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Sample records for linear evolution equations

  1. Fast wavelet based algorithms for linear evolution equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engquist, Bjorn; Osher, Stanley; Zhong, Sifen

    1992-01-01

    A class was devised of fast wavelet based algorithms for linear evolution equations whose coefficients are time independent. The method draws on the work of Beylkin, Coifman, and Rokhlin which they applied to general Calderon-Zygmund type integral operators. A modification of their idea is applied to linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations, with spatially varying coefficients. A significant speedup over standard methods is obtained when applied to hyperbolic equations in one space dimension and parabolic equations in multidimensions.

  2. Evolution equation for non-linear cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel approach, based entirely on the gravitational potential, for studying the evolution of non-linear cosmological matter perturbations. Starting from the perturbed Einstein equations, we integrate out the non-relativistic degrees of freedom of the cosmic fluid and obtain a single closed equation for the gravitational potential. We then verify the validity of the new equation by comparing its approximate solutions to known results in the theory of non-linear cosmological perturbations. First, we show explicitly that the perturbative solution of our equation matches the standard perturbative solutions. Next, using the mean field approximation to the equation, we show that its solution reproduces in a simple way the exponential suppression of the non-linear propagator on small scales due to the velocity dispersion. Our approach can therefore reproduce the main features of the renormalized perturbation theory and (time)-renormalization group approaches to the study of non-linear cosmological perturbations, with some possibly important differences. We conclude by a preliminary discussion of the nature of the full solutions of the equation and their significance.

  3. Robust non-linear differential equation models of gene expression evolution across Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper lies in the context of modeling the evolution of gene expression away from stationary states, for example in systems subject to external perturbations or during the development of an organism. We base our analysis on experimental data and proceed in a top-down approach, where we start from data on a system's transcriptome, and deduce rules and models from it without a priori knowledge. We focus here on a publicly available DNA microarray time series, representing the transcriptome of Drosophila across evolution from the embryonic to the adult stage. Results In the first step, genes were clustered on the basis of similarity of their expression profiles, measured by a translation-invariant and scale-invariant distance that proved appropriate for detecting transitions between development stages. Average profiles representing each cluster were computed and their time evolution was analyzed using coupled differential equations. A linear and several non-linear model structures involving a transcription and a degradation term were tested. The parameters were identified in three steps: determination of the strongest connections between genes, optimization of the parameters defining these connections, and elimination of the unnecessary parameters using various reduction schemes. Different solutions were compared on the basis of their abilities to reproduce the data, to keep realistic gene expression levels when extrapolated in time, to show the biologically expected robustness with respect to parameter variations, and to contain as few parameters as possible. Conclusions We showed that the linear model did very well in reproducing the data with few parameters, but was not sufficiently robust and yielded unrealistic values upon extrapolation in time. In contrast, the non-linear models all reached the latter two objectives, but some were unable to reproduce the data. A family of non-linear models, constructed from the exponential of linear combinations

  4. An automated tanh-function method for finding solitary wave solutions to non-linear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, E. J.; Duffy, B. R.

    1996-11-01

    The tanh-function method for finding explicit travelling solitary wave solutions to non-linear evolution equations is described. The method is usually extremely tedious to use by hand. We present a Mathematica package ATFM that deals with the tedious algebra and outputs directly the required solutions. The use of the package is illustrated by applying it to a variety of equations; not only are previously known solutions recovered but in some cases more general forms of solution are obtained.

  5. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  6. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  7. Systems of Inhomogeneous Linear Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Many problems in physics and especially computational physics involve systems of linear equations which arise e.g. from linearization of a general nonlinear problem or from discretization of differential equations. If the dimension of the system is not too large standard methods like Gaussian elimination or QR decomposition are sufficient. Systems with a tridiagonal matrix are important for cubic spline interpolation and numerical second derivatives. They can be solved very efficiently with a specialized Gaussian elimination method. Practical applications often involve very large dimensions and require iterative methods. Convergence of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods is slow and can be improved by relaxation or over-relaxation. An alternative for large systems is the method of conjugate gradients.

  8. Linear equations with random variables.

    PubMed

    Tango, Toshiro

    2005-10-30

    A system of linear equations is presented where the unknowns are unobserved values of random variables. A maximum likelihood estimator assuming a multivariate normal distribution and a non-parametric proportional allotment estimator are proposed for the unobserved values of the random variables and for their means. Both estimators can be computed by simple iterative procedures and are shown to perform similarly. The methods are illustrated with data from a national nutrition survey in Japan.

  9. Linear determining equations for differential constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptsov, O V

    1998-12-31

    A construction of differential constraints compatible with partial differential equations is considered. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the classical determining equations used in the search for admissible Lie operators. As applications of this approach equations of an ideal incompressible fluid and non-linear heat equations are discussed.

  10. Accumulative Equating Error after a Chain of Linear Equatings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Hongwen

    2010-01-01

    After many equatings have been conducted in a testing program, equating errors can accumulate to a degree that is not negligible compared to the standard error of measurement. In this paper, the author investigates the asymptotic accumulative standard error of equating (ASEE) for linear equating methods, including chained linear, Tucker, and…

  11. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  12. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1982-05-02

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  13. Successfully Transitioning to Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Connie; Smith, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) asks students in as early as fourth grade to solve word problems using equations with variables. Equations studied at this level generate a single solution, such as the equation x + 10 = 25. For students in fifth grade, the Common Core standard for algebraic thinking expects them to…

  14. Symmetry algebras of linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, A. V.; Shirokov, I. V.

    1992-07-01

    The local symmetries of linear differential equations are investigated by means of proven theorems on the structure of the algebra of local symmetries of translationally and dilatationally invariant differential equations. For a nonparabolic second-order equation, the absence of nontrivial nonlinear local symmetries is proved. This means that the local symmetries reduce to the Lie algebra of linear differential symmetry operators. For the Laplace—Beltrami equation, all local symmetries reduce to the enveloping algebra of the algebra of the conformal group.

  15. Lie algebras and linear differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Rahimi, A.

    1972-01-01

    Certain symmetry properties possessed by the solutions of linear differential equations are examined. For this purpose, some basic ideas from the theory of finite dimensional linear systems are used together with the work of Wei and Norman on the use of Lie algebraic methods in differential equation theory.

  16. Transformation matrices between non-linear and linear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sartain, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    In the linearization of systems of non-linear differential equations, those systems which can be exactly transformed into the second order linear differential equation Y"-AY'-BY=0 where Y, Y', and Y" are n x 1 vectors and A and B are constant n x n matrices of real numbers were considered. The 2n x 2n matrix was used to transform the above matrix equation into the first order matrix equation X' = MX. Specially the matrix M and the conditions which will diagonalize or triangularize M were studied. Transformation matrices P and P sub -1 were used to accomplish this diagonalization or triangularization to return to the solution of the second order matrix differential equation system from the first order system.

  17. Congeneric Models and Levine's Linear Equating Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    In 1955, R. Levine introduced two linear equating procedures for the common-item non-equivalent populations design. His procedures make the same assumptions about true scores; they differ in terms of the nature of the equating function used. In this paper, two parameterizations of a classical congeneric model are introduced to model the variables…

  18. Symbolic Solution of Linear Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, R. B.; Grooms, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations is presented. The computational complexity of the algorithm is discussed and its implementation in the FORMAC system is described. A comparison is made between the algorithm and some classical algorithms for solving differential equations.

  19. Evolution equation for quantum coherence

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the decoherence process of an open quantum system is of both theoretical significance and experimental appealing. Practically, the decoherence can be easily estimated if the coherence evolution satisfies some simple relations. We introduce a framework for studying evolution equation of coherence. Based on this framework, we prove a simple factorization relation (FR) for the l1 norm of coherence, and identified the sets of quantum channels for which this FR holds. By using this FR, we further determine condition on the transformation matrix of the quantum channel which can support permanently freezing of the l1 norm of coherence. We finally reveal the universality of this FR by showing that it holds for many other related coherence and quantum correlation measures. PMID:27382933

  20. Stochastic thermodynamics for linear kinetic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Broeck, C.; Toral, R.

    2015-07-01

    Stochastic thermodynamics is formulated for variables that are odd under time reversal. The invariance under spatial rotation of the collision rates due to the isotropy of the heat bath is shown to be a crucial ingredient. An alternative detailed fluctuation theorem is derived, expressed solely in terms of forward statistics. It is illustrated for a linear kinetic equation with kangaroo rates.

  1. Synthesizing Strategies Creatively: Solving Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.; Tuba, Imre

    2015-01-01

    New strategies can ignite teachers' imagination to create new lessons or adapt lessons created by others. In this article, the authors present the experience of an algebra teacher and his students solving linear and literal equations and explain how the use of ideas found in past NCTM journals helped bring this lesson to life. The…

  2. From Arithmetic Sequences to Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuura, Ryota; Harless, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The first part of the article focuses on deriving the essential properties of arithmetic sequences by appealing to students' sense making and reasoning. The second part describes how to guide students to translate their knowledge of arithmetic sequences into an understanding of linear equations. Ryota Matsuura originally wrote these lessons for…

  3. Observed Score Linear Equating with Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…

  4. Procedural Embodiment and Magic in Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lima, Rosana Nogueira; Tall, David

    2008-01-01

    How do students think about algebra? Here we consider a theoretical framework which builds from natural human functioning in terms of embodiment--perceiving the world, acting on it and reflecting on the effect of the actions--to shift to the use of symbolism to solve linear equations. In the main, the students involved in this study do not…

  5. Linearized Implicit Numerical Method for Burgers' Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Vijitha; Awasthi, Ashish

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel numerical scheme based on method of lines (MOL) is proposed to solve the nonlinear time dependent Burgers' equation. The Burgers' equation is semi discretized in spatial direction by using MOL to yield system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in time. The resulting system of nonlinear differential equations is integrated by an implicit finite difference method. We have not used Cole-Hopf transformation which gives less accurate solution for very small values of kinematic viscosity. Also, we have not considered nonlinear solvers that are computationally costlier and take more running time.In the proposed scheme nonlinearity is tackled by Taylor series and the use of fully discretized scheme is easy and practical. The proposed method is unconditionally stable in the linear sense. Furthermore, efficiency of the proposed scheme is demonstrated using three test problems.

  6. Exact null controllability of degenerate evolution equations with scalar control

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Vladimir E; Shklyar, Benzion

    2012-12-31

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for the exact null controllability of a degenerate linear evolution equation with scalar control are obtained. These general results are used to examine the exact null controllability of the Dzektser equation in the theory of seepage. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  7. Linear response theory for open systems: Quantum master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Masashi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Arimitsu, Toshihico; Shibata, Fumiaki

    2017-02-01

    A linear response theory for open quantum systems is formulated by means of the time-local and time-nonlocal quantum master equations, where a relevant quantum system interacts with a thermal reservoir as well as with an external classical field. A linear response function that characterizes how a relaxation process deviates from its intrinsic process by a weak external field is obtained by extracting the linear terms with respect to the external field from the quantum master equation. It consists of four parts. One represents the linear response of a quantum system when system-reservoir correlation at an initial time and correlation between reservoir states at different times are neglected. The others are correction terms due to these effects. The linear response function is compared with the Kubo formula in the usual linear response theory. To investigate the properties of the linear response of an open quantum system, an exactly solvable model for a stochastic dephasing of a two-level system is examined. Furthermore, the method for deriving the linear response function is applied for calculating two-time correlation functions of open quantum systems. It is shown that the quantum regression theorem is not valid for open quantum systems unless their reduced time evolution is Markovian.

  8. Localization of the eigenvalues of linear integral equations with applications to linear ordinary differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloss, J. M.; Kranzler, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    The equivalence of a considered integral equation form with an infinite system of linear equations is proved, and the localization of the eigenvalues of the infinite system is expressed. Error estimates are derived, and the problems of finding upper bounds and lower bounds for the eigenvalues are solved simultaneously.

  9. Linear stochastic degenerate Sobolev equations and applications†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaskos, Konstantinos B.; Pantelous, Athanasios A.; Stratis, Ioannis G.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a general class of linear stochastic degenerate Sobolev equations with additive noise is considered. This class of systems is the infinite-dimensional analogue of linear descriptor systems in finite dimensions. Under appropriate assumptions, the mild and strong well-posedness for the initial value problem are studied using elements of the semigroup theory and properties of the stochastic convolution. The final value problem is also examined and it is proved that this is uniquely strongly solvable and the solution is continuously dependent on the final data. Based on the results of the forward and backward problem, the conditions for the exact controllability are investigated for a special but important class of these equations. The abstract results are illustrated by applications in complex media electromagnetics, in the one-dimensional stochastic Dirac equation in the non-relativistic limit and in a potential application in input-output analysis in economics. Dedicated to Professor Grigoris Kalogeropoulos on the occasion of his seventieth birthday.

  10. Optimal trajectories based on linear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The Principal results of a recent theory of fuel optimal space trajectories for linear differential equations are presented. Both impulsive and bounded-thrust problems are treated. A new form of the Lawden Primer vector is found that is identical for both problems. For this reason, starting iteratives from the solution of the impulsive problem are highly effective in the solution of the two-point boundary-value problem associated with bounded thrust. These results were applied to the problem of fuel optimal maneuvers of a spacecraft near a satellite in circular orbit using the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. For this case two-point boundary-value problems were solved using a microcomputer, and optimal trajectory shapes displayed. The results of this theory can also be applied if the satellite is in an arbitrary Keplerian orbit through the use of the Tschauner-Hempel equations. A new form of the solution of these equations has been found that is identical for elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits except in the way that a certain integral is evaluated. For elliptical orbits this integral is evaluated through the use of the eccentric anomaly. An analogous evaluation is performed for hyperbolic orbits.

  11. Functional characterization of linear delay Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budini, Adrián A.; Cáceres, Manuel O.

    2004-10-01

    We present an exact functional characterization of linear delay Langevin equations driven by any noise structure defined through its characteristic functional. This method relies on the possibility of finding an explicitly analytical expression for each realization of the delayed stochastic process in terms of those of the driving noise. General properties of the transient dissipative dynamics are analyzed. The corresponding interplay with a color Gaussian noise is presented. As a full application of our functional method we study a model for population growth with non-Gaussian fluctuations: the Gompertz model driven by multiplicative white shot noise.

  12. Convergence of Galerkin approximations for operator Riccati equations: A nonlinear evolution equation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.

    1988-01-01

    An approximation and convergence theory was developed for Galerkin approximations to infinite dimensional operator Riccati differential equations formulated in the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators on a separable Hilbert space. The Riccati equation was treated as a nonlinear evolution equation with dynamics described by a nonlinear monotone perturbation of a strongly coercive linear operator. A generic approximation result was proven for quasi-autonomous nonlinear evolution system involving accretive operators which was then used to demonstrate the Hilbert-Schmidt norm convergence of Galerkin approximations to the solution of the Riccati equation. The application of the results was illustrated in the context of a linear quadratic optimal control problem for a one dimensional heat equation.

  13. On quintic equations with a linear window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We study a quintic dispersive equation ut =[ au2 + b (uuxx + β ux2) + c (uu4x + 2q1uxu3x +q2 uxx2) ] x and show that if β =q1 = -q2, it may be cast into vt =[ vLω u ] x, where v =uω, ω = 2 β + 1 and Lω is a fourth order linear operator. This enables to construct traveling patterns via superposition of solutions. A plethora of bell-shaped, multi-humped and asymmetric compacton, is found. Their interaction ranges from being almost elastic to a noisy one, including fusion of bell-shaped compactons and anti-compactons into robust asymmetric structures. A stationary, zero-mass, doublet-like compacton is found to be an attractor of topologically similar, zero-mass, excitations.

  14. On pathwise uniqueness of stochastic evolution equations in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bin

    2008-08-01

    The pathwise uniqueness of stochastic evolution equations driven by Q-Wiener processes is mainly investigated in this article. We focus on the case that the modulus of the continuity of the coefficients is not controlled by a linear function. Additionally, we show that the corresponding diffusion process is Feller.

  15. Characterizations of linear Volterra integral equations with nonnegative kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Toshiki; Shin, Jong Son; Murakami, Satoru; Ngoc, Pham Huu Anh

    2007-11-01

    We first introduce the notion of positive linear Volterra integral equations. Then, we offer a criterion for positive equations in terms of the resolvent. In particular, equations with nonnegative kernels are positive. Next, we obtain a variant of the Paley-Wiener theorem for equations of this class and its extension to perturbed equations. Furthermore, we get a Perron-Frobenius type theorem for linear Volterra integral equations with nonnegative kernels. Finally, we give a criterion for positivity of the initial function semigroup of linear Volterra integral equations and provide a necessary and sufficient condition for exponential stability of the semigroups.

  16. Wei-Norman equations for a unitary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charzyński, Szymon; Kuś, Marek

    2013-07-01

    The Wei-Norman technique allows one to express the solution of a system of linear non-autonomous differential equations in terms of product of exponentials with time-dependent exponents being solutions of a system of nonlinear differential equations. We show that in the unitary case, i.e. when the solution of the linear system is given by a unitary evolution operator, the nonlinear system, by an appropriate choice of ordering, can be reduced to a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations. To this end, we consider a general linear non-autonomous dynamical system on the special linear group SL(N, {C}). The unitary case, of particular significance for quantum optimal control problems, is then obtained by restriction to anti-Hermitian generators. We also point to the connections of the obtained results with the theory of the so-called Lie systems.

  17. Prolongation structures of nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlquist, H. D.; Estabrook, F. B.

    1975-01-01

    A technique is developed for systematically deriving a 'prolongation structure' - a set of interrelated potentials and pseudopotentials - for nonlinear partial differential equations in two independent variables. When this is applied to the Korteweg-de Vries equation, a new infinite set of conserved quantities is obtained. Known solution techniques are shown to result from the discovery of such a structure: related partial differential equations for the potential functions, linear 'inverse scattering' equations for auxiliary functions, Backlund transformations. Generalizations of these techniques will result from the use of irreducible matrix representations of the prolongation structure.

  18. Stability of Linear Equations--Algebraic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Chokri; Goldstein, Avraham; Prado, Lucio M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article could be of interest to teachers of applied mathematics as well as to people who are interested in applications of linear algebra. We give a comprehensive study of linear systems from an application point of view. Specifically, we give an overview of linear systems and problems that can occur with the computed solution when the…

  19. Exact Pressure Evolution Equation for Incompressible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Ellero, M.; Aslan, N.; Mond, M.; Nicolini, P.

    2008-12-01

    An important aspect of computational fluid dynamics is related to the determination of the fluid pressure in isothermal incompressible fluids. In particular this concerns the construction of an exact evolution equation for the fluid pressure which replaces the Poisson equation and yields an algorithm which is a Poisson solver, i.e., it permits to time-advance exactly the same fluid pressure without solving the Poisson equation. In fact, the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations represent a mixture of hyperbolic and elliptic pde's, which are extremely hard to study both analytically and numerically. This amounts to transform an elliptic type fluid equation into a suitable hyperbolic equation, a result which usually is reached only by means of an asymptotic formulation. Besides being a still unsolved mathematical problem, the issue is relevant for at least two reasons: a) the proliferation of numerical algorithms in computational fluid dynamics which reproduce the behavior of incompressible fluids only in an asymptotic sense (see below); b) the possible verification of conjectures involving the validity of appropriate equations of state for the fluid pressure. Another possible motivation is, of course, the ongoing quest for efficient numerical solution methods to be applied for the construction of the fluid fields {ρ,V,p}, solutions of the initial and boundary-value problem associated to the incompressible N-S equations (INSE). In this paper we intend to show that an exact solution to this problem can be achieved adopting the approach based on inverse kinetic theory (IKT) recently developed for incompressible fluids by Tessarotto et al. [7, 6, 7, 8, 9]. In particular we intend to prove that the evolution of the fluid fields can be achieved by means of a suitable dynamical system, to be identified with the so-called Navier-Stokes (N-S) dynamical system. As a consequence it is found that the fluid pressure obeys a well-defined evolution equation. The result appears

  20. alpha-Vacuum decay and linear equation of state cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, Siddartha

    This work is divided into two parts. The first addresses formal aspects of field theory in de Sitter space which are relevant to inflation while the second is a phenomenological model of dark energy and matter relevant to the evolution of structure and expansion of the universe. In the first part we consider the decay of the inflaton into scalars paying particular attention to the vacuum structure that arises in de Sitter space. Before presenting the details of particle decay in de Sitter space we outline a general proof of the vacuum structure that exists in curved spaces that is absent in Minkowski in order to demonstrate that the issues are not limited to idealized de Sitter. We also consider a time ordering prescription that apparently eliminates the dependence of the decay rate on the vacuum choice. Finally we consider the implications of these results and ask whether they indicate a possible resolution of vacuum ambiguity. The second part considers an alternative to the concordance ΛCDM model cosmology. We replace the cosmological constant and some portion of the CDM component by a fluid that exhibits a linear equation of state (one that is in fact appropriate to liquids). We then fit this model to cosmological observations of the expansion, microwave background and matter power spectrum. We find that the model potentially unifies dark matter and energy and we even consider micro-physical Lagrangians that would give rise to this linear equation of state.

  1. A Cognitive Approach to Solving Systems of Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ariel A.

    2009-01-01

    Systems of linear equations are used in a variety of fields. Exposure to the concept of systems of equations initially occurs at the high school level and continues through college. Attempts to unearth what students understand about the solutions of linear systems have been limited. Gaps exist in our knowledge of how students understand systems…

  2. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  3. Non-Linear Spring Equations and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the boundary in the Poincare phase plane for boundedness of solutions to spring model equations of the form [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 2] = Fcoswt and the [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 3] = Fcoswt and report the results of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of…

  4. Linearization properties, first integrals, nonlocal transformation for heat transfer equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, Özlem; Özer, Teoman

    2016-08-01

    We examine first integrals and linearization methods of the second-order ordinary differential equation which is called fin equation in this study. Fin is heat exchange surfaces which are used widely in industry. We analyze symmetry classification with respect to different choices of thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient functions of fin equation. Finally, we apply nonlocal transformation to fin equation and examine the results for different functions.

  5. Adjoined Piecewise Linear Approximations (APLAs) for Equating: Accuracy Evaluations of a Postsmoothing Equating Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of adjoined and piecewise linear approximations (APLAs) of raw equipercentile equating functions as a postsmoothing equating method. APLAs are less familiar than other postsmoothing equating methods (i.e., cubic splines), but their use has been described in historical equating practices of…

  6. An evolution equation modeling inversion of tulip flames

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Joulin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The authors attempt to reduce the number of physical ingredients needed to model the phenomenon of tulip-flame inversion to a bare minimum. This is achieved by synthesizing the nonlinear, first-order Michelson-Sivashinsky (MS) equation with the second order linear dispersion relation of Landau and Darrieus, which adds only one extra term to the MS equation without changing any of its stationary behavior and without changing its dynamics in the limit of small density change when the MS equation is asymptotically valid. However, as demonstrated by spectral numerical solutions, the resulting second-order nonlinear evolution equation is found to describe the inversion of tulip flames in good qualitative agreement with classical experiments on the phenomenon. This shows that the combined influences of front curvature, geometric nonlinearity and hydrodynamic instability (including its second-order, or inertial effects, which are an essential result of vorticity production at the flame front) are sufficient to reproduce the inversion process.

  7. Algebraic methods for the solution of some linear matrix equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterization of polynomials whose zeros lie in certain algebraic domains (and the unification of the ideas of Hermite and Lyapunov) is the basis for developing finite algorithms for the solution of linear matrix equations. Particular attention is given to equations PA + A'P = Q (the Lyapunov equation) and P - A'PA = Q the (discrete Lyapunov equation). The Lyapunov equation appears in several areas of control theory such as stability theory, optimal control (evaluation of quadratic integrals), stochastic control (evaluation of covariance matrices) and in the solution of the algebraic Riccati equation using Newton's method.

  8. On an evolution equation in a cell motility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuhara, Matthew S.; Berlyand, Leonid; Rybalko, Volodymyr; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the evolution equation of a curve obtained as the sharp interface limit of a non-linear system of two reaction-diffusion PDEs. This system was introduced as a phase-field model of (crawling) motion of eukaryotic cells on a substrate. The key issue is the evolution of the cell membrane (interface curve) which involves shape change and net motion. This issue can be addressed both qualitatively and quantitatively by studying the evolution equation of the sharp interface limit for this system. However, this equation is non-linear and non-local and existence of solutions presents a significant analytical challenge. We establish existence of solutions for a wide class of initial data in the so-called subcritical regime. Existence is proved in a two step procedure. First, for smooth (H2) initial data we use a regularization technique. Second, we consider non-smooth initial data that are more relevant from the application point of view. Here, uniform estimates on the time when solutions exist rely on a maximum principle type argument. We also explore the long time behavior of the model using both analytical and numerical tools. We prove the nonexistence of traveling wave solutions with nonzero velocity. Numerical experiments show that presence of non-linearity and asymmetry of the initial curve results in a net motion which distinguishes it from classical volume preserving curvature motion. This is done by developing an algorithm for efficient numerical resolution of the non-local term in the evolution equation.

  9. Limiting Behavior of Linearly Damped Hyperbolic Equations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    t . & . - - u ,- -t , -7- Ball [4], (51, [61 has discussed the existence of the semigroup defined by the beam equation in the spaces X , X h... global existence in X2 and to show that orbits of bounded sets in X 2 are bounded in X2. We must also show that the equilibrium set E is bounded. The...s,x)dxds. .. From the inequalities on V(o,O), one easily obtains the global existence of solutions of (1.4) in X2 and that orbits of bounded sets in

  10. A general non-linear multilevel structural equation mixture model

    PubMed Central

    Kelava, Augustin; Brandt, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In the past 2 decades latent variable modeling has become a standard tool in the social sciences. In the same time period, traditional linear structural equation models have been extended to include non-linear interaction and quadratic effects (e.g., Klein and Moosbrugger, 2000), and multilevel modeling (Rabe-Hesketh et al., 2004). We present a general non-linear multilevel structural equation mixture model (GNM-SEMM) that combines recent semiparametric non-linear structural equation models (Kelava and Nagengast, 2012; Kelava et al., 2014) with multilevel structural equation mixture models (Muthén and Asparouhov, 2009) for clustered and non-normally distributed data. The proposed approach allows for semiparametric relationships at the within and at the between levels. We present examples from the educational science to illustrate different submodels from the general framework. PMID:25101022

  11. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation with finite intercollision time

    SciTech Connect

    Diosi, Lajos

    2009-12-15

    Inconsistencies are pointed out in the usual quantum versions of the classical linear Boltzmann equation constructed for a quantized test particle in a gas. These are related to the incorrect formal treatment of momentum decoherence. We prove that ideal collisions with the molecules would result in complete momentum decoherence, the persistence of coherence is only due to the finite intercollision time. A corresponding quantum linear Boltzmann equation is proposed.

  12. Exact solution of some linear matrix equations using algebraic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study is done of solution methods for Linear Matrix Equations including Lyapunov's equation, using methods of modern algebra. The emphasis is on the use of finite algebraic procedures which are easily implemented on a digital computer and which lead to an explicit solution to the problem. The action f sub BA is introduced a Basic Lemma is proven. The equation PA + BP = -C as well as the Lyapunov equation are analyzed. Algorithms are given for the solution of the Lyapunov and comment is given on its arithmetic complexity. The equation P - A'PA = Q is studied and numerical examples are given.

  13. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  14. Variational Iterative Methods for Nonsymmetric Systems of Linear Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    approximations to the convection diffusion equation. In Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Proceedinus of the Fifth Svmnosium on Reservoir Simulation , 1979...simultaneous linear equations. In Society of Petroleum Engineers of ADIE, Proceedings 2f the Fourth SyvMosium on Reservoir Simulation , 1976, pp. 149

  15. A proposed method for solving fuzzy system of linear equations.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Reza; Allahviranloo, Tofigh; Rostami-Malkhalifeh, Mohsen; Jahanshaloo, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for solving fuzzy system of linear equations with crisp coefficients matrix and fuzzy or interval right hand side. Some conditions for the existence of a fuzzy or interval solution of m × n linear system are derived and also a practical algorithm is introduced in detail. The method is based on linear programming problem. Finally the applicability of the proposed method is illustrated by some numerical examples.

  16. Implicit Degenerate Evolution Equations and Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    implicit evolution equations divides historically into three cases. The first and certainly the easiest is where 9 0 A - is Lipschitz or monotone in...on all V, and its Yoshida pproximation A - )’I(I - J,), a monotone Lipschitz function defined on all V. For u e V we have AA(u) e A(JA(u)). We denote...a) (u (t) + (v (t)) + BAlu t)) - f(t) dt (3.2.b) vXlt) e AluAlt) t e (0,T] Since (I + A) - 1 and BX are both Lipschitz continuous from V to V, (3.2

  17. Well-posedness, linear perturbations, and mass conservation for the axisymmetric Einstein equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dain, Sergio; Ortiz, Omar E.

    2010-02-01

    For axially symmetric solutions of Einstein equations there exists a gauge which has the remarkable property that the total mass can be written as a conserved, positive definite, integral on the spacelike slices. The mass integral provides a nonlinear control of the variables along the whole evolution. In this gauge, Einstein equations reduce to a coupled hyperbolic-elliptic system which is formally singular at the axis. As a first step in analyzing this system of equations we study linear perturbations on a flat background. We prove that the linear equations reduce to a very simple system of equations which provide, though the mass formula, useful insight into the structure of the full system. However, the singular behavior of the coefficients at the axis makes the study of this linear system difficult from the analytical point of view. In order to understand the behavior of the solutions, we study the numerical evolution of them. We provide strong numerical evidence that the system is well-posed and that its solutions have the expected behavior. Finally, this linear system allows us to formulate a model problem which is physically interesting in itself, since it is connected with the linear stability of black hole solutions in axial symmetry. This model can contribute significantly to solve the nonlinear problem and at the same time it appears to be tractable.

  18. Construction of the wave operator for non-linear dispersive equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Kai Erik

    In this thesis, we will study non-linear dispersive equations. The primary focus will be on the construction of the positive-time wave operator for such equations. The positive-time wave operator problem arises in the study of the asymptotics of a partial differential equation. It is a map from a space of initial data X into itself, and is loosely defined as follows: Suppose that for a solution ψlin to the dispersive equation with no non-linearity and initial data ψ +, there exists a unique solution ψ to the non-linear equation with initial data ψ0 such that ψ behaves as ψ lin as t → infinity. Then the wave operator is the map W+ that takes ψ + to ψ0. By its definition, W+ is injective. An important additional question is whether or not the map is also surjective. If so, then every non-linear solution emanating from X behaves, in some sense, linearly as it evolves (this is known as asymptotic completeness). Thus, there is some justification for treating these solutions as their much simpler linear counterparts. The main results presented in this thesis revolve around the construction of the wave operator(s) at critical non-linearities. We will study the "semi-relativistic" Schrodinger equation as well as the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system on R2 . In both cases, we will impose fairly general quadratic non-linearities for which conservation laws cannot be relied upon. These non-linearities fall below the scaling required to employ such tools as the Strichartz estimates. We instead adapt the "first iteration method" of Jang, Li, and Zhang to our setting which depends crucially on the critical decay of the non-linear interaction of the linear evolution. To see the critical decay in our problem, careful analysis is needed to treat the regime where one has spatial and/or time resonance.

  19. New Equating Methods and Their Relationships with Levine Observed Score Linear Equating under the Kernel Equating Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Haiwen; Holland, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new curvilinear equating for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design under the assumption of the classical test theory model, that we name curvilinear Levine observed score equating. In fact, by applying both the kernel equating framework and the mean preserving linear transformation of…

  20. An Object Oriented, Finite Element Framework for Linear Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, Joseph M.

    2004-03-01

    This dissertation documents an object oriented framework which can be used to solve any linear wave equation. The linear wave equations are expressed in the differential forms language. This differential forms expression allows a strict discrete interpretation of the system. The framework is implemented using the Galerkin Finite Element Method to define the discrete differential forms and operators. Finite element basis functions including standard scalar Nodal and vector Nedelec basis functions are used to implement the discrete differential forms resulting in a mixed finite element system. Discretizations of scalar and vector wave equations in the time and frequency domains will be demonstrated in both differential forms and vector calculi. This framework conserves energy, maintains physical continuity, is valid on unstructured grids, conditionally stable and second order accurate. Examples including linear electrodynamics, acoustics, elasticity and magnetohydrodynamics are demonstrated.

  1. Linearized pseudo-Einstein equations on the Heisenberg group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Jacobowitz, Howard

    2017-02-01

    We study the pseudo-Einstein equation R11bar = 0 on the Heisenberg group H1 = C × R. We consider first order perturbations θɛ =θ0 + ɛ θ and linearize the pseudo-Einstein equation about θ0 (the canonical Tanaka-Webster flat contact form on H1 thought of as a strictly pseudoconvex CR manifold). If θ =e2uθ0 the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation is Δb u - 4 | Lu|2 = 0 where Δb is the sublaplacian of (H1 ,θ0) and L bar is the Lewy operator. We solve the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation on a bounded domain Ω ⊂H1 by applying subelliptic theory i.e. existence and regularity results for weak subelliptic harmonic maps. We determine a solution u to the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation, possessing Heisenberg spherical symmetry, and such that u(x) → - ∞ as | x | → + ∞.

  2. Exact solution of some linear matrix equations using algebraic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    Algebraic methods are used to construct the exact solution P of the linear matrix equation PA + BP = - C, where A, B, and C are matrices with real entries. The emphasis of this equation is on the use of finite algebraic procedures which are easily implemented on a digital computer and which lead to an explicit solution to the problem. The paper is divided into six sections which include the proof of the basic lemma, the Liapunov equation, and the computer implementation for the rational, integer and modular algorithms. Two numerical examples are given and the entire calculation process is depicted.

  3. Symbolic computation of recurrence equations for the Chebyshev series solution of linear ODE's. [ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geddes, K. O.

    1977-01-01

    If a linear ordinary differential equation with polynomial coefficients is converted into integrated form then the formal substitution of a Chebyshev series leads to recurrence equations defining the Chebyshev coefficients of the solution function. An explicit formula is presented for the polynomial coefficients of the integrated form in terms of the polynomial coefficients of the differential form. The symmetries arising from multiplication and integration of Chebyshev polynomials are exploited in deriving a general recurrence equation from which can be derived all of the linear equations defining the Chebyshev coefficients. Procedures for deriving the general recurrence equation are specified in a precise algorithmic notation suitable for translation into any of the languages for symbolic computation. The method is algebraic and it can therefore be applied to differential equations containing indeterminates.

  4. Linear System of Equations, Matrix Inversion, and Linear Programming Using MS Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gebeily, M.; Yushau, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we demonstrate with illustrations two different ways that MS Excel can be used to solve Linear Systems of Equation, Linear Programming Problems, and Matrix Inversion Problems. The advantage of using MS Excel is its availability and transparency (the user is responsible for most of the details of how a problem is solved). Further, we…

  5. On Polynomial Solutions of Linear Differential Equations with Polynomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Si, Do Tan

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates a method for solving linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients based on the fact that the operators z and D + d/dz are known to be Hermitian conjugates with respect to the Bargman and Louck-Galbraith scalar products. (MLH)

  6. Insights into the School Mathematics Tradition from Solving Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchbinder, Orly; Chazan, Daniel; Fleming, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the solving of linear equations is represented in English­-language algebra text books from the early nineteenth century when schooling was becoming institutionalized, and then survey contemporary teachers. In the text books, we identify the increasing presence of a prescribed order of steps (a canonical method) for…

  7. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  8. Constructive Development of the Solutions of Linear Equations in Introductory Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallet, D. G.; McCue, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    The solution of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is commonly taught in first-year undergraduate mathematics classrooms, but the understanding of the concept of a solution is not always grasped by students until much later. Recognizing what it is to be a solution of a linear ODE and how to postulate such solutions, without resorting to…

  9. Some new solutions of nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdi, Jasvinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    We construct the traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) with variable coefficients arising in physics. Some interesting nonlinear evolution equations are investigated by traveling wave solutions which are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and rational functions. The applied method will be used in further works to establish more entirely new solutions for other kinds of such nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients arising in physics.

  10. Recursive linearization of multibody dynamics equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Yae, K. Harold

    1989-01-01

    The equations of motion of a multibody system are nonlinear in nature, and thus pose a difficult problem in linear control design. One approach is to have a first-order approximation through the numerical perturbations at a given configuration, and to design a control law based on the linearized model. Here, a linearized model is generated analytically by following the footsteps of the recursive derivation of the equations of motion. The equations of motion are first written in a Newton-Euler form, which is systematic and easy to construct; then, they are transformed into a relative coordinate representation, which is more efficient in computation. A new computational method for linearization is obtained by applying a series of first-order analytical approximations to the recursive kinematic relationships. The method has proved to be computationally more efficient because of its recursive nature. It has also turned out to be more accurate because of the fact that analytical perturbation circumvents numerical differentiation and other associated numerical operations that may accumulate computational error, thus requiring only analytical operations of matrices and vectors. The power of the proposed linearization algorithm is demonstrated, in comparison to a numerical perturbation method, with a two-link manipulator and a seven degrees of freedom robotic manipulator. Its application to control design is also demonstrated.

  11. Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.

    PubMed

    Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-06-07

    Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.

  12. Modelling hillslope evolution: linear and nonlinear transport relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Yvonne

    2000-08-01

    Many recent models of landscape evolution have used a diffusion relation to simulate hillslope transport. In this study, a linear diffusion equation for slow, quasi-continuous mass movement (e.g., creep), which is based on a large data compilation, is adopted in the hillslope model. Transport relations for rapid, episodic mass movements are based on an extensive data set covering a 40-yr period from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. A hyperbolic tangent relation, in which transport increases nonlinearly with gradient above some threshold gradient, provided the best fit to the data. Model runs were undertaken for typical hillslope profiles found in small drainage basins in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Results, based on linear diffusivity values defined in the present study, are compared to results based on diffusivities used in earlier studies. Linear diffusivities, adopted in several earlier studies, generally did not provide adequate approximations of hillslope evolution. The nonlinear transport relation was tested and found to provide acceptable simulations of hillslope evolution. Weathering is introduced into the final set of model runs. The incorporation of weathering into the model decreases the rate of hillslope change when theoretical rates of sediment transport exceed sediment supply. The incorporation of weathering into the model is essential to ensuring that transport rates at high gradients obtained in the model reasonably replicate conditions observed in real landscapes. An outline of landscape progression is proposed based on model results. Hillslope change initially occurs at a rapid rate following events that result in oversteepened gradients (e.g., tectonic forcing, glaciation, fluvial undercutting). Steep gradients are eventually eliminated and hillslope transport is reduced significantly.

  13. Undetermined Coefficient Problems for Quasi-Linear Parabolic Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-18

    recovered by an iteration scheme, and give sufficient conditions for the unique solution of the inverse problem. Equation (1.1) describes the evolution of...unique fixed point for T, and give conditions on the data for which such a fixed point exists . The solution can then be obtained by the iteration scheme...the solution pair (u, h) in the one dimensional heat equation subject to the nonlinear boundary conditions u. = h(u) on 002. The value of u(0, t) = 8

  14. The Linearized Kinetic Equation -- A Functional Analytic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2009-10-01

    Kinetic models of plasma phenomena are difficult to address for two reasons. They i) are given as systems of nonlinear coupled integro-differential equations, and ii) involve generally six-dimensional distribution functions f(r,v,t). In situations which can be addressed in a linear regime, the first difficulty disappears, but the second one still poses considerable practical problems. This contribution presents an abstract approach to linearized kinetic theory which employs the methods of functional analysis. A kinetic electron equation with elastic electron-neutral interaction is studied in the electrostatic approximation. Under certain boundary conditions, a nonlinear functional, the kinetic free energy, exists which has the properties of a Lyapunov functional. In the linear regime, the functional becomes a quadratic form which motivates the definition of a bilinear scalar product, turning the space of all distribution functions into a Hilbert space. The linearized kinetic equation can then be described in terms of dynamical operators with well-defined properties. Abstract solutions can be constructed which have mathematically plausible properties. As an example, the formalism is applied to the example of the multipole resonance probe (MRP). Under the assumption of a Maxwellian background distribution, the kinetic model of that diagnostics device is compared to a previously investigated fluid model.

  15. An analytically solvable eigenvalue problem for the linear elasticity equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Day, David Minot; Romero, Louis Anthony

    2004-07-01

    Analytic solutions are useful for code verification. Structural vibration codes approximate solutions to the eigenvalue problem for the linear elasticity equations (Navier's equations). Unfortunately the verification method of 'manufactured solutions' does not apply to vibration problems. Verification books (for example [2]) tabulate a few of the lowest modes, but are not useful for computations of large numbers of modes. A closed form solution is presented here for all the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a cuboid solid with isotropic material properties. The boundary conditions correspond physically to a greased wall.

  16. What happens to linear properties as we move from the Klein-Gordon equation to the sine-Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalyov, Mikhail

    2010-06-15

    In this article the sets of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation and its linearization the Klein-Gordon equation are discussed and compared. It is shown that the set of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation possesses a richer structure which partly disappears during linearization. Just like the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation satisfy the linear superposition principle, the solutions of the sine-Gordon equation satisfy a nonlinear superposition principle.

  17. Development of Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Linearized Euler Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    ESktbkX-(9) i=1 k=O Since the LEE are linear, Fj(Uh) is expanded in a natural way as can be seen from Eq.(7). Furthermore, Atkins and Lockard [5...Discontinuous Galerkin method for Hyperbolic Equations, AIAA Journal, Vol. 36, pp. 775-782, 1998. [5] H.L. Atkins and D.P. Lockard , A High-Order Method using

  18. Disformal invariance of continuous media with linear equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celoria, Marco; Matarrese, Sabino; Pilo, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    We show that the effective theory describing single component continuous media with a linear and constant equation of state of the form p=wρ is invariant under a 1-parameter family of continuous disformal transformations. In the special case of w=1/3 (ultrarelativistic gas), such a family reduces to conformal transformations. As examples, perfect fluids, irrotational dust (mimetic matter) and homogeneous and isotropic solids are discussed.

  19. Runge-Kutta Methods for Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zingg, David W.; Chisholm, Todd T.

    1997-01-01

    Three new Runge-Kutta methods are presented for numerical integration of systems of linear inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations (ODES) with constant coefficients. Such ODEs arise in the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing linear wave phenomena. The restriction to linear ODEs with constant coefficients reduces the number of conditions which the coefficients of the Runge-Kutta method must satisfy. This freedom is used to develop methods which are more efficient than conventional Runge-Kutta methods. A fourth-order method is presented which uses only two memory locations per dependent variable, while the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method uses three. This method is an excellent choice for simulations of linear wave phenomena if memory is a primary concern. In addition, fifth- and sixth-order methods are presented which require five and six stages, respectively, one fewer than their conventional counterparts, and are therefore more efficient. These methods are an excellent option for use with high-order spatial discretizations.

