Exploring stochasticity and imprecise knowledge based on linear inequality constraints.
Subbey, Sam; Planque, Benjamin; Lindstrøm, Ulf
2016-09-01
This paper explores the stochastic dynamics of a simple foodweb system using a network model that mimics interacting species in a biosystem. It is shown that the system can be described by a set of ordinary differential equations with real-valued uncertain parameters, which satisfy a set of linear inequality constraints. The constraints restrict the solution space to a bounded convex polytope. We present results from numerical experiments to show how the stochasticity and uncertainty characterizing the system can be captured by sampling the interior of the polytope with a prescribed probability rule, using the Hit-and-Run algorithm. The examples illustrate a parsimonious approach to modeling complex biosystems under vague knowledge. PMID:26746217
Exploring stochasticity and imprecise knowledge based on linear inequality constraints.
Subbey, Sam; Planque, Benjamin; Lindstrøm, Ulf
2016-09-01
This paper explores the stochastic dynamics of a simple foodweb system using a network model that mimics interacting species in a biosystem. It is shown that the system can be described by a set of ordinary differential equations with real-valued uncertain parameters, which satisfy a set of linear inequality constraints. The constraints restrict the solution space to a bounded convex polytope. We present results from numerical experiments to show how the stochasticity and uncertainty characterizing the system can be captured by sampling the interior of the polytope with a prescribed probability rule, using the Hit-and-Run algorithm. The examples illustrate a parsimonious approach to modeling complex biosystems under vague knowledge.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michalopoulos, C. D.
1974-01-01
Optimal control theory is applied to analyze the transient response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with unknown time dependence but having known bounds. Particular attention is given to forcing functions which include: (1) maximum displacement of any given mass element, (2) maximum relative displacement of any two adjacent masses, and (3) maximum acceleration of a given mass. Linear mechanical systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom and only one forcing function acting are considered. In the general case, the desired forcing function is found to be a function that switches from the upper-to-lower bound and vice-versa at certain moments of time. A general procedure for finding such switching times is set forth.
Response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michalopoulos, C. D.; Riley, T. A.
1972-01-01
An analysis is made of the maximum response of discrete, linear mechanical systems to arbitrary forcing functions which lie within specified bounds. Primary attention is focused on the complete determination of the forcing function which will engender maximum displacement to any particular mass element of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. In general, the desired forcing function is found to be a bang-bang type function, i.e., a function which switches from the maximum to the minimum bound and vice-versa at certain instants of time. Examples of two-degree-of-freedom systems, with and without damping, are presented in detail. Conclusions are drawn concerning the effect of damping on the switching times and the general procedure for finding these times is discussed.
Data assimilation with inequality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thacker, W. C.
If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.
Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.
2003-01-01
Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops two analytic methods of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The first method is a general technique of using hard constraints to enforce inequalities on the state variable estimates. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The second method uses soft constraints to estimate state variables that are known to vary slowly with time. (Soft constraints are constraints that are required to be approximately satisfied rather than exactly satisfied.) The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate health parameters. The turbofan engine model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.
Bell Inequalities as Constraints on Unmeasurable Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budroni, Costantino; Morchio, Giovanni
2012-04-01
The interpretation of the violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities is revisited, in relation with the notion of extension of QM predictions to unmeasurable correlations. Such extensions are compatible with QM predictions in many cases, in particular for observables with compatibility relations described by tree graphs. This implies classical representability of any set of correlations < A i >, < B>, < A i B>, and the equivalence of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities to a non void intersection between the ranges of values for the unmeasurable correlation < A 1 A 2> associated to different choices for B. The same analysis applies to the Hardy model and to the "perfect correlations" discussed by Greenberger, Horne, Shimony and Zeilinger. In all the cases, the dependence of an unmeasurable correlation on a set of variables allowing for a classical representation is the only basis for arguments about violations of locality and causality.
Handling inequality constraints in continuous nonlinear global optimization
Wang, Tao; Wah, B.W.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we present a new method to handle inequality constraints and apply it in NOVEL (Nonlinear Optimization via External Lead), a system we have developed for solving constrained continuous nonlinear optimization problems. In general, in applying Lagrange-multiplier methods to solve these problems, inequality constraints are first converted into equivalent equality constraints. One such conversion method adds a slack variable to each inequality constraint in order to convert it into an equality constraint. The disadvantage of this conversion is that when the search is inside a feasible region, some satisfied constraints may still pose a non-zero weight in the Lagrangian function, leading to possible oscillations and divergence when a local optimum lies on the boundary of a feasible region. We propose a new conversion method called the MaxQ method such that all satisfied constraints in a feasible region always carry zero weight in the Lagrange function; hence, minimizing the Lagrange function in a feasible region always leads to local minima of the objective function. We demonstrate that oscillations do not happen in our method. We also propose methods to speed up convergence when a local optimum lies on the boundary of a feasible region. Finally, we show improved experimental results in applying our proposed method in NOVEL on some existing benchmark problems and compare them to those obtained by applying the method based on slack variables.
CT metal artifact reduction by soft inequality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Sokolov, Valerii; Ingacheva, Anastasiya; Buzmakov, Alexey; Prun, Victor
2015-12-01
The artifacts (known as metal-like artifacts) arising from incorrect reconstruction may obscure or simulate pathology in medical applications, hide or mimic cracks and cavities in the scanned objects in industrial tomographic scans. One of the main reasons caused such artifacts is photon starvation on the rays which go through highly absorbing regions. We indroduce a way to suppress such artifacts in the reconstructions using soft penalty mimicing linear inequalities on the photon starved rays. An efficient algorithm to use such information is provided and the effect of those inequalities on the reconstruction quality is studied.
Linear equality constraints in the general linear mixed model.
Edwards, L J; Stewart, P W; Muller, K E; Helms, R W
2001-12-01
Scientists may wish to analyze correlated outcome data with constraints among the responses. For example, piecewise linear regression in a longitudinal data analysis can require use of a general linear mixed model combined with linear parameter constraints. Although well developed for standard univariate models, there are no general results that allow a data analyst to specify a mixed model equation in conjunction with a set of constraints on the parameters. We resolve the difficulty by precisely describing conditions that allow specifying linear parameter constraints that insure the validity of estimates and tests in a general linear mixed model. The recommended approach requires only straightforward and noniterative calculations to implement. We illustrate the convenience and advantages of the methods with a comparison of cognitive developmental patterns in a study of individuals from infancy to early adulthood for children from low-income families.
Motorcycle suspension design using matrix inequalities and passivity constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Amrit; Limebeer, David J. N.
2012-03-01
This paper presents a design methodology for the suspension system of a novel aerodynamically efficient motorcycle. Since the machine's layout and the rider's seating position are unconventional, several aspects of the machine design, including the suspension, must be reviewed afresh. The design process is based on matrix inequalities that are used to optimise a road-grip objective function - others could be used equally well. The design problem is cast as the minimisation of an H 2 cost with passivity constraints imposed on the suspension transference. The resulting bilinear matrix inequality problem is solved using a locally optimal iterative algorithm. The matrix inequality-type characterisation of positive real functions permits the optimisation of the suspension system over an entire class of passive admittances. Torsional springs, dampers and inerters are then used to construct networks corresponding to the optimal (positive real) admittances. Networks of first, second, third and fourth orders are considered, and an argument based on the compromise between complexity and improved grip is made for the most suitable suspension configuration. Finally, the effects of improved road grip on the stability of the vehicle's lateral dynamics are analysed.
Finite element solution of optimal control problems with inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bless, Robert R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1990-01-01
A finite-element method based on a weak Hamiltonian form of the necessary conditions is summarized for optimal control problems. Very crude shape functions (so simple that element numerical quadrature is not necessary) can be used to develop an efficient procedure for obtaining candidate solutions (i.e., those which satisfy all the necessary conditions) even for highly nonlinear problems. An extension of the formulation allowing for discontinuities in the states and derivatives of the states is given. A theory that includes control inequality constraints is fully developed. An advanced launch vehicle (ALV) model is presented. The model involves staging and control constraints, thus demonstrating the full power of the weak formulation to date. Numerical results are presented along with total elapsed computer time required to obtain the results. The speed and accuracy in obtaining the results make this method a strong candidate for a real-time guidance algorithm.
On the development of HSCT tail sizing criteria using linear matrix inequalities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaminer, Isaac
1995-01-01
This report presents the results of a study to extend existing high speed civil transport (HSCT) tail sizing criteria using linear matrix inequalities (LMI). In particular, the effects of feedback specifications, such as MIL STD 1797 Level 1 and 2 flying qualities requirements, and actuator amplitude and rate constraints on the maximum allowable cg travel for a given set of tail sizes are considered. Results comparing previously developed industry criteria and the LMI methodology on an HSCT concept airplane are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rai, Ashutosh; Home, Dipankar; Majumdar, A. S.
2011-11-01
Leggett-type nonlocal realistic inequalities that have been derived to date are all contingent upon suitable geometrical constraints to be strictly satisfied by the spatial arrangement of the relevant measurement settings. This undesirable restriction is removed in the present work by deriving appropriate forms of nonlocal realistic inequalities, one of which involves the fewest number of settings compared to all such inequalities derived earlier. The way such inequalities would provide a logically firmer basis for a clearer testing of a Leggett-type nonlocal realistic model vis-à-vis quantum mechanics is explained.
Rai, Ashutosh; Majumdar, A. S.; Home, Dipankar
2011-11-15
Leggett-type nonlocal realistic inequalities that have been derived to date are all contingent upon suitable geometrical constraints to be strictly satisfied by the spatial arrangement of the relevant measurement settings. This undesirable restriction is removed in the present work by deriving appropriate forms of nonlocal realistic inequalities, one of which involves the fewest number of settings compared to all such inequalities derived earlier. The way such inequalities would provide a logically firmer basis for a clearer testing of a Leggett-type nonlocal realistic model vis-a-vis quantum mechanics is explained.
On non-combinatorial weighted total least squares with inequality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Xing
2014-08-01
Observation systems known as errors-in-variables (EIV) models with model parameters estimated by total least squares (TLS) have been discussed for more than a century, though the terms EIV and TLS were coined much more recently. So far, it has only been shown that the inequality-constrained TLS (ICTLS) solution can be obtained by the combinatorial methods, assuming that the weight matrices of observations involved in the data vector and the data matrix are identity matrices. Although the previous works test all combinations of active sets or solution schemes in a clear way, some aspects have received little or no attention such as admissible weights, solution characteristics and numerical efficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to adjust the EIV model, subject to linear inequality constraints. In particular, (1) This work deals with a symmetrical positive-definite cofactor matrix that could otherwise be quite arbitrary. It also considers cross-correlations between cofactor matrices for the random coefficient matrix and the random observation vector. (2) From a theoretical perspective, we present first-order Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) necessary conditions and the second-order sufficient conditions of the inequality-constrained weighted TLS (ICWTLS) solution by analytical formulation. (3) From a numerical perspective, an active set method without combinatorial tests as well as a method based on sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is established. By way of applications, computational costs of the proposed algorithms are shown to be significantly lower than the currently existing ICTLS methods. It is also shown that the proposed methods can treat the ICWTLS problem in the case of more general weight matrices. Finally, we study the ICWTLS solution in terms of non-convex weighted TLS contours from a geometrical perspective.
Solving linear inequalities in a least squares sense
Bramley, R.; Winnicka, B.
1994-12-31
Let A {element_of} {Re}{sup mxn} be an arbitrary real matrix, and let b {element_of} {Re}{sup m} a given vector. A familiar problem in computational linear algebra is to solve the system Ax = b in a least squares sense; that is, to find an x* minimizing {parallel}Ax {minus} b{parallel}, where {parallel} {center_dot} {parallel} refers to the vector two-norm. Such an x* solves the normal equations A{sup T}(Ax {minus} b) = 0, and the optimal residual r* = b {minus} Ax* is unique (although x* need not be). The least squares problem is usually interpreted as corresponding to multiple observations, represented by the rows of A and b, on a vector of data x. The observations may be inconsistent, and in this case a solution is sought that minimizes the norm of the residuals. A less familiar problem to numerical linear algebraists is the solution of systems of linear inequalities Ax {le} b in a least squares sense, but the motivation is similar: if a set of observations places upper or lower bounds on linear combinations of variables, the authors want to find x* minimizing {parallel} (Ax {minus} b){sub +} {parallel}, where the i{sup th} component of the vector v{sub +} is the maximum of zero and the i{sup th} component of v.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theodore, Zachary B.
A robust proportional-integral (PI) controller was synthesized for the F-16 VISTA (Variable stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft) using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, with the goal of eventually designing and implementing a linear parameter-varying PI controller on high performance aircraft. The combination of classical and modern control theory provides theoretically guaranteed stability and performance throughout the flight envelope and ease of implementation due to the simplicity of the PI controller structure. The controller is designed by solving a set of LMIs with pole placement constraints. This closed-loop system was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to analyze the performance of the controller. A robust Hinfinity controller was also developed to compare performance with PI controller. The simulation results showed stability, albeit with poor performance compared to the Hinfinity controlle.
Review of LFTs, LMIs, and mu. [Linear Fractional Transformations, Linear Matrix Inequalities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doyle, John; Packard, Andy; Zhou, Kemin
1991-01-01
The authors present a tutorial overview of linear fractional transformations (LFTs) and the role of the structured singular value, mu, and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) in solving LFT problems. The authors first introduce the notation for LFTs and briefly discuss some of their properties. They then describe mu and its connections with LFTs. They focus on two standard notions of robust stability and performance, mu stability and performance and Q stability and performance, and their relationship is discussed. Comparisons with the L1 theory of robust performance with structured uncertainty are considered.
Optimal control of singularly perturbed nonlinear systems with state-variable inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.
1990-01-01
The established necessary conditions for optimality in nonlinear control problems that involve state-variable inequality constraints are applied to a class of singularly perturbed systems. The distinguishing feature of this class of two-time-scale systems is a transformation of the state-variable inequality constraint, present in the full order problem, to a constraint involving states and controls in the reduced problem. It is shown that, when a state constraint is active in the reduced problem, the boundary layer problem can be of finite time in the stretched time variable. Thus, the usual requirement for asymptotic stability of the boundary layer system is not applicable, and cannot be used to construct approximate boundary layer solutions. Several alternative solution methods are explored and illustrated with simple examples.
Optimization technique for problems with an inequality constraint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, K. J.
1972-01-01
General technique uses a modified version of an existing technique termed the pattern search technique. New procedure called the parallel move strategy permits pattern search technique to be used with problems involving a constraint.
Optimal control problems with mixed control-phase variable equality and inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Makowski, K.; Neustad, L. W.
1974-01-01
In this paper, necessary conditions are obtained for optimal control problems containing equality constraints defined in terms of functions of the control and phase variables. The control system is assumed to be characterized by an ordinary differential equation, and more conventional constraints, including phase inequality constraints, are also assumed to be present. Because the first-mentioned equality constraint must be satisfied for all t (the independent variable of the differential equation) belonging to an arbitrary (prescribed) measurable set, this problem gives rise to infinite-dimensional equality constraints. To obtain the necessary conditions, which are in the form of a maximum principle, an implicit-function-type theorem in Banach spaces is derived.
Finite element solution of optimal control problems with state-control inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bless, Robert R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1992-01-01
It is demonstrated that the weak Hamiltonian finite-element formulation is amenable to the solution of optimal control problems with inequality constraints which are functions of both state and control variables. Difficult problems can be treated on account of the ease with which algebraic equations can be generated before having to specify the problem. These equations yield very accurate solutions. Owing to the sparse structure of the resulting Jacobian, computer solutions can be obtained quickly when the sparsity is exploited.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markopoulos, N.; Calise, A. J.
1993-01-01
The class of all piecewise time-continuous controllers tracking a given hypersurface in the state space of a dynamical system can be split by the present transformation technique into two disjoint classes; while the first of these contains all controllers which track the hypersurface in finite time, the second contains all controllers that track the hypersurface asymptotically. On this basis, a reformulation is presented for optimal control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints. If the state constraint is regarded as 'soft', there may exist controllers which are asymptotic, two-sided, and able to yield the optimal value of the performance index.
Linear patterning of mesenchymal condensations is modulated by geometric constraints
Klumpers, Darinka D.; Mao, Angelo S.; Smit, Theo H.; Mooney, David J.
2014-01-01
The development of the vertebral column starts with the formation of a linear array of mesenchymal condensations, forming the blueprint for the eventual alternating pattern of bone and cartilage. Despite growing insight into the molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis, the impact of the physical aspects of the environment is not well understood. We hypothesized that geometric boundary conditions may play a pivotal role in the linear patterning of condensations, as neighbouring tissues provide physical constraints to the cell population. To study the process of condensation and the patterning thereof under tightly controlled geometric constraints, we developed a novel in vitro model that combines micropatterning with the established micromass assay. The spacing and alignment of condensations changed with the width of the cell adhesive patterns, a phenomenon that could not be explained by cell availability alone. Moreover, the extent of chondrogenic commitment was increased on substrates with tighter geometric constraints. When the in vivo pattern of condensations was investigated in the developing vertebral column of chicken embryos, the measurements closely fit into the quantitative relation between geometric constraints and inter-condensation distance found in vitro. Together, these findings suggest a potential role of geometric constraints in skeletal patterning in a cellular process of self-organization. PMID:24718453
On classical mechanical systems with non-linear constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terra, Gláucio; Kobayashi, Marcelo H.
2004-03-01
In the present work, we analyze classical mechanical systems with non-linear constraints in the velocities. We prove that the d'Alembert-Chetaev trajectories of a constrained mechanical system satisfy both Gauss' principle of least constraint and Hölder's principle. In the case of a free mechanics, they also satisfy Hertz's principle of least curvature if the constraint manifold is a cone. We show that the Gibbs-Maggi-Appell (GMA) vector field (i.e. the second-order vector field which defines the d'Alembert-Chetaev trajectories) conserves energy for any potential energy if, and only if, the constraint is homogeneous (i.e. if the Liouville vector field is tangent to the constraint manifold). We introduce the Jacobi-Carathéodory metric tensor and prove Jacobi-Carathéodory's theorem assuming that the constraint manifold is a cone. Finally, we present a version of Liouville's theorem on the conservation of volume for the flow of the GMA vector field.
Linear perturbation constraints on multi-coupled dark energy
Piloyan, Arpine; Marra, Valerio; Amendola, Luca; Baldi, Marco E-mail: valerio.marra@me.com E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de
2014-02-01
The Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario has been recently proposed as a specific example of a cosmological model characterized by a non-standard physics of the dark sector of the universe that nevertheless gives an expansion history which does not significantly differ from the one of the standard ΛCDM model. Thanks to a dynamical screening mechanism, in fact, the interaction between the Dark Energy field and the Dark Matter sector is effectively suppressed at the background level during matter domination. As a consequence, background observables cannot discriminate a McDE cosmology from ΛCDM for a wide range of model parameters. On the other hand, linear perturbations are expected to provide tighter bounds due to the existence of attractive and repulsive fifth-forces associated with the dark interactions. In this work, we present the first constraints on the McDE scenario obtained by comparing the predicted evolution of linear density perturbations with a large compilation of recent data sets for the growth rate fσ{sub 8}, including 6dFGS, LRG, BOSS, WiggleZ and VIPERS. Confirming qualitative expectations, growth rate data provide much tighter bounds on the model parameters as compared to the extremely loose bounds that can be obtained when only the background expansion history is considered. In particular, the 95% confidence level on the coupling strength |β| is reduced from |β| ≤ 83 (background constraints only) to |β| ≤ 0.88 (background and linear perturbation constraints). We also investigate how these constraints further improve when using data from future wide-field surveys such as supernova data from LSST and growth rate data from Euclid-type missions. In this case the 95% confidence level on the coupling further reduce to |β| ≤ 0.85. Such constraints are in any case still consistent with a scalar fifth-force of gravitational strength, and we foresee that tighter bounds might be possibly obtained from the investigation of nonlinear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preda, Vasile; Dedu, Silvia; Gheorghe, Carmen
2015-10-01
In this paper, by using the entropy maximization principle with Tsallis entropy, new distribution families for modeling the income distribution are derived. Also, new classes of Lorenz curves are obtained by applying the entropy maximization principle with Tsallis entropy, under mean and Gini index equality and inequality constraints.
Interactive Analysis of Hyperspectral Data under Linearity Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, A.; Treguier, E.; Schmidt, F.; Moussaoui, S.; Pelloquin, C.
2010-12-01
Large data sets delivered by imaging spectrometers are interesting in many ways in the Planetary Sciences. Due to the size of the data and lack of ground truth, which often prohibit conventional exploratory data analysis methods, interactive but unsupervised analysis methods could be a way of discovering relevant information about the sources that make up the data. In this work, we investigate some of the opportunities and limitations of such analyses based on non-negative matrix approximation in planetary settings. Since typically there often is no ground truth to compare to, the degrees of freedom inherent in the aforementioned approximation techniques often has to be constrained by users to discover physically valid sources and patterns. One way of going about this is to present users with different valid solutions have them choose the one or ones that fit their knowledge of the environment best. Recent developments have made it possible to exploit linear mixing constraints and present results to users in real or near-real time; thus, the approach has become practicable. The general setting of the problem is as follows: By considering P pixels of an hyperspectral image acquired at L frequency bands, the observed spectra are gathered in a PxL data matrix X. Each row of this matrix contains a measured spectrum at a pixel with spatial index p=1..P. According to the linear mixing model, the p-th spectrum, 1<=p<=P, can be expressed as a linear combination of r, 1<=r<=R, pure spectra of the surface components. Thus, X=AxS+E, E being an error matrix, should be minimised, where X, A, and S have only non-negative entries. The rows of matrix S now contain the pure surface spectra of the R components, and each entry of A corresponds to the abundance of the r-th component in pixel with spatial index p. For a qualitative and quantitative description of the observed scene composition, the estimation problem consists of finding matrices S and A which allow to explain the data
Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.
2010-04-01
Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waldron-Moore, Pamela; Jacobs, Leslie R.
2010-01-01
Of all the social constructs impacting the contemporary world, gender is perhaps the most pervasive and the most insidious. Its inequities creep into our everyday lives with impunity. Across the globe, gender construction has evoked challenge, undergone reform and, in some instances, transformed thinking in societies. Yet, for all the gains made…
An Evaluation of an Algorithm for Linear Inequalities and Its Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jurgensen, J.
1973-01-01
An algorithm is presented for obtaining a solution alpha to a set of inequalities (A alpha) 0 where A is an N x m-matrix and alpha is an m-vector. If the set of inequalities is consistant, then the algorithm is guaranteed to arrive at a solution in a finite number of steps. Also, if in the iteration, a negative vector is obtained, then the initial set of inequalities is inconsistant, and the iteration is terminated.
Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints
Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A. E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com
2014-05-01
We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant αR{sup 2}+βR{sub μν}R{sup μν} can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.
Nonlinear optimization with linear constraints using a projection method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, T.
1982-01-01
Nonlinear optimization problems that are encountered in science and industry are examined. A method of projecting the gradient vector onto a set of linear contraints is developed, and a program that uses this method is presented. The algorithm that generates this projection matrix is based on the Gram-Schmidt method and overcomes some of the objections to the Rosen projection method.
On the existence of touch points for first-order state inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seywald, Hans; Cliff, Eugene M.
1993-01-01
The appearance of touch points in state constrained optimal control problems with general vector-valued control is studied. Under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is regular, touch points for first-order state inequalities are shown to exist only under very special conditions. In many cases of practical importance these conditions can be used to exclude touch points a priori without solving an optimal control problem. The results are demonstrated on a simple example.
Pre-Service Teachers' Linear and Quadratic Inequalities Understandings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bicer, Ali; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.
2014-01-01
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] noted that middle and high school students are expected to be able to both explain inequalities by using mathematical symbols and understand meanings by interpreting the solutions of inequalities. Unfortunately, research has revealed that not only do middle and high school students hold…
A dual method for optimal control problems with initial and final boundary constraints.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pironneau, O.; Polak, E.
1973-01-01
This paper presents two new algorithms belonging to the family of dual methods of centers. The first can be used for solving fixed time optimal control problems with inequality constraints on the initial and terminal states. The second one can be used for solving fixed time optimal control problems with inequality constraints on the initial and terminal states and with affine instantaneous inequality constraints on the control. Convergence is established for both algorithms. Qualitative reasoning indicates that the rate of convergence is linear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kun, David William
Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) are gaining popularity in civil and commercial applications as their lightweight on-board computers become more powerful and affordable, their power storage devices improve, and the Federal Aviation Administration addresses the legal and safety concerns of integrating UASs in the national airspace. Consequently, many researchers are pursuing novel methods to control UASs in order to improve their capabilities, dependability, and safety assurance. The nonlinear control approach is a common choice as it offers several benefits for these highly nonlinear aerospace systems (e.g., the quadrotor). First, the controller design is physically intuitive and is derived from well known dynamic equations. Second, the final control law is valid in a larger region of operation, including far from the equilibrium states. And third, the procedure is largely methodical, requiring less expertise with gain tuning, which can be arduous for a novice engineer. Considering these facts, this thesis proposes a nonlinear controller design method that combines the advantages of adaptive robust control (ARC) with the powerful design tools of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). The ARC-LMI controller is designed with a discontinuous projection-based adaptation law, and guarantees a prescribed transient and steady state tracking performance for uncertain systems in the presence of matched disturbances. The norm of the tracking error is bounded by a known function that depends on the controller design parameters in a known form. Furthermore, the LMI-based part of the controller ensures the stability of the system while overcoming polytopic uncertainties, and minimizes the control effort. This can reduce the number of parameters that require adaptation, and helps to avoid control input saturation. These desirable characteristics make the ARC-LMI control algorithm well suited for the quadrotor UAS, which may have unknown parameters and may encounter external
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
El-khateeb, Mahmoud M. A.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study aims to investigate the errors classes occurred by the Preparatory year students at King Saud University, through analysis student responses to the items of the study test, and to identify the varieties of the common errors and ratios of common errors that occurred in solving inequalities. In the collection of the data,…
Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient. PMID:27547676
Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Türkay, Semiha; Akçay, Hüseyin
2014-03-01
This paper studies multi-objective control of a full-vehicle suspension excited by random road disturbances. The control problem is first formulated as a mixed ℋ2/ℋ∞ synthesis problem and an output-feedback solution is obtained by using linear-matrix-inequalities. Next, the multi-objective control problem is re-formulated as a non-convex and non-smooth optimisation problem with controller order restricted to be less than the vehicle model order. For a range of orders, controllers are synthesised by using the HIFOO toolbox. The efficacy of the presented procedures are demonstrated by several design examples.
Kim, Jae-Hean; Koo, Bon-Ki
2013-02-25
This paper presents a new linear framework to obtain 3D scene reconstruction and camera calibration simultaneously from uncalibrated images using scene geometry. Our strategy uses the constraints of parallelism, coplanarity, colinearity, and orthogonality. These constraints can be obtained in general man-made scenes frequently. This approach can give more stable results with fewer images and allow us to gain the results with only linear operations. In this paper, it is shown that all the geometric constraints used in the previous works performed independently up to now can be implemented easily in the proposed linear method. The study on the situations that cannot be dealt with by the previous approaches is also presented and it is shown that the proposed method being able to handle the cases is more flexible in use. The proposed method uses a stratified approach, in which affine reconstruction is performed first and then metric reconstruction. In this procedure, the additional constraints newly extracted in this paper have an important role for affine reconstruction in practical situations.
Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.
Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L
2016-05-01
This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle.
Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.
Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L
2016-05-01
This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle. PMID:26850752
2011-01-01
Background There is need for new information about the socio-economic and geographic differences in health seeking and expenditures on many health conditions, so to help to design interventions that will reduce inequity in utilisation of healthcare services and ensure universal coverage. Objectives The paper contributes additional knowledge about health seeking and economic burden of different health conditions. It also shows the level of healthcare payments in public and private sector and their distribution across socioeconomic and geographic population groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected householders from 4,873 households (2,483 urban and 2,390 rural) in southeast Nigeria. Data was collected on: health problems that people had and sought care for; type of care sought, outpatient department (OPD) visits and inpatient department (IPD) stays; providers visited; expenditures; and preferences for improving access to care. Data was disaggregated by socio-economic status (SES) and geographic location (urban versus rural) of the households. Results Malaria and hypertension were the major communicable and non-communicable diseases respectively that required OPD and IPD. Patent medicine dealers (PMDs) were the most commonly used providers (41.1%), followed by private hospitals (19.7%) and pharmacies (16.4%). The rural dwellers and poorer SES groups mostly used low-level and informal providers. The average monthly treatment expenditure in urban area was 2444 Naira (US$20.4) and 2267 Naira (US$18.9) in the rural area. Higher SES groups and urbanites incurred higher health expenditures. People that needed healthcare services did not seek care mostly because the health condition was not serious enough or they could not afford the cost of services. Conclusion There were inequities in use of the different providers, and also in expenditures on treatment. Reforms should aim to decrease barriers to access to public and formal health
A quadratic-tensor model algorithm for nonlinear least-squares problems with linear constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, R. J.; Krogh, Fred T.
1992-01-01
A new algorithm for solving nonlinear least-squares and nonlinear equation problems is proposed which is based on approximating the nonlinear functions using the quadratic-tensor model by Schnabel and Frank. The algorithm uses a trust region defined by a box containing the current values of the unknowns. The algorithm is found to be effective for problems with linear constraints and dense Jacobian matrices.
Linear Quadratic Tracking Design for a Generic Transport Aircraft with Structural Load Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, John J.; Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.
2011-01-01
When designing control laws for systems with constraints added to the tracking performance, control allocation methods can be utilized. Control allocations methods are used when there are more command inputs than controlled variables. Constraints that require allocators are such task as; surface saturation limits, structural load limits, drag reduction constraints or actuator failures. Most transport aircraft have many actuated surfaces compared to the three controlled variables (such as angle of attack, roll rate & angle of side slip). To distribute the control effort among the redundant set of actuators a fixed mixer approach can be utilized or online control allocation techniques. The benefit of an online allocator is that constraints can be considered in the design whereas the fixed mixer cannot. However, an online control allocator mixer has a disadvantage of not guaranteeing a surface schedule, which can then produce ill defined loads on the aircraft. The load uncertainty and complexity has prevented some controller designs from using advanced allocation techniques. This paper considers actuator redundancy management for a class of over actuated systems with real-time structural load limits using linear quadratic tracking applied to the generic transport model. A roll maneuver example of an artificial load limit constraint is shown and compared to the same no load limitation maneuver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kon'kov, A. A.
2014-08-01
We consider non-negative solutions of quasi-linear elliptic inequalities \\operatorname{div}A(x,Du)≥0 in ΩR_0,R_1, 0≤ R_0\\lt R_1≤∞, where ΩR_0,R_1= \\{x\\inΩ\\colon R_0\\lt \\vert x\\vert\\lt R_1\\}, Ω\\subset{ R}^n ( n≥2) is a non-empty open set, and the function A\\colonΩR_0,R_1×{ R}^n\\to{ R}^n satisfies the ellipticity conditions C_1\\vertξ\\vert^p≤ξ A(x,ξ), \\vert A(x,ξ)\\vert≤ C_2\\vertξ\\vertp-1, C_1,C_2\\gt 0, p\\gt 1, for almost all x\\inΩR_0,R_1 and all ξ\\in{ R}^n. Our bounds for solutions take the geometry of Ω into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Hong-Ling; Wang, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ning; Sui, Yun-Kang
2016-08-01
In this paper, a model of topology optimization with linear buckling constraints is established based on an independent and continuous mapping method to minimize the plate/shell structure weight. A composite exponential function (CEF) is selected as filtering functions for element weight, the element stiffness matrix and the element geometric stiffness matrix, which recognize the design variables, and to implement the changing process of design variables from "discrete" to "continuous" and back to "discrete". The buckling constraints are approximated as explicit formulations based on the Taylor expansion and the filtering function. The optimization model is transformed to dual programming and solved by the dual sequence quadratic programming algorithm. Finally, three numerical examples with power function and CEF as filter function are analyzed and discussed to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Sitian; Fan, Dejun; Su, Peng; Liu, Qinghe
2014-04-01
In this paper, the optimization techniques for solving pseudoconvex optimization problems are investigated. A simplified recurrent neural network is proposed according to the optimization problem. We prove that the optimal solution of the optimization problem is just the equilibrium point of the neural network, and vice versa if the equilibrium point satisfies the linear constraints. The proposed neural network is proven to be globally stable in the sense of Lyapunov and convergent to an exact optimal solution of the optimization problem. A numerical simulation is given to illustrate the global convergence of the neural network. Applications in business and chemistry are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the neural network.
Non-linear effects of massive neutrinos and cosmological constraints on their masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichiki, Kiyotomo
Cosmic neutrinos with finite masses constitute some portion of dark matter and have played imporatnt roles in cosmological structure formation. In this poster we first present a constraint on neutrino masses using the weak lensing distortions of distant galaxy images through the suppression effect on clustering strengths of total matter in large-scale structure. We find that, while the WL data alone cannot place a stringent limit on neutrino masses due to parameter degeneracies, the constraint can be significantly improved when combined with other cosmo-logical probes, the cosmic microwave background data (CMB), the distance measurements of type-Ia supernovae (SNe) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). To derive the constraint the effect of non-linear gravitational clustering with massive neutrinos is important. In light of this we present a simple model of spherical collapse of overdensity which consists of cold dark mat-ters, baryons, and massive neutrinos. We then plan to discuss its application for determining neutrino masses from cosmological observations.
Fundamental Constraints on Linear Response Theories of Fermi Superfluids above and Below Tc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Hao; Chien, Chih-Chun; He, Yan; Levin, K.
2013-06-01
We present fundamental constraints required for a consistent linear response theory of fermionic superfluids and address temperatures both above and below the transition temperature Tc. We emphasize two independent constraints, one associated with gauge invariance (and the related Ward identity) and another associated with the compressibility sum rule, both of which are satisfied in strict BCS theory. However, we point out that it is the rare many body theory which satisfies both of these. Indeed, well studied quantum Hall systems and random-phase approximations to the electron gas are found to have difficulties with meeting these constraints. We summarize two distinct theoretical approaches which are, however, demonstrably compatible with gauge invariance and the compressibility sum rule. The first of these involves an extension of BCS theory to a mean field description of the BCS-Bose Einstein condensation crossover. The second is the simplest Nozieres Schmitt-Rink (NSR) treatment of pairing correlations in the normal state. As a point of comparison we focus on the compressibility κ of each and contrast the predictions above Tc. We note here that despite the compliance with sum rules, this NSR based scheme leads to an unphysical divergence in κ at the transition. Because of the delicacy of the various consistency requirements, the results of this paper suggest that avoiding this divergence may repair one problem while at the same time introducing others.
Linear Approximation to Optimal Control Allocation for Rocket Nozzles with Elliptical Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, Johnm W.
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a straightforward technique for assessing and realizing the maximum control moment effectiveness for a launch vehicle with multiple constrained rocket nozzles, where elliptical deflection limits in gimbal axes are expressed as an ensemble of independent quadratic constraints. A direct method of determining an approximating ellipsoid that inscribes the set of attainable angular accelerations is derived. In the case of a parameterized linear generalized inverse, the geometry of the attainable set is computationally expensive to obtain but can be approximated to a high degree of accuracy with the proposed method. A linear inverse can then be optimized to maximize the volume of the true attainable set by maximizing the volume of the approximating ellipsoid. The use of a linear inverse does not preclude the use of linear methods for stability analysis and control design, preferred in practice for assessing the stability characteristics of the inertial and servoelastic coupling appearing in large boosters. The present techniques are demonstrated via application to the control allocation scheme for a concept heavy-lift launch vehicle.
Towards rapid uncertainty estimation in linear finite fault inversion with positivity constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benavente, R. F.; Cummins, P. R.; Sambridge, M.; Dettmer, J.
2015-12-01
Rapid estimation of the slip distribution for large earthquakes can assist greatly during the early phases of emergency response. These estimates can be used for rapid impact assessment and tsunami early warning. While model parameter uncertainties can be crucial for meaningful interpretation of such slip models, they are often ignored. Since the finite fault problem can be posed as a linear inverse problem (via the multiple time window method), an analytic expression for the posterior covariance matrix can be obtained, in principle. However, positivity constraints are often employed in practice, which breaks the assumption of a Gaussian posterior probability density function (PDF). To our knowledge, two solutions to this issue exist in the literature: 1) Not using positivity constraints (may lead to exotic slip patterns) or 2) to use positivity constraints but apply Bayesian sampling for the posterior. The latter is computationally expensive and currently unsuitable for rapid inversion. In this work, we explore an alternative approach in which we realize positivity by imposing a prior such that the log of each subfault scalar moment are smoothly distributed on the fault surface. This results in each scalar moment to be intrinsically non-negative while the posterior PDF can still be approximated as Gaussian. While the inversion is not linear anymore, we show that the most probable solution can be found by iterative methods which are less computationally expensive than numerical sampling of the posterior. In addition, the posterior covariance matrix (which provides uncertainties) can be estimated from the most probable solution, using an analytic expression for the Hessian of the cost function. We study this approach for both synthetic and observed W-phase data and the results suggest that a first order estimation of the uncertainty in the slip model can be obtained, therefore aiding in the interpretation of the slip distribution estimate.
Computing minimal nutrient sets from metabolic networks via linear constraint solving
2013-01-01
Background As more complete genome sequences become available, bioinformatics challenges arise in how to exploit genome sequences to make phenotypic predictions. One type of phenotypic prediction is to determine sets of compounds that will support the growth of a bacterium from the metabolic network inferred from the genome sequence of that organism. Results We present a method for computationally determining alternative growth media for an organism based on its metabolic network and transporter complement. Our method predicted 787 alternative anaerobic minimal nutrient sets for Escherichia coli K–12 MG1655 from the EcoCyc database. The program automatically partitioned the nutrients within these sets into 21 equivalence classes, most of which correspond to compounds serving as sources of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur, or combinations of these essential elements. The nutrient sets were predicted with 72.5% accuracy as evaluated by comparison with 91 growth experiments. Novel aspects of our approach include (a) exhaustive consideration of all combinations of nutrients rather than assuming that all element sources can substitute for one another(an assumption that can be invalid in general) (b) leveraging the notion of a machinery-duplicating constraint, namely, that all intermediate metabolites used in active reactions must be produced in increasing concentrations to prevent successive dilution from cell division, (c) the use of Satisfiability Modulo Theory solvers rather than Linear Programming solvers, because our approach cannot be formulated as linear programming, (d) the use of Binary Decision Diagrams to produce an efficient implementation. Conclusions Our method for generating minimal nutrient sets from the metabolic network and transporters of an organism combines linear constraint solving with binary decision diagrams to efficiently produce solution sets to provided growth problems. PMID:23537498
Separability of quantum states and the violation of Bell-type inequalities
Loubenets, Elena R.
2004-04-01
In contrast to the widespread opinion that any separable quantum state satisfies every classical probabilistic constraint, we present a simple example where separable quantum state does not satisfy the original Bell inequality although the latter inequality, in its perfect correlation form, is valid for all joint classical measurements. In a very general setting, we discuss inequalities for joint experiments upon a bipartite quantum system. For any separable quantum state, we derive quantum analogs of the original Bell inequality and specify the conditions sufficient for a separable state to satisfy the original Bell inequality. We introduce the extended Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and prove that, for any separable quantum state, this inequality holds for a variety of linear combinations.
A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mercer, Peter R.
2007-01-01
The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, Peng; Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Yi-Nan; Sun, Dengfent
2012-01-01
A class of strategies has been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. A 3D grid based on weather data and the cruising altitude level of aircraft is adjusted to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to fuel-efficiency. In this paper, the authors introduce a contrail avoidance strategy on 3D grid by considering additional operationally feasible constraints from an air traffic controller's aspect. First, shifting too many aircraft to the same cruising level will make the miles-in-trail at this level smaller than the safety separation threshold. Furthermore, the high density of aircraft at one cruising level may exceed the workload for the traffic controller. Therefore, in our new model we restrict the number of total aircraft at each level. Second, the aircraft count variation for successive intervals cannot be too drastic since the workload to manage climbing/descending aircraft is much larger than managing cruising aircraft. The contrail reduction is formulated as an integer-programming problem and the problem is shown to have the property of total unimodularity. Solving the corresponding relaxed linear programming with the simplex method provides an optimal and integral solution to the problem. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the methodology.
A Riccati approach for constrained linear quadratic optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sideris, Athanasios; Rodriguez, Luis A.
2011-02-01
An active-set method is proposed for solving linear quadratic optimal control problems subject to general linear inequality path constraints including mixed state-control and state-only constraints. A Riccati-based approach is developed for efficiently solving the equality constrained optimal control subproblems generated during the procedure. The solution of each subproblem requires computations that scale linearly with the horizon length. The algorithm is illustrated with numerical examples.
Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv
2014-01-01
We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727
Lewis, Robert Michael (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Torczon, Virginia Joanne (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2006-08-01
We consider the solution of nonlinear programs in the case where derivatives of the objective function and nonlinear constraints are unavailable. To solve such problems, we propose an adaptation of a method due to Conn, Gould, Sartenaer, and Toint that proceeds by approximately minimizing a succession of linearly constrained augmented Lagrangians. Our modification is to use a derivative-free generating set direct search algorithm to solve the linearly constrained subproblems. The stopping criterion proposed by Conn, Gould, Sartenaer and Toint for the approximate solution of the subproblems requires explicit knowledge of derivatives. Such information is presumed absent in the generating set search method we employ. Instead, we show that stationarity results for linearly constrained generating set search methods provide a derivative-free stopping criterion, based on a step-length control parameter, that is sufficient to preserve the convergence properties of the original augmented Lagrangian algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zuowei; Larson, Ronald G.
2008-03-01
We present extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamics of entangled binary blends consisting of long test chains diluted in shorter chain matrix. The ratio between the long and short chain lengths is varied by a factor of ten covering the crossover from the chain reptation regime to the tube Rouse relaxation regime. Consistent with Neutron Spin Echo experiments, the dynamic structure factor of the long chains is found to decay faster in the matrix with shorter chain lengths, owing to the stronger constraint release effect. Correspondingly the monomers and centers of mass of the long chains show a faster time-dependent diffusivity than that expected from pure reptation. The simulation results for the diffusion properties agree qualitatively with the predictions based on constraint release Rouse motion model at long time scales, but show deviations from the theoretical predictions in the intermediate time regime. Our preliminary analysis of diffusion of the matrix chains in the tube-region of the long chains indicates that this discrepancy results from neglect of the broad distribution of the lifetimes of constraint release events in the theoretical treatment.
A fresh look at linear cosmological constraints on a decaying Dark Matter component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien
2016-08-01
We consider a cosmological model in which a fraction fdcdm of the Dark Matter (DM) is allowed to decay in an invisible relativistic component, and compute the resulting constraints on both the decay width (or inverse lifetime) Γdcdm and fdcdm from purely gravitational arguments. We report a full derivation of the Boltzmann hierarchy, correcting a mistake in previous literature, and compute the impact of the decay—as a function of the lifetime—on the CMB and matter power spectra. From CMB only, we obtain that no more than 3.8% of the DM could have decayed in the time between recombination and today (all bounds quoted at 95% CL). We also comment on the important application of this bound to the case where primordial black holes constitute DM, a scenario notoriously difficult to constrain. For lifetimes longer than the age of the Universe, the bounds can be cast as fdcdmΓdcdm < 6.3×10‑3 Gyr‑1. For the first time, we also checked that degeneracies with massive neutrinos are broken when information from the large scale structure is used. Even secondary effects like CMB lensing suffice to this purpose. Decaying DM models have been invoked to solve a possible tension between low redshift astronomical measurements of σ8 and Ωm and the ones inferred by Planck. We reassess this claim finding that with the most recent BAO, HST and σ8 data extracted from the CFHT survey, the tension is only slightly reduced despite the two additional free parameters. Nonetheless, the existing tension explains why the bound on fdcdmΓdcdm loosens to fdcdmΓdcdm < 15.9×10‑3 Gyr‑1 when including such additional data. The bound however improves to fdcdmΓdcdm < 5.9 ×10‑3 Gyr‑1 if only data consistent with the CMB are included. This highlights the importance of establishing whether the tension is due to real physical effects or unaccounted systematics, for settling the reach of achievable constraints on decaying DM.
A fresh look at linear cosmological constraints on a decaying Dark Matter component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien
2016-08-01
We consider a cosmological model in which a fraction fdcdm of the Dark Matter (DM) is allowed to decay in an invisible relativistic component, and compute the resulting constraints on both the decay width (or inverse lifetime) Γdcdm and fdcdm from purely gravitational arguments. We report a full derivation of the Boltzmann hierarchy, correcting a mistake in previous literature, and compute the impact of the decay—as a function of the lifetime—on the CMB and matter power spectra. From CMB only, we obtain that no more than 3.8% of the DM could have decayed in the time between recombination and today (all bounds quoted at 95% CL). We also comment on the important application of this bound to the case where primordial black holes constitute DM, a scenario notoriously difficult to constrain. For lifetimes longer than the age of the Universe, the bounds can be cast as fdcdmΓdcdm < 6.3×10-3 Gyr-1. For the first time, we also checked that degeneracies with massive neutrinos are broken when information from the large scale structure is used. Even secondary effects like CMB lensing suffice to this purpose. Decaying DM models have been invoked to solve a possible tension between low redshift astronomical measurements of σ8 and Ωm and the ones inferred by Planck. We reassess this claim finding that with the most recent BAO, HST and σ8 data extracted from the CFHT survey, the tension is only slightly reduced despite the two additional free parameters. Nonetheless, the existing tension explains why the bound on fdcdmΓdcdm loosens to fdcdmΓdcdm < 15.9×10-3 Gyr-1 when including such additional data. The bound however improves to fdcdmΓdcdm < 5.9 ×10-3 Gyr-1 if only data consistent with the CMB are included. This highlights the importance of establishing whether the tension is due to real physical effects or unaccounted systematics, for settling the reach of achievable constraints on decaying DM.
Zhuk, Sergiy
2013-10-15
In this paper we present Kalman duality principle for a class of linear Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAE) with arbitrary index and time-varying coefficients. We apply it to an ill-posed minimax control problem with DAE constraint and derive a corresponding dual control problem. It turns out that the dual problem is ill-posed as well and so classical optimality conditions are not applicable in the general case. We construct a minimizing sequence u-circumflex{sub {epsilon}} for the dual problem applying Tikhonov method. Finally we represent u-circumflex{sub {epsilon}} in the feedback form using Riccati equation on a subspace which corresponds to the differential part of the DAE.
Yu, Huapeng; Zhu, Hai; Gao, Dayuan; Yu, Meng; Wu, Wenqi
2015-01-01
The Kalman filter (KF) has always been used to improve north-finding performance under practical conditions. By analyzing the characteristics of the azimuth rotational inertial measurement unit (ARIMU) on a stationary base, a linear state equality constraint for the conventional KF used in the fine north-finding filtering phase is derived. Then, a constrained KF using the state equality constraint is proposed and studied in depth. Estimation behaviors of the concerned navigation errors when implementing the conventional KF scheme and the constrained KF scheme during stationary north-finding are investigated analytically by the stochastic observability approach, which can provide explicit formulations of the navigation errors with influencing variables. Finally, multiple practical experimental tests at a fixed position are done on a postulate system to compare the stationary north-finding performance of the two filtering schemes. In conclusion, this study has successfully extended the utilization of the stochastic observability approach for analytic descriptions of estimation behaviors of the concerned navigation errors, and the constrained KF scheme has demonstrated its superiority over the conventional KF scheme for ARIMU stationary north-finding both theoretically and practically. PMID:25688588
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radisavljevic, Verica
2011-10-01
In this paper we first show that the linear models of proton exchange membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane, PEM) and solid oxide (SO) fuel cells, commonly used in power and energy literature, are not controllable. The source of uncontrollability is the equation for pressure of the water vapor that is only affected by the fuel cell current, which in fact is a disturbance in this system and cannot be controlled by the given model inputs: inlet molar flow rates of hydrogen and oxygen. Being uncontrollable these models are not good candidates for studying control of dynamic processes in PEM and SO fuel cells. However, due to their simplicity, they can be used in hybrid configurations with other energy producing devices such as photovoltaic (solar) cells, wind turbine, micro gas turbine, battery (ultra capacitor) to demonstrate some other phenomena, but not for control purposes unless the hybrid models formed in such hybrid configurations are controllable. Testing controllability of such hybrid models is mandatory. Secondly, we introduce some algebraic constraints that follow from the model dynamics and the Nernst open-loop fuel cell voltage formula. These constraints must be satisfied in simulation of considered fuel cell modes, for example, via MATLAB/Simulink or any other computer software package.
Input-output finite-time stabilization of linear systems with finite-time boundedness.
Guo, Yang; Yao, Yu; Wang, Shicheng; Ma, Kemao; Liu, Kai; Guo, Jian
2014-07-01
The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS) method under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB) constraint. A state feedback controller is designed, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), to guarantee the system both IO-FTS and FTB. The proposed methods are applied to the guidance design of a class of terminal guidance systems to suppress disturbances with IO-FTS method and FTB constraints simultaneously satisfied. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
A fast multigrid algorithm for energy minimization under planar density constraints.
Ron, D.; Safro, I.; Brandt, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Weizmann Inst. of Science
2010-09-07
The two-dimensional layout optimization problem reinforced by the efficient space utilization demand has a wide spectrum of practical applications. Formulating the problem as a nonlinear minimization problem under planar equality and/or inequality density constraints, we present a linear time multigrid algorithm for solving a correction to this problem. The method is demonstrated in various graph drawing (visualization) instances.
Solution of two-level variational inequality
Kalashnikov, V.V.; Kalashnikova, N.I.
1995-03-01
The mathematical programming problem with variational inequality constraints, or the complementary problem, often arises in the analysis of physical and socio-economic systems. At present, such problems are mostly solved by heuristic methods. In a recent paper, Harker and Choi described an approach based on external penalty functions, which is applied after restating the variational inequality constraint in optimization form. An alternative approach to the solution of the problem conversely involves restating its optimization part in the form of an appropriate variational inequality, whose solution is then sought on the set of feasible vectors that satisfy the original inequality constraint. In this paper, we propose a penalty technique for solving the resulting problem, which is accordingly reduced to a one-level variational inequality dependent on a penalty parameter.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Altman, Michael D.
2009-01-01
We present a partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained approach for optimizing a molecule’s electrostatic interactions with a target molecule. The approach, which we call reverse-Schur co-optimization, can be more than two orders of magnitude faster than the traditional approach to electrostatic optimization. The efficiency of the co-optimization approach may enhance the value of electrostatic optimization for ligand-design efforts–in such projects, it is often desirable to screen many candidate ligands for their viability, and the optimization of electrostatic interactions can improve ligand binding affinity and specificity. The theoretical basis for electrostatic optimization derives from linear-response theory, most commonly continuum models, and simple assumptions about molecular binding processes. Although the theory has been used successfully to study a wide variety of molecular binding events, its implications have not yet been fully explored, in part due to the computational expense associated with the optimization. The co-optimization algorithm achieves improved performance by solving the optimization and electrostatic simulation problems simultaneously, and is applicable to both unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. Reverse-Schur co-optimization resembles other well-known techniques for solving optimization problems with PDE constraints. Model problems as well as realistic examples validate the reverse-Schur method, and demonstrate that our technique and alternative PDE-constrained methods scale very favorably compared to the standard approach. Regularization, which ordinarily requires an explicit representation of the objective function, can be included using an approximate Hessian calculated using the new BIBEE/P (boundary-integral-based electrostatics estimation by preconditioning) method. PMID:23055839
Optimum vibrating beams with stress and deflection constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamat, M. P.
1976-01-01
The fundamental frequency of vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli or a Timoshenko beam of a specified constant volume is maximized subject to the constraint that under a prescribed loading the maximum stress or maximum deflection at any point along the beam axis will not exceed a specified value. In contrast with the inequality constraint which controls the minimum cross-section, the present inequality constraints lead to more meaningful designs. The inequality constraint on stresses is as easily implemented as the minimum cross-section constraint but the inequality constraint on deflection uses a treatment which is an extension of the matrix partitioning technique of prescribing displacements in finite element analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-07-01
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.
QCD inequalities for hadron interactions.
Detmold, William
2015-06-01
We derive generalizations of the Weingarten-Witten QCD mass inequalities for particular multihadron systems. For systems of any number of identical pseudoscalar mesons of maximal isospin, these inequalities prove that near threshold interactions between the constituent mesons must be repulsive and that no bound states can form in these channels. Similar constraints in less symmetric systems are also extracted. These results are compatible with experimental results (where known) and recent lattice QCD calculations, and also lead to a more stringent bound on the nucleon mass than previously derived, m_{N}≥3/2m_{π}. PMID:26196617
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jihun; Park, Youngjin; Kum, Dongsuk
2014-12-01
Among existing energy management strategies (EMSs) for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV), the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is often considered as a practical approach because it can be implemented in real-time, while achieving near-optimal performance. However, under real-world driving conditions with uncertainties such as hilly roads, both near-optimality and charge-sustenance of ECMS are not guaranteed unless the equivalent factor (EF) is optimally adjusted in real-time. In this paper, a methodology of extracting the globally optimal EF trajectory from dynamic programming (DP) solution is proposed for the design of EF adaptation strategies. In order to illustrate the performance and process of the extraction method, a FCHEV energy management problem under hilly road conditions is investigated as a case study. The main goal is to learn how EF should be adjusted and the impact of EF adaptation on fuel economy under several hilly road cases. Using the extraction method, the DP-based EF is computed, and its performance is compared with those of Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP) and conventional ECMS. The results show that the optimal EF adaptation significantly improves fuel economy when the battery SoC constraint becomes active, and thus EF must be properly adjusted under severely hilly road conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-09-01
Living in the era of "big-data" information, we are ubiquitously inundated by overabundances of sizes-non-negative numerical values representing count, score, length, area, volume, duration, mass, energy, etc. Datasets of sizes display numerous types of statistical variability that are commonly quantified either by the standard deviation, or by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The standard deviation measures the sizes' Euclidean divergence from their mean, the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy measures the sizes' informational divergence from the benchmark of pure determinism, and both these gauges are one-dimensional. In this paper we overview a methodology that harnesses inequality in order to quantify statistical variability. The methodology follows a socioeconomic approach of measuring the sizes' inequality-their divergence from the benchmark of pure egalitarianism-and yields frameworks that gauge statistical variability in a multi-dimensional fashion. The aim of this overview is to serve both researchers and practitioners as a crash-introduction to the "harnessing inequality" methodology, and as a crash-manual to the implementation of this methodology.
Agnor, Craig B.; Lin, D. N. C.
2012-02-01
We examine how the late divergent migration of Jupiter and Saturn may have perturbed the terrestrial planets. Using a modified secular model we have identified six secular resonances between the {nu}{sub 5} frequency of Jupiter and Saturn and the four apsidal eigenfrequencies of the terrestrial planets (g{sub 1-4}). We derive analytic upper limits on the eccentricity and orbital migration timescale of Jupiter and Saturn when these resonances were encountered to avoid perturbing the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values larger than the observed ones. Because of the small amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial eigenmodes the g{sub 2} - {nu}{sub 5} and g{sub 3} - {nu}{sub 5} resonances provide the strongest constraints on giant planet migration. If Jupiter and Saturn migrated with eccentricities comparable to their present-day values, smooth migration with exponential timescales characteristic of planetesimal-driven migration ({tau} {approx} 5-10 Myr) would have perturbed the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values greatly exceeding the observed ones. This excitation may be mitigated if the eccentricity of Jupiter was small during the migration epoch, migration was very rapid (e.g., {tau} {approx}< 0.5 Myr perhaps via planet-planet scattering or instability-driven migration) or the observed small eccentricity amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial modes result from low probability cancellation of several large amplitude contributions. Results of orbital integrations show that very short migration timescales ({tau} < 0.5 Myr), characteristic of instability-driven migration, may also perturb the terrestrial planets' eccentricities by amounts comparable to their observed values. We discuss the implications of these constraints for the relative timing of terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and the origin of the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment of the Moon 3.9 {+-} 0.1 Ga ago. We suggest that the simplest way to satisfy these
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Natsuki; Morota, Tomokatsu; Kato, Shinsuke; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro
2016-05-01
Gravity data obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory have revealed linear gravity anomalies (LGAs) formed by the early global expansion of the Moon and subsequent magma intrusion. In this study, using Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data, we investigated topographic profiles across LGAs to verify that they were formed by extensional tectonics. We found that 17 of the 20 LGAs investigated exhibited a valley structure, suggesting that they were formed by tensile stress. Assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied graben formation, the increase in the lunar radius is estimated to be on the order of several tens of meters. On the other hand, assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied flexure of elastic lithosphere due to the LGA load, the elastic thickness during the LGA formation is estimated as ~10 km. The crater frequencies in the vicinity of LGAs indicate that the peak tectonic activity occurred before the basin-forming epoch.
Giesbertz, K J H; Baerends, E J
2010-05-21
In the major independent particle models of electronic structure theory-Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham (KS), and natural orbital (NO) theories-occupations are constrained to 0 and 1 or to the interval [0,1]. We carry out a constrained optimization of the orbitals and occupation numbers with application of the usual equality constraints summation (i) (infinity) n(i)=N and phi(i)/phi(j)=delta(ij). The occupation number optimization is carried out, allowing for fractional occupations, with the inequality constraints n(i)>or=0 and n(i)
van der Heijden, R T; Heijnen, J J; Hellinga, C; Romein, B; Luyben, K C
1994-01-01
Measurements provide the basis for process monitoring and control as well as for model development and validation. Systematic approaches to increase the accuracy and credibility of the empirical data set are therefore of great value. In (bio)chemical conversions, linear conservation relations such as the balance equations for charge, enthalpy, and/or chemical elements, can be employed to relate conversion rates. In a pactical situation, some of these rates will be measured (in effect, be calculated directly from primary measurements of, e.g., concentrations and flow rates), as others can or cannot be calculated from the measured ones. When certain measured rates can also be calculated from other measured rates, the set of equations, the accuracy and credibility of the measured rates can indeed be improved by, respectively, balancing and gross error diagnosis. The balanced conversion rates are more accurate, and form a consistent set of data, which is more suitable for further application (e.g., to calculate nonmeasured rates) than the raw measurements. Such an approach has drawn attention in previous studies. The current study deals mainly with the problem of mathematically classifying the conversion rates into balanceable and calculable rates, given the subset of measured rates. The significance of this problem is illustrated with some examples. It is shown that a simple matrix equation can be derived that contains the vector of measured conversion rates and the redundancy matrix R. Matrix R plays a predominant role in the classification problem. In supplementary articles, significance of the redundancy matrix R for an improved gross error diagnosis approach will be shown. In addition, efficient equations have been derived to calculate the balanceable and/or calculable rates. The method is completely based on matrix algebra (principally different from the graph-theoretical approach), and it is easily implemented into a computer program. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons
Kalman Filter Constraint Tuning for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.
2005-01-01
Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. Recently published work has shown a new method for incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter, which has been shown to generally improve the filter s estimation accuracy. However, the incorporation of inequality constraints poses some risk to the estimation accuracy as the Kalman filter is theoretically optimal. This paper proposes a way to tune the filter constraints so that the state estimates follow the unconstrained (theoretically optimal) filter when the confidence in the unconstrained filter is high. When confidence in the unconstrained filter is not so high, then we use our heuristic knowledge to constrain the state estimates. The confidence measure is based on the agreement of measurement residuals with their theoretical values. The algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate engine health.
Isoperimetric inequality on conformally hyperbolic manifolds
Kesel'man, V M
2003-04-30
It is shown that on an arbitrary non-compact Riemannian manifold of conformally hyperbolic type the isoperimetric inequality can be taken by a conformal change of the metric to the same canonical linear form as in the case of the standard hyperbolic Lobachevskii space. Both the absolute isoperimetric inequality and the relative one (for manifolds with boundary) are obtained. This work develops the results and methods of a joint paper with Zorich, in which the absolute isoperimetric inequality was obtained under a certain additional condition; the resulting statements are definitive in a certain sense.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiumenti, M.; Cervera, M.; Agelet de Saracibar, C.; Dialami, N.
2013-05-01
In this work a novel finite element technology based on a three-field mixed formulation is presented. The Variational Multi Scale (VMS) method is used to circumvent the LBB stability condition allowing the use of linear piece-wise interpolations for displacement, stress and pressure fields, respectively. The result is an enhanced stress field approximation which enables for stress-accurate results in nonlinear computational mechanics. The use of an independent nodal variable for the pressure field allows for an adhoc treatment of the incompressibility constraint. This is a mandatory requirement due to the isochoric nature of the plastic strain in metal forming processes. The highly non-linear stress field typically encountered in the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process is used as an example to show the performance of this new FE technology. The numerical simulation of the FSW process is tackled by means of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The computational domain is split into three different zones: the work.piece (defined by a rigid visco-plastic behaviour in the Eulerian framework), the pin (within the Lagrangian framework) and finally the stirzone (ALE formulation). A fully coupled thermo-mechanical analysis is introduced showing the heat fluxes generated by the plastic dissipation in the stir-zone (Sheppard rigid-viscoplastic constitutive model) as well as the frictional dissipation at the contact interface (Norton frictional contact model). Finally, tracers have been implemented to show the material flow around the pin allowing a better understanding of the welding mechanism. Numerical results are compared with experimental evidence.
Sieh Kiong, Tiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Ismail, Mahamod; Salem, Balasem
2014-01-01
Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859
Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem
2014-01-01
Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Arthur R.
1975-01-01
Some of the key problems of educational equality -- equality of opportunities and inequality of performance; individual differences vs. group differences, coping with group inequality -- are made explicit. (Author/KM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerf, N. J.; Adami, C.
1997-05-01
We derive entropic Bell inequalities from considering entropy Venn diagrams. These entropic inequalities, akin to the Braunstein-Caves inequalities, are violated for a quantum-mechanical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair, which implies that the conditional entropies of Bell variables must be negative in this case. This suggests that the satisfaction of entropic Bell inequalities is equivalent to the non-negativity of conditional entropies as a necessary condition for separability.
Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Switzer, J. Matt
2014-01-01
Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…
2007-01-01
The Gini coefficient has been the most popular method for operationalising income inequality in the public health literature. However, a number of alternative methods exist, and they offer researchers the means to develop a more nuanced understanding of the distribution of income. Income inequality measures such as the generalised entropy index and the Atkinson index offer the ability to examine the effects of inequalities in different areas of the income spectrum, enabling more meaningful quantitative assessments of qualitatively different inequalities. This glossary provides a conceptual introduction to these and other income inequality measures. PMID:17873219
De Maio, Fernando G
2007-10-01
The Gini coefficient has been the most popular method for operationalising income inequality in the public health literature. However, a number of alternative methods exist, and they offer researchers the means to develop a more nuanced understanding of the distribution of income. Income inequality measures such as the generalised entropy index and the Atkinson index offer the ability to examine the effects of inequalities in different areas of the income spectrum, enabling more meaningful quantitative assessments of qualitatively different inequalities. This glossary provides a conceptual introduction to these and other income inequality measures.
Income inequality and happiness.
Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Diener, Ed
2011-09-01
Using General Social Survey data from 1972 to 2008, we found that Americans were on average happier in the years with less national income inequality than in the years with more national income inequality. We further demonstrated that this inverse relation between income inequality and happiness was explained by perceived fairness and general trust. That is, Americans trusted other people less and perceived other people to be less fair in the years with more national income inequality than in the years with less national income inequality. The negative association between income inequality and happiness held for lower-income respondents, but not for higher-income respondents. Most important, we found that the negative link between income inequality and the happiness of lower-income respondents was explained not by lower household income, but by perceived unfairness and lack of trust.
Inequality aversion, health inequalities and health achievement.
Wagstaff, Adam
2002-07-01
This paper addresses two issues. The first is how health inequalities can be measured in such a way as to take into account policymakers' attitudes towards inequality. The Gini coefficient and the related concentration index embody one particular set of value judgements. By generalising these indices, alternative sets of value judgements can be reflected. The other issue addressed is how information on health inequality can be used together with information on the mean of the relevant distribution to obtain an overall measure of health "achievement". PMID:12146594
Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
2009-01-01
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Why reduce health inequalities?
Woodward, A.; Kawachi, I.
2000-01-01
It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities. 1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment). 2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime. 3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process. 3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities
Mattison, Siobhán M; Smith, Eric A; Shenk, Mary K; Cochrane, Ethan E
2016-07-01
Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality. We argue that while inequality may be produced by a variety of localized processes, its evolution is fundamentally dependent on the economic defensibility and transmissibility of wealth. Furthermore, these properties of wealth could become persistent drivers of inequality only following a shift to a more stable climate in the Holocene. We conclude by noting several key areas for future empirical research, emphasizing the need for more analyses of contemporary shifts toward institutionalized inequality as well as prehistoric cases. PMID:27519458
Xie, Y.
2014-01-01
Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244
An Application of Sylvester's Rank Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kung, Sidney H.
2011-01-01
Using two well known criteria for the diagonalizability of a square matrix plus an extended form of Sylvester's Rank Inequality, the author presents a new condition for the diagonalization of a real matrix from which one can obtain the eigenvectors by simply multiplying some associated matrices without solving a linear system of simultaneous…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, Peter J.
2014-01-01
Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-11-01
How are growth and inequality related? Evidently, this question is of prime importance in the social sciences, as socioeconomic inequality is one of the major forces shaping the course of human history. Moreover, this question is of importance also in the physical sciences, as the notion of socioeconomic inequality can be applied to analyze physical growth. In this paper we consider general growth processes whose dynamics are governed by ordinary differential equations, and present a comprehensive inequality-based socioeconophysical study of their evolutions. From a social-sciences perspective, the results established describe the inequality that will be generated by different types of economic growth. From a physical-sciences perspective, the results established provide a socioeconomic classification of growth processes.
Chen, Pang-Chia
2013-01-01
This paper investigates multi-objective controller design approaches for nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics subject to actuator magnitude and rate constraints. System nonlinearity is handled by a suitable linear parameter varying system representation with drum pressure as the system varying parameter. Variation of the drum pressure is represented by suitable norm-bounded uncertainty and affine dependence on system matrices. Based on linear matrix inequality algorithms, the magnitude and rate constraints on the actuator and the deviations of fluid density and water level are formulated while the tracking abilities on the drum pressure and power output are optimized. Variation ranges of drum pressure and magnitude tracking commands are used as controller design parameters, determined according to the boiler-turbine's operation range.
Robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with input constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Gang; Wang, Jinzhi; Wang, Xianghua
2014-12-01
The focus of this paper is on the design and simulation of robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV), which is affected by high nonlinearity, uncertain parameters and input constraints. The linearisation method is employed for the longitudinal AHV model about a specific trim condition, and then considering the additive uncertainties of three parameters, the linearised model is just in the form of affine parameter dependence. From this point, the linear parameter-varying method is applied to design the desired controller. The poles for the closed-loop system of the linearised model are placed into a desired vertical strip, and the quadratic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Input constraints of the AHV are addressed by additional linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the designed controller is evaluated on the nonlinear AHV model and simulation results demonstrate excellent tracking performance with good robustness.
The enigma of nonholonomic constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flannery, M. R.
2005-03-01
The problems associated with the modification of Hamilton's principle to cover nonholonomic constraints by the application of the multiplier theorem of variational calculus are discussed. The reason for the problems is subtle and is discussed, together with the reason why the proper account of nonholonomic constraints is outside the scope of Hamilton's variational principle. However, linear velocity constraints remain within the scope of D'Alembert's principle. A careful and comprehensive analysis facilitates the resolution of the puzzling features of nonholonomic constraints.
To what extent does immigration affect inequality?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Yonatan; Aste, Tomaso
2016-11-01
The current surge in income and wealth inequality in most western countries, along with the continuous immigration to those countries demand a quantitative analysis of the effect immigration has on economic inequality. This paper presents a quantitative analysis framework providing a way to calculate this effect. It shows that in most cases, the effect of immigration on wealth and income inequality is limited, mainly due to the relative small scale of immigration waves. For a large scale flow of immigrants, such as the immigration to the US, the UK and Australia in the past few decades, we estimate that 10 % ÷ 15 % of the wealth and income inequality increase can be attributed to immigration. The results demonstrate that immigration could possibly decrease inequality substantially, if the characteristics of the immigrants resemble the characteristics of the destination middle class population in terms of wealth or income. We empirically found that the simple linear relation ΔS = 0.18 ρ roughly describes the increase in the wealth share of the top 10 % due to immigration of a fraction ρ of the population.
Generalized quasi variational inequalities
Noor, M.A.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.
2011-03-01
We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.
Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.
2011-03-28
We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.
An Intuitive Approach in Teaching Linear Programming in High School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ulep, Soledad A.
1990-01-01
Discusses solving inequality problems involving linear programing. Describes the usual and alternative approaches. Presents an intuitive approach for finding a feasible solution by maximizing the objective function. (YP)
Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin
2004-01-01
We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.
The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, Susan E.
2010-01-01
Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…
Trends in Global Gender Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
2010-01-01
This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality
Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.
2005-01-01
We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame.
T-S Fuzzy Controller for a Class of Nonlinear Systems with Input Constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Hugang
This paper deals with stability analysis and control design for a class of nonlinear systems with input constraint when using the T-S fuzzy model. As a result, it arrives at an feedback controller that is composed of two parts: one is obtained by solving certain linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) (fixed part) to deal with the input constraint, and another one is acquired by an adaptive law (variable part) to deal with the reconstruction error between the real system and its T-S fuzzy model. Also, a discussion on how to reduce the conservatism of LMI conditions is provided. An inverted pendulum is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback controller.
Income inequality and obesity prevalence among OECD countries.
Su, Dejun; Esqueda, Omar A; Li, Lifeng; Pagán, José A
2012-07-01
Using recent pooled data from the World Health Organization Global Infobase and the World Factbook compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, this study assesses the relation between income inequality and obesity prevalence among 31 OECD countries through a series of bivariate and multivariate linear regressions. The United States and Mexico well lead OECD countries in both obesity prevalence and income inequality. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the inclusion or exclusion of these two extreme cases can fundamentally change the findings. When the two countries are included, the results reveal a positive correlation between income inequality and obesity prevalence. This correlation is more salient among females than among males. Income inequality alone is associated with 16% and 35% of the variations in male and female obesity rates, respectively, across OECD countries in 2010. Higher levels of income inequality in the 2005-2010 period were associated with a more rapid increase in obesity prevalence from 2002 to 2010. These associations, however, virtually disappear when the US and Mexico have been excluded from the analysis. Findings from this study underscore the importance of assessing the impact of extreme cases on the relation between income inequality and health outcomes. The potential pathways from income inequality to the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the cases of the US and Mexico warrant further research.
Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni
2013-01-01
Between 1979 and 2007 a strong positive monotonic relationship between wage inequality and city size has developed. This paper investigates the links between this emergent city size inequality premium and the contemporaneous nationwide increase in wage inequality. After controlling for the skill composition of the workforce across cities of different sizes, we show that at least 23 percent of the overall increase in the variance of log hourly wages in the United States from 1979 to 2007 is explained by the more rapid growth in the variance of log wages in larger locations relative to smaller locations. This influence occurred throughout the wage distribution and was most prevalent during the 1990s. More rapid growth in within skill group inequality in larger cities has been by far the most important force driving these city size specific patterns in the data. Differences in the industrial composition of cities of different sizes explain up to one-third of this city size effect. These results suggest an important role for agglomeration economies in generating changes in the wage structure during the study period. PMID:24954958
How Colleges Perpetuate Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sacks, Peter
2007-01-01
Colleges, once seen as beacons of egalitarian hope, are becoming bastions of wealth and privilege that perpetuate inequality. The chance of a low-income child obtaining a bachelor's degree has not budged in three decades: Just 6 percent of students from the lowest-income families earned a bachelor's degree by age 24 in 1970, and in 2002 still only…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Melamed, David; North, Michael S.
2010-01-01
Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth
2013-01-01
The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dahl, Robert A.
1996-01-01
Argues that political equality and democracy are attainable only through the distribution of access to political resources and the willingness to use them. Discusses the broad philosophical and sociological components that contribute to a system marked by advantage and inequalities, as well as opportunities for opposition and resistance. (MJP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obata, Kenta; Huete, Alfredo R.
2014-01-01
This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects that apply to a fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) estimates derived using two-band spectral vegetation index (VI) isoline-based linear mixture models (VI isoline-based LMM). The VIs included the normalized difference vegetation index, a soil-adjusted vegetation index, and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2). This study focused in part on the monotonicity of an area-averaged FVC estimate as a function of spatial resolution. The proof of monotonicity yielded measures of the intrinsic area-averaged FVC uncertainties due to scaling effects. The derived results demonstrate that a factor ξ, which was defined as a function of "true" and "estimated" endmember spectra of the vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, was responsible for conveying monotonicity or nonmonotonicity. The monotonic FVC values displayed a uniform increasing or decreasing trend that was independent of the choice of the two-band VI. Conditions under which scaling effects were eliminated from the FVC were identified. Numerical simulations verifying the monotonicity and the practical utility of the scaling theory were evaluated using numerical experiments applied to Landsat7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The findings contribute to developing scale-invariant FVC estimation algorithms for multisensor and data continuity.
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Browne, Dan E.
2011-12-15
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wawerzinek, B.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Roy, C.
2013-08-01
We analyse travel times of shear waves, which were recorded at the MAGNUS network, to determine the 3D shear wave velocity (vS) structure underneath Southern Scandinavia. The travel time residuals are corrected for the known crustal structure of Southern Norway and weighted to account for data quality and pick uncertainties. The resulting residual pattern of subvertically incident waves is very uniform and simple. It shows delayed arrivals underneath Southern Norway compared to fast arrivals underneath the Oslo Graben and the Baltic Shield. The 3D upper mantle vS structure underneath the station network is determined by performing non-linear travel time tomography. As expected from the residual pattern the resulting tomographic model shows a simple and continuous vS perturbation pattern: a negative vS anomaly is visible underneath Southern Norway relative to the Baltic Shield in the east with a contrast of up to 4% vS and a sharp W-E dipping transition zone. Reconstruction tests reveal besides vertical smearing a good lateral reconstruction of the dipping vS transition zone and suggest that a deep-seated anomaly at 330-410 km depth is real and not an inversion artefact. The upper part of the reduced vS anomaly underneath Southern Norway (down to 250 km depth) might be due to an increase in lithospheric thickness from the Caledonian Southern Scandes in the west towards the Proterozoic Baltic Shield in Sweden in the east. The deeper-seated negative vS anomaly (330-410 km depth) could be caused by a temperature anomaly possibly combined with effects due to fluids or hydrous minerals. The determined simple 3D vS structure underneath Southern Scandinavia indicates that mantle processes might influence and contribute to a Neogene uplift of Southern Norway.
Income inequality and population health: correlation and causality.
Babones, Salvatore J
2008-04-01
A large literature now exists on the cross-national correlation between income inequality and population health, but existing studies suffer from sparse data, poor operationalization of income inequality, and the use of low-power statistical models. This paper sets out to estimate the ecological correlation between income inequality and indicators of population health in a very broad panel of countries, to demonstrate that this relationship is largely non-artifactual, and to test whether this relationship might be causal. Gini coefficients of national income inequality in 1970 and 1995 are correlated with life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and murder rates, controlling for national income per capita. In cross-sectional analyses, inequality is significantly correlated with life expectancy, infant mortality, and (inconsistently) the murder rate. The health correlations are shown to be not primarily due to the "convexity effect" of the non-linear relationship between individual income and individual health, which seems to account for no more than one-third of the relationship between inequality and health, and likely much less. Change in inequality 1970-1995 is significantly related to change in life expectancy and infant mortality, suggesting a causal relationship, but these correlations are not robust with respect to sample or controls. It can be concluded that there is a strong, consistent, statistically significant, non-artifactual correlation between national income inequality and population health, but though there is some evidence that this relationship is causal, the relative stability of income inequality over time in most countries makes causality difficult to test.
Demystification of Bell inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2009-08-01
The main aim of this review is to show that the common conclusion that Bell's argument implies that any attempt to proceed beyond quantum mechanics induces a nonlocal model was not totally justified. Our analysis of Bell's argument demonstrates that violation of Bell's inequality implies neither "death of realism" nor nonlocality. This violation is just a sign of non-Kolmogorovness of statistical data - impossibility to put statistical data collected in a few different experiments (corresponding to incompatible settings of polarization beam splitters) in one probability space. This inequality was well known in theoretical probability since 19th century (from works of Boole). We couple non-Kolmogorovness of data with design of modern detectors of photons.
Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.
Gouveia, Nelson
2016-01-01
Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906
Affine Isoperimetry and Information Theoretic Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lv, Songjun
2012-01-01
There are essential connections between the isoperimetric theory and information theoretic inequalities. In general, the Brunn-Minkowski inequality and the entropy power inequality, as well as the classical isoperimetric inequality and the classical entropy-moment inequality, turn out to be equivalent in some certain sense, respectively. Based on…
Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.
Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H
1998-01-01
OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157
The photogrammetric inner constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dermanis, Athanasios
A derivation of the complete inner constraints, which are required for obtaining "free network" solutions in close-range photogrammetry, is presented. The inner constraints are derived analytically for the bundle method, by exploiting the fact that the rows of their coefficient matrix from a basis for the null subspace of the design matrix used in the linearized observation equations. The derivation is independent of any particular choice of rotational parameters and examples are given for three types of rotation angles used in photogrammetry, as well as for the Rodriguez elements. A convenient algorithm based on the use of the S-transformation is presented, for the computation of free solutions with either inner or partial inner constraints. This approach is finally compared with alternative approaches to free network solutions.
Unification of multiqubit polygamy inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2012-03-01
I establish a unified view of polygamy of multiqubit entanglement. I first introduce a two-parameter generalization of the entanglement of assistance, namely, the unified entanglement of assistance for bipartite quantum states, and provide an analytic lower bound in two-qubit systems. I show a broad class of polygamy inequalities of multiqubit entanglement in terms of the unified entanglement of assistance that encapsulates all known multiqubit polygamy inequalities as special cases. I further show that this class of polygamy inequalities can be improved into tighter inequalities for three-qubit systems.
[Inequities in access to information and inequities in health].
Filho, Alberto Pellegrini
2002-01-01
This piece presents evidence that inequities in information are an important determinant of health inequities and that eliminating these inequities in access to information, especially by using new information and communication technologies (ICTs), could represent a significant advance in terms of guaranteeing the right to health for all. The piece reviews the most important international scientific research findings on the determinants of the health of populations, emphasizing the role of socioeconomic inequities and of deteriorating social capital as factors that worsen health conditions. It is noteworthy that Latin America has both socioeconomic inequities and major sectors of the population living in poverty. Among the fundamental strategies for overcoming the inequalities and the poverty are greater participation by the poor in civic life and the strengthening of social capital. The contribution that the new ICTs could make to these strategies is analyzed, and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) is discussed. Coordinated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), the VHL is a contribution by the Pan American Health Organization that takes advantage of the potential of ICTs to democratize information and knowledge and consequently promote equity in health. The "digital gap" is discussed as something that can produce inequity itself and also increase other inequities, including ones in health. Prospects are discussed for overcoming this gap, emphasizing the role that governments and international organizations should play in order to expand access to the global public good that information for social development is.
[Inequities in access to information and inequities in health].
Filho, Alberto Pellegrini
2002-01-01
This piece presents evidence that inequities in information are an important determinant of health inequities and that eliminating these inequities in access to information, especially by using new information and communication technologies (ICTs), could represent a significant advance in terms of guaranteeing the right to health for all. The piece reviews the most important international scientific research findings on the determinants of the health of populations, emphasizing the role of socioeconomic inequities and of deteriorating social capital as factors that worsen health conditions. It is noteworthy that Latin America has both socioeconomic inequities and major sectors of the population living in poverty. Among the fundamental strategies for overcoming the inequalities and the poverty are greater participation by the poor in civic life and the strengthening of social capital. The contribution that the new ICTs could make to these strategies is analyzed, and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) is discussed. Coordinated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), the VHL is a contribution by the Pan American Health Organization that takes advantage of the potential of ICTs to democratize information and knowledge and consequently promote equity in health. The "digital gap" is discussed as something that can produce inequity itself and also increase other inequities, including ones in health. Prospects are discussed for overcoming this gap, emphasizing the role that governments and international organizations should play in order to expand access to the global public good that information for social development is. PMID:12162837
Black Hole Instabilities and Local Penrose Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueras, Pau; Murata, Keiju; Reall, Harvey S.
2015-01-01
Various higher-dimensional black holes have been shown to be unstable by studying linearized gravitational perturbations. A simpler method for demonstrating instability is to find initial data that describes a small perturbation of the black hole and violates a Penrose inequality. We use the method to confirm the existence of the "ultraspinning" instability of Myers-Perry black holes. We also study black rings and show that "fat" black rings are unstable. We find no evidence of any rotationally symmetric instability of "thin" black rings.
On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Partha
2010-01-01
By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.
Inequality in Disability in Bangladesh
Tareque, Md. Ismail; Begum, Sharifa; Saito, Yasuhiko
2014-01-01
Objective To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh. Methods The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh’s Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability. Findings Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences. Conclusion In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly. PMID:25075513
The Geography of Gender Inequality.
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356
The Geography of Gender Inequality.
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.
The Geography of Gender Inequality
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356
Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in…
Inequalities, assessment and computer algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary curricula. We consider the formal mathematical processes by which such inequalities are solved, and we consider the notation and syntax through which solutions are expressed. We review the extent to which current CAS can accurately solve these inequalities, and the form given to the solutions by the designers of this software. Finally, we discuss the functionality needed to deal with students' answers, i.e. to establish equivalence (or otherwise) of expressions representing unions of intervals. We find that while contemporary CAS accurately solve inequalities there is a wide variety of notation used.
Why and how inequality matters.
McLeod, Jane D
2015-06-01
In this article, I share some thoughts about how we might extend the study of mental health inequalities by drawing from key insights in sociology and sociological social psychology about the nature of inequality and the processes through which it is produced, maintained, and resisted. I suggest several questions from sociological research on stratification that could help us understand unexpected patterns of mental health inequalities. I also advocate for the analysis of "generic" social psychological processes through which inequalities are produced, maintained, and resisted within proximate social environments. I consider the role of two such processes--status/devaluation processes and identity processes--in mental health inequalities. I then discuss how we can strengthen connections across subfields of the sociology of mental health by applying status and identity theories to two areas of research: (1) help-seeking and (2) the effects of mental health problems on social attainments.
Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities
Gouveia, Nelson
2016-01-01
Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906
Universal patterns of inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor M.
2010-07-01
Probability distributions of money, income and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end, in agreement with the empirical data for the USA. We show that the increase in income inequality in the USA originates primarily from the increase in the income fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income. Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990, 2000 and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality of energy consumption.
Convergence of neural networks for programming problems via a nonsmooth Lojasiewicz inequality.
Forti, Mauro; Nistri, Paolo; Quincampoix, Marc
2006-11-01
This paper considers a class of neural networks (NNs) for solving linear programming (LP) problems, convex quadratic programming (QP) problems, and nonconvex QP problems where an indefinite quadratic objective function is subject to a set of affine constraints. The NNs are characterized by constraint neurons modeled by ideal diodes with vertical segments in their characteristic, which enable to implement an exact penalty method. A new method is exploited to address convergence of trajectories, which is based on a nonsmooth Lojasiewicz inequality for the generalized gradient vector field describing the NN dynamics. The method permits to prove that each forward trajectory of the NN has finite length, and as a consequence it converges toward a singleton. Furthermore, by means of a quantitative evaluation of the Lojasiewicz exponent at the equilibrium points, the following results on convergence rate of trajectories are established: (1) for nonconvex QP problems, each trajectory is either exponentially convergent, or convergent in finite time, toward a singleton belonging to the set of constrained critical points; (2) for convex QP problems, the same result as in (1) holds; moreover, the singleton belongs to the set of global minimizers; and (3) for LP problems, each trajectory converges in finite time to a singleton belonging to the set of global minimizers. These results, which improve previous results obtained via the Lyapunov approach, are true independently of the nature of the set of equilibrium points, and in particular they hold even when the NN possesses infinitely many nonisolated equilibrium points.
Algorithms for reactions of nonholonomic constraints and servo-constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slawianowski, J. J.
Various procedures for deriving equations of motion of constrained mechanical systems are discussed and compared. A geometric interpretation of the procedures is given, stressing both linear and nonlinear nonholonomic constraints. Certain qualitative differences are analyzed between models of nonholonomic dynamics based on different procedures. Two algorithms of particular interest are: (1) the d'Alembert principle and its Appell-Tshetajev generalization, and (2) the variational Hamiltonian principle with subsidiary conditions. It is argued that the Hamiltonian principle, although not accepted in traditional technical applications, is more promising in generalizations concerning systems with higher differential constraints, or the more general functional constraints appearing in feedback and control systems.
Generalized entanglement constraints in multi-qubit systems in terms of Tsallis entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2016-10-01
We provide generalized entanglement constraints in multi-qubit systems in terms of Tsallis entropy. Using quantum Tsallis entropy of order q, we first provide a generalized monogamy inequality of multi-qubit entanglement for q = 2 or 3. This generalization encapsulates the multi-qubit CKW-type inequality as a special case. We further provide a generalized polygamy inequality of multi-qubit entanglement in terms of Tsallis- q entropy for 1 ≤ q ≤ 2 or 3 ≤ q ≤ 4, which also contains the multi-qubit polygamy inequality as a special case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Zhiyu; Huang, Baochun; Yang, Liekun; Tang, Xiangde; Yan, Yonggang; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Liwei
2015-07-01
We report the first combined geochronologic and paleomagnetic study of volcanic rocks from the Shiquanhe and Yare Basins at the westernmost Lhasa Terrane, which aims to provide an accurate constraint on the shape and paleoposition of the southern margin of Asia prior to the India-Asia collision. Three new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 92.5 ± 2.9 Ma, 92.4 ± 0.9 Ma, and 79.6 ± 0.7 Ma determined by fresh matrix or feldspar from lava flows suggest a Late Cretaceous age for the investigated units. Characteristic remanent magnetizations have been successfully isolated from 38 sites which pass positive fold and/or reversal, conglomerate tests and are hence interpreted as primary in origin. The two paleopoles obtained from Yare and Shiquanhe yield consistent paleolatitudes of 13.6°N ± 9.6°N and 14.2°N ± 2.7°N, respectively (for a reference site of 31.5°N, 80°E), indicating that the southern margin of Asia near the western syntaxis was located far south during the Late Cretaceous time. A reconstruction of the Lhasa Terrane in the frame of Eurasia with paleomagnetic data obtained from its western and eastern parts indicates that the southern margin of Eurasia probably had a quasi-linear orientation prior to the collision formerly trending approximately 315°E. This is compatible with the shape of the Neo-Tethys slab observed from seismic tomographic studies. Our findings provide a solid basis for evaluating Cenozoic crustal shortening in the Asian interior and the size of Greater India near the western syntaxis.
National Income, Inequality and Global Patterns of Cigarette Use
Pampel, Fred
2011-01-01
Declining tobacco use in high-income nations and rising tobacco use in low- and middle-income nations raises questions about the sources of worldwide patterns of smoking. Theories posit a curvilinear influence of national income based on the balance of affordability and health-cost effects. In addition, however, economic inequality, gender inequality and government policies may moderate the rise and fall in smoking prevalence with national income. This study tests these arguments using aggregate data for 145 nations and measures of smoking prevalence circa 2000. The results show nonlinear effects of national income for males that take the form of an inverted U, but show linear effects for females. They also show non-additive effects of economic inequality for males that moderate both the rise and decline of smoking with national income and non-additive effects of gender equality for females that moderate the positive effect of national income. PMID:21874072
National Income, Inequality and Global Patterns of Cigarette Use.
Pampel, Fred
2007-12-01
Declining tobacco use in high-income nations and rising tobacco use in low- and middle-income nations raises questions about the sources of worldwide patterns of smoking. Theories posit a curvilinear influence of national income based on the balance of affordability and health-cost effects. In addition, however, economic inequality, gender inequality and government policies may moderate the rise and fall in smoking prevalence with national income. This study tests these arguments using aggregate data for 145 nations and measures of smoking prevalence circa 2000. The results show nonlinear effects of national income for males that take the form of an inverted U, but show linear effects for females. They also show non-additive effects of economic inequality for males that moderate both the rise and decline of smoking with national income and non-additive effects of gender equality for females that moderate the positive effect of national income.
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
Income inequality and income segregation.
Reardon, Sean F; Bischoff, Kendra
2011-01-01
This article investigates how the growth in income inequality from 1970 to 2000 affected patterns of income segregation along three dimensions: the spatial segregation of poverty and affluence, race-specific patterns of income segregation, and the geographic scale of income segregation. The evidence reveals a robust relationship between income inequality and income segregation, an effect that is larger for black families than for white families. In addition, income inequality affects income segregation primarily through its effect on the large-scale spatial segregation of affluence rather than by affecting the spatial segregation of poverty or by altering small-scale patterns of income segregation.
Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss
Mikkelson, Gregory M.; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D.
2007-01-01
Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation. PMID:17505535
Poverty and health sector inequalities.
Wagstaff, Adam
2002-01-01
Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787
Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.
Mikkelson, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D
2007-05-16
Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.
Income inequality in today's China.
Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang
2014-05-13
Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.
[Social inequality in home care].
Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A
2013-06-01
Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.
[Policies to reduce health inequalities].
Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucía
2008-01-01
This paper reviews policies to reduce social inequalities in health and presents some examples. Previously it presents the model on social determinants of health inequalities. The model described on the determinants of health inequalities is used by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health of the World Health Organisation that contains three main elements: the socio-economic and political context, socioeconomic status and intermediary factors. It describes 10 principles to keep in mind to launch interventions aimed at reducing inequalities in health and describes various policies depending on different "entry points" considered in the conceptual model. Finally we present two examples: The Public Health Policy of Sweden and the programme "Barrio Adentro" in Venezuela.
Penrose inequality and apparent horizons
Ben-Dov, Ishai
2004-12-15
A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.
Optical mechanical analogy and nonlinear nonholonomic constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloch, Anthony M.; Rojo, Alberto G.
2016-02-01
In this paper we establish a connection between particle trajectories subject to a nonholonomic constraint and light ray trajectories in a variable index of refraction. In particular, we extend the analysis of systems with linear nonholonomic constraints to the dynamics of particles in a potential subject to nonlinear velocity constraints. We contrast the long time behavior of particles subject to a constant kinetic energy constraint (a thermostat) to particles with the constraint of parallel velocities. We show that, while in the former case the velocities of each particle equalize in the limit, in the latter case all the kinetic energies of each particle remain the same.
[Economic growth and health inequities].
Tapia Granados, José A
2013-01-01
This essay reviews the relation between health inequities and economic growth. The general meaning of these and ancillary concepts (economic development, health inequalities) is briefly reviewed. Some studies illustrating different hypotheses on the long-run historical evolution of health inequalities are presented, and three case studies -the United States in 1920-1940 and in recent years, Finland during the expansion of the 1980s and the recession of the 1990s- are reviewed to demonstrate the evolution of health inequalities during the periods of expansion and recession in markets economies that conform to the so-called business cycle. Health inequities between ethnic groups and social classes are often found in modern societies, and some of these disparities seem to be widening. Periods of economic expansion do not seem favorable for the lessening of health inequalities. Contrarily, and counter-intuitively, evidence rather suggests that it is during periods of recession that gaps in health between privileged and disadvantaged groups tend to narrow.
Johnson, Timothy C.; Versteeg, Roelof; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Chen, Xingyuan; Zachara, John M.
2015-08-01
This paper describes and demonstrates two methods of providing a-priori information to a surface-based time-lapse three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) problem for monitoring stage-driven river bank storage along the Columbia River in the state of Washington, USA. First, a transient warping mesh boundary is implemented that conforms to the known location of the water table boundary through time, thereby enabling the inversion to place a sharp bulk-conductivity contrast at that boundary without penalty. Second, because river water specific conductance is less than groundwater specific conductance, a non-linear inequality constraint is used to allow only negative transient changes in bulk conductivity to occur within the saturated zone during periods of elevated river stage with respect to baseline conditions. Whereas time-lapse imaging results using traditional smoothness constraints are unable to delineate river bank storage, the water table and inequality constraints provide the inversion with the additional information necessary to resolve the spatial extent of river water intrusion through time. A surface based ERT array of 352 electrodes was used to autonomously produce four images per day of changes in bulk conductivity associated with river water intrusion over an area of approximately 300 m2 from April through October of 2013. Results are validated by comparing changes in bulk conductivity time series with corresponding changes in fluid specific conductance at several inland monitoring wells.
On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.
Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan
2016-01-01
Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.
Wildman, John
2003-07-01
A framework is developed to analyse the impact of the distribution of income on individual health and health inequality, with individual health modelled as a function of income and the distribution of income. It is demonstrated that the impact of income inequality can generate non-concave health production functions resulting in a non-concave health production possibility frontier. In this context, the impact of different health policies are considered and it is argued that if the distribution of income affects individual health, any policy aimed at equalising health, which does not account for income inequality, will lead to unequal distributions of health. This is an important development given current UK government attention to reducing health inequality.
Rising U.S. income inequality, gender and individual self-rated health, 1972-2004.
Zheng, Hui
2009-11-01
The effect of income inequality on health has been a contested topic among social scientists. Most previous research is based on cross-sectional comparisons rather than temporal comparisons. Using data from the General Social Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines how rising income inequality affects individual self-rated health in the U.S. from 1972 to 2004. Data are analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models. The findings suggest a significant association between income inequality and individual self-rated health. The dramatic increase in income inequality from 1972 to 2004 increases the odds of worse self-rated health by 9.4 percent. These findings hold for three measures of income inequality: the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson Index, and the Theil entropy index. Results also suggest that overall income inequality and gender-specific income inequality harm men's, but not women's, self-rated health. These findings also hold for the three measures of income inequality. These findings suggest that inattention to gender composition may explain apparent discrepancies across previous studies.
Rogers, Deborah S.; Deshpande, Omkar; Feldman, Marcus W.
2011-01-01
The causes of socioeconomic inequality have been debated since the time of Plato. Many reasons for the development of stratification have been proposed, from the need for hierarchical control over large-scale irrigation systems to the accumulation of small differences in wealth over time via inheritance processes. However, none of these explains how unequal societies came to completely displace egalitarian cultural norms over time. Our study models demographic consequences associated with the unequal distribution of resources in stratified societies. Agent-based simulation results show that in constant environments, unequal access to resources can be demographically destabilizing, resulting in the outward migration and spread of such societies even when population size is relatively small. In variable environments, stratified societies spread more and are also better able to survive resource shortages by sequestering mortality in the lower classes. The predictions of our simulation are provided modest support by a range of existing empirical studies. In short, the fact that stratified societies today vastly outnumber egalitarian societies may not be due to the transformation of egalitarian norms and structures, but may instead reflect the more rapid migration of stratified societies and consequent conquest or displacement of egalitarian societies over time. PMID:21957457
Biondi, Franco; Qeadan, Fares
2008-04-01
Paleorecords provide information on past environmental variability, and help define ecological reference conditions by means of changes in their characteristics (accumulation rate, geochemical composition, density, etc.). A measure of temporal dissimilarity, which has traditionally been used in dendrochronology and is called "mean sensitivity," only focuses on first-order time-series lags. In this paper mean sensitivity was extended to all possible lags to derive a mean sensitivity function (MSF). The MSF is equivalent to a one-dimensional form of the paired relative madogram, a tool used in geostatistics to quantify spatial dependence. We then showed that the sum of madograms for all possible time-series lags is encapsulated by a single parameter, the Gini coefficient. This parameter has long been used by econometricians, social scientists, and ecologists as a synthetic, quantitative measure of inequality and diversity. Considering the connection between the MSF and the madogram, and the convenience of summarizing data heterogeneity with a single number, the Gini coefficient is therefore particularly appropriate for succinctly evaluating the diversity of paleorecords. An example of this application is provided by focusing on public domain dendrochronological data for the western conterminous United States.
Discrimination and health inequities.
Krieger, Nancy
2014-01-01
In 1999, only 20 studies in the public health literature employed instruments to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination. Fifteen years later, the number of empirical investigations on discrimination and health easily exceeds 500, with these studies increasingly global in scope and focused on major types of discrimination variously involving race/ethnicity, indigenous status, immigrant status, gender, sexuality, disability, and age, separately and in combination. And yet, as I also document, even as the number of investigations has dramatically expanded, the scope remains narrow: studies remain focused primarily on interpersonal discrimination, and scant research investigates the health impacts of structural discrimination, a gap consonant with the limited epidemiologic research on political systems and population health. Accordingly, to help advance the state of the field, this updated review article: (a) briefly reviews definitions of discrimination, illustrated with examples from the United States; (b) discusses theoretical insights useful for conceptualizing how discrimination can become embodied and produce health inequities, including via distortion of scientific knowledge; (c) concisely summarizes extant evidence--both robust and inconsistent--linking discrimination and health; and (d) addresses several key methodological controversies and challenges, including the need for careful attention to domains, pathways, level, and spatiotemporal scale, in historical context. PMID:25626224
Biondi, Franco; Qeadan, Fares
2008-04-01
Paleorecords provide information on past environmental variability, and help define ecological reference conditions by means of changes in their characteristics (accumulation rate, geochemical composition, density, etc.). A measure of temporal dissimilarity, which has traditionally been used in dendrochronology and is called "mean sensitivity," only focuses on first-order time-series lags. In this paper mean sensitivity was extended to all possible lags to derive a mean sensitivity function (MSF). The MSF is equivalent to a one-dimensional form of the paired relative madogram, a tool used in geostatistics to quantify spatial dependence. We then showed that the sum of madograms for all possible time-series lags is encapsulated by a single parameter, the Gini coefficient. This parameter has long been used by econometricians, social scientists, and ecologists as a synthetic, quantitative measure of inequality and diversity. Considering the connection between the MSF and the madogram, and the convenience of summarizing data heterogeneity with a single number, the Gini coefficient is therefore particularly appropriate for succinctly evaluating the diversity of paleorecords. An example of this application is provided by focusing on public domain dendrochronological data for the western conterminous United States. PMID:18481530
Population growth, inequality and poverty.
Rodgers, G
1983-01-01
In this discussion of population growth, inequality, and poverty, the type of relationships that can be observed in intercountry comparisons are explored, reviewing the findings of several other authors, presenting some new estimates using an International Labor Office data bank, considering some basic conceptual problems, and examining some of the theoretical and empirical issues that call for investigation at the national level. Intercountry comparisons, despite their limitations, appear to be the easiest starting point for empirical analysis. The approach adopted by most researchers has been to select 1 or more population indicators and a measure of national income inequality and to explain intercountry differences in 1 or both of these variables in terms of each other and of other indicators of economic and social development. Underlying this methodology is the assumption that there are aspects of demographic and economic change that are common to all countries included in the study, so that differences between countries give some guide to the likely evolution over time within any 1 country. This can be accepted at best with reservations, but given the scarcity of data on the evolution of inequality over time, a working hypothesis of this type appears unavoidable. But, as many of the factors likely to cause population growth and inequality operate over extended periods of time, a dynamic model is indicated. A simpler model, which pays particular attention to lags and variations over time, may generate new insights. A summary of the results of a new international cross-section analysis set up on these lines is presented. Results suggest that contrary to expectations, reducing population growth does not seem to generate longterm benefits for the poor in this model, though some short term gains are found. Increasing equality does appear to generate some decline in population growth, as well as persistent gains in incomes among the poor, but the reductions in
Bayesian Evaluation of Inequality-Constrained Hypotheses in SEM Models Using M"plus"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van de Schoot, Rens; Hoijtink, Herbert; Hallquist, Michael N.; Boelen, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Researchers in the behavioral and social sciences often have expectations that can be expressed in the form of inequality constraints among the parameters of a structural equation model resulting in an informative hypothesis. The questions they would like an answer to are "Is the hypothesis Correct" or "Is the hypothesis incorrect?" We demonstrate…
Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm Based on Principal Operation and Inequity Degree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fachao; Jin, Chenxia
In this paper, starting from the structure of fuzzy information, by distinguishing principal indexes and assistant indexes, give comparison of fuzzy information on synthesizing effect and operation of fuzzy optimization on principal indexes transformation, further, propose axiom system of fuzzy inequity degree from essence of constraint, and give an instructive metric method; Then, combining genetic algorithm, give fuzzy optimization methods based on principal operation and inequity degree (denoted by BPO&ID-FGA, for short); Finally, consider its convergence using Markov chain theory and analyze its performance through an example. All these indicate, BPO&ID-FGA can not only effectively merge decision consciousness into the optimization process, but possess better global convergence, so it can be applied to many fuzzy optimization problems.
Inequalities in premature mortality in Britain: observational study from 1921 to 2007
Dorling, Danny; Smith, George Davey
2010-01-01
Objective To report on the extent of inequality in premature mortality as measured between geographical areas in Britain. Design Observational study of routinely collected mortality data and public records. Population subdivided by age, sex, and geographical area (parliamentary constituencies from 1991 to2007, pre-1974 local authorities over a longer time span). Setting Great Britain. Participants Entire population aged under 75 from 1990 to 2007, and entire population aged under 65 in the periods 1921-39, 1950-3, 1959-63, 1969-73, and 1981-2007. Main outcome measure Relative index of inequality (RII) and ratios of inequality in age-sex standardised mortality ratios under ages 75 and 65. The relative index of inequality is the relative rate of mortality for the hypothetically worst-off compared with the hypothetically best-off person in the population, assuming a linear association between socioeconomic position and risk of mortality. The ratio of inequality is the ratio of the standardised mortality ratio of the most deprived 10% to the least deprived 10%. Results When measured by the relative index of inequality, geographical inequalities in age-sex standardised rates of mortality below age 75 have increased every two years from 1990-1 to 2006-7 without exception. Over this period the relative index of inequality increased from 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.52 to 1.69) in 1990-1 to 2.14 (2.02 to 2.27) in 2006-7. Simple ratios indicated a brief period around 2001 when a small reduction in inequality was recorded, but this was quickly reversed and inequalities up to the age of 75 have now reached the highest levels reported since at least 1990. Similarly, inequalities in mortality ratios under the age of 65 improved slightly in the early years of this century but the latest figures surpass the most extreme previously reported. Comparison of crudely age-sex standardised rates for those below age 65 from historical records showed that geographical inequalities in
The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.
Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J
2015-01-01
Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age
The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.
Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J
2015-01-01
Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age
Nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation inequality and nonequilibrium uncertainty principle.
Fleming, C H; Hu, B L; Roura, Albert
2013-07-01
The fluctuation-dissipation relation is usually formulated for a system interacting with a heat bath at finite temperature, and often in the context of linear response theory, where only small deviations from the mean are considered. We show that for an open quantum system interacting with a nonequilibrium environment, where temperature is no longer a valid notion, a fluctuation-dissipation inequality exists. Instead of being proportional, quantum fluctuations are bounded below by quantum dissipation, whereas classically the fluctuations vanish at zero temperature. The lower bound of this inequality is exactly satisfied by (zero-temperature) quantum noise and is in accord with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, in both its microscopic origins and its influence upon systems. Moreover, it is shown that there is a coupling-dependent nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation that determines the nonequilibrium uncertainty relation of linear systems in the weak-damping limit.
Introduction to classical mechanics of systems with constraints, part 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Razumov, A. V.; Solovev, L. D.
For systems with second class constraints the reduced phase space is constructed. It is shown that physically equivalent points of the phase space for systems with first class constraints are connected by canonical transformations generated by linear combinations of the first class constraints. For every system with first class constraints a physically equivalent system with second class constraints is constructed. As an illustrative application of the theory the relativistic straightline string is considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peñarrocha, I.; Dolz, D.; Sanchis, R.
2014-05-01
The predictor and controller design for an inferential control scheme over a network is addressed. A linear plant with disturbances and measurement noise is assumed to be controlled by a controller that communicates with the sensors and the actuators through a constrained network. An algorithm is proposed such that the scarce available outputs are used to make a prediction of the system evolution with an observer that takes into account the amount of lost data between successful measurements transmissions. The state prediction is then used to calculate the control actions sent to the actuator. The possibility of control action drop due to network constraints is taken into account. This networked control scheme is analysed and both the predictor and controller designs are addressed taking into account the disturbances, the measurement noise, the scarce availability of output samples and the scarce capability of control actions update. The time-varying sampling periods that result for the process inputs and outputs due to network constraints have been determined as a function of the probability of successful transmission on a specified time with a Bernoulli distribution. For both designs ? performance has been established and linear matrix inequality (LMI) design techniques have been used to achieve a numerical solution.
Bell inequalities with communication assistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxwell, Katherine; Chitambar, Eric
2014-04-01
In this paper, we consider the possible correlations between two parties using local machines and shared randomness with an additional amount of classical communication. This is a continuation of the work initiated by Bacon and Toner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157904 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.157904] who characterized the correlation polytope for 2×2 measurement settings with binary outcomes plus one bit of communication. Here, we derive a complete set of Bell inequalities for 3×2 measurement settings and a shared bit of communication. When the communication direction is fixed, nine Bell inequalities characterize the correlation polytope, whereas when the communication direction is bidirectional, 143 inequalities describe the correlations. We then prove a tight lower bound on the amount of communication needed to simulate all no-signaling correlations for a given number of measurement settings.
STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES
Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.
2014-01-01
Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities. PMID:25632292
Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces
Astashkin, S V
2014-12-31
We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.
Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study
Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669
Income inequality and pregnancy spacing.
Gold, R; Connell, Frederick A; Heagerty, Patrick; Bezruchka, Stephen; Davis, Robert; Cawthon, Mary Lawrence
2004-09-01
We examined the relationship between county-level income inequality and pregnancy spacing in a welfare-recipient cohort in Washington State. We identified 20,028 welfare-recipient women who had at least one birth between July 1, 1992, and December 31, 1999, and followed this cohort from the date of that first in-study birth until the occurrence of a subsequent pregnancy or the end of the study period. Income inequality was measured as the proportion of total county income earned by the wealthiest 10% of households in that county compared to that earned by the poorest 10%. To measure the relationship between income inequality and the time-dependent risk (hazard) of a subsequent pregnancy, we used Cox proportional hazards methods and adjusted for individual- and county-level covariates. Among women aged 25 and younger at the time of the index birth, the hazard ratio (HR) of subsequent pregnancy associated with income inequality was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.80), controlling for individual-level (age, marital status, education at index birth; race, parity) and community-level variables. Among women aged 26 or older at the time of the index birth, the adjusted HR was 2.14 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.18). While income inequality is not the only community-level feature that may affect health, among women aged 26 or older at the index birth it appears to be associated with hazard of a subsequent pregnancy, even after controlling for other factors. These results support previous findings that income inequality may impact health, perhaps by influencing health-related behaviors.
Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations.
Kalmijn, W M; Arends, L R
2010-10-01
What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement between the pair partners, has been adopted as an indicator for the inequality of the distribution as a whole. For models in which the happiness occurs as a continuous latent variable, an analogous approach has been developed on the basis of differentials. In principle, this fundamental approach results in a (zero) minimum value, and, more importantly, also in a maximum value. In the case where happiness is measured using a k-points scale, the maximum inequality is obtained if all ½N sample members select the lowest possible rating (Eq. 1) and the other ½N the highest possible one (k). This finding even applies to the truly ordinal case, i.e., if the distances between the successive ratings on the scale are unknown. It is, however, impossible to quantify the inequality of some measured sample distribution, unless all distances of the k categories of the scale of measurement are known or at least estimated, either on an empirical basis or on the basis of assumptions. In general, the numerical application of the method to continuous distributions is very complicated. An exploration on the basis of a relatively simple model with a linear probability density function suggests that the inequality of a beta probability distribution with shape parameters a and b increases as the value of these parameters decreases. A contour plot, obtained by numerical integration, demonstrates this relationship in a quantitative way. This approach is applicable to judge the aptness of common statistics of dispersion, among which the standard deviation and the Gini coefficient. The former is shown to be more appropriate than the latter for
Extended Rearrangement Inequalities and Applications to Some Quantitative Stability Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemou, Mohammed
2016-09-01
In this paper, we prove a new functional inequality of Hardy-Littlewood type for generalized rearrangements of functions. We then show how this inequality provides quantitative stability results of steady states to evolution systems that essentially preserve the rearrangements and some suitable energy functional, under minimal regularity assumptions on the perturbations. In particular, this inequality yields a quantitative stability result of a large class of steady state solutions to the Vlasov-Poisson systems, and more precisely we derive a quantitative control of the L 1 norm of the perturbation by the relative Hamiltonian (the energy functional) and rearrangements. A general non linear stability result has been obtained by Lemou et al. (Invent Math 187:145-194, 2012) in the gravitational context, however the proof relied in a crucial way on compactness arguments which by construction provides no quantitative control of the perturbation. Our functional inequality is also applied to the context of 2D-Euler systems and also provides quantitative stability results of a large class of steady-states to this system in a natural energy space.
Remainder terms for some quantum entropy inequalities
Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.
2014-04-15
We consider three von Neumann entropy inequalities: subadditivity; Pinsker's inequality for relative entropy; and the monotonicity of relative entropy. For these we state conditions for equality, and we prove some new error bounds away from equality, including an improved version of Pinsker's inequality.
Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina
2008-01-01
What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…
Educational Inequalities and Opportunity in Economic Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowman, Mary Jean
1991-01-01
Discusses educational equality and inequality from an economist's perspective. Considers human capital theory and interpretation of life cycles in learning and earning. Addresses schooling and experience components of changes in the inequality of earned incomes, educational expansion, and inequalities in schooling. Explores the roles of skill…
Magnetotail dynamics under isobaric constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl; Janicke, Lutz; Hesse, Michael
1994-01-01
Using linear theory and nonlinear MHD simulations, we investigate the resistive and ideal MHD stability of two-dimensional plasma configurations under the isobaric constraint dP/dt = 0, which in ideal MHD is equivalent to conserving the pressure function P = P(A), where A denotes the magnetic flux. This constraint is satisfied for incompressible modes, such as Alfven waves, and for systems undergoing energy losses. The linear stability analysis leads to a Schroedinger equation, which can be investigated by standard quantum mechanics procedures. We present an application to a typical stretched magnetotail configuration. For a one-dimensional sheet equilibrium characteristic properties of tearing instability are rediscovered. However, the maximum growth rate scales with the 1/7 power of the resistivity, which implies much faster growth than for the standard tearing mode (assuming that the resistivity is small). The same basic eigen-mode is found also for weakly two-dimensional equilibria, even in the ideal MHD limit. In this case the growth rate scales with the 1/4 power of the normal magnetic field. The results of the linear stability analysis are confirmed qualitatively by nonlinear dynamic MHD simulations. These results suggest the interesting possibility that substorm onset, or the thinning in the late growth phase, is caused by the release of a thermodynamic constraint without the (immediate) necessity of releasing the ideal MHD constraint. In the nonlinear regime the resistive and ideal developments differ in that the ideal mode does not lead to neutral line formation without the further release of the ideal MHD constraint; instead a thin current sheet forms. The isobaric constraint is critically discussed. Under perhaps more realistic adiabatic conditions the ideal mode appears to be stable but could be driven by external perturbations and thus generate the thin current sheet in the late growth phase, before a nonideal instability sets in.
Sparse linear programming subprogram
Hanson, R.J.; Hiebert, K.L.
1981-12-01
This report describes a subprogram, SPLP(), for solving linear programming problems. The package of subprogram units comprising SPLP() is written in Fortran 77. The subprogram SPLP() is intended for problems involving at most a few thousand constraints and variables. The subprograms are written to take advantage of sparsity in the constraint matrix. A very general problem statement is accepted by SPLP(). It allows upper, lower, or no bounds on the variables. Both the primal and dual solutions are returned as output parameters. The package has many optional features. Among them is the ability to save partial results and then use them to continue the computation at a later time.
Arokiasamy, P; Pradhan, J
2011-09-01
The concentration index is the most commonly used measure of socio-economic-related health inequality. However, a critical constraint has been that it is just a measure of inequality. Equity is an important goal of health policy but the average level of health also matters. In this paper, we explore evidence of both these crucial dimensions-equity (inequality) and efficiency (average health)-in child health indicators by adopting the recently developed measure of the extended concentration index on the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) data from India. An increasing degree of inequality aversion is used to measure health inequalities as well as achievement in the following child health indicators: under-2 child mortality, full immunization coverage, and prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among children. State-wise adjusted under-2 child mortality scores reveal an increasing trend with increasing values of inequality aversion, implying that under-2 child deaths have been significantly concentrated among the poor households. The level of adjusted under-2 child mortality scores increases significantly with the increasing value of aversion even in states advanced in the health transition, such as Kerala and Goa. The higher values of adjusted scores for lower values of aversion for child immunization coverage are evidence that richer households benefited most from the rise in full immunization coverage. However, the lack of radical changes in the adjusted scores for underweight among children with increasing degrees of aversion implies that household economic status was not the only determinant of poor nutritional status in India.
Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fasang, Anette Eva
2012-01-01
How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…
Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collins, James
2013-01-01
The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…
Declaring Bankruptcy on Educational Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bass, Lisa; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia
2011-01-01
The authors consider Ladson-Billings' (2006) charge to reframe the way the "achievement gap" is viewed, and put forth the metaphor of "bankruptcy" as a way to acknowledge the educational debt and educational inequity and move towards debt forgiveness in public education. Specifically, the bankruptcy metaphor is used to examine the debt embedded in…
Racial Inequity in Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.
This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…
Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Downey, Liam
2006-01-01
This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…
A framework for measuring health inequity
Asada, Y.
2005-01-01
Background: Health inequality has long attracted keen attention in the research and policy arena. While there may be various motivations to study health inequality, what distinguishes it as a topic is moral concern. Despite the importance of this moral interest, a theoretical and analytical framework for measuring health inequality acknowledging moral concerns remains to be established. Study objective: To propose a framework for measuring the moral or ethical dimension of health inequality—that is, health inequity. Design: Conceptual discussion. Conclusions: Measuring health inequity entails three steps: (1) defining when a health distribution becomes inequitable, (2) deciding on measurement strategies to operationalise a chosen concept of equity, and (3) quantifying health inequity information. For step (1) a variety of perspectives on health equity exist under two categories, health equity as equality in health, and health inequality as an indicator of general injustice in society. In step (2), when we are interested in health inequity, the choice of the measurement of health, the unit of time, and the unit of analysis in health inequity analysis should reflect moral considerations. In step (3) we must follow principles rather than convenience and consider six questions that arise when quantifying health inequity information. This proposed framework suggests various ways to conceptualise the moral dimension of health inequality and emphasises the logical consistency from conception to measurement. PMID:16020649
Torche, Florencia
2010-05-01
Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.
Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.
2016-04-01
We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.
Quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy densities in curved spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfenning, Michael John
1998-10-01
In quantum field theory, there exist states in which the expectation value of the energy density for a quantized field is negative. These negative energy densities lead to several problems such as the failure of the classical energy conditions, the production of closed timelike curves and faster than light travel, violations of the second law of thermodynamics, and the possible production of naked singularities. Although quantum field theory introduces negative energies, it also provides constraints in the form of quantum inequalities (QI's). These uncertainty principle- type relations limit the magnitude and duration of any negative energy. We derive a general form of the QI on the energy density for both the quantized scalar and electromagnetic fields in static curved spacetimes. In the case of the scalar field, the QI can be written as the Euclidean wave operator acting on the Euclidean Green's function. Additionally, a small distance expansion on the Green's function is used to derive the QI in the short sampling time limit. It is found that the QI in this limit reduces to the flat space form with subdominant correction terms which depend on the spacetime geometry. Several example spacetimes are studied in which exact forms of the QI's can be found. These include the three- and four-dimensional static Robertson-Walker spacetimes, flat space with perfectly reflecting mirrors, Rindler and static de Sitter space, and the spacetime outside a black hole. In all of the above cases, we find that the quantum inequalities give a lower limit on how much negative energy may be observed relative to the vacuum energy density of the spacetime. For the particular case of the black hole, it is found that the quantum inequality on the energy density is measured relative to the Boulware vacuum. Finally, the application of the quantum inequalities to the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime leads to strict constraints on the thickness of the negative energy region needed to maintain
Hard and Soft Constraints in Reliability-Based Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, L.uis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a framework for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements in the form of inequality constraints are present. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value and by sets of componentwise bounded uncertain variables. These models, which often arise in engineering problems, allow for a sharp mathematical manipulation. Constraints can be implemented in the hard sense, i.e., constraints must be satisfied for all parameter realizations in the uncertainty model, and in the soft sense, i.e., constraints can be violated by some realizations of the uncertain parameter. In regard to hard constraints, this methodology allows (i) to determine if a hard constraint can be satisfied for a given uncertainty model and constraint structure, (ii) to generate conclusive, formally verifiable reliability assessments that allow for unprejudiced comparisons of competing design alternatives and (iii) to identify the critical combination of uncertain parameters leading to constraint violations. In regard to soft constraints, the methodology allows the designer (i) to use probabilistic uncertainty models, (ii) to calculate upper bounds to the probability of constraint violation, and (iii) to efficiently estimate failure probabilities via a hybrid method. This method integrates the upper bounds, for which closed form expressions are derived, along with conditional sampling. In addition, an l(sub infinity) formulation for the efficient manipulation of hyper-rectangular sets is also proposed.
INEQUITY IN THE FACE OF DEATH.
García-Gómez, Pilar; Schokkaert, Erik; Van Ourti, Tom; Bago d'Uva, Teresa
2014-07-30
We apply the theory of inequality of opportunity to the measurement of inequity in mortality. Using a rich data set linking records of mortality and health events to survey data on lifestyles for the Netherlands (1998-2007), we test the sensitivity of estimated inequity to different normative choices and conclude that the location of the responsibility cut is of vital importance. Traditional measures of inequity (such as socioeconomic and regional inequalities) only capture part of more comprehensive notions of unfairness. We show that distinguishing between different routes via which variables might be associated to mortality is essential to the application of different normative positions. Using the fairness gap (direct unfairness), measured inequity according to our implementation of the 'control' and 'preference' approaches ranges between 0.0229 and 0.0239 (0.0102-0.0218), while regional and socioeconomic inequalities are smaller than 0.0020 (0.0001). The usual practice of standardizing for age and gender has large effects on measured inequity. Finally, we use our model to measure inequity in simulated counterfactual situations. While it is a big challenge to identify all causal relationships involved in this empirical context, this does not affect our main conclusions regarding the importance of normative choices in the measurement of inequity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25073459
Income inequality and population health.
Judge, K; Mulligan, J A; Benzeval, M
1998-01-01
A number of studies have suggested that inequalities in the distribution of income may be an important cause of variations in the average level of population health among rich industrial nations. However, what is missing from the debate so far is any systematic review of evidence about the relationship between different measures of income distribution and indicators of population health. This paper aims to bridge that gap. First, it summarizes the recent English language literature on this topic and illustrates the methodological problems that weaken the inferences that can be derived from it. Secondly, it presents new empirical estimates of the relationship between different measures of income distribution, infant mortality and life expectancy based on the most authoritative data published to date. In contrast to most earlier studies, we find very little support for the view that income inequality is associated with variations in average levels of national health in rich industrial countries. Some possible explanations for these differences are outlined.
Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit.
Downey, Liam
2006-12-01
This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality research in two important ways. First, it offers a positive rationale for using hazard proximity indicators. Second, it uses a distance decay modeling technique to estimate hazard proximity. This technique weights each hazard's estimated negative effect by distance such that the estimated negative effect declines continuously as distance from the hazard increases, thus providing more accurate estimates of proximity-based environmental risk than can be obtained using other variable construction techniques currently found in the literature. Using this technique, I find that Detroit's black neighborhoods were disproportionately burdened by TRI facility activity in 2000 and that neighborhood racial composition had a strong independent effect on neighborhood proximity to TRI activity.
[Inequalities in cervical screening practices].
Döbrőssy, Lajos; Kovács, Attila; Budai, András
2015-06-14
Theoretically, the cytology-based cervical screening is capable of early detection of precancerous epithelial lesions of cervix uteri and its cancer, and of early referral to treatment. In this way, screening can inmprove the quality of life of the patients and reduce mortality from the target disease. Unfortunately, this often remains unexploited, because there might be inequalities on both "supply" and "demand" side of screening. In addition to the geopolitical situation of a country, inequalities might result from differences in the health care systems, and heavy access to the screening services. On the other hand, the socioeconomic status, the health-conciousness of the target population, and their knowledge and information of the benefits and potential harms of screening examination might have a bearing on the acceptance or refusal of the offered screening. Efforts need to be made to increase the uptake of cervical screening programmes.
On measuring inequalities in health.
Wolfson, M.; Rowe, G.
2001-01-01
In a recent series of papers, Murray et al. have put forward a number of important ideas regarding the measurement of inequalities in health. In this paper we agree with some of these ideas but draw attention to one key aspect of their approach--measuring inequalities on the basis of small area data--which is flawed. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the problem. An alternative approach drawing on longitudinal data is outlined, which preserves and enhances the most desirable aspects of their proposal. These include the use of a life course perspective, and the consideration of non-fatal health outcomes as well as the more usual information on mortality patterns. PMID:11436478
Inequalities of Income and Inequalities of Longevity: A Cross-Country Study
Plümper, Thomas
2016-01-01
Objectives. We examined the effects of market income inequality (income inequality before taxes and transfers) and income redistribution via taxes and transfers on inequality in longevity. Methods. We used life tables to compute Gini coefficients of longevity inequality for all individuals and for individuals who survived to at least 10 years of age. We regressed longevity inequality on market income inequality and income redistribution, and we controlled for potential confounders, in a cross-sectional time-series sample of up to 28 predominantly Western developed countries and up to 37 years (1974–2011). Results. Income inequality before taxes and transfers was positively associated with inequality in the number of years lived; income redistribution (the difference between market income inequality and income inequality after taxes and transfers were accounted for) was negatively associated with longevity inequality. Conclusions. To the extent that our estimated effects derived from observational data are causal, governments can reduce longevity inequality not only via public health policies, but also via their influence on market income inequality and the redistribution of incomes from the relatively rich to the relatively poor. PMID:26562120
Inequalities for the quantum privacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.
2016-02-01
In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.
[Inequalities in health in Mexico].
Linares-Pérez, Nivaldo; López-Arellano, Oliva
2012-01-01
This study presents a critical approach on health sector reform in Mexico and its impact on access and equity in state health systems. We discuss the main strategies adopted and made an assessment of its contribution to achieving equity in health, using socioeconomic indicators of health services and interventions for two moments, 1990 y 2002. We conclude that the dynamics of deepening inequalities in the period and the transformation of state health systems do not contribute to the achievement of equity in access.
Climate policies under wealth inequality.
Vasconcelos, Vítor V; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Levin, Simon A
2014-02-11
Taming the planet's climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one's sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior.
Climate policies under wealth inequality
Vasconcelos, Vítor V.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Levin, Simon A.
2014-01-01
Taming the planet’s climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one’s sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior. PMID:24469806
Unbounded Violation of Quantum Steering Inequalities.
Marciniak, M; Rutkowski, A; Yin, Z; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, R
2015-10-23
We construct steering inequalities that exhibit unbounded violation. The concept was to exploit the relationship between steering violation and the uncertainty relation. To this end, we apply mutually unbiased bases and anticommuting observables, known to exhibit the strongest uncertainty. In both cases, we are able to procure unbounded violations. Our approach is much more constructive and transparent than the operator space theory approach employed to obtain large violation of Bell inequalities. Importantly, using anticommuting observables we are able to obtain a dichotomic steering inequality with unbounded violation. Thus far, there is no analogous result for Bell inequalities. Interestingly, both the dichotomic inequality and one of our inequalities cannot be directly obtained from existing uncertainty relations, which strongly suggest the existence of an unknown kind of uncertainty relation.
Income inequality in the developing world.
Ravallion, Martin
2014-05-23
Should income inequality be of concern in developing countries? New data reveal less income inequality in the developing world than 30 years ago. However, this is due to falling inequality between countries. Average inequality within developing countries has been slowly rising, though staying fairly flat since 2000. As a rule, higher rates of growth in average incomes have not put upward pressure on inequality within countries. Growth has generally helped reduce the incidence of absolute poverty, but less so in more unequal countries. High inequality also threatens to stall future progress against poverty by attenuating growth prospects. Perceptions of rising absolute gaps in living standards between the rich and the poor in growing economies are also consistent with the evidence.
Income inequality in the developing world.
Ravallion, Martin
2014-05-23
Should income inequality be of concern in developing countries? New data reveal less income inequality in the developing world than 30 years ago. However, this is due to falling inequality between countries. Average inequality within developing countries has been slowly rising, though staying fairly flat since 2000. As a rule, higher rates of growth in average incomes have not put upward pressure on inequality within countries. Growth has generally helped reduce the incidence of absolute poverty, but less so in more unequal countries. High inequality also threatens to stall future progress against poverty by attenuating growth prospects. Perceptions of rising absolute gaps in living standards between the rich and the poor in growing economies are also consistent with the evidence. PMID:24855260
Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality. PMID:26954783
Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality. PMID:26954783
Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar
2005-01-01
The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be used as…
Generalized Harnack Inequality for Nonhomogeneous Elliptic Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julin, Vesa
2015-05-01
This paper is concerned with nonlinear elliptic equations in nondivergence form where F has a drift term which is not Lipschitz continuous. Under this condition the equations are nonhomogeneous and nonnegative solutions do not satisfy the classical Harnack inequality. This paper presents a new generalization of the Harnack inequality for such equations. As a corollary we obtain the optimal Harnack type of inequality for p( x)-harmonic functions which quantifies the strong minimum principle.
Social influences on inequity aversion in children.
McAuliffe, Katherine; Blake, Peter R; Kim, Grace; Wrangham, Richard W; Warneken, Felix
2013-01-01
Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1) the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2) the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of the expression of
Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems
Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong
2006-09-15
In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.
Nagata, Koji
2007-08-15
We show that positivity of every partial transpose of N-partite quantum states implies inequalities on Bell correlations which are stronger than standard Bell inequalities by a factor of 2{sup (N-1)/2}. A violation of the inequality implies that the system is in a bipartite distillable entangled state. It turns out that a family of N-qubit bound entangled states proposed by Duer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230402 (2001)] violates the inequality for N{>=}4.
Income-related health inequality in Canada.
Humphries, K H; van Doorslaer, E
2000-03-01
This study uses data from the 1994 National Population Health Survey and applies the methods developed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer (1994, measuring inequalities in health in the presence of multiple-category morbidity indicators. Health Economics 3, 281-291) to measure the degree of income-related inequality in self-reported health in Canada by means of concentration indices. It finds that significant inequalities in self-reported ill-health exist and favour the higher income groups--the higher the level of income, the better the level of self-assessed health. The analysis also indicates that lower income individuals are somewhat more likely to report their self-assessed health as poor or less-than-good than higher income groups, at the same level of a more 'objective' health indictor such as the McMaster Health Utility Index. The degree of inequality in 'subjective' health is slightly higher than in 'objective' health, but not significantly different. The degree of inequality in self-assessed health in Canada was found to be significantly higher than that reported by van Doorslaer et al. (1997, income related inequalities in health: some international comparisons, Journal of Health Economics 16, 93-112) for seven European countries, but not significantly different from the health inequality measured for the UK or the US. It also appears as if Canada's health inequality is higher than what would be expected on the basis of its income inequality.
Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.
Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard
2014-09-01
We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.
Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.
Safaei, Jalil
2007-09-01
This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.
When does inequality freeze an economy?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio
2016-07-01
Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.
Griffiths' inequalities for Ashkin-Teller model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, C. T.
1973-01-01
The two Griffiths' (1967) inequalities for the correlation functions of Ising ferromagnets with two-body interactions, and two other inequalities obtained by Kelly and Sherman (1968) and by Sherman (1969) are shown to hold not only for the Ashkin-Teller (1943) model but also for a generalized Ashkin-Teller model (Kihara et al., 1954) with many-body interactions involving arbitrary clusters of particles. A cluster of particles is understood to mean a collection of pairs of particles rather than a group of particles. The four generalized inequalities under consideration are presented in the form of theorems, and a new inequality is obtained.
Bell-Boole Inequality: Nonlocality or Probabilistic Incompatibility of Random Variables?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2008-06-01
The main aim of this report is to inform the quantum information community about investigations on the problem of probabilistic compatibility of a family of random variables: a possibility to realize such a family on the basis of a single probability measure (to construct a single Kolmogorov probability space). These investigations were started hundred of years ago by J. Boole (who invented Boolean algebras). The complete solution of the problem was obtained by Soviet mathematician Vorobjev in 60th. Surprisingly probabilists and statisticians obtained inequalities for probabilities and correlations among which one can find the famous Bell’s inequality and its generalizations. Such inequalities appeared simply as constraints for probabilistic compatibility. In this framework one can not see a priori any link to such problems as nonlocality and “death of reality” which are typically linked to Bell’s type inequalities in physical literature. We analyze the difference between positions of mathematicians and quantum physicists. In particular, we found that one of the most reasonable explanations of probabilistic incompatibility is mixing in Bell’s type inequalities statistical data from a number of experiments performed under different experimental contexts.
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-05
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
A global approach to kinematic path planning to robots with holonomic and nonholonomic constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divelbiss, Adam; Seereeram, Sanjeev; Wen, John T.
1993-01-01
Robots in applications may be subject to holonomic or nonholonomic constraints. Examples of holonomic constraints include a manipulator constrained through the contact with the environment, e.g., inserting a part, turning a crank, etc., and multiple manipulators constrained through a common payload. Examples of nonholonomic constraints include no-slip constraints on mobile robot wheels, local normal rotation constraints for soft finger and rolling contacts in grasping, and conservation of angular momentum of in-orbit space robots. The above examples all involve equality constraints; in applications, there are usually additional inequality constraints such as robot joint limits, self collision and environment collision avoidance constraints, steering angle constraints in mobile robots, etc. The problem of finding a kinematically feasible path that satisfies a given set of holonomic and nonholonomic constraints, of both equality and inequality types is addressed. The path planning problem is first posed as a finite time nonlinear control problem. This problem is subsequently transformed to a static root finding problem in an augmented space which can then be iteratively solved. The algorithm has shown promising results in planning feasible paths for redundant arms satisfying Cartesian path following and goal endpoint specifications, and mobile vehicles with multiple trailers. In contrast to local approaches, this algorithm is less prone to problems such as singularities and local minima.
Constraint monitoring in TOSCA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beck, Howard
1992-01-01
The Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) deals with the allocation of resources over time to factory operations. Allocations are subject to various constraints (e.g., production precedence relationships, factory capacity constraints, and limits on the allowable number of machine setups) which must be satisfied for a schedule to be valid. The identification of constraint violations and the monitoring of constraint threats plays a vital role in schedule generation in terms of the following: (1) directing the scheduling process; and (2) informing scheduling decisions. This paper describes a general mechanism for identifying constraint violations and monitoring threats to the satisfaction of constraints throughout schedule generation.
Bell inequality tests of four-photon six-qubit graph states
Gao Weibo; Yao Xingcan; Xu Ping; Lu He; Lu Chaoyang; Yang Tao; Chen Zengbing; Guehne, Otfried; Cabello, Adan; Pan Jianwei
2010-10-15
We now experimentally demonstrate a Y-shaped graph state with photons' polarization and spatial modes as qubits. Based on this state and a linear-type graph state, we report on the experimental realization of two different Bell inequality tests, which represent higher violation than previous Bell tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hookham, Maurice; Holloway, Clive
Open University course units are presented on the philosophy of equality and inequality (Unit 3) and on personal inequality as an ideological concept (Unit 4). The substance of Unit 3 consists of extracts from the writings of eight philosophers. The role of the philosopher in forming legitimatizing ideologies is also illustrated. The eight…
Correlations between Income Inequality and Antimicrobial Resistance
Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie
2013-01-01
Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study’s hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Data collection and analysis Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Results Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). Conclusion As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae
Inequality, deprivation and alcohol use.
Marmot, M
1997-03-01
There are major social inequalities in health within societies. Alcohol and tobacco are major preventable causes of ill health. Using data from the United Kingdom, this paper examines the social distribution of tobacco and alcohol consumption; the role that tobacco and alcohol may play in mediating or modifying social inequalities in health; and the implications of social distribution for policies to reduce harm associated with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. In the United Kingdom, as in many other countries, there is clear inverse association between socio-economic position and consumption of cigarettes. Over the past three decades, the decline in smoking has been more rapid in men and women in higher socio-economic groups. United Kingdom suggest that among employed men and women, the prevalence of non-drinking shows an inverse association with occupational status; heavy drinking differs little; and moderate drinking is more common among those of higher socio-economic status. Smoking accounts for perhaps 25% of the social class difference in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, more for lung cancer, less for some other diseases. healthier patterns of drinking may contribute to the lower CHD rates of higher social classes. Although other factors are clearly important in generating social inequalities, it is important to take the social distribution of alcohol and tobacco into account when formulating policy. For cigarette consumption, there is evidence that in lower socio-economic groups demand is more sensitive to price; higher socio-economic groups are more responsive to health education. There has been less research of this nature for alcohol. Available analyses suggest that price responsiveness of heavy drinking may be greatest in young men and in those with lower incomes. A pricing strategy has important equity implications. PMID:9167283
Lagrangian systems with higher order constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cendra, H.; Grillo, S. D.
2007-05-01
A class of mechanical systems subject to higher order constraints (i.e., constraints involving higher order derivatives of the position of the system) are studied. We call them higher order constrained systems (HOCSs). They include simplified models of elastic rolling bodies, and also the so-called generalized nonholonomic systems (GNHSs), whose constraints only involve the velocities of the system (i.e., first order derivatives in the position of the system). One of the features of this kind of systems is that D'Alembert's principle (or its nonlinear higher order generalization, the Chetaev's principle) is not necessarily satisfied. We present here, as another interesting example of HOCS, systems subjected to friction forces, showing that those forces can be encoded in a second order kinematic constraint. The main aim of the paper is to show that every HOCS is equivalent to a GNHS with linear constraints, in a canonical way. That is to say, systems with higher order constraints can be described in terms of one with linear constraints in velocities. We illustrate this fact with a system with friction and with Rocard's model [Dynamique Générale des Vibrations (1949), Chap. XV, p. 246 and L'instabilité en Mécanique; Automobiles, Avions, Ponts Suspendus (1954)] of a pneumatic tire. As a by-product, we introduce some applications on higher order tangent bundles, which we expect to be useful for the study of intrinsic aspects of the geometry of such bundles.
Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems in Elliptic Variational Inequalities: a local study
Conrad, F.; Brauner, C.; Issard-Roch, F.; Nicolaenko, B.
1985-01-01
The authors consider a class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems (N.L.E.P.) associated with Elliptic Variational Inequalities (E.V.I.). First the authors introduce the main tools for a local study of branches of solutions; the authors extend the linearization process required in the case of equations. Next the authors prove the existence of arcs of solutions close to regular vs singular points, and determine their local behavior up to the first order. Finally, the authors discuss the connection between their regularity condition and some stability concept. 37 references, 6 figures.
Addressing inequities in healthy eating.
Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn
2015-09-01
What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812
Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Failure.
Díaz-Toro, Felipe; Verdejo, Hugo E; Castro, Pablo F
2015-10-01
Prevalence and incidence of chronic heart failure (CHF) has increased during the past decades. Beyond its impact on mortality rates, CHF severely impairs quality of life, particularly with the elderly and vulnerable population. Several studies have shown that CHF takes its toll mostly on the uneducated, low-income population, who exhibit impaired access to health care systems, less knowledge regarding its pathology and poorer self-care behaviors. This review summarizes the available evidence linking socioeconomic inequalities and CHF, focusing on the modifiable factors that may explain the impaired health outcomes in socioeconomically deprived populations. PMID:26462090
Entropy power inequalities for qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Audenaert, Koenraad; Datta, Nilanjana; Ozols, Maris
2016-05-01
Shannon's entropy power inequality (EPI) can be viewed as a statement of concavity of an entropic function of a continuous random variable under a scaled addition rule: f ( √{ a } X + √{ 1 - a } Y ) ≥ a f ( X ) + ( 1 - a ) f ( Y ) ∀ a ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] . Here, X and Y are continuous random variables and the function f is either the differential entropy or the entropy power. König and Smith [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 60(3), 1536-1548 (2014)] and De Palma, Mari, and Giovannetti [Nat. Photonics 8(12), 958-964 (2014)] obtained quantum analogues of these inequalities for continuous-variable quantum systems, where X and Y are replaced by bosonic fields and the addition rule is the action of a beam splitter with transmissivity a on those fields. In this paper, we similarly establish a class of EPI analogues for d-level quantum systems (i.e., qudits). The underlying addition rule for which these inequalities hold is given by a quantum channel that depends on the parameter a ∈ [0, 1] and acts like a finite-dimensional analogue of a beam splitter with transmissivity a, converting a two-qudit product state into a single qudit state. We refer to this channel as a partial swap channel because of the particular way its output interpolates between the states of the two qudits in the input as a is changed from zero to one. We obtain analogues of Shannon's EPI, not only for the von Neumann entropy and the entropy power for the output of such channels, but also for a much larger class of functions. This class includes the Rényi entropies and the subentropy. We also prove a qudit analogue of the entropy photon number inequality (EPnI). Finally, for the subclass of partial swap channels for which one of the qudit states in the input is fixed, our EPIs and EPnI yield lower bounds on the minimum output entropy and upper bounds on the Holevo capacity.
When inequality matters: the effect of inequality frames on academic engagement.
Lowery, Brian S; Wout, Daryl A
2010-06-01
Research indicates that, among women and ethnic minorities, perceived inequality reduces the association between self-esteem and academic outcomes. The present studies demonstrate that the perception of social inequality does not always induce subordinate-group disengagement. Rather, inequality framed as dominant-group advantage allows subordinate groups to remain engaged and causes dominant groups to disengage. Experiments 1-3 demonstrate that academic inequality framed in terms of ingroup disadvantage causes Black, Latino, and female students to disengage, but inequality framed in terms of White or male advantage does not. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate the same effect for Whites and men--inequality framed in terms of the ingroup (i.e., advantage) causes disengagement, but inequality framed as outgroup disadvantage does not.
Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.
2007-01-01
We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…
American Higher Education and Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Catharine B.
2016-01-01
This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…
Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowntree, Rebecca V.
2009-01-01
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…
Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashcroft, Rachelle
2010-01-01
Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…
Children Rectify Inequalities for Disadvantaged Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
2016-01-01
Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies,…
Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.
2014-01-01
The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…
Confronting Gender Inequality in a Business School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reilly, Amanda; Jones, Deborah; Rey Vasquez, Carla; Krisjanous, Jayne
2016-01-01
This study, set in a New Zealand Business School, takes an integrative view of the university as an "inequality regime" Acker, J. (2006b). Inequality regimes: Gender, class and race in organizations. "Gender and Society," 20(4), 441-464 including all types of women staff: academic women in permanent positions, academics on…
Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.
2010-01-01
We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…
Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality
2010-01-01
This article assesses Charles Tilly’s Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book’s initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy. PMID:21258635
Children Discard a Resource to Avoid Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.
2012-01-01
Elucidating how inequity aversion (a tendency to dislike and correct unequal outcomes) functions as one develops is important to understanding more complex fairness considerations in adulthood. Although previous research has demonstrated that adults and children reduce inequity, it is unclear if people are actually responding negatively to…
Genetics and health inequalities: hypotheses and controversies
Mackenbach, J.
2005-01-01
This article reviews the current understanding of the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in health in industrialised countries and then tries to determine where genetic factors could fit into explanatory schemes. It focuses on the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in frequency of the main health problems of middle and old age. PMID:15767378
Income Inequality and the Education Divide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
1998-01-01
The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…
Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China
Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin
2016-01-01
Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children <7 years, the geographic distribution of the paediatric workforce highlighted very severe inequality across the nation, except the Central region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083
Health inequalities: trends, progress, and policy.
Bleich, Sara N; Jarlenski, Marian P; Bell, Caryn N; LaVeist, Thomas A
2012-04-01
Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have more recently become policy targets in developed countries. This review describes time trends in health inequalities (by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other OECD countries. Time-trend data in the United States indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some health indicators, such as life expectancy, but a widening of the gap in others, such as diabetes prevalence. Similarly, time-trend data in the United Kingdom indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some indicators, such as hypertension prevalence, whereas the gap between social classes has increased for life expectancy. More research and better methods are needed to measure precisely the relationships between stated policy goals and observed trends in health inequalities. PMID:22224876
Inequalities in diet and nutrition.
Tiffin, Richard; Salois, Matthew
2012-02-01
The inequality of nutrition and obesity re-focuses concern on who in society is consuming the worst diet. Identification of individuals with the worst of dietary habits permits for targeting interventions to assuage obesity among the population segment where it is most prevalent. We argue that the use of fiscal interventions does not appropriately take into account the economic, social and health circumstances of the intended beneficiaries of the policy. This paper reviews the influence of socio-demographic factors on nutrition and health status and considers the impacts of nutrition policy across the population drawing on methodologies from both public health and welfare economics. The effects of a fat tax on diet are found to be small and while other studies show that fat taxes saves lives, we show that average levels of disease risk do not change much: those consuming particularly bad diets continue to do so. Our results also suggest that the regressivity of the policy increases as the tax becomes focused on products with high saturated fat contents. A fiscally neutral policy that combines the fat tax with a subsidy on fruit and vegetables is actually more regressive because consumption of these foods tends to be concentrated in socially undeserving households. We argue that when inequality is of concern, population-based measures must reflect this and approaches that target vulnerable populations which have a shared propensity to adopt unhealthy behaviours are appropriate. PMID:22054306
Inequalities in diet and nutrition.
Tiffin, Richard; Salois, Matthew
2012-02-01
The inequality of nutrition and obesity re-focuses concern on who in society is consuming the worst diet. Identification of individuals with the worst of dietary habits permits for targeting interventions to assuage obesity among the population segment where it is most prevalent. We argue that the use of fiscal interventions does not appropriately take into account the economic, social and health circumstances of the intended beneficiaries of the policy. This paper reviews the influence of socio-demographic factors on nutrition and health status and considers the impacts of nutrition policy across the population drawing on methodologies from both public health and welfare economics. The effects of a fat tax on diet are found to be small and while other studies show that fat taxes saves lives, we show that average levels of disease risk do not change much: those consuming particularly bad diets continue to do so. Our results also suggest that the regressivity of the policy increases as the tax becomes focused on products with high saturated fat contents. A fiscally neutral policy that combines the fat tax with a subsidy on fruit and vegetables is actually more regressive because consumption of these foods tends to be concentrated in socially undeserving households. We argue that when inequality is of concern, population-based measures must reflect this and approaches that target vulnerable populations which have a shared propensity to adopt unhealthy behaviours are appropriate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru
2015-02-01
An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru
An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.
Linear matrix inequalities for analysis and control of linear vector second-order systems
Adegas, Fabiano D.; Stoustrup, Jakob
2014-10-06
Many dynamical systems are modeled as vector second-order differential equations. This paper presents analysis and synthesis conditions in terms of LMI with explicit dependence in the coefficient matrices of vector second-order systems. These conditions benefit from the separation between the Lyapunov matrix and the system matrices by introducing matrix multipliers, which potentially reduce conservativeness in hard control problems. Multipliers facilitate the usage of parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions as certificates of stability of uncertain and time-varying vector second-order systems. The conditions introduced in this work have the potential to increase the practice of analyzing and controlling systems directly in vector second-order form.
Crystallographic phase retrieval through image processing under constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Kam Y.
1993-11-01
The crystallographic image processing techniques of Sayre's equation, molecular averaging, solvent flattening and histogram matching are combined in an integrated procedure for macromolecular phase retrieval. It employs the constraints of the local shape of electron density, equal molecules, solvent flatness and correct electron density distribution. These constraints on electron density image are satisfied simultaneously by solving a system of non- linear equations using fast Fourier transform. The electron density image is further filtered under the constraint of observed diffraction amplitudes. The effect of each constraint on phase retrieval is examined. The constraints are found to work synergistically in phase retrieval. Test results on 2Zn insulin are presented.
Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen
2013-05-01
Economic analyses of equity which focus solely on horizontal inequity offer a partial assessment of socioeconomic inequity in healthcare use. We analyse income-related inequity in cardiovascular disease-related healthcare utilisation by individuals reporting cardiovascular disease in England, including both horizontal and vertical aspects. For the analysis of vertical inequity, we use target groups to estimate the appropriate relationship between healthcare needs and use. We find that including vertical inequity considerations may lead us to draw different conclusions about the nature and extent of income-related inequity. After accounting for vertical inequity in addition to horizontal inequity, there is no longer evidence of inequity favouring the poor for nurse visits, whereas there is some evidence that doctor visits and inpatient stays are concentrated among richer individuals. The estimates of income-related inequity for outpatient visits, electrocardiography tests and heart surgery become even more pro-rich when accounting for vertical inequity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walkiewicz, T. A.; Newby, N. D., Jr.
1972-01-01
A discussion of linear collisions between two or three objects is related to a junior-level course in analytical mechanics. The theoretical discussion uses a geometrical approach that treats elastic and inelastic collisions from a unified point of view. Experiments with a linear air track are described. (Author/TS)
A variational solution to the transport equation subject to an affine constraint.
Pousin, Jerome G.; Najm, Habib N.; Picq, Martine; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2004-02-01
We establish an existence and uniqueness theorem for the transport equation subject to an inequality affine constraint, viewed as a constrained optimization problem. Then we derive a Space-Time Integrated Least Squares (STILS) scheme for its numerical approximation. Furthermore, we discuss some L{sup 2}-projection strategies and with numerical examples we show that there are not relevant for that problem.
A note on a model for quay crane scheduling with non-crossing constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santini, Alberto; Alsing Friberg, Henrik; Ropke, Stefan
2015-06-01
This article studies the quay crane scheduling problem with non-crossing constraints, which is an operational problem that arises in container terminals. An enhancement to a mixed integer programming model for the problem is proposed and a new class of valid inequalities is introduced. Computational results show the effectiveness of these enhancements in solving the problem to optimality.
[Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].
Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V
2013-01-01
In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.
Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.
Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G
2015-04-01
Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health.
Power, Privilege, and Public Education: Reflections on Savage Inequalities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, James D.
1993-01-01
Kozol's book, Savage Inequalities, examines inequality between urban and suburban education and encourages suburban residents to reflect on U.S. education since the 1970s and on the role of their communities in structuring the current savage inequalities. The book suggests affluent parents successfully transmit their ideology of inequality to…
On the Penrose inequality along null hypersurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mars, Marc; Soria, Alberto
2016-06-01
The null Penrose inequality, i.e. the Penrose inequality in terms of the Bondi energy, is studied by introducing a functional on surfaces and studying its properties along a null hypersurface Ω extending to past null infinity. We prove a general Penrose-type inequality which involves the limit at infinity of the Hawking energy along a specific class of geodesic foliations called Geodesic Asymptotically Bondi (GAB), which are shown to always exist. Whenever this foliation approaches large spheres, this inequality becomes the null Penrose inequality and we recover the results of Ludvigsen-Vickers (1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 3349-53) and Bergqvist (1997 Class. Quantum Grav. 14 2577-83). By exploiting further properties of the functional along general geodesic foliations, we introduce an approach to the null Penrose inequality called the Renormalized Area Method and find a set of two conditions which imply the validity of the null Penrose inequality. One of the conditions involves a limit at infinity and the other a restriction on the spacetime curvature along the flow. We investigate their range of applicability in two particular but interesting cases, namely the shear-free and vacuum case, where the null Penrose inequality is known to hold from the results by Sauter (2008 PhD Thesis Zürich ETH), and the case of null shells propagating in the Minkowski spacetime. Finally, a general inequality bounding the area of the quasi-local black hole in terms of an asymptotic quantity intrinsic of Ω is derived.
[Society, economy, inequities and dengue].
Kouri, Gustavo; Pelegrino, José L; Munster, Blanca María; Guzmán, María G
2007-01-01
Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas have been on the rise throughout the 1990s, with the highest number -over one million cases- reported in 2002. This paper analyzed the situation of dengue in the region and discussed the determining factors that account for the rise of the disease, making emphasis on socioeconomic factors, such as poverty, inequality, migrations and the lack of access to basic services, which are the most influential in perpetuating this disease in most countries. Considering that a safe and accessible vaccine is now unavailable, basic principles of vector control combined with political willingness, inter-sectoral involvement, active community participation and the tightening of health legislation were also examined as the only viable solution at present.
Decomposing Wealth-Based Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in West Africa
BADO, Aristide Romaric; APPUNNI, Sathiya Susuman
2015-01-01
Background: This study aimed to analysis the inequalities of mortality of children under 5 years in West Africa by examining the determinants and contributing factors to the overall inequality concentration in these countries. Method: Data used came from the DHS surveys conducted in the six countries in West Africa: Burkina Faso (2010), Benin (2006), Cote d’Ivoire 2011), Ghana (2008), Mali (2006), Nigeria (2008) and Niger (2012). The concentration index (CI) and Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with logit link were used to access inequality. Results: The results show that in all countries, the poorest Q1 have the highest proportions of deaths: Nigeria (31.4%), Cote d’Ivoire (30.4%) and Ghana (36.4%), over 30% of deaths of children under 5 years are among the children of the poorest (Q1) and the absolute differences of proportions Q1–Q5 are more than 20 points (25.8 in Ghana and 23.6 in Nigeria). The contributing factors of inequalities of child mortality were birth order, maternal age, parity and household size. Our findings also showed that the intensity of inequality varies from one country to another. Conclusion: The most important conclusion of this study is to reduce mortality in children under 5 years, it is needed to reduce economic and social inequalities and improve the country’s economic and social condition. There is a need for monitoring and assessment inequalities by leading causes of death and morbidity among children in the region in order to advance in understanding the gaps and finding a way to reduce them in West Africa countries. PMID:26576370
Income inequality among American states and the incidence of major depression
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E.
2013-01-01
Background Although cross-sectional and ecological studies have shown that higher area-level income inequality is related to increased risk for depression, few longitudinal studies have been conducted. This investigation examines the relationship between state-level income inequality and major depression among adults participating in a population-based, representative longitudinal study. Methods We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653). Respondents completed structured diagnostic interviews at baseline (2001–2002) and follow-up (2004–2005). Weighted multi-level modeling was used to determine if US State-level income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) was a significant predictor of depression at baseline and at follow-up, while controlling for individual and state-level covariates. We also repeated the longitudinal analyses excluding those who had a history of depression or at baseline, in order to test whether income inequality was related to incident depression. Results State-level inequality was associated with increased incidence of depression among women but not men. In comparison to women residing in states belonging to the lowest quintile of income inequality, there was increased risks for depression among women in the second [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.18, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.86,1.62], third (OR=1.22, 95% CI=0.91,1.62), fourth (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.03,1.82), and fifth (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.14,1.96) quintiles at follow-up (p<0.05 for the linear trend). Conclusion Living in a state with higher income inequality increases the risk for the development of depression among women. PMID:24064745
Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Gotsens, Mercè; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Borrell, Carme
2016-05-01
The objective of this study was to analyse trends in socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona from 1992 to 2011, accounting for population changes. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study of the Barcelona population (25-64 years) using generalized linear mixed models for trend analysis, and found that socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality persisted between neighbourhoods, but tended to diminish. However, the reduction in inequality was related to an increase in the number of foreign-born individuals mainly in socioeconomic disadvantaged neighbourhoods, in which the decrease in premature mortality was more marked. To study trends in geographical inequalities in mortality, it is essential to understand demographic changes occurred in different places related to local levels of deprivation. PMID:27105035
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Sexism and gender inequality across 57 societies.
Brandt, Mark J
2011-11-01
Theory predicts that individuals' sexism serves to exacerbate inequality in their society's gender hierarchy. Past research, however, has provided only correlational evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, I analyzed a large longitudinal data set that included representative data from 57 societies. Multilevel modeling showed that sexism directly predicted increases in gender inequality. This study provides the first evidence that sexist ideologies can create gender inequality within societies, and this finding suggests that sexism not only legitimizes the societal status quo, but also actively enhances the severity of the gender hierarchy. Three potential mechanisms for this effect are discussed briefly.
Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality
2011-01-01
Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087
Hard Constraints in Optimization Under Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design of systems subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements are specified via hard inequality constraints. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations within a given uncertainty model. Uncertainty models given by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles, are the focus of this paper. These models, which are also quite practical, allow for a rigorous mathematical treatment within the proposed framework. Hard constraint feasibility is determined by sizing the largest uncertainty set for which the design requirements are satisfied. Analytically verifiable assessments of robustness are attained by comparing this set with the actual uncertainty model. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness characteristics of competing design alternatives, the description and approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the tools derived only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, this methodology is applicable to a broad range of engineering problems.
Identification and robust control of linear parameter-varying systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Lawton Hubert
This dissertation deals with linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems: linear dynamic systems that depend on time-varying parameters. These systems appear in gain scheduling problems, and much recent research has been devoted to their prospective usefulness for systematic gain scheduling. We primarily focus on robust control of uncertain LPV systems and identification of LPV systems that are modelable as linear-fractional transformations (LFTs). Using parameter-dependent quadratic Lyapunov functions, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and scaled small-gain arguments, we define notions of stability and induced-{cal L}sb2 performance for uncertain LPV systems whose parameters and rates of parameter variation satisfy given bounds. The performance criterion involves integral quadratic constraints and implies naturally parameter-dependent induced-{cal L}sb2 norm bounds. We formulate and solve an {cal H}sb{infty}-like control problem for an LPV plant with measurable parameters and an "Output/State Feedback" structure: the feedback outputs include some noiselessly measured states. Necessary and sufficient solvability conditions reduce to LMIs that can be solved approximately using finite-dimensional convex programming. Reduced-order LPV controllers are constructed from the LMI solutions. A D-K iteration-like procedure provides robustness to structured, time-varying, parametric uncertainty. The design method is applied to a motivating example: flight control for the F-16 VISTA throughout its subsonic flight envelope. Parameter-dependent weights and {cal H}sb{infty} design principles describe the performance objectives. Closed-loop responses exhibited by nonlinear simulations indicate satisfactory flying qualities. Identification of linear-fractional LPV systems is treated using maximum-likelihood parameter estimation. Computing the gradient and Hessian of a maximum-likelihood cost function reduces to simulating one LPV filter per identified parameter. We use nonlinear
De Vogli, R.; Mistry, R.; Gnesotto, R.; Cornia, G. A.
2005-01-01
Objective: To investigate the relation between income inequality and life expectancy in Italy and across wealthy nations. Design and setting: Measure correlation between income inequality and life expectancy at birth within Italy and across the top 21 wealthy countries. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to study these relations. Multivariate linear regression was used to measure the association between income inequality and life expectancy at birth adjusting for per capita income, education, and/or per capita gross domestic product. Data sources: Data on the Gini coefficient (income inequality), life expectancy at birth, per capita income, and educational attainment for Italy came from the surveys on Italian household on income and wealth 1995–2000 and the National Institute of Statistics information system. Data for industrialised nations were taken from the United Nations Development Program's human development indicators database 2003. Results: In Italy, income inequality (ß = –0.433; p<0.001) and educational attainment (ß = 0.306; p<0.001) were independently associated with life expectancy, but per capita income was not (ß = 0.121; p>0.05). In cross national analyses, income inequality had a strong negative correlation with life expectancy at birth (r = –0.864; p<0.001). Conclusions: In Italy, a country where health care and education are universally available, and with a strong social safety net, income inequality had an independent and more powerful effect on life expectancy at birth than did per capita income and educational attainment. Italy had a moderately high degree of income inequality and an average life expectancy compared with other wealthy countries. The cross national analyses showed that the relation between income inequality and population health has not disappeared. PMID:15650149
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Alsamawi, Ali; Murray, Joy; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro
2014-01-01
In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries.
Alsamawi, Ali; Murray, Joy; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro
2014-01-01
In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25353333
Alsamawi, Ali; Murray, Joy; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro
2014-01-01
In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25353333
Higher derivative theories with constraints: exorcising Ostrogradski's ghost
Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A.; Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: matte@case.edu E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu
2013-02-01
We prove that the linear instability in a non-degenerate higher derivative theory, the Ostrogradski instability, can only be removed by the addition of constraints if the original theory's phase space is reduced.
Income inequality in today’s China
Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang
2014-01-01
Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53–0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China’s high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China’s high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role. PMID:24778237
Does inequality in health impede economic growth?
Grimm, Michael
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the effects of inequality in health on economic growth in low and middle income countries. The empirical part of the paper uses an original cross-national panel data set covering 62 low and middle income countries over the period 1985 to 2007. I find a substantial and relatively robust negative effect of health inequality on income levels and income growth controlling for life expectancy, country and time fixed-effects and a large number of other effects that have been shown to matter for growth. The effect also holds if health inequality is instrumented to circumvent a potential problem of reverse causality. Hence, reducing inequality in the access to health care and to health-related information can make a substantial contribution to economic growth.
Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.
Fosu, Augustin Kwasi
2010-01-01
Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.
Should we worry about income inequality?
Wade, Robert Hunter
2006-01-01
Liberals (in the European sense) argue that a liberal free-market economic policy regime-nationally and globally-is good for economic growth and poverty reduction and for keeping income inequality within tolerable limits. Second, they argue that substantial income inequality is desirable because of its good effects on other things, notably incentives, innovation, and panache; and conversely, they dismiss concerns about growing inequality as "the politics of envy." Third, they argue that the core liberal theory of capitalist political economy satisfactorily explains the central tendencies in the role of the state in advanced capitalist economies. This essay challenges all three arguments on both conceptual and empirical grounds. It then suggests why the arguments are nevertheless widely accepted, proposes criteria for deciding how much inequality is fair, and ends by suggesting ways for achieving higher salience for income redistribution (downwards) in political agendas.
Schooling and Inequality from Generation to Generation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowles, Samuel
1972-01-01
Shows that substantial inequality of economic opportunity exists in the U.S. and that the educational system is a major vehicle for the transmission of economic status from one generation to the next. (RJ)
Geometric-Harmonic convexity and integral inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akdemir, Ahmet Ocak; Yalçin, Abdüllatif; Polat, Fatma; Kavurmaci-Önalan, Havva
2016-04-01
In this paper, some new integral inequalities have been proved for functions whose absolute value of derivatives are GH-convex functions by using integral equalities that have been obtained previously.
Tackling health inequalities: moving theory to action
Signal, Louise; Martin, Jennifer; Reid, Papaarangi; Carroll, Christopher; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Ormsby, Vera Keefe; Richards, Ruth; Robson, Bridget; Wall, Teresa
2007-01-01
Background This paper reports on health inequalities awareness-raising workshops conducted with senior New Zealand health sector staff as part of the Government's goal of reducing inequalities in health, education, employment and housing. Methods The workshops were based on a multi-method needs assessment with senior staff in key health institutions. The workshops aimed to increase the knowledge and skills of health sector staff to act on, and advocate for, eliminating inequalities in health. They were practical, evidence-based, and action oriented and took a social approach to the causes of inequalities in health. The workshops used ethnicity as a case study and explored racism as a driver of inequalities. They focused on the role of institutionalized racism, or racism that is built into health sector institutions. Institutional theory provided a framework for participants to analyse how their institutions create and maintain inequalities and how they can act to change this. Results Participants identified a range of institutional mechanisms that promote inequalities and a range of ways to address them including: undertaking further training, using Māori (the indigenous people) models of health in policy-making, increasing Māori participation and partnership in decision making, strengthening sector relationships with iwi (tribes), funding and supporting services provided 'by Māori for Māori', ensuring a strategic approach to intersectoral work, encouraging stronger community involvement in the work of the institution, requiring all evaluations to assess impact on inequalities, and requiring the sector to report on progress in addressing health inequalities. The workshops were rated highly by participants, who indicated increased commitment to tackle inequalities as a result of the training. Discussion Government and sector leadership were critical to the success of the workshops and subsequent changes in policy and practice. The use of locally adapted equity
Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pill, Shane
2013-01-01
This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…
[Methods for measuring inequalities in health].
Schneider, Maria Cristina; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Bacallao, Jorge; Loyola, Enrique; Mujica, Oscar J; Vidaurre, Manuel; Roca, Anne
2002-12-01
Measuring health inequalities is indispensable for progress in improving the health situation in the Region of the Americas, where the analysis of average values is no longer sufficient. Analyzing health inequalities is a fundamental tool for action that seeks greater equity in health. There are various measurement methods, with differing levels of complexity, and choosing one rather than another depends on the objective of the study. The purpose of this article is to familiarize health professionals and decision-making institutions with methodological aspects of the measurement and simple analysis of health inequalities, utilizing basic data that are regularly reported by geopolitical unit. The calculation method and the advantages and disadvantages of the following indicators are presented: the rate ratio and the rate difference, the effect index, the population attributable risk, the index of dissimilarity, the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, the Gini coefficient, and the concentration index. The methods presented are applicable to measuring various types of inequalities and at different levels of analysis. PMID:12690727
Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.
2015-01-01
The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…
Creating Positive Task Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mally, Kristi K.
2006-01-01
Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…
Constraint Reasoning Over Strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin
2003-01-01
This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.
Credit Constraints in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander
2012-01-01
We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…
H1N1, globalization and the epidemiology of inequality.
Sparke, Matthew; Anguelov, Dimitar
2012-07-01
This paper examines the lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in relation to wider work on globalization and the epidemiology of inequality. The media attention and economic resources diverted to the threats posed by H1N1 were significant inequalities themselves when contrasted with weaker responses to more lethal threats posed by other diseases associated with global inequality. However, the multiple inequalities revealed by H1N1 itself in 2009 still provide important insights into the future of global health in the context of market-led globalization. These lessons relate to at least four main forms of inequality: (1) inequalities in blame for the outbreak in the media; (2) inequalities in risk management; (3) inequalities in access to medicines; and (4) inequalities encoded in the actual emergence of new flu viruses.
Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.
Coburn, David
2004-01-01
This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health. PMID:14572920
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shavit, Yossi, Ed.; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, Ed.
This book encompasses a systematic, comparative study of change in educational stratification in 13 industrialized countries, exploring which societal conditions help reduce existing inequalities in educational opportunity. The contributors show that in most industrialized countries inequalities in educational opportunity among students from…
Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.
Coburn, David
2004-01-01
This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health.
Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv
2009-01-01
Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…
Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David
2006-04-15
We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I{sub 3322} Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination.
On improved fractional Sobolev-Poincaré inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyda, Bartłomiej; Ihnatsyeva, Lizaveta; Vähäkangas, Antti V.
2016-10-01
We study a certain improved fractional Sobolev-Poincaré inequality on domains, which can be considered as a fractional counterpart of the classical Sobolev-Poincaré inequality. We prove the equivalence of the corresponding weak and strong type inequalities; this leads to a simple proof of a strong type inequality on John domains. We also give necessary conditions for the validity of an improved fractional Sobolev-Poincaré inequality, in particular, we show that a domain of finite measure, satisfying this inequality and a `separation property', is a John domain.
Convergence of the solution method for variational inequalities
Panin, V.M.; Aleksandrova, V.M.
1995-01-01
We study the properties of the method proposed in literature for solving variational inequalities and its modifications. Linear convergence in the neighborhood of the solution is established for problems that satisfy second-order sufficient conditions. The problem of finding the solution x{sub *} of the variational inequality (F(x{sub *}), x-x{sub *}) {ge} 0, {forall} x {element_of} {Omega} = (x{element_of}R{sup n}{vert_bar} f{sub i}(x){le}O, i=1,...,l) has been studied by many authors. The numerical methods considered by them, despite their theoretically fast rate of convergence, usually converge only locally and are computationally highly complex, because each iteration solves auxiliary subproblems on the original nonlinear set {Omega}. In other methods, on the other hand, each iteration is efficiently executed and converges nonlocally to the solution, but we do not have the rate of convergence bounds which are typical for mathematical programming methods of the corresponding order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoa Nguyen, Dinh; Banjerdpongchai, David
2010-12-01
This article presents a novel robust iterative learning control algorithm (ILC) for linear systems in the presence of multiple time-invariant parametric uncertainties.The robust design problem is formulated as a min-max problem with a quadratic performance criterion subject to constraints of the iterative control input update. Then, we propose a new methodology to find a sub-optimal solution of the min-max problem. By finding an upper bound of the worst-case performance, the min-max problem is relaxed to be a minimisation problem. Applying Lagrangian duality to this minimisation problem leads to a dual problem which can be reformulated as a convex optimisation problem over linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). An LMI-based ILC algorithm is given afterward and the convergence of the control input as well as the system error are proved. Finally, we apply the proposed ILC to a generic example and a distillation column. The numerical results reveal the effectiveness of the LMI-based algorithm.
A new gradient-based neural network for solving linear and quadratic programming problems.
Leung, Y; Chen, K Z; Jiao, Y C; Gao, X B; Leung, K S
2001-01-01
A new gradient-based neural network is constructed on the basis of the duality theory, optimization theory, convex analysis theory, Lyapunov stability theory, and LaSalle invariance principle to solve linear and quadratic programming problems. In particular, a new function F(x, y) is introduced into the energy function E(x, y) such that the function E(x, y) is convex and differentiable, and the resulting network is more efficient. This network involves all the relevant necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for convex quadratic programming problems. For linear programming and quadratic programming (QP) problems with unique and infinite number of solutions, we have proven strictly that for any initial point, every trajectory of the neural network converges to an optimal solution of the QP and its dual problem. The proposed network is different from the existing networks which use the penalty method or Lagrange method, and the inequality constraints are properly handled. The simulation results show that the proposed neural network is feasible and efficient.
Socioeconomic inequalities in the quality of life of older Europeans in different welfare regimes
Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard
2014-01-01
Background: Whether socioeconomic inequalities in health and well-being persist into old age and are narrower in more generous welfare states is debated. We investigated the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in the quality of life of Europeans in early old age and the influence of the welfare regime type on these relationships. Methods: Data from individuals aged 50–75 years (n = 16 074) residing in 13 European countries were derived from Waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between socioeconomic position and CASP-12, a measure of positive quality of life. Multilevel linear regression was used to assess the overall relationship between socioeconomic position and quality of life, using interaction terms to investigate the influence of the type of welfare regime (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist or Bismarckian). Results: Socioeconomic inequalities in quality of life were narrowest in the Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes, and were largest by measures of current wealth. Compared with the Scandinavian welfare regime, where narrow inequalities in quality of life by education level were found in both men (SII = 0.02, 95% CI: −1.09 to 1.13) and women (SII = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.05–2.17), the difference in quality of life between the least and most educated was particularly wide in Southern and Post-communist regimes. Conclusion: Individuals in more generous welfare regimes experienced higher levels of quality of life, as well as narrower socioeconomic inequalities in quality of life. PMID:24568754
Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories
Arcaya, Mariana C.; Arcaya, Alyssa L.; Subramanian, S. V.
2015-01-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose–response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142
Income Inequality and Socioeconomic Gradients in Mortality
Wilkinson, Richard G.; Pickett, Kate E.
2008-01-01
Objectives. We investigated whether the processes underlying the association between income inequality and population health are related to those responsible for the socioeconomic gradient in health and whether health disparities are smaller when income differences are narrower. Methods. We used multilevel models in a regression analysis of 10 age- and cause-specific US county mortality rates on county median household incomes and on state income inequality. We assessed whether mortality rates more closely related to county income were also more closely related to state income inequality. We also compared mortality gradients in more- and less-equal states. Results. Mortality rates more strongly associated with county income were more strongly associated with state income inequality: across all mortality rates, r= −0.81; P=.004. The effect of state income inequality on the socioeconomic gradient in health varied by cause of death, but greater equality usually benefited both wealthier and poorer counties. Conclusions. Although mortality rates with steep socioeconomic gradients were more sensitive to income distribution than were rates with flatter gradients, narrower income differences benefit people in both wealthy and poor areas and may, paradoxically, do little to reduce health disparities. PMID:17901426
Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories.
Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V
2015-01-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose-response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population.
Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żukowski, Marek; Wieśniak, Marcin; Laskowski, Wiesław
2016-08-01
The commonly used "practical" Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields, which use intensities as the observables, are derivable only if specific additional assumptions hold. This limits the range of local hidden variable theories, which are invalidated by their violation. We present alternative Bell inequalities, which do not suffer from any (theoretical) loophole. The inequalities are for correlations of averaged products of local rates. By rates we mean ratios of the measured intensity in the given local output channel to the total local measured intensity, in the given run of the experiment. Bell inequalities of this type detect entanglement in situations in which the "practical" ones fail. Thus, we have full consistency with Bell's theorem, and better device-independent entanglement indicators. Strongly driven type-II parametric down conversion (bright squeezed vacuum) is our working example. The approach can be used to modify many types of standard Bell inequalities, to the case of undefined particle numbers. The rule is to replace the usual probabilities by rates.
Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories.
Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V
2015-01-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose-response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142
[Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories].
Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V
2015-10-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26758216
Income inequality and health: a causal review.
Pickett, Kate E; Wilkinson, Richard G
2015-03-01
There is a very large literature examining income inequality in relation to health. Early reviews came to different interpretations of the evidence, though a large majority of studies reported that health tended to be worse in more unequal societies. More recent studies, not included in those reviews, provide substantial new evidence. Our purpose in this paper is to assess whether or not wider income differences play a causal role leading to worse health. We conducted a literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole. The body of evidence strongly suggests that income inequality affects population health and wellbeing. The major causal criteria of temporality, biological plausibility, consistency and lack of alternative explanations are well supported. Of the small minority of studies which find no association, most can be explained by income inequality being measured at an inappropriate scale, the inclusion of mediating variables as controls, the use of subjective rather than objective measures of health, or follow up periods which are too short. The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations.
Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki
2009-08-01
In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.
Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar
2014-02-01
Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.
Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation.
Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar
2014-02-01
Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.
Animal behaviour: inequity aversion in capuchins?
Henrich, Joseph
2004-03-11
Brosnan and de Waal have shown that capuchin monkeys are more likely to reject a cucumber slice after seeing that another capuchin has received a more attractive grape. In interpreting this finding, the authors make a link to work in humans on 'inequity aversion' and suggest that capuchins, like humans, may reject rewards because they are averse to unequal pay-offs. Here I argue that this interpretation suffers from three problems: the results contradict the predictions of the inequity-aversion model that Bosnan and de Waal cite; experimental results indicate that humans do not behave like capuchins in similar circumstances; and the available evidence does not suggest that inequity aversion is cross-culturally universal.
Fairness and the development of inequality acceptance.
Almås, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander W; Sørensen, Erik Ø; Tungodden, Bertil
2010-05-28
Fairness considerations fundamentally affect human behavior, but our understanding of the nature and development of people's fairness preferences is limited. The dictator game has been the standard experimental design for studying fairness preferences, but it only captures a situation where there is broad agreement that fairness requires equality. In real life, people often disagree on what is fair because they disagree on whether individual achievements, luck, and efficiency considerations of what maximizes total benefits can justify inequalities. We modified the dictator game to capture these features and studied how inequality acceptance develops in adolescence. We found that as children enter adolescence, they increasingly view inequalities reflecting differences in individual achievements, but not luck, as fair, whereas efficiency considerations mainly play a role in late adolescence. PMID:20508132
Cultural capital and social inequality in health.
Abel, T
2008-07-01
Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.
Beyond lognormal inequality: The Lorenz Flow Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-11-01
Observed from a socioeconomic perspective, the intrinsic inequality of the lognormal law happens to manifest a flow generated by an underlying ordinary differential equation. In this paper we extend this feature of the lognormal law to a general "Lorenz Flow Structure" of Lorenz curves-objects that quantify socioeconomic inequality. The Lorenz Flow Structure establishes a general framework of size distributions that span continuous spectra of socioeconomic states ranging from the pure-communism extreme to the absolute-monarchy extreme. This study introduces and explores the Lorenz Flow Structure, analyzes its statistical properties and its inequality properties, unveils the unique role of the lognormal law within this general structure, and presents various examples of this general structure. Beyond the lognormal law, the examples include the inverse-Pareto and Pareto laws-which often govern the tails of composite size distributions.
CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013
... to Community Health Tribal Support Women's Health CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Sheets 2011 Report More Information CDC Releases Second Health Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2013 CDC and its partners ...
Informing Investment to Reduce Inequalities: A Modelling Approach
McAuley, Andrew; Denny, Cheryl; Taulbut, Martin; Mitchell, Rory; Fischbacher, Colin; Graham, Barbara; Grant, Ian; O’Hagan, Paul; McAllister, David; McCartney, Gerry
2016-01-01
Background Reducing health inequalities is an important policy objective but there is limited quantitative information about the impact of specific interventions. Objectives To provide estimates of the impact of a range of interventions on health and health inequalities. Materials and Methods Literature reviews were conducted to identify the best evidence linking interventions to mortality and hospital admissions. We examined interventions across the determinants of health: a ‘living wage’; changes to benefits, taxation and employment; active travel; tobacco taxation; smoking cessation, alcohol brief interventions, and weight management services. A model was developed to estimate mortality and years of life lost (YLL) in intervention and comparison populations over a 20-year time period following interventions delivered only in the first year. We estimated changes in inequalities using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results Introduction of a ‘living wage’ generated the largest beneficial health impact, with modest reductions in health inequalities. Benefits increases had modest positive impacts on health and health inequalities. Income tax increases had negative impacts on population health but reduced inequalities, while council tax increases worsened both health and health inequalities. Active travel increases had minimally positive effects on population health but widened health inequalities. Increases in employment reduced inequalities only when targeted to the most deprived groups. Tobacco taxation had modestly positive impacts on health but little impact on health inequalities. Alcohol brief interventions had modestly positive impacts on health and health inequalities only when strongly socially targeted, while smoking cessation and weight-reduction programmes had minimal impacts on health and health inequalities even when socially targeted. Conclusions Interventions have markedly different effects on mortality, hospitalisations and
Colgate, S.A.
1958-05-27
An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.
Hierarchy of inequalities for quantitative duality
Martinez-Linares, Jesus
2007-05-15
We derive different relations quantifying duality in a generic two-way interferometer. These relations set different upper bounds to the visibility V of the fringes measured at the output port of the interferometer. A hierarchy of inequalities is presented which exhibits the influence of the availability to the experimenter of different sources of which-way information contributing to the total distinguishability D of the ways. For mixed states and unbalanced interferometers an inequality is derived, V{sup 2}+{xi}{sup 2}{<=}1, which can be more stringent than the one associated with the distinguishability (V{sup 2}+D{sup 2}{<=}1)
Income inequality and fertility: A comparative view.
Bhattacharyya, A K
1975-03-01
Summary Most studies pertaining to the relationship between population and economic development suffer from a major flaw. Researchers use aggregate measures like income or energy consumption per head as indicators of economic development. Such aggregate measures fail to take into account the nature of the distribution of income or energy consumption to the population. The present study attempts to demonstrate the importance of incorporating the nature of distribution of resources as an important intervening variable in the study of the overall relationship between population and economic development. A measure of income inequality is developed which represents the difference between rural and urban incomes. This measure is justified in terms of the distinctiveness of urban and rural sectors in the process of development. The data used relate to societal measures of fertility, income, income inequality, etc. Consistently with existing literature, we observe that, generally speaking, economic development does entail a reduction in rural-urban income inequalities. On the other hand, a substantial part of the negative effect of an increase in income per head can be nullified if such an increase were not also accompanied by a reduction in rural-urban income inequality. Also, a substantial part of the negative effect of an increase in income per head and the level of education in reducing the level of infant mortality would be nullified if it did not also result in a reduction of rural-urban income inequality. On the other hand, it is quite possible for the level of education in a society to increase together with an increase in income per head without substantially altering the extent of inequality of income between the rural and the urban population. It is suggested that the positive relationship between rural-urban income inequality and the level of fertility is due to higher rural fertility rates in a high-inequality country. By implication, this would mean that
Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution☆
Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2012-01-01
Some people have a concern for a fair distribution of incomes while others do not. Does such a concern matter for majority voting on redistribution? Fairness preferences are relevant for redistribution outcomes only if fair-minded voters are pivotal. Pivotality, in turn, depends on the structure of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look as if all voters were exclusively motivated by self-interest. PMID:23564967
Wigner's inequalities in quantum field theory
Nikitin, Nikolai; Toms, Konstantin
2010-09-15
We present a relativistic generalization of the Wigner inequality for the scalar and pseudoscalar particles decaying to two particles with spin (fermions and photons.) We consider Wigner's inequality with the full spin anticorrelation (with the nonrelativistic analog), as well as the case with the full spin correlation. The latter case may be obtained by a special choice of the plane of measurement of the spin projections on the direction of propagation of fermions. The possibility for relativistic testing of Bohr's complementarity principle is shown.
Prolate horizons and the Penrose inequality
Tippett, Benjamin K.
2009-05-15
The Penrose inequality has so far been proven in cases of spherical symmetry and in cases of zero extrinsic curvature. The next simplest case worth exploring would be nonspherical, nonrotating black holes with nonzero extrinsic curvature. Following Karkowski et al.'s construction of prolate black holes, we define initial data on an asymptotically flat spacelike 3-surface with nonzero extrinsic curvature that may be chosen freely. This gives us the freedom to define the location of the apparent horizon such that the Penrose inequality is violated. We show that the dominant energy condition is violated at the poles for all cases considered.
A Simply Constrained Optimization Reformulation of KKT Systems Arising from Variational Inequalities
Facchinei, F. Fischer, A. Kanzow, C. Peng, J.-M.
1999-01-15
The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions can be regarded as optimality conditions for both variational inequalities and constrained optimization problems. In order to overcome some drawbacks of recently proposed reformulations of KKT systems, we propose casting KKT systems as a minimization problem with nonnegativity constraints on some of the variables. We prove that, under fairly mild assumptions, every stationary point of this constrained minimization problem is a solution of the KKT conditions. Based on this reformulation, a new algorithm for the solution of the KKT conditions is suggested and shown to have some strong global and local convergence properties.
Pawlowski, M.
2010-09-15
We show that monogamy of Bell's inequality violations, which is strictly weaker condition than the no-signaling principle is enough to prove security of quantum key distribution. We derive our results for a whole class of monogamy constraints and generalize our results to any theory that communicating parties may have access to. Some of these theories do not respect the no-signaling principle yet still allow for secure communication. This proves that no signaling is only a sufficient condition for the possibility of secure communication, but not the necessary one. We also present some new qualitative results concerning the security of existing quantum key distribution protocols.
Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1
Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.
2011-01-01
Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247
A fast full constraints unmixing method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Zhang; Wei, Ran; Wang, Qing Yan
2012-10-01
Mixed pixels are inevitable due to low-spatial resolutions of hyperspectral image (HSI). Linear spectrum mixture model (LSMM) is a classical mathematical model to relate the spectrum of mixing substance to corresponding individual components. The solving of LSMM, namely unmixing, is essentially a linear optimization problem with constraints, which is usually consisting of iterations implemented on decent direction and stopping criterion to terminate algorithms. Such criterion must be properly set in order to balance the accuracy and speed of solution. However, the criterion in existing algorithm is too strict, which maybe lead to convergence rate reducing. In this paper, by broaden constraints in unmixing, a new stopping rule is proposed, which can reduce rate of convergence. The experiments results prove both in runtime and iteration numbers that our method can accelerate convergence processing with only cost of little quality decrease in resulting.
Leggett-Garg inequalities and no-signaling in time: A quasiprobability approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halliwell, J. J.
2016-02-01
The Leggett-Garg (LG) inequalities were proposed in order to assess whether sets of pairs of sequential measurements on a single quantum system can be consistent with an underlying notion of macrorealism. Here, the LG inequalities are explored using a simple quasiprobability linear in the projection operators to describe the properties of the system at two times. We show that this quasiprobability is measurable, has the same correlation function as the usual two-time measurement probability (for the bivalent variables considered here) and has the key property that the probabilities for the later time are independent of whether an earlier measurement was made, a generalization of the no-signaling in time condition of Kofler and Brukner. We argue that this quasiprobability, appropriately measured, provides a noninvasive measure of macrorealism per se at the two-time level. This measure, when combined with the LG inequalities, provides a characterization of macrorealism more detailed than that provided by the LG inequalities alone. When the quasiprobability is non-negative, the LG system has a natural parallel with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm system and Fine's theorem. A simple spin model illustrating key features of the approach is exhibited.
Income Inequality and U.S. Tax Policy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crocco, Margaret S.; Marri, Anand R.; Wylie, Scott
2011-01-01
Many social scientists have recently commented on the high levels of income inequality in the United States. Indeed, the last time income inequality was as great as it is today was 1928, the year before the stock market crash ushered in the Great Depression. In this article, the authors offer a historical look at income inequality and taxation in…
Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva
2012-01-01
Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…
Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei
2010-01-01
In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)
How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.
2007-01-01
Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…
Measures of Salary Inequality. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noe, Nicholas N.
Measures of income and salary inequality used by economists were examined and applied against 1984-1985 faculty salary data. Attention was directed to salary inequality at each academic rank, as well as female-male inequality. The following measures were used: Lorenz Curve-Gini Coefficient, coefficient of variation, Theil's Index, and Atkinson's…
Jensen inequalities for tunneling probabilities in complex systems
Andrade, D. M.; Hussein, M. S.
2009-09-15
The Jensen theorem is used to derive inequalities for semiclassical tunneling probabilities for systems involving several degrees of freedom. These Jensen inequalities are used to discuss several aspects of sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions. The inequality hinges on general convexity properties of the tunneling coefficient calculated with the classical action in the classically forbidden region.
Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.
2010-01-01
What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement…
The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Downey, Liam
2005-01-01
This article addresses shortcomings in the literature on environmental inequality by (a) setting forth and testing four models of environmental inequality and (b) explicitly linking environmental inequality research to spatial mismatch theory and to the debate on the declining significance of race. The explanatory models ask whether the…
Education's Effect on Income Inequality: An Economic Globalisation Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wells, Ryan
2006-01-01
Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…
Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watanabe, Tsunehiko
The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…
Bell inequality and /CP violation in the neutral kaon system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertlmann, R. A.; Grimus, W.; Hiesmayr, B. C.
2001-10-01
For the entangled neutral kaon system we formulate a Bell inequality sensitive to CP violation in mixing. Via this Bell inequality we obtain a bound on the leptonic CP asymmetry which is violated by experimental data. Furthermore, we connect the Bell inequality with a decoherence approach and find a lower bound on the decoherence parameter which practically corresponds to Furry's hypothesis.
Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation
Morikoshi, Fumiaki
2006-05-15
An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation.
Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.
2014-01-01
Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds
These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren
2016-09-01
This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.
Constraints in Genetic Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janikow, Cezary Z.
1996-01-01
Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.
Reliable biological communication with realistic constraints.
de Polavieja, Gonzalo G
2004-12-01
Communication in biological systems must deal with noise and metabolic or temporal constraints. We include these constraints into information theory to obtain the distributions of signal usage corresponding to a maximal rate of information transfer given any noise structure and any constraints. Generalized versions of the Boltzmann, Gaussian, or Poisson distributions are obtained for linear, quadratic and temporal constraints, respectively. These distributions are shown to imply that biological transformations must dedicate a larger output range to the more probable inputs and less to the outputs with higher noise and higher participation in the constraint. To show the general theory of reliable communication at work, we apply these results to biochemical and neuronal signaling. Noncooperative enzyme kinetics is shown to be suited for transfer of a high signal quality when the input distribution has a maximum at low concentrations while cooperative kinetics for near-Gaussian input statistics. Neuronal codes based on spike rates, spike times or bursts have to balance signal quality and cost-efficiency and at the network level imply sparseness and uncorrelation within the limits of noise, cost, and processing operations. PMID:15697405
Non-Asymptotic Oracle Inequalities for the High-Dimensional Cox Regression via Lasso
Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin
2013-01-01
We consider finite sample properties of the regularized high-dimensional Cox regression via lasso. Existing literature focuses on linear models or generalized linear models with Lipschitz loss functions, where the empirical risk functions are the summations of independent and identically distributed (iid) losses. The summands in the negative log partial likelihood function for censored survival data, however, are neither iid nor Lipschitz.We first approximate the negative log partial likelihood function by a sum of iid non-Lipschitz terms, then derive the non-asymptotic oracle inequalities for the lasso penalized Cox regression using pointwise arguments to tackle the difficulties caused by lacking iid Lipschitz losses. PMID:24516328
Compact location problems with budget and communication constraints
Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Ravi, S.S.; Marathe, M.V.
1995-07-01
The authors consider the problem of placing a specified number p of facilities on the nodes of a given network with two nonnegative edge-weight functions so as to minimize the diameter of the placement with respect to the first weight function subject to a diameter or sum-constraint with respect to the second weight function. Define an ({alpha}, {beta})-approximation algorithm as a polynomial-time algorithm that produces a solution within {alpha} times the optimal value with respect to the first weight function, violating the constraint with respect to the second weight function by a factor of at most {beta}. They show that in general obtaining an ({alpha}, {beta})-approximation for any fixed {alpha}, {beta} {ge} 1 is NP-hard for any of these problems. They also present efficient approximation algorithms for several of the problems studied, when both edge-weight functions obey the triangle inequality.
Constraint algebra in bigravity
Soloviev, V. O.
2015-07-15
The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.
Constraint algebra in bigravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soloviev, V. O.
2015-07-01
The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.
General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2012-06-01
Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.
Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea
2011-01-01
This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…
Education and the Inequalities of Place
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roscigno, Vincent J.; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald; Crowley, Martha L.
2006-01-01
Students living in inner city and rural areas of the United States exhibit lower educational achievement and a higher likelihood of dropping out of high school than do their suburban counterparts. Educational research and policy has tended to neglect these inequalities or, at best, focus on one type but not the other. In this article, we integrate…
Ethnicity, Inequality, and Higher Education in Malaysia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Selvaratnam, Viswanathan
1988-01-01
Traces the development since 1957 of Malaysian education policies aimed at providing equitable access to higher education. Suggests that these policies have increased representation of the Malay underclass in tertiary institutions and the professions, but have had little effect on intraethnic class inequalities. 46 references. (SV)
Social Inequity and Educational Expansion in Slovenia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flere, Sergej; Lavric, Miran
2005-01-01
The study examines the relationship between social inequalities (stratificational, gender and other disparities) and schooling, including academic attainment, longitudinally, in Slovenia. The issue is indicated most clearly at the tertiary education level. The basic finding is the parallel between educational expansion and the diminution of social…
Colonial Continuities and Educational Inequalities in Indonesia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.
This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used…
Inequality and Educational Investment in Thai Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Williams, Lindy B.; Lyson, Thomas A.; Archavanitkul, Kritaya
2005-01-01
In this paper we examine differences in upper secondary school attendance among subgroups of the population in Thailand. We ascertain where inequalities continue to exist and where they have been mediated. We analyze data from samples of the 1990 and 2000 Thai censuses. We find that the gender gap favoring boys has closed at the national level and…
Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogbogu, Christiana O.
2011-01-01
Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…
Inequity in the Australian Education System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorey, Aybek
2007-01-01
This article deals with the current situation of the Australian education system--particularly the public schools in disadvantaged areas. Research undertaken in the last decade show that while Australia has developed intensively in economic terms in the last ten years, inequality has spread nonetheless. Furthermore, there are legal barriers for…
Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reiter, Bernd
2009-01-01
This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…
The Dual Gap Function for Variational Inequalities
Zhang Jianzhong Wan Changyu; Xiu Naihua
2003-08-15
In this paper we further study the dual gap function G, which was introduced by Marcotte and Zhu, for the variational inequality problem (VIP). We characterize the directional derivative and subdifferential of G. Based on these, we get a better understanding of the concepts of a global error bound, weak sharpness, and minimum principle sufficiency property for the pseudo-monotone.
Education and Income Inequality among Asian Americans.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macaranas, Federico M.
The reduction of social inequalities through education is widely believed to be possible. In the past decade however, social scientists have increasingly questioned the posited conventional relationship between education and socio-economic equality. Factors other than the number of years and/or the quality of schooling have to be considered in…
Bridging Inequality from Both Sides Now
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fiske, Susan T.; Molm, Linda D.
2010-01-01
Because inequality is one of the central concerns of sociologists, it has been addressed, in various ways, by virtually all of the major traditions of sociological social psychology--social structure and personality, symbolic interactionism, and group processes. For those who work in the social structure and personality tradition, inequality…
Prolonging Inequality? Education in Germany after Unification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arps, Sebastian
2005-01-01
This research examines educational stratification cross-nationally through the context of German division and unity. Drawing upon representative German Social Survey (ALLBUS) data from 1991 to 1998 on cohorts schooled in the 1980s and 1990s, the analysis explores educational inequality at the secondary school level with respect to social origins…
Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turney, Kristin
2011-01-01
An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…
Education, Inequality and Erosion of Social Cohesion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Andy
2009-01-01
Income inequality has been rising in Britain for two decades and wealth is also more unequally distributed now than when New Labour first came to power. Various factors have contributed to this, including education which, according to the PISA 2006 data, has more unequal outcomes in the UK than in all but 2 of the 29 tested countries. Comparative…
Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Judd, Ben
Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…
Race, Inequality of Opportunity, and School Choice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darby, Derrick; Saatcioglu, Argun
2015-01-01
Both neoliberals and liberals call for mitigating inequality of educational opportunity stemming from circumstances beyond an individual's control. In this article, we challenge the wisdom of making equality of opportunity hinge on emphasizing the distinction rather than the relationship between choices and circumstances. We utilize an empirical…
Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.
1984-01-01
An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.
Can Education Expenditures Reduce Income Inequality?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sylwester, Kevin
2002-01-01
Examines whether devoting more resources to education can positively affect the distribution of income within a country. Finds that public-education expenditures appear to be associated with a subsequent decrease in the level of income inequality. Finding is robust to the inclusion of various control variables and appears to be larger in…
Evolving Polygons Revisited: Inequalities and Computer Graphing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abramovich, Sergei; Brouwer, Peter
2009-01-01
This paper was developed with the goal of enhancing the mathematical preparation of secondary school teachers in the technological paradigm. It shows how two-variable inequalities can be utilized as models for the construction of geometric objects using the software Graphing Calculator 3.5 (produced by Pacific Tech) as a relation grapher. An…
Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kopp, Wendy
2008-01-01
Teach for America exists to address educational inequity--the stunning reality that the American nation, which aspires so admirably to be a land of equal opportunity, where one is born still largely determines one's educational outcomes. Despite plenty of evidence that children growing up in poverty can do well academically--when given the…
Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kopp, Wendy
2009-01-01
Teach for America (TFA) exists to address educational inequity--the stunning reality that in this nation, which aspires so admirably to be a land of equal opportunity, where one is born still largely determines one's educational outcomes. Despite plenty of evidence that children growing up in poverty can do well academically--when given the…
Theories and Models of Ethnic Inequality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirschman, Charles
Theories of racial and ethnic relations have been plentiful, but the empirical testing of hypotheses has not led to a cumulative growth of knowledge. As yet, no strong paradigm of research has emerged. The growth of empirical studies of racial/ethnic inequality in the United States over the last decade suggests that formal models of the process of…
Correlation Inequalities for the Quantum XY Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benassi, Costanza; Lees, Benjamin; Ueltschi, Daniel
2016-09-01
We show the positivity or negativity of truncated correlation functions in the quantum XY model with spin 1/2 (at any temperature) and spin 1 (in the ground state). These Griffiths-Ginibre inequalities of the second kind generalise an earlier result of Gallavotti.
Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality
Mizuno, Ryosuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Seiju
2010-02-15
Under certain conditions, we offer a new way to prove the uniqueness of the static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.
Beyond inequality: Acknowledging the complexity of social determinants of health.
Eckersley, Richard
2015-12-01
The impact of inequality on health is gaining more attention as public and political concern grows over increasing inequality. The income inequality hypothesis, which holds that inequality is detrimental to overall population health, is especially pertinent. However the emphasis on inequality can be challenged on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Empirically, the evidence is contradictory and contested; theoretically, it is inconsistent with our understanding of human societies as complex systems. Research and discussion, both scientific and political, need to reflect better this complexity, and give greater recognition to other social determinants of health. PMID:26560411
Bound on Bell inequalities by fraction of determinism and reverse triangle inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Li, Ben; Szarek, S. J.; Szarek, T.
2015-09-01
It is an established fact that entanglement is a resource. Sharing an entangled state leads to nonlocal correlations and to violations of Bell inequalities. Such nonlocal correlations illustrate the advantage of quantum resources over classical resources. In this paper, we quantitatively study Bell inequalities with 2 ×n inputs. As found in Gisin et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 05, 525 (2007), 10.1142/S021974990700289X], quantum mechanical correlations cannot reach the algebraic bound for such inequalities. Here we uncover the heart of this effect, which we call the fraction of determinism. We show that any quantum statistics with two parties and 2 ×n inputs exhibit a nonzero fraction of determinism, and we supply a quantitative bound for it. We then apply it to provide an explicit universal upper bound for Bell inequalities with 2 ×n inputs. As our main mathematical tool, we introduce and prove a reverse triangle inequality, stating in a quantitative way that if some states are far away from a given state, then their mixture is also. The inequality is crucial in deriving the lower bound for the fraction of determinism, but is also of interest on its own.
[Inequalities in access to care in Africa].
Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre
2013-05-01
Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society. PMID:23694842
Ethics and governance of global health inequalities
Ruger, J P
2006-01-01
Background A world divided by health inequalities poses ethical challenges for global health. International and national responses to health disparities must be rooted in ethical values about health and its distribution; this is because ethical claims have the power to motivate, delineate principles, duties and responsibilities, and hold global and national actors morally responsible for achieving common goals. Theories of justice are necessary to define duties and obligations of institutions and actors in reducing inequalities. The problem is the lack of a moral framework for solving problems of global health justice. Aim To study why global health inequalities are morally troubling, why efforts to reduce them are morally justified, how they should be measured and evaluated; how much priority disadvantaged groups should receive; and to delineate roles and responsibilities of national and international actors and institutions. Discussion and conclusions Duties and obligations of international and state actors in reducing global health inequalities are outlined. The ethical principles endorsed include the intrinsic value of health to well‐being and equal respect for all human life, the importance of health for individual and collective agency, the concept of a shortfall from the health status of a reference group, and the need for a disproportionate effort to help disadvantaged groups. This approach does not seek to find ways in which global and national actors address global health inequalities by virtue of their self‐interest, national interest, collective security or humanitarian assistance. It endorses the more robust concept of “human flourishing” and the desire to live in a world where all people have the capability to be healthy. Unlike cosmopolitan theory, this approach places the role of the nation‐state in the forefront with primary, though not sole, moral responsibility. Rather shared health governance is essential for delivering health equity
[Inequalities in access to care in Africa].
Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre
2013-05-01
Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society.
Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges
Lee, Sang-il
2012-01-01
In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869
Income inequality and participation: A comparison of 24 European countries.
Lancee, Bram; Van de Werfhorst, Herman G
2012-09-01
Previous research suggests that when there is a high level of inequality, there is a low rate of participation. Two arguments are generally offered: First, inequality depresses participation because people from different status groups have fewer opportunities to share common goals. Second, people may participate more in civic and social life when they have more resources. However, until now, these explanations have not been separated empirically. Using EU-SILC data for 24 European countries, we analyze how income inequality is related to civic and social participation. Our results indicate that the main effects of inequality manifest via resources at the individual and societal level. However, independent of these resources, higher inequality is associated with lower civic participation. Furthermore, inequality magnifies the relationship between income and participation. This finding is in line with the view that inter-individual processes explain why inequality diminishes participation.
Inequality in Human Resources for Health: Measurement Issues.
Speybroeck, Niko; Paraje, Guillermo; Prasad, Amit; Goovaerts, Pierre; Ebener, Steeve; Evans, David B
2012-04-01
This article discusses options to allow comparative analysis of inequalities in the distribution of health workers (HWs) across and within countries using a single summary measure of the distribution. Income inequality generally is measured across individuals, but inequalities in the dispersion of HWs must use geographical areas or population groupings as units of analysis. The article first shows how this change of observational unit creates a resolution problem for various inequality indices and then tests how sensitive a simple ratio measure of the distribution of HWs is to changes in resolution. This ratio of inequality is illustrated first with the global distribution of HWs and then with its distributions within Indonesia. The resolution problem is not solved through this new approach, and indicators of inequalities of access to HWs or health services more generally appear not to be comparable across countries. Investigating geographical inequalities over time in one setting is possible but only if the units of analysis remain the same over time.
Wildman, John
2003-03-01
Using regression techniques this paper estimates the level of income related health inequality in GB in 1992 and 1998. Inequality is decomposed to investigate which socio-demographic factors are important contributors to health differences. The paper includes a range of measured and subjective income variables to control for absolute income. A relative deprivation measure is included to test the impact of income inequality on health inequality. It is found that subjective financial status is a major determinant of ill-health and makes a major contribution to income related inequalities in health. Relative deprivation is an important contributor for women but not for men.
Tawfik, A.
2013-07-01
We investigate the impacts of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Utilizing Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperature, Bekenstein entropy, specific heat, emission rate and decay time are calculated. As the evaporation entirely eats up the black hole mass, the specific heat vanishes and the temperature approaches infinity with an infinite radiation rate. It is found that the GUP approach prevents the black hole from the entire evaporation. It implies the existence of remnants at which the specific heat vanishes. The same role is played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in constructing the hydrogen atom. We discuss how the linear GUP approach solves the entire-evaporation-problem. Furthermore, the black hole lifetime can be estimated using another approach; the Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Assuming that the quantum position uncertainty is limited to the minimum wavelength of measuring signal, Wigner second inequality can be obtained. If the spread of quantum clock is limited to some minimum value, then the modified black hole lifetime can be deduced. Based on linear GUP approach, the resulting lifetime difference depends on black hole relative mass and the difference between black hole mass with and without GUP is not negligible.
Level-Set Topology Optimization with Aeroelastic Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia
2015-01-01
Level-set topology optimization is used to design a wing considering skin buckling under static aeroelastic trim loading, as well as dynamic aeroelastic stability (flutter). The level-set function is defined over the entire 3D volume of a transport aircraft wing box. Therefore, the approach is not limited by any predefined structure and can explore novel configurations. The Sequential Linear Programming (SLP) level-set method is used to solve the constrained optimization problems. The proposed method is demonstrated using three problems with mass, linear buckling and flutter objective and/or constraints. A constraint aggregation method is used to handle multiple buckling constraints in the wing skins. A continuous flutter constraint formulation is used to handle difficulties arising from discontinuities in the design space caused by a switching of the critical flutter mode.
Constraint identification and algorithm stabilization for degenerate nonlinear programs.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2003-01-01
In the vicinity of a solution of a nonlinear programming problem at which both strict complementarity and linear independence of the active constraints may fail to hold, we describe a technique for distinguishing weakly active from strongly active constraints. We show that this information can be used to modify the sequential quadratic programming algorithm so that it exhibits superlinear convergence to the solution under assumptions weaker than those made in previous analyses.
Corruption, inequality and population perception of healthcare quality in Europe
2013-01-01
Background Evaluating the quality of healthcare and patient safety using general population questionnaires is important from research and policy perspective. Using a special wave of the Eurobarometer survey, we analysed the general population’s perception of health care quality and patient safety in a cross-country setting. Methods We used ordered probit, ordinary least squares and probit analysis to estimate the determinants of health care quality, and ordered logit analysis to analyse the likelihood of being harmed by a specific medical procedure. The models used population weights as well as country-clustered standard errors. Results We found robust evidence for the impact of socio-demographic variables on the perception of quality of health care. More specifically, we found a non-linear impact of age on the perception of quality of health care and patient safety, as well as a negative impact of poverty on both perception of quality and patient safety. We also found robust evidence that countries with higher corruption levels were associated with worse perceptions of quality of health care. Finally, we found evidence that income inequality affects patients’ perception vis-à-vis safety, thus feeding into the poverty/health care quality nexus. Conclusions Socio-demographic factors and two macro variables (corruption and income inequality) explain the perception of quality of health care and likelihood of being harmed by adverse events. The results carry significant policy weight and could explain why targeting only the health care sector (without an overall reform of the public sector) could potentially be challenging. PMID:24215401
Local level inequalities in the use of hospital-based maternal delivery in rural South Africa
2014-01-01
Background There is global concern with geographical and socio-economic inequalities in access to and use of maternal delivery services. Little is known, however, on how local-level socio-economic inequalities are related to the uptake of needed maternal health care. We conducted a study of relative socio-economic inequalities in use of hospital-based maternal delivery services within two rural sub-districts of South Africa. Methods We used both population-based surveillance and facility-based clinical record data to examine differences in the relative distribution of socio-economic status (SES), using a household assets index to measure wealth, among those needing maternal delivery services and those using them in the Bushbuckridge sub-district, Mpumalanga, and Hlabisa sub-district, Kwa-Zulu Natal. We compared the SES distributions in households with a birth in the previous year with the household SES distributions of representative samples of women who had delivered in hospitals in these two sub-districts. Results In both sub-districts, women in the lowest SES quintile were significantly under-represented in the hospital user population, relative to need for delivery services (8% in user population vs 21% in population in need; p < 0.001 in each sub-district). Exit interviews provided additional evidence on potential barriers to access, in particular the affordability constraints associated with hospital delivery. Conclusions The findings highlight the need for alternative strategies to make maternal delivery services accessible to the poorest women within overall poor communities and, in doing so, decrease socioeconomic inequalities in utilisation of maternal delivery services. PMID:25927416
Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Frohlich, Katherine L
2014-05-01
The focus, in place and health research, on a single, residential, context overlooks the fact that individuals are mobile and experience other settings in the course of their daily activities. Socio-economic characteristics are associated with activity patterns, as well as with the quality of places where certain groups conduct activities, i.e. their non-residential activity space. Examining how measures of exposure to resources, and inequalities thereof, compare between residential and non-residential contexts is required. Baseline data from 1890 young adults (18-25 years-old) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, Montreal, Canada (2011-2012), were analyzed. Socio-demographic and activity location data were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Area-level material deprivation was measured within 500-m road-network buffer zones around participants' residential and activity locations. Deprivation scores in the residential area and non-residential activity space were compared between social groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between individual- and area-level characteristics and non-residential activity space deprivation, and to explore whether these characteristics attenuated the education-deprivation association. Participants in low educational categories lived and conducted activities in more disadvantaged areas than university students/graduates. Educational inequalities in exposure to area-level deprivation were larger in the non-residential activity space than in the residential area for the least educated, but smaller for the intermediate group. Adjusting for selected covariates such as transportation resources and residential deprivation did not significantly attenuate the education-deprivation associations. Results support the existence of social isolation in residential areas and activity locations, whereby less educated individuals tend to be confined to more
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, R. N.; Kibler, J. F.; Young, G. R.
1974-01-01
A method is presented for factoring a two-impulse orbital transfer into a three- or four-impulse transfer which solves the rendezvous problem and satisfies an intermediate timing constraint. Both the time of rendezvous and the intermediate time of a alinement are formulated as any element of a finite sequence of times. These times are integer multiples of a constant plus an additive constant. The rendezvous condition is an equality constraint, whereas the intermediate alinement is an inequality constraint. The two timing constraints are satisfied by factoring the impulses into collinear parts that vectorially sum to the original impulse and by varying the resultant period differences and the number of revolutions in each orbit. Five different types of solutions arise by considering factoring either or both of the two impulses into two or three parts with a limit for four total impulses. The impulse-factoring technique may be applied to any two-impulse transfer which has distinct orbital periods.
Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations
Álvarez, J. L.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Bopp, M.; Strand, B. H.; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, O.; Martikainen, P.; Deboosere, P.; Kalediene, R.; Artnik, B.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Richardus, J. H.
2011-01-01
Objective We aim to describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban, and rural populations in several European countries. Design Data were obtained from the Eurothine project covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardized mortality rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. Results The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100 000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were larger than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern Europe, and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern countries and in Norway, Finland, and Sweden. Mortality inequalities were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve vulnerable groups’ access to treatment and thereby reduce TB mortality. PMID:22008757
Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems
C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason
2013-01-01
Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183
Inequalities for angular derivatives and boundary interpolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolotnikov, Vladimir; Elin, Mark; Shoikhet, David
2013-03-01
The classical Julia-Wolff-Carathéodory theorem asserts that the angular derivative of a holomorphic self-mapping of the open unit disk (Schur function) at its boundary fixed point is a positive number. Cowen and Pommerenke (J Lond Math Soc 26:271-289, 1982) proved that if a Schur function has several boundary regular fixed (or mutual contact) points, then the angular derivatives at these points are subject to certain inequalities. We develop a unified approach to establish relations between angular derivatives of Schur functions with a prescribed (possibly, infinite) collection of either mutual contact points or boundary fixed points. This approach yields diverse inequalities improving both classical and more recent results. We apply them to study the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem with boundary data. Our methods lead to fairly explicit formulas describing the set of solutions.
Social inequalities in probabilistic labor markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He
2015-03-01
We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.
Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon.
Dehollain, Juan P; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea
2016-03-01
Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity. PMID:26571006
Earthquake mechanisms from linear-programming inversion of seismic-wave amplitude ratios
Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.
1996-01-01
The amplitudes of radiated seismic waves contain far more information about earthquake source mechanisms than do first-motion polarities, but amplitudes are severely distorted by the effects of heterogeneity in the Earth. This distortion can be reduced greatly by using the ratios of amplitudes of appropriately chosen seismic phases, rather than simple amplitudes, but existing methods for inverting amplitude ratios are severely nonlinear and require computationally intensive searching methods to ensure that solutions are globally optimal. Searching methods are particularly costly if general (moment tensor) mechanisms are allowed. Efficient linear-programming methods, which do not suffer from these problems, have previously been applied to inverting polarities and wave amplitudes. We extend these methods to amplitude ratios, in which formulation on inequality constraint for an amplitude ratio takes the same mathematical form as a polarity observation. Three-component digital data for an earthquake at the Hengill-Grensdalur geothermal area in southwestern Iceland illustrate the power of the method. Polarities of P, SH, and SV waves, unusually well distributed on the focal sphere, cannot distinguish between diverse mechanisms, including a double couple. Amplitude ratios, on the other hand, clearly rule out the double-couple solution and require a large explosive isotropic component.
A linear-programming approach to temporal reasoning
Jonsson, P.; Baeckstroem, C.
1996-12-31
We present a new formalism, Horn Disjunctive Linear Relations (Horn DLRs), for reasoning about temporal constraints. We prove that deciding satisfiability of sets of Horn DLRs is polynomial by exhibiting an algorithm based upon linear programming. Furthermore, we prove that most other approaches to tractable temporal constraint reasoning can be encoded as Horn DLRs, including the ORD-Horn algebra and most methods for purely quantitative reasoning.
[The system of informal caregiving as inequality].
García-Calvente, María del Mar; Mateo-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Eguiguren, Ana P
2004-05-01
In our setting, it is families, not the health and social services, who play the greatest role in providing continuous care to persons in need of such services. Informal health care poses two key questions with regard to the issue of equity: differences in the burdens borne by men and women, which contribute to gender inequality and, depending on their educational and socio-economic level, inequities in their ability to choose and gain access to needed resources and support services, thus contributing to social class inequalities. Distributing the burden of caregiving between men and women, and between the family and the state, constitutes a crucial debate in public health. This study analyzes the concept and characteristics of informal care, provides data on its dimensions in our setting, and analyzes the profile of caregivers, as well as the work they do and the impact it has on their lives. Finally, it presents currently existing models and support strategies for informal caregivers. It is largely women who assume the principal role of providing informal care, undertaking the most difficult and demanding tasks and dedicating the largest share of their time to them. As a result, women bear an elevated cost in their lives in terms of health, quality of life, access to employment and professional development, social relations, availability of time for themselves, and economic repercussions. Unemployed, under-educated women from the least privileged social classes constitute the largest group of informal caregivers in our country. Any policies aimed at supporting those who provide such care should keep in mind the unequal point from which they start and be evaluated in terms of their impact on gender and social class inequality.
Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.
Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-02-01
We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems.
Power inequality between patients and nurses.
Corless, Louise; Buckley, Alison; Mee, Steve
Many factors can result in an imbalance of power between patients and nurses. This can have a range of negative effects on patients' experience of care. This third article in a seven-part series on the use of patient narratives to reflect on care focuses on power inequalities and their effects, and suggests points that nurses can use to reflect on their own practice.
Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.
Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-02-01
We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems. PMID:17358836
Dynamical Constraints on Exoplanets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horner, Jonti; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, Chris; Hinse, Tobias C.; Marshall, Jonathan P.
2014-01-01
Dynamical studies of new exoplanet systems are a critical component of the discovery and characterisation process. Such studies can provide firmer constraints on the parameters of the newly discovered planets, and may even reveal that the proposed planets do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. Here, we demonstrate how dynamical studies can assist the characterisation of such systems through two examples: QS Virginis and HD 73526.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1991-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1991-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1993-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.
Farmer, P.
1996-01-01
Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243
[Importance of genetics for health inequalities].
Mielck, Andreas; Rogowski, W
2007-02-01
In Germany it has rarely been assessed in a systematic way, if and how genetic disposition and genetic testing are linked to health inequality. The paper aims to be a contribution towards closing this gap. In a first step, it is pointed out that the discussion about potential links between genetic causes of social inequalities has concentrated on issues such as body height and intelligence. It is stressed that, of course, social status is mainly determined socially and not genetically. In the second step, medical benefits of genetic testing are discussed. It can be assumed that low status groups are using these tests less often than high status groups, and that they are less capable of interpreting the results. Tests that can have a positive effect on health could thus lead to an increase of health inequalities. However, empirical studies for testing these hypotheses are hardly available. In the third step, the question is raised whether genetic information could lead to social discrimination (e.g. concerning health insurance, life insurance or employer). According to the current empirical literature, to date, this risk is (still) rather small. Thus, it is stressed that more research is needed, and that already today there is some need for intervention (e.g. concerning equal access to genetic testing, better information of low status groups).
Optimal autorotational descent of a helicopter with control and state inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Allan Y.
1990-01-01
A point-mass model of the OH-58A helicopter has been used to ascertain the autorotation profiles which minimize helicopter impact velocity while remaining within the bounds of the main rotor's collective pitch and angular speed. The optimal control strategies are comparable to those employed by pilots in autorotational landings. It is noted that a possibility exists for the reduction of the height-sink rate restriction zone of OH-58A helicopters, using optimal energy-management techniques.
Structure Constraints in a Constraint-Based Planner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pang, Wan-Lin; Golden, Keith
2004-01-01
In this paper we report our work on a new constraint domain, where variables can take structured values. Earth-science data processing (ESDP) is a planning domain that requires the ability to represent and reason about complex constraints over structured data, such as satellite images. This paper reports on a constraint-based planner for ESDP and similar domains. We discuss our approach for translating a planning problem into a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and for representing and reasoning about structured objects and constraints over structures.
Avoiding loopholes with hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander N.
2014-01-01
By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the "clumsiness" Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the "disjoint sampling" Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell locality or a preparation conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical systems are poised to implement this test.
Avoiding Loopholes with Hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander
2014-03-01
By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell-locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally-invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the ``clumsiness'' Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the ``disjoint sampling'' Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell-locality, or a preparation-conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally-correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical implementations of this test are considered.
Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?
Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.
1999-01-01
Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876
Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.
Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald
2012-08-01
Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education.
Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians
Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett
2014-01-01
Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526
Evaluating Inequality or Injustice in Water Use for Food
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.
2014-12-01
Water availability and population density distributions are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources; but is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water and explored the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring plant and animal commodities and the "virtual water" embedded in them. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated country specific patterns of water use for food with, and without trade, over a 25-year period in order to elucidate the influence of trade and inequality on equability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, when related to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.
Inequality or injustice in water use for food?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.
2015-02-01
The global distributions of water availability and population density are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources. Is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water, and the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring ‘virtual water’ embedded in plant and animal commodities. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated patterns of water use with and without trade over a 25-year period to identify the influence of trade and inequality on equitability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, relative to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.
Thermodynamics of inequalities: From precariousness to economic stratification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smerlak, Matteo
2016-01-01
Growing economic inequalities are observed in several countries throughout the world. Following Pareto, the power-law structure of these inequalities has been the subject of much theoretical and empirical work. But their nonequilibrium dynamics, e.g. after a policy change, remains incompletely understood. Here we introduce a thermodynamical theory of inequalities based on the analogy between economic stratification and statistical entropy. Within this framework we identify the combination of upward mobility with precariousness as a fundamental driver of inequality. We formalize this statement by a "second-law" inequality displaying upward mobility and precariousness as thermodynamic conjugate variables. We estimate the time scale for the "relaxation" of the wealth distribution after a sudden change of the after-tax return on capital. Our method can be generalized to gain insight into the dynamics of inequalities in any Markovian model of socioeconomic interactions.
Liu, Zhou-Yang; Lin, Chong; Chen, Bing
2016-03-01
This paper studies the admissibility problem for a class of linear singular systems with time-varying delays. In order to highlight the relations between the delay and the state, the singular system is transformed into a neutral form. Then, an appropriate