. Therefore, quality control of sand particle is the key factor to improve its corrosion resistance.

  14. Roughness of human enamel surface submitted to different prophylaxis methods.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Gisela Muassab; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Fava, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate alterations in the surface roughness and micromorphology of human enamel submitted to three prophylaxis methods. Sixty-nine caries-free molars with exposed labial surfaces were divided into three groups. Group I was treated with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and a mixture of water and pumice; group II with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and prophylaxis paste Herjos-F (Vigodent S/A Indústria e Comércio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); and group III with sodium bicarbonate spray Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante Indústrias Médico Odontológicas Ltda, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). All procedures were performed by the same operator for 10 s, and samples were rinsed and stored in distilled water Pre and post-treatment surface evaluation was completed using a surface profilometer (Perthometer S8P, Marh, Perthen, Germany) in 54 samples. In addition, the other samples were coated with gold and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this study were statistically analyzed with the paired t-test (Student), the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Dunn (5%) test. The sodium bicarbonate spray led to significantly rougher surfaces than the pumice paste. The use of prophylaxis paste showed no statistically significant difference when compared with the other methods. Based on SEM analysis, the sodium bicarbonate spray presented an irregular surface with granular material and erosions. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there was an increased enamel surface roughness when teeth were treated with sodium bicarbonate spray when compared with teeth treated with pumice paste.

  15. Linear Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

    These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. UR 501, the Plio-Pleistocene hominid from Malawi. Analysis of the microanatomy of the enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Bromage, Tim; Schrenk, Friedemann

    1997-08-01

    The study of enamel microstructure characteristics was carried out in a mandible of a Plio-Pleistocene hominid (UR 501), found in Chiwondo Beds at Uraha (northern Malawi), dated around 2.5-2.3 Myrs, and attributed to Homo rudolfensis. It indicates that UR 501 dental development shares many patterns with other Plio-Pleistocene hominids, i.e. similar crown formation time in premolars and molars. Nevertheless, differences were found, especially in the lateral enamel thickness. In premolars, lateral enamel is as thin as in early Homo, and in molars it is as thick as in robust australopithecines from East Turkana. The difference between enamel lateral thickness in premolars and molars in UR 501, which is not found in another specimen attributed to H. rudolfensis (KNM-ER 1802), may indicate inter-populational variation in H. rudolfensis.

  17. Biomineralization of a Self-assembled, Soft-Matrix Precursor: Enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, Malcolm L.

    2015-04-01

    Enamel is the bioceramic covering of teeth, a composite tissue composed of hierarchical organized hydroxyapatite crystallites fabricated by cells under physiologic pH and temperature. Enamel material properties resist wear and fracture to serve a lifetime of chewing. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms for enamel formation may allow a biology-inspired approach to material fabrication based on self-assembling proteins that control form and function. A genetic understanding of human diseases exposes insight from nature's errors by exposing critical fabrication events that can be validated experimentally and duplicated in mice using genetic engineering to phenocopy the human disease so that it can be explored in detail. This approach led to an assessment of amelogenin protein self-assembly that, when altered, disrupts fabrication of the soft enamel protein matrix. A misassembled protein matrix precursor results in loss of cell-to-matrix contacts essential to fabrication and mineralization.

  18. Interface-Limited Spherulitic Growth of Hydroxyapatite/Chondroitin Sulfate Composite Enamel-like Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guobin; Xu, Yifei; Wang, Xiyan; Wang, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Understanding and mimicking the growth of hard tissues such as tooth enamel may lead to innovative approaches toward engineering novel functional materials and providing new therapeutics. Up to now, in vitro growth of enamel-like materials is still a great challenge, and the microscopic formation mechanisms are far from well understood. Here we report synthesis of large-scale hydroxyapatite (HAP) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) composite films by an efficient solution-air interface growth method. The products have the characteristic hierarchical prism structures of enamel and the mechanical properties comparable to dentin. We demonstrate that the films are assembled by spherulites nucleated at the solution surface. The growth of the spherulites is limited by the interfaces between them as well as between the solution and air, leading to the ordered prism structure. The results are beneficial for a clearer understanding of the fundamentals of tooth enamel formation.

  19. Examination of native and carbamide peroxide-bleached human tooth enamel by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mahringer, Christoph; Fureder, Monika; Kastner, Markus; Ebner, Andreas; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hannig, Matthias; Kienberger, Ferry; Schilcher, Kurt

    2009-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the effects of bleaching on the morphology of the enamel surface with nanoscale resolution. Samples of human tooth enamel with native (pumiced) or fine-polished surfaces were examined before and after bleaching with 30% carbamide peroxide. The obtained profilometric AFM data revealed significant morphological surface alterations. After 1 h of bleaching, the surface roughness increased significantly from 19 +/- 4nm to 33 +/- 5 nm. Six-hour bleaching did not produce any significant further increase in enamel surface roughness. The interrod junction depth raised more than twice after 1 h of bleaching. After 6 h of bleaching, a further and significant increase in interrod junction depth was recorded. This alteration might be a consequence of oxidation and a subsequent partial lysis of the tooth enamel matrix proteins.

  20. Disturbed enamel formation in wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) from fluoride polluted areas in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, H; Kierdorf, U; Richards, A; Sedlacek, F

    2000-05-01

    The pathological alterations of enamel structure in the teeth of wild boars from fluoride polluted areas in N-Bohemia (Czech Republic) and S-Saxony (Germany) were studied on a macroscopic and a microscopic level. Mandibular bone fluoride concentration (mg F(-)/kg, dry wt; mean +/-SD, individuals <24 months of age) in the specimens from N-Bohemia (754.3+/-149.6) and S-Saxony (490.8+/-135.1) was significantly higher than that of controls (free of dental fluorosis), originating from the western part of Germany (304.7+/-91.0). Fluoride content in bulk enamel (mg F(-)/kg, ash wt) of fluorotic permanent teeth from N-Bohemia (382.1+/-165.2) and S-Saxony (125.0+/-38.3) was likewise significantly increased over that of non-fluorotic control teeth from W-Germany (33.6+/-26.7). Macroscopically, fluorosed wild boar enamel exhibited opacity and discoloration of varying extent, accentuated perikymata as well as hypoplastic and posteruptive surface defects. Microradiographic and scanning electron microscopic analyses revealed enamel subsurface hypomineralization, accentuated Retzius lines and occurrence of broad, hypomineralized incremental bands of abnormal structure underlying hypoplastic enamel surface defects. The presence of zones of aprismatic enamel was associated with these bands. Incremental bands with altered enamel structure and enamel surface hypoplasias, both denoting a severe disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, have previously been observed in rodents following acute parenteral fluoride dosing. It is concluded that in the chronically fluoride exposed wild boars periods of especially elevated plasma fluoride levels exerted an acute toxic effect on the secretory ameloblasts. A feature not previously reported from fluorosed enamel was the occurrence of canal-like structures that originated at the broad incremental bands and extended into the external enamel. The presence of these canals presumably results from a delay in the resumption of secretory

  1. Dental materials. Amorphous intergranular phases control the properties of rodent tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Lyle M; Cohen, Michael J; MacRenaris, Keith W; Pasteris, Jill D; Seda, Takele; Joester, Derk

    2015-02-13

    Dental enamel, a hierarchical material composed primarily of hydroxylapatite nanowires, is susceptible to degradation by plaque biofilm-derived acids. The solubility of enamel strongly depends on the presence of Mg(2+), F(-), and CO3(2-). However, determining the distribution of these minor ions is challenging. We show—using atom probe tomography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and correlative techniques—that in unpigmented rodent enamel, Mg(2+) is predominantly present at grain boundaries as an intergranular phase of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP). In the pigmented enamel, a mixture of ferrihydrite and amorphous iron-calcium phosphate replaces the more soluble Mg-ACP, rendering it both harder and more resistant to acid attack. These results demonstrate the presence of enduring amorphous phases with a dramatic influence on the physical and chemical properties of the mature mineralized tissue.

  2. Effect of fluoride in phosphate buffer solution on bonding to artificially carious enamel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on resin bonding to artificially carious enamel. Specimens from demineralized human enamel sections were prepared using two commercially available adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Single Bond, 3M) and a composite resin (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray) according to manufacturers' instructions. They were then immersed in phosphate buffered saline solution with varied fluoride concentrations at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 10 ppm. After immersion in each solution for one, three, or seven days, microshear bond strength was measured. The bond strengths of both adhesive systems to artificially carious enamel significantly increased after immersion in fluoride-phosphate buffer solution. Based on the findings obtained, we thus proposed not to remove the white enamel lesions for bonding in the clinic. They might be preserved and treated using fluoride applications.

  3. Genetic influences on dental enamel that impact caries differ between the primary and permanent dentitions

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Merve; Deeley, Kathleen; Reis, Maria Fernanda; Trombetta, Vanessa M.; Ruff, Timothy D.; Sencak, Regina C.; Hummel, Michael; Dizak, Piper M.; Washam, Kelly; Romanos, Helena F.; Lips, Helena F.; Alves, Gutemberg; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, José M.; Antunes, Leonardo S.; Küchler, Erika C.; Seymen, Figen; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, primary and permanent teeth are distinct anatomically and the presentation of caries lesions differs between the two dentitions. However, the possibility exists that genetic contributions to tooth formation of the two dentitions are different. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic associations with an artificial caries model will not be the same between primary and permanent dentitions. Enamel samples from primary and permanent teeth were tested for microhardness at baseline, after carious lesion creation, and after fluoride application to verify association with genetic variants of selected genes. Associations were found between genetic variants of ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin, tuftelin interactive protein 11, and matrix metalloproteinase 20 and enamel from permanent teeth but not with enamel from primary teeth. In conclusion, our data continue to support that genetic variation may impact enamel development and consequently individual caries susceptibility. These effects may be distinct between primary and permanent dentitions. PMID:26283008

  4. Calcium release rates from tooth enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents and abrasives.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; de Araujo, Roberto Paulo Correia

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening agents containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide are used frequently in esthetic dental procedures. However, lesions on the enamel surface have been attributed to the action of these products. Using conventional procedures for separating and isolating biological structures, powdered enamel was obtained and treated with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, and sodium bicarbonate, ingredients typically found in dentifrices. The enamel was exposed to different pH levels, and atomic emission spectrometry was used to determine calcium release rates. As the pH level increased, the rate of calcium release from enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents decreased. Carbamide peroxide produced the lowest amount of decalcification, while sodium bicarbonate produced the highest release rates at all pH levels.

  5. Enamel renal syndrome with associated amelogenesis imperfecta, nephrolithiasis, and hypocitraturia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bhesania, Dhvani; Arora, Ankit; Kapoor, Sonali

    2015-09-01

    Numerous cases of enamel renal syndrome have been previously reported. Various terms, such as enamel renal syndrome, amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome, and enamel-renal-gingival syndrome, have been used for patients presenting with the dental phenotype characteristic of this condition, nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis, and gingival findings. This report describes a case of amelogenesis imperfecta of the enamel agenesis variety with nephrolithiasis in a 21-year-old male patient who complained of small teeth. The imaging modalities employed were conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, and renal sonography. Such cases are first encountered by dentists, as other organ or metabolic diseases are generally hidden. Hence, cases of amelogenesis imperfecta should be subjected to advanced diagnostic modalities, incorporating both dental and medical criteria, in order to facilitate comprehensive long-term management.

  6. Measurement of Ca, Zn and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures.

  7. Crystalline structure of dental enamel after Ho:YLF laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Luciano; Craievich, Aldo Felix; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2004-11-01

    Irradiation of teeth with lasers using specific wavelengths and energy densities produces surface melting. This effect has been already applied to different procedures such as caries prevention and hypersensitivity reduction. The aim of this study is to characterize the crystalline structure of bovine enamel after holmium laser irradiation. A holmium laser (Ho:YLF) with emission wavelength of 2065 nm was used. Enamel tissues were irradiated in ablative regime and their structures before and after irradiation were analyzed using the powder X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns of non-irradiated enamel correspond to carbonated hydroxyapatite and those produced by irradiated samples indicate the existence of a mixture of two crystalline phases: hydroxyapatite and tetracalcium phosphate. The structural characteristics of holmium irradiated enamel were compared with those of the same tissue irradiated with other lasers.

  8. Effect of bracket bonding with Er: YAG laser on nanomechanical properties of enamel

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Birang, Reza; Hajizadeh, Fatemeh; Banimostafaee, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional acid etching and laser etching on the nano-mechanical properties of the dental enamel using nano-indentation test. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, buccal surfaces of 10 premolars were divided into three regions. One of the regions was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and another etched with Er:YAG laser, the third region was not etched. The brackets were bonded to both of etched regions. After thermocycling for 500 cycles, the brackets were removed and the teeth were decoronated from the bracket bonding area. Seven nano-indentations were applied at 1-31 μm depth from the enamel surface in each region. Mean values of the hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests, using the SPSS software (SPSS Inc., version16.0, Chicago, Il, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The hardness up to 21 μm in depth and elastic modulus up to 6 μm in depth from the enamel surface for laser-etched enamel had significantly higher values than control enamel and the hardness up to 11 μm in depth and elastic modulus up to 6 μm in depth for acid-etched enamel had significantly lower values than the control enamel. Conclusion: The mechanical properties of the enamel were decreased after bracket bonding with conventional acid etching and increased after bonding with Er:YAG laser. PMID:24688560

  9. Enamel Pit Defects and Taurodontism in a Patient with Ring Chromosome 14 and 47,XXX.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Janice A; Lacour, Letitia; Scheuerle, Angela E

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the clinical findings and management of a case involving a patient with co-occurring ring chromosome 14 syndrome and 47,XXX presenting with enamel pit defects and taurodontism. Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is an unusual condition with uncontrolled seizure disorder as its most significant finding; 47,XXX (trisomy X; triple X) is a more common condition and has characteristic physical and behavioral findings. Neither condition has been associated with enamel pit defects.

  10. Practical significance and calculation of surface tension of glass, enamels and glazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Surface tension is important in the formation of streaks in the whole procedure of enameling and glazing., in the action of TiO2 as opacifier, in the addition of borax to enamels, or metals to glasses, and in the corrosion of refractories by molten charges. By the use of known methods for measuring surface tension additive constants are found which give correct results within 1% with no discrepancy due to B2O3.

  11. Treating enamel surfaces with a prepared pumice prophy paste prior to bonding.

    PubMed

    Gultz, J; Kaim, J; Scherer, W

    1999-01-01

    The use of pumice to remove the salivary pellicle, plaque, and/or surface debris is a well-known procedure. However, pumice can act as a contaminant. Therefore, a slurry of pumice without additives is recommended for use prior to bonding procedures. This article presents a review of the shear bond strengths obtained by bonding composite resin to enamel after the enamel had been cleansed with a slurry of pumice and a premixed caplet of pumice.

  12. Influence of Enamel Thickness on Bleaching Efficacy: An In-Depth Color Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Públio, Juliana do Carmo; D’Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Catelan, Anderson; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different enamel thicknesses and bleaching agents on treatment efficacy in-depth by spectrophotometry color analysis. Eighty bovine dental fragments were previously stained in black tea solution and randomly assigned into eight groups (n=10), 1.75mm dentin thickness and different enamel thicknesses as follows: 0.5mm, 1.0mm planned, 1.0mm unplanned (aprismatic enamel), and absence of enamel. The 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gels were applied on the enamel surface following the manufacturer's recommendations. Color of underlying dentin was evaluated at four times: after staining with tea (baseline) and after each one of the three weeks of bleaching treatment, by CIE L*a*b* system using reflectance spectrophotometer (CM 700d, Konica Minolta). The ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb values were recorded and subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). The results showed an increase on lightness (L*), with decreased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). At first and second week, bleaching with CP showed higher whitening effectiveness compared to bleaching with HP and the presence of aprismatic enamel significantly reduced ΔE for bleaching with CP. After three weeks of bleaching, few differences were observed between CP and HP groups, and outer enamel layer caused no influence on bleaching effectiveness. Overall, both at-home and in-office bleaching treatments were effective and the presence of aprismatic enamel did not interfere on the whitening efficacy. PMID:27708725

  13. Effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tatiana Bahia Junqueira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). One hundred premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were divided into five groups (n = 20). Group 1 (control): enamel was etched with 35 per cent phosphoric acid, a thin layer of adhesive was applied, and the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. Group 2: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Group 3: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with conventional GIC. Group 4: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. Group 5: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours before they were submitted to shear testing. The results demonstrated that bond strength values of group 1 (17.08 ± 6.39 MPa) were significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. Groups 2 (3.43 ± 1.94 MPa) and 3 (3.92 ± 1.57 MPa) presented values below the average recommended in the literature. With regard to adhesive remnant index, the groups in which the enamel was treated with NaOCl showed a behaviour similar to that of the resin composite. It is conclude with enamel treatment with NaOCl increased bonding strength of brackets bonded with GIC and RMGIC, but increased bond strength was not statistically significant when compared to the untreated groups.

  14. The Use of Vitreous Enamel Coatings to Improve Bonding and Reduce Corrosion in Concrete Reinforcing Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    concrete apart • All normal reinforced concrete (cast-in-place and precast ) may have a short service life due to corrosion U S A r m y E n g i n e e...the Army, the Nation The Use of Vitreous Enamel Coatings to Improve Bonding and Reduce Corrosion in Concrete Reinforcing Steel Sean W. Morefield1...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Use of Vitreous Enamel Coatings to Improve Bonding and Reduce Corrosion in Concrete Reinforcing Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  15. Hardness of enamel exposed to Coca-Cola and artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Devlin, H; Bassiouny, M A; Boston, D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of change in indentation hardness of enamel in permanent teeth exposed to Coca-Cola. In a further experiment, the ability of a commercially available artificial saliva to remineralize enamel treated with Coca-Cola was tested. Ten enamel specimens were randomly chosen to be treated with Coca-Cola (experimental groups) and seven with water (control group). The fluids were applied for 1, 2, 3 h and overnight (15 h), washed off with a few drops of water and the moist enamel indentation hardness tested after each interval. With Coca-Cola treatment, the mean enamel hardness was 92.6% (s.d. = 7.9) of the original baseline hardness after 1 h, 93.25% (s.d. = 10.15) after 2 h, 85.7% (s.d. = 12.03) after 3 h and 80.3% after 15 h. The mean indentation hardness of control specimens treated with water was 108.7% (s.d. = 16.09) of the original hardness after 1 h, 99.09% (s.d. = 18.98) after 2 h, 98.97% (s.d. =11.24) after 3 h and 98.42% (s.d. = 22.78) after 15 h. In a separate experiment, the hardness of 9 enamel specimens was tested, as previously described, before and after treatment with Coca-Cola overnight and again after application of artificial saliva for 3 min. Coca-Cola reduced the mean indentation hardness of enamel in the teeth, but the hardness was partially restored with artificial saliva (Salivart) and increased by 18% from the demineralized enamel hardness.

  16. Genetic comparisons yield insight into the evolution of enamel thickness during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Julie E; Ramachandran, Gowri L; Fedrigo, Olivier; Nielsen, William J; Babbitt, Courtney C; St Clair, Elizabeth M; Pfefferle, Lisa W; Jernvall, Jukka; Wray, Gregory A; Wall, Christine E

    2014-08-01

    Enamel thickness varies substantially among extant hominoids and is a key trait with significance for interpreting dietary adaptation, life history trajectory, and phylogenetic relationships. There is a strong link in humans between enamel formation and mutations in the exons of the four genes that code for the enamel matrix proteins and the associated protease. The evolution of thick enamel in humans may have included changes in the regulation of these genes during tooth development. The cis-regulatory region in the 5' flank (upstream non-coding region) of MMP20, which codes for enamelysin, the predominant protease active during enamel secretion, has previously been shown to be under strong positive selection in the lineages leading to both humans and chimpanzees. Here we examine evidence for positive selection in the 5' flank and 3' flank of AMELX, AMBN, ENAM, and MMP20. We contrast the human sequence changes with other hominoids (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons) and rhesus macaques (outgroup), a sample comprising a range of enamel thickness. We find no evidence for positive selection in the protein-coding regions of any of these genes. In contrast, we find strong evidence for positive selection in the 5' flank region of MMP20 and ENAM along the lineage leading to humans, and in both the 5' flank and 3' flank regions of MMP20 along the lineage leading to chimpanzees. We also identify putative transcription factor binding sites overlapping some of the species-specific nucleotide sites and we refine which sections of the up- and downstream putative regulatory regions are most likely to harbor important changes. These non-coding changes and their potential for differential regulation by transcription factors known to regulate tooth development may offer insight into the mechanisms that allow for rapid evolutionary changes in enamel thickness across closely-related species, and contribute to our understanding of the enamel phenotype in hominoids.

  17. Effects of the bleaching procedures on enamel micro-hardness: Plasma Arc and diode laser comparison

    PubMed Central

    Nematianaraki, Saeid; Naghibi, Nasim; Kalhori, Katayoun AM; Junior, Aldo Brugnera

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: One of the major side effects of vital bleaching is the reduction of enamel micro-hardness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different bleaching systems, Plasma Arc and GaAlAs laser, on the enamel micro-hardness. Materials and methods: 15 freshly extracted human third molars were sectioned to prepare 30 enamel blocks (5×5 mm). These samples were then randomly divided into 2 groups of 15 each (n=15): a plasma arc bleaching group (: 350–700 nm) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel and a laser bleaching group (GaAlAs laser, λ: 810 nm, P: 10 W, CW, Special Tip) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel. Samples were subjected to the Vickers micro-hardness test (VHN) at a load of 50 g for 15s before and after treatment. Data were statistically analyzed by a Mann-Whitney test (p≤0.05). Results: In the GaAlAs laser group, the enamel micro-hardness was 618.2 before and was reduced to 544.6 after bleaching procedures. In the plasma arc group, the enamel micro-hardness was 644.8 before and 498.9 after bleaching. Although both techniques significantly reduced VHN, plasma arc bleaching resulted in a 22.62% reduction in VHN for enamel micro-hardness, whereas an 11.89% reduction in VHN was observed for laser bleaching; this difference is statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Both bleaching techniques reduced enamel micro-hardness, although the reduction is much less significant with the GaAlAs laser than with the plasma arc. Therefore GaAlAs laser bleaching has fewer harmful effects than plasma arc in respect to enamel micro-hardness reduction. PMID:26557731

  18. Effects of Tooth Coating Material and Finishing Agent on Bleached Enamel Surfaces by KTP Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Ayumi; Masuda, Yoshiko Murakami; Teruo, Toko; Yamada, Yoshishige; Kimura, Yuichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth coating material and finishing agent on bleached enamel surfaces after using KTP laser with 27% hydrogen peroxide. Background data: There have been few reports on the effects of tooth coating materials and finishing agents after bleaching. Methods: After 40 crowns of human extracted maxillary incisors were bleached by KTP laser, bleached enamels were finished with fluoride only or both of fluoride and nano-hydroxyapatite as a finishing agent. After application(s) of fluoride and/or finishing agent, the enamel surfaces were divided into 2 groups, which were covered with the coating material or without coating material. After application of coating materials, all specimens were kept for 2 weeks at 37°C of 100% humidity. After removing the coating material, color changing was measured and enamel surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM observation of enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material showed the most flattered surface compared to other groups. By measuring the color changing, few color changing was observed on the enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agents and coating material. Conclusion: These results suggested that applications of fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material made the enamel-surfaces flattered and kept effects of bleaching, could prevent the re-coloration. After applications of fluoride gel and finishing agent, covering the bleached-enamel surfaces with the coating material enhanced the keeping whiteness. It would give the patients satisfaction of whiteness. PMID:24155557

  19. Determination of enamel insulation corona resistance by high- frequency modulated pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, A. P.; Red'ko, V. V.; Red'ko, L. A.; Y Soldatenko, E.

    2015-04-01

    In the article test equipment is described for corona resistance testing of enameled winding wire samples. The primary element of equipment is generator producing test voltage with necessary waveform and magnitude according to the required PWM. Test conditions are accurately simulated by operational loads on a winding insulation (simultaneous impact of temperature and corona discharges). Obtained results of average time to breakdown show that the enamel insulation modified by silicon nanoparticles has a maximum corona resistance.

  20. Quantitative study of fluoride transport during subsurface dissolution of dental enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, J.S.; Fox, J.L.; Higuchi, W.I.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies using bovine dental enamel as a model have shown that surface and subsurface dissolution of enamel may be governed by micro-environmental solution conditions. We have now investigated the demineralization phenomenon more rigorously with the primary objective of developing a method for deducing solution species concentration profiles as a function of time from appropriate experimental data. More specifically, in this report, a model-independent method is described for determination of the pore solution fluoride gradients in bovine enamel during subsurface demineralization. Microradiography was used to determine the mineral density profiles, and an electron microprobe technique to determine total fluoride (F) profiles associated with the enamel. In each case, matched sections of bovine enamel were exposed to partially saturated acetate buffers at pH = 4.5 containing 0.5 ppm F for various periods of time (from six to 24 hours). The treated enamel was found to have an intact surface layer and subsurface demineralization. The extent of the demineralization and the depths of the lesions increased with time in all cases. The data were first used to calculate (a) the total F gradients in the enamel at various times, and (b) the local uptake rate of F as a function of time and position. Then, by manipulation of the equations describing the uptake and transport of F, we calculated the pore diffusion rate of F and the micro-environmental solution F concentration in the aqueous pores as a function of time and of distance from the enamel surface. It was also possible to calculate an intrinsic F diffusion coefficient in the pores, which was about 1.0 X 10(-5) cm2/sec, in good agreement with reported values.

  1. Influence of Enamel Thickness on Bleaching Efficacy: An In-Depth Color Analysis.

    PubMed

    Públio, Juliana do Carmo; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Catelan, Anderson; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different enamel thicknesses and bleaching agents on treatment efficacy in-depth by spectrophotometry color analysis. Eighty bovine dental fragments were previously stained in black tea solution and randomly assigned into eight groups (n=10), 1.75mm dentin thickness and different enamel thicknesses as follows: 0.5mm, 1.0mm planned, 1.0mm unplanned (aprismatic enamel), and absence of enamel. The 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gels were applied on the enamel surface following the manufacturer's recommendations. Color of underlying dentin was evaluated at four times: after staining with tea (baseline) and after each one of the three weeks of bleaching treatment, by CIE L*a*b* system using reflectance spectrophotometer (CM 700d, Konica Minolta). The ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb values were recorded and subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The results showed an increase on lightness (L*), with decreased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). At first and second week, bleaching with CP showed higher whitening effectiveness compared to bleaching with HP and the presence of aprismatic enamel significantly reduced ΔE for bleaching with CP. After three weeks of bleaching, few differences were observed between CP and HP groups, and outer enamel layer caused no influence on bleaching effectiveness. Overall, both at-home and in-office bleaching treatments were effective and the presence of aprismatic enamel did not interfere on the whitening efficacy.

  2. Using Bonding Enamel-Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    very moist for long periods of times Corroded strap-type wall tie BUILDING STRONG® Ties Join Courses and Lateral Units  Ties hold brick veneer to a...onto the steel fittings  A layer of portland cement is added to the heat softened glass enamel  Finished reinforcement is corrosion resistant and...very corrosion resistant Cement fused to the glass enamel makes strong bond to surrounding mortar Steel is protected from corrosion as long as glass

  3. Radiotherapy Effect on Nano-mechanical Properties and Chemical Composition of Enamel and Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Reed, R.; Xu, C.; Liu, Y.; Gorski, J.P.; Wang, Y.; Walker, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand radiotherapy-induced dental lesions characterized by enamel loss or delamination near the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), this study evaluated enamel and dentin nano-mechanical properties and chemical composition before and after simulated oral cancer radiotherapy. Design Sections from seven non-carious third molars were exposed to 2 Gy fractions, 5 days/week for 7 weeks for a total of 70 Gy. Nanoindentation was used to evaluate Young’s modulus, while Raman microspectroscopy was used to measure protein/mineral ratios, carbonate/phosphate ratios, and phosphate peak width. All measures were completed prior to and following radiation at the same four buccal and lingual sites 500 and 30 microns from the DEJ in enamel and dentin (E-500, E-30, D-30 and D-500). Results The elastic modulus of enamel and dentin was significantly increased (P≤0.05) following radiation. Based on Raman spectroscopic analysis, there was a significant decrease in the protein to mineral ratio (2931/430 cm-1) following radiation at all sites tested except at D-500, while the carbonate to phosphate ratio (1070/960 cm-1) increased at E-30 and decreased at D-500. Finally, phosphate peak width as measured by FWHM at 960 cm-1 significantly decreased at both D-30 and D-500 following radiation. Conclusions Simulated radiotherapy produced an increase in the stiffness of enamel and dentin near the DEJ. Increased stiffness is speculated to be the result of the radiation-induced decrease in the protein content, with the percent reduction much greater in the enamel sites. Such changes in mechanical properties and chemical composition could potentially contribute to DEJ biomechanical failure leading to enamel delamination that occurs post-radiotherapy. However, other analyses are required for a better understanding of radiotherapy-induced effects on tooth structure to improve preventive and restorative treatments for oral cancer patients. PMID:25766468

  4. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction characterization of healthy and fluorotic human dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaço, M. V.; Barroso, R. C.; Porto, I. M.; Gerlach, R. F.; Costa, F. N.; Braz, D.; Droppa, R.; de Sousa, F. B.

    2012-10-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basic physical-chemistry reactions of demineralization and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory—LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed both in powder samples and polished surfaces. The powder samples were analyzed to obtain the characterization of a typical healthy enamel pattern. The polished surfaces were analyzed in specific areas that have been identified as fluorotic ones. X-ray diffraction data were obtained for all samples and these data were compared with the control samples and also with the literature data.

  5. MicroRNA 224 Regulates Ion Transporter Expression in Ameloblasts To Coordinate Enamel Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi; Zhou, Yachuan; Zhou, Xuedong; Sun, Feifei; Gao, Bo; Wan, Mian; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Jianxun; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Crane, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Enamel mineralization is accompanied by the release of protons into the extracellular matrix, which is buffered to regulate the pH value in the local microenvironment. The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA 224 (miR-224) as a regulator of SLC4A4 and CFTR, encoding the key buffering ion transporters, in modulating enamel mineralization. miR-224 was significantly downregulated as ameloblasts differentiated, in parallel with upregulation of SLC4A4 and CFTR. Overexpression of miR-224 downregulated SLC4A4 and CFTR expression in cultured human epithelial cells. A microRNA luciferase assay confirmed the specific binding of miR-224 to the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of SLC4A4 and CFTR mRNAs, thereby inhibiting protein translation. miR-224 agomir injection in mouse neonatal incisors resulted in normal enamel length and thickness, but with disturbed organization of the prism structure and deficient crystal growth. Moreover, the enamel Ca/P ratio and microhardness were markedly reduced after miR-224 agomir administration. These results demonstrate that miR-224 plays a pivotal role in fine tuning enamel mineralization by modulating SLC4A4 and CFTR to maintain pH homeostasis and support enamel mineralization. PMID:26055330

  6. Lamellar bone is an incremental tissue reconciling enamel rhythms, body size, and organismal life history.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Timothy G; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hogg, Russell; Goldman, Haviva M; McFarlin, Shannon C; Warshaw, Johanna; Dirks, Wendy; Perez-Ochoa, Alejandro; Smolyar, Igor; Enlow, Donald H; Boyde, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Mammalian enamel formation is periodic, including fluctuations attributable to the daily biological clock as well as longer-period oscillations that enigmatically correlate with body mass. Because the scaling of bone mass to body mass is an axiom of vertebrate hard tissue biology, we consider that long-period enamel formation rhythms may reflect corresponding and heretofore unrecognized rhythms in bone growth. The principal aim of this study is to seek a rhythm in bone growth demonstrably related to enamel oscillatory development. Our analytical approach is based in morphology, using a variety of hard tissue microscopy techniques. We first ascertain the relationship among long-period enamel rhythms, the striae of Retzius, and body mass using a large sample of mammalian taxa. In addition, we test whether osteocyte lacuna density (a surrogate for rates of cell proliferation) in bone is correlated with mammalian body mass. Finally, using fluorescently labeled developing bone tissues, we investigate whether the bone lamella, a fundamental microanatomical unit of bone, relates to rhythmic enamel growth increments. Our results confirm a positive correlation between long-period enamel rhythms and body mass and a negative correlation between osteocyte density and body mass. We also confirm that lamellar bone is an incremental tissue, one lamella formed in the species-specific time dependency of striae of Retzius formation. We conclude by contextualizing our morphological research with a current understanding of autonomic regulatory control of the skeleton and body mass, suggesting a central contribution to the coordination of organismal life history and body mass.

  7. Evaluation of mineral content in healthy permanent human enamel by Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Akkus, Asya; Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Ozan; Porto, Thiago; Teich, Sorin; Lang, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background An understanding of tooth enamel mineral content using a clinically viable method is essential since variations in mineralization may serve as an early precursor of a dental health issues, and may predict progression and architecture of decay in addition to assessing the success and effectiveness of the remineralization strategies. Material and Methods Twenty two human incisor teeth were obtained in compliance with the NIH guidelines and site specifically imaged with Raman microscope. The front portion of the teeth was divided into apical, medium and cervical regions and subsequently imaged with Raman microscope in these three locations. Results Measured mineralization levels have varied substantially depending on the regions. It was also observed that, the cervical enamel is the least mineralization as a populational average. Conclusions Enamel mineralization is affected by a many factors such as are poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and high intake of dietary carbohydrates, however the net effect manifests as overall mineral content of the enamel. Thus an early identification of the individual with overall low mineral content of the enamel may be a valuable screening tool in determining a group with much higher than average caries risk, allowing intervention before development of caries. Clinically applicable non-invasive techniques that can quantify mineral content, such as Raman analysis, would help answer whether or not mineralization is associated with caries risk. Key words:Enamel, Raman spectroscopy, mineral content, dental caries. PMID:27957268

  8. Structure and scale of the mechanics of mammalian dental enamel viewed from an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter W; Philip, Swapna M; Al-Qeoud, Dareen; Al-Draihim, Nuha; Saji, Sreeja; van Casteren, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian enamel, the contact dental tissue, is something of an enigma. It is almost entirely made of hydroxyapatite, yet exhibits very different mechanical behavior to a homogeneous block of the same mineral. Recent approaches suggest that its hierarchical composite form, similar to other biological hard tissues, leads to a mechanical performance that depends very much on the scale of measurement. The stiffness of the material is predicted to be highest at the nanoscale, being sacrificed to produce a high toughness at the largest scale, that is, at the level of the tooth crown itself. Yet because virtually all this research has been conducted only on human (or sometimes "bovine") enamel, there has been little regard for structural variation of the tissue considered as evolutionary adaptation to diet. What is mammalian enamel optimized for? We suggest that there are competing selective pressures. We suggest that the structural characteristics that optimize enamel to resist large-scale fractures, such as crown failures, are very different to those that resist wear (small-scale fracture). While enamel is always designed for damage tolerance, this may be suboptimal in the enamel of some species, including modern humans (which have been the target of most investigations), in order to counteract wear. The experimental part of this study introduces novel techniques that help to assess resistance at the nanoscale.

  9. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite concentration on remineralization of initial enamel lesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, S B; Gao, S S; Yu, H Y

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of nano-hydroxyapatite concentrations on initial enamel lesions under dynamic pH-cycling conditions. Initial enamel lesions were prepared in bovine enamel with an acidic buffer. NaF (positive control), deionized water (negative control) and four different concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite (1%, 5%, 10% and 15% wt%) were selected as the treatment agents. Surface microhardness (SMH) measurements were performed before/after demineralization and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of application, and the percentage surface microhardness recovery (%SMHR) was calculated. The specimens were then examined by a scanning electron microscope. The %SMHR in nano-hydroxyapatite groups was significantly greater than that of negative control. When the concentration of nano-HA was under 10%, SMH and %SMHR increased with increasing nano-hydroxyapatite concentrations. There were no significant differences between the 10% and 15% groups at different time periods in the pH-cycling. The SEM analysis showed that nano-hydroxyapatite particles were regularly deposited on the cellular structure of the demineralized enamel surface, which appeared to form new surface layers. It was concluded that nano-hydroxyapatite had the potential to remineralize initial enamel lesions. A concentration of 10% nano-hydroxyapatite may be optimal for remineralization of early enamel caries.

  10. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie; Wang, Jiecheng; Liu, Xiaochen; Ma, Jian; Liu, Changsheng; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2011-06-01

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H 3PO 4) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  11. Influence of structural hierarchy on the fracture behaviour of tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ezgi D; Schneider, Gerold A; Swain, Michael V

    2015-03-28

    Tooth enamel has the critical role of enabling the mastication of food and also of protecting the underlying vital dentin and pulp structure. Unlike most vital tissue, enamel has no ability to repair or remodel and as such has had to develop robust damage tolerance to withstand contact fatigue events throughout the lifetime of a species. To achieve such behaviour, enamel has evolved a complex hierarchical structure that varies slightly between different species. The major component of enamel is apatite in the form of crystallite fibres with a nanometre-sized diameter that extend from the dentin-enamel junction to the oral surface. These crystallites are bound together by proteins and peptides into a range of hierarchical structures from micrometre diameter prisms to 50-100 μm diameter bundles of prisms known as Hunter-Schreger bands. As a consequence of such complex structural organization, the damage tolerance of enamel increases through various toughening mechanisms in the hierarchy but at the expense of fracture strength. This review critically evaluates the role of hierarchy on the development of the R-curve and the stress-strain behaviour. It attempts to identify and quantify the multiple mechanisms responsible for this behaviour as well as their impact on damage tolerance.

  12. Modeling of the human enamel laser ablation process at the mesoscopic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila Verde, Ana C.; Duarte Ramos, Marta Maria; Mendes Ribeiro, Ricardo; Stoneham, Marshall

    2003-06-01

    A mesoscopic simulation of the process of human enamel laser ablation by Er:YAG and CO2 lasers is being developed using the finite element method, taking into account the complex structure and chemical composition of this material. A geometric model that allows studying in detail the temperature, stress and displacement distribution within a few enamel rods is presented. The heat generation that takes place inside the enamel at the centre of the laser spot, caused by a non-ablative laser pulse emitted by CO2 and Er:YAG lasers, was simulated. The sensitivity of our model to the estimated material parameters was studied. Temperature, displacement and stress distribution maps obtained for both lasers are presented. These preliminary results suggest that the temperature distribution across the enamel rods is different in the two situations considered; thermally induced stresses in the material are higher in the regions that are richer in hydroxyapatite (HA), and the higher displacements are observed in the regions that are rich in water. The rod tails inside enamel present higher stresses in the direction perpendicular to the surface of enamel than the ones that are created at the surface of our simulated structure. We conclude that the mesostructure plays a crucial role in the accurate modelling of dental laser ablation.

  13. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: Effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R; Alvarez, Jason R; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-05-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions, and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray diffraction. The concentration of fluoride and the supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP)=10.2±2.0 with 1.5±0.5 mg l(-1) fluoride and 40±10 μg ml(-1) amelogenin, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarizes the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management.

  14. Anisotropic constitutive model incorporating multiple damage mechanisms for multiscale simulation of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje

    2016-09-01

    An anisotropic constitutive model is proposed in the framework of finite deformation to capture several damage mechanisms occurring in the microstructure of dental enamel, a hierarchical bio-composite. It provides the basis for a homogenization approach for an efficient multiscale (in this case: multiple hierarchy levels) investigation of the deformation and damage behavior. The influence of tension-compression asymmetry and fiber-matrix interaction on the nonlinear deformation behavior of dental enamel is studied by 3D micromechanical simulations under different loading conditions and fiber lengths. The complex deformation behavior and the characteristics and interaction of three damage mechanisms in the damage process of enamel are well captured. The proposed constitutive model incorporating anisotropic damage is applied to the first hierarchical level of dental enamel and validated by experimental results. The effect of the fiber orientation on the damage behavior and compressive strength is studied by comparing micro-pillar experiments of dental enamel at the first hierarchical level in multiple directions of fiber orientation. A very good agreement between computational and experimental results is found for the damage evolution process of dental enamel.

  15. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Zeng, J; Thomson, W M; Peres, M A; Demarco, F F

    2014-05-01

    Despite improvement, dental caries is still the main public oral health problem worldwide and the major cause of pain, tooth loss and chewing difficulties in children and adolescents; and it impacts negatively on oral health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study of a multistage representative sample of 8-12-year-old Brazilian school children was carried out in order to investigate the association between enamel defects and dental caries. Children's mothers completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics at home. Firth's bias reduced logistic regression models were undertaken to assess the association between the main exposure (enamel defects) and caries experience. The prevalence of any enamel defect was 64.0%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 35.0%, 29.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.4%, with mean DMFT of 0.6 (SD, 1.2). Dental caries experience was more common among children who had enamel hypoplasia in their posterior teeth (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.05, 6.51) than among those with none. In anterior teeth, there was no association. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be an important risk factor for dental caries.

  16. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, Henry

    1988-01-01

    A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

  17. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R.; Alvarez, Jason R.; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by FE-SEM, ATR-FTIR and XRD. The concentration of fluoride and supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP) = 10.2±2.0 with fluoride 1.5±0.5 mg/L and amelogenin 40±10 µg/mL, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarized the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management. PMID:21256987

  18. PERP regulates enamel formation via effects on cell–cell adhesion and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Jheon, Andrew H.; Mostowfi, Pasha; Snead, Malcolm L.; Ihrie, Rebecca A.; Sone, Eli; Pramparo, Tiziano; Attardi, Laura D.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of cell–cell adhesion in the development of mineralized tissues. Here we report that PERP, a tetraspan membrane protein essential for epithelial integrity, regulates enamel formation. PERP is necessary for proper cell attachment and gene expression during tooth development, and its expression is controlled by P63, a master regulator of stratified epithelial development. During enamel formation, PERP is localized to the interface between the enamel-producing ameloblasts and the stratum intermedium (SI), a layer of cells subjacent to the ameloblasts. Perp-null mice display dramatic enamel defects, which are caused, in part, by the detachment of ameloblasts from the SI. Microarray analysis comparing gene expression in teeth of wild-type and Perp-null mice identified several differentially expressed genes during enamel formation. Analysis of these genes in ameloblast-derived LS8 cells upon knockdown of PERP confirmed the role for PERP in the regulation of gene expression. Together, our data show that PERP is necessary for the integrity of the ameloblast–SI interface and that a lack of Perp causes downregulation of genes that are required for proper enamel formation. PMID:21285247

  19. Effects of enamel abrasion, salivary pellicle, and measurement angle on the optical assessment of dental erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussi, Adrian; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Beyeler, Barbara; Megert, Brigitte; Meier, Christoph; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the effects of abrasion, salivary proteins, and measurement angle on the quantification of early dental erosion by the analysis of reflection intensities from enamel. Enamel from 184 caries-free human molars was used for in vitro erosion in citric acid (pH 3.6). Abrasion of the eroded enamel resulted in a 6% to 14% increase in the specular reflection intensity compared to only eroded enamel, and the reflection increase depended on the erosion degree. Nevertheless, monitoring of early erosion by reflection analysis was possible even in the abraded eroded teeth. The presence of the salivary pellicle induced up to 22% higher reflection intensities due to the smoothing of the eroded enamel by the adhered proteins. However, this measurement artifact could be significantly minimized (p<0.05) by removing the pellicle layer with 3% NaOCl solution. Change of the measurement angles from 45 to 60 deg did not improve the sensitivity of the analysis at late erosion stages. The applicability of the method for monitoring the remineralization of eroded enamel remained unclear in a demineralization/remineralization cycling model of early dental erosion in vitro.

  20. Effects of Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond laser ablation on enamel surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Lü, Peijun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the surface roughness of enamel following ablation with a Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond pulsed laser at different fluences (F), scanning speeds and scanning line spacings. Thirty human extracted teeth were sectioned into crowns and roots along the cementum-enamel junction, and then the crowns were cut longitudinally into sheets about 1.5 mm thick. The samples were randomly divided into ten groups (n=3). Samples of groups 1-8 were irradiated with a femtosecond pulsed laser. These enamel samples were fixed on a stage at focus plane, and a laser beam irradiated onto the samples through a galvanometric scanning system, with which rectangular movement could be achieved. Samples of groups 9 and 10 were prepared with grinding instruments. Following ablation and preparation, the samples were examined for surface roughness with a three-dimensional laser profile measurement microscope. The results showed that scanning speed and scanning line spacing had little influence on the surface roughness of femtosecond pulsed laser-ablated enamel, except when F=4 J/cm2. When a lower fluence was used, the enamel surface roughness was higher, and vice versa. This study showed that various laser fluences, scanning speeds and scanning line spacings can affect and alter enamel surface roughness. Therefore, adequate parameters should be chosen to achieve the proper therapeutic benefits.

  1. Effect of resin infiltration on the nanomechanical properties of demineralized bovine enamel

    PubMed Central

    Tostes, Mônica Almeida; Santos, Emanuel; Camargo, Sérgio Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of resin infiltration in preventing in vitro lesion progression. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of bovine incisors were divided into mesial and distal regions and, at the center, nail varnish was applied (1.0 mm width) to protect the enamel surface against any further treatment. In order to create artificial enamel lesions in the unprotected areas, each specimen was soaked in a demineralizing solution. After that, specimens had two enamel lesions. One lesion in each sample was etched with 15% HCl for 120 s and infiltrated with a commercial infiltrating resin for 3 min, while the other lesion was not treated (control). Each specimen was cross-sectionally halved and randomly allocated to two groups: Group 1 was immediately processed and Group 2 was submitted to a new demineralization process. The samples were analyzed by means of cross-sectional hardness measurements using a nanoindenter equipment. Hardness data were statistically analyzed by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and MannWhitney tests (α = 0.05). Results: The findings showed statistical difference between treatments at the same analyzed distance range from the outer surface of the enamel (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The untreated lesion showed lower hardness values for distances near the outer surface of the enamel. The resin infiltration was efficient in preventing further in vitro demineralization of bovine enamel lesions. PMID:25565739

  2. Enamel and dentine demineralization by a combination of starch and sucrose in a biofilm - caries model.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Juliana Nunes; Villegas-Salinas, Mario; Troncoso-Gajardo, Pía; Giacaman, Rodrigo Andrés; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2016-05-20

    Sucrose is the most cariogenic dietary carbohydrate and starch is considered non-cariogenic for enamel and moderately cariogenic for dentine. However, the cariogenicity of the combination of starch and sucrose remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this combination on Streptococcus mutans biofilm composition and enamel and dentine demineralization. Biofilms of S. mutans UA159 were grown on saliva-coated enamel and dentine slabs in culture medium containing 10% saliva. They were exposed (8 times/day) to one of the following treatments: 0.9% NaCl (negative control), 1% starch, 10% sucrose, or 1% starch and 10% sucrose (starch + sucrose). To simulate the effect of human salivary amylase on the starch metabolization, the biofilms were pretreated with saliva before each treatment and saliva was also added to the culture medium. Acidogenicity of the biofilm was estimated by evaluating (2 times/day) the culture medium pH. After 4 (dentine) or 5 (enamel) days of growth, biofilms (n = 9) were individually collected, and the biomass, viable microorganism count, and polysaccharide content were quantified. Dentine and enamel demineralization was assessed by determining the percentage of surface hardness loss. Biofilms exposed to starch + sucrose were more acidogenic and caused higher demineralization (p < 0.0001) on either enamel or dentine than those exposed to each carbohydrate alone. The findings suggest that starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose.

  3. Investigation on the remineralization effect of arginine toothpaste for early enamel caries: nanotribological and nanomechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ping; Arola, Dwayne D.; Min, Jie; Yu, Dandan; Xu, Zhou; Li, Zhi; Gao, Shanshan

    2016-11-01

    Remineralization is confirmed as a feasible method to restore early enamel caries. While there is evidence that the 8% arginine toothpaste has a good remineralization effect by increasing surface microhardness, the repair effect on wear-resistance and nanomechanical properties still remains unclear. Therefore, this research was conducted to reveal the nanotribological and nanomechanical properties changes of early caries enamel after remineralized with arginine toothpaste. Early enamel caries were created in bovine enamel blocks, and divided into three groups according to the treatment solutions: distilled and deionized water (DDW group), arginine toothpaste slurry (arginine group) and fluoride toothpaste slurry (fluoride group). All of the samples were subjected to pH cycling for 12 d. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties were evaluated via the nanoscratch and nanoindentation tests. The wear depth and scratch morphology were observed respectively by scanning probe microscopic (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for element analysis of remineralized surfaces. Results showed that the wear depth of early caries enamel decreased after remineralization treatment and both the nanohardness and elastic modulus increased. Compared with the fluoride group, the arginine group exhibited higher nanohardness and elastic modulus with higher levels of calcium, fluoride, nitrogen and phosphorus; this group also underwent less wear and related damage. Overall, the synergistic effect of arginine and fluoride in arginine toothpaste achieves better nanotribological and nanomechanical properties than the single fluoride toothpaste, which could have significant impact on fight against early enamel caries.

  4. Temperature dependence of oxygen isotope acid fractionation for modern and fossil tooth enamels.

    PubMed

    Passey, Benjamin H; Cerling, Thure E; Levin, Naomi E

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen isotope ratio of CO(2) liberated from structural carbonate in tooth enamel apatite was measured at phosphoric acid reaction temperatures of 25 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 90 degrees C, and it was found that apparent acid fractionation factors for pristine enamel, fossilized enamel, and calcite follow different temperature relationships. Using sealed vessel reactions normalized to alpha(25) = 1.01025 (the fractionation factor for calcite at 25 degrees C), the apparent fractionation factor at 90 degrees C (alpha*(90)) for pristine enamel ranged between 1.00771 and 1.00820, and between 1.00695 and 1.00772 for fossilized enamel. Apparent fractionation factors for common acid bath reactions are similar to those for sealed vessel reactions. A significant correlation exists between alpha*(90) and F(-) content, suggesting that change in the acid fractionation factor may be related to the replacement of OH(-) with F(-) during fossilization of bioapatite. These results have important implications for making accurate comparisons between modern and fossil tooth enamel delta(18)O values, and for the uniformity of isotope data produced in different laboratories using different acid reaction temperatures.

  5. Wear characteristics and inhibition of enamel demineralization by resin-based coating materials.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Naohiko; Iijima, Masahiro; Ito, Shuich; Brantley, William A; Alapati, Satish B; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Kyotaro; Saito, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2017-04-01

    In this study, wear and inhibition of enamel demineralization by resin-based coating materials were investigated. Seven commercially available coating materials, with and without fillers, were used. A mechanical wear test was performed, and the specimens were then examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hardness and elastic modulus measurements for each material were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Thin layers of each material were applied on human enamel surfaces, which were subjected to alternating immersion in demineralizing and remineralizing solutions. The inhibition ability of enamel demineralization adjacent to the coating was estimated with depth-dependent mechanical properties using the nanoindentation test. The non-filled coating material showed significantly lower hardness, lower elastic modulus, and higher weight loss. There were no significant differences in weight loss among the six filled coating materials. After the alternating immersion protocol, the enamel specimens having application of coating materials with ion-releasing ability were harder than those in the other groups in some locations 1-11 μm from the enamel surface and within 300 μm from the edge of the coating materials. In conclusion, clinical use of the resin-based coating materials with ion-releasing ability may prevent demineralization of exposed enamel adjacent to the coating during treatment.

  6. Effects of enamel abrasion, salivary pellicle, and measurement angle on the optical assessment of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Lussi, Adrian; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Beyeler, Barbara; Megert, Brigitte; Meier, Christoph; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the effects of abrasion, salivary proteins, and measurement angle on the quantification of early dental erosion by the analysis of reflection intensities from enamel. Enamel from 184 caries-free human molars was used for in vitro erosion in citric acid (pH 3.6). Abrasion of the eroded enamel resulted in a 6% to 14% increase in the specular reflection intensity compared to only eroded enamel, and the reflection increase depended on the erosion degree. Nevertheless, monitoring of early erosion by reflection analysis was possible even in the abraded eroded teeth. The presence of the salivary pellicle induced up to 22% higher reflection intensities due to the smoothing of the eroded enamel by the adhered proteins. However, this measurement artifact could be significantly minimized (p<0.05) by removing the pellicle layer with 3% NaOCl solution. Change of the measurement angles from 45 to 60 deg did not improve the sensitivity of the analysis at late erosion stages. The applicability of the method for monitoring the remineralization of eroded enamel remained unclear in a demineralization/remineralization cycling model of early dental erosion in vitro.

  7. Er:YAG laser irradiation to control the progression of enamel erosion: an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, R S; Colucci, V; Lepri, T P; Alexandria, A K; Maia, L C; Galo, R; Borsatto, M C; Corona, S A M

    2015-07-01

    This in situ study evaluated the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation in controlling the progression of enamel erosion-like lesions. Fifty-six enamel slabs (330 KHN ± 10 %) with one fourth of the surface covered with resin composite (control area) were submitted to initial erosion-like lesion formation with citric acid. The slabs were divided into two groups: irradiated with Er:YAG laser and non-irradiated. Fourteen volunteers used an intraoral palatal appliance containing two slabs, in two phases of 5 days each. During the intraoral phase, in a crossed-over design, half of the volunteers immersed the appliance in citric acid while the other half used deionized water, both for 5 min, three times per day. Enamel wear was determined by an optical 3D profilometer. ANOVA revealed that when deionized water was used as immersion solution during the intraoral phase, lower values of wear were showed when compared with the groups that were eroded with citric acid, whether irradiated or non-irradiated with Er:YAG laser. When erosion with citric acid was performed, Er:YAG laser was not able to reduce enamel wear. Small changes on enamel surface were observed when it was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. It may be concluded that Er:YAG laser irradiation did not reduce the progression of erosive lesions on enamel submitted to in situ erosion with citric acid.

  8. The degree of enamel erosion by five different kinds of fruit.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Kotze, T J

    1989-01-01

    It could be expected that the degree of enamel erosion by different fruits containing different kinds of organic acids, or different ratios of acids, and other different chemical components, will vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of enamel erosion by different kinds of fruits (by determining the depths of enamel removed at different stages) over a period of 40 minutes. Statistically significant differences (p less than 0.05) were found among the slopes of apricot and that of grape, guava, apple, and orange. The results demonstrated that the degree of enamel erosion (etch depth) over a six-minute period had the following sequence: apricot more than grape and guava more than apple and orange; while over a 40-minute period the degree of etch depth was grape greater than apricot greater than guava greater than apple greater than orange. The degree of enamel erosion initiated by a fruit juice, as marketed, was about 5-8 times higher than that of the fruit (minced fruit juice). It also became clear that the degree of enamel erosion by different fruits depended on a combination of factors, such as the pH, amounts, and ratios, as well as the types of organic acids and other chemical components present in the fruits.

  9. Spectrophotometric assessment of the effects of 10% carbamide peroxide on enamel translucency.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Glauco Fioranelli; Arakaki, Yuri; Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz

    2008-01-01

    Tooth shade results from the interaction between enamel color, enamel translucency and dentine color. A change in any of these parameters will change a tooths color. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in enamel translucency during a tooth whitening process. Fourteen human tooth enamel fragments, with a mean thickness of 0.96 mm (+/- 0.3 mm), were subjected to a bleaching agent (10% carbamide peroxide) 8 hours per day for 28 days. The enamel fragment translucency was measured by a computer controlled spectrophotometer before and after the bleaching agent applications in accordance with ANSI Z80.3-1986--American National Standard for Ophthalmics--nonprescription sunglasses and fashion eyewear-requirements. The measurements were statistically compared by the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. A decrease was observed in the translucency of all specimens and, consequently, there was a decrease in transmittance values for all samples. It was observed that the bleaching procedure significantly changes the enamel translucency, making it more opaque.

  10. Effect of enamel surface treatment on the bond strength of metallic brackets in rebonding process.

    PubMed

    Pakshir, H R; Zarif Najafi, H; Hajipour, S

    2012-12-01

    Bond failure after rebonding for newly placed brackets can be reduced by appropriate enamel surface treatment. This in vitro study investigated the effect of two enamel surface treatments on the bond strength of metallic brackets in the rebonding process. After debonding the brackets and removing the residual adhesive on the enamel surface of 50 upper premolar teeth, the teeth were divided into two equal groups. In the first group, the enamel surface was etched with phosphoric acid 37 per cent, and in the second group, the teeth were sandblasted prior to acid etching. After bonding of the new brackets, the shear bond strength (SBS), probability of bond failures, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) were determined and compared with the t-test, Weibull analysis, and chi-square test. Mean SBS in both groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.081). Most bond failures occurred with ARI scores of 2 and 3, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Weibull analysis showed that for a given stress, the probability of failure differed between groups. Enamel surface preparation with sandblasting prior to acid etching did not significantly improve SBS in bracket rebonding and left more residual adhesive remnants on the enamel surface.

  11. Effect of Acidic Challenge Preceded by Food Consumption on Enamel Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Júnior, Edmêr Silvestre Pereira; de Oliveira, Daniela Silva Barroso; Fior, Fernanda Alves; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of food consumption followed by acidic challenge on enamel erosion. Methods: Seventy-five enamel blocks obtained from bovine teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=15 per group): GI – erosion with previous immersion in milk; GII – erosion with previous immersion in cheese extract; GIII – erosion with previous immersion in liver extract; GIV – erosion with previous immersion in broccoli extract; and GV – erosive effect of cola drink (control). Over 24 h, the slabs were submitted to 3 pH-cycles, each consisting of immersion in the studied food (GI to GIV) for 5 min followed by immersion in a cola drink for 5 min, and subsequently, the slabs were stored in artificial saliva (110 min). At the end of the pH-cycles, the slabs were stored in artificial saliva for 18 h. Enamel alterations were assessed by profilometry (μm). Data were tested using ANOVA and Scott-Knott’s tests (P<.05). Results: Mean erosion depths for enamel (μm) were 0.46 in GI, 0.55 in GII, 0.64 in GIII, 0.54 in GIV, and 1.18 in GVI. Enamel loss by acidic challenge alone (GV) was significantly higher than when the acidic challenges were preceded by food extract immersion. Conclusions: The data suggest that all studied foods could minimize the erosive effect on enamel. PMID:20922161

  12. Tooth enamel mineralization in ungulates: implications for recovering a primary isotopic time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2002-09-01

    Temporal changes in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of an animal are an environmental and behavioral input signal that is recorded into the enamel of developing teeth. In this paper, we evaluate changes in phosphorus content and density along the axial lengths of three developing ungulate teeth to illustrate the protracted nature of mineral accumulation in a volume of developing enamel. The least mature enamel in these teeth contains by volume about 25% of the mineral mass of mature enamel, and the remaining 75% of the mineral accumulates during maturation. Using data from one of these teeth (a Hippopotamus amphibius canine), we develop a model for teeth growing at constant rate that describes how an input signal is recorded into tooth enamel. The model accounts for both the temporal and spatial patterns of amelogenesis (enamel formation) and the sampling geometry. The model shows that input signal attenuation occurs as a result of time-averaging during amelogenesis when the maturation interval is long compared to the duration of features in the input signal. Sampling does not induce significant attenuation, provided that the sampling interval is several times shorter than the maturation interval. We present a detailed δ 13C and δ 18O record for the H. amphibius canine and suggest possible input isotope signals that may have given rise to the measured isotope signal.

  13. [The study on chemical composition and crystalline structure of hypoplastic primary dental enamel].

    PubMed

    Zheng, S; Deng, H; Gao, X

    1997-11-01

    The present study, firstly, analyzed chemical composition of hypoplastic primary teeth by electron probe analyzer and compared the hypoplastic part with the normal part in the same tooth; secondly, by X-ray diffraction analyzer, studied the hypoplastic dental enamel and the normal dental enamel, and compared the crystalline structure between different dental enamel and with that of the hydroxyapatite. The aim was to find out any change of crystalline structure. Two exfoliated hypoplastic deciduous anterior teeth were used for the electron probe study. The normal part of each tooth served as control. Determinations of weight percentage (wt%) were made for P, Al, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Na, K and F. Four exfoliated hypoplastic deciduous anterior teeth and eight exfoliated normal deciduous anterior teeth were used for the X-ray diffraction study. We found by X-ray diffraction that the length of the alpha-axis of enamel crystallite and the distance of lattice plane (corresponding 300) were increased in defective enamel and could be associated with the increased content of magnesium detected by electron probe. Thus, the present study demonstrated that there were both quantity and quality changes in the enamel hypoplasia lesion, which may increase the susceptibility of the defective teeth to caries.

  14. Hidden contributions of the enamel rods on the fracture resistance of human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Yahyazadehfar, M.; Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D.

    2013-01-01

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. In this study an experimental evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human enamel was conducted to characterize the role of rod (i.e. prism) orientation and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of this tissue. Incremental crack growth was achieved in-plane, with the rods in directions longitudinal or transverse to their axes. Results showed that the fracture resistance of enamel is both inhomogeneous and spatially anisotropic. Cracks extending transverse to the rods in the outer enamel undergo a lower rise in toughness with extension, and achieve significantly lower fracture resistance than in the longitudinal direction. Though cracks initiating at the surface of teeth may begin extension towards the dentin–enamel junction, they are deflected by the decussated rods and continue growth about the tooth’s periphery, transverse to the rods in the outer enamel. This process facilitates dissipation of fracture energy and averts cracks from extending towards the dentin and vital pulp. PMID:23022547

  15. The effect of McInnes solution on enamel and the effect of Tooth mousse on bleached enamel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Darshan, H E; Shashikiran, N D

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of McInnes bleaching agent on the micro hardness of enamel before and after bleaching and to evaluate the effect of G C Tooth Mousse on the bleached enamel surface for its microhardness. Materials and Methods: McInnes bleaching solution, Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate CCP-ACP (G C Tooth mousse) artificial saliva (Dept of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davengere), deionized water, Vickers Micro Hardness tester (Zwick/ZHV, Germany), freshly extracted teeth, cold cure acrylic, Diamond disc (Horico - PFINGST New jersey USA, KAVO- Germany), straight handpiece (kavo peca reta) and plastic moulds (6.5 × 2 mm). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare microhardness of the sound enamel surface by Vickers Hardness Number before and after bleaching with McInnes solution, and to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (G C Tooth Mousse) on the bleached enamel surface for its microhardness. Statistical analysis: The data obtained from the test were subjected for statistical analysis and are presented as range, mean and standard deviation. P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. The changes in microhardness at different times of assessment were analyzed using the paired ‘t’ test Results: All the samples showed decrease in the microhardness after two cycles of bleaching, though immediately after bleaching the decrease in the microhardness was not significant (P = 0.34). However, after the second cycles, it showed a significant decrease (P<0.01) in the microhardness. After application of remineralization solution (GC Tooth mousse), the samples showed a marginal increase in the microhardness (P<0.05) after seven days and a marked increase after fourteen days (P<0.001). Conclusion: McInnes bleaching agent does decrease the microhardness of enamel by causing enamel demineralization and GC Tooth mousse used in the study causes an increase in the

  16. An investigation on the crack growth resistance of human tooth enamel: Anisotropy, microstructure and toughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. The primary objective of this dissertation is to characterize the role of enamel's microstructure and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of human enamel. The importance of the protein content and aging on the fracture toughness of enamel were also explored. Incremental crack growth in sections of human enamel was achieved using a special inset Compact Tension (CT) specimen configuration. Crack extension was achieved in two orthogonal directions, i.e. longitudinal and transverse to the prism axes. Fracture surfaces and the path of crack growth path were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth extension. Furthermore, a hybrid approach was adopted to quantify the contribution of toughening mechanisms to the overall toughness. Results of this investigations showed that human enamel exhibits rising R-curve for both directions of crack extension. Cracks extending transverse to the rods in the outer enamel achieved lower rise in toughness with crack extension, and significantly lower toughness (1.23 +/- 0.20 MPa·m 0.5) than in the inner enamel (1.96 +/- 0.28 MPa· 0.5) and in the longitudinal direction (2.01 +/- 0.21 MPa· 0.5). The crack growth resistance exhibited both anisotropy and inhomogeneity, which arise from the complex hierarchical microstructure and the decussated prism structure. Decussation causes deflection of cracks extending from the enamel surface inwards, and facilitates a continuation of transverse crack extension within the outer enamel. This process dissipates fracture energy and averts cracks from extending toward the dentin and vital pulp. This study is the first to investigate the importance of proteins and the effect of

  17. [Physiological changes in the morphology of the main structural enamel unit - hydroxyapatite crystal - during its life span (in vitro study)].

    PubMed

    Shumilovich, B R; Sadovsky, V V; Sushchenko, A V; Kharitonov, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro study by means of complex laboratory techniques including X-ray faze analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy defined age-related physiological mineralization process as a shift of the structural enamel unit - nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystals - TO microcrystal phase. Relevant anatomical sites with age-dependent enamel optical characteristics corresponding to certain ratio of hydroxyapatite phases and the compliance of their color characteristics to composites enamel layers were revealed.

  18. Stable isotope time-series in mammalian teeth: In situ δ18O from the innermost enamel layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Scott A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chritz, Kendra L.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in mammalian tooth enamel are commonly used to understand the diets and environments of modern and fossil animals. Isotope variation during the period of enamel formation can be recovered by intra-tooth microsampling along the direction of growth. However, conventional sampling of the enamel surface provides highly time-averaged records in part due to amelogenesis. We use backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope (BSE-SEM) to evaluate enamel mineralization in developing teeth from one rodent and two ungulates. Gray levels from BSE-SEM images suggest that the innermost enamel layer, <20 μm from the enamel-dentine junction, is highly mineralized early in enamel maturation and therefore may record a less attenuated isotopic signal than other layers. We sampled the right maxillary incisor from a woodrat subjected to an experimentally induced water-switch during the period of tooth development, and demonstrate that secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can be used to obtain δ18O values with 4-5-μm spots from mammalian tooth enamel. We also demonstrate that SIMS can be used to discretely sample the innermost enamel layer, which is too narrow for conventional microdrilling or laser ablation. An abrupt δ18O switch of 16.0‰ was captured in breath CO2, a proxy for body water, while a laser ablation enamel surface intra-tooth profile of the left incisor captured a δ18O range of 12.1‰. The innermost enamel profile captured a δ18O range of 15.7‰, which approaches the full magnitude of δ18O variation in the input signal. This approach will likely be most beneficial in taxa such as large mammalian herbivores, whose teeth are characterized by less rapid mineralization and therefore greater attenuation of the enamel isotope signal.

  19. Markers of physiological stress in juvenile bonobos (Pan paniscus): are enamel hypoplasia, skeletal development and tooth size interrelated?

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R

    2009-07-01

    A reduction in enamel thickness due to disrupted amelogenesis is referred to as enamel hypoplasia (EH). Linear EH in permanent teeth is a widely accepted marker of systemic physiological stress. An enigmatic, nonlinear form of EH commonly manifest in great ape and human deciduous canines (dc) is known as localized hypoplasia of primary canines (LHPC). The etiology of LHPC and what it signifies-localized traumatic or systemic physiological stress-remains unclear. This report presents frequency data on LHPC, hypostotic cranial traits, and tooth size in a sample of juvenile bonobos, then tests hypotheses of intertrait association that improve knowledge of the etiology and meaning of LHPC. The fenestration hypothesis is tested using hypostotic cranial traits as a proxy for membrane bone ossification, and the relationship between tooth size, LHPC, and hypostosis is investigated. Macroscopic observations of EH, hypostotic traits, and measurements of buccolingual tooth size were conducted according to established standards. LHPC was found in 51.2% of bonobos (n = 86) and in 26% of dc teeth (n = 269). Hypostotic traits were observed in 55.2% of bonobos (n = 96). A test of the association between LHPC and hypostosis yielded nonsignificant results (chi(2) = 2.935; P = 0.0867). Primary canines were larger in specimens with LHPC than in unaffected specimens (paired samples t test; udc, P = 0.011; ldc, P = 0.018), a result consistent with the fenestration hypothesis of LHPC pathogenesis. Hypostosis was not associated with differences in tooth size (P > 0.05). LHPC may be an indirect indicator of physiological stress, resulting from large, buccally displaced primary canines.

  20. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G

    2010-08-01

    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays.

  1. A comparison of sports and energy drinks--Physiochemical properties and enamel dissolution.

    PubMed

    Jain, Poonam; Hall-May, Emily; Golabek, Kristi; Agustin, Ma Zenia

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sports and energy drinks by children and adolescents has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. It is essential for dental professionals to be informed about the physiochemical properties of these drinks and their effects on enamel. The present study measured the fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity of multiple popular, commercially available brands of sports and energy drinks. Enamel dissolution was measured as weight loss using an in vitro multiple exposure model consisting of repeated short exposures to these drinks, alternating with exposure to artificial saliva. The relationship between enamel dissolution and fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity was also examined. There was a statistically significant difference between the fluoride levels (p = 0.034) and pH (p = 0.04) of the sports and energy drinks studied. The titratable acidity of energy drinks (11.78) was found to be significantly higher than that of sports drinks (3.58) (p < 0.001). Five of the energy drinks (Red Bull Sugar Free, Monster Assault, Von Dutch, Rockstar, and 5-Hour Energy) were found to have the highest titratable acidity values among the brands studied. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was significantly higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. The effect of titratable acidity on enamel weight loss was found to vary inversely with the pH of the drinks. The findings indicated that energy drinks have significantly higher titratable acidity and enamel dissolution associated with them than sports drinks. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was more than two times higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. Titratable acidity is a significant predictor of enamel dissolution, and its effect on enamel weight loss varies inversely with the pH of the drink. The data from the current study can be used to educate patients about the differences between sports and energy drinks and the effects of these drinks on

  2. Effect of orthodontic debonding and residual adhesive removal on 3D enamel microroughness

    PubMed Central

    Tomkowski, Robert; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Stepien, Piotr; Szatkiewicz, Tomasz; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Termination of fixed orthodontic treatment is associated with bracket debonding and residual adhesive removal. These procedures increase enamel roughness to a degree that should depend on the tool used. Enamel roughening may be associated with bacterial retention and staining. However, a very limited data exists on the alteration of 3D enamel roughness resulting from the use of different tools for orthodontic clean-up. Aims 1. To perform a precise assessment of 3D enamel surface roughness resulting from residual adhesive removal following orthodontic debonding molar tubes. 2. To compare enamel surfaces resulting from the use of tungsten carbide bur, a one-step polisher and finisher and Adhesive Residue Remover. Material and Methods Buccal surfaces of forty-five extracted human third molars were analysed using a confocal laser microscope at the magnification of 1080× and 3D roughness parameters were calculated. After 20 s etching, molar tubes were bonded, the teeth were stored in 0.9% saline solution for 24 hours and debonded. Residual adhesive was removed using in fifteen specimen each: a twelve-fluted tungsten carbide bur, a one-step finisher and polisher and Adhesive Residue Remover. Then, surface roughness analysis was repeated. Data normality was assessed using Shapiro–Wilk test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare between variables of normal distribution and for the latter—Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Sa (arithmetical mean height) was significantly different between the groups (p = 0, 01326); the smoothest and most repeatable surfaces were achieved using Adhesive Residue Remover. Similarly, Sq (root mean square height of the scale-limited surface) had the lowest and most homogenous values for Adhesive Residue Remover (p = 0, 01108). Sz (maximum height of the scale-limited surface) was statistically different between the groups (p = 0, 0327), however no statistically significant differences were found concerning Ssk (skewness of the

  3. SEM-EDS-Based Elemental Identification on the Enamel Surface after the Completion of Orthodontic Treatment: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Julia; Lipski, Mariusz; Wójcicka, Anna; Gedrange, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Braces as foreign bodies in the mouth carry a risk of side effects and toxicity to the human body. This article presents the results indicating the possible toxic effects of tools used for cleaning the enamel after the completion of orthodontic treatment. The studies were carried out in vitro. The procedure of enamel etching, bonding orthodontic metal brackets, and enamel cleaning after their removal was performed under laboratory conditions. The enamel microstructure and elements present on its surface were evaluated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Silicon and aluminium were found in addition to the tooth building elements. PMID:27766265

  4. Enamel hypoplasia in molars of sheep and goats, and its relationship to the pattern of tooth crown growth

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, H; Witzel, C; Upex, B; Dobney, K; Kierdorf, U

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is the most highly mineralized and durable tissue of the mammalian body. As enamel does not undergo remodeling or repair, disturbances of enamel formation leave a permanent record in the tissue that can be used for life history reconstruction. This study reports light and scanning electron microscope findings on hypoplastic enamel defects, and on the chronology of crown growth in the molars of sheep and goats. A marked reduction of enamel extension rates in cervical compared with more cuspal crown portions of sheep and goat molars was recorded, with formation of the cervical 25% of the crown taking about the same time as that of the upper 75% of the crown. This explains the more frequent occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in cervical compared with upper and middle crown portions. Regarding the identification of hypoplastic enamel defects by external inspection, our results suggest a dependence on the type of defect and the associated presence of smaller or larger amounts of coronal cementum. Defects considered to reflect a slight to moderate impairment of secretory ameloblast function can normally be correctly diagnosed as they are not occluded by thick layers of cementum. In contrast, defects denoting a severe impairment of enamel matrix secretion can typically not be correctly identified because they are occluded by large amounts of cementum, so that neither depth nor extension of the defects can be assessed on external inspection. In these cases, microscopic analysis of tooth sections is required for a correct diagnosis of the hypoplastic enamel defects. PMID:22352403

  5. Identification of amelotin- and ODAM-interacting enamel matrix proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Holcroft, James; Ganss, Bernhard

    2011-12-01

    The formation of dental enamel is a prototype of functional tissue development through biomineralization. Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered secreted enamel protein predominantly expressed during the maturation stage of enamel formation. It accumulates in a basal lamina-like structure at the interface between ameloblasts and enamel mineral and it co-localizes with another recently described enamel protein, odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM). The purpose of this study was to determine whether AMTN and ODAM bind to each other and/or to other well-established enamel matrix proteins. The coding sequences of all enamel proteins were cloned into appropriate vectors of the GAL4-based Matchmaker Gold Yeast Two-Hybrid System. The growth of yeast cells on selective media and color induction were used as indicators for reporter gene expression through protein-protein interactions in combinations of prey and bait constructs. We found that AMTN interacts with itself and with ODAM, but not with amelogenin (AMEL), ameloblastin (AMBN), or enamelin (ENAM). Using ODAM as bait, the interaction with AMTN was confirmed. Furthermore, ODAM was found to bind to itself and to AMBN, as well as weakly to AMEL but not to ENAM. We propose a model where the distinct expression of AMTN and ODAM and their interaction are involved in defining the enamel microstructure at the enamel surface.

  6. Localised enamel hypoplasia of human deciduous canines: genotype or environment?

    PubMed

    Taji, S; Hughes, T; Rogers, J; Townsend, G

    2000-06-01

    A discrete area of defective enamel formation that appears on the labial surface of the crowns of deciduous canine teeth has been described in both recent and prehistoric human populations, with reported frequencies varying from 1 to 45 per cent. Suggestions about the aetiology of this localized hypoplasia range from genotypic factors to environmental conditions and systemic effects. The major aims of this study were to describe the frequency of occurrence and pattern of expression of the lesion in Australian Aboriginal and Caucasian ethnic groups, and to clarify the role of genetic factors by examining a sample of twins. The study sample consisted of dental casts of 181 pairs of Australian Caucasian twins, 215 Aborigines and 122 Caucasian singletons, together with 253 extracted deciduous canines. Examination of dental casts and extracted teeth was undertaken under 2x magnification with emphasis being placed upon location and expression of the lesion. The defect was observed in 49 per cent of twins and 44 per cent of Aborigines, but only 36 per cent of singletons. The percentages of affected teeth in each group were: 18 per cent in twins, 17 per cent in Aborigines and 13 per cent in Caucasians. A significant proportion of the defects occurred on the mesial aspect of the labial surface, in the middle area incisocervically, with the majority in the lower jaw. A number of significant differences in frequency were observed between groups, sexes, arches and sides. The results confirm some of the findings of previous studies, but also suggest that none of environmental, genetic or systemic factors can be ruled out as being involved in aetiology of the defect. The higher incidence of the lesion occurring on the mesial aspect of the labial surface is suggestive of physical trauma. Also, the vulnerability of the prominent developing mandibular canine, with its thin or missing labial covering of bone, would be expected to lead to higher prevalence of the lesion in the lower

  7. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sigilião, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  8. Enamel biorhythms of humans and great apes: the Havers-Halberg Oscillation hypothesis reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick; Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Pitfield, Rosie; Deter, Chris; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie

    2017-02-01

    The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth. We proposed the biorhythm might not remain constant within an individual. Here, we test our findings. RP is compared between deciduous second and permanent first molars within the maxillae of four human children. Following this, we report the first RPs for deciduous teeth from modern great apes (n = 4), and compare these with new data for permanent teeth (n = 18) from these species, as well as with previously published values. We also explore RP in teeth that retain hypoplastic defects. Results show RP changed within the maxilla of each child, from thinner to thicker enameled molars, and from one side of a hypoplastic defect to the other. When considered alongside correlations between RP and cusp formation time, these observations provide further evidence that RP is associated with enamel growth processes and does not always remain constant within an individual. RP of 5 days for great ape deciduous teeth lay below the lowermost range of those from permanent teeth of modern orangutan and gorilla, and within the lowermost range of RPs from chimpanzee permanent teeth. Our data suggest associations between RP and enamel growth processes of humans might extend to great apes. These findings provide a new framework from which to develop the HHO hypothesis, which can incorporate enamel growth along with other physiological systems. Applications of the HHO to fossil teeth should avoid transferring RP between deciduous and permanent enamel, or including