  20. An Evolution Operator Solution for a Nonlinear Beam Equation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    uniqueness for the parabolic problem Ug + (-A) m u+ I I- u = f (14) on RN X (0, 1). Again, certain restrictions apply. The Schr ~ dinger equation , [68:pg 823...evolution equation because of the time dependence in the definition of the operator A. He identifies conditions for the existence of a unique solution. In...The arguments for the adjoint and dissipativity are not repeated. Because of the explicit time dependence , (71) is called an evolution equation . For

  1. Exact traveling wave solutions for system of nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Arnous, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, recently deduced generalized Kudryashov method is applied to the variant Boussinesq equations, and the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton equations. As a result a range of qualitative explicit exact traveling wave solutions are deduced for these equations, which motivates us to develop, in the near future, a new approach to obtain unsteady solutions of autonomous nonlinear evolution equations those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. It is uncomplicated to extend this method to higher-order nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. And it should be possible to apply the same method to nonlinear evolution equations having more general forms of nonlinearities by utilizing the traveling wave hypothesis.

  2. Chaotic dynamics and diffusion in a piecewise linear equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrear, Pabel; Glass, Leon; Edwards, Rod

    2015-03-01

    Genetic interactions are often modeled by logical networks in which time is discrete and all gene activity states update simultaneously. However, there is no synchronizing clock in organisms. An alternative model assumes that the logical network is preserved and plays a key role in driving the dynamics in piecewise nonlinear differential equations. We examine dynamics in a particular 4-dimensional equation of this class. In the equation, two of the variables form a negative feedback loop that drives a second negative feedback loop. By modifying the original equations by eliminating exponential decay, we generate a modified system that is amenable to detailed analysis. In the modified system, we can determine in detail the Poincaré (return) map on a cross section to the flow. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the map for the different trajectories, we are able to show that except for a set of measure 0, the flow must necessarily have an eigenvalue greater than 1 and hence there is sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Further, there is an irregular oscillation whose amplitude is described by a diffusive process that is well-modeled by the Irwin-Hall distribution. There is a large class of other piecewise-linear networks that might be analyzed using similar methods. The analysis gives insight into possible origins of chaotic dynamics in periodically forced dynamical systems.

  3. Chaotic dynamics and diffusion in a piecewise linear equation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrear, Pabel; Glass, Leon; Edwards, Rod

    2015-03-15

    Genetic interactions are often modeled by logical networks in which time is discrete and all gene activity states update simultaneously. However, there is no synchronizing clock in organisms. An alternative model assumes that the logical network is preserved and plays a key role in driving the dynamics in piecewise nonlinear differential equations. We examine dynamics in a particular 4-dimensional equation of this class. In the equation, two of the variables form a negative feedback loop that drives a second negative feedback loop. By modifying the original equations by eliminating exponential decay, we generate a modified system that is amenable to detailed analysis. In the modified system, we can determine in detail the Poincaré (return) map on a cross section to the flow. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the map for the different trajectories, we are able to show that except for a set of measure 0, the flow must necessarily have an eigenvalue greater than 1 and hence there is sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Further, there is an irregular oscillation whose amplitude is described by a diffusive process that is well-modeled by the Irwin-Hall distribution. There is a large class of other piecewise-linear networks that might be analyzed using similar methods. The analysis gives insight into possible origins of chaotic dynamics in periodically forced dynamical systems.

  4. Carleman Estimates and Controllability of Linear Stochastic Heat Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Barbu, V.; Rascanu, A.; E-mail: barbu@uaic.ro,rascanu@uaic.ro; Tessitore, G.

    2003-03-12

    This work is concerned with Carleman inequalities and controllability properties for the following stochastic linear heat equation (with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the bounded domain D subset of R{sup d} and multiplicative noise):d{sub t}y{sup u}-{delta}y{sup u}+ay{sup u}dt = f dt+1{sup D{sup 0}}u dt+by d{beta}{sub t} in ]0,T]xD, y{sup u}=0 on ]0,T]x{partial_derivative}D, y{sup u}(0)=y{sub 0} in D, and for the corresponding backward dual equation:d{sub t}p{sup v}+{delta}p{sup v}dt-ap{sup v}dt+bk{sup v}dt 1{sub D{sub 0}}v dt+k{sup v}d{beta}{sub t} in [0,T[xD, p{sup v}=0 on [0,T[x{partial_derivative}D, p{sup v}(T)={eta} in D. We prove the null controllability of the backward equation and obtain partial results for the controllability of the forward equation.

  5. Invariant tori for a class of nonlinear evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, A Yu; Rozov, N Kh

    2013-06-30

    The paper looks at quite a wide class of nonlinear evolution equations in a Banach space, including the typical boundary value problems for the main wave equations in mathematical physics (the telegraph equation, the equation of a vibrating beam, various equations from the elastic stability and so on). For this class of equations a unified approach to the bifurcation of invariant tori of arbitrary finite dimension is put forward. Namely, the problem of the birth of such tori from the zero equilibrium is investigated under the assumption that in the stability problem for this equilibrium the situation arises close to an infinite-dimensional degeneracy. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  6. Solving Differential Matrix Riccati Equations by a piecewise-linearized method based on the conmutant equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Javier; Hernández, Vicente

    2009-11-01

    Differential Matrix Riccati Equations play a fundamental role in control theory, for example, in optimal control, filtering and estimation, decoupling and order reduction, etc. In this paper a piecewise-linearized method based on the conmutant equation to solve Differential Matrix Riccati Equations (DMREs) is described. This method is applied to develop two algorithms which solve these equations: one for time-varying DMREs and another for time-invariant DMREs, also MATLAB implementations of the above algorithms are developed. Since MATLAB does not have functions which solve DMREs, two algorithms based on a BDF method are also developed. All implemented algorithms have been compared, under equal conditions, at both precision and computational costs. Experimental results show the advantages of solving non-stiff DMREs and in particular stiff DMREs by the proposed algorithms.

  7. A Solution to the Fundamental Linear Fractional Order Differential Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a solution to the fundamental linear fractional order differential equation, namely, (sub c)d(sup q, sub t) + ax(t) = bu(t). The impulse response solution is shown to be a series, named the F-function, which generalizes the normal exponential function. The F-function provides the basis for a qth order "fractional pole". Complex plane behavior is elucidated and a simple example, the inductor terminated semi- infinite lossy line, is used to demonstrate the theory.

  8. The Linear KdV Equation with an Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deconinck, Bernard; Sheils, Natalie E.; Smith, David A.

    2016-10-01

    The interface problem for the linear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in one-dimensional piecewise homogeneous domains is examined by constructing an explicit solution in each domain. The location of the interface is known and a number of compatibility conditions at the boundary are imposed. We provide an explicit characterization of sufficient interface conditions for the construction of a solution using Fokas's Unified Transform Method. The problem and the method considered here extend that of earlier papers to problems with more than two spatial derivatives.

  9. Variable-coefficient extended mapping method for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xia, Tiecheng

    2008-03-01

    In this Letter, a variable-coefficient extended mapping method is proposed to seek new and more general exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the mKdV equation with variable coefficients and ( 2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equations. As a result, many new and more general exact solutions are obtained including Jacobi elliptic function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions and trigonometric function solutions. It is shown that the proposed method provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving a great many nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  10. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1977-01-01

    The general-relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general-relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented.

  11. Cusp Formation for a Nonlocal Evolution Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vu; Radosz, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Córdoba et al. (Ann Math 162(3):1377-1389, 2005) introduced a nonlocal active scalar equation as a one-dimensional analogue of the surface-quasigeostrophic equation. It has been conjectured, based on numerical evidence, that the solution forms a cusp-like singularity in finite time. Up until now, no active scalar with nonlocal flux is known for which cusp formation has been rigorously shown. In this paper, we introduce and study a nonlocal active scalar, inspired by the Córdoba-Córdoba-Fontelos equation, and prove that either a cusp- or needle-like singularity forms in finite time.

  12. Comparing the full time-dependent Bogoliubov-de-Gennes equations to their linear approximation: a numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, Christian; Seyrich, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report on the results of a numerical study of the nonlinear time-dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) equations, often also denoted as Bogoliubov-de-Gennes (BdG) equations, for a one-dimensional system of fermions with contact interaction. We show that, even above the critical temperature, the full equations and their linear approximation give rise to completely different evolutions. In contrast to its linearization, the full nonlinear equation does not show any diffusive behavior in the order parameter. This means that the order parameter does not follow a Ginzburg-Landau-type of equation, in accordance with a recent theoretical result in [R.L. Frank, C. Hainzl, B. Schlein, R. Seiringer, to appear in Lett. Math. Phys., arXiv:1504.05885 (2016)]. We include a full description on the numerical implementation of the partial differential BCS/BdG equations.

  13. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2009-01-01

    Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

  14. Unpacking the Complexity of Linear Equations from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Phan, Huy P.

    2016-01-01

    The degree of element interactivity determines the complexity and therefore the intrinsic cognitive load of linear equations. The unpacking of linear equations at the level of operational and relational lines allows the classification of linear equations in a hierarchical level of complexity. Mapping similar operational and relational lines across…

  15. Linear Multistep Methods for Integrating Reversible Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. Wyn; Tremaine, Scott

    1999-10-01

    This paper studies multistep methods for the integration of reversible dynamical systems, with particular emphasis on the planar Kepler problem. It has previously been shown by Cano & Sanz-Serna that reversible linear multisteps for first-order differential equations are generally unstable. Here we report on a subset of these methods-the zero-growth methods-that evade these instabilities. We provide an algorithm for identifying these rare methods. We find and study all zero-growth, reversible multisteps with six or fewer steps. This select group includes two well-known second-order multisteps (the trapezoidal and explicit midpoint methods), as well as three new fourth-order multisteps-one of which is explicit. Variable time steps can be readily implemented without spoiling the reversibility. Tests on Keplerian orbits show that these new reversible multisteps work well on orbits with low or moderate eccentricity, although at least 100 steps per radian are required for stability.

  16. Linear contact interface parameter identification using dynamic characteristic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The stiffness characteristics of the contact interfaces in joints or boundary conditions have a great effect on dynamic response of assembled structures. Predictive analytical/numerical modeling of mechanical structures is not possible without representing the contact interfaces accurately. Because of the complex mechanisms involved, contact interfaces introduce difficulties both in modeling the inherent dynamics and identification of the model parameters. In this paper an identification approach employing the dynamic characteristic equation is proposed for linear interface parameters. The proposed method is applicable to both analytical and numerical problems. The accuracy of the proposed method is investigated by simulation results of a beam with elastic boundary support and experimental results of a bolted lap-joint.

  17. Linear dynamic system approach to groundwater solute transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater pollution in the United States has been recognized in the 1980's to be extensive both in degree and geographic distribution. It has been recognized that in many cases groundwater pollution is essentially irreversible from the engineering or economic viewpoint. Under the best circumstance the problem is complicated by insufficient amounts of field data which is costly to obtain. In general, the governing partial differential equation of solute transport is spatially discretized either using finite difference or finite element scheme. The time derivative is also approximated by finite difference. In this study, only the spatial discretization is performed using finite element method and the time derivative is retained in continuous form. The advantage is that special features of finite element are maintained but most important of all is that the equation can be rearranged to be in a standard form of linear dynamic system. Two problems were studied in detail: one is the determination of the locatio of groundwater pollution source(s). The problem is equivalent to identifying an input to the dynamic system and is solved by using the sensitivity theorem. The other one is the prediction of pollutant concentration at a given time at a given location. The eigenvalue technique was employed to solve this problem and the detailed procedures of the computation were delineated.

  18. Evolution of basic equations for nearshore wave field

    PubMed Central

    ISOBE, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic, overall view of theories for periodic waves of permanent form, such as Stokes and cnoidal waves, is described first with their validity ranges. To deal with random waves, a method for estimating directional spectra is given. Then, various wave equations are introduced according to the assumptions included in their derivations. The mild-slope equation is derived for combined refraction and diffraction of linear periodic waves. Various parabolic approximations and time-dependent forms are proposed to include randomness and nonlinearity of waves as well as to simplify numerical calculation. Boussinesq equations are the equations developed for calculating nonlinear wave transformations in shallow water. Nonlinear mild-slope equations are derived as a set of wave equations to predict transformation of nonlinear random waves in the nearshore region. Finally, wave equations are classified systematically for a clear theoretical understanding and appropriate selection for specific applications. PMID:23318680

  19. A Comparison between Linear IRT Observed-Score Equating and Levine Observed-Score Equating under the Generalized Kernel Equating Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, linear item response theory (IRT) observed-score equating is compared under a generalized kernel equating framework with Levine observed-score equating for nonequivalent groups with anchor test design. Interestingly, these two equating methods are closely related despite being based on different methodologies. Specifically, when…

  20. On the Solutions of Some Linear Complex Quaternionic Equations

    PubMed Central

    İpek, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Some complex quaternionic equations in the type AX − XB = C are investigated. For convenience, these equations were called generalized Sylvester-quaternion equations, which include the Sylvester equation as special cases. By the real matrix representations of complex quaternions, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability and the general expressions of the solutions are obtained. PMID:25101318

  1. Linear Spatial Evolution Formulation of Two-Dimensional Waves on Liquid Films Under Evaporating/Isothermal/Condensing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xuemin Ye; Chunxi Li; Weiping Yan

    2002-07-01

    The linear spatial evolution formulation of the two-dimensional waves of the evaporating or isothermal or condensing liquid films falling down an inclined wall is established for the film thickness with the collocation method based on the boundary layer theory and complete boundary conditions. The evolution equation indicates that there are two different modes of waves in spatial evolution. And the flow stability is highly dependent on the evaporation or condensation, thermo-capillarity, surface tension, inclination angle and Reynolds number. (authors)

  2. A linear discretization of the volume conductor boundary integral equation using analytically integrated elements.

    PubMed

    de Munck, J C

    1992-09-01

    A method is presented to compute the potential distribution on the surface of a homogeneous isolated conductor of arbitrary shape. The method is based on an approximation of a boundary integral equation as a set linear algebraic equations. The potential is described as a piecewise linear or quadratic function. The matrix elements of the discretized equation are expressed as analytical formulas.

  3. Evolution of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in yeast mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Valach, Matus; Farkas, Zoltan; Fricova, Dominika; Kovac, Jakub; Brejova, Brona; Vinar, Tomas; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kucsera, Judit; Tomaska, Lubomir; Lang, B. Franz; Nosek, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome diversity in closely related species provides an excellent platform for investigation of chromosome architecture and its evolution by means of comparative genomics. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight Candida species and analyzed their molecular architectures. Our survey revealed a puzzling variability of genome architecture, including circular- and linear-mapping and multipartite linear forms. We propose that the arrangement of large inverted repeats identified in these genomes plays a crucial role in alterations of their molecular architectures. In specific arrangements, the inverted repeats appear to function as resolution elements, allowing genome conversion among different topologies, eventually leading to genome fragmentation into multiple linear DNA molecules. We suggest that molecular transactions generating linear mitochondrial DNA molecules with defined telomeric structures may parallel the evolutionary emergence of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in general and may provide clues for the origin of telomeres and pathways implicated in their maintenance. PMID:21266473

  4. On Bias in Linear Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional way of equating the scores on a new test form X to those on an old form Y is equipercentile equating for a population of examinees. Because the population is likely to change between the two administrations, a popular approach is to equate for a "synthetic population." The authors of the articles in this issue of the…

  5. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1975-01-01

    The general relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. A general relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented. It is argued that in work on spherical systems, general relativity theorists have identified the wrong quantity as total mass-energy inside radius r.

  6. Encouraging Students to Think Strategically when Learning to Solve Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Daphne; Abell, Walt; Boustead, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Students who are preparing to study science and engineering need to understand equation solving but adult students returning to study can find this difficult. In this paper, the design of an online resource, Equations2go, for helping students learn to solve linear equations is investigated. Students learning to solve equations need to consider…

  7. Variations in the Solution of Linear First-Order Differential Equations. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Brian; Osler, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    A special project which can be given to students of ordinary differential equations is described in detail. Students create new differential equations by changing the dependent variable in the familiar linear first-order equation (dv/dx)+p(x)v=q(x) by means of a substitution v=f(y). The student then creates a table of the new equations and…

  8. Moments of solutions of evolution equations and suboptimal programmed controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrychev, D. A.

    2007-08-01

    Moments of solutions of non-linear differential equations subjected to random perturbations satisfy infinite systems of equations that do not contain finite closed subsystems. One of the methods for approximate solution of such infinite systems consists in replacing them by finite systems obtained from the original one as a result of equating to zero all the moments of sufficiently high order. It is shown that the moments of solutions of a wide class of ordinary differential equations, as well as of certain classes of partial differential equations, are approximated by solutions of those finite systems. The results obtained are used for constructing suboptimal programmed controls of dynamical systems with random parameters. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  9. Implicit Euler approximation of stochastic evolution equations with fractional Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrani, Minoo; Jamshidi, Nahid

    2017-03-01

    This work was intended as an attempt to motivate the approximation of quasi linear evolution equations driven by infinite-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H >1/2 . The spatial approximation method is based on Galerkin and the temporal approximation is based on implicit Euler scheme. An error bound and the convergence of the numerical method are given. The numerical results show usefulness and accuracy of the method.

  10. Conformal symmetry of the Lange-Neubert evolution equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V. M.; Manashov, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    The Lange-Neubert evolution equation describes the scale dependence of the wave function of a meson built of an infinitely heavy quark and light antiquark at light-like separations, which is the hydrogen atom problem of QCD. It has numerous applications to the studies of B-meson decays. We show that the kernel of this equation can be written in a remarkably compact form, as a logarithm of the generator of special conformal transformation in the light-ray direction. This representation allows one to study solutions of this equation in a very simple and mathematically consistent manner. Generalizing this result, we show that all heavy-light evolution kernels that appear in the renormalization of higher-twist B-meson distribution amplitudes can be written in the same form.

  11. Finite Difference Methods for Time-Dependent, Linear Differential Algebraic Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-27

    Time-Dependent, Linear Differential Algebraic Equations ’ BY PATRICK J. RABIER AND WERNER C. RHEINBOLDT 2 T r e n - sa le; its tot puba"- c. 2 ed...1993 Finite Difference Methods for Time-Dependent, I Linear Differential Algebraic Equations ’ BY PATRICK J. RABIER AND WERNER C. RHEINBOLDT2...LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS 1 BY PATRICK J. RABIER AND WERNER C. RHEINBOLDT 2 ABSTRACT. Recently the authors developed a global reduction

  12. On the evolution of linear waves in cosmological plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2010-08-15

    The scalings for basic plasma modes in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model of the expanding Universe are revised. Contrary to the existing literature, the wave collisionless evolution must comply with the action conservation theorem. The proper steps to deduce the action conservation from ab initio analytical calculations are presented, and discrepancies in the earlier papers are identified. In general, the cosmological wave evolution is more easily derived from the action conservation in the collisionless limit, whereas when collisions are essential, the statistical description must suffice, thereby ruling out the need for using dynamic equations in either case.

  13. Analytic solutions for time-dependent Schrödinger equations with linear of nonlinear Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomian, G.; Efinger, H. J.

    1994-10-01

    The decomposition method is applied to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for linear or nonlinear Hamiltonian operators, without linearization, perturbation, or numerical methods, to obtain a rapidly converging analytic solution

  14. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein-Gordon equation with a linear plus inverse-linear potential: Biconfluent Heun functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arda, Altuğ; Tezcan, Cevdet; Sever, Ramazan

    2017-02-01

    We study some thermodynamics quantities for the Klein-Gordon equation with a linear plus inverse-linear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation. We use a method based on the Euler-MacLaurin formula to analytically compute the thermal functions by considering only the contribution of positive part of the spectrum to the partition function.

  15. Approximated Lax pairs for the reduced order integration of nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Lombardi, Damiano

    2014-05-01

    A reduced-order model algorithm, called ALP, is proposed to solve nonlinear evolution partial differential equations. It is based on approximations of generalized Lax pairs. Contrary to other reduced-order methods, like Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, the basis on which the solution is searched for evolves in time according to a dynamics specific to the problem. It is therefore well-suited to solving problems with progressive front or wave propagation. Another difference with other reduced-order methods is that it is not based on an off-line/on-line strategy. Numerical examples are shown for the linear advection, KdV and FKPP equations, in one and two dimensions.

  16. High resolution numerical simulation of the linearized Euler equations in conservation law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenivas, Kidambi; Whitfield, David L.; Huff, Dennis L.

    1993-01-01

    A linearized Euler solver based on a high resolution numerical scheme is presented. The approach is to linearize the flux vector as opposed to carrying through the complete linearization analysis with the dependent variable vector written as a sum of the mean and the perturbed flow. This allows the linearized equations to be maintained in conservation law form. The linearized equations are used to compute unsteady flows in turbomachinery blade rows arising due to blade vibrations. Numerical solutions are compared to theoretical results (where available) and to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Euler equations.

  17. On the solutions of fractional order of evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Delgado, V. F.; Taneco-Hernández, M. A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a discussion of generalized Cauchy problems in a diffusion wave process, we consider bi-fractional-order evolution equations in the Riemann-Liouville, Liouville-Caputo, and Caputo-Fabrizio sense. Through Fourier transforms and Laplace transform we derive closed-form solutions to the Cauchy problems mentioned above. Similarly, we establish fundamental solutions. Finally, we give an application of the above results to the determination of decompositions of Dirac type for bi-fractional-order equations and write a formula for the moments for the fractional vibration of a beam equation. This type of decomposition allows us to speak of internal degrees of freedom in the vibration of a beam equation.

  18. Langevin Equation for the Morphological Evolution of Strained Epitaxial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vvedensky, Dimitri; Haselwandter, Christoph

    2006-03-01

    A stochastic partial differential equation for the morphological evolution of strained epitaxial films is derived from an atomistic master equation. The transition rules in this master equation are based on previous kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of a model that incorporates the effects of strain through local environment-dependent energy barriers to adatom detachment from step edges. The morphological consequences of these rules are seen in the transition from layer-by-layer growth to the appearance of three-dimensional islands with increasing strain. The regularization of the exact Langevin description of these rules yields a continuum equation whose lowest-order terms provide a coarse-grained theory of this model. The coefficients in this equation are expressed in terms of the parameters of the original lattice model, so a direct comparison between the morphologies produced by KMC simulations and this Langevin equation are meaningful. Comparisons with previous approaches are made to provide an atomistic interpretation of a similar equation derived by Golovin et al. based on classical elasticity.

  19. Bounded solutions of a second order evolution equation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, Hugo

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we study the following abstract second order differential equation with dissipation in a Hilbert space H: u″+cu'+dA u+kG(u)=P(t), u∈H, t∈R, where c, d and k are positive constants, G:H→H is a Lipschitzian function and P:R→H is a continuous and bounded function. A:D(A)⊂H→H is an unbounded linear operator which is self-adjoint, positive definite and has compact resolvent. Under these conditions we prove that for some values of d, c and k this system has a bounded solution which is exponentially asymptotically stable. Moreover; if P(t) is almost periodic, then this bounded solution is also almost periodic. These results are applied to a very well known second order system partial differential equations; such as the sine-Gordon equation, The suspension bridge equation proposed by Lazer and McKenna, etc.

  20. Inverse Problem of Variational Calculus for Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk. Golam; Talukdar, B.; Das, U.

    2007-06-01

    We couple a nonlinear evolution equation with an associated one and derive the action principle. This allows us to write the Lagrangian density of the system in terms of the original field variables rather than Casimir potentials. We find that the corresponding Hamiltonian density provides a natural basis to recast the pair of equations in the canonical form. Amongst the case studies presented the KdV and modified KdV pairs exhibit bi-Hamiltonian structure and allow one to realize the associated fields in physical terms.

  1. Second-order neutral impulsive stochastic evolution equations with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yong; Sun, Dandan

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the second-order neutral stochastic evolution equations with impulsive effect and delay (SNSEEIDs). We establish the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions to SNSEEIDs under non-Lipschitz condition with Lipschitz condition being considered as a special case by the successive approximation. Furthermore, we give the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial data by means of corollary of the Bihari inequality. An application to the stochastic nonlinear wave equation with impulsive effect and delay is given to illustrate the theory.

  2. Asymptotic stability properties of linear Volterra integrodifferential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The Liapunov stability properties of solution to a certain system of Volterra integrodifferential equations is studied. Various types of Liapunov stability are defined; the definitions are natural extensions of the corresponding notions for ordinary differential equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions, in general, for uniform stability and uniform asymptotic stability are obtained in the form of a theorem. Connections between the stability of the system studied and the stability properties of a related Volterra integrodifferential equation with infinite memory are examined. Sufficient conditions in order that the trivial solution to the system studied be stable, uniformly stable, asymptotically stable, or uniformly asymptotically stable are derived.

  3. Solutions of evolution equations associated to infinite-dimensional Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerdiane, Habib

    2016-05-01

    We study an evolution equation associated with the integer power of the Gross Laplacian ΔGp and a potential function V on an infinite-dimensional space. The initial condition is a generalized function. The main technique we use is the representation of the Gross Laplacian as a convolution operator. This representation enables us to apply the convolution calculus on a suitable distribution space to obtain the explicit solution of the perturbed evolution equation. Our results generalize those previously obtained by Hochberg [K. J. Hochberg, Ann. Probab. 6 (1978) 433.] in the one-dimensional case with V=0, as well as by Barhoumi-Kuo-Ouerdiane for the case p=1 (See Ref. [A. Barhoumi, H. H. Kuo and H. Ouerdiane, Soochow J. Math. 32 (2006) 113.]).

  4. Supporting Students' Understanding of Linear Equations with One Variable Using Algebra Tiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswati, Sari; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students' understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students…

  5. Operator Factorization and the Solution of Second-Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, W.

    2007-01-01

    The theory and application of second-order linear ordinary differential equations is reviewed from the standpoint of the operator factorization approach to the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Using the operator factorization approach, the general second-order linear ODE is solved, exactly, in quadratures and the resulting…

  6. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-15

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum.

  7. No-faster-than-light-signaling implies linear evolution. A re-derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Hejazi, Kasra

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing interest, both from the theoretical as well as experimental side, to test the validity of the quantum superposition principle, and of theories which explicitly violate it by adding nonlinear terms to the Schrödinger equation. We review the original argument elaborated by Gisin (1989 Helv. Phys. Acta 62 363), which shows that the non-superluminal-signaling condition implies that the dynamics of the density matrix must be linear. This places very strong constraints on the permissible modifications of the Schrödinger equation, since they have to give rise, at the statistical level, to a linear evolution for the density matrix. The derivation is done in a heuristic way here and is appropriate for the students familiar with the textbook quantum mechanics and the language of density matrices.

  8. Linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and the variation of constants method. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  9. Integrability of the Wong Equations in the Class of Linear Integrals of Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magazev, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The Wong equations, which describe the motion of a classical charged particle with isospin in an external gauge field, are considered. The structure of the Lie algebra of the linear integrals of motion of these equations is investigated. An algebraic condition for integrability of the Wong equations is formulated. Some examples are considered.

  10. Linear equations in general purpose codes for stiff ODEs

    SciTech Connect

    Shampine, L. F.

    1980-02-01

    It is noted that it is possible to improve significantly the handling of linear problems in a general-purpose code with very little trouble to the user or change to the code. In such situations analytical evaluation of the Jacobian is a lot cheaper than numerical differencing. A slight change in the point at which the Jacobian is evaluated results in a more accurate Jacobian in linear problems. (RWR)

  11. Parameterization and Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Nicolae; Schüler, Lennart; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of the chemical species concentrations transported in random environments is governed by unclosed evolution equations. The PDF is transported in the physical space by drift and diffusion processes described by coefficients derived by standard upscaling procedures. Its transport in the concentration space is described by a drift determined by reaction rates, in a closed form, as well as a term accounting for the sub-grid mixing process due to molecular diffusion and local scale hydrodynamic dispersion. Sub-grid mixing processes are usually described by models of the conditionally averaged diffusion flux or models of the conditional dissipation rate. We show that in certain situations mixing terms can also be derived, in the form of an Itô process, from simulated or measured concentration time series. Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations are usually constructed with systems of computational particles, which are well suited for highly dimensional advection-dominated problems. Such solutions require the fulfillment of specific consistency conditions relating the statistics of the random concentration field, function of both space and time, to that of the time random function describing an Itô process in physical and concentration spaces which governs the evolution of the system of particles. We show that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the concentration-position PDF of the Itô process coincides with the solution of the PDF equation only for constant density flows in spatially statistically homogeneous systems. We also find that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is still equivalent to the solution of the PDF equation weighted by the variable density or by other conserved scalars. We illustrate the parameterization of the sub-grid mixing by time series and the Monte Carlo solution for a problem of contaminant transport in groundwater. The evolution of the system of computational particles whose

  12. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  13. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  14. On the relationship between ODE solvers and iterative solvers for linear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lorber, A.; Joubert, W.; Carey, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by both iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is investigated. Based on the similarities, a suite of Runge-Kutta time integration schemes with extended stability domains are developed using Chebyshev iteration polynomials. These Runge-Kutta schemes are applied to linear and non-linear systems arising from the numerical solution of PDE`s containing either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, the solutions of model linear convection and convection-diffusion equations are presented, as well as the solution of a representative non-linear Navier-Stokes fluid flow problem. Included are results of parallel computations.

  15. Ten-Year-Old Students Solving Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brizuela, Barbara; Schliemann, Analucia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors seek to re-conceptualize the perspective regarding students' difficulties with algebra. While acknowledging that students "do" have difficulties when learning algebra, they also argue that the generally espoused criteria for algebra as the ability to work with the syntactical rules for solving equations is…

  16. Direct linear term in the equation of state of plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kraeft, W D; Kremp, D; Röpke, G

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a long-standing discrepancy in the equation of state of charge-neutral plasmas, the occurrence of an e(2) direct term. This e(2) term may appear in dependence of the way to determine the mean value of the potential energy. We show that such a contribution should not appear for pure Coulomb interaction.

  17. Linearization of the boundary-layer equations of the minimum time-to-climb problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Ardema (1974) has formally linearized the two-point boundary value problem arising from a general optimal control problem, and has reviewed the known stability properties of such a linear system. In the present paper, Ardema's results are applied to the minimum time-to-climb problem. The linearized zeroth-order boundary layer equations of the problem are derived and solved.

  18. Evolution of linear mitochondrial genomes in medusozoan cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Bentlage, Bastian; Collins, Allen G; Kayal, Mohsen; Pirro, Stacy; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2012-01-01

    In nearly all animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) consists of a single circular molecule that encodes several subunits of the protein complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation as well as part of the machinery for their expression. By contrast, mtDNA in species belonging to Medusozoa (one of the two major lineages in the phylum Cnidaria) comprises one to several linear molecules. Many questions remain on the ubiquity of linear mtDNA in medusozoans and the mechanisms responsible for its evolution, replication, and transcription. To address some of these questions, we determined the sequences of nearly complete linear mtDNA from 24 species representing all four medusozoan classes: Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa. All newly determined medusozoan mitochondrial genomes harbor the 17 genes typical for cnidarians and map as linear molecules with a high degree of gene order conservation relative to the anthozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs), polB and ORF314, are identified in cubozoan, schyphozoan, staurozoan, and trachyline hydrozoan mtDNA. polB belongs to the B-type DNA polymerase gene family, while the product of ORF314 may act as a terminal protein that binds telomeres. We posit that these two ORFs are remnants of a linear plasmid that invaded the mitochondrial genomes of the last common ancestor of Medusozoa and are responsible for its linearity. Hydroidolinan hydrozoans have lost the two ORFs and instead have duplicated cox1 at each end of their mitochondrial chromosome(s). Fragmentation of mtDNA occurred independently in Cubozoa and Hydridae (Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina). Our broad sampling allows us to reconstruct the evolutionary history of linear mtDNA in medusozoans.

  19. Evolution of Linear Mitochondrial Genomes in Medusozoan Cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ehsan; Bentlage, Bastian; Collins, Allen G.; Pirro, Stacy; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2012-01-01

    In nearly all animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) consists of a single circular molecule that encodes several subunits of the protein complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation as well as part of the machinery for their expression. By contrast, mtDNA in species belonging to Medusozoa (one of the two major lineages in the phylum Cnidaria) comprises one to several linear molecules. Many questions remain on the ubiquity of linear mtDNA in medusozoans and the mechanisms responsible for its evolution, replication, and transcription. To address some of these questions, we determined the sequences of nearly complete linear mtDNA from 24 species representing all four medusozoan classes: Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa. All newly determined medusozoan mitochondrial genomes harbor the 17 genes typical for cnidarians and map as linear molecules with a high degree of gene order conservation relative to the anthozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs), polB and ORF314, are identified in cubozoan, schyphozoan, staurozoan, and trachyline hydrozoan mtDNA. polB belongs to the B-type DNA polymerase gene family, while the product of ORF314 may act as a terminal protein that binds telomeres. We posit that these two ORFs are remnants of a linear plasmid that invaded the mitochondrial genomes of the last common ancestor of Medusozoa and are responsible for its linearity. Hydroidolinan hydrozoans have lost the two ORFs and instead have duplicated cox1 at each end of their mitochondrial chromosome(s). Fragmentation of mtDNA occurred independently in Cubozoa and Hydridae (Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina). Our broad sampling allows us to reconstruct the evolutionary history of linear mtDNA in medusozoans. PMID:22113796

  20. APL and the numerical solution of high-order linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenfeld, Neil A.; Schadler, Edward H.; Bilaniuk, O. M.

    1983-08-01

    An Nth-order linear ordinary differential equation is rewritten as a first-order equation in an N×N matrix. Taking advantage of the matrix manipulation strength of the APL language this equation is then solved directly, yielding a great simplification over the standard procedure of solving N coupled first-order scalar equations. This eases programming and results in a more intuitive algorithm. Example applications of a program using the technique are given from quantum mechanics and control theory.

  1. Algorithm Refinement for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations. I. Linear Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Francis J.; Garcia, Alejandro L.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2002-10-01

    A hybrid particle/continuum algorithm is formulated for Fickian diffusion in the fluctuating hydrodynamic limit. The particles are taken as independent random walkers; the fluctuating diffusion equation is solved by finite differences with deterministic and white-noise fluxes. At the interface between the particle and continuum computations the coupling is by flux matching, giving exact mass conservation. This methodology is an extension of Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement to stochastic partial differential equations. Results from a variety of numerical experiments are presented for both steady and time-dependent scenarios. In all cases the mean and variance of density are captured correctly by the stochastic hybrid algorithm. For a nonstochastic version (i.e., using only deterministic continuum fluxes) the mean density is correct, but the variance is reduced except in particle regions away from the interface. Extensions of the methodology to fluid mechanics applications are discussed.

  2. Who Needs Linear Equating under the NEAT Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Borsboom, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Test equating under the NEAT design is, at best, a necessary evil. At bottom, the procedure aims to reach a conclusion on what a tested person would have done, if he or she were administered a set of items that were in fact never administered. It is not possible to infer such a conclusion from the data, because one simply has not made the required…

  3. Laplace transform method for linear sequential Riemann Liouville and Caputo fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatsala, Aghalaya S.; Sowmya, M.

    2017-01-01

    Study of nonlinear sequential fractional differential equations of Riemann-Lioville type and Caputo type initial value problem are very useful in applications. In order to develop any iterative methods to solve the nonlinear problems, we need to solve the corresponding linear problem. In this work, we develop Laplace transform method to solve the linear sequential Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations as well as linear sequential Caputo fractional differential equations of order nq which is sequential of order q. Also, nq is chosen such that (n-1) < nq < n. All our results yield the integer results as a special case when q tends to 1.

  4. Time evolution of linearized gauge field fluctuations on a real-time lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkela, A.; Lappi, T.; Peuron, J.

    2016-12-01

    Classical real-time lattice simulations play an important role in understanding non-equilibrium phenomena in gauge theories and are used in particular to model the prethermal evolution of heavy-ion collisions. Due to instabilities, small quantum fluctuations on top of the classical background may significantly affect the dynamics of the system. In this paper we argue for the need for a numerical calculation of a system of classical gauge fields and small linearized fluctuations in a way that keeps the separation between the two manifest. We derive and test an explicit algorithm to solve these equations on the lattice, maintaining gauge invariance and Gauss' law.

  5. Integrals and integral equations in linearized wing theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard; Heaslet, Max A; Fuller, Franklyn B

    1951-01-01

    The formulas of subsonic and supersonic wing theory for source, doublet, and vortex distributions are reviewed and a systematic presentation is provided which relates these distributions to the pressure and to the vertical induced velocity in the plane of the wing. It is shown that care must be used in treating the singularities involved in the analysis and that the order of integration is not always reversible. Concepts suggested by the irreversibility of order of integration are shown to be useful in the inversion of singular integral equations when operational techniques are used. A number of examples are given to illustrate the methods presented, attention being directed to supersonic flight speed.

  6. Method for Solving Physical Problems Described by Linear Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, B. A.; Tyurnev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    A method for solving physical problems is suggested in which the general solution of a differential equation in partial derivatives is written in the form of decomposition in spherical harmonics with indefinite coefficients. Values of these coefficients are determined from a comparison of the decomposition with a solution obtained for any simplest particular case of the examined problem. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated on an example of calculation of electromagnetic fields generated by a current-carrying circular wire. The formulas obtained can be used to analyze paths in the near-field magnetic (magnetically inductive) communication systems working in moderately conductive media, for example, in sea water.

  7. Modeling taper charge with a non-linear equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    Work aimed at modeling the charge voltage and current characteristics of nickel-cadmium cells subject to taper charge is presented. Work reported at previous NASA Battery Workshops has shown that the voltage of cells subject to constant current charge and discharge can be modeled very accurately with the equation: voltage = A + (B/(C-X)) + De to the -Ex where A, B, D, and E are fit parameters and x is amp-hr of charge removed during discharge or returned during charge. In a constant current regime, x is also equivalent to time on charge or discharge.

  8. Super-linear spreading in local bistable cane toads equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Henderson, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of an Allee effect on the spreading rate in a local reaction–diffusion–mutation equation modeling the invasion of cane toads in Australia. We are, in particular, concerned with the case when the diffusivity can take unbounded values. We show that the acceleration feature that arises in this model with a Fisher-KPP, or monostable, nonlinearity still occurs when this nonlinearity is instead bistable, despite the fact that this kills the small populations. This is in stark contrast to the work of Alfaro, Gui-Huan, and Mellet–Roquejoffre–Sire in related models, where the change to a bistable nonlinearity prevents acceleration.

  9. Structure scalars and evolution equations in f( G) cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of self-gravitating fluid using structure scalars for spherical geometry in the context of f( G) cosmology. We construct structure scalars through orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor and deduce a complete set of equations governing the evolution of dissipative anisotropic fluid in terms of these scalars. We explore different causes of density inhomogeneity which turns out to be a necessary condition for viable models. It is explicitly shown that anisotropic inhomogeneous static spherically symmetric solutions can be expressed in terms of these scalar functions.

  10. Prediction of Undsteady Flows in Turbomachinery Using the Linearized Euler Equations on Deforming Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William S.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1994-01-01

    A linearized Euler solver for calculating unsteady flows in turbomachinery blade rows due to both incident gusts and blade motion is presented. The model accounts for blade loading, blade geometry, shock motion, and wake motion. Assuming that the unsteadiness in the flow is small relative to the nonlinear mean solution, the unsteady Euler equations can be linearized about the mean flow. This yields a set of linear variable coefficient equations that describe the small amplitude harmonic motion of the fluid. These linear equations are then discretized on a computational grid and solved using standard numerical techniques. For transonic flows, however, one must use a linear discretization which is a conservative linearization of the non-linear discretized Euler equations to ensure that shock impulse loads are accurately captured. Other important features of this analysis include a continuously deforming grid which eliminates extrapolation errors and hence, increases accuracy, and a new numerically exact, nonreflecting far-field boundary condition treatment based on an eigenanalysis of the discretized equations. Computational results are presented which demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of the method and demonstrate the effectiveness of the deforming grid, far-field nonreflecting boundary conditions, and shock capturing techniques. A comparison of the present unsteady flow predictions to other numerical, semi-analytical, and experimental methods shows excellent agreement. In addition, the linearized Euler method presented requires one or two orders-of-magnitude less computational time than traditional time marching techniques making the present method a viable design tool for aeroelastic analyses.

  11. Experimental realization of quantum algorithm for solving linear systems of equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jian; Cao, Yudong; Yao, Xiwei; Li, Zhaokai; Ju, Chenyong; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Kais, Sabre; Du, Jiangfeng

    2014-02-01

    Many important problems in science and engineering can be reduced to the problem of solving linear equations. The quantum algorithm discovered recently indicates that one can solve an N-dimensional linear equation in O (logN) time, which provides an exponential speedup over the classical counterpart. Here we report an experimental demonstration of the quantum algorithm when the scale of the linear equation is 2×2 using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. For all sets of experiments, the fidelities of the final four-qubit states are all above 96%. This experiment gives the possibility of solving a series of practical problems related to linear systems of equations and can serve as the basis to realize many potential quantum algorithms.

  12. Promoting Understanding of Linear Equations with the Median-Slope Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael Todd

    2005-01-01

    The preliminary findings resulting when invented algorithm is used with entry-level students while introducing linear equations is described. As calculations are accessible, the algorithm is preferable to more rigorous statistical procedures in entry-level classrooms.

  13. Spatio-temporal dynamics induced by competing instabilities in two asymmetrically coupled nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Schüler, D; Alonso, S; Torcini, A; Bär, M

    2014-12-01

    Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological, and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue, we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular, revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations, a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of a weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.

  14. Multivalued perturbations of subdifferential type evolution equations in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravvaritis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S.

    In this paper we study the multivalued evolution equation - ẋ(t) ɛ∂ϑ(x(t)) + F(t, x(t)), x(0) = x 0, where ϑ: X → R¯ is a proper, convex, lower semicontinuous (l.s.c.) function, F(·, ·) is a multivalued perturbation, and X is an infinite dimensional, separable Hilbert space. We have an existence result for F(·, ·) being nonconvex valued, and another for F(·, ·) being convex valued but not closed valued. When ϑ = δK = indicator function of a compact, convex set K, we obtain some extensions of earlier results by Moreau and Henry. Then using the Kuratowski-Mosco convergence of sets and the τ-convergence of functions, we prove a well posedness result for the evolution inclusion we are studying. Also we consider a random version of it and prove the existence of a random solution. Finally we present applications to problems in partial differential equations.

  15. Trajectory approach to the Schrödinger–Langevin equation with linear dissipation for ground states

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2015-11-15

    The Schrödinger–Langevin equation with linear dissipation is integrated by propagating an ensemble of Bohmian trajectories for the ground state of quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the Schrödinger–Langevin equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation with linear dissipation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation is simultaneously integrated with the trajectory guidance equation. Then, the computational method is applied to the harmonic oscillator, the double well potential, and the ground vibrational state of methyl iodide. The excellent agreement between the computational and the exact results for the ground state energies and wave functions shows that this study provides a synthetic trajectory approach to the ground state of quantum systems.

  16. Generation and removal of apparent singularities in linear ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavyanov, S. Yu.; Satco, D. A.; Ishkhanyan, A. M.; Rotinyan, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss several examples of generating apparent singular points as a result of differentiating particular homogeneous linear ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients and formulate two general conjectures on the generation and removal of apparent singularities in arbitrary Fuchsian differential equations with polynomial coefficients. We consider a model problem in polymer physics.

  17. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    Under the general condition of the initial data, we will derive the crucial estimates which imply the diffusion phenomenon for the dissipative linear wave equations in an exterior domain. In order to derive the diffusion phenomenon for dissipative wave equations, the time integral method which was developed by Ikehata and Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  18. The Poincaré-Bendixson Theorem and the non-linear Cauchy-Riemann equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, J. B.; Munaò, S.; Vandervorst, R. C. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Fiedler and Mallet-Paret (1989) prove a version of the classical Poincaré-Bendixson Theorem for scalar parabolic equations. We prove that a similar result holds for bounded solutions of the non-linear Cauchy-Riemann equations. The latter is an application of an abstract theorem for flows with a(n) (unbounded) discrete Lyapunov function.

  19. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granita, Bahar, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  20. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    SciTech Connect

    Granita; Bahar, A.

    2015-03-09

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  1. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  2. On the Resonance Concept in Systems of Linear and Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-11-01

    Determinanten und Matrizen mit Anwen- dungen in Physik und Technik). Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1949. The author wishes to express his thanks to Prof.Dr.R.Iglisch...Case in the System of Ordinary Linear Differential Equations, Part III ( Studium des Resonanzfalles bei Systemen linearer gew6hnlicher

  3. Soliton solutions to a few fractional nonlinear evolution equations in shallow water wave dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzazadeh, Mohammad; Ekici, Mehmet; Sonmezoglu, Abdullah; Ortakaya, Sami; Eslami, Mostafa; Biswas, Anjan

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies a few nonlinear evolution equations that appear with fractional temporal evolution and fractional spatial derivatives. These are Benjamin-Bona-Mahoney equation, dispersive long wave equation and Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation. The extended Jacobi's elliptic function expansion method is implemented to obtain soliton and other periodic singular solutions to these equations. In the limiting case, when the modulus of ellipticity approaches zero or unity, these doubly periodic functions approach solitary waves or shock waves or periodic singular solutions emerge.

  4. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  5. An almost symmetric Strang splitting scheme for nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we consider splitting methods for the time integration of parabolic and certain classes of hyperbolic partial differential equations, where one partial flow cannot be computed exactly. Instead, we use a numerical approximation based on the linearization of the vector field. This is of interest in applications as it allows us to apply splitting methods to a wider class of problems from the sciences. However, in the situation described, the classic Strang splitting scheme, while still being a method of second order, is not longer symmetric. This, in turn, implies that the construction of higher order methods by composition is limited to order three only. To remedy this situation, based on previous work in the context of ordinary differential equations, we construct a class of Strang splitting schemes that are symmetric up to a desired order. We show rigorously that, under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, these methods are of second order and can then be used to construct higher order methods by composition. In addition, we illustrate the theoretical results by conducting numerical experiments for the Brusselator system and the KdV equation.

  6. Multiple scales analysis and travelling wave solutions for KdV type nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Ozer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution equations are the mathematical models of problems that arise in many field of science. These equations has become an important field of study in applied mathematics in recent years. We apply exact solution methods and multiple scale method which is known as a perturbation method to nonlinear evolution equations. Using exact solution methods we get travelling wave solutions expressed by hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions. Also we derive Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations from Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type nonlinear evolution equations and we get approximate solutions for KdV type equations using multiple scale method. The proposed methods are direct and effective and can be used for many nonlinear evolution equations. It is shown that these methods provide a powerful mathematical tool to solve nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  7. The nonlinear Dirac equation in Bose-Einstein condensates: superfluid fluctuations and emergent theories from relativistic linear stability equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, L. H.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2015-09-01

    We present the theoretical and mathematical foundations of stability analysis for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at Dirac points of a honeycomb optical lattice. The combination of s-wave scattering for bosons and lattice interaction places constraints on the mean-field description, and hence on vortex configurations in the Bloch-envelope function near the Dirac point. A full derivation of the relativistic linear stability equations (RLSE) is presented by two independent methods to ensure veracity of our results. Solutions of the RLSE are used to compute fluctuations and lifetimes of vortex solutions of the nonlinear Dirac equation, which include Anderson-Toulouse skyrmions with lifetime ≈ 4 s. Beyond vortex stabilities the RLSE provide insight into the character of collective superfluid excitations, which we find to encode several established theories of physics. In particular, the RLSE reduce to the Andreev equations, in the nonrelativistic and semiclassical limits, the Majorana equation, inside vortex cores, and the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, when nearest-neighbor interactions are included. Furthermore, by tuning a mass gap, relative strengths of various spinor couplings, for the small and large quasiparticle momentum regimes, we obtain weak-strong Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductivity, as well as fundamental wave equations such as Schrödinger, Dirac, Klein-Gordon, and Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. Our results apply equally to a strongly spin-orbit coupled BEC in which the Laplacian contribution can be neglected.

  8. The quadratically damped oscillator: A case study of a non-linear equation of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. R.

    2012-09-01

    The equation of motion for a quadratically damped oscillator, where the damping is proportional to the square of the velocity, is a non-linear second-order differential equation. Non-linear equations of motion such as this are seldom addressed in intermediate instruction in classical dynamics; this one is problematic because it cannot be solved in terms of elementary functions. Like all second-order ordinary differential equations, it has a corresponding first-order partial differential equation, whose independent solutions constitute the constants of the motion. These constants readily provide an approximate solution correct to first order in the damping constant. They also reveal that the quadratically damped oscillator is never critically damped or overdamped, and that to first order in the damping constant the oscillation frequency is identical to the natural frequency. The technique described has close ties to standard tools such as integral curves in phase space and phase portraits.

  9. Approximating electronically excited states with equation-of-motion linear coupled-cluster theory

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Jason N. Rishi, Varun; Perera, Ajith; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2015-10-28

    A new perturbative approach to canonical equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory is presented using coupled-cluster perturbation theory. A second-order Møller-Plesset partitioning of the Hamiltonian is used to obtain the well known equation-of-motion many-body perturbation theory equations and two new equation-of-motion methods based on the linear coupled-cluster doubles and linear coupled-cluster singles and doubles wavefunctions. These new methods are benchmarked against very accurate theoretical and experimental spectra from 25 small organic molecules. It is found that the proposed methods have excellent agreement with canonical equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles state for state orderings and relative excited state energies as well as acceptable quantitative agreement for absolute excitation energies compared with the best estimate theory and experimental spectra.

  10. Central equation of state in spherical characteristic evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, W.; Castillo, L.; Barrios, E.

    2009-10-15

    We study the evolution of a perfect-fluid sphere coupled to a scalar radiation field. By ensuring a Ricci invariant regularity as a conformally flat spacetime at the central world line we find that the fluid coupled to the scalar field satisfies the equation of state {rho}{sub c}+3p{sub c}=const at the center of the sphere, where the energy {rho}{sub c} density and the pressure p{sub c} do not necessarily contain the scalar field contribution. The fluid can be interpreted as anisotropic and radiant because of the scalar field, but it becomes perfect and nonradiative at the center of the sphere. These results are currently being considered to build up a numerical relativistic hydrodynamic solver.

  11. Rogue waves of a (3 + 1) -dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    General high-order rogue waves of a (3 + 1) -dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation ((3+1)-d NEE) are obtained by the Hirota bilinear method, which are given in terms of determinants, whose matrix elements possess plain algebraic expressions. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line rogue waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. Two subclass of nonfundamental rogue waves are analyzed in details. By proper means of the regulations of free parameters, the dynamics of multi-rogue waves and high-order rogue waves have been illustrated in (x,t) plane and (y,z) plane by three dimensional figures.

  12. Initial-value problem for a linear ordinary differential equation of noninteger order

    SciTech Connect

    Pskhu, Arsen V

    2011-04-30

    An initial-value problem for a linear ordinary differential equation of noninteger order with Riemann-Liouville derivatives is stated and solved. The initial conditions of the problem ensure that (by contrast with the Cauchy problem) it is uniquely solvable for an arbitrary set of parameters specifying the orders of the derivatives involved in the equation; these conditions are necessary for the equation under consideration. The problem is reduced to an integral equation; an explicit representation of the solution in terms of the Wright function is constructed. As a consequence of these results, necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the Cauchy problem are obtained. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  13. Entropy production and the geometry of dissipative evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reina, Celia; Zimmer, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Purely dissipative evolution equations are often cast as gradient flow structures, z ˙=K (z ) D S (z ) , where the variable z of interest evolves towards the maximum of a functional S according to a metric defined by an operator K . While the functional often follows immediately from physical considerations (e.g., the thermodynamic entropy), the operator K and the associated geometry does not necessarily do so (e.g., Wasserstein geometry for diffusion). In this paper, we present a variational statement in the sense of maximum entropy production that directly delivers a relationship between the operator K and the constraints of the system. In particular, the Wasserstein metric naturally arises here from the conservation of mass or energy, and depends on the Onsager resistivity tensor, which, itself, may be understood as another metric, as in the steepest entropy ascent formalism. This variational principle is exemplified here for the simultaneous evolution of conserved and nonconserved quantities in open systems. It thus extends the classical Onsager flux-force relationships and the associated variational statement to variables that do not have a flux associated to them. We further show that the metric structure K is intimately linked to the celebrated Freidlin-Wentzell theory of stochastically perturbed gradient flows, and that the proposed variational principle encloses an infinite-dimensional fluctuation-dissipation statement.

  14. The non-linear coupled spin 2-spin 3 Cotton equation in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linander, Hampus; Nilsson, Bengt E. W.

    2016-07-01

    In the context of three-dimensional conformal higher spin theory we derive, in the frame field formulation, the full non-linear spin 3 Cotton equation coupled to spin 2. This is done by solving the corresponding Chern-Simons gauge theory system of equations, that is, using F = 0 to eliminate all auxiliary fields and thus expressing the Cotton equation in terms of just the spin 3 frame field and spin 2 covariant derivatives and tensors (Schouten). In this derivation we neglect the spin 4 and higher spin sectors and approximate the star product commutator by a Poisson bracket. The resulting spin 3 Cotton equation is complicated but can be related to linearized versions in the metric formulation obtained previously by other authors. The expected symmetry (spin 3 "translation", "Lorentz" and "dilatation") properties are verified for Cotton and other relevant tensors but some perhaps unexpected features emerge in the process, in particular in relation to the non-linear equations. We discuss the structure of this non-linear spin 3 Cotton equation but its explicit form is only presented here, in an exact but not completely refined version, in appended files obtained by computer algebra methods. Both the frame field and metric formulations are provided.

  15. A note on improved F-expansion method combined with Riccati equation applied to nonlinear evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M. Ali; Mastroberardino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analytical method, namely the improved F-expansion method combined with the Riccati equation, for finding exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The present method is capable of calculating all branches of solutions simultaneously, even if multiple solutions are very close and thus difficult to distinguish with numerical techniques. To verify the computational efficiency, we consider the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. Our results reveal that the method is a very effective and straightforward way of formulating the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear wave equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering. PMID:26064530

  16. Non-linear evolution of the cosmic neutrino background

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Peña-Garay, Carlos E-mail: spb@ias.edu E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the non-linear evolution of the relic cosmic neutrino background by running large box-size, high resolution N-body simulations which incorporate cold dark matter (CDM) and neutrinos as independent particle species. Our set of simulations explore the properties of neutrinos in a reference ΛCDM model with total neutrino masses between 0.05-0.60 eV in cold dark matter haloes of mass 10{sup 11}−10{sup 15} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un, over a redshift range z = 0−2. We compute the halo mass function and show that it is reasonably well fitted by the Sheth-Tormen formula, once the neutrino contribution to the total matter is removed. More importantly, we focus on the CDM and neutrino properties of the density and peculiar velocity fields in the cosmological volume, inside and in the outskirts of virialized haloes. The dynamical state of the neutrino particles depends strongly on their momentum: whereas neutrinos in the low velocity tail behave similarly to CDM particles, neutrinos in the high velocity tail are not affected by the clustering of the underlying CDM component. We find that the neutrino (linear) unperturbed momentum distribution is modified and mass and redshift dependent deviations from the expected Fermi-Dirac distribution are in place both in the cosmological volume and inside haloes. The neutrino density profiles around virialized haloes have been carefully investigated and a simple fitting formula is provided. The neutrino profile, unlike the cold dark matter one, is found to be cored with core size and central density that depend on the neutrino mass, redshift and mass of the halo, for halos of masses larger than ∼ 10{sup 13.5}h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. For lower masses the neutrino profile is best fitted by a simple power-law relation in the range probed by the simulations. The results we obtain are numerically converged in terms of neutrino profiles at the 10% level for scales above ∼ 200 h{sup −1}kpc at z = 0, and are stable with

  17. 3D linearized stability analysis of various forms of Burnett equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenwen; Chen, Weifang; Liu, Hualin; Agarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-12-01

    Burnett equations were originally derived in 1935 by Burnett by employing the Chapman-Enskog expansion to Classical Boltzmann equation to second order in Knudsen number Kn. Since then several variants of these equations have been proposed in the literature; these variants have differing physical and numerical properties. In this paper, we consider three such variants which are known in the literature as `the Original Burnett (OB) equations', the Conventional Burnett (CB) equations' and the recently formulated by the authors `the Simplified Conventional (SCB) equations.' One of the most important issues in obtaining numerical solutions of the Burnett equations is their stability under small perturbations. In this paper, we perform the linearized stability (known as the Bobylev Stability) analysis of three-dimensional Burnett equations for all the three variants (OB, CB, and SCB) for the first time in the literature on this subject. By introducing small perturbations in the steady state flow field, the trajectory curve and the variation in attenuation coefficient with wave frequency of the characteristic equation are obtained for all the three variants of Burnett equations to determine their stability. The results show that the Simplified Conventional Burnett (SCB) equations are unconditionally stable under small wavelength perturbations. However, the Original Burnett (OB) and the Conventional Burnett (CB) equations are unstable when the Knudsen number becomes greater than a critical value and the stability condition worsens in 3D when compared to the stability condition for 1-D and 2-D equations. The critical Knudsen number for 3-D OB and CB equations is 0.061 and 0.287 respectively.

  18. Automatic Qualitative Analysis of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Piecewise Linear Approximations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Theories of causal ordering. Artificial Intelli- gence, 29:33-61, 1986. [18] Charles A. Desoer and Ernest S. Kuh. Basic Circuit Theory. McGraw-Hill, New...instance between a and b .................. 31 S 4.1 A circuit governed by van der Pol’s equation ...... .................. 32 4.2 Piecewise Linearization...physical systems with differential equations, including circuits , motors, buildings, chemical reactions, physiology, the motions of celestial bodies

  19. Darboux Transformation for Coupled Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation and Its Breather Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lili; Yu, Fajun; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a 3×3 spectral problem, a Darboux transformation (DT) method for coupled Schrödinger (CNLS) equation is constructed, which is more complex than 2×2 spectral problems. A scheme of soliton solutions of an integrable CNLS system is realised by using DT. Then, we obtain the breather solutions for the integrable CNLS system. The method is also appropriate for more non-linear soliton equations in physics and mathematics.

  20. An efficient parallel algorithm for the solution of a tridiagonal linear system of equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. S.

    1971-01-01

    Tridiagonal linear systems of equations are solved on conventional serial machines in a time proportional to N, where N is the number of equations. The conventional algorithms do not lend themselves directly to parallel computations on computers of the ILLIAC IV class, in the sense that they appear to be inherently serial. An efficient parallel algorithm is presented in which computation time grows as log sub 2 N. The algorithm is based on recursive doubling solutions of linear recurrence relations, and can be used to solve recurrence relations of all orders.

  1. A Piecewise Linear Finite Element Discretization of the Diffusion Equation for Arbitrary Polyhedral Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Yang, B; Zika, M R

    2005-07-15

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation, and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's finite-volume method. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids.

  2. Nonlinear Evolution Equation of a Step with Anisotropy in a Diffusion Field for the Two-Sided Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Soma, T.; Okuda, K.; Wada, K.

    2004-05-01

    The nonlinear evolution equation for the fluctuation of a terrace edge with anisotropy in step stiffness during step flow growth is derived in the two-sided model where adatoms can be incorporated into the step from the upper terrace as well as from the lower terrace. It is shown by reductive perturbation method based on the linear stability analysis that (1) up to ɛ3 order in the smallness parameter of instability the nonlinear evolution equation reduces to the closed Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation with extra coefficients compared with the one-sided model and (2) the nonlinear evolution equation up to ɛ5 order is also derived in order to take into account the anisotropy in step stiffness in the lowest order. The nonlinear evolution equation is numerically calculated for various parameters included. It is also shown that the asymmetry of attachment into a step and the Gibbs-Thomson effect with anisotropy in step stiffness bring about various growth patterns of the step from chaotic growth to periodic growth and further to an inclined straight step mode with a single peak.

  3. Properties of Linear Integral Equations Related to the Six-Vertex Model with Disorder Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, Hermann; Göhmann, Frank

    2011-10-01

    One of the key steps in recent work on the correlation functions of the XXZ chain was to regularize the underlying six-vertex model by a disorder parameter α. For the regularized model it was shown that all static correlation functions are polynomials in only two functions. It was further shown that these two functions can be written as contour integrals involving the solutions of a certain type of linear and non-linear integral equations. The linear integral equations depend parametrically on α and generalize linear integral equations known from the study of the bulk thermodynamic properties of the model. In this note we consider the generalized dressed charge and a generalized magnetization density. We express the generalized dressed charge as a linear combination of two quotients of Q-functions, the solutions of Baxter's t-Q-equation. With this result we give a new proof of a lemma on the asymptotics of the generalized magnetization density as a function of the spectral parameter.

  4. On absorbing boundary conditions for linearized Euler equations by a perfectly matched layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Fang Q.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, Berenger introduced a Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique for absorbing electromagnetic waves. In the present paper, a perfectly matched layer is proposed for absorbing out-going two-dimensional waves in a uniform mean flow, generated by linearized Euler equations. It is well known that the linearized Euler equations support acoustic waves, which travel with the speed of sound relative to the mean flow, and vorticity and entropy waves, which travel with the mean flow. The PML equations to be used at a region adjacent to the artificial boundary for absorbing these linear waves are defined. Plane waves solutions to the PML equations are developed and wave propagation and absorption properties are given. It is shown that the theoretical reflection coefficients at an interface between the Euler and PML domains are zero, independent of the angle of incidence and frequency of the waves. As such, the present study points out a possible alternative approach for absorbing out-going waves of the Euler equations with little or no reflection in computation. Numerical examples that demonstrate the validity of the proposed PML equations are also presented.

  5. A computerized implementation of a non-linear equation to predict barrier shielding requirements.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, A C; Strydom, W J

    1997-04-01

    A non-linear equation to predict barrier shielding thickness from the work function of x- and gamma-ray generators is presented. This equation is incorporated into a model that takes into account primary, scatter, and leakage radiation components to determine the amount of shielding necessary. The case of multiple wall materials is also considered. The equation accurately models the radiation attenuation curves given in NCRP 49 for concrete and lead, thus eliminating the necessity to use graphical or tabular methods to calculate shielding thickness, which can be inaccurate.

  6. Linear and non-linear evolution of the vertical shear instability in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Richard P.; Gressel, Oliver; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2013-11-01

    We analyse the stability and non-linear dynamics of power-law accretion disc models. These have mid-plane densities that follow radial power laws and have either temperature or entropy distributions that are strict power-law functions of cylindrical radius, R. We employ two different hydrodynamic codes to perform high-resolution 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations that examine the long-term evolution of the disc models as a function of the power-law indices of the temperature or entropy, the disc scaleheight, the thermal relaxation time of the fluid and the disc viscosity. We present an accompanying stability analysis of the problem, based on asymptotic methods, that we use to guide our interpretation of the simulation results. We find that axisymmetric disc models whose temperature or entropy profiles cause the equilibrium angular velocity to vary with height are unstable to the growth of perturbations whose most obvious character is modes with horizontal and vertical wavenumbers that satisfy |kR/kZ| ≫ 1. Instability occurs only when the thermodynamic response of the fluid is isothermal, or the thermal evolution time is comparable to or shorter than the local dynamical time-scale. These discs appear to exhibit the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke or `vertical shear' linear instability. Closer inspection of the simulation results uncovers the growth of two distinct modes. The first are characterized by very short radial wavelength perturbations that grow rapidly at high latitudes in the disc, and descend down towards the mid-plane on longer time-scales. We refer to these as `finger modes' because they display kR/kZ ≫ 1. The second appear at slightly later times in the main body of the disc, including near the mid-plane. These `body modes' have somewhat longer radial wavelengths. Early on they manifest themselves as fundamental breathing modes, but quickly become corrugation modes as symmetry about the mid-plane is broken. The corrugation modes are a prominent feature

  7. First-Order System Least Squares for the Stokes Equations, with Application to Linear Elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Z.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    Following our earlier work on general second-order scalar equations, here we develop a least-squares functional for the two- and three-dimensional Stokes equations, generalized slightly by allowing a pressure term in the continuity equation. By introducing a velocity flux variable and associated curl and trace equations, we are able to establish ellipticity in an H(exp 1) product norm appropriately weighted by the Reynolds number. This immediately yields optimal discretization error estimates for finite element spaces in this norm and optimal algebraic convergence estimates for multiplicative and additive multigrid methods applied to the resulting discrete systems. Both estimates are uniform in the Reynolds number. Moreover, our pressure-perturbed form of the generalized Stokes equations allows us to develop an analogous result for the Dirichlet problem for linear elasticity with estimates that are uniform in the Lame constants.

  8. The primer vector in linear, relative-motion equations. [spacecraft trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Primer vector theory is used in analyzing a set of linear, relative-motion equations - the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations - to determine the criteria and necessary conditions for an optimal, N-impulse trajectory. Since the state vector for these equations is defined in terms of a linear system of ordinary differential equations, all fundamental relations defining the solution of the state and costate equations, and the necessary conditions for optimality, can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. The analysis develops the analytical criteria for improving a solution by (1) moving any dependent or independent variable in the initial and/or final orbit, and (2) adding intermediate impulses. If these criteria are violated, the theory establishes a sufficient number of analytical equations. The subsequent satisfaction of these equations will result in the optimal position vectors and times of an N-impulse trajectory. The solution is examined for the specific boundary conditions of (1) fixed-end conditions, two-impulse, and time-open transfer; (2) an orbit-to-orbit transfer; and (3) a generalized rendezvous problem. A sequence of rendezvous problems is solved to illustrate the analysis and the computational procedure.

  9. Propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams in fractional Schrödinger equation: from linear to nonlinear regimes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifu; Li, Chuxin; Zhong, Haizhe; Xu, Changwen; Lei, Dajun; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2016-06-27

    We have investigated the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian optical beams in fractional Schrödinger equation. We have identified the difference between the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams and that of Gaussian beams. We show that, the linear propagation dynamics of the super-Gaussian beams with order m > 1 undergo an initial compression phase before they split into two sub-beams. The sub-beams with saddle shape separate each other and their interval increases linearly with propagation distance. In the nonlinear regime, the super-Gaussian beams evolve to become a single soliton, breathing soliton or soliton pair depending on the order of super-Gaussian beams, nonlinearity, as well as the Lévy index. In two dimensions, the linear evolution of super-Gaussian beams is similar to that for one dimension case, but the initial compression of the input super-Gaussian beams and the diffraction of the splitting beams are much stronger than that for one dimension case. While the nonlinear propagation of the super-Gaussian beams becomes much more unstable compared with that for the case of one dimension. Our results show the nonlinear effects can be tuned by varying the Lévy index in the fractional Schrödinger equation for a fixed input power.

  10. Renormalization of the unitary evolution equation for coined quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan; Portugal, Renato

    2017-03-01

    We consider discrete-time evolution equations in which the stochastic operator of a classical random walk is replaced by a unitary operator. Such a problem has gained much attention as a framework for coined quantum walks that are essential for attaining the Grover limit for quantum search algorithms in physically realizable, low-dimensional geometries. In particular, we analyze the exact real-space renormalization group (RG) procedure recently introduced to study the scaling of quantum walks on fractal networks. While this procedure, when implemented numerically, was able to provide some deep insights into the relation between classical and quantum walks, its analytic basis has remained obscure. Our discussion here is laying the groundwork for a rigorous implementation of the RG for this important class of transport and algorithmic problems, although some instances remain unresolved. Specifically, we find that the RG fixed-point analysis of the classical walk, which typically focuses on the dominant Jacobian eigenvalue {λ1} , with walk dimension dw\\text{RW}={{log}2}{λ1} , needs to be extended to include the subdominant eigenvalue {λ2} , such that the dimension of the quantum walk obtains dw\\text{QW}={{log}2}\\sqrt{{λ1}{λ2}} . With that extension, we obtain analytically previously conjectured results for dw\\text{QW} of Grover walks on all but one of the fractal networks that have been considered.

  11. Validity and slopes of the linear equation of state for natural brines in salt lake systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfahl, C.; Post, V. E. A.; Hamann, E.; Prommer, H.; Simmons, C. T.

    2015-04-01

    Many density-dependent groundwater flow simulations rely on a linear equation of state that relates the fluid density to the total dissolved solute content (TDS). This approach ignores non-linear volume of mixing effects, as well as the impact of any chemical reactions. These effects can be considered by using geochemical codes that implement algorithms that calculate the density of a fluid based on the concentration of individual solute species. While in principle such algorithms could be used in-lieu of a linear equation of state in a groundwater model, the computational overhead is such that the use of a more simplified equation of state is preferred. This requires that the assumption of linearity as well as the appropriate value of the linear slope have to be determined. Here, published density measurements of 7 chemically-distinct salt lake brines are compared with densities calculated by PHREEQC-3, confirming the applicability of PHREEQC's algorithm to salt lake brines, as well as to seawater brines and artificial brines from laboratory experiments. Further, calculations with PHREEQC-3 are used to assess the impact of mineral precipitation reactions during evaporative concentration. Results show that the density-TDS relationship is essentially linear over a wide concentration range, and that slopes range between 0.64 and 0.75, with the upper end of the range applying to Na-CO3-Cl brines and the lower end to Na-Cl brines. Mineral precipitation of highly-soluble evaporate minerals such as halite and trona limit TDS, and may lead to considerable errors in coupled flow simulations based on a linear equation of state at high concentrations. Misrepresentation of the slope may lead to an error of up to 20% in the calculated length of the brine nose bordering a salt lake, or of the Rayleigh number, which indicates if a density stratification is stable or not.

  12. Pressure evolution equation for the particulate phase in inhomogeneous compressible disperse multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.; Sridharan, P.; Jackson, T. L.

    2017-02-01

    An analytical expression describing the unsteady pressure evolution of the dispersed phase driven by variations in the carrier phase is presented. In this article, the term "dispersed phase" represents rigid particles, droplets, or bubbles. Letting both the dispersed and continuous phases be inhomogeneous, unsteady, and compressible, the developed pressure equation describes the particle response and its eventual equilibration with that of the carrier fluid. The study involves impingement of a plane traveling wave of a given frequency and subsequent volume-averaged particle pressure calculation due to a single wave. The ambient or continuous fluid's pressure and density-weighted normal velocity are identified as the source terms governing the particle pressure. Analogous to the generalized Faxén theorem, which is applicable to the particle equation of motion, the pressure expression is also written in terms of the surface average of time-varying incoming flow properties. The surface average allows the current formulation to be generalized for any complex incident flow, including situations where the particle size is comparable to that of the incoming flow. Further, the particle pressure is also found to depend on the dispersed-to-continuous fluid density ratio and speed of sound ratio in addition to dynamic viscosities of both fluids. The model is applied to predict the unsteady pressure variation inside an aluminum particle subjected to normal shock waves. The results are compared against numerical simulations and found to be in good agreement. Furthermore, it is shown that, although the analysis is conducted in the limit of negligible flow Reynolds and Mach numbers, it can be used to compute the density and volume of the dispersed phase to reasonable accuracy. Finally, analogous to the pressure evolution expression, an equation describing the time-dependent particle radius is deduced and is shown to reduce to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation in the linear limit.

  13. Quantum position diffusion and its implications for the quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamleitner, I.; Cresser, J.

    2010-01-15

    We derive a quantum linear Boltzmann equation from first principles to describe collisional friction, diffusion, and decoherence in a unified framework. In doing so, we discover that the previously celebrated quantum contribution to position diffusion is not a true physical process, but rather an artifact of the use of a coarse-grained time scale necessary to derive Markovian dynamics.

  14. Standard Error of Linear Observed-Score Equating for the NEAT Design with Nonnormally Distributed Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zu, Jiyun; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2012-01-01

    In the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design, the standard error of linear observed-score equating is commonly estimated by an estimator derived assuming multivariate normality. However, real data are seldom normally distributed, causing this normal estimator to be inconsistent. A general estimator, which does not rely on the…

  15. On a modification of minimal iteration methods for solving systems of linear algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukhno, L. F.

    2010-04-01

    Modifications of certain minimal iteration methods for solving systems of linear algebraic equations are proposed and examined. The modified methods are shown to be superior to the original versions with respect to the round-off error accumulation, which makes them applicable to solving ill-conditioned problems. Numerical results demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed modifications are given.

  16. Futility of Log-Linear Smoothing When Equating with Unrepresentative Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    The impact of log-linear presmoothing on the accuracy of small sample chained equipercentile equating was evaluated under two conditions. In the first condition the small samples differed randomly in ability from the target population. In the second condition the small samples were systematically different from the target population. Results…

  17. On the equivalence of a class of inverse decomposition algorithms for solving systems of linear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Nai-Kuan

    1989-01-01

    A class of direct inverse decomposition algorithms for solving systems of linear equations is presented. Their behavior in the presence of round-off errors is analyzed. It is shown that under some mild restrictions on their implementation, the class of direct inverse decomposition algorithms presented are equivalent in terms of the error complexity measures.

  18. Lines of Eigenvectors and Solutions to Systems of Linear Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Keynes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an instructional sequence where students invent a method for locating lines of eigenvectors and corresponding solutions to systems of two first order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. The significance of this paper is two-fold. First, it represents an innovative alternative…

  19. An Empirical Comparison of Five Linear Equating Methods for the NEAT Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Youngsuk; Mroch, Andrew A.; Kane, Michael T.; Ripkey, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a data base containing the responses of 40,000 candidates to 90 multiple-choice questions was used to mimic data sets for 50-item tests under the "nonequivalent groups with anchor test" (NEAT) design. Using these smaller data sets, we evaluated the performance of five linear equating methods for the NEAT design with five levels of…

  20. The Use of Graphs in Specific Situations of the Initial Conditions of Linear Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendía, Gabriela; Cordero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a discussion on the role of graphs and its significance in the relation between the number of initial conditions and the order of a linear differential equation, which is known as the initial value problem. We propose to make a functional framework for the use of graphs that intends to broaden the explanations of the…

  1. Effect of Coannular Flow on Linearized Euler Equation Predictions of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.; Shih, S.-H.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1997-01-01

    An improved version of a previously validated linearized Euler equation solver is used to compute the noise generated by coannular supersonic jets. Results for a single supersonic jet are compared to the results from both a normal velocity profile and an inverted velocity profile supersonic jet.

  2. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M.; Popovych, Roman O.; Shapoval, Nataliya M.

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach. PMID:23564972

  3. Comment on ''Solution of the Schroedinger equation for the time-dependent linear potential''

    SciTech Connect

    Bekkar, H.; Maamache, M.; Benamira, F.

    2003-07-01

    We present the correct way to obtain the general solution of the Schroedinger equation for a particle in a time-dependent linear potential following the approach used in the paper of Guedes [Phys. Rev. A 63, 034102 (2001)]. In addition, we show that, in this case, the solutions (wave packets) are described by the Airy functions.

  4. Solution of large, sparse systems of linear equations in massively parallel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.T.; Plassmann, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    We present a general-purpose parallel iterative solver for large, sparse systems of linear equations. This solver is used in two applications, a piezoelectric crystal vibration problem and a superconductor model, that could be solved only on the largest available massively parallel machine. Results obtained on the Intel DELTA show computational rates of up to 3.25 gigaflops for these applications.

  5. Time optimal controls of the linear Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation with pointwise control constraints.

    PubMed

    Kunisch, Karl; Wang, Lijuan

    2012-11-01

    Time optimal control governed by the internally controlled linear Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation with pointwise control constraint is considered. Making use of Ekeland's variational principle, we obtain Pontryagin's maximum principle for a time optimal control problem. Using the maximum principle, the bang-bang property of the optimal controls is established under appropriate assumptions.

  6. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for a Diatomic Oscillator Using Linear Algebra: An Undergraduate Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasyna, Zbigniew L.

    2008-01-01

    Computational experiment is proposed in which a linear algebra method is applied to the solution of the Schrodinger equation for a diatomic oscillator. Calculations of the vibration-rotation spectrum for the HCl molecule are presented and the results show excellent agreement with experimental data. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  7. Electronic realisation of recurrent neural network for solving simultaneous linear equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    1992-02-01

    An electronic neural network for solving simultaneous linear equations is presented. The proposed electronic neural network is able to generate real-time solutions to large-scale problems. The operating characteristics of an opamp based neural network is demonstrated via an illustrative example.

  8. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach.

  9. Time optimal controls of the linear Fitzhugh–Nagumo equation with pointwise control constraints

    PubMed Central

    Kunisch, Karl; Wang, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    Time optimal control governed by the internally controlled linear Fitzhugh–Nagumo equation with pointwise control constraint is considered. Making use of Ekeland’s variational principle, we obtain Pontryagin’s maximum principle for a time optimal control problem. Using the maximum principle, the bang–bang property of the optimal controls is established under appropriate assumptions. PMID:23576818

  10. A Graphical Method for Assessing the Identification of Linear Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eusebi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A graphical method is presented for assessing the state of identifiability of the parameters in a linear structural equation model based on the associated directed graph. We do not restrict attention to recursive models. In the recent literature, methods based on graphical models have been presented as a useful tool for assessing the state of…

  11. Secondary Pre-Service Teachers' Algebraic Reasoning about Linear Equation Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvey, Christina; Hudson, Rick A.; Newton, Jill; Males, Lorraine M.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the responses of 12 secondary pre-service teachers on two tasks focused on reasoning when solving linear equations. By documenting the choices PSTs made while engaging in these tasks, we gain insight into how new teachers work mathematically, reason algebraically, communicate their thinking, and make pedagogical decisions. We…

  12. Flipping an Algebra Classroom: Analyzing, Modeling, and Solving Systems of Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirvan, Rebecca; Rakes, Christopher R.; Zamora, Regie

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether flipping an algebra classroom led to a stronger focus on conceptual understanding and improved learning of systems of linear equations for 54 seventh- and eighth-grade students using teacher journal data and district-mandated unit exam items. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare scores on…

  13. The linear Boltzmann equation in slab geometry - Development and verification of a reliable and efficient solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamnes, K.; Lie-Svendsen, O.; Rees, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation can be cast in a form mathematically identical to the radiation-transport equation. A multigroup procedure is used to reduce the energy (or velocity) dependence of the transport equation to a series of one-speed problems. Each of these one-speed problems is equivalent to the monochromatic radiative-transfer problem, and existing software is used to solve this problem in slab geometry. The numerical code conserves particles in elastic collisions. Generic examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of this approach. Although this formalism can, in principle, be applied to a variety of test particle or linearized gas dynamics problems, it is particularly well-suited to study the thermalization of suprathermal particles interacting with a background medium when the thermal motion of the background cannot be ignored. Extensions of the formalism to include external forces and spherical geometry are also feasible.

  14. Linearized acoustic perturbation equations for low Mach number flow with variable density and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Claus-Dieter; Dumbser, Michael; Roller, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    When the Mach number tends to zero the compressible Navier-Stokes equations converge to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, under the restrictions of constant density, constant temperature and no compression from the boundary. This is a singular limit in which the pressure of the compressible equations converges at leading order to a constant thermodynamic background pressure, while a hydrodynamic pressure term appears in the incompressible equations as a Lagrangian multiplier to establish the divergence-free condition for the velocity. In this paper we consider the more general case in which variable density, variable temperature and heat transfer are present, while the Mach number is small. We discuss first the limit equations for this case, when the Mach number tends to zero. The introduction of a pressure splitting into a thermodynamic and a hydrodynamic part allows the extension of numerical methods to the zero Mach number equations in these non-standard situations. The solution of these equations is then used as the state of expansion extending the expansion about incompressible flow proposed by Hardin and Pope [J.C. Hardin, D.S. Pope, An acoustic/viscous splitting technique for computational aeroacoustics, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 6 (1995) 323-340]. The resulting linearized equations state a mathematical model for the generation and propagation of acoustic waves in this more general low Mach number regime and may be used within a hybrid aeroacoustic approach.

  15. Symmetry operators and decoupled equations for linear fields on black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, Bernardo

    2017-02-01

    In the class of vacuum Petrov type D spacetimes with cosmological constant, which includes the Kerr-(A)dS black hole as a particular case, we find a set of four-dimensional operators that, when composed off shell with the Dirac, Maxwell and linearized gravity equations, give a system of equations for spin weighted scalars associated with the linear fields, that decouple on shell. Using these operator relations we give compact reconstruction formulae for solutions of the original spinor and tensor field equations in terms of solutions of the decoupled scalar equations. We also analyze the role of Killing spinors and Killing–Yano tensors in the spin weight zero equations and, in the case of spherical symmetry, we compare our four-dimensional formulation with the standard 2  +  2 decomposition and particularize to the Schwarzschild-(A)dS black hole. Our results uncover a pattern that generalizes a number of previous results on Teukolsky-like equations and Debye potentials for higher spin fields.

  16. On a hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive generalized Korteweg - de Vries evolution equations

    DOE PAGES

    Christov, Ivan C.

    2015-08-20

    We propose a hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive generalized Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) evolution equations based on a modification of the Lagrangian density whose induced action functional the KdV equation extremizes. Two recent nonlinear evolution equations describing wave propagation in certain generalized continua with an inherent material length scale are members of the proposed hierarchy. Like KdV, the equations from the proposed hierarchy possess Hamiltonian structure. Unlike KdV, the solutions to these equations can be compact (i.e., they vanish outside of some open interval) and, in addition, peaked. Implicit solutions for these peaked, compact traveling waves (“peakompactons”) are presented.

  17. Equations of State: Gateway to Planetary Origin and Evolution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    Research over the past decades has shown that collisions between solid bodies govern many crucial phases of planetary origin and evolution. The accretion of the terrestrial planets was punctuated by planetary-scale impacts that generated deep magma oceans, ejected primary atmospheres and probably created the moons of Earth and Pluto. Several extrasolar planetary systems are filled with silicate vapor and condensed 'tektites', probably attesting to recent giant collisions. Even now, long after the solar system settled down from its violent birth, a large asteroid impact wiped out the dinosaurs, while other impacts may have played a role in the origin of life on Earth and perhaps Mars, while maintaining a steady exchange of small meteorites between the terrestrial planets and our moon. Most of these events are beyond the scale at which experiments are possible, so that our main research tool is computer simulation, constrained by the laws of physics and the behavior of materials during high-speed impact. Typical solar system impact velocities range from a few km/s in the outer solar system to 10s of km/s in the inner system. Extrasolar planetary systems expand that range to 100s of km/sec typical of the tightly clustered planetary systems now observed. Although computer codes themselves are currently reaching a high degree of sophistication, we still rely on experimental studies to determine the Equations of State (EoS) of materials critical for the correct simulation of impact processes. The recent expansion of the range of pressures available for study, from a few 100 GPa accessible with light gas guns up to a few TPa from current high energy accelerators now opens experimental access to the full velocity range of interest in our solar system. The results are a surprise: several groups in both the USA and Japan have found that silicates and even iron melt and vaporize much more easily in an impact than previously anticipated. The importance of these findings is

  18. Efficient Numerical Methods for Evolution Partial Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    public lease; distribution mlim ed.-.... 13. ABSTRACT (Maxmum 200 woard Generalized Korteweg - de Vries equation (GKdV). This equation is written as...McKinney. On Optimal high-order in time approxiniations.for the Korteweg -de Vries equation ..To appear in Math. Comp.. 3. J.L. Bona, V.A. Dougalis...O.Karakashian and W. Mckinney, Conservative high-order schemes for the Generalized Korteweg -de Vries equation . In preparation. 4. G. D. Akrivis, V.A

  19. Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, K V

    2016-01-01

    We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.

  20. Constraining supermassive black hole evolution through the continuity equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Marco; Volonteri, Marta

    2017-03-01

    The population of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is split between those that are quiescent, such as those seen in local galaxies including the Milky Way, and those that are active, resulting in quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN). Outside our neighborhood, all the information we have on SMBHs is derived from quasars and AGN, giving us a partial view. We study the evolution of the SMBH population, total and active, by the continuity equation, backwards in time from z = 0 to z = 4. Type-1 and type-2 AGN are differentiated in our model on the basis of their respective Eddington ratio distributions, chosen on the basis of observational estimates. The duty cycle is obtained by matching the luminosity function of quasars, and the average radiative efficiency is the only free parameter in the model. For higher radiative efficiencies (≳ 0.07), a large fraction of the SMBH population, most of them quiescent, must already be in place by z = 4. For lower radiative efficiencies ( 0.05), the duty cycle increases with the redshift and the SMBH population evolves dramatically from z = 4 onwards. The mass function of active SMBHs does not depend on the choice of the radiative efficiency or of the local SMBH mass function, but it is mainly determined by the quasar luminosity function once the Eddington ratio distribution is fixed. Only direct measurement of the total black-hole mass function at redshifts z ≳ 2 could break these degeneracies, offering important constraints on the average radiative efficiency. Focusing on type-1 AGN, for which observational estimates of the mass function and Eddington ratio distribution exist at various redshifts, models with lower radiative efficiencies better reproduce the high-mass end of the mass function at high z, but tend to over-predict it at low z, and vice-versa for models with higher radiative efficiencies.

  1. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.

    2013-03-15

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u{sup (n)}, n= 1, Horizontal-Ellipsis , N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov {partial_derivative}-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u{sup (n)} and calculated by {partial_derivative}-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schroedinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u{sup (n)}. It is shown that the sums u=u{sup (k{sub 1})}+...+u{sup (k{sub m})}, 1 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To k{sub 1} < k{sub 2} < Horizontal-Ellipsis < k{sub m} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To N of arbitrary subsets of these solutions are also exact solutions of VN equation. The presented exact solutions include as superpositions of special line solitons and also superpositions of plane wave type singular periodic solutions. By construction these exact solutions represent also new exact transparent potentials of 2D stationary Schroedinger equation and can serve as model potentials for electrons in planar structures of modern electronics.

  2. Convergent evolution and mimicry of protein linear motifs in host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Lucía Beatriz; de Prat-Gay, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Ignacio Enrique

    2015-06-01

    Pathogen linear motif mimics are highly evolvable elements that facilitate rewiring of host protein interaction networks. Host linear motifs and pathogen mimics differ in sequence, leading to thermodynamic and structural differences in the resulting protein-protein interactions. Moreover, the functional output of a mimic depends on the motif and domain repertoire of the pathogen protein. Regulatory evolution mediated by linear motifs can be understood by measuring evolutionary rates, quantifying positive and negative selection and performing phylogenetic reconstructions of linear motif natural history. Convergent evolution of linear motif mimics is widespread among unrelated proteins from viral, prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens and can also take place within individual protein phylogenies. Statistics, biochemistry and laboratory models of infection link pathogen linear motifs to phenotypic traits such as tropism, virulence and oncogenicity. In vitro evolution experiments and analysis of natural sequences suggest that changes in linear motif composition underlie pathogen adaptation to a changing environment.

  3. Solution of dense systems of linear equations in electromagnetic scattering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rahola, J.

    1994-12-31

    The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) is a method for calculating the scattering of light by an irregular particle. The DDA has been used for example in calculations of optical properties of cosmic dust. In this method the particle is approximated by interacting electromagnetic dipoles. Computationally the DDA method includes the solution of large dense systems of linear equations where the coefficient matrix is complex symmetric. In the author`s work, the linear systems of equations are solved by various iterative methods such as the conjugate gradient method applied to the normal equations and QMR. The linear systems have rather low condition numbers due to which many iterative methods perform quite well even without any preconditioning. Some possible preconditioning strategies are discussed. Finally, some fast special methods for computing the matrix-vector product in the iterative methods are considered. In some cases, the matrix-vector product can be computed with the fast Fourier transform, which enables the author to solve dense linear systems of hundreds of thousands of unknowns.

  4. Calculation of three-dimensional unsteady flows in turbomachinery using the linearized harmonic Euler equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.C.; Lorence, C.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1993-10-01

    An efficient three-dimensional Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery is presented. The unsteady flow is modeled as the sun of a steady or mean flow field plus a harmonically varying small perturbation flow. The linearized Euler equations, which describe the small perturbation unsteady flow, are found to be linear, variable coefficient differential equations whose coefficients depend on the mean flow. A pseudo-time time-marching finite-volume Lax-Wendroff scheme is used to discretize and solve the linearized equations for the unknown perturbation flow quantities. Local time stepping and multiple-grid acceleration techniques are used to speed convergence. For unsteady flow problems involving blade motion, a harmonically deforming computational grid, which conforms to the motion of the vibrating blades, is used to eliminate large error-producing extrapolation terms that would otherwise appear in the airfoil surface boundary conditions and in the evaluation of the unsteady surface pressure. Results are presented for both linear and annular cascade geometries, and for the latter, both rotating and nonrotating blade row.

  5. On the classification of scalar evolution equations with non-constant separant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümeyra Bilge, Ayşe; Mizrahi, Eti

    2017-01-01

    The ‘separant’ of the evolution equation u t   =  F, where F is some differentiable function of the derivatives of u up to order m, is the partial derivative \\partial F/\\partial {{u}m}, where {{u}m}={{\\partial}m}u/\\partial {{x}m} . As an integrability test, we use the formal symmetry method of Mikhailov-Shabat-Sokolov, which is based on the existence of a recursion operator as a formal series. The solvability of its coefficients in the class of local functions gives a sequence of conservation laws, called the ‘conserved densities’ {ρ(i)}, i=-1,1,2,3,\\ldots . We apply this method to the classification of scalar evolution equations of orders 3≤slant m≤slant 15 , for which {ρ(-1)}={≤ft[\\partial F/\\partial {{u}m}\\right]}-1/m} and {{ρ(1)} are non-trivial, i.e. they are not total derivatives and {ρ(-1)} is not linear in its highest order derivative. We obtain the ‘top level’ parts of these equations and their ‘top dependencies’ with respect to the ‘level grading’, that we defined in a previous paper, as a grading on the algebra of polynomials generated by the derivatives u b+i , over the ring of {{C}∞} functions of u,{{u}1},\\ldots,{{u}b} . In this setting b and i are called ‘base’ and ‘level’, respectively. We solve the conserved density conditions to show that if {ρ(-1)} depends on u,{{u}1},\\ldots,{{u}b}, then, these equations are level homogeneous polynomials in {{u}b+i},\\ldots,{{u}m} , i≥slant 1 . Furthermore, we prove that if {ρ(3)} is non-trivial, then {ρ(-1)}={≤ft(α ub2+β {{u}b}+γ \\right)}1/2} , with b≤slant 3 while if {{ρ(3)} is trivial, then {ρ(-1)}={≤ft(λ {{u}b}+μ \\right)}1/3} , where b≤slant 5 and α, β, γ, λ and μ are functions of u,\\ldots,{{u}b-1} . We show that the equations that we obtain form commuting flows and we construct their recursion operators that are respectively of orders 2 and 6 for non-trivial and trivial {{ρ(3)} respectively. Omitting lower order

  6. Solving large-scale sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems of equations for accelerator modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gene Golub; Kwok Ko

    2009-03-30

    The solutions of sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems constitute one of the key computational kernels in the discretization of partial differential equations for the modeling of linear accelerators. The computational challenges faced by existing techniques for solving those sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems call for continuing research to improve on the algorithms so that ever increasing problem size as required by the physics application can be tackled. Under the support of this award, the filter algorithm for solving large sparse eigenvalue problems was developed at Stanford to address the computational difficulties in the previous methods with the goal to enable accelerator simulations on then the world largest unclassified supercomputer at NERSC for this class of problems. Specifically, a new method, the Hemitian skew-Hemitian splitting method, was proposed and researched as an improved method for solving linear systems with non-Hermitian positive definite and semidefinite matrices.

  7. On the Application of Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Systems of Linear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Edalatpanah, S. A.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The application of homotopy perturbation method (HPM) for solving systems of linear equations is further discussed and focused on a method for choosing an auxiliary matrix to improve the rate of convergence. Moreover, solving of convection-diffusion equations has been developed by HPM and the convergence properties of the proposed method have been analyzed in detail; the obtained results are compared with some other methods in the frame of HPM. Numerical experiment shows a good improvement on the convergence rate and the efficiency of this method. PMID:27350974

  8. On exponential stability of linear Levin-Nohel integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Dung, Nguyen

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the exponential stability for linear Levin-Nohel integro-differential equations with time-varying delays. To the best of our knowledge, the exponential stability for such equations has not yet been discussed. In addition, since we do not require that the kernel and delay are continuous, our results improve those obtained in Becker and Burton [Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, Sect. A: Math. 136, 245-275 (2006)]; Dung [J. Math. Phys. 54, 082705 (2013)]; and Jin and Luo [Comput. Math. Appl. 57(7), 1080-1088 (2009)].

  9. The Tricomi problem of a quasi-linear Lavrentiev-Bitsadze mixed type equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuxing, Chen; Zhenguo, Feng

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the Tricomi problem of a quasi-linear Lavrentiev-Bitsadze mixed type equation begin{array}{lll}(sgn u_y) {partial ^2 u/partial x^2} + {partial ^2 u/partial y^2}-1=0, whose coefficients depend on the first-order derivative of the unknown function. We prove the existence of solution to this problem by using the hodograph transformation. The method can be applied to study more difficult problems for nonlinear mixed type equations arising in gas dynamics.

  10. Stochastic processes with distributed delays: chemical Langevin equation and linear-noise approximation.

    PubMed

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2013-06-21

    We develop a systematic approach to the linear-noise approximation for stochastic reaction systems with distributed delays. Unlike most existing work our formalism does not rely on a master equation; instead it is based upon a dynamical generating functional describing the probability measure over all possible paths of the dynamics. We derive general expressions for the chemical Langevin equation for a broad class of non-Markovian systems with distributed delay. Exemplars of a model of gene regulation with delayed autoinhibition and a model of epidemic spread with delayed recovery provide evidence of the applicability of our results.

  11. A bivariate Chebyshev spectral collocation quasilinearization method for nonlinear evolution parabolic equations.

    PubMed

    Motsa, S S; Magagula, V M; Sibanda, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving higher order nonlinear evolution partial differential equations (NPDEs). The method combines quasilinearisation, the Chebyshev spectral collocation method, and bivariate Lagrange interpolation. In this paper, we use the method to solve several nonlinear evolution equations, such as the modified KdV-Burgers equation, highly nonlinear modified KdV equation, Fisher's equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, Burgers-Huxley equation, and the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation. The results are compared with known exact analytical solutions from literature to confirm accuracy, convergence, and effectiveness of the method. There is congruence between the numerical results and the exact solutions to a high order of accuracy. Tables were generated to present the order of accuracy of the method; convergence graphs to verify convergence of the method and error graphs are presented to show the excellent agreement between the results from this study and the known results from literature.

  12. A Bivariate Chebyshev Spectral Collocation Quasilinearization Method for Nonlinear Evolution Parabolic Equations

    PubMed Central

    Motsa, S. S.; Magagula, V. M.; Sibanda, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving higher order nonlinear evolution partial differential equations (NPDEs). The method combines quasilinearisation, the Chebyshev spectral collocation method, and bivariate Lagrange interpolation. In this paper, we use the method to solve several nonlinear evolution equations, such as the modified KdV-Burgers equation, highly nonlinear modified KdV equation, Fisher's equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, Burgers-Huxley equation, and the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation. The results are compared with known exact analytical solutions from literature to confirm accuracy, convergence, and effectiveness of the method. There is congruence between the numerical results and the exact solutions to a high order of accuracy. Tables were generated to present the order of accuracy of the method; convergence graphs to verify convergence of the method and error graphs are presented to show the excellent agreement between the results from this study and the known results from literature. PMID:25254252

  13. Scilab software as an alternative low-cost computing in solving the linear equations problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Fahrul; Haviluddin

    2017-02-01

    Numerical computation packages are widely used both in teaching and research. These packages consist of license (proprietary) and open source software (non-proprietary). One of the reasons to use the package is a complexity of mathematics function (i.e., linear problems). Also, number of variables in a linear or non-linear function has been increased. The aim of this paper was to reflect on key aspects related to the method, didactics and creative praxis in the teaching of linear equations in higher education. If implemented, it could be contribute to a better learning in mathematics area (i.e., solving simultaneous linear equations) that essential for future engineers. The focus of this study was to introduce an additional numerical computation package of Scilab as an alternative low-cost computing programming. In this paper, Scilab software was proposed some activities that related to the mathematical models. In this experiment, four numerical methods such as Gaussian Elimination, Gauss-Jordan, Inverse Matrix, and Lower-Upper Decomposition (LU) have been implemented. The results of this study showed that a routine or procedure in numerical methods have been created and explored by using Scilab procedures. Then, the routine of numerical method that could be as a teaching material course has exploited.

  14. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations by Auxiliary Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Melike; Akbulut, Arzu; Bekir, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    The auxiliary equation method presents wide applicability to handling nonlinear wave equations. In this article, we establish new exact travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear Zoomeron equation, coupled Higgs equation, and equal width wave equation. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions, and rational functions. It is shown that the proposed method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear wave equations in mathematical physics and engineering. Throughout the article, all calculations are made with the aid of the Maple packet program.

  15. A piecewise linear finite element discretization of the diffusion equation for arbitrary polyhedral grids

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Teresa S. Adams, Marvin L. Yang, Brian Zika, Michael R.

    2008-04-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses recently introduced piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We first demonstrate some analytical properties of the PWL method and perform a simple mode analysis to compare the PWL method with Palmer's vertex-centered finite-volume method and with a bilinear continuous finite element method. We then show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive-definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids.

  16. Eigenvalues of the homogeneous finite linear one step master equation: Applications to downhill folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Thomas J.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the observed time scales in protein systems said to fold "downhill," we have studied the finite, linear master equation, with uniform rates forward and backward as a model of the downhill process. By solving for the system eigenvalues, we prove the claim that in situations where there is no free energy barrier a transition between single- and multi-exponential kinetics occurs at sufficient bias (towards the native state). Consequences for protein folding, especially the downhill folding scenario, are briefly discussed.

  17. Controllability of process described by system of linear integro-differential equations with restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisagaliev, Serikbai A.; Sevryugin, Ilya

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study controllability problem for linear integro-differential equation x ˙=A (t )x +B (t )u (t )+C (t ) ∫a b K (t ,τ ) w (τ )d τ +μ (t ), t ∈I =[t0,t1] with boundary conditions and some restrictions. For this problem we have obtained necessary and sufficient conditions of its solvability. The solution of initial problem is reduced to minimization of functional using minimizing sequences.

  18. Linear stability of swirling flows computed as solutions to the quasi-cylindrical equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spall, Robert E.

    1993-08-01

    The linear stability of numerical solutions to the quasi-cylindrical equations of motion for swirling flows is investigated. Initial conditions are derived from Batchelor's similarity solution for a trailing line vortex. The stability calculations are performed using a second-order-accurate finite-difference scheme on a staggered grid, with the accuracy of the computed eigenvalues enhanced through Richardson extrapolation. The streamwise development of both viscous and inviscid instability modes is presented. The possible relationship to vortex breakdown is discussed.

  19. A Family of Ellipse Methods for Solving Non-Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, K. C.; Kanwar, V.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    This note presents a method for the numerical approximation of simple zeros of a non-linear equation in one variable. In order to do so, the method uses an ellipse rather than a tangent approach. The main advantage of our method is that it does not fail even if the derivative of the function is either zero or very small in the vicinity of the…

  20. A numerical method for solving systems of linear ordinary differential equations with rapidly oscillating solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Ira B.; Brookshaw, Leigh; Fox, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    The present numerical method for accurate and efficient solution of systems of linear equations proceeds by numerically developing a set of basis solutions characterized by slowly varying dependent variables. The solutions thus obtained are shown to have a computational overhead largely independent of the small size of the scale length which characterizes the solutions; in many cases, the technique obviates series solutions near singular points, and its known sources of error can be easily controlled without a substantial increase in computational time.

  1. Kershaw closures for linear transport equations in slab geometry I: Model derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Florian

    2016-10-01

    This paper provides a new class of moment models for linear kinetic equations in slab geometry. These models can be evaluated cheaply while preserving the important realizability property, that is the fact that the underlying closure is non-negative. Several comparisons with the (expensive) state-of-the-art minimum-entropy models are made, showing the similarity in approximation quality of the two classes.

  2. On the equivalence of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan reduction in solving linear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Nai-Kuan

    1989-01-01

    A novel general approach to round-off error analysis using the error complexity concepts is described. This is applied to the analysis of the Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan scheme for solving linear equations. The results show that the two algorithms are equivalent in terms of our error complexity measures. Thus the inherently parallel Gauss-Jordan scheme can be implemented with confidence if parallel computers are available.

  3. On the Use of Linearized Euler Equations in the Prediction of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.; Hixon, R.; Shih, S.-H.; Povinelli, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    Linearized Euler equations are used to simulate supersonic jet noise generation and propagation. Special attention is given to boundary treatment. The resulting solution is stable and nearly free from boundary reflections without the need for artificial dissipation, filtering, or a sponge layer. The computed solution is in good agreement with theory and observation and is much less CPU-intensive as compared to large-eddy simulations.

  4. On removability of singularities on manifolds for solutions of non-linear elliptic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Skrypnik, I I

    2003-10-31

    A precise condition is found for the removability of a singularity on a smooth manifold for solutions of non-linear second-order elliptic equations of divergence form. The condition is stated in the form of a dependence of the pointwise behaviour of the solution on the distance to the singular manifold. The condition obtained is weaker than Serrin's well-known sufficient condition for the removability of a singularity on a manifold.

  5. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  6. Fractional order of rational Jacobi functions for solving the non-linear singular Thomas-Fermi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, Kourosh; Mazaheri, Pooria; Yousefi, Hossein; Delkhosh, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a new method based on Fractional order of Rational Jacobi (FRJ) functions is proposed that utilizes quasilinearization method to solve non-linear singular Thomas-Fermi equation on unbounded interval [0,∞). The equation is solved without domain truncation and variable changing. First, the quasilinearization method is used to convert the equation to the sequence of linear ordinary differential equations. Then, by using the FRJs collocation method the equations are solved. For the evaluation, comparison with some numerical solutions shows that the proposed solution is highly accurate.

  7. On the Relation Between Global Properties of Linear Difference and Differential Equations with Polynomial Coefficients, 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immink, G. K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper is concerned with applications of the Mellin transformation in the study of homogeneous linear differential and difference equations with polynomial coefficients. We begin by considering a differential equation (D) with regular singularities at O and ∞ and arbitrary singularities in the rest of the complex plane, and the difference equation (Δ‧) obtained from (D) by a variant of the formal Mellin transformation. We define fundamental systems of solutions of (Δ‧), analytic in either a right or a left half plane. by the use of Mellin transforms of microsolutions of (D). The relations between these fundamental systems are expressed in terms of central connection matrices of (D). Second, we study the differential equation (D1) obtained from (D) by means of a formal Laplace transformation and the difference equation (Δ1) obtained from (D1) by a formal Mellin transformation. We use Mellin transforms of "ordinary" solutions of (D1) with moderate growth at ∞ to construct fundamental systems of solutions of (Δ1). The relation between these fundamental systems involves certain Stokes multipliers and a formal monodromy matrix of (D1).

  8. A New Linearized Crank-Nicolson Mixed Element Scheme for the Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov Equation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Hong; He, Siriguleng; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We present a new mixed finite element method for solving the extended Fisher-Kolmogorov (EFK) equation. We first decompose the EFK equation as the two second-order equations, then deal with a second-order equation employing finite element method, and handle the other second-order equation using a new mixed finite element method. In the new mixed finite element method, the gradient ∇u belongs to the weaker (L2(Ω))2 space taking the place of the classical H(div; Ω) space. We prove some a priori bounds for the solution for semidiscrete scheme and derive a fully discrete mixed scheme based on a linearized Crank-Nicolson method. At the same time, we get the optimal a priori error estimates in L2 and H1-norm for both the scalar unknown u and the diffusion term w = −Δu and a priori error estimates in (L2)2-norm for its gradient χ = ∇u for both semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes. PMID:23864831

  9. Unsteady Solution of Non-Linear Differential Equations Using Walsh Function Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Walsh functions form an orthonormal basis set consisting of square waves. The discontinuous nature of square waves make the system well suited for representing functions with discontinuities. The product of any two Walsh functions is another Walsh function - a feature that can radically change an algorithm for solving non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs). The solution algorithm of non-linear differential equations using Walsh function series is unique in that integrals and derivatives may be computed using simple matrix multiplication of series representations of functions. Solutions to PDEs are derived as functions of wave component amplitude. Three sample problems are presented to illustrate the Walsh function series approach to solving unsteady PDEs. These include an advection equation, a Burgers equation, and a Riemann problem. The sample problems demonstrate the use of the Walsh function solution algorithms, exploiting Fast Walsh Transforms in multi-dimensions (O(Nlog(N))). Details of a Fast Walsh Reciprocal, defined here for the first time, enable inversion of aWalsh Symmetric Matrix in O(Nlog(N)) operations. Walsh functions have been derived using a fractal recursion algorithm and these fractal patterns are observed in the progression of pairs of wave number amplitudes in the solutions. These patterns are most easily observed in a remapping defined as a fractal fingerprint (FFP). A prolongation of existing solutions to the next highest order exploits these patterns. The algorithms presented here are considered a work in progress that provide new alternatives and new insights into the solution of non-linear PDEs.

  10. Ion strength limit of computed excess functions based on the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2015-12-05

    The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (L-PB) equation is examined for its κ-range of validity (κ, Debye reciprocal length). This is done for the Debye-Hückel (DH) theory, i.e., using a single ion size, and for the SiS treatment (D. Fraenkel, Mol. Phys. 2010, 108, 1435), which extends the DH theory to the case of ion-size dissimilarity (therefore dubbed DH-SiS). The linearization of the PB equation has been claimed responsible for the DH theory's failure to fit with experiment at > 0.1 m; but DH-SiS fits with data of the mean ionic activity coefficient, γ± (molal), against m, even at m > 1 (κ > 0.33 Å(-1) ). The SiS expressions combine the overall extra-electrostatic potential energy of the smaller ion, as central ion-Ψa>b (κ), with that of the larger ion, as central ion-Ψb>a (κ); a and b are, respectively, the counterion and co-ion distances of closest approach. Ψa>b and Ψb>a are derived from the L-PB equation, which appears to conflict with their being effective up to moderate electrolyte concentrations (≈1 m). However, the L-PB equation can be valid up to κ ≥ 1.3 Å(-1) if one abandons the 1/κ criterion for its effectiveness and, instead, use, as criterion, the mean-field electrostatic interaction potential of the central ion with its ion cloud, at a radial distance dividing the cloud charge into two equal parts. The DH theory's failure is, thus, not because of using the L-PB equation; the lethal approximation is assigning a single size to the positive and negative ions.

  11. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  12. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  13. An Equipercentile Version of the Levine Linear Observed-Score Equating Function Using the Methods of Kernel Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-07-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Alina A.; Fournier-Zajac, Stephanie; Holland, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    In the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design, there are several ways to use the information provided by the anchor in the equating process. One of the NEAT-design equating methods is the linear observed-score Levine method (Kolen & Brennan, 2004). It is based on a classical test theory model of the true scores on the test forms…

  14. Non linear evolution: revisiting the solution in the saturation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Carlos; Levin, Eugene; Meneses, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of the solution to Balitsky-Kovchegov equation deeply in the saturation domain. We find that solution has the form given in ref. [23] but it depends on variable and the value of Const is calculated in this paper. We propose the solution for full BFKL kernel at large in the entire kinematic region that satisfies the McLerran-Venugopalan-type [3-7] initial condition.

  15. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Jordá, José M.

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations A x =b , where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O (N logN ) memory and executing an iteration in O (N log2N ) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  16. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jordá, José M

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  17. Pullback, forward and chaotic dynamics in 1D non-autonomous linear-dissipative equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraballo, T.; Langa, J. A.; Obaya, R.

    2017-01-01

    The global attractor of a skew product semiflow for a non-autonomous differential equation describes the asymptotic behaviour of the model. This attractor is usually characterized as the union, for all the parameters in the base space, of the associated cocycle attractors in the product space. The continuity of the cocycle attractor in the parameter is usually a difficult question. In this paper we develop in detail a 1D non-autonomous linear differential equation and show the richness of non-autonomous dynamics by focusing on the continuity, characterization and chaotic dynamics of the cocycle attractors. In particular, we analyse the sets of continuity and discontinuity for the parameter of the attractors, and relate them with the eventually forward behaviour of the processes. We will also find chaotic behaviour on the attractors in the Li-Yorke and Auslander-Yorke senses. Note that they hold for linear 1D equations, which shows a crucial difference with respect to the presence of chaotic dynamics in autonomous systems.

  18. Integrable nonlinear evolution partial differential equations in 4 + 2 and 3 + 1 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Fokas, A S

    2006-05-19

    The derivation and solution of integrable nonlinear evolution partial differential equations in three spatial dimensions has been the holy grail in the field of integrability since the late 1970s. The celebrated Korteweg-de Vries and nonlinear Schrödinger equations, as well as the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) and Davey-Stewartson (DS) equations, are prototypical examples of integrable evolution equations in one and two spatial dimensions, respectively. Do there exist integrable analogs of these equations in three spatial dimensions? In what follows, I present a positive answer to this question. In particular, I first present integrable generalizations of the KP and DS equations, which are formulated in four spatial dimensions and which have the novelty that they involve complex time. I then impose the requirement of real time, which implies a reduction to three spatial dimensions. I also present a method of solution.

  19. New Traveling Wave Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Cheng-Jie; Zhao, Hong; Xu, Heng-Ying; Zhang, Xia

    The deformation mapping method is extended to solve a class of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Many types of explicit and exact traveling wave solutions, which contain solitary wave solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and Jacobian elliptic function solutions, are obtained by a simple algebraic transformation relation between the solutions of the NLEEs and those of the cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon (NKG) equation.

  20. Solving nonlinear evolution equation system using two different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet N.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with constructing more general exact solutions of the coupled Higgs equation by using the (G0/G, 1/G)-expansion and (1/G0)-expansion methods. The obtained solutions are expressed by three types of functions: hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions with free parameters. It has been shown that the suggested methods are productive and will be used to solve nonlinear partial differential equations in applied mathematics and engineering. Throughout the paper, all the calculations are made with the aid of the Maple software.

  1. Improving an estimate of the convergence rate of the seidel method by selecting the optimal order of equations in the system of linear algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzykh, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The Seidel method for solving a system of linear algebraic equations and an estimate of its convergence rate are considered. It is proposed to change the order of equations. It is shown that the method described in Faddeevs' book Computational Methods of Linear Algebra can deteriorate the convergence rate estimate rather than improve it. An algorithm for establishing the optimal order of equations is proposed, and its validity is proved. It is shown that the computational complexity of the reordering is 2 n 2 additions and (12) n 2 divisions. Numerical results for random matrices of order 100 are presented that confirm the proposed improvement.

  2. Perfectly Matched Layer for Linearized Euler Equations in Open and Ducted Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Auriault, Laurent; Cambuli, Francesco

    1998-01-01

    Recently, perfectly matched layer (PML) as an absorbing boundary condition has widespread applications. The idea was first introduced by Berenger for electromagnetic waves computations. In this paper, it is shown that the PML equations for the linearized Euler equations support unstable solutions when the mean flow has a component normal to the layer. To suppress such unstable solutions so as to render the PML concept useful for this class of problems, it is proposed that artificial selective damping terms be added to the discretized PML equations. It is demonstrated that with a proper choice of artificial mesh Reynolds number, the PML equations can be made stable. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate that the stabilized PML performs well as an absorbing boundary condition. In a ducted environment, the wave mode are dispersive. It will be shown that the group velocity and phase velocity of these modes can have opposite signs. This results in a confined environment, PML may not be suitable as an absorbing boundary condition.

  3. Numerical solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation for an arbitrary intermolecular potential

    SciTech Connect

    Sharipov, Felix Bertoldo, Guilherme

    2009-05-20

    A numerical procedure to solve the linearized Boltzmann equation with an arbitrary intermolecular potential by the discrete velocity method is elaborated. The equation is written in terms of the kernel, which contains the differential cross section and represents a singularity. As an example, the Lennard-Jones potential is used and the corresponding differential cross section is calculated and tabulated. Then, the kernel is calculated so that to overcome its singularity. Once, the kernel is known and stored it can be used for many kinds of gas flows. In order to test the method, the transport coefficients, i.e. thermal conductivity and viscosity for all noble gases, are calculated and compared with those obtained by the variational method using the Sonine polynomials expansion. The fine agreement between the results obtained by the two different methods shows the feasibility of application of the proposed technique to calculate rarefied gas flows over the whole range of the Knudsen number.

  4. An asymptotic-preserving scheme for linear kinetic equation with fractional diffusion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Yan, Bokai

    2016-05-01

    We present a new asymptotic-preserving scheme for the linear Boltzmann equation which, under appropriate scaling, leads to a fractional diffusion limit. Our scheme rests on novel micro-macro decomposition to the distribution function, which splits the original kinetic equation following a reshuffled Hilbert expansion. As opposed to classical diffusion limit, a major difficulty comes from the fat tail in the equilibrium which makes the truncation in velocity space depending on the small parameter. Our idea is, while solving the macro-micro part in a truncated velocity domain (truncation only depends on numerical accuracy), to incorporate an integrated tail over the velocity space that is beyond the truncation, and its major component can be precomputed once with any accuracy. Such an addition is essential to drive the solution to the correct asymptotic limit. Numerical experiments validate its efficiency in both kinetic and fractional diffusive regimes.

  5. The Analysis and Construction of Perfectly Matched Layers for the Linearized Euler Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesthaven, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed perfectly matched layer (PML) method for the absorption of acoustic waves. The split set of equations is shown to be only weakly well-posed, and ill-posed under small low order perturbations. This analysis provides the explanation for the stability problems associated with the split field formulation and illustrates why applying a filter has a stabilizing effect. Utilizing recent results obtained within the context of electromagnetics, we develop strongly well-posed absorbing layers for the linearized Euler equations. The schemes are shown to be perfectly absorbing independent of frequency and angle of incidence of the wave in the case of a non-convecting mean flow. In the general case of a convecting mean flow, a number of techniques is combined to obtain a absorbing layers exhibiting PML-like behavior. The efficacy of the proposed absorbing layers is illustrated though computation of benchmark problems in aero-acoustics.

  6. Compact tunable silicon photonic differential-equation solver for general linear time-invariant systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayang; Cao, Pan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinhong; Pan, Ting; Yang, Yuxing; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2014-10-20

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal differential-equation solver that can be used to solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing general linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The photonic device implemented by an add-drop microring resonator (MRR) with two tunable interferometric couplers is monolithically integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with a compact footprint of ~60 μm × 120 μm. By thermally tuning the phase shifts along the bus arms of the two interferometric couplers, the proposed device is capable of solving first-order ODEs with two variable coefficients. The operation principle is theoretically analyzed, and system testing of solving ODE with tunable coefficients is carried out for 10-Gb/s optical Gaussian-like pulses. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the fabricated device as a tunable photonic ODE solver.

  7. Fast Stable Solvers for Sequentially Semi-Seperable Linear Systems of Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, S; DeWilde, P; Gu, M; Pals, T; van der Veen, A J; White, D A

    2003-01-17

    We define the class of sequentially semi-separable matrices in this paper. Essentially this is the class of matrices which have low numerical rank on their off diagonal blocks. Examples include banded matrices, semi-separable matrices, their sums as well as inverses of these sums. Fast and stable algorithms for solving linear systems of equations involving such matrices and computing Moore-Penrose inverses are presented. Supporting numerical results are also presented. In addition, fast algorithms to construct and update this matrix structure for any given matrix are presented. Finally, numerical results that show that the coefficient matrices resulting from global spectral discretizations of certain integral equations indeed have this matrix structure are given.

  8. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  9. Approximation and Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Equations of Evolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-31

    les Espaces d’ Interpolation; Dualitg", Math. Scand., 9, 1961, pp. 147-177. 9. __ "Equations Diff~rentielles Op ~ rationnelles dan les Espaces de Hilbert...relaxation," Revue Francaise d’automatique, informatique, recherche operationnelle, R3, 1973, p. 5-32. Ill DOUGLAS, J. and GALLIE, T.MI. "On the Numerical

  10. Hamiltonian discontinuous Galerkin FEM for linear, stratified (in)compressible Euler equations: internal gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oers, Alexander M.; Maas, Leo R. M.; Bokhove, Onno

    2017-02-01

    The linear equations governing internal gravity waves in a stratified ideal fluid possess a Hamiltonian structure. A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method has been developed in which this Hamiltonian structure is discretized, resulting in conservation of discrete analogs of phase space and energy. This required (i) the discretization of the Hamiltonian structure using alternating flux functions and symplectic time integration, (ii) the discretization of a divergence-free velocity field using Dirac's theory of constraints and (iii) the handling of large-scale computational demands due to the 3-dimensional nature of internal gravity waves and, in confined, symmetry-breaking fluid domains, possibly its narrow zones of attraction.

  11. Application of quarter-sweep iteration for first order linear Fredholm integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruchunan, Elayaraja; Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Sulaiman, Jumat

    2013-04-01

    The main core of this paper is to analyze the application of the quarter-sweep iterative concept on finite difference and composite trapezoidal schemes with Gauss-Seidel iterative method to solve first order linear Fredholm integro-differential equations. The formulation and implementation of the Full-, Half- and Quarter-Sweep Gauss-Seidel methods namely FSGS, HSGS and QSGS respectively are also presented for performance comparison. Furthermore, computational complexity and percentage reduction analysis are also included and integrated with several numerical simulations. Based on numerical results, findings show the proposed QSGS method with the corresponding discretization schemes is superior compared to FSGS and HSGS iterative methods.

  12. Fokas method for a multi-domain linear reaction-diffusion equation with discontinuous diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvestas, M.; Sifalakis, A. G.; Papadopoulou, E. P.; Saridakis, Y. G.

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by proliferation-diffusion mathematical models for studying highly diffusive brain tumors, that also take into account the heterogeneity of the brain tissue, in the present work we consider a multi-domain linear reaction-diffusion equation with a discontinuous diffusion coefficient. For the solution of the problem at hand we implement Fokas transform method by directly following, and extending in this way, our recent work for a white-gray-white matter brain model pertaining to high grade gliomas. Fokas's novel approach for the solution of linear PDE problems, yields novel integral representations of the solution in the complex plane that, for appropriately chosen integration contours, decay exponentially fast and converge uniformly at the boundaries. Combining these method-inherent advantages with simple numerical quadrature rules, we produce an efficient method, with fast decaying error properties, for the solution of the discontinuous reaction-diffusion problem.

  13. A Piecewise Bi-Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Sn Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Chang, J H; Warsa, J S; Adams, M L

    2010-12-22

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretizations that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems.

  14. A Parallel Time-Propagation Solver for the Non-Linear Schroedinger Equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygaard, Nicolai; Simula, Tapio; Schneider, Barry I.

    2007-06-01

    We describe a powerful numerical method for solving the time-dependent non-linear Schr"odinger equation. Our method is based on the finite-element discrete variable representation. The time-propagation is facilitated either by the Lanczos-Arnoldi method or by split-operator formulas of different orders. The ground-state solution is found by propagation in imaginary time using an adaptive time stepping algorithm, and the absolute convergence of the propagation is faithfully characterized by a positive-definite error norm. Parallelization of this method is transparent, and we have utilized an MPI implementation demonstrating linear scaling of wall-clock computation time with the number of processors used.

  15. Fokker-Planck equation with linear and time dependent load forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau Fa, Kwok

    2016-11-01

    The motion of a particle described by the Fokker-Planck equation with constant diffusion coefficient, linear force (-γ (t)x) and time dependent load force (β (t)) is investigated. The solution for the probability density function is obtained and it has the Gaussian form; it is described by the solution of the linear force with the translation of the position coordinate x. The constant load force preserves the stationary state of the harmonic potential system, however the time dependent load force may not preserve the stationary state of the harmonic potential system. Moreover, the n-moment and variance are also investigated. The solutions are obtained in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate and graduate students.

  16. Group theoretical approach to nonlinear evolution equations of lax type III. The Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, D.; Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.; Ragnisco, O.

    1980-06-01

    Within the group theoretical framework recently proposed by Berezin and Perelomov, we are able to derive an abstract (operator) generalization of the classical Boussinesq equation, which possesses an infinite sequence of conserved quantities.

  17. The linear stage of evolution of electron-hole avalanches in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2008-01-15

    A complete analytical solution of the problem of the linear stage of evolution of electron-hole avalanches in the uniform time-independent electric field E{sub ext} is derived. The theory accounts for the drift, diffusion, and impact ionization of electrons and holes, thus providing a means for calculating the space-time distributions of fields and charges as well as all the basic parameters of the avalanches up to the onset of nonlinear effects at the time t{sub a}. Formulas for the group velocity of the avalanches and for the velocity of its leading fronts are derived. It is shown that the time t{sub a} must be determined from the condition that the impact ionization coefficient {alpha} in the center of the avalanche be reduced by a specified small quantity {eta}. A transcendent equation is derived, which allows the calculation of the time t{sub a} as a function of the quantity {eta}, the unperturbed coefficient {alpha}(E{sub ext}), and other parameters of the semiconductor. It is found that, when {alpha}(E{sub ext}) is increased by two orders of magnitude, the total number of electron-hole pairs generated up to the point t{sub a} decreases by nearly three orders of magnitude.

  18. Exact Solutions of Coupled Multispecies Linear Reaction-Diffusion Equations on a Uniformly Growing Domain.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Matthew J; Sharp, Jesse A; Morrow, Liam C; Baker, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic development involves diffusion and proliferation of cells, as well as diffusion and reaction of molecules, within growing tissues. Mathematical models of these processes often involve reaction-diffusion equations on growing domains that have been primarily studied using approximate numerical solutions. Recently, we have shown how to obtain an exact solution to a single, uncoupled, linear reaction-diffusion equation on a growing domain, 0 < x < L(t), where L(t) is the domain length. The present work is an extension of our previous study, and we illustrate how to solve a system of coupled reaction-diffusion equations on a growing domain. This system of equations can be used to study the spatial and temporal distributions of different generations of cells within a population that diffuses and proliferates within a growing tissue. The exact solution is obtained by applying an uncoupling transformation, and the uncoupled equations are solved separately before applying the inverse uncoupling transformation to give the coupled solution. We present several example calculations to illustrate different types of behaviour. The first example calculation corresponds to a situation where the initially-confined population diffuses sufficiently slowly that it is unable to reach the moving boundary at x = L(t). In contrast, the second example calculation corresponds to a situation where the initially-confined population is able to overcome the domain growth and reach the moving boundary at x = L(t). In its basic format, the uncoupling transformation at first appears to be restricted to deal only with the case where each generation of cells has a distinct proliferation rate. However, we also demonstrate how the uncoupling transformation can be used when each generation has the same proliferation rate by evaluating the exact solutions as an appropriate limit.

  19. Particle swarms in gases: the velocity-average evolution equations from Newton's law.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Leonardo

    2003-08-01

    The evolution equation for a generic average quantity relevant to a swarm of particles homogeneously dispersed in a uniform gas, is obtained directly from the Newton's law, without having recourse to the (intermediary) Boltzmann equation. The procedure makes use of appropriate averages of the term resulting from the impulsive force (due to collisions) in the Newton's law. When the background gas is assumed to be in thermal equilibrium, the obtained evolution equation is shown to agree with the corresponding one following from the Boltzmann equation. But the new procedure also allows to treat physical situations in which the Boltzmann equation is not valid, as it happens when some correlation exists (or is assumed) between the velocities of swarm and gas particles.

  20. Simplified derivation of the gravitational wave stress tensor from the linearized Einstein field equations.

    PubMed

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-10-18

    A conserved stress energy tensor for weak field gravitational waves propagating in vacuum is derived directly from the linearized general relativistic wave equation alone, for an arbitrary gauge. In any harmonic gauge, the form of the tensor leads directly to the classical expression for the outgoing wave energy. The method described here, however, is a much simpler, shorter, and more physically motivated approach than is the customary procedure, which involves a lengthy and cumbersome second-order (in wave-amplitude) calculation starting with the Einstein tensor. Our method has the added advantage of exhibiting the direct coupling between the outgoing wave energy flux and the work done by the gravitational field on the sources. For nonharmonic gauges, the directly derived wave stress tensor has an apparent index asymmetry. This coordinate artifact may be straightforwardly removed, and the symmetrized (still gauge-invariant) tensor then takes on its widely used form. Angular momentum conservation follows immediately. For any harmonic gauge, however, the stress tensor found is manifestly symmetric from the start, and its derivation depends, in its entirety, on the structure of the linearized wave equation.

  1. Hamiltonian discontinuous Galerkin FEM for linear, rotating incompressible Euler equations: Inertial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nurijanyan, S.; Vegt, J.J.W. van der; Bokhove, O.

    2013-05-15

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM) has been developed and tested for the linear, three-dimensional, rotating incompressible Euler equations. These equations admit complicated wave solutions, which poses numerical challenges. These challenges concern: (i) discretisation of a divergence-free velocity field; (ii) discretisation of geostrophic boundary conditions combined with no-normal flow at solid walls; (iii) discretisation of the conserved, Hamiltonian dynamics of the inertial-waves; and, (iv) large-scale computational demands owing to the three-dimensional nature of inertial-wave dynamics and possibly its narrow zones of chaotic attraction. These issues have been resolved, for example: (i) by employing Dirac’s method of constrained Hamiltonian dynamics to our DGFEM for linear, compressible flows, thus enforcing the incompressibility constraints; (ii) by enforcing no-normal flow at solid walls in a weak form and geostrophic tangential flow along the wall; and, (iii) by applying a symplectic time discretisation. We compared our simulations with exact solutions of three-dimensional incompressible flows, in (non) rotating periodic and partly periodic cuboids (Poincaré waves). Additional verifications concerned semi-analytical eigenmode solutions in rotating cuboids with solid walls. Finally, a simulation in a tilted rotating tank, yielding more complicated wave dynamics, demonstrates the potential of our new method.

  2. Nonlinear (time domain) and linearized (time and frequency domain) solutions to the compressible Euler equations in conservation law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenivas, Kidambi; Whitfield, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Two linearized solvers (time and frequency domain) based on a high resolution numerical scheme are presented. The basic approach is to linearize the flux vector by expressing it as a sum of a mean and a perturbation. This allows the governing equations to be maintained in conservation law form. A key difference between the time and frequency domain computations is that the frequency domain computations require only one grid block irrespective of the interblade phase angle for which the flow is being computed. As a result of this and due to the fact that the governing equations for this case are steady, frequency domain computations are substantially faster than the corresponding time domain computations. The linearized equations are used to compute flows in turbomachinery blade rows (cascades) arising due to blade vibrations. Numerical solutions are compared to linear theory (where available) and to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Euler equations.

  3. A New Analytical Procedure for Solving the Non-Linear Differential Equation Arising in the Stretching Sheet Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddheshwar, P. G.; Mahabaleswar, U. S.; Andersson, H. I.

    2013-08-01

    The paper discusses a new analytical procedure for solving the non-linear boundary layer equation arising in a linear stretching sheet problem involving a Newtonian/non-Newtonian liquid. On using a technique akin to perturbation the problem gives rise to a system of non-linear governing differential equations that are solved exactly. An analytical expression is obtained for the stream function and velocity as a function of the stretching parameters. The Clairaut equation is obtained on consideration of consistency and its solution is shown to be that of the stretching sheet boundary layer equation. The present study throws light on the analytical solution of a class of boundary layer equations arising in the stretching sheet problem

  4. Wet Removal of Pollutants from Gaussian Plumes: Basic Linear Equations and Computational Approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, J. M.

    2002-09-01

    Over the past several years, a number of Gaussian plume-based computer codes have been produced. These codes describe transport, transformation, and deposition of air pollutants under a variety of atmospheric conditions. For a number of reasons, there is increasing interest in simulating wet-deposition processes in such codes, and several approaches have been applied to this end. Some of these approaches involve elaborate solubility and chemistry characterizations, but many of them resort to a diversity of approximate techniques. This paper presents a procedure that can be used as a practical guide to improve many of these formulations, especially for the case of pollutant gases. The approach takes the form of a set of analytical equations that correspond to five kinds of Gaussian plume formulations: standard bivariate-normal point-source plumes, line-source plumes, unrestricted instantaneous puffs, and point-source plumes and puffs that experience reflection from inversion layers aloft. These equations represent the concentration of scavenged pollutants in falling raindrops and are similar in complexity to their associated gas-phase plume equations. They are strictly linear, thus allowing superposition of wet-deposition contributions by multiple plumes.

  5. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.

    1996-06-05

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.

  6. General linear response formula for non integrable systems obeying the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patelli, Aurelio; Ruffo, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Long-range interacting N-particle systems get trapped into long-living out-of-equilibrium stationary states called quasi-stationary states (QSS). We study here the response to a small external perturbation when such systems are settled into a QSS. In the N → ∞ limit the system is described by the Vlasov equation and QSS are mapped into stable stationary solutions of such equation. We consider this problem in the context of a model that has recently attracted considerable attention, the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model. For such a model, stationary inhomogeneous and homogeneous states determine an integrable dynamics in the mean-field effective potential and an action-angle transformation allows one to derive an exact linear response formula. However, such a result would be of limited interest if restricted to the integrable case. In this paper, we show how to derive a general linear response formula which does not use integrability as a requirement. The presence of conservation laws (mass, energy, momentum, etc.) and of further Casimir invariants can be imposed a posteriori. We perform an analysis of the infinite time asymptotics of the response formula for a specific observable, the magnetization in the HMF model, as a result of the application of an external magnetic field, for two stationary stable distributions: the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium distribution and the Fermi-Dirac one. When compared with numerical simulations the predictions of the theory are very good away from the transition energy from inhomogeneous to homogeneous states. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  7. Algebraic Structure of Discrete Zero Curvature Equations and Master Symmetries of Discrete Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, based on a discrete spectral problem and the corresponding zero curvature representation, the isospectral and nonisospectral lattice hierarchies are proposed. An algebraic structure of discrete zero curvature equations is then established for such integrable systems. the commutation relations of Lax operators corresponding to the isospectral and non-isospectral lattice flows are worked out, the master symmetries of each lattice equation in the isospectral hierarchyand are generated, thus a τ-symmetry algebra for the lattice integrable systems is engendered from this theory. Supported by the National Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371244 and the Applied Mathematical Subject of SSPU under Grant No. XXKPY1604

  8. Genetic demixing and evolution in linear stepping stone models

    PubMed Central

    Korolev, K. S.; Avlund, Mikkel; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Results for mutation, selection, genetic drift, and migration in a one-dimensional continuous population are reviewed and extended. The population is described by a continuous limit of the stepping stone model, which leads to the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation with additional terms describing mutations. Although the stepping stone model was first proposed for population genetics, it is closely related to “voter models” of interest in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The stepping stone model can also be regarded as an approximation to the dynamics of a thin layer of actively growing pioneers at the frontier of a colony of micro-organisms undergoing a range expansion on a Petri dish. The population tends to segregate into monoallelic domains. This segregation slows down genetic drift and selection because these two evolutionary forces can only act at the boundaries between the domains; the effects of mutation, however, are not significantly affected by the segregation. Although fixation in the neutral well-mixed (or “zero-dimensional”) model occurs exponentially in time, it occurs only algebraically fast in the one-dimensional model. An unusual sublinear increase is also found in the variance of the spatially averaged allele frequency with time. If selection is weak, selective sweeps occur exponentially fast in both well-mixed and one-dimensional populations, but the time constants are different. The relatively unexplored problem of evolutionary dynamics at the edge of an expanding circular colony is studied as well. Also reviewed are how the observed patterns of genetic diversity can be used for statistical inference and the differences are highlighted between the well-mixed and one-dimensional models. Although the focus is on two alleles or variants, q-allele Potts-like models of gene segregation are considered as well. Most of the analytical results are checked with simulations and could be tested against recent spatial

  9. Genetic demixing and evolution in linear stepping stone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, K. S.; Avlund, Mikkel; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2010-04-01

    Results for mutation, selection, genetic drift, and migration in a one-dimensional continuous population are reviewed and extended. The population is described by a continuous limit of the stepping stone model, which leads to the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation with additional terms describing mutations. Although the stepping stone model was first proposed for population genetics, it is closely related to “voter models” of interest in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The stepping stone model can also be regarded as an approximation to the dynamics of a thin layer of actively growing pioneers at the frontier of a colony of micro-organisms undergoing a range expansion on a Petri dish. The population tends to segregate into monoallelic domains. This segregation slows down genetic drift and selection because these two evolutionary forces can only act at the boundaries between the domains; the effects of mutation, however, are not significantly affected by the segregation. Although fixation in the neutral well-mixed (or “zero-dimensional”) model occurs exponentially in time, it occurs only algebraically fast in the one-dimensional model. An unusual sublinear increase is also found in the variance of the spatially averaged allele frequency with time. If selection is weak, selective sweeps occur exponentially fast in both well-mixed and one-dimensional populations, but the time constants are different. The relatively unexplored problem of evolutionary dynamics at the edge of an expanding circular colony is studied as well. Also reviewed are how the observed patterns of genetic diversity can be used for statistical inference and the differences are highlighted between the well-mixed and one-dimensional models. Although the focus is on two alleles or variants, q -allele Potts-like models of gene segregation are considered as well. Most of the analytical results are checked with simulations and could be tested against recent spatial

  10. Modeling Individual Damped Linear Oscillator Processes with Differential Equations: Using Surrogate Data Analysis to Estimate the Smoothing Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.; Boker, Steven M.; Bergeman, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Among the many methods available for modeling intraindividual time series, differential equation modeling has several advantages that make it promising for applications to psychological data. One interesting differential equation model is that of the damped linear oscillator (DLO), which can be used to model variables that have a tendency to…

  11. A Bohmian approach to the non-Markovian non-linear Schrödinger–Langevin equation

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Andrés F.; Morales-Durán, Nicolás; Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a non-Markovian non-linear Schrödinger–Langevin equation is derived from the system-plus-bath approach. After analyzing in detail previous Markovian cases, Bohmian mechanics is shown to be a powerful tool for obtaining the desired generalized equation.

  12. Application of Exactly Linearized Error Transport Equations to AIAA CFD Prediction Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derlaga, Joseph M.; Park, Michael A.; Rallabhandi, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction workshops sponsored by the AIAA have created invaluable opportunities in which to discuss the predictive capabilities of CFD in areas in which it has struggled, e.g., cruise drag, high-lift, and sonic boom pre diction. While there are many factors that contribute to disagreement between simulated and experimental results, such as modeling or discretization error, quantifying the errors contained in a simulation is important for those who make decisions based on the computational results. The linearized error transport equations (ETE) combined with a truncation error estimate is a method to quantify one source of errors. The ETE are implemented with a complex-step method to provide an exact linearization with minimal source code modifications to CFD and multidisciplinary analysis methods. The equivalency of adjoint and linearized ETE functional error correction is demonstrated. Uniformly refined grids from a series of AIAA prediction workshops demonstrate the utility of ETE for multidisciplinary analysis with a connection between estimated discretization error and (resolved or under-resolved) flow features.

  13. Impact of quadratic non-linearity on the dynamics of periodic solutions of a wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2002-02-01

    For the non-linear telegraph equation with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neumann conditions at the end-points of a finite interval the question of the existence and the stability of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from the zero equilibrium state is considered. The dynamics of these solutions under a change of the diffusion coefficient (that is, the coefficient of the second derivative with respect to the space variable) is investigated. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions it is shown that this dynamics substantially depends on the presence - or the absence - of quadratic terms in the non-linearity. More precisely, it is shown that a quadratic non-linearity results in the occurrence, under an unbounded decrease of diffusion, of an infinite sequence of bifurcations of each periodic solution. En route, the related issue of the limits of applicability of Yu.S. Kolesov's method of quasinormal forms to the construction of self-oscillations in singularly perturbed hyperbolic boundary value problems is studied.

  14. Impact of quadratic non-linearity on the dynamics of periodic solutions of a wave equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2002-02-28

    For the non-linear telegraph equation with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neumann conditions at the end-points of a finite interval the question of the existence and the stability of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from the zero equilibrium state is considered. The dynamics of these solutions under a change of the diffusion coefficient (that is, the coefficient of the second derivative with respect to the space variable) is investigated. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions it is shown that this dynamics substantially depends on the presence - or the absence - of quadratic terms in the non-linearity. More precisely, it is shown that a quadratic non-linearity results in the occurrence, under an unbounded decrease of diffusion, of an infinite sequence of bifurcations of each periodic solution. En route, the related issue of the limits of applicability of Yu.S. Kolesov's method of quasinormal forms to the construction of self-oscillations in singularly perturbed hyperbolic boundary value problems is studied.

  15. Finitely approximable random sets and their evolution via differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyev, B. I.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, random closed sets (RCS) in Euclidean space are considered along with their distributions and approximation. Distributions of RCS may be used for the calculation of expectation and other characteristics. Reachable sets on initial data and some ways of their approximate evolutionary description are investigated for stochastic differential equations (SDE) with initial state in some RCS. Markov property of random reachable sets is proved in the space of closed sets. For approximate calculus, the initial RCS is replaced by a finite set on the integer multidimensional grid and the multistage Markov chain is substituted for SDE. The Markov chain is constructed by methods of SDE numerical integration. Some examples are also given.

  16. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  17. A numerical technique for linear elliptic partial differential equations in polygonal domains

    PubMed Central

    Hashemzadeh, P.; Fokas, A. S.; Smitheman, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Integral representations for the solution of linear elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) can be obtained using Green's theorem. However, these representations involve both the Dirichlet and the Neumann values on the boundary, and for a well-posed boundary-value problem (BVPs) one of these functions is unknown. A new transform method for solving BVPs for linear and integrable nonlinear PDEs usually referred to as the unified transform (or the Fokas transform) was introduced by the second author in the late Nineties. For linear elliptic PDEs, this method can be considered as the analogue of Green's function approach but now it is formulated in the complex Fourier plane instead of the physical plane. It employs two global relations also formulated in the Fourier plane which couple the Dirichlet and the Neumann boundary values. These relations can be used to characterize the unknown boundary values in terms of the given boundary data, yielding an elegant approach for determining the Dirichlet to Neumann map. The numerical implementation of the unified transform can be considered as the counterpart in the Fourier plane of the well-known boundary integral method which is formulated in the physical plane. For this implementation, one must choose (i) a suitable basis for expanding the unknown functions and (ii) an appropriate set of complex values, which we refer to as collocation points, at which to evaluate the global relations. Here, by employing a variety of examples we present simple guidelines of how the above choices can be made. Furthermore, we provide concrete rules for choosing the collocation points so that the condition number of the matrix of the associated linear system remains low. PMID:25792955

  18. A numerical technique for linear elliptic partial differential equations in polygonal domains.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh, P; Fokas, A S; Smitheman, S A

    2015-03-08

    Integral representations for the solution of linear elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) can be obtained using Green's theorem. However, these representations involve both the Dirichlet and the Neumann values on the boundary, and for a well-posed boundary-value problem (BVPs) one of these functions is unknown. A new transform method for solving BVPs for linear and integrable nonlinear PDEs usually referred to as the unified transform (or the Fokas transform) was introduced by the second author in the late Nineties. For linear elliptic PDEs, this method can be considered as the analogue of Green's function approach but now it is formulated in the complex Fourier plane instead of the physical plane. It employs two global relations also formulated in the Fourier plane which couple the Dirichlet and the Neumann boundary values. These relations can be used to characterize the unknown boundary values in terms of the given boundary data, yielding an elegant approach for determining the Dirichlet to Neumann map. The numerical implementation of the unified transform can be considered as the counterpart in the Fourier plane of the well-known boundary integral method which is formulated in the physical plane. For this implementation, one must choose (i) a suitable basis for expanding the unknown functions and (ii) an appropriate set of complex values, which we refer to as collocation points, at which to evaluate the global relations. Here, by employing a variety of examples we present simple guidelines of how the above choices can be made. Furthermore, we provide concrete rules for choosing the collocation points so that the condition number of the matrix of the associated linear system remains low.

  19. Orthonormal quaternion frames, Lagrangian evolution equations, and the three-dimensional Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbon, John

    2007-06-01

    More than 160 years after their invention by Hamilton, quaternions are now widely used in the aerospace and computer animation industries to track the orientation and paths of moving objects undergoing three-axis rotations. Here it is shown that they provide a natural way of selecting an appropriate orthonormal frame—designated the quaternion-frame—for a particle in a Lagrangian flow, and of obtaining the equations for its dynamics. How these ideas can be applied to the three-dimensional Euler fluid equations is then considered. This work has some bearing on the issue of whether the Euler equations develop a singularity in a finite time. Some of the literature on this topic is reviewed, which includes both the Beale-Kato-Majda theorem and associated work on the direction of vorticity by Constantin, Fefferman, and Majda and by Deng, Hou, and Yu. It is then shown how the quaternion formalism provides an alternative formulation in terms of the Hessian of the pressure.

  20. Subleading-N corrections in non-linear small-x evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Kuokkanen, Janne; Rummukainen, Kari; Weigert, Heribert

    2009-05-01

    We explore the subleading- N corrections to the large- N Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) evolution equation by comparing its solution to that of the all- N Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK) equation. In earlier simulations it was observed that the difference between the solutions of JIMWLK and BK is unusually small for a quark dipole scattering amplitude, of the order of 0.1%, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the naively expected 1/Nc2≈11%. In this paper we argue that this smallness is not accidental. We provide analytical arguments showing that saturation effects and correlator coincidence limits fixed by group theory constraints conspire with the particular structure of the dipole kernel to suppress subleading- N corrections reducing the difference between the solutions of JIMWLK and BK to 0.1%. We solve the JIMWLK equation with improved numerical accuracy and verify that the remaining 1/N corrections, while small, still manage to slow down the rapidity-dependence of JIMWLK evolution compared to that of BK. We demonstrate that a truncation of JIMWLK evolution in the form of a minimal Gaussian generalization of the BK equation captures some of the remaining 1/N contributions leading to an even better agreement with JIMWLK evolution. As the 1/N corrections to BK include multi-reggeon exchanges one may conclude that the net effect of multi-reggeon exchanges on the dipole amplitude is rather small.

  1. Toward a gauge theory for evolution equations on vector-valued spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cardanobile, Stefano; Mugnolo, Delio

    2009-10-15

    We investigate symmetry properties of vector-valued diffusion and Schroedinger equations. For a separable Hilbert space H we characterize the subspaces of L{sup 2}(R{sup 3};H) that are local (i.e., defined pointwise) and discuss the issue of their invariance under the time evolution of the differential equation. In this context, the possibility of a connection between our results and the theory of gauge symmetries in mathematical physics is explored.

  2. Wavy film flows down an inclined plane: perturbation theory and general evolution equation for the film thickness.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, A L; Indireshkumar, K

    1999-10-01

    Wavy film flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane is considered. The question is posed as to the parametric conditions under which the description of evolution can be approximately reduced for all time to a single evolution equation for the film thickness. An unconventional perturbation approach yields the most general evolution equation and least restrictive conditions on its validity. The advantages of this equation for analytical and numerical studies of three-dimensional waves in inclined films are pointed out.

  3. Application of the Cramer rule in the solution of sparse systems of linear algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, R. C.; Al-Kurdi, Ahmad

    2001-11-01

    In this work, the solution of a sparse system of linear algebraic equations is obtained by using the Cramer rule. The determinants are computed with the help of the numerical structure approach defined in Suchkov (Graphs of Gearing Machines, Leningrad, Quebec, 1983) in which only the non-zero elements are used. Cramer rule produces the solution directly without creating fill-in problem encountered in other direct methods. Moreover, the solution can be expressed exactly if all the entries, including the right-hand side, are integers and if all products do not exceed the size of the largest integer that can be represented in the arithmetic of the computer used. The usefulness of Suchkov numerical structure approach is shown by applying on seven examples. Obtained results are also compared with digraph approach described in Mittal and Kurdi (J. Comput. Math., to appear). It is shown that the performance of the numerical structure approach is better than that of digraph approach.

  4. On Weak Solutions to the Linear Boltzmann Equation with Inelastic Coulomb Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, Rolf

    2011-05-20

    This paper considers the time- and space-dependent linear Boltzmann equation with general boundary conditions in the case of inelastic (granular) collisions. First, in the (angular) cut-off case, mild L{sup 1}-solutions are constructed as limits of the iterate functions and boundedness of higher velocity moments are discussed in the case of inverse power collisions forces. Then the problem of the weak solutions, as weak limit of a sequence of mild solutions, is studied for a bounded body, in the case of very soft interactions (including the Coulomb case). Furthermore, strong convergence of weak solutions to the equilibrium, when time goes to infinity, is discussed, using a generalized H-theorem, together with a translation continuity property.

  5. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  6. Growth of Sobolev Norms in Linear Schrödinger Equations with Quasi-Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.

    In this paper, we consider the following problem. Let iut+Δu+V(x,t)u= 0 be a linear Schrödinger equation ( periodic boundary conditions) where V is a real, bounded, real analytic potential which is periodic in x and quasi periodic in t with diophantine frequency vector λ. Denote S(t) the corresponding flow map. Thus S(t) preserves the L2-norm and our aim is to study its behaviour on Hs(TD), s> 0. Our main result is the growth in time is at most logarithmic; thus if φ∈Hs, then More precisely, (*) is proven in 1D and 2D when V is small. We also exhibit examples showing that a growth of higher Sobolev norms may occur in this context and (*) is thus essentially best possible.

  7. Scalar field-perfect fluid correspondence and non-linear perturbation equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mainini, Roberto

    2008-07-15

    The properties of dynamical dark energy (DE) and, in particular, the possibility that it can form or contribute to stable inhomogeneities have been widely debated in recent literature, and also in association with a possible coupling between DE and dark matter (DM). In order to clarify this issue, in this paper we present a general framework for the study of the non-linear phases of structure formation, showing the equivalence of two possible descriptions of DE: a scalar field {phi} self-interacting through a potential V ({phi}) and a perfect fluid with an assigned negative equation of state w(a). This enables us to show that, in the presence of coupling, the mass of DE quanta may increase where large DM condensations are present, with the result that also DE may be involved in the clustering process.

  8. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  9. Solving the Linear Balance Equation on the Globe as a Generalized Inverse Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Huei-Iin; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1999-01-01

    A generalized (pseudo) inverse technique was developed to facilitate a better understanding of the numerical effects of tropical singularities inherent in the spectral linear balance equation (LBE). Depending upon the truncation, various levels of determinancy are manifest. The traditional fully-determined (FD) systems give rise to a strong response, while the under-determined (UD) systems yield a weak response to the tropical singularities. The over-determined (OD) systems result in a modest response and a large residual in the tropics. The FD and OD systems can be alternatively solved by the iterative method. Differences in the solutions of an UD system exist between the inverse technique and the iterative method owing to the non- uniqueness of the problem. A realistic balanced wind was obtained by solving the principal components of the spectral LBE in terms of vorticity in an intermediate resolution. Improved solutions were achieved by including the singular-component solutions which best fit the observed wind data.

  10. Simplified approach for calculating moments of action for linear reaction-diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Adam J; Simpson, Matthew J; McCue, Scott W; Baker, Ruth E

    2013-11-01

    The mean action time is the mean of a probability density function that can be interpreted as a critical time, which is a finite estimate of the time taken for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to effectively reach steady state. For high-variance distributions, the mean action time underapproximates the critical time since it neglects to account for the spread about the mean. We can improve our estimate of the critical time by calculating the higher moments of the probability density function, called the moments of action, which provide additional information regarding the spread about the mean. Existing methods for calculating the nth moment of action require the solution of n nonhomogeneous boundary value problems which can be difficult and tedious to solve exactly. Here we present a simplified approach using Laplace transforms which allows us to calculate the nth moment of action without solving this family of boundary value problems and also without solving for the transient solution of the underlying reaction-diffusion problem. We demonstrate the generality of our method by calculating exact expressions for the moments of action for three problems from the biophysics literature. While the first problem we consider can be solved using existing methods, the second problem, which is readily solved using our approach, is intractable using previous techniques. The third problem illustrates how the Laplace transform approach can be used to study coupled linear reaction-diffusion equations.

  11. A constrained regularization method for inverting data represented by linear algebraic or integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencher, Stephen W.

    1982-09-01

    CONTIN is a portable Fortran IV package for inverting noisy linear operator equations. These problems occur in the analysis of data from a wide variety experiments. They are generally ill-posed problems, which means that errors in an unregularized inversion are unbounded. Instead, CONTIN seeks the optimal solution by incorporating parsimony and any statistical prior knowledge into the regularizor and absolute prior knowledge into equallity and inequality constraints. This can be greatly increase the resolution and accuracyh of the solution. CONTIN is very flexible, consisting of a core of about 50 subprograms plus 13 small "USER" subprograms, which the user can easily modify to specify special-purpose constraints, regularizors, operator equations, simulations, statistical weighting, etc. Specjial collections of USER subprograms are available for photon correlation spectroscopy, multicomponent spectra, and Fourier-Bessel, Fourier and Laplace transforms. Numerically stable algorithms are used throughout CONTIN. A fairly precise definition of information content in terms of degrees of freedom is given. The regularization parameter can be automatically chosen on the basis of an F-test and confidence region. The interpretation of the latter and of error estimates based on the covariance matrix of the constrained regularized solution are discussed. The strategies, methods and options in CONTIN are outlined. The program itself is described in the following paper.

  12. Iterative methods for the solution of very large complex symmetric linear systems of equations in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, M.; Weiland, T.

    1996-12-31

    In the field of computational electrodynamics the discretization of Maxwell`s equations using the Finite Integration Theory (FIT) yields very large, sparse, complex symmetric linear systems of equations. For this class of complex non-Hermitian systems a number of conjugate gradient-type algorithms is considered. The complex version of the biconjugate gradient (BiCG) method by Jacobs can be extended to a whole class of methods for complex-symmetric algorithms SCBiCG(T, n), which only require one matrix vector multiplication per iteration step. In this class the well-known conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient (COCG) method for complex-symmetric systems corresponds to the case n = 0. The case n = 1 yields the BiCGCR method which corresponds to the conjugate residual algorithm for the real-valued case. These methods in combination with a minimal residual smoothing process are applied separately to practical 3D electro-quasistatical and eddy-current problems in electrodynamics. The practical performance of the SCBiCG methods is compared with other methods such as QMR and TFQMR.

  13. Parallel solver for the time-dependent linear and nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barry I; Collins, Lee A; Hu, S X

    2006-03-01

    A solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is required in a variety of problems in physics and chemistry. These include atoms and molecules in time-dependent electromagnetic fields, time-dependent approaches to atomic collision problems, and describing the behavior of materials subjected to internal and external forces. We describe an approach in which the finite-element discrete variable representation (FEDVR) is combined with the real-space product (RSP) algorithm to generate an efficient and highly accurate method for the solution of the time-dependent linear and nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The FEDVR provides a highly accurate spatial representation using a minimum number of grid points while the RSP algorithm propagates the wave function in operations per time step. Parallelization of the method is transparent and is implemented here by distributing one or two spatial dimensions across the available processors, within the message-passing-interface scheme. The complete formalism and a number of three-dimensional examples are given; its high accuracy and efficacy are illustrated by a comparison with the usual finite-difference method.

  14. Fast linear solver for radiative transport equation with multiple right hand sides in diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jingfei

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that radiative transfer equation (RTE) provides more accurate tomographic results than its diffusion approximation (DA). However, RTE-based tomographic reconstruction codes have limited applicability in practice due to their high computational cost. In this article, we propose a new efficient method for solving the RTE forward problem with multiple light sources in an all-at-once manner instead of solving it for each source separately. To this end, we introduce here a novel linear solver called block biconjugate gradient stabilized method (block BiCGStab) that makes full use of the shared information between different right hand sides to accelerate solution convergence. Two parallelized block BiCGStab methods are proposed for additional acceleration under limited threads situation. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm with numerical simulation studies involving the Delta-Eddington approximation to the scattering phase function. The results show that the single threading block RTE solver proposed here reduces computation time by a factor of 1.5~3 as compared to the traditional sequential solution method and the parallel block solver by a factor of 1.5 as compared to the traditional parallel sequential method. This block linear solver is, moreover, independent of discretization schemes and preconditioners used; thus further acceleration and higher accuracy can be expected when combined with other existing discretization schemes or preconditioners. PMID:26345531

  15. Fast linear solver for radiative transport equation with multiple right hand sides in diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that radiative transfer equation (RTE) provides more accurate tomographic results than its diffusion approximation (DA). However, RTE-based tomographic reconstruction codes have limited applicability in practice due to their high computational cost. In this article, we propose a new efficient method for solving the RTE forward problem with multiple light sources in an all-at-once manner instead of solving it for each source separately. To this end, we introduce here a novel linear solver called block biconjugate gradient stabilized method (block BiCGStab) that makes full use of the shared information between different right hand sides to accelerate solution convergence. Two parallelized block BiCGStab methods are proposed for additional acceleration under limited threads situation. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm with numerical simulation studies involving the Delta-Eddington approximation to the scattering phase function. The results show that the single threading block RTE solver proposed here reduces computation time by a factor of 1.5~3 as compared to the traditional sequential solution method and the parallel block solver by a factor of 1.5 as compared to the traditional parallel sequential method. This block linear solver is, moreover, independent of discretization schemes and preconditioners used; thus further acceleration and higher accuracy can be expected when combined with other existing discretization schemes or preconditioners.

  16. Schroedinger Equation for Joint Bidirectional Evolution in Time

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, G. E.

    2006-10-16

    A straightforward extension of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory is proposed that can describe physical systems comprising two interacting subsystems: one subsystem evolves forward in time, the other, backward. The space of quantum states is the direct sum of the states representing the respective subsystems, whereupon there are two linearly independent vacuum states, one each for the forward and the backward subspace. An indefinite metric is imposed on the space of quantum states such that purely forward (respectively, purely backward) states have positive (respectively, negative) norms. Hamiltonians are self-adjoint operators with respect to the metric, such that interactions/transitions between the subspaces can be accounted for. Given suitable definitions of input and of output states at the two ends of a time interval, input and output states separately have positive norms such that probability is conserved, and hence S-matrices are unitary. A discussion of the physics entailed in the proposed formalism is undertaken. Then as an application, a simple model of a relativistic quantum field theory is proposed. In this model, the expected vacuum energy (thought to be associated with the cosmological constant) almost vanishes uniformly for times in an interval due to cancellation of the energies of the forward and backward vacuum states; this cancellation holds whatever be the input vacuum state at the ends of the time interval. A model is advanced wherein magnetic monopoles live exclusively in backward-evolving states, and interact with forward-evolving electric charges in a certain way. Proposals for further research, particularly concerning the possible detection of advanced gravitational waves, and a conjecture on the physics of dark matter and dark energy, conclude the report.

  17. The evolution of galaxies in the mirror of the coagulation equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontorovich, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Smoluchowski equation and its generalizations, describing the merger of the particles, allow us to understand the main stages of the formation of galaxy mass functions, established as a result of mergers, and their evolution and thus provides an explanation for the results of long-term observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based telescopes.

  18. Evaluation of out-of-core computer programs for the solution of symmetric banded linear equations. [simultaneous equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    FORTRAN coded out-of-core equation solvers that solve using direct methods symmetric banded systems of simultaneous algebraic equations. Banded, frontal and column (skyline) solvers were studied as well as solvers that can partition the working area and thus could fit into any available core. Comparison timings are presented for several typical two dimensional and three dimensional continuum type grids of elements with and without midside nodes. Extensive conclusions are also given.

  19. Evolution Equation for a Joint Tomographic Probability Distribution of Spin-1 Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    The nine-component positive vector optical tomographic probability portrait of quantum state of spin-1 particles containing full spatial and spin information about the state without redundancy is constructed. Also the suggested approach is expanded to symplectic tomography representation and to representations with quasidistributions like Wigner function, Husimi Q-function, and Glauber-Sudarshan P-function. The evolution equations for constructed vector optical and symplectic tomograms and vector quasidistributions for arbitrary Hamiltonian are found. The evolution equations are also obtained in special case of the quantum system of charged spin-1 particle in arbitrary electro-magnetic field, which are analogs of non-relativistic Proca equation in appropriate representations. The generalization of proposed approach to the cases of arbitrary spin is discussed. The possibility of formulation of quantum mechanics of the systems with spins in terms of joint probability distributions without the use of wave functions or density matrices is explicitly demonstrated.

  20. A novel coupled system of non-local integro-differential equations modelling Young's modulus evolution, nutrients' supply and consumption during bone fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanfei; Lekszycki, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    During fracture healing, a series of complex coupled biological and mechanical phenomena occurs. They include: (i) growth and remodelling of bone, whose Young's modulus varies in space and time; (ii) nutrients' diffusion and consumption by living cells. In this paper, we newly propose to model these evolution phenomena. The considered features include: (i) a new constitutive equation for growth simulation involving the number of sensor cells; (ii) an improved equation for nutrient concentration accounting for the switch between Michaelis-Menten kinetics and linear consumption regime; (iii) a new constitutive equation for Young's modulus evolution accounting for its dependence on nutrient concentration and variable number of active cells. The effectiveness of the model and its predictive capability are qualitatively verified by numerical simulations (using COMSOL) describing the healing of bone in the presence of damaged tissue between fractured parts.

  1. Non-linear evolution of a second mode wave in supersonic boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear time evolution of a second mode instability in a Mach 4.5 wall-bounded flow is computed by solving the full compressible, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. High accuracy is achieved by using a Fourier-Chebyshev collocation algorithm. Primarily inviscid in nature, second modes are characterized by high frequency and high growth rates compared to first modes. Time evolution of growth rate as a function of distance from the plate suggests this problem is amenable to the Stuart-Watson perturbation theory as generalized by Herbert.

  2. Subspace orthogonalization for substructuring preconditioners for nonsymmetric systems of linear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, G.

    1994-12-31

    For nonselfadjoint elliptic boundary value problems which are preconditioned by a substructuring method, i.e., nonoverlapping domain decomposition, the author introduces and studies the concept of subspace orthogonalization. In subspace orthogonalization variants of Krylov methods the computation of inner products and vector updates, and the storage of basis elements is restricted to a (presumably small) subspace, in this case the edge and vertex unknowns with respect to the partitioning into subdomains. The author investigates subspace orthogonalization for two specific iterative algorithms, GMRES and the full orthogonalization method (FOM). This is intended to eliminate certain drawbacks of the Arnoldi-based Krylov subspace methods mentioned above. Above all, the length of the Arnoldi recurrences grows linearly with the iteration index which is therefore restricted to the number of basis elements that can be held in memory. Restarts become necessary and this often results in much slower convergence. The subspace orthogonalization methods, in contrast, require the storage of only the edge and vertex unknowns of each basis element which means that one can iterate much longer before restarts become necessary. Moreover, the computation of inner products is also restricted to the edge and vertex points which avoids the disturbance of the computational flow associated with the solution of subdomain problems. The author views subspace orthogonalization as an alternative to restarting or truncating Krylov subspace methods for nonsymmetric linear systems of equations. Instead of shortening the recurrences, one restricts them to a subset of the unknowns which has to be carefully chosen in order to be able to extend this partial solution to the entire space. The author discusses the convergence properties of these iteration schemes and its advantages compared to restarted or truncated versions of Krylov methods applied to the full preconditioned system.

  3. SU-E-T-270: Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration for Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G; Hong, X; Gao, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) is as accurate as the Monte Carlo method (MC) for dose calculation in photon/particle therapy (LBTE is a deterministic and Eulerian formulation and MC is a statistical and Lagrangian description). An advantage of LBTE is that numerous acceleration techniques can be utilized for acceleration. This work is to explore the acceleration of LBTE via diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA). Methods: For simplicity, two-dimensional, steady-state, and within-group LBTE is considered with two angular dimensions and two spatial dimensions. The discrete ordinate method is developed for solving this integro-differential equation. The angular variables are discretized using a level-symmetric quadrature set on the unit sphere. The spatial variables are discretized on the structured grid based on the diamond scheme. The source-iteration method (SI) is used to solve the discretized system.Since SI is slow in optically thick and highly scattering regime. DSA is developed to accelerate SI. The motivation for DSA is that diffusion equation (DE) is a good approximation of LBTE in the above regime. However, DE is much cheaper than LBTE computationally since DE only involves spatial variables. Thus, in each DSA iteration, DSA adds to the SI step a computationally-negligible DE step, i.e., to first solve DE with the SI residual as source term, and then compensate the SI solution with DE solution. Results: DSA was benchmarked and compared with SI. The difference between two methods was within 0.12% which verifies the accuracy of DSA, while DSA demonstrated the great advantage in speed, e.g., the reduction of iteration number to 6% and 4% respectively for cases with 100 and 1,000 scattering-absorption ratio that commonly occur in clinical dose calculation. Conclusion: DSA has been developed as one of many possible means for accelerating the numerical solver of LBTE for dose calculation. The authors were partially supported by the NSFC

  4. On Dirac equations for linear magnetoacoustic waves propagating in an isothermal atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alicki, R.; Musielak, E. Z.; Sikorski, J.; Makowiec, D.

    1994-01-01

    A new analytical approach to study linear magnetoacoustic waves propagating in an isothermal, stratified, and uniformly magnetized atmosphere is presented. The approach is based on Dirac equations, and the theory of Sturm-Liouville operators is used to investigate spectral properties of the obtained Dirac Hamiltonians. Two cases are considered: (1) the background magnetic field is vertical, and the waves are separated into purely magnetic (transverse) and purely acoustic (longitudinal) modes; and (2) the field is tilted with respect to the vertical direction and the magnetic and acoustic modes become coupled giving magnetoacoustic waves. For the first case, the Dirac Hamiltonian possesses either a discrete spectrum, which corresponds to standing magnetic waves, or a continuous spectrum, which can be clearly identified with freely propagating acoustic waves. For the second case, the quantum mechanical perturbation calculus is used to study coupling and energy exchange between the magnetic and acoustic components of magnetoacoustic waves. It is shown that this coupling may efficiently prevent trapping of magnetoacoustic waves instellar atmospheres.

  5. Implicit schemes with large time step for non-linear equations: application to river flow hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, J.; García-Navarro, P.

    2004-10-01

    In this work, first-order upwind implicit schemes are considered. The traditional tridiagonal scheme is rewritten as a sum of two bidiagonal schemes in order to produce a simpler method better suited for unsteady transcritical flows. On the other hand, the origin of the instabilities associated to the use of upwind implicit methods for shock propagations is identified and a new stability condition for non-linear problems is proposed. This modification produces a robust, simple and accurate upwind semi-explicit scheme suitable for discontinuous flows with high Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) numbers.The discretization at the boundaries is based on the condition of global mass conservation thus enabling a fully conservative solution for all kind of boundary conditions.The performance of the proposed technique will be shown in the solution of the inviscid Burgers' equation, in an ideal dambreak test case, in some steady open channel flow test cases with analytical solution and in a realistic flood routing problem, where stable and accurate solutions will be presented using CFL values up to 100.

  6. Local polynomial chaos expansion for linear differential equations with high dimensional random inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Jakeman, John; Gittelson, Claude; Xiu, Dongbin

    2015-01-08

    In this paper we present a localized polynomial chaos expansion for partial differential equations (PDE) with random inputs. In particular, we focus on time independent linear stochastic problems with high dimensional random inputs, where the traditional polynomial chaos methods, and most of the existing methods, incur prohibitively high simulation cost. Furthermore, the local polynomial chaos method employs a domain decomposition technique to approximate the stochastic solution locally. In each subdomain, a subdomain problem is solved independently and, more importantly, in a much lower dimensional random space. In a postprocesing stage, accurate samples of the original stochastic problems are obtained from the samples of the local solutions by enforcing the correct stochastic structure of the random inputs and the coupling conditions at the interfaces of the subdomains. Overall, the method is able to solve stochastic PDEs in very large dimensions by solving a collection of low dimensional local problems and can be highly efficient. In our paper we present the general mathematical framework of the methodology and use numerical examples to demonstrate the properties of the method.

  7. Modeling the Philippines' real gross domestic product: A normal estimation equation for multiple linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Tampis, Razzcelle L.; Mercado, Joseph; Baygan, Aaron Vito M.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to formulate a mathematical model for the Philippines' Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP). The following factors are considered: Consumers' Spending (x1), Government's Spending (x2), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4) as the Independent Variables that can actually influence in the Real GDP in the Philippines (y). The researchers used a Normal Estimation Equation using Matrices to create the model for Real GDP and used α = 0.01.The researchers analyzed quarterly data from 1990 to 2013. The data were acquired from the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) resulting to a total of 96 observations for each variable. The data have undergone a logarithmic transformation particularly the Dependent Variable (y) to satisfy all the assumptions of the Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. The mathematical model for Real GDP was formulated using Matrices through MATLAB. Based on the results, only three of the Independent Variables are significant to the Dependent Variable namely: Consumers' Spending (x1), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4), hence, can actually predict Real GDP (y). The regression analysis displays that 98.7% (coefficient of determination) of the Independent Variables can actually predict the Dependent Variable. With 97.6% of the result in Paired T-Test, the Predicted Values obtained from the model showed no significant difference from the Actual Values of Real GDP. This research will be essential in appraising the forthcoming changes to aid the Government in implementing policies for the development of the economy.

  8. Multi-source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using simultaneous linear equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinaite, Irina; Semenov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    A new approach to identify multiple sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the source contributions to atmospheric deposition of particulate PAHs is proposed. The approach is based on differences in concentrations of sums of PAHs with the same molecular weight among the sources. The data on PAHs accumulation in snow as well as the source profiles were used for calculations. Contributions of aluminum production plant, oil-fired central heating boilers, and residential wood and coal combustion were calculated using the linear mixing models. The concentrations of PAH pairs such as Benzo[b]fluorantene + Benzo[k]fluorantene and Benzo[g,h,i]perylene + Indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene normalized to Benzo[a]antracene + Chrysene were used as tracers in mixing equations. The results obtained using ratios of sums of PAHs were compared with those obtained using molecular diagnostic ratios such as Benzo[a]antracene/Chrysene and Benzo[g,h,i]perylene/Indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. It was shown that the results obtained using diagnostic ratios as tracers are less reliable than results obtained using ratios of sums of PAHs. Funding was provided by Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences grant No. 8 (2012-2014).

  9. Evaluating a linearized Euler equations model for strong turbulence effects on sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Loïc; Cheinet, Sylvain; Juvé, Daniel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Sound propagation outdoors is strongly affected by atmospheric turbulence. Under strongly perturbed conditions or long propagation paths, the sound fluctuations reach their asymptotic behavior, e.g., the intensity variance progressively saturates. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical propagation model based on the finite-difference time-domain solving of the linearized Euler equations in quantitatively reproducing the wave statistics under strong and saturated intensity fluctuations. It is the continuation of a previous study where weak intensity fluctuations were considered. The numerical propagation model is presented and tested with two-dimensional harmonic sound propagation over long paths and strong atmospheric perturbations. The results are compared to quantitative theoretical or numerical predictions available on the wave statistics, including the log-amplitude variance and the probability density functions of the complex acoustic pressure. The match is excellent for the evaluated source frequencies and all sound fluctuations strengths. Hence, this model captures these many aspects of strong atmospheric turbulence effects on sound propagation. Finally, the model results for the intensity probability density function are compared with a standard fit by a generalized gamma function.

  10. Analysis of transcription-factor binding-site evolution by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man

    2016-12-01

    We investigate a quasi-species mutation-selection model of transcription-factor binding-site evolution. By considering the mesa and the crater fitness landscapes designed to describe these binding sites and point mutations, we derive an evolution equation for the population distribution of binding sequences. In the long-length limit, the evolution equation is replaced by a Hamilton-Jacobi equation which we solve for the stationary state solution. From the stationary solution, we derive the population distributions and find that an error threshold, separating populations in which the binding site does or does not evolve, only exists for certain values of the fitness parameters. A phase diagram in this parameter space is derived and shows a critical line below which no error threshold exists. We also investigate the evolution of multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor. For two binding sites, we perform an analysis similar to that for a single site and determine a phase diagram showing different phases with both, one, or no binding sites selected. In the phase diagram, the phase boundary between the one-or-two selected site phases is qualitatively different for the mesa and the crater fitness landscapes. As fitness benefits for a second bound transcription factor tend to zero, the minimum mutation rate at which the two-site phase occurs diverges in the mesa landscape whereas the mutation rate at the phase boundary tends to a finite value for the crater landscape.

  11. Completeness of Derivatives of Squared Schroedinger Eigenfunctions and Explicit Solutions of the Linearized KdV Equation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Contract No. DAAG29- 10-(’-w4l and by an A.M.S. Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. I SIGNIFICANCE AND EXPLANATION The Korteweg - deVries equation (KdV for...decomposition of the solution resembling the use of Fourier transforms in solving constant coefficient equations . For the linearization about the zero...1.3) to eliminate (f 2)I(x,k), it is more convenient not to do so.) We prove the theorem by solving the equation - 4Q’ - 2Q’ + 4k 2 ’ for ’ and

  12. The linear theory of functional differential equations: existence theorems and the problem of pointwise completeness of the solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Beklaryan, Leva A

    2011-03-31

    A boundary value problem and an initial-boundary value problems are considered for a linear functional differential equation of point type. A suitable scale of functional spaces is introduced and existence theorems for solutions are stated in terms of this scale, in a form analogous to Noether's theorem. A key fact is established for the initial boundary value problem: the space of classical solutions of the adjoint equation must be extended to include impulsive solutions. A test for the pointwise completeness of solutions is obtained. The results presented are based on a formalism developed by the author for this type of equation. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  13. Invariant and partially invariant solutions of integro-differential equations for linear thermoviscoelastic aging materials with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Long-Qiao; Meleshko, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    A linear thermoviscoelastic model for homogeneous, aging materials with memory is established. A system of integro-differential equations is obtained by using two motions (a one-dimensional motion and a shearing motion) for this model. Applying the group analysis method to the system of integro-differential equations, the admitted Lie group is determined. Using this admitted Lie group, invariant and partially invariant solutions are found. The present paper gives a first example of application of partially invariant solutions to integro-differential equations.

  14. A Hybrid Particle Swarm with Differential Evolution Operator Approach (DEPSO) for Linear Array Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam

    In recent years particle swarm optimization emerges as one of the most efficient global optimization tools. In this paper, a hybrid particle swarm with differential evolution operator, termed DEPSO, is applied for the synthesis of linear array geometry. Here, the minimum side lobe level and null control, both are obtained by optimizing the spacing between the array elements by this technique. Moreover, a statistical comparison is also provided to establish its performance against the results obtained by Genetic Algorithm (GA), classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA), Differential Evolution (DE) and Memetic Algorithm (MA).

  15. Localized wave and vortical solutions to linear hyperbolic systems and their application to linear shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Shafarevich, A. I.; Tirozzi, B.

    2008-06-01

    The result of this paper is that any fast-decaying function can be represented as an integral over the canonical Maslov operator, on a special Lagrangian manifold, acting on a specific function. This representation enables one to construct effective explicit formulas for asymptotic solutions of a vast class of linear hyperbolic systems with variable coefficients.

  16. A well-posed Cauchy problem for an evolution equation with coefficients of low regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicognani, Massimo; Colombini, Ferruccio

    In the hyperbolic Cauchy problem, the well-posedness in Sobolev spaces is strictly related to the modulus of continuity of the coefficients. This holds true for p-evolution equations with real characteristics (p=1 hyperbolic equations, p=2 vibrating plate and Schrödinger type models, …). We show that, for p⩾2, a lack of regularity in t can be balanced by a damping of the too fast oscillations as the space variable x→∞. This cannot happen in the hyperbolic case p=1 because of the finite speed of propagation.

  17. Non-linear evolution of the diocotron instability in a pulsar electrosphere: two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, J.

    2009-08-01

    Context: The physics of the pulsar magnetosphere near the neutron star surface remains poorly constrained by observations. Indeed, little is known about its emission mechanism, from radio to high-energy X-ray and gamma-rays. Nevertheless, it is believed that large vacuum gaps exist in this magnetosphere, and a non-neutral plasma partially fills the neutron star surroundings to form an electrosphere in differential rotation. Aims: According to several of our previous works, the equatorial disk in this electrosphere is diocotron and magnetron unstable, at least in the linear regime. To better assess the long term evolution of these instabilities, we study the behavior of the non-neutral plasma using particle simulations. Methods: We designed a two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) code in cylindrical coordinates, solving Poisson equation for the electric potential. In the diocotron regime, the equation of motion for particles obeys the electric drift approximation. As in the linear study, the plasma is confined between two conducting walls. Moreover, in order to simulate a pair cascade in the gaps, we add a source term feeding the plasma with charged particles having the same sign as those already present in the electrosphere. Results: First we checked our code by looking for the linear development of the diocotron instability in the same regime as the one used in our previous work, for a plasma annulus and for a typical electrosphere with differential rotation. To very good accuracy, we retrieve the same growth rates, supporting the correctness of our PIC code. Next, we consider the long term non-linear evolution of the diocotron instability. We found that particles tend to cluster together to form a small vortex of high charge density rotating around the axis of the cylinder with only little radial excursion of the particles. This grouping of particles generates new low density or even vacuum gaps in the plasma column. Finally, in more general

  18. Comment on ``Solution of the Schrödinger equation for the time-dependent linear potential''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkar, H.; Benamira, F.; Maamache, M.

    2003-07-01

    We present the correct way to obtain the general solution of the Schrödinger equation for a particle in a time-dependent linear potential following the approach used in the paper of Guedes [Phys. Rev. A 63, 034102 (2001)]. In addition, we show that, in this case, the solutions (wave packets) are described by the Airy functions.

  19. On the Definition of the Ordinary Points and the Regular Singular Points of a Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differential Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the definition of the ordinary points and the regular singular points of a homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation (ODE). The material of this note can find classroom use as enrichment material in courses on ODEs, in particular, to reinforce the unit on the Existence-Uniqueness Theorem for solutions of initial value…

  20. Polish Teachers' Conceptions of and Approaches to the Teaching of Linear Equations to Grade Six Students: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschall, Gosia; Andrews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present an exploratory case study of six Polish teachers' perspectives on the teaching of linear equations to grade six students. Data, which derived from semi-structured interviews, were analysed against an extant framework and yielded a number of commonly held beliefs about what teachers aimed to achieve and how they would…

  1. Evaluation of an analytic linear Boltzmann transport equation solver for high-density inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, S. A. M.; Ansbacher, W.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Acuros external beam (Acuros XB) is a novel dose calculation algorithm implemented through the ECLIPSE treatment planning system. The algorithm finds a deterministic solution to the linear Boltzmann transport equation, the same equation commonly solved stochastically by Monte Carlo methods. This work is an evaluation of Acuros XB, by comparison with Monte Carlo, for dose calculation applications involving high-density materials. Existing non-Monte Carlo clinical dose calculation algorithms, such as the analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA), do not accurately model dose perturbations due to increased electron scatter within high-density volumes. Methods: Acuros XB, AAA, and EGSnrc based Monte Carlo are used to calculate dose distributions from 18 MV and 6 MV photon beams delivered to a cubic water phantom containing a rectangular high density (4.0-8.0 g/cm{sup 3}) volume at its center. The algorithms are also used to recalculate a clinical prostate treatment plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, originally evaluated using AAA. These results are compared graphically and numerically using gamma-index analysis. Radio-chromic film measurements are presented to augment Monte Carlo and Acuros XB dose perturbation data. Results: Using a 2% and 1 mm gamma-analysis, between 91.3% and 96.8% of Acuros XB dose voxels containing greater than 50% the normalized dose were in agreement with Monte Carlo data for virtual phantoms involving 18 MV and 6 MV photons, stainless steel and titanium alloy implants and for on-axis and oblique field delivery. A similar gamma-analysis of AAA against Monte Carlo data showed between 80.8% and 87.3% agreement. Comparing Acuros XB and AAA evaluations of a clinical prostate patient plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, Acuros XB showed good overall agreement with Monte Carlo while AAA underestimated dose on the upstream medial surface of the prosthesis due to electron scatter from the high-density material. Film measurements

  2. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…

  3. Convergence of step-by-step methods for non-linear integro-differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocarsky, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    The theory of consistent step-by-step methods for solving Volterra integral equations is extended to nonsingular Volterra integro-differential equations. It is shown that standard step-by-step algorithms for these more general equations are convergent. Several numerical examples are included.

  4. Novel quantum description for nonadiabatic evolution of light wave propagation in time-dependent linear media

    PubMed Central

    Lakehal, Halim; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2016-01-01

    A simple elegant expression of nonadiabatic light wave evolution is necessary in order to have a deeper insight for complicated optical phenomena in light science as well as in everyday life. Light wave propagation in linear media which have time-dependent electromagnetic parameters is investigated by utilizing a quadratic invariant of the system. The time behavior of the nonadiabatic geometric phase of the waves that yield a cyclic nonadiabatic evolution is analyzed in detail. Various quantum properties of light waves in this situation, such as variances of electric and magnetic fields, uncertainty product, coherent and squeezed states, and their classical limits, are developed. For better understanding of our research, we applied our analysis in a particular case. The variances of the fields D and B are illustrated and their time behaviors are addressed. Equivalent results for the corresponding classical systems are deduced from the study of the time evolution of the appropriate coherent and squeezed states. PMID:26847267

  5. Novel quantum description for nonadiabatic evolution of light wave propagation in time-dependent linear media.

    PubMed

    Lakehal, Halim; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2016-02-05

    A simple elegant expression of nonadiabatic light wave evolution is necessary in order to have a deeper insight for complicated optical phenomena in light science as well as in everyday life. Light wave propagation in linear media which have time-dependent electromagnetic parameters is investigated by utilizing a quadratic invariant of the system. The time behavior of the nonadiabatic geometric phase of the waves that yield a cyclic nonadiabatic evolution is analyzed in detail. Various quantum properties of light waves in this situation, such as variances of electric and magnetic fields, uncertainty product, coherent and squeezed states, and their classical limits, are developed. For better understanding of our research, we applied our analysis in a particular case. The variances of the fields D and B are illustrated and their time behaviors are addressed. Equivalent results for the corresponding classical systems are deduced from the study of the time evolution of the appropriate coherent and squeezed states.

  6. A frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes equations approach to acoustic propagation in flow ducts with sharp edges.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Axel; Boij, Susann; Efraimsson, Gunilla

    2010-02-01

    Acoustic wave propagation in flow ducts is commonly modeled with time-domain non-linear Navier-Stokes equation methodologies. To reduce computational effort, investigations of a linearized approach in frequency domain are carried out. Calculations of sound wave propagation in a straight duct are presented with an orifice plate and a mean flow present. Results of transmission and reflections at the orifice are presented on a two-port scattering matrix form and are compared to measurements with good agreement. The wave propagation is modeled with a frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes equation methodology. This methodology is found to be efficient for cases where the acoustic field does not alter the mean flow field, i.e., when whistling does not occur.

  7. An equation for the evolution of solar and stellar flare loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    1990-01-01

    An ordinary differential equation describing the evolution of a coronal loop subjected to a spatially uniform but time-varying heating rate is discussed. It is assumed that the duration of heating is long compared to the sound transit time through the loop, which is assumed to have uniform cross section area. The form of the equation changes as the loop evolves through three states: 'strong evaporation', 'scaling law behavior', and 'strong condensation'. Solutions to the equation may be used to compute the time dependence of the average coronal temperature and emission measure for an assumed temporal variation of the flare heating rate. The results computed from the model agree reasonably well with recent published numerical simulations and may be obtained with far less computational effort. The model is then used to study the May 21, 1980, solar flare observed by SMM and the giant April 12, 1985, flare observed on the star AD Leo.

  8. Birth and death master equation for the evolution of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Martínez, R.; Cocho, G.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Martínez-Mekler, G.

    2014-05-01

    Master equations for the evolution of complex networks with positive (birth) and negative (death) transition probabilities per unit time are analyzed. Explicit equations for the time evolution of the total number of nodes and for the relative node frequencies are given. It is shown that, in the continuous limit, the master equation reduces to a Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). The basic dynamical function for its stationary solution is the ratio between its drift and diffusion coefficients. When this ratio is approximated by partial fractions (Padé's approximants), a hierarchy of stationary solutions of the FPE is obtained analytically, which are expressed as an exponential times the product of powers of monomials and binomials. It is also shown that if the difference between birth and death transition probabilities goes asymptotically to zero, the exponential factor in the solution is absent. Fits to real complex network probability distribution functions are shown. Comparison with rank-ordered data shows that, in general, the value of this exponential factor is close to unity, evidencing crossovers among power-law scale invariant regimes which might be associated to an underlying criticality and are related to a generalization of the beta distribution. The time dependent solution is also obtained analytically in terms of hyper-geometric functions. It is also shown that the FPE has similarity solutions. The limitations of the approach here presented are also discussed.

  9. Linear stability analysis of the Vlasov-Poisson equations in high density plasmas in the presence of crossed fields and density gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaup, D. J.; Hansen, P. J.; Choudhury, S. Roy; Thomas, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    The equations for the single-particle orbits in a nonneutral high density plasma in the presence of inhomogeneous crossed fields are obtained. Using these orbits, the linearized Vlasov equation is solved as an expansion in the orbital radii in the presence of inhomogeneities and density gradients. A model distribution function is introduced whose cold-fluid limit is exactly the same as that used in many previous studies of the cold-fluid equations. This model function is used to reduce the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations to a second-order ordinary differential equation for the linearized electrostatic potential whose eigenvalue is the perturbation frequency.

  10. Primer vector theory applied to the linear relative-motion equations. [for N-impulse space trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D.

    1980-01-01

    Prime vector theory is used in analyzing a set of linear relative-motion equations - the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C/W) equations - to determine the criteria and necessary conditions for an optimal N-impulse trajectory. The analysis develops the analytical criteria for improving a solution by: (1) moving any dependent or independent variable in the initial and/or final orbit, and (2) adding intermediate impulses. If these criteria are violated, the theory establishes a sufficient number of analytical equations. The subsequent satisfaction of these equations will result in the optimal position vectors and times of an N-impulse trajectory. The solution is examined for the specific boundary conditions of: (1) fixed-end conditions, two impulse, and time-open transfer; (2) an orbit-to-orbit transfer; and (3) a generalized renezvous problem.

  11. Exact finite difference schemes for the non-linear unidirectional wave equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the construction of exact finite difference schemes for the nonlinear unidirectional wave equation that describes the nonlinear propagation of a wave motion in the positive x-direction. The schemes constructed for these equations are compared with those obtained by using the usual procedures of numerical analysis. It is noted that the order of the exact finite difference models is equal to the order of the differential equation.

  12. Quantifying foodweb interactions with simultaneous linear equations: Stable isotope models of the Truckee River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, L.; Redd, C.; Chandra, S.; Atwell, L.; Fritsen, C.H.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic foodweb models for 2 seasons (relatively high- [March] and low-flow [August] conditions) were constructed for 4 reaches on the Truckee River using ??13C and ??15N data from periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish samples collected in 2003 and 2004. The models were constructed with isotope values that included measured periphyton signatures and calculated mean isotope values for detritus and seston as basal food sources of each food web. The pseudo-optimization function in Excel's Solver module was used to minimize the sum of squared error between predicted and observed stable-isotope values while simultaneously solving for diet proportions for all foodweb consumers and estimating ??13C and ??15N trophic enrichment factors. This approach used an underdetermined set of simultaneous linear equations and was tested by running the pseudo-optimization procedure for 500 randomly selected sets of initial conditions. Estimated diet proportions had average standard deviations (SDs) of 0.03 to 0.04??? and SDs of trophic enrichment factors ranged from <0.005 to 0.05??? based on the results of the 500 runs, indicating that the modeling approach was very robust. However, sensitivity analysis of calculated detritus and seston ??13C and ??15N values indicated that the robustness of the approach is dependent on having accurate measures of all observed foodweb-component ??13c and ??15N values. Model results from the 500 runs using the mean isotope values for detritus and seston indicated that upstream food webs were the simplest, with fewer feeding groups and trophic interactions (e.g., 21 interactions for 10 feeding groups), whereas food webs for the reach downstream of the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area were the most complex (e.g., 58 interactions for 16 feeding groups). Nonnative crayfish were important omnivores in each reach and drew energy from multiple sources, but appeared to be energetic dead ends because they generally were not consumed. Predatory macroinvertebrate

  13. Hybrid discrete ordinates and characteristics method for solving the linear Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ce

    With the ability of computer hardware and software increasing rapidly, deterministic methods to solve the linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) have attracted some attention for computational applications in both the nuclear engineering and medical physics fields. Among various deterministic methods, the discrete ordinates method (SN) and the method of characteristics (MOC) are two of the most widely used methods. The SN method is the traditional approach to solve the LBE for its stability and efficiency. While the MOC has some advantages in treating complicated geometries. However, in 3-D problems requiring a dense discretization grid in phase space (i.e., a large number of spatial meshes, directions, or energy groups), both methods could suffer from the need for large amounts of memory and computation time. In our study, we developed a new hybrid algorithm by combing the two methods into one code, TITAN. The hybrid approach is specifically designed for application to problems containing low scattering regions. A new serial 3-D time-independent transport code has been developed. Under the hybrid approach, the preferred method can be applied in different regions (blocks) within the same problem model. Since the characteristics method is numerically more efficient in low scattering media, the hybrid approach uses a block-oriented characteristics solver in low scattering regions, and a block-oriented SN solver in the remainder of the physical model. In the TITAN code, a physical problem model is divided into a number of coarse meshes (blocks) in Cartesian geometry. Either the characteristics solver or the SN solver can be chosen to solve the LBE within a coarse mesh. A coarse mesh can be filled with fine meshes or characteristic rays depending on the solver assigned to the coarse mesh. Furthermore, with its object-oriented programming paradigm and layered code structure, TITAN allows different individual spatial meshing schemes and angular quadrature sets for each coarse

  14. Algorithm for solving the linear Cauchy problem for large systems of ordinary differential equations with the use of parallel computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moryakov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    An algorithm for solving the linear Cauchy problem for large systems of ordinary differential equations is presented. The algorithm for systems of first-order differential equations is implemented in the EDELWEISS code with the possibility of parallel computations on supercomputers employing the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard for the data exchange between parallel processes. The solution is represented by a series of orthogonal polynomials on the interval [0, 1]. The algorithm is characterized by simplicity and the possibility to solve nonlinear problems with a correction of the operator in accordance with the solution obtained in the previous iterative process.

  15. Some efficient methods for obtaining infinite series solutions of n-th order linear ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G.

    1972-01-01

    The use of the theta-operator method and generalized hypergeometric functions in obtaining solutions to nth-order linear ordinary differential equations is explained. For completeness, the analysis of the differential equation to determine whether the point of expansion is an ordinary point or a regular singular point is included. The superiority of the two methods shown over the standard method is demonstrated by using all three of the methods to work out several examples. Also included is a compendium of formulae and properties of the theta operator and generalized hypergeometric functions which is complete enough to make the report self-contained.

  16. A Nested Genetic Algorithm for the Numerical Solution of Non-Linear Coupled Equations in Water Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Hermes A.; Guerrero-Bolaño, Francisco J.; Obregón-Neira, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Due to both mathematical tractability and efficiency on computational resources, it is very common to find in the realm of numerical modeling in hydro-engineering that regular linearization techniques have been applied to nonlinear partial differential equations properly obtained in environmental flow studies. Sometimes this simplification is also made along with omission of nonlinear terms involved in such equations which in turn diminishes the performance of any implemented approach. This is the case for example, for contaminant transport modeling in streams. Nowadays, a traditional and one of the most common used water quality model such as QUAL2k, preserves its original algorithm, which omits nonlinear terms through linearization techniques, in spite of the continuous algorithmic development and computer power enhancement. For that reason, the main objective of this research was to generate a flexible tool for non-linear water quality modeling. The solution implemented here was based on two genetic algorithms, used in a nested way in order to find two different types of solutions sets: the first set is composed by the concentrations of the physical-chemical variables used in the modeling approach (16 variables), which satisfies the non-linear equation system. The second set, is the typical solution of the inverse problem, the parameters and constants values for the model when it is applied to a particular stream. From a total of sixteen (16) variables, thirteen (13) was modeled by using non-linear coupled equation systems and three (3) was modeled in an independent way. The model used here had a requirement of fifty (50) parameters. The nested genetic algorithm used for the numerical solution of a non-linear equation system proved to serve as a flexible tool to handle with the intrinsic non-linearity that emerges from the interactions occurring between multiple variables involved in water quality studies. However because there is a strong data limitation in

  17. An approximate global solution of Einstein's equation for a rotating compact source with linear equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuchí, J. E.; Gil-Rivero, A.; Molina, A.; Ruiz, E.

    2013-07-01

    We use analytic perturbation theory to present a new approximate metric for a rigidly rotating perfect fluid source with equation of state (EOS) ɛ +(1-n)p=ɛ _0. This EOS includes the interesting cases of strange matter, constant density and the fluid of the Wahlquist metric. It is fully matched to its approximate asymptotically flat exterior using Lichnerowicz junction conditions and it is shown to be a totally general matching using Darmois-Israel conditions and properties of the harmonic coordinates. Then we analyse the Petrov type of the interior metric and show first that, in accordance with previous results, in the case corresponding to Wahlquist's metric it can not be matched to the asymptotically flat exterior. Next, that this kind of interior can only be of Petrov types I, D or (in the static case) O and also that the non-static constant density case can only be of type I. Finally, we check that it can not be a source of Kerr's metric.

  18. Analytic study of developing flows in a tube laden with non-evaporating and evaporating drops via a modified linearization of the two-phase momentum equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosid, S.; Tambour, Y.

    A novel modification of the classical Langhaar linearization of the mutually coupled momentum equations for developing two-phase flows in circular ducts is presented. This modification enables us to treat: (i) flows developing from spatially periodic initial velocity distributions without the presence of droplets, and (ii) two-phase flows in which monosize, non-evaporating and evaporating droplets suspended in a developing gas flow of an initially uniform velocity distribution exchange momentum with the host-gas flow. New solutions are presented for the downstream evolution in the velocity profiles which develop from spatially periodic initial velocity distributions that eventually reach the fully developed Poiseuille velocity profile. These solutions are validated by employing known numerical procedures, providing strong support for the physical underpinnings of the present modified linearization. New solutions are also presented for the evolution in drop velocities and vapour spatial distributions for evaporating droplets suspended in an initially uniform velocity profile of the host gas. Asymptotic solutions are presented for the flow region which lies very close to the inlet of the tube, where the relative velocity between the droplets and the host gas is high, and thus the velocity fields of the two phases are mutually coupled. These solutions provide new explicit formulae for the droplet velocity field as a function of the initial conditions and droplet diameter (relative to the tube diameter) for non-evaporating drops, and also as a function of evaporation rate for evaporating drops.

  19. Linear grammar as a possible stepping-stone in the evolution of language.

    PubMed

    Jackendoff, Ray; Wittenberg, Eva

    2017-02-01

    We suggest that one way to approach the evolution of language is through reverse engineering: asking what components of the language faculty could have been useful in the absence of the full complement of components. We explore the possibilities offered by linear grammar, a form of language that lacks syntax and morphology altogether, and that structures its utterances through a direct mapping between semantics and phonology. A language with a linear grammar would have no syntactic categories or syntactic phrases, and therefore no syntactic recursion. It would also have no functional categories such as tense, agreement, and case inflection, and no derivational morphology. Such a language would still be capable of conveying certain semantic relations through word order-for instance by stipulating that agents should precede patients. However, many other semantic relations would have to be based on pragmatics and discourse context. We find evidence of linear grammar in a wide range of linguistic phenomena: pidgins, stages of late second language acquisition, home signs, village sign languages, language comprehension (even in fully syntactic languages), aphasia, and specific language impairment. We also find a full-blown language, Riau Indonesian, whose grammar is arguably close to a pure linear grammar. In addition, when subjects are asked to convey information through nonlinguistic gesture, their gestures make use of semantically based principles of linear ordering. Finally, some pockets of English grammar, notably compounds, can be characterized in terms of linear grammar. We conclude that linear grammar is a plausible evolutionary precursor of modern fully syntactic grammar, one that is still active in the human mind.

  20. TH-E-BRE-02: A Forward Scattering Approximation to Dose Calculation Using the Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Catt, B; Snyder, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of the linear Boltzmann transport equation as a dose calculation tool which can account for interface effects, while still having faster computation times than Monte Carlo methods. In particular, we introduce a forward scattering approximation, in hopes of improving calculation time without a significant hindrance to accuracy. Methods: Two coupled Boltzmann transport equations were constructed, one representing the fluence of photons within the medium, and the other, the fluence of electrons. We neglect the scattering term within the electron transport equation, resulting in an extreme forward scattering approximation to reduce computational complexity. These equations were then solved using a numerical technique for solving partial differential equations, known as a finite difference scheme, where the fluence at each discrete point in space is calculated based on the fluence at the previous point in the particle's path. Using this scheme, it is possible to develop a solution to the Boltzmann transport equations by beginning with boundary conditions and iterating across the entire medium. The fluence of electrons can then be used to find the dose at any point within the medium. Results: Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations indicate that even simplistic techniques for solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation yield expected interface effects, which many popular dose calculation algorithms are not capable of predicting. Implementation of a forward scattering approximation does not appear to drastically reduce the accuracy of this algorithm. Conclusion: Optimized implementations of this algorithm have been shown to be very accurate when compared with Monte Carlo simulations, even in build up regions where many models fail. Use of a forward scattering approximation could potentially give a reasonably accurate dose distribution in a shorter amount of time for situations where a completely accurate dose distribution is not

  1. A Piecewise Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Transport Equation in 2D Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Chang, J H

    2008-10-01

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional cylindrical (RZ) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. This discretization is a discontinuous finite element method that utilizes the piecewise linear basis functions developed by Stone and Adams. We describe an asymptotic analysis that shows this method to be accurate for many problems in the thick diffusion limit on arbitrary polygons, allowing this method to be applied to radiative transfer problems with these types of meshes. We also present numerical results for multiple problems on quadrilateral grids and compare these results to the well-known bi-linear discontinuous finite element method.

  2. An improved stability test and stabilisation of linear time-varying systems governed by second-order vector differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shen-Lung; Juang, Yau-Tarng; Wu, Wei-Ying; Shieh, Wern-Yarng

    2011-12-01

    In this article, the problems of exponential stability analysis and stabilisation of linear time-varying systems described by a class of second-order vector differential equations are considered. Using bounding techniques on the trajectories of a linear time-varying system, the stability problem of the time-varying system is transformed to that of a time-invariant system and a new sufficient condition for the exponential stability is obtained. Moreover, the new criterion is proven to be superior to a test presented in the recent literature. Finally, the proposed criterion is applied to the exponential stabilisation problem via state feedback. The results are illustrated by several numerical examples.

  3. The Non-linear Schrödinger Equation and the Conformal Properties of Non-relativistic Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváthy, P. A.; Yera, J.-C.

    2009-08-01

    The cubic non-linear Schrödinger equation where the coefficient of the nonlinear term is a function F(t,x) only passes the Painlevé test of Weiss, Tabor, and Carnevale only for F=(a+bt)-1, where a and b are constants. This is explained by transforming the time-dependent system into the constant-coefficient NLS by means of a time-dependent non-linear transformation, related to the conformal properties of non-relativistic space-time. A similar argument explains the integrability of the NLS in a uniform force field or in an oscillator background.

  4. Markovian Monte Carlo program EvolFMC v.2 for solving QCD evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadach, S.; Płaczek, W.; Skrzypek, M.; Stokłosa, P.

    2010-02-01

    We present the program EvolFMC v.2 that solves the evolution equations in QCD for the parton momentum distributions by means of the Monte Carlo technique based on the Markovian process. The program solves the DGLAP-type evolution as well as modified-DGLAP ones. In both cases the evolution can be performed in the LO or NLO approximation. The quarks are treated as massless. The overall technical precision of the code has been established at 5×10. This way, for the first time ever, we demonstrate that with the Monte Carlo method one can solve the evolution equations with precision comparable to the other numerical methods. New version program summaryProgram title: EvolFMC v.2 Catalogue identifier: AEFN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including binary test data, etc.: 66 456 (7407 lines of C++ code) No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 412 752 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, Mac OS X RAM: Less than 256 MB Classification: 11.5 External routines: ROOT ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: Solution of the QCD evolution equations for the parton momentum distributions of the DGLAP- and modified-DGLAP-type in the LO and NLO approximations. Solution method: Monte Carlo simulation of the Markovian process of a multiple emission of partons. Restrictions:Limited to the case of massless partons. Implemented in the LO and NLO approximations only. Weighted events only. Unusual features: Modified-DGLAP evolutions included up to the NLO level. Additional comments: Technical precision established at 5×10. Running time: For the 10 6 events at 100 GeV: DGLAP NLO: 27s; C-type modified DGLAP NLO: 150s (MacBook Pro with Mac OS X v.10

  5. A new approach to numerical solution of second-order linear hyperbolic partial differential equations arising from physics and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Farshid; Bimesl, Saeed

    This article presents a new reliable solver based on polynomial approximation, using the Euler polynomials to construct the approximate solutions of the second-order linear hyperbolic partial differential equations with two variables and constant coefficients. Also, a formula expressing explicitly the Euler expansion coefficients of a function with one or two variables is proved. Another explicit formula, which expresses the two dimensional Euler operational matrix of differentiation is also given. Application of these formulae for reducing the problem to a system of linear algebraic equations with the unknown Euler coefficients, is explained. Hence, the result system can be solved and the unknown Euler coefficients can be found approximately. Illustrative examples with comparisons are given to confirm the reliability of the proposed method. The results show the efficiency and accuracy of the present work.

  6. Conservative finite volume solutions of a linear hyperbolic transport equation in two and three dimensions using multiple grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.; Kathong, Monchai

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of the multiple grid technique is investigated by solving linear hyperbolic equations for simple two- and three-dimensional cases. The results are compared with exact solutions and those obtained from the single grid calculations. It is demonstrated that the technique works reasonably well when two grid systems contain grid cells of comparative sizes. The study indicates that use of the multiple grid does not introduce any significant error and that it can be used to attack more complex problems.

  7. Lifespan estimates for the semi-linear Klein-Gordon equation with a quadratic potential in dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qidi

    2016-12-01

    We show for almost every m > 0, the solution to the semi-linear Klein-Gordon equation with a quadratic potential in dimension one, exists over a longer time interval than the one given by local existence theory, using the normal form method. By using an Lp -Lq estimate for eigenfunctions of the harmonic oscillator and by carefully analysis on the nonlinearity, we improve the result obtained by the author before.

  8. On modification of certain methods of the conjugate direction type for solving rectangular systems of linear algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukhno, L. F.

    2007-12-01

    The use of modifications of certain well-known methods of the conjugate direction type for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with rectangular matrices is examined. The modified methods are shown to be superior to the original versions with respect to the round-off accumulation; the advantage is especially large for ill-conditioned matrices. Examples are given of the efficient use of the modified methods for solving certain fairly large ill-conditioned problems.

  9. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-09-30

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  10. Kershaw closures for linear transport equations in slab geometry II: High-order realizability-preserving discontinuous-Galerkin schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Florian

    2016-10-01

    This paper provides a generalization of the realizability-preserving discontinuous-Galerkin scheme given in [3] to general full-moment models that can be closed analytically. It is applied to the class of Kershaw closures, which are able to provide a cheap closure of the moment problem. This results in an efficient algorithm for the underlying linear transport equation. The efficiency of high-order methods is demonstrated using numerical convergence tests and non-smooth benchmark problems.

  11. Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearle, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is…

  12. Linear evolution of current sheets in sheared force-free magnetic fields with discontinuous connectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Thin current sheets arising in tenuous, magnetized solar coronal plasmas may constitute an important mechanism for energy buildups and subsequent energy releases; they could arise from the continuous-and-random motion of magnetic footprints associated with photospheric velocity fields. A model is presented for study of the quasi-static evolution of current sheets due to shearing of the footpoints, in a highly idealized geometry that incorporates an abrupt jump in field-line connectivity. The model highlights that formation of thin current layers and allows large shearing motions prior to violation of the linear approximation. Excess energy comparable to that released by solar flares can be stored in a sheared field.

  13. Time Parallel Solution of Linear Partial Differential Equations on the Intel Touchstone Delta Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N.; Fijany, A.; Barhen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Evolutionary partial differential equations are usually solved by decretization in time and space, and by applying a marching in time procedure to data and algorithms potentially parallelized in the spatial domain.

  14. Longtime dynamics of the quasi-linear wave equations with structural damping and supercritical nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhijian; Liu, Zhiming

    2017-03-01

    The paper investigates the well-posedness and the longtime dynamics of the quasilinear wave equations with structural damping and supercritical nonlinearities: {{u}tt}- Δ u+{{≤ft(- Δ \\right)}α}{{u}t}-\

  15. Linear force and moment equations for an annular smooth shaft seal perturbed both angularly and laterally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J.; Dijulio, R.; Ek, M. C.; Ehrgott, R.

    1982-01-01

    Coefficients are derived for equations expressing the lateral force and pitching moments associated with both planar translation and angular perturbations from a nominally centered rotating shaft with respect to a stationary seal. The coefficients for the lowest order and first derivative terms emerge as being significant and are of approximately the same order of magnitude as the fundamental coefficients derived by means of Black's equations. Second derivative, shear perturbation, and entrance coefficient variation effects are adjudged to be small.

  16. Non-linear corrections to the time-covariance function derived from a multi-state chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    Scott, M

    2012-08-01

    The time-covariance function captures the dynamics of biochemical fluctuations and contains important information about the underlying kinetic rate parameters. Intrinsic fluctuations in biochemical reaction networks are typically modelled using a master equation formalism. In general, the equation cannot be solved exactly and approximation methods are required. For small fluctuations close to equilibrium, a linearisation of the dynamics provides a very good description of the relaxation of the time-covariance function. As the number of molecules in the system decrease, deviations from the linear theory appear. Carrying out a systematic perturbation expansion of the master equation to capture these effects results in formidable algebra; however, symbolic mathematics packages considerably expedite the computation. The authors demonstrate that non-linear effects can reveal features of the underlying dynamics, such as reaction stoichiometry, not available in linearised theory. Furthermore, in models that exhibit noise-induced oscillations, non-linear corrections result in a shift in the base frequency along with the appearance of a secondary harmonic.

  17. Existence and Non-linear Stability of Rotating Star Solutions of the Compressible Euler-Poisson Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Smoller, Joel

    2009-03-01

    We prove the existence of rotating star solutions which are steady-state solutions of the compressible isentropic Euler-Poisson (Euler-Poisson) equations in three spatial dimensions with prescribed angular momentum and total mass. This problem can be formulated as a variational problem of finding a minimizer of an energy functional in a broader class of functions having less symmetry than those functions considered in the classical Auchmuty-Beals paper. We prove the non-linear dynamical stability of these solutions with perturbations having the same total mass and symmetry as the rotating star solution. We also prove finite time stability of W^{1, infty}(mathbb {R}3) solutions where the perturbations are entropy-weak solutions of the Euler-Poisson equations. Finally, we give a uniform (in time) a priori estimate for entropy-weak solutions of the Euler-Poisson equations.

  18. The Origin and Evolution of Halo Bias in Linear and Nonlinear Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Klypin, Anatoly A.

    1999-08-01

    We present results from a study of bias and its evolution for galaxy-size halos in a large, high-resolution simulation of a low-density, cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant. In addition to the previous studies of the halo two-point correlation function, we consider the evolution of bias estimated using two different statistics: power spectrum bP and a direct correlation of smoothed halo and matter overdensity fields bδ. We present accurate estimates of the evolution of the matter power spectrum probed deep into the stable clustering regime [k~(0.1-200) h Mpc-1 at z=0] and find that its shape and evolution can be well described, with only a minor modification, by the fitting formula of Peacock & Dodds. The halo power spectrum evolves much slower than the power spectrum of matter and has a different shape which indicates that the bias is time and scale dependent. At z=0, the halo power spectrum is antibiased (bP<1) with respect to the matter power spectrum at wavenumbers k~(0.15-30) h Mpc-1 and provides an excellent match to the power spectrum of the Automatic Plate Measuring Facility (APM) galaxies at all probed k. In particular, both the halo and matter power spectra show an inflection at k~0.15 h Mpc-1, which corresponds to the present-day scale of nonlinearity and nicely matches the inflection observed in the APM power spectrum. We complement the power spectrum analysis with a direct estimate of bias using smoothed halo and matter overdensity fields and show that the evolution observed in the simulation in linear and mildly nonlinear regimes can be well described by the analytical model of Mo & White, if the distinction between formation redshift of halos and observation epoch is introduced into the model. We present arguments and evidence that at higher overdensities the evolution of bias is significantly affected by dynamical friction and tidal stripping operating on the satellite halos in high-density regions of clusters and groups; we

  19. An Inverse Problem for a Class of Conditional Probability Measure-Dependent Evolution Equations.

    PubMed

    Mirzaev, Inom; Byrne, Erin C; Bortz, David M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the inverse problem of identifying a conditional probability measure in measure-dependent evolution equations arising in size-structured population modeling. We formulate the inverse problem as a least squares problem for the probability measure estimation. Using the Prohorov metric framework, we prove existence and consistency of the least squares estimates and outline a discretization scheme for approximating a conditional probability measure. For this scheme, we prove general method stability. The work is motivated by Partial Differential Equation (PDE) models of flocculation for which the shape of the post-fragmentation conditional probability measure greatly impacts the solution dynamics. To illustrate our methodology, we apply the theory to a particular PDE model that arises in the study of population dynamics for flocculating bacterial aggregates in suspension, and provide numerical evidence for the utility of the approach.

  20. An inverse problem for a class of conditional probability measure-dependent evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaev, Inom; Byrne, Erin C.; Bortz, David M.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the inverse problem of identifying a conditional probability measure in measure-dependent evolution equations arising in size-structured population modeling. We formulate the inverse problem as a least squares problem for the probability measure estimation. Using the Prohorov metric framework, we prove existence and consistency of the least squares estimates and outline a discretization scheme for approximating a conditional probability measure. For this scheme, we prove general method stability. The work is motivated by partial differential equation models of flocculation for which the shape of the post-fragmentation conditional probability measure greatly impacts the solution dynamics. To illustrate our methodology, we apply the theory to a particular PDE model that arises in the study of population dynamics for flocculating bacterial aggregates in suspension, and provide numerical evidence for the utility of the approach.

  1. Fast Averaging for Long- and Short-wave Scaled Equatorial Shallow Water Equations with Coriolis Parameter Deviating from Linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrifoy, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    The equatorial shallow water equations at low Froude number form a symmetric hyperbolic system with large terms containing a variable coefficient, the Coriolis parameter f, which depends on the latitude. The limiting behavior of the solutions as the Froude number tends to zero was investigated rigorously a few years ago, using the common approximation that the variations of f with latitude are linear. In that case, the large terms have a peculiar structure, due to special properties of the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, which can be exploited to prove strong uniform a priori estimates in adapted functional spaces. It is shown here that these estimates still hold when f deviates from linearity, even though the special properties on which the proofs were based have no obvious generalization. As in the linear case, existence, uniqueness and convergence properties of the solutions corresponding to general unbalanced data are deduced from the estimates.

  2. New stability conditions for mixed linear Levin-Nohel integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, Nguyen Tien

    2013-08-01

    For the mixed Levin-Nohel integro-differential equation, we obtain new necessary and sufficient conditions of asymptotic stability. These results improve those obtained by Becker and Burton ["Stability, fixed points and inverse of delays," Proc. - R. Soc. Edinburgh, Sect. A 136, 245-275 (2006)], 10.1017/S0308210500004546 and Jin and Luo ["Stability of an integro-differential equation," Comput. Math. Appl. 57(7), 1080-1088 (2009)], 10.1016/j.camwa.2009.01.006 when b(t) = 0 and supplement the 3/2-stability theorem when a(t, s) = 0. In addition, the case of the equations with several delays is discussed as well.

  3. Comparison of Nonlinear and Linear Stabilization Schemes for Advection-Diffusion Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, R. R.; Heister, T.

    2015-12-01

    Accurately solving advection-diffusion equations that appear in the finite element discretization of a mantle convection simulation is an important computational issue to the computational geoscience community. This is because it allows for users studying mantle convection to create reliable simulations for something as small and simple as a 2D simulation on their personal laptop to something as complex as a massively parallel 3D simulation on their university supercomputer. Standard finite element discretizations of advection-diffusion equations introduce unphysical oscillations around steep gradients. Therefore, stabilization must be added to the discrete formulation to obtain correct solutions. Using the open source scientific library ASPECT, the SUPG and Entropy Viscosity schemes are compared using stationary and non-stationary test equations. Differences in maximum overshoot and undershoot, smear, and convergence orders are compared to see if improvements can be made to the existing numerical method existing in ASPECT.

  4. Reduced order feedback control equations for linear time and frequency domain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm was developed which can be used to obtain the equations. In a more general context, the algorithm computes a real nonsingular similarity transformation matrix which reduces a real nonsymmetric matrix to block diagonal form, each block of which is a real quasi upper triangular matrix. The algorithm works with both defective and derogatory matrices and when and if it fails, the resultant output can be used as a guide for the reformulation of the mathematical equations that lead up to the ill conditioned matrix which could not be block diagonalized.

  5. QCD Evolution in Dense Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay Ducati, M. B.

    The dynamics of the partonic distribution is a main concern in high energy physics, once it provides the initial condition for the Heavy Ion colliders. The determination of the evolution equation which drives the partonic behavior is subject of great interest since is connected to the observables. This lecture aims to present a brief review of the evolution equations that describe the partonic dynamics at high energies. First the linear evolution equations (DGLAP and BFKL) are presented. Then, the formulations developed to deal with the high density effects, which originate the non-linear evolution equations (GLR, AGL, BK, JIMWLK) are discussed, as well as an example of related phenomenology.

  6. Electromigration-induced step meandering on vicinal surfaces: Nonlinear evolution equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufay, Matthieu; Debierre, Jean-Marc; Frisch, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of a constant electrical field applied on vicinal surfaces such as the Si(111) surface. An electrical field parallel to the steps induces a meandering instability with a nonzero phase shift. Using the Burton-Cabrera-Frank model, we extend the linear stability analysis performed by Liu, Weeks, and Kandel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2743 (1998)] to the nonlinear regime for which the meandering amplitude is large. We derive an amplitude equation for the step dynamics using a highly nonlinear expansion method. We investigate numerically two limiting regimes (small and large attachment lengths) which both reveal long-time coarsening dynamics.

  7. Evolution of linear cosmological perturbations and its observational implications in Galileon-type modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Daichi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2010-03-15

    A scalar-tensor theory of gravity can be made not only to account for the current cosmic acceleration, but also to satisfy solar-system and laboratory constraints, by introducing a nonlinear derivative interaction for the scalar field. Such an additional scalar degree of freedom is called 'Galileon'. The basic idea is inspired by the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld, but one can construct a ghost-free model that admits a self-accelerating solution. We perform a fully relativistic analysis of linear perturbations in Galileon cosmology. Although the Galileon model can mimic the background evolution of standard {Lambda}CDM cosmology, the behavior of perturbation is quite different. It is shown that there exists a superhorizon growing mode in the metric and Galileon perturbations at early times, suggesting that the background is unstable. A fine-tuning of the initial condition for the Galileon fluctuation is thus required in order to promote a desirable evolution of perturbations at early times. Assuming the safe initial condition, we then compute the late-time evolution of perturbations and discuss observational implications in Galileon cosmology. In particular, we find anticorrelations in the cross correlation of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and large scale structure, similar to the normal branch of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model.

  8. The Effects of Test Disclosure on Linear Equating Relationships under the Common Item Nonequivalent Groups Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmer, Jerry S.

    The proponents of test disclosure argue that disclosure is a matter of fairness; the opponents argue that fairness is enhanced by score equating which is dependent on test security. This research simulated disclosure on a professional licensing examination by placing response keys to selected items in some examinees' records, and comparing their…

  9. Flexible Approaches to Computing Mediated Effects in Generalized Linear Models: Generalized Estimating Equations and Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluchter, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    In behavioral research, interest is often in examining the degree to which the effect of an independent variable X on an outcome Y is mediated by an intermediary or mediator variable M. This article illustrates how generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling can be used to estimate the indirect or mediated effect, defined as the amount by…

  10. On preconditioning techniques for dense linear systems arising from singular boundary integral equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke

    1996-12-31

    We study various preconditioning techniques for the iterative solution of boundary integral equations, and aim to provide a theory for a class of sparse preconditioners. Two related ideas are explored here: singularity separation and inverse approximation. Our preliminary conclusion is that singularity separation based preconditioners perform better than approximate inverse based while it is desirable to have both features.

  11. Reply to "Comment on `Direct linear term in the equation of state of plasmas' "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraeft, W. D.; Kremp, D.; Röpke, G.

    2015-10-01

    The long-standing discrepancy in the equation of state of charge neutral plasmas, the occurrence of an e2 direct term in the second virial coefficient, is dealt with. We state that such a contribution should not appear for a pure Coulomb interaction.

  12. Teacher-Designed Software for Interactive Linear Equations: Concepts, Interpretive Skills, Applications & Word-Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Virginia

    No longer just a user of commercial software, the 21st century teacher is a designer of interactive software based on theories of learning. This software, a comprehensive study of straightline equations, enhances conceptual understanding, sketching, graphic interpretive and word problem solving skills as well as making connections to real-life and…

  13. Reply to "Comment on 'Direct linear term in the equation of state of plasmas' ".

    PubMed

    Kraeft, W D; Kremp, D; Röpke, G

    2015-10-01

    The long-standing discrepancy in the equation of state of charge neutral plasmas, the occurrence of an e(2) direct term in the second virial coefficient, is dealt with. We state that such a contribution should not appear for a pure Coulomb interaction.

  14. A Nyström interpolant for some weakly singular linear Volterra integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratella, Paola

    2009-09-01

    We consider a second kind weakly singular Volterra integral equation defined by a non-compact operator and derive a Nyström type interpolant of the solution based on Gauss-Radau nodes. Assuming the stability of the interpolant, which is confirmed by the numerical tests, we derive convergence estimates.

  15. Bounds on the Fourier coefficients for the periodic solutions of non-linear oscillator equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The differential equations describing nonlinear oscillations (as seen in mechanical vibrations, electronic oscillators, chemical and biochemical reactions, acoustic systems, stellar pulsations, etc.) are investigated analytically. The boundedness of the Fourier coefficients for periodic solutions is demonstrated for two special cases, and the extrapolation of the results to higher-dimensionsal systems is briefly considered.

  16. A convergence accelerator of a linear system of equations based upon the power method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, A.

    2001-03-01

    This paper considers the convergence rate of an iterative numerical scheme as a method for accelerating at the post-processor stage. The methodology adapted here is: (1) residual eigenmodes included in the origin of the convex hull are eliminated; (2) remaining residual terms are smoothed away by the main convergence algorithm. For this purpose, the polynomial matrix approach is employed for deriving the characteristic equation by two different methods. The first method is based on vector scaling and the second is based on the normal equations approach. The input for both methods is the solution difference between two consecutive iteration/cycle levels obtained from the main program. The singular value decomposition was employed for both methods due to the ill-conditioned structure of the matrices. The use of the explicit form of the Richardson extrapolation in the present work overrules the need to employ the Richardson iteration with a Leja ordering. The performance of these methods was compared with the GMRES algorithm for three representative problems: two-dimensional boundary value problem using the Laplace equation, three-dimensional multi-grid, potential solution over a sphere and the one-dimensional steady state Burger equation. In all three examples both methods have the same rate of convergence, or better, as that of the GMRES method in terms of computer operational count. However, in terms of storage requirements, the method based upon vector scaling has a significant advantage over the normal equations approach as well as the GMRES method, in which only one vector of the N grid-points is required. Copyright

  17. A linear-time algorithm for Gaussian and non-Gaussian trait evolution models.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lam si Tung; Ané, Cécile

    2014-05-01

    We developed a linear-time algorithm applicable to a large class of trait evolution models, for efficient likelihood calculations and parameter inference on very large trees. Our algorithm solves the traditional computational burden associated with two key terms, namely the determinant of the phylogenetic covariance matrix V and quadratic products involving the inverse of V. Applications include Gaussian models such as Brownian motion-derived models like Pagel's lambda, kappa, delta, and the early-burst model; Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models to account for natural selection with possibly varying selection parameters along the tree; as well as non-Gaussian models such as phylogenetic logistic regression, phylogenetic Poisson regression, and phylogenetic generalized linear mixed models. Outside of phylogenetic regression, our algorithm also applies to phylogenetic principal component analysis, phylogenetic discriminant analysis or phylogenetic prediction. The computational gain opens up new avenues for complex models or extensive resampling procedures on very large trees. We identify the class of models that our algorithm can handle as all models whose covariance matrix has a 3-point structure. We further show that this structure uniquely identifies a rooted tree whose branch lengths parametrize the trait covariance matrix, which acts as a similarity matrix. The new algorithm is implemented in the R package phylolm, including functions for phylogenetic linear regression and phylogenetic logistic regression.

  18. Optical laboratory solution and error model simulation of a linear time-varying finite element equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B. K.; Casasent, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The use of simplified error models to accurately simulate and evaluate the performance of an optical linear-algebra processor is described. The optical architecture used to perform banded matrix-vector products is reviewed, along with a linear dynamic finite-element case study. The laboratory hardware and ac-modulation technique used are presented. The individual processor error-source models and their simulator implementation are detailed. Several significant simplifications are introduced to ease the computational requirements and complexity of the simulations. The error models are verified with a laboratory implementation of the processor, and are used to evaluate its potential performance.

  19. Solution of the Schro''dinger equation for the time-dependent linear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, I.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper I have drawn out the steps to be followed in order to derive the exact Schro''dinger wave function for a particle in a general one-dimensional time-dependent linear potential. To this end I have used the so-called Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method, which is based on finding an exact quantum-mechanical invariant in whose eigenstates the exact quantum states are found. In particular, I have obtained the wave functions of a particle in the linear potential well, driven by a monochromatic electric field.

  20. Exponential Relaxation to Equilibrium for a One-Dimensional Focusing Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation with Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlen, Eric A.; Fröhlich, Jürg; Lebowitz, Joel

    2016-02-01

    We construct generalized grand-canonical- and canonical Gibbs measures for a Hamiltonian system described in terms of a complex scalar field that is defined on a circle and satisfies a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a focusing nonlinearity of order p < 6. Key properties of these Gibbs measures, in particular absence of "phase transitions" and regularity properties of field samples, are established. We then study a time evolution of this system given by the Hamiltonian evolution perturbed by a stochastic noise term that mimics effects of coupling the system to a heat bath at some fixed temperature. The noise is of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type for the Fourier modes of the field, with the strength of the noise decaying to zero, as the frequency of the mode tends to ∞. We prove exponential approach of the state of the system to a grand-canonical Gibbs measure at a temperature and "chemical potential" determined by the stochastic noise term.

  1. A 0-D flame wrinkling equation to describe the turbulent flame surface evolution in SI engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stéphane; Veynante, Denis

    2015-03-01

    The current development of reciprocating engines relies increasingly on system simulation for both design activities and conception of algorithms for engine control. These numerical simulation tools require high computational efficiencies, as calculations have to be performed in times close to real-time. Then, they are today mainly based on simple empirical laws to describe the combustion processes in the cylinders. However, with the rapid evolution of emission regulations and fuel formulation, more and more physics is expected in combustion models. A solution consists in reducing 3-D combustion models to build 0-dimensional models that are both CPU-efficient and based on physical quantities. This approach has been used in a previous work to reduce the 3-D ECFM (Extended Coherent Flame Model), leading to the so-called CFM1D. A key feature of the latter is to be based on a 0-D equation for the flame wrinkling derived from the 3-D equation for the flame surface density. The objective of this paper is to present in details the theoretical derivation of the wrinkling equation and the underlying modeling assumptions as well. Academic validations are performed against experimental data for several turbulence intensities and fuels. Finally, the proposed model is applied to engine simulations for a wide range of operating conditions. Comparisons are successfully conducted between in-cylinder measurements and the model predictions, highlighting the interest of reducing 3-D CFD models for calculations performed in the context of system simulation.

  2. Comparing Regression Coefficients between Nested Linear Models for Clustered Data with Generalized Estimating Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jun; Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Comparing regression coefficients between models when one model is nested within another is of great practical interest when two explanations of a given phenomenon are specified as linear models. The statistical problem is whether the coefficients associated with a given set of covariates change significantly when other covariates are added into…

  3. Cauchy Problem for Evolution Equations of Schrödinger Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, Rossella

    2002-03-01

    In (R. Agliardi, 1995, Internat. J. Math.6, 791-804) we proved the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem in H∞ for some p-evolution equations (p⩾1) with real characteristic roots. For this purpose some assumptions on the lower order terms are needed, which, in the special case p=1, recapture well-known results for hyperbolic operators. In (R. Agliardi, 1995, Internat. J. Math.6, 791-804) the leading coefficients are assumed to be constant. In this paper we allow them to be variable. Our result is applicable to 2-evolution differential operators with real characteristics, i.e., to Schrödinger type operators. This class of operators comprehends, for example, Schrödinger operator Dt-Δx or the plate operator D2t-Δ2x. The Cauchy problem in H∞ for such evolution operators has been studied extensively by Takeuchi when the coefficients in the principal part are constant and the characteristic roots are distinct.

  4. A new (2+1) dimensional integrable evolution equation for an ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M. S.; Kundu, Anjan

    2015-07-01

    A new, completely integrable, two dimensional evolution equation is derived for an ion acoustic wave propagating in a magnetized, collisionless plasma. The equation is a multidimensional generalization of a modulated wavepacket with weak transverse propagation, which has resemblance to nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and has a connection to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation through a constraint relation. Higher soliton solutions of the equation are derived through Hirota bilinearization procedure, and an exact lump solution is calculated exhibiting 2D structure. Some mathematical properties demonstrating the completely integrable nature of this equation are described. Modulational instability using nonlinear frequency correction is derived, and the corresponding growth rate is calculated, which shows the directional asymmetry of the system. The discovery of this novel (2+1) dimensional integrable NLS type equation for a magnetized plasma should pave a new direction of research in the field.

  5. A new (2+1) dimensional integrable evolution equation for an ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Abhik Janaki, M. S. Kundu, Anjan

    2015-07-15

    A new, completely integrable, two dimensional evolution equation is derived for an ion acoustic wave propagating in a magnetized, collisionless plasma. The equation is a multidimensional generalization of a modulated wavepacket with weak transverse propagation, which has resemblance to nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and has a connection to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation through a constraint relation. Higher soliton solutions of the equation are derived through Hirota bilinearization procedure, and an exact lump solution is calculated exhibiting 2D structure. Some mathematical properties demonstrating the completely integrable nature of this equation are described. Modulational instability using nonlinear frequency correction is derived, and the corresponding growth rate is calculated, which shows the directional asymmetry of the system. The discovery of this novel (2+1) dimensional integrable NLS type equation for a magnetized plasma should pave a new direction of research in the field.

  6. A Parallel Numerical Algorithm To Solve Linear Systems Of Equations Emerging From 3D Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichert, Viktoria; Arkenberg, Mario; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    Highly resolved state-of-the-art 3D atmosphere simulations will remain computationally extremely expensive for years to come. In addition to the need for more computing power, rethinking coding practices is necessary. We take a dual approach by introducing especially adapted, parallel numerical methods and correspondingly parallelizing critical code passages. In the following, we present our respective work on PHOENIX/3D. With new parallel numerical algorithms, there is a big opportunity for improvement when iteratively solving the system of equations emerging from the operator splitting of the radiative transfer equation J = ΛS. The narrow-banded approximate Λ-operator Λ* , which is used in PHOENIX/3D, occurs in each iteration step. By implementing a numerical algorithm which takes advantage of its characteristic traits, the parallel code's efficiency is further increased and a speed-up in computational time can be achieved.

  7. Comment on "Direct linear term in the equation of state of plasmas".

    PubMed

    Alastuey, A; Ballenegger, V; Ebeling, W

    2015-10-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 91, 013108 (2015)], Kraeft et al. criticize known exact results on the equation of state of quantum plasmas, which have been obtained independently by several authors. They argue about a difference in the definition of the direct two-body function Q(x), which appears in virial expansions of thermodynamical quantities, but Q(x) is not a measurable quantity in itself. Differences in definitions of intermediate quantities are irrelevant, and only differences in physical quantities are meaningful. Beyond Kraeft et al.'s broad statement that there is no agreement at order ρ(5/2) in the virial equation for the pressure, we show that their published results for this quantity are in fact in perfect agreement with previous existing expressions.

  8. Constrained Regularization for Ill Posed Linear Operator Equations, with Applications in Meteorology and Medicine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Anderssen, DeHoog and Lukas (1980), Golberg (1978), Tihonov and Arsenin (1977), Twomey (1977), Nashed (1981). I I -9- 3. Cross validation for...reuse method with applications. J. Amer. Statist. Assoc., 70, 320-328. Golberg , M.A. (1978), ed. "Solution methods for integral equations, Theory and... Golberg , ed., Plenum Press, 183-194. Wahba, G. (1979b). Convergence rates of "thin plate" smoothing splines when the data are noisy in "Smoothing

  9. High-Order Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions for the Linearized Euler Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Bérenger [11] for the 2-D Maxwell equations. This absorbing layer method surrounds the computational domain with a dispersive medium, defined in such a...no advection or forcing terms. After demon - strating the validity of this prototypical implementation in Section B, we proceed to incorporate the...may improve these results [55], but for the purpose of this dissertation, it is sufficient to demon - strate how to use the auxiliary variable NRBC

  10. Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear Fredholm integral equations by using weighted mean-value theorem.

    PubMed

    Altürk, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Mean value theorems for both derivatives and integrals are very useful tools in mathematics. They can be used to obtain very important inequalities and to prove basic theorems of mathematical analysis. In this article, a semi-analytical method that is based on weighted mean-value theorem for obtaining solutions for a wide class of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind is introduced. Illustrative examples are provided to show the significant advantage of the proposed method over some existing techniques.

  11. On the nonlinear self-adjointness and local conservation laws for a class of evolution equations unifying many models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Santos Sampaio, Júlio Cesar

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we consider a class of evolution equations up to fifth-order containing many arbitrary smooth functions from the point of view of nonlinear self-adjointness. The studied class includes many important equations modeling different phenomena. In particular, some of the considered equations were studied previously by other researchers from the point of view of quasi self-adjointness or strictly self-adjointness. Therefore we find new local conservation laws for these equations invoking the obtained results on nonlinearly self-adjointness and the conservation theorem proposed by Nail Ibragimov.

  12. Nonlinear Equations for Bending of Rotating Beams with Application to Linear Flap-Lag Stability of Hingeless Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, D. H.; Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear partial differential equations for the flapping and lead-lag degrees of freedom of a torisonally rigid, rotating cantilevered beam are derived. These equations are linearized about an equilibrium condition to study the flap-lag stability characteristics of hingeless helicopter rotor blades with zero twist and uniform mass and stiffness in the hovering flight condition. The results indicate that these configurations are stable because the effect of elastic coupling more than compensates for the destabilizing flap-lag Coriolis and aerodynamic coupling. The effect of higher bending modes on the lead-lag damping was found to be small and the common, centrally hinged, spring restrained, rigid blade approximation for elastic rotor blades was shown to be resonably satisfactory for determining flap-lag stability. The effect of pre-cone was generally stabilizing and the effects of rotary inertia were negligible.

  13. The chemical master equation approach to nonequilibrium steady-state of open biochemical systems: linear single-molecule enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Bishop, Lisa M

    2010-09-20

    We develop the stochastic, chemical master equation as a unifying approach to the dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a mesoscopic volume under a living environment. A living environment provides a continuous chemical energy input that sustains the reaction system in a nonequilibrium steady state with concentration fluctuations. We discuss the linear, unimolecular single-molecule enzyme kinetics, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC) with bistability, and network exhibiting oscillations. Emphasis is paid to the comparison between the stochastic dynamics and the prediction based on the traditional approach based on the Law of Mass Action. We introduce the difference between nonlinear bistability and stochastic bistability, the latter has no deterministic counterpart. For systems with nonlinear bistability, there are three different time scales: (a) individual biochemical reactions, (b) nonlinear network dynamics approaching to attractors, and (c) cellular evolution. For mesoscopic systems with size of a living cell, dynamics in (a) and (c) are stochastic while that with (b) is dominantly deterministic. Both (b) and (c) are emergent properties of a dynamic biochemical network; We suggest that the (c) is most relevant to major cellular biochemical processes such as epi-genetic regulation, apoptosis, and cancer immunoediting. The cellular evolution proceeds with transitions among the attractors of (b) in a "punctuated equilibrium" manner.

  14. The Chemical Master Equation Approach to Nonequilibrium Steady-State of Open Biochemical Systems: Linear Single-Molecule Enzyme Kinetics and Nonlinear Biochemical Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Bishop, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We develop the stochastic, chemical master equation as a unifying approach to the dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a mesoscopic volume under a living environment. A living environment provides a continuous chemical energy input that sustains the reaction system in a nonequilibrium steady state with concentration fluctuations. We discuss the linear, unimolecular single-molecule enzyme kinetics, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC) with bistability, and network exhibiting oscillations. Emphasis is paid to the comparison between the stochastic dynamics and the prediction based on the traditional approach based on the Law of Mass Action. We introduce the difference between nonlinear bistability and stochastic bistability, the latter has no deterministic counterpart. For systems with nonlinear bistability, there are three different time scales: (a) individual biochemical reactions, (b) nonlinear network dynamics approaching to attractors, and (c) cellular evolution. For mesoscopic systems with size of a living cell, dynamics in (a) and (c) are stochastic while that with (b) is dominantly deterministic. Both (b) and (c) are emergent properties of a dynamic biochemical network; We suggest that the (c) is most relevant to major cellular biochemical processes such as epi-genetic regulation, apoptosis, and cancer immunoediting. The cellular evolution proceeds with transitions among the attractors of (b) in a “punctuated equilibrium” manner. PMID:20957107

  15. Evolution equations for the joint probability of several compositions in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    One-point statistical simulations of turbulent combustion require models to represent the molecular mixing of species mass fractions, which then determine the reaction rates. For multi-species mixing the Dirichlet distribution has been used to characterize the assumed joint probability density function (PDF) of several scalars, parametrized by solving modeled evolution equations for their means and the sum of their variances. The PDF is then used to represent the mixing state and to obtain the chemical reactions source terms in moment closures or large eddy simulation. We extend the Dirichlet PDF approach to transported PDF methods by developing its governing stochastic differential equation (SDE). The transport equation, as opposed to parametrizing the assumed PDF, enables (1) the direct numerical computation of the joint PDF (and therefore the mixing model to directly account for the flow dynamics (e.g. reaction) on the shape of the evolving PDF), and (2) the individual specification of the mixing timescales of each species. From the SDE, systems of equations are derived that govern the first two moments, based on which constraints are established that provide consistency conditions for material mixing. A SDE whose solution is the generalized Dirichlet PDF is also developed and some of its properties from the viewpoint of material mixing are investigated. The generalized Dirichlet distribution has the following advantages over the standard Dirichlet distribution due to its more general covariance structure: (1) its ability to represent differential diffusion (i.e. skewness) without affecting the scalar means, and (2) it can represent both negatively and positively correlated scalars. The resulting development is a useful representation of the joint PDF of inert or reactive scalars in turbulent flows: (1) In moment closures, the mixing physics can be consistently represented by one underlying modeling principle, the Dirichlet or the generalized Dirichlet PDF, and

  16. Explicit causal relations between material damping ratio and phase velocity from exact solutions of the dispersion equations of linear viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Fajardo, Kristel C.; Lai, Carlo G.

    2007-12-01

    The theory of linear viscoelasticity is the simplest constitutive model that can be adopted to accurately predict the small-strain mechanical response of materials exhibiting the ability to both store and dissipate strain energy. An important result implied by this theory is the relationship existing between material attenuation and the velocity of propagation of a mechanical disturbance. The functional dependence of these important parameters is represented by the Kramers-Kronig (KK) equations, also known as dispersion equations, which are nothing but a statement of the necessary and sufficient conditions to satisfy physical causality. This paper illustrates the derivation of exact solutions of the KK equations to provide explicit relations between frequency-dependent phase velocity and material damping ratio (or equivalently, quality factor). The assumptions that form the basis of the derivation are not beyond those established by the standard theory of viscoelasticity for a viscoelastic solid. The explicit expression for phase velocity as a function of damping ratio was derived by means of the theory of linear singular integral equations, and in particular by the solution of the associated Homogeneous Riemann Boundary Value Problem. It is shown that the same solution may be obtained also by using the implications of physical causality on the Fourier Transform. On the other hand, the explicit solution for damping ratio as a function of phase velocity was found through the components of the complex wavenumber. The exact solutions make it possible to obtain frequency-dependent material damping ratio solely from phase velocity measurements, and conversely. Hence, these relations provide an innovative and inexpensive tool to determine the small-strain dynamic properties of geomaterials. It is shown that the obtained rigorous solutions are in good agreement with well-known solutions based on simplifying assumptions that have been developed in the fields of seismology

  17. Characterization of absorption and non-linear effects in infrasound propagation using an augmented Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, R.; Bailly, C.; Marsden, O.; Gainville, O.

    2016-12-01

    The long-range atmospheric propagation of explosion-like waves of frequency in the infrasound range is investigated using non-linear ray theory. Simulations are performed for sources of increasing amplitude on rays up to the lower thermosphere and for distances of hundreds of kilometres. A study of the attenuation of the waveforms observed at ground level induced by both the classical mechanisms and the vibrational relaxation of the molecules comprising the atmospheric gas is carried out. The relative importance of classical absorption and vibrational relaxation along the typical atmospheric propagation trajectories is assessed. Non-linear effects are highlighted as well and particular emphasis is placed on their strong interaction with absorption phenomena. A detailed description of the propagation model and of the numerical algorithm used in this work is first reported. Results are then discussed and the importance of the different mechanisms is clarified.

  18. Multiple solution of systems of linear algebraic equations by an iterative method with the adaptive recalculation of the preconditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhunov, R. R.; Gazizov, T. R.; Kuksenko, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    The mean time needed to solve a series of systems of linear algebraic equations (SLAEs) as a function of the number of SLAEs is investigated. It is proved that this function has an extremum point. An algorithm for adaptively determining the time when the preconditioner matrix should be recalculated when a series of SLAEs is solved is developed. A numerical experiment with multiply solving a series of SLAEs using the proposed algorithm for computing 100 capacitance matrices with two different structures—microstrip when its thickness varies and a modal filter as the gap between the conductors varies—is carried out. The speedups turned out to be close to the optimal ones.

  19. Fast decay of solutions for linear wave equations with dissipation localized near infinity in an exterior domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryo, Ikehata

    Uniform energy and L2 decay of solutions for linear wave equations with localized dissipation will be given. In order to derive the L2-decay property of the solution, a useful device whose idea comes from Ikehata-Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) is used. In fact, we shall show that the L2-norm and the total energy of solutions, respectively, decay like O(1/ t) and O(1/ t2) as t→+∞ for a kind of the weighted initial data.

  20. Efficient methods for linear Schrödinger equation in the semiclassical regime with time-dependent potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Philipp; Iserles, Arieh; Kropielnicka, Karolina; Singh, Pranav

    2016-09-01

    We build efficient and unitary (hence stable) methods for the solution of the linear time-dependent Schrödinger equation with explicitly time-dependent potentials in a semiclassical regime. The Magnus-Zassenhaus schemes presented here are based on a combination of the Zassenhaus decomposition (Bader et al. 2014 Found. Comput. Math. 14, 689-720. (doi:10.1007/s10208-013-9182-8)) with the Magnus expansion of the time-dependent Hamiltonian. We conclude with numerical experiments.

  1. Linearized Boltzmann transport model for jet propagation in the quark-gluon plasma: Heavy quark evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Luo, Tan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-07-01

    A linearized Boltzmann transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of the D meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the Larege Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at √{sN N}=5.02 TeV is provided.

  2. Communication: Partial linearized density matrix dynamics for dissipative, non-adiabatic quantum evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengfei; Coker, David F.

    2011-11-01

    An approach for treating dissipative, non-adiabatic quantum dynamics in general model systems at finite temperature based on linearizing the density matrix evolution in the forward-backward path difference for the environment degrees of freedom is presented. We demonstrate that the approach can capture both short time coherent quantum dynamics and long time thermal equilibration in an application to excitation energy transfer in a model photosynthetic light harvesting complex. Results are also presented for some nonadiabatic scattering models which indicate that, even though the method is based on a "mean trajectory" like scheme, it can accurately capture electronic population branching through multiple avoided crossing regions and that the approach offers a robust and reliable way to treat quantum dynamical phenomena in a wide range of condensed phase applications.

  3. Almost structure-preserving analysis for weakly linear damping nonlinear Schrödinger equation with periodic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weipeng; Deng, Zichen; Yin, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the dynamic behaviors of the damping nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with periodic perturbation is a challenge in the field of nonlinear science, because the numerical approaches available for damping-driven dynamic systems may exhibit the artificial dissipation in different degree. In this paper, based on the generalized multi-symplectic idea, the local energy/momentum loss expressions as well as the approximate symmetric form of the linearly damping NLSE with periodic perturbation are deduced firstly. And then, the local energy/momentum losses are separated from the simulation results of the NLSE with small linear damping rate less than the threshold to insure structure-preserving properties of the scheme. Finally, the breakup process of the multisoliton state is simulated and the bifurcation of the discrete eigenvalues of the associated Zakharov-Shabat spectral problem is obtained to investigate the variation of the velocity as well as the amplitude of the solitons during the splitting process.

  4. NORSE: A solver for the relativistic non-linear Fokker-Planck equation for electrons in a homogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, A.; Landreman, M.; Embréus, O.; Fülöp, T.

    2017-03-01

    Energetic electrons are of interest in many types of plasmas, however previous modeling of their properties has been restricted to the use of linear Fokker-Planck collision operators or non-relativistic formulations. Here, we describe a fully non-linear kinetic-equation solver, capable of handling large electric-field strengths (compared to the Dreicer field) and relativistic temperatures. This tool allows modeling of the momentum-space dynamics of the electrons in cases where strong departures from Maxwellian distributions may arise. As an example, we consider electron runaway in magnetic-confinement fusion plasmas and describe a transition to electron slide-away at field strengths significantly lower than previously predicted.

  5. Expected Estimating Equation using Calibration Data for Generalized Linear Models with a Mixture of Berkson and Classical Errors in Covariates

    PubMed Central

    de Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Lee, Shen-Ming; Wang, Ching-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Data collected in many epidemiological or clinical research studies are often contaminated with measurement errors that may be of classical or Berkson error type. The measurement error may also be a combination of both classical and Berkson errors and failure to account for both errors could lead to unreliable inference in many situations. We consider regression analysis in generalized linear models when some covariates are prone to a mixture of Berkson and classical errors and calibration data are available only for some subjects in a subsample. We propose an expected estimating equation approach to accommodate both errors in generalized linear regression analyses. The proposed method can consistently estimate the classical and Berkson error variances based on the available data, without knowing the mixture percentage. Its finite-sample performance is investigated numerically. Our method is illustrated by an application to real data from an HIV vaccine study. PMID:24009099

  6. Linear scaling solution of the time-dependent self-consistent-field equations with quasi-independent Rayleigh quotient iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Matt

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for solution of the Time-Dependent Self-Consistent-Field (TD-SCF) equations is developed, based on dual solution channels for non-linear optimization of the Tsiper functional [J.Phys.B, 34 L401 (2001)]. This formulation poses the TD-SCF problem as two Rayleigh quotients, coupled weakly through biorthogonality. Convergence rates for the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) are found to be equivalent to the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). Moreover, the variational nature of the quotient is robust to approximation errors, allowing linear scaling solution to the bulk limit of the RPA matrix-eigenvalue and exchange operator problem for molecular wires with extended conjugation, including polyphenylene vinylene and the (4,3) nanotube.

  7. The probability density function tail of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strongly non-linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Johan; Johansson, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    An analytical derivation of the probability density function (PDF) tail describing the strongly correlated interface growth governed by the nonlinear Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation is provided. The PDF tail exactly coincides with a Tracy-Widom distribution i.e. a PDF tail proportional to \\exp ≤ft(-cw23/2\\right) , where w 2 is the the width of the interface. The PDF tail is computed by the instanton method in the strongly non-linear regime within the Martin-Siggia-Rose framework using a careful treatment of the non-linear interactions. In addition, the effect of spatial dimensions on the PDF tail scaling is discussed. This gives a novel approach to understand the rightmost PDF tail of the interface width distribution and the analysis suggests that there is no upper critical dimension.

  8. Spatially homogeneous linear Boltzmann equation with external forces in Lebesgue spaces involving exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvala, Frantisek

    Subjected to an external electromagnetic field, a rare two-component spatially homogeneous gas consisting of charged and neutral particles is considered. The velocity distribution of the neutral particles being assumed known, the mixture is characterized by the velocity distribution of the charged particles, which is determined as a mild solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation. Relying upon functional-analytic properties of the collision term, existence and uniqueness of the mild solution are established in some Lebesgue-type function spaces involving exponential weights.

  9. Non-linear macro evolution of a dc driven micro atmospheric glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.

    2015-10-15

    We studied the macro evolution of the micro atmospheric glow discharge generated between a micro argon jet into ambient air and static water. The micro discharge behaves similarly to a complex ecosystem. Non-linear behaviors are found for the micro discharge when the water acts as a cathode, different from the discharge when water behaves as an anode. Groups of snapshots of the micro discharge formed at different discharge currents are captured by an intensified charge-coupled device with controlled exposure time, and each group consisted of 256 images taken in succession. Edge detection methods are used to identify the water surface and then the total brightness is defined by adding up the signal counts over the area of the micro discharge. Motions of the water surface at different discharge currents show that the water surface lowers increasingly rapidly when the water acts as a cathode. In contrast, the water surface lowers at a constant speed when the water behaves as an anode. The light curves are similar to logistic growth curves, suggesting that a self-inhibition process occurs in the micro discharge. Meanwhile, the total brightness increases linearly during the same time when the water acts as an anode. Discharge-water interactions cause the micro discharge to evolve. The charged particle bomb process is probably responsible for the different behaviors of the micro discharges when the water acts as cathode and anode.

  10. Non-linear macro evolution of a dc driven micro atmospheric glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.

    2015-10-01

    We studied the macro evolution of the micro atmospheric glow discharge generated between a micro argon jet into ambient air and static water. The micro discharge behaves similarly to a complex ecosystem. Non-linear behaviors are found for the micro discharge when the water acts as a cathode, different from the discharge when water behaves as an anode. Groups of snapshots of the micro discharge formed at different discharge currents are captured by an intensified charge-coupled device with controlled exposure time, and each group consisted of 256 images taken in succession. Edge detection methods are used to identify the water surface and then the total brightness is defined by adding up the signal counts over the area of the micro discharge. Motions of the water surface at different discharge currents show that the water surface lowers increasingly rapidly when the water acts as a cathode. In contrast, the water surface lowers at a constant speed when the water behaves as an anode. The light curves are similar to logistic growth curves, suggesting that a self-inhibition process occurs in the micro discharge. Meanwhile, the total brightness increases linearly during the same time when the water acts as an anode. Discharge-water interactions cause the micro discharge to evolve. The charged particle bomb process is probably responsible for the different behaviors of the micro discharges when the water acts as cathode and anode.

  11. Diffusion-equation representations of landform evolution in the simplest circumstances: Appendix C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Most of us here know that the diffusion equation has also been used to describe the evolution through time of scarp-like landforms, including fault scarps, shoreline scarps, or a set of marine terraces. The methods, models, and data employed in such studies have been described in the literature many times over the past 25 years. For most situations, everything you will ever need (or want) to know can be found in Hanks et al. (1984) and Hanks (2000), the latter being a review of numerous studies of the 1980s and 1990s and a summary of available estimates of the mass diffusivity κ. The geometric parameterization of scarp-like landforms is shown in Figure 1.

  12. Solving systems of linear equations by GPU-based matrix factorization in a Science Ground Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Maxime; Schmidt, Albrecht; Moussaoui, Saïd; Lammers, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    Recently, Graphics Cards have been used to offload scientific computations from traditional CPUs for greater efficiency. This paper investigates the adaptation of a real-world linear system solver, which plays a central role in the data processing of the Science Ground Segment of ESA's astrometric Gaia mission. The paper quantifies the resource trade-offs between traditional CPU implementations and modern CUDA based GPU implementations. It also analyses the impact on the pipeline architecture and system development. The investigation starts from both a selected baseline algorithm with a reference implementation and a traditional linear system solver and then explores various modifications to control flow and data layout to achieve higher resource efficiency. It turns out that with the current state of the art, the modifications impact non-technical system attributes. For example, the control flow of the original modified Cholesky transform is modified so that locality of the code and verifiability deteriorate. The maintainability of the system is affected as well. On the system level, users will have to deal with more complex configuration control and testing procedures.

  13. Efficient algorithms for solving the non-linear vibrational coupled-cluster equations using full and decomposed tensors.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Niels K; Godtliebsen, Ian H; Christiansen, Ove

    2017-04-07

    Vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) theory provides an accurate method for calculating vibrational spectra and properties of small to medium-sized molecules. Obtaining these properties requires the solution of the non-linear VCC equations which can in some cases be hard to converge depending on the molecule, the basis set, and the vibrational state in question. We present and compare a range of different algorithms for solving the VCC equations ranging from a full Newton-Raphson method to approximate quasi-Newton models using an array of different convergence-acceleration schemes. The convergence properties and computational cost of the algorithms are compared for the optimization of VCC states. This includes both simple ground-state problems and difficult excited states with strong non-linearities. Furthermore, the effects of using tensor-decomposed solution vectors and residuals are investigated and discussed. The results show that for standard ground-state calculations, the conjugate residual with optimal trial vectors algorithm has the shortest time-to-solution although the full Newton-Raphson method converges in fewer macro-iterations. Using decomposed tensors does not affect the observed convergence rates in our test calculations as long as the tensors are decomposed to sufficient accuracy.

  14. On the modeling of the bottom particles segregation with non-linear diffusion equations: application to the marine sand ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguercha, Djlalli; Bennis, Anne-claire; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The elliptical motion in surface waves causes an oscillating motion of the sand grains leading to the formation of ripple patterns on the bottom. Investigation how the grains with different properties are distributed inside the ripples is a difficult task because of the segration of particle. The work of Fernandez et al. (2003) was extended from one-dimensional to two-dimensional case. A new numerical model, based on these non-linear diffusion equations, was developed to simulate the grain distribution inside the marine sand ripples. The one and two-dimensional models are validated on several test cases where segregation appears. Starting from an homogeneous mixture of grains, the two-dimensional simulations demonstrate different segregation patterns: a) formation of zones with high concentration of light and heavy particles, b) formation of «cat's eye» patterns, c) appearance of inverse Brazil nut effect. Comparisons of numerical results with the new set of field data and wave flume experiments show that the two-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations allow us to reproduce qualitatively experimental results on particles segregation.

  15. Analysis of linear and nonlinear conductivity of plasma-like systems on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation

    SciTech Connect

    Trigger, S. A.; Ebeling, W.; Heijst, G. J. F. van; Litinski, D.

    2015-04-15

    The problems of high linear conductivity in an electric field, as well as nonlinear conductivity, are considered for plasma-like systems. First, we recall several observations of nonlinear fast charge transport in dusty plasma, molecular chains, lattices, conducting polymers, and semiconductor layers. Exploring the role of noise we introduce the generalized Fokker-Planck equation. Second, one-dimensional models are considered on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation with active and passive velocity-dependent friction including an external electrical field. On this basis, it is possible to find the linear and nonlinear conductivities for electrons and other charged particles in a homogeneous external field. It is shown that the velocity dependence of the friction coefficient can lead to an essential increase of the electron average velocity and the corresponding conductivity in comparison with the usual model of constant friction, which is described by the Drude-type conductivity. Applications including novel forms of controlled charge transfer and non-Ohmic conductance are discussed.

  16. A (Not Really) Complex Method for Finding Solutions to Linear Differential Equations. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 497.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, James W.

    This module considers ordinary linear differential equations with constant coefficients. The "complex method" used to find solutions is discussed, with numerous examples. The unit includes both problem sets and an exam, with answers provided for both. (MP)

  17. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    PubMed

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes.

  18. Legendre wavelet operational matrix of fractional derivative through wavelet-polynomial transformation and its applications on non-linear system of fractional order differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isah, Abdulnasir; Chang, Phang

    2016-06-01

    In this article we propose the wavelet operational method based on shifted Legendre polynomial to obtain the numerical solutions of non-linear systems of fractional order differential equations (NSFDEs). The operational matrix of fractional derivative derived through wavelet-polynomial transformation are used together with the collocation method to turn the NSFDEs to a system of non-linear algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are given in order to demonstrate the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed techniques.

  19. The Factorization Method for the Numerical Solution of Two Point Boundary Value Problems for Linear ODE’s (Ordinary Differential Equations).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    1985), 1-44. [19] V. Majer, Numerical solution of boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations of nonlinear elasticity, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ...based on the ffactoriza- tion method. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Numerical methods for linear boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations The...numerical solution of linear boundary value problems for ordinary differential eqIuations are presented. The methods are optimal with respect to certain

  20. Bäcklund Transformations and Non-Abelian Nonlinear Evolution Equations: a Novel Bäcklund Chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carillo, Sandra; Lo Schiavo, Mauro; Schiebold, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    Classes of third order non-Abelian evolution equations linked to that of Korteweg-de Vries-type are investigated and their connections represented in a non-commutative Bäcklund chart, generalizing results in [Fuchssteiner B., Carillo S., Phys. A 154 (1989), 467-510]. The recursion operators are shown to be hereditary, thereby allowing the results to be extended to hierarchies. The present study is devoted to operator nonlinear evolution equations: general results are presented. The implied applications referring to finite-dimensional cases will be considered separately.

  1. Adjustment of highly non-linear redundant systems of equations using a numerical, topology-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis

    2012-11-01

    The adjustment of systems of highly non-linear, redundant equations, deriving from observations of certain geophysical processes and geodetic data cannot be based on conventional least-squares techniques, and is based on various numerical inversion techniques. Still these techniques lead to solutions trapped in local minima, to correlated estimates and to solution with poor error control. To overcome these problems, we propose an alternative numerical-topological approach inspired by lighthouse beacon navigation, usually used in 2-D, low-accuracy applications. In our approach, an m-dimensional grid G of points around the real solution (an m-dimensional vector) is at first specified. Then, for each equation an uncertainty is assigned to the corresponding measurement, and the sets of the grid points which satisfy the condition are detected. This process is repeated for all equations, and the common section A of the sets of grid points is defined. From this set of grid points, which define a space including the real solution, we compute its center of weight, which corresponds to an estimate of the solution, and its variance-covariance matrix. An optimal solution can be obtained through optimization of the uncertainty in each observation. The efficiency of the overall process was assessed in comparison with conventional least squares adjustment.

  2. An eigenvector-based linear reconstruction scheme for the shallow-water equations on two-dimensional unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares Frazão, Sandra; Guinot, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to MUSCL reconstruction for solving the shallow-water equations on two-dimensional unstructured meshes. The approach takes advantage of the particular structure of the shallow-water equations. Indeed, their hyperbolic nature allows the flow variables to be expressed as a linear combination of the eigenvectors of the system. The particularity of the shallow-water equations is that the coefficients of this combination only depend upon the water depth. Reconstructing only the water depth with second-order accuracy and using only a first-order reconstruction for the flow velocity proves to be as accurate as the classical MUSCL approach. The method also appears to be more robust in cases with very strong depth gradients such as the propagation of a wave on a dry bed. Since only one reconstruction is needed (against three reconstructions in the MUSCL approach) the EVR method is shown to be 1.4-5 times as fast as the classical MUSCL scheme, depending on the computational application.

  3. On obtaining spectrally accurate solutions of linear differential equations with complex interfaces using the immersed interface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sudipta; Saha, Sandeep

    2016-11-01

    Numerical solution of engineering problems with interfacial discontinuities requires exact implementation of the jump conditions else the accuracy deteriorates significantly; particularly, achieving spectral accuracy has been limited due to complex interface geometry and Gibbs phenomenon. We adopt a novel implementation of the immersed-interface method that satisfies the jump conditions at the interfaces exactly, in conjunction with the Chebyshev-collocation method. We consider solutions to linear second order ordinary and partial differential equations having a discontinuity in their zeroth and first derivatives across an interface traced by a complex curve. The solutions obtained demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to achieve spectral accuracy for discontinuous solutions across tortuous interfaces. The solution methodology is illustrated using two model problems: (i) an ordinary differential equation with jump conditions forced by an infinitely differentiable function, (ii) Poisson's equation having a discontinuous solution across interfaces that are ellipses of varying aspect ratio. The use of more polynomials in the direction of the major axis than the minor axis of the ellipse increases the convergence rate of the solution.

  4. Algorithm 937: MINRES-QLP for Symmetric and Hermitian Linear Equations and Least-Squares Problems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sou-Cheng T.; Saunders, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe algorithm MINRES-QLP and its FORTRAN 90 implementation for solving symmetric or Hermitian linear systems or least-squares problems. If the system is singular, MINRES-QLP computes the unique minimum-length solution (also known as the pseudoinverse solution), which generally eludes MINRES. In all cases, it overcomes a potential instability in the original MINRES algorithm. A positive-definite pre-conditioner may be supplied. Our FORTRAN 90 implementation illustrates a design pattern that allows users to make problem data known to the solver but hidden and secure from other program units. In particular, we circumvent the need for reverse communication. Example test programs input and solve real or complex problems specified in Matrix Market format. While we focus here on a FORTRAN 90 implementation, we also provide and maintain MATLAB versions of MINRES and MINRES-QLP. PMID:25328255

  5. On the Dirichlet problem for hypoelliptic evolution equations: Perron-Wiener solution and a cone-type criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogoj, Alessia E.

    2017-02-01

    We show how to apply harmonic spaces potential theory in the study of the Dirichlet problem for a general class of evolution hypoelliptic partial differential equations of second order. We construct Perron-Wiener solution and we provide a sufficient condition for the regularity of the boundary points. Our criterion extends and generalizes the classical parabolic-cone criterion for the Heat equation due to Effros and Kazdan.

  6. A Combined MPI-CUDA Parallel Solution of Linear and Nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    PubMed Central

    Colmenares, José; Galizia, Antonella; Ortiz, Jesús; Clematis, Andrea; Rocchia, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation models the electrostatic potential generated by fixed charges on a polarizable solute immersed in an ionic solution. This approach is often used in computational structural biology to estimate the electrostatic energetic component of the assembly of molecular biological systems. In the last decades, the amount of data concerning proteins and other biological macromolecules has remarkably increased. To fruitfully exploit these data, a huge computational power is needed as well as software tools capable of exploiting it. It is therefore necessary to move towards high performance computing and to develop proper parallel implementations of already existing and of novel algorithms. Nowadays, workstations can provide an amazing computational power: up to 10 TFLOPS on a single machine equipped with multiple CPUs and accelerators such as Intel Xeon Phi or GPU devices. The actual obstacle to the full exploitation of modern heterogeneous resources is efficient parallel coding and porting of software on such architectures. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a full Poisson-Boltzmann solver based on a finite-difference scheme using different and combined parallel schemes and in particular a mixed MPI-CUDA implementation. Results show great speedups when using the two schemes, achieving an 18.9x speedup using three GPUs. PMID:25013789

  7. A combined MPI-CUDA parallel solution of linear and nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, José; Galizia, Antonella; Ortiz, Jesús; Clematis, Andrea; Rocchia, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation models the electrostatic potential generated by fixed charges on a polarizable solute immersed in an ionic solution. This approach is often used in computational structural biology to estimate the electrostatic energetic component of the assembly of molecular biological systems. In the last decades, the amount of data concerning proteins and other biological macromolecules has remarkably increased. To fruitfully exploit these data, a huge computational power is needed as well as software tools capable of exploiting it. It is therefore necessary to move towards high performance computing and to develop proper parallel implementations of already existing and of novel algorithms. Nowadays, workstations can provide an amazing computational power: up to 10 TFLOPS on a single machine equipped with multiple CPUs and accelerators such as Intel Xeon Phi or GPU devices. The actual obstacle to the full exploitation of modern heterogeneous resources is efficient parallel coding and porting of software on such architectures. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a full Poisson-Boltzmann solver based on a finite-difference scheme using different and combined parallel schemes and in particular a mixed MPI-CUDA implementation. Results show great speedups when using the two schemes, achieving an 18.9x speedup using three GPUs.

  8. Segregated and synchronized vector solutions to linearly coupled systems of Schrödinger equations

    PubMed Central

    Long, Wei; Wang, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the following linearly coupled system −ε2Δui+Pi(x)ui=ui3+∑j≠iNλijuj,ui∈H1(R3),i=1,…,N, where ε > 0 is a small parameter, Pi(x) are positive potentials, and λij = λji > 0 (i ≠ j) are coupling constants for i, j = 1, …, N. We investigate the effect of potentials to the structure of the solutions. More precisely, we construct multi-spikes solutions concentrating near the local maximum point x0i of Pi(x). When x0i=x0j, Pi(x0i)=Pj(x0j)=a,i≠j, i,j=1,…,N, the components have spikes clustering at the same point as ε → 0+. When x0i≠x0j, i≠j, the components have spikes clustering at the different points as ε → 0+. PMID:26396438

  9. An Automated Algebraic Method for Finding a Series of Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yin-Ping; Li, Zhi-Bin

    2003-03-01

    Based on a type of elliptic equation, a new algebraic method to construct a series of exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations is proposed, meanwhile, its complete implementation TRWS in Maple is presented. The TRWS can output a series of travelling wave solutions entirely automatically, which include polynomial solutions, exponential function solutions, triangular function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, rational function solutions, Jacobi elliptic function solutions, and Weierstrass elliptic function solutions. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a variety of equations. Not only are previously known solutions recovered but also new solutions and more general form of solutions are obtained.

  10. Construction of reduced order models for the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations using the proper orthogonal fecomposition (POD)/Galerkin method.

    SciTech Connect

    Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2013-08-01

    The construction of stable reduced order models using Galerkin projection for the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations requires a suitable choice for the inner product. The standard L2 inner product is expected to produce unstable ROMs. For the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations this means the use of an energy inner product. In this report, Galerkin projection for the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations using the L2 inner product is implemented as a first step toward constructing stable ROMs for this set of physics.

  11. Time-evolution of quantum systems via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation. I. Conservative systems with time-independent Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Hans; Schuch, Dieter; Castaños, Octavio; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2015-09-15

    The sensitivity of the evolution of quantum uncertainties to the choice of the initial conditions is shown via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation leading to a reformulation of quantum dynamics. This sensitivity is demonstrated for systems with exact analytic solutions with the form of Gaussian wave packets. In particular, one-dimensional conservative systems with at most quadratic Hamiltonians are studied.

  12. Integrability and conservation laws for the nonlinear evolution equations of partially coherent waves in noninstantaneous Kerr media.

    PubMed

    Hansson, T; Lisak, M; Anderson, D

    2012-02-10

    It is shown that the evolution equations describing partially coherent wave propagation in noninstantaneous Kerr media are integrable and have an infinite number of invariants. A recursion relation for generating these invariants is presented, and it is demonstrated how to express them in the coherent density, self-consistent multimode, mutual coherence, and Wigner formalisms.

  13. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution. Stars with degenerate neutron cores. 1: Structure of equilibrium models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Zytkow, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    The general relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented. Finally, it is argued that in previous work on spherical systems general relativity theorists have identified the wrong quantity as "total mass-energy inside radius r."

  14. Linear structural evolution induced tunable photoluminescence in clinopyroxene solid-solution phosphors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Molokeev, Maxim S; Atuchin, Victor V; Luo, Yi

    2013-11-22

    Clinopyroxenes along the Jervisite (NaScSi2O6)-Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) join have been studied, and a solid-solution of the type (Na(1-x)Ca(x))(Sc(1-x)Mg(x))Si2O6 has been identified in the full range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The powder X-ray patterns of all the phases indicate a structural similarity to the end compounds and show smooth variation of structural parameters with composition. The linear structural evolution of iso-structural (Na(1-x)Ca(x))(Sc(1-x)Mg(x))Si2O6 solid-solutions obeying Vegard's rule has also been examined and verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The continuous solid-solutions show the same structural type, therefore the photoluminescence spectra of Eu(2+) doped samples possess the superposition of spectral features from blue-emitting component (CaMgSi2O6:Eu(2+)) and yellow-emitting one (NaScSi2O6:Eu(2+)). This indicates that the spectroscopic properties of (Na(1-x)Ca(x))(Sc(1-x)Mg(x))Si2O6 clinopyroxene solid-solutions are in direct relations with structural parameters, and it is helpful for designing color-tunable photoluminescence with predetermined parameters.

  15. Unique signature of bivalent analyte surface plasmon resonance model: A model governed by non-linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam; Wang, Xuewen; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin; Uren, Aykut

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a biophysical technique for the quantitative analysis of bimolecular interactions. Correct identification of the binding model is crucial for the interpretation of SPR data. Bivalent SPR model is governed by non-linear differential equations, which, in general, have no analytical solutions. Therefore, an analytical based approach cannot be employed in order to identify this particular model. There exists a unique signature in the bivalent analyte model, existence of an `optimal analyte concentration', which can distinguish this model from other biphasic models. The unambiguous identification and related analysis of the bivalent analyte model is demonstrated by using theoretical simulations and experimentally measured SPR sensorgrams. Experimental SPR sensorgrams were measured by using Biacore T200 instrument available in Biacore Molecular Interaction Shared Resource facility, supported by NIH Grant P30CA51008, at Georgetown University.

  16. Blow-up rates of solutions of initial-boundary value problems for a quasi-linear parabolic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anada, Koichi; Ishiwata, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We consider initial-boundary value problems for a quasi linear parabolic equation, kt =k2 (kθθ + k), with zero Dirichlet boundary conditions and positive initial data. It has known that each of solutions blows up at a finite time with the rate faster than √{(T - t) - 1}. In this paper, it is proved that supθ ⁡ k (θ , t) ≈√{(T - t) - 1 log ⁡ log ⁡(T - t) - 1 } as t ↗ T under some assumptions. Our strategy is based on analysis for curve shortening flows that with self-crossing brought by S.B. Angenent and J.J.L. Velázquez. In addition, we prove some of numerical conjectures by Watterson which are keys to provide the blow-up rate.

  17. Solution of Linearized Drift Kinetic Equations in Neoclassical Transport Theory by the Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. K.; Chan, V. S.; Hinton, F. L.

    2001-10-01

    The classic solution of the linearized drift kinetic equations in neoclassical transport theory for large-aspect-ratio tokamak flux-surfaces relies on the variational principle and the choice of ``localized" distribution functions as trialfunctions.(M.N. Rosenbluth, et al., Phys. Fluids 15) (1972) 116. Somewhat unclear in this approach are the nature and the origin of the ``localization" and whether the results obtained represent the exact leading terms in an asymptotic expansion int he inverse aspect ratio. Using the method of matched asymptotic expansions, we were able to derive the leading approximations to the distribution functions and demonstrated the asymptotic exactness of the existing results. The method is also applied to the calculation of angular momentum transport(M.N. Rosenbluth, et al., Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fusion Research, 1970, Vol. 1 (IAEA, Vienna, 1971) p. 495.) and the current driven by electron cyclotron waves.

  18. The effects of the Asselin time filter on numerical solutions to the linearized shallow-water wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, R. E.; Johnson, D. R.; Uccellini, L. W.

    1983-01-01

    In the present investigation, a one-dimensional linearized analysis is used to determine the effect of Asselin's (1972) time filter on both the computational stability and phase error of numerical solutions for the shallow water wave equations, in cases with diffusion but without rotation. An attempt has been made to establish the approximate optimal values of the filtering parameter nu for each of the 'lagged', Dufort-Frankel, and Crank-Nicholson diffusion schemes, suppressing the computational wave mode without materially altering the physical wave mode. It is determined that in the presence of diffusion, the optimum filter length depends on whether waves are undergoing significant propagation. When moderate propagation is present, with or without diffusion, the Asselin filter has little effect on the spatial phase lag of the physical mode for the leapfrog advection scheme of the three diffusion schemes considered.

  19. Exact scaling solution of the mode coupling equations for non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, V.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.; Schütz, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    We obtain the exact solution of the one-loop mode-coupling equations for the dynamical structure function in the framework of non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics in one space dimension for the strictly hyperbolic case where all characteristic velocities are different. All solutions are characterized by dynamical exponents which are Kepler ratios of consecutive Fibonacci numbers, which includes the golden mean as a limiting case. The scaling form of all higher Fibonacci modes are asymmetric Lévy-distributions. Thus a hierarchy of new dynamical universality classes is established. We also compute the precise numerical value of the Prähofer-Spohn scaling constant to which scaling functions obtained from mode coupling theory are sensitive.

  20. A Chess-Like Game for Teaching Engineering Students to Solve Large System of Simultaneous Linear Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Mohammed, Ahmed Ali; Kadiam, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    Solving large (and sparse) system of simultaneous linear equations has been (and continues to be) a major challenging problem for many real-world engineering/science applications [1-2]. For many practical/large-scale problems, the sparse, Symmetrical and Positive Definite (SPD) system of linear equations can be conveniently represented in matrix notation as [A] {x} = {b} , where the square coefficient matrix [A] and the Right-Hand-Side (RHS) vector {b} are known. The unknown solution vector {x} can be efficiently solved by the following step-by-step procedures [1-2]: Reordering phase, Matrix Factorization phase, Forward solution phase, and Backward solution phase. In this research work, a Game-Based Learning (GBL) approach has been developed to help engineering students to understand crucial details about matrix reordering and factorization phases. A "chess-like" game has been developed and can be played by either a single player, or two players. Through this "chess-like" open-ended game, the players/learners will not only understand the key concepts involved in reordering algorithms (based on existing algorithms), but also have the opportunities to "discover new algorithms" which are better than existing algorithms. Implementing the proposed "chess-like" game for matrix reordering and factorization phases can be enhanced by FLASH [3] computer environments, where computer simulation with animated human voice, sound effects, visual/graphical/colorful displays of matrix tables, score (or monetary) awards for the best game players, etc. can all be exploited. Preliminary demonstrations of the developed GBL approach can be viewed by anyone who has access to the internet web-site [4]!

  1. Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Jan Hesthaven

    2012-02-06

    Final report for DOE Contract DE-FG02-98ER25346 entitled Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences. Principal Investigator Jan S. Hesthaven Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University, Box F Providence, RI 02912 Jan.Hesthaven@Brown.edu February 6, 2012 Note: This grant was originally awarded to Professor David Gottlieb and the majority of the work envisioned reflects his original ideas. However, when Prof Gottlieb passed away in December 2008, Professor Hesthaven took over as PI to ensure proper mentoring of students and postdoctoral researchers already involved in the project. This unusual circumstance has naturally impacted the project and its timeline. However, as the report reflects, the planned work has been accomplished and some activities beyond the original scope have been pursued with success. Project overview and main results The effort in this project focuses on the development of high order accurate computational methods for the solution of hyperbolic equations with application to problems with strong shocks. While the methods are general, emphasis is on applications to gas dynamics with strong shocks.

  2. Blow-up rate and uniqueness of singular radial solutions for a class of quasi-linear elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhifu; Zhao, Chunshan

    We establish the uniqueness and the blow-up rate of the large positive solution of the quasi-linear elliptic problem -Δu=λu-b(x)h(u) in B(x) with boundary condition u=+∞ on ∂B(x), where B(x) is a ball centered at x∈R with radius R, N⩾3, 2⩽p<∞, λ>0 are constants and the weight function b is a positive radially symmetrical function. We only require h(u) to be a locally Lipschitz function with h(u)/u increasing on (0,∞) and h(u)˜u for large u with q>p-1. Our results extend the previous work [Z. Xie, Uniqueness and blow-up rate of large solutions for elliptic equation -Δu=λu-b(x)h(u), J. Differential Equations 247 (2009) 344-363] from case p=2 to case 2⩽p<∞.

  3. High Temperature Equation of State of Enstatite and Forsterite: Implications for Thermal Origins and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratanduono, D.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of terrestrial planets depends upon the melt boundary as it represents the largest rheological transition a material can undergo. This change in rheological behavior with solidification corresponds to a dramatic change in the thermal and chemical transport properties. Because of this dramatic change in thermal transport, recent work by Stixrude et al.[1] suggests that the silicate melt curve sets the thermal profile within super-Earths during their early thermal evolution. Here we present recent decaying shock wave experiments studying both enstatite and forsterite. The continuously measured shock pressure and temperature in these studies ranged from 8 to 1.5 Mbar and 20,000-4,000 K, respectively. We find a point on the MgSiO3 liquidus at 6800 K and 285 GPa, which is nearly a factor of two higher pressure than previously measured and provides a strong constraint on the temperature profile within super-Earths. Our shock temperature measurements on forsterite and enstatite provide much needed equation of state information to the planetary impact modeling community since the shock temperature data can be used to constrain the initial entropy state of a growing planet. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. 1. Stixrude, L., Melting in super-earths. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2014. 372(2014).

  4. Chandrasekhar equations for infinite dimensional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, K.; Powers, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Chandrasekhar equations are derived for linear time invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces using a functional analytic technique. An important consequence of this is that the solution to the evolutional Riccati equation is strongly differentiable in time and one can define a strong solution of the Riccati differential equation. A detailed discussion on the linear quadratic optimal control problem for hereditary differential systems is also included.

  5. A quantitative comparison of numerical methods for the compressible Euler equations: fifth-order WENO and piecewise-linear Godunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenough, J. A.; Rider, W. J.

    2004-05-01

    A numerical study is undertaken comparing a fifth-order version of the weighted essentially non-oscillatory numerical (WENO5) method to a modern piecewise-linear, second-order, version of Godunov's (PLMDE) method for the compressible Euler equations. A series of one-dimensional test problems are examined beginning with classical linear problems and ending with complex shock interactions. The problems considered are: (1) linear advection of a Gaussian pulse in density, (2) Sod's shock tube problem, (3) the "peak" shock tube problem, (4) a version of the Shu and Osher shock entropy wave interaction and (5) the Woodward and Colella interacting shock wave problem. For each problem and method, run times, density error norms and convergence rates are reported for each method as produced from a common code test-bed. The linear problem exhibits the advertised convergence rate for both methods as well as the expected large disparity in overall error levels; WENO5 has the smaller errors and an enormous advantage in overall efficiency (in accuracy per unit CPU time). For the nonlinear problems with discontinuities, however, we generally see both first-order self-convergence of error as compared to an exact solution, or when an analytic solution is not available, a converged solution generated on an extremely fine grid. The overall comparison of error levels shows some variation from problem to problem. For Sod's shock tube, PLMDE has nearly half the error, while on the peak problem the errors are nearly the same. For the interacting blast wave problem the two methods again produce a similar level of error with a slight edge for the PLMDE. On the other hand, for the Shu-Osher problem, the errors are similar on the coarser grids, but favors WENO by a factor of nearly 1.5 on the finer grids used. In all cases holding mesh resolution constant though, PLMDE is less costly in terms of CPU time by approximately a factor of 6. If the CPU cost is taken as fixed, that is run times are

  6. Evolution of Channels Draining Mount St. Helens: Linking Non-Linear and Rapid, Threshold Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens buried the valley of the North Fork Toutle River (NFT) to a depth of up to 140 m. Initial integration of a new drainage network took place episodically by the “filling and spilling” (from precipitation and seepage) of depressions formed during emplacement of the debris avalanche deposit. Channel incision to depths of 20-30 m occurred in the debris avalanche and extensive pyroclastic flow deposits, and headward migration of the channel network followed, with complete integration taking place within 2.5 years. Downstream reaches were converted from gravel-cobble streams with step-pool sequences to smoothed, infilled channels dominated by sand-sized materials. Subsequent channel evolution was dominated by channel widening with the ratio of changes in channel width to changes in channel depth ranging from about 60 to 100. Widening resulted in significant adjustment of hydraulic variables that control sediment-transport rates. For a given discharge over time, flow depths were reduced, relative roughness increased and flow velocity and boundary shear stress decreased non-linearly. These changes, in combination with coarsening of the channel bed with time resulted in systematically reduced rates of degradation (in upstream reaches), aggradation (in downstream reaches) and sediment-transport rates through much of the 1990s. Vertical adjustments were, therefore, easy to characterize with non-linear decay functions with bed-elevation attenuating with time. An empirical model of bed-level response was then created by plotting the total dimensionless change in elevation against river kilometer for both initial and secondary vertical adjustments. High magnitude events generated from the generated from upper part of the mountain, however, can cause rapid (threshold) morphologic changes. For example, a rain-on-snow event in November 2006 caused up to 9 m of incision along a 6.5 km reach of Loowit Creek and the upper NFT. The event

  7. Integrating Evolution Algorithms with Linear Programming to the Conjunctive Use of Surface and Subsurface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Chen, Y.; Pan, C.

    2009-12-01

    Surface water resources are strongly influenced by hydrological conditions, and using only surface water resources as water supplies may have higher shortage risk than before because of the climate change caused by the global warming. Conjunctive use of surface and subsurface water is one of the most effective water resource practices to increase water supply reliability with minimal cost and environmental impact. Therefore, this paper presents a novel stepwise optimization model for optimizing the conjunctive use of surface and subsurface water resources management. At each time step, a two level decomposition approach was proposed to divide the nonlinear optimal conjunctive use problem into a linear surface water subproblem and a nonlinear groundwater subproblem. Because of the two level decomposition approach, a hybrid framework is used for the implementation of the conjunctive use model. In the hybrid framework, evolution algorithms, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Linear Programming (LP) are used for model solving. GA and LP are respectively used for determining the optimal pumping quantities and reservoir allocation, and ANN is used for the groundwater simulation. In the groundwater simulation, this study uses an ANN to simulate groundwater response and greatly reduce computational loading for unconfined aquifers, unlike conventional “response matrix method” or “embedding method”. Because of the very high performance of LP, the usage of LP for the linear surface water subproblem can significantly decrease the computational burden of entire model. In this study, four cases have been demonstrated. Case #1 is a pure surface water case and others are conjunctive use cases. In Case #2, “surface water supply firstly” is the supply principle between surface water. In Case #3 and #4, the “Index Balance” theory is the supply principle and different operation curves used in different cases respectively. The case result

  8. A deterministic solution of the first order linear Boltzmann transport equation in the presence of external magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    St Aubin, J. Keyvanloo, A.; Fallone, B. G.; Vassiliev, O.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate radiotherapy dose calculation algorithms are essential to any successful radiotherapy program, considering the high level of dose conformity and modulation in many of today’s treatment plans. As technology continues to progress, such as is the case with novel MRI-guided radiotherapy systems, the necessity for dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict delivered dose in increasingly challenging scenarios is vital. To this end, a novel deterministic solution has been developed to the first order linear Boltzmann transport equation which accurately calculates x-ray based radiotherapy doses in the presence of magnetic fields. Methods: The deterministic formalism discussed here with the inclusion of magnetic fields is outlined mathematically using a discrete ordinates angular discretization in an attempt to leverage existing deterministic codes. It is compared against the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, utilizing the emf-macros addition which calculates the effects of electromagnetic fields. This comparison is performed in an inhomogeneous phantom that was designed to present a challenging calculation for deterministic calculations in 0, 0.6, and 3 T magnetic fields oriented parallel and perpendicular to the radiation beam. The accuracy of the formalism discussed here against Monte Carlo was evaluated with a gamma comparison using a standard 2%/2 mm and a more stringent 1%/1 mm criterion for a standard reference 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field as well as a smaller 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} field. Results: Greater than 99.8% (94.8%) of all points analyzed passed a 2%/2 mm (1%/1 mm) gamma criterion for all magnetic field strengths and orientations investigated. All dosimetric changes resulting from the inclusion of magnetic fields were accurately calculated using the deterministic formalism. However, despite the algorithm’s high degree of accuracy, it is noticed that this formalism was not unconditionally stable using a discrete ordinate angular discretization

  9. Application of the principal fractional meta-trigonometric functions for the solution of linear commensurate-order time-invariant fractional differential equations.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C F; Hartley, T T; Malti, R

    2013-05-13

    A new and simplified method for the solution of linear constant coefficient fractional differential equations of any commensurate order is presented. The solutions are based on the R-function and on specialized Laplace transform pairs derived from the principal fractional meta-trigonometric functions. The new method simplifies the solution of such fractional differential equations and presents the solutions in the form of real functions as opposed to fractional complex exponential functions, and thus is directly applicable to real-world physics.

  10. An equation of state for the isotropic phase of linear, partially flexible and fully flexible tangent hard-sphere chain fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, Thijs; Oyarzún, Bernardo; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Gross, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    A new equation of state is developed that accurately describes the isotropic phase behaviour of linear, partially flexible and fully flexible tangent hard-sphere chain fluids and their mixtures. The equation of state is based on the equation of state of Liu and Hu [H. Liu and Y. Hu, Fluid Phase Equilibr. 122, 75 (1996)] for fully flexible chain fluids. The effect of molecular flexibility is described by a pure-component parameter that is introduced in the theory at the level of the cavity correlation function of next-to-nearest neighbour segments in a chain molecule. The equation of state contains a total of three adjustable model constants. The extension to partially flexible- and linear chain fluids is based on a refitting of the first model constant to numerical data of the second virial coefficient of partially flexible and linear tangent hard-sphere chain fluids. The numerical data were obtained from an analytical approximation for the pair-excluded volume. The other two parameters were adjusted to molecular simulation data for the pressure of linear tangent hard-sphere chain fluids. For both, pure component systems and mixtures of chains of variable flexibility, the pressure and second virial coefficient obtained from the equation of state, are in excellent agreement with the results from Monte Carlo simulations. A significant improvement to TPT1, TPT2, generalised Flory-dimer theory and scaled particle theory is observed.

  11. Development and application of a local linearization algorithm for the integration of quaternion rate equations in real-time flight simulation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. E., Jr.; Bowles, R. L.; Williams, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    High angular rates encountered in real-time flight simulation problems may require a more stable and accurate integration method than the classical methods normally used. A study was made to develop a general local linearization procedure of integrating dynamic system equations when using a digital computer in real-time. The procedure is specifically applied to the integration of the quaternion rate equations. For this application, results are compared to a classical second-order method. The local linearization approach is shown to have desirable stability characteristics and gives significant improvement in accuracy over the classical second-order integration methods.

  12. High-order boundary integral equation solution of high frequency wave scattering from obstacles in an unbounded linearly stratified medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Alex H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Mahoney, J. Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We apply boundary integral equations for the first time to the two-dimensional scattering of time-harmonic waves from a smooth obstacle embedded in a continuously-graded unbounded medium. In the case we solve, the square of the wavenumber (refractive index) varies linearly in one coordinate, i.e. (Δ + E +x2) u (x1 ,x2) = 0 where E is a constant; this models quantum particles of fixed energy in a uniform gravitational field, and has broader applications to stratified media in acoustics, optics and seismology. We evaluate the fundamental solution efficiently with exponential accuracy via numerical saddle-point integration, using the truncated trapezoid rule with typically 102 nodes, with an effort that is independent of the frequency parameter E. By combining with a high-order Nyström quadrature, we are able to solve the scattering from obstacles 50 wavelengths across to 11 digits of accuracy in under a minute on a desktop or laptop.

  13. Numerical study of acoustic instability in a partly lined flow duct using the full linearized Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Bo; Sun, Dakun; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2016-07-01

    Lined ducts are extensively applied to suppress noise emission from aero-engines and other turbomachines. The complex noise/flow interaction in a lined duct possibly leads to acoustic instability in certain conditions. To investigate the instability, the full linearized Navier-Stokes equations with eddy viscosity considered are solved in frequency domain using a Galerkin finite element method to compute the sound transmission in shear flow in the lined duct as well as the flow perturbation over the impedance wall. A good agreement between the numerical predictions and the published experimental results is obtained for the sound transmission, showing that a transmission peak occurs around the resonant frequency of the acoustic liner in the presence of shear flow. The eddy viscosity is an important influential factor that plays the roles of both providing destabilizing and making coupling between the acoustic and flow motions over the acoustic liner. Moreover, it is shown from the numerical investigation that the occurrence of the sound amplification and the magnitude of transmission coefficient are closely related to the realistic velocity profile, and we find it essential that the actual variation of the velocity profile in the axial direction over the liner surface be included in the computation. The simulation results of the periodic flow patterns possess the proper features of the convective instability over the liner, as observed in Marx et al.'s experiment. A quantitative comparison between numerical and experimental results of amplitude and phase of the instability is performed. The corresponding eigenvalues achieve great agreement.

  14. Evolution of the linear-polarization-angle-dependence of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance-oscillations with microwave power

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2014-11-10

    We examine the role of the microwave power in the linear polarization angle dependence of the microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system. The diagonal resistance R{sub xx} was measured at the fixed magnetic fields of the photo-excited oscillatory extrema of R{sub xx} as a function of both the microwave power, P, and the linear polarization angle, θ. Color contour plots of such measurements demonstrate the evolution of the lineshape of R{sub xx} versus θ with increasing microwave power. We report that the non-linear power dependence of the amplitude of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations distorts the cosine-square relation between R{sub xx} and θ at high power.

  15. Analytical solutions with the improved (G’/G)-expansion method for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet; Akbulut, Arzu

    2016-10-01

    To seek the exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs), the improved (G'/G)-expansion method is proposed in the present work. With the aid of symbolic computation, this effective method is applied to construct exact solutions of the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear dispersive modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation and (3+1)- dimensional Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation. As a result, new types of exact solutions are obtained.

  16. Nonlinear inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck equations: Entropy and free-energy time evolution.

    PubMed

    Sicuro, Gabriele; Rapčan, Peter; Tsallis, Constantino

    2016-12-01

    We extend a recently introduced free-energy formalism for homogeneous Fokker-Planck equations to a wide, and physically appealing, class of inhomogeneous nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations. In our approach, the free-energy functional is expressed in terms of an entropic functional and an auxiliary potential, both derived from the coefficients of the equation. With reference to the introduced entropic functional, we discuss the entropy production in a relaxation process towards equilibrium. The properties of the stationary solutions of the considered Fokker-Planck equations are also discussed.

  17. An Investigation into Challenges Faced by Secondary School Teachers and Pupils in Algebraic Linear Equations: A Case of Mufulira District, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Koji; Mulenga, H. M.; Angel, Mukuka

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges faced by secondary school teachers and pupils in the teaching and learning of algebraic linear equations. The study involved 80 grade 11 pupils and 15 teachers of mathematics, drawn from 4 selected secondary schools in Mufulira district, Zambia in Central Africa. A descriptive survey method was employed to…

  18. Application of a local linearization technique for the solution of a system of stiff differential equations associated with the simulation of a magnetic bearing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, K. S.; Mcdaniel, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A digital local linearization technique was used to solve a system of stiff differential equations which simulate a magnetic bearing assembly. The results prove the technique to be accurate, stable, and efficient when compared to a general purpose variable order Adams method with a stiff option.

  19. A Comparison of Four Linear Equating Methods for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Simulation Methods. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…

  20. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Luciana Renata de; Bazzani, Armando; Giampieri, Enrico; Castellani, Gastone C.

    2014-08-14

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their “far from equilibrium behavior,” hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative “external vector field” whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the “plasticity property” of biological systems

  1. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciana Renata; Bazzani, Armando; Giampieri, Enrico; Castellani, Gastone C

    2014-08-14

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their "far from equilibrium behavior," hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative "external vector field" whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the "plasticity property" of biological systems and to their

  2. Asymptotic and Sampling-Based Standard Errors for Two Population Invariance Measures in the Linear Equating Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijmen, Frank; Manalo, Jonathan R.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes two methods for obtaining the standard errors of two commonly used population invariance measures of equating functions: the root mean square difference of the subpopulation equating functions from the overall equating function and the root expected mean square difference. The delta method relies on an analytical…

  3. Analytic-numerical description of asymptotic solutions of a Cauchy problem in a neighborhood of singularities for a linearized system of shallow-water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhnikov, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    S. Yu. Dobrokhotov, B. Tirozzi, S. Ya. Sekerzh-Zenkovich, A. I. Shafarevich, and their co-authors suggested new effective asymptotic formulas for solving a Cauchy problem with localized initial data for multidimensional linear hyperbolic equations with variable coefficients and, in particular, for a linearized system of shallow-water equations over an uneven bottom in their cycle of papers. The solutions are localized in a neighborhood of fronts on which focal points and self-intersection points (singular points) occur in the course of time, due to the variability of the coefficients. In the present paper, a numerical realization of asymptotic formulas in a neighborhood of singular points of fronts is presented in the case of the system of shallow-water equations, gluing problems for these formulas together with formulas for regular domains are discussed, and also a comparison of asymptotic solutions with solutions obtained by immediate numerical computations is carried out.

  4. Non-linear Equation using Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels to Predict Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Hiroki; Suwa, Hideaki; Nakano, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Mari; Imazu, Miki; Hasegawa, Takuya; Takahama, Hiroyuki; Amaki, Makoto; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Mochizuki, Naoki; Ishii, Akira; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; Washio, Takashi; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is the most effective predictor of outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). This study sought to determine the qualitative relationship between the BNP levels at discharge and on the day of cardiovascular events in CHF patients. We devised a mathematical probabilistic model between the BNP levels at discharge (y) and on the day (t) of cardiovascular events after discharge for 113 CHF patients (Protocol I). We then prospectively evaluated this model on another set of 60 CHF patients who were readmitted (Protocol II). P(t|y) was the probability of cardiovascular events occurring after >t, the probability on t was given as p(t|y) = −dP(t|y)/dt, and p(t|y) = pP(t|y) = αyβP(t|y), along with p = αyβ (α and β were constant); the solution was p(t|y) = αyβ exp(−αyβt). We fitted this equation to the data set of Protocol I using the maximum likelihood principle, and we obtained the model p(t|y) = 0.000485y0.24788 exp(−0.000485y0.24788t). The cardiovascular event-free rate was computed as P(t) = 1/60Σi=1,…,60 exp(−0.000485yi0.24788t), based on this model and the BNP levels yi in a data set of Protocol II. We confirmed no difference between this model-based result and the actual event-free rate. In conclusion, the BNP levels showed a non-linear relationship with the day of occurrence of cardiovascular events in CHF patients. PMID:27845390

  5. Non-linear Equation using Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels to Predict Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hiroki; Suwa, Hideaki; Nakano, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Mari; Imazu, Miki; Hasegawa, Takuya; Takahama, Hiroyuki; Amaki, Makoto; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Mochizuki, Naoki; Ishii, Akira; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; Washio, Takashi; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2016-11-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is the most effective predictor of outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). This study sought to determine the qualitative relationship between the BNP levels at discharge and on the day of cardiovascular events in CHF patients. We devised a mathematical probabilistic model between the BNP levels at discharge (y) and on the day (t) of cardiovascular events after discharge for 113 CHF patients (Protocol I). We then prospectively evaluated this model on another set of 60 CHF patients who were readmitted (Protocol II). P(t|y) was the probability of cardiovascular events occurring after >t, the probability on t was given as p(t|y) = ‑dP(t|y)/dt, and p(t|y) = pP(t|y) = αyβP(t|y), along with p = αyβ (α and β were constant); the solution was p(t|y) = αyβ exp(‑αyβt). We fitted this equation to the data set of Protocol I using the maximum likelihood principle, and we obtained the model p(t|y) = 0.000485y0.24788 exp(‑0.000485y0.24788t). The cardiovascular event-free rate was computed as P(t) = 1/60Σi=1,…,60 exp(‑0.000485yi0.24788t), based on this model and the BNP levels yi in a data set of Protocol II. We confirmed no difference between this model-based result and the actual event-free rate. In conclusion, the BNP levels showed a non-linear relationship with the day of occurrence of cardiovascular events in CHF patients.

  6. Evolution of higher order nonlinear equation for the dust ion-acoustic waves in nonextensive plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yasmin, S.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2012-10-15

    There are three different types of nonlinear equations, namely, Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed modified K-dV (mixed mK-dV) equations, for the nonlinear propagation of the dust ion-acoustic (DIA) waves. The effects of electron nonextensivity on DIA solitary waves propagating in a dusty plasma (containing negatively charged stationary dust, inertial ions, and nonextensive q distributed electrons) are examined by solving these nonlinear equations. The basic features of mixed mK-dV (higher order nonlinear equation) solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The properties of mK-dV solitons are compared with those of mixed mK-dV solitons. It is found that both positive and negative solitons are obtained depending on the q (nonextensive parameter).

  7. A new modified differential evolution algorithm scheme-based linear frequency modulation radar signal de-noising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood Al-Dabbagh, Mohanad; Dawoud Al-Dabbagh, Rawaa; Raja Abdullah, R. S. A.; Hashim, F.

    2015-06-01

    The main intention of this study was to investigate the development of a new optimization technique based on the differential evolution (DE) algorithm, for the purpose of linear frequency modulation radar signal de-noising. As the standard DE algorithm is a fixed length optimizer, it is not suitable for solving signal de-noising problems that call for variability. A modified crossover scheme called rand-length crossover was designed to fit the proposed variable-length DE, and the new DE algorithm is referred to as the random variable-length crossover differential evolution (rvlx-DE) algorithm. The measurement results demonstrate a highly efficient capability for target detection in terms of frequency response and peak forming that was isolated from noise distortion. The modified method showed significant improvements in performance over traditional de-noising techniques.

  8. Prediction of the Oncotype DX recurrence score: use of pathology-generated equations derived by linear regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Molly E; Dabbs, David J; Shuai, Yongli; Brufsky, Adam M; Jankowitz, Rachel; Puhalla, Shannon L; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-05-01

    Oncotype DX is a commercial assay frequently used for making chemotherapy decisions in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. The result is reported as a recurrence score ranging from 0 to 100, divided into low-risk (<18), intermediate-risk (18-30), and high-risk (≥31) categories. Our pilot study showed that recurrence score can be predicted by an equation incorporating standard morphoimmunohistologic variables (referred to as original Magee equation). Using a data set of 817 cases, we formulated three additional equations (referred to as new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3) to predict the recurrence score category for an independent set of 255 cases. The concordance between the risk category of Oncotype DX and our equations was 54.3%, 55.8%, 59.4%, and 54.4% for original Magee equation, new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. When the intermediate category was eliminated, the concordance increased to 96.9%, 100%, 98.6%, and 98.7% for original Magee equation, new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Even when the estimated recurrence score fell in the intermediate category with any of the equations, the actual recurrence score was either intermediate or low in more than 80% of the cases. Any of the four equations can be used to estimate the recurrence score depending on available data. If the estimated recurrence score is clearly high or low, the oncologists should not expect a dramatically different result from Oncotype DX, and the Oncotype DX test may not be needed. Conversely, an Oncotype DX result that is dramatically different from what is expected based on standard morphoimmunohistologic variables should be thoroughly investigated.

  9. RAEEM: A Maple package for finding a series of exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Yin-Ping

    2004-11-01

    In Maple 8, by taking advantage of the package RIF contained in DEtools, we developed a package RAEEM which is a comprehensive and complete implementation of such methods as the tanh-method, the extended tanh-method, the Jacobi elliptic function method and the elliptic equation method. RAEEM can entirely automatically output a series of exact traveling wave solutions, including those of polynomial, exponential, triangular, hyperbolic, rational, Jacobi elliptic, Weierstrass elliptic type. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a large variety of equations. In addition to recovering previously known solutions, we also obtain more general forms of some solutions and new solutions. Program summaryTitle of program: RAEEM Catalogue identifier: ADUP Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUP Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: PC Pentium IV Installations: Copy Operating systems: Windows 98/2000/XP Program language used: Maple 8 Memory required to execute with typical data: depends on the problem, minimum about 8M words No. of bits in a word: 8 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3163 No. of bytes in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 26 720 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Our program provides exact traveling wave solutions, which describe various phenomena in nature, and thus can give more insight into the physical aspects of problems. These solutions may be easily used in further applications. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: The program can handle system of nonlinear evolution equations with any number of independent and dependent variables, in which each equation is a polynomial (or can be converted to a polynomial) in the dependent variables and their derivatives. Typical running time: It depends on the input equations as well as the degrees of the desired polynomial solutions. For

  10. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  11. Remarks on the Non-Linear Differential Equation the Second Derivative of Theta Plus A Sine Theta Equals 0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; O'Neal, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors draw together a variety of facts concerning a nonlinear differential equation and compare the exact solution with approximate solutions. Then they provide an expository introduction to the elliptic sine function suitable for presentation in undergraduate courses on differential equations. (MNS)

  12. The optimal control of a new class of impulsive stochastic neutral evolution integro-differential equations with infinite delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zuomao; Lu, Fangxia

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce the optimal control problems governed by a new class of impulsive stochastic partial neutral evolution equations with infinite delay in Hilbert spaces. First, by using stochastic analysis, the analytic semigroup theory, fractional powers of closed operators, and suitable fixed point theorems, we prove an existence result of mild solutions for the control systems in the α-norm without the assumptions of compactness. Next, we derive the existence conditions of optimal pairs of these systems. Finally, application to a nonlinear impulsive stochastic parabolic optimal control system is considered.

  13. Some results on the one-dimensional linear wave equation with van der Pol type nonlinear boundary conditions and the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhaosheng

    Many physical phenomena can be described by nonlinear models. The last few decades have seen an enormous growth of the applicability of nonlinear models and of the development of related nonlinear concepts. This has been driven by modern computer power as well as by the discovery of new mathematical techniques, which include two contrasting themes: (i) the theory of dynamical systems, most popularly associated with the study of chaos, and (ii) the theory of integrable systems associated, among other things, with the study of solitons. In this dissertation, we study two nonlinear models. One is the 1-dimensional vibrating string satisfying wtt - wxx = 0 with van der Pol boundary conditions. We formulate the problem into an equivalent first order Hyperbolic system, and use the method of characteristics to derive a nonlinear reflection relation caused by the nonlinear boundary conditions. Thus, the problem is reduced to the discrete iteration problem of the type un+1 = F( un). Periodic solutions are investigated, an invariant interval for the Abel equation is studied, and numerical simulations and visualizations with different coefficients are illustrated. The other model is the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation. In this dissertation, we proposed two new approaches: One is what we currently call First Integral Method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra. Applying the Hilbert-Nullstellensatz, we reduce the KdVB equation to a first-order integrable ordinary differential equation. The other approach is called the Coordinate Transformation Method, which involves a series of variable transformations. Some new results on the traveling wave solution are established by using these two methods, which not only are more general than the existing ones in the previous literature, but also indicate that some corresponding solutions presented in the literature contain errors. We clarify the errors and instead give a refined result.

  14. Present-day formation and seasonal evolution of linear dune gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquon, Kelly; Gargani, Julien; Massé, Marion; Conway, Susan J.

    2016-08-01

    Linear dune gullies are a sub-type of martian gullies. As their name suggests they only occur on sandy substrates and comprise very long (compared to their width) straight or sinuous channels, with relatively small source areas and almost non-existent visible deposits. Linear dune gullies have never been observed on terrestrial dunes and their formation process on Mars is unclear. Here, we present the results of the first systematic survey of these features in Mars' southern hemisphere and an in-depth study of six dunefields where repeat-imaging allows us to monitor the changes in these gullies over time. This study was undertaken with HiRISE images at 25-30 cm/pix and 1 m/pix elevation data derived from HiRISE stereo images. We find the latitudinal distribution and orientation of linear dune gullies broadly consistent with the general population of martian gullies. They occur predominantly between 36.3°S and 54.3°S, and occasionally between 64.6°S and 70.4°S. They are generally oriented toward SSW (at bearings between 150° and 260°). We find that these gullies are extremely active over the most recent 5 Martian years of images. Activity comprises: (1) appearance of new channels, (2) lengthening of existing channels, (3) complete or partial reactivation, and (4) disappearance of gullies. We find that gully channels lengthen by ∼100 m per year. The intense activity and the progressive disappearance of linear dune gullies argues against the hypothesis that these are remnant morphologies left over from previous periods of high obliquity millions of years ago. The activity of linear dune gullies reoccurs every year between the end of winter and the beginning of spring (Ls 167.4°-216.6°), and coincides with the final stages of the sublimation of annual CO₂ ice deposit. This activity often coincides spatially and temporally with the appearance of recurrent diffusing flows (RDFs)-digitate-shaped, dark patches with low relative albedo (up to 48% lower than the

  15. A New Discretization Method of Order Four for the Numerical Solution of One-Space Dimensional Second-Order Quasi-Linear Hyperbolic Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, R. K.; Arora, Urvashi

    2002-01-01

    Three level-implicit finite difference methods of order four are discussed for the numerical solution of the mildly quasi-linear second-order hyperbolic equation A(x, t, u)u[subscript xx] + 2B(x, t, u)u[subscript xt] + C(x, t, u)u[subscript tt] = f(x, t, u, u[subscript x], u[subscript t]), 0 less than x less than 1, t greater than 0 subject to…

  16. Conditions for instantaneous support shrinking and sharp estimates for the support of the solution of the Cauchy problem for a doubly non-linear parabolic equation with absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarev, S P

    2008-04-30

    Instantaneous support shrinking is studied for a doubly non-linear degenerate parabolic equation in the case of slow diffusion when, in general, the Cauchy initial data are Radon measures. For a non-negative solution, a necessary and sufficient condition for instantaneous support shrinking is obtained in terms of the local behaviour of the mass of the initial data. In the same terms, estimates are obtained for the size of the support, that are sharp with respect to order. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  17. Complete list of the first integrals of dynamic equations of a multidimensional solid in a nonconservative field under the assumption of linear damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamolin, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic part of equations of motion is investigated for a dynamically symmetric multidimensional solid in a nonconservative force field in the presence of the following force in the case when the solid is under the action of a pair of forces. In this case, there is additional linear damping in the system. The new case of complete integrability is found in transcendental (in the sense of complex analysis) functions, which are expressed through a finite combination of elementary functions.

  18. Linear-noise approximation and the chemical master equation agree up to second-order moments for a class of chemical systems.

    PubMed

    Grima, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that the linear-noise approximation (LNA) agrees with the chemical master equation, up to second-order moments, for chemical systems composed of zero and first-order reactions. Here we show that this is also a property of the LNA for a subset of chemical systems with second-order reactions. This agreement is independent of the number of interacting molecules.

  19. A comparative examination of the adsorption mechanism of an anionic textile dye (RBY 3GL) onto the powdered activated carbon (PAC) using various the isotherm models and kinetics equations with linear and non-linear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açıkyıldız, Metin; Gürses, Ahmet; Güneş, Kübra; Yalvaç, Duygu

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare the linear and non-linear methods used to check the compliance of the experimental data corresponding to the isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson) and kinetics equations (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order). In this context, adsorption experiments were carried out to remove an anionic dye, Remazol Brillant Yellow 3GL (RBY), from its aqueous solutions using a commercial activated carbon as a sorbent. The effects of contact time, initial RBY concentration, and temperature onto adsorbed amount were investigated. The amount of dye adsorbed increased with increased adsorption time and the adsorption equilibrium was attained after 240 min. The amount of dye adsorbed enhanced with increased temperature, suggesting that the adsorption process is endothermic. The experimental data was analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations in order to predict adsorption isotherm. It was determined that the isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo second-order kinetic model. According to the kinetic and isotherm data, it was found that the determination coefficients obtained from linear method were higher than those obtained from non-linear method.

  20. An evolution infinity Laplace equation modelling dynamic elasto-plastic torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messelmi, Farid

    2016-09-01

    We consider in this paper a parabolic partial differential equation involving the infinity Laplace operator and a Leray-Lions operator with no coercitive assumption. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the corresponding approached problem and we show that at the limit the solution solves the parabolic variational inequality arising in the elasto-plastic torsion problem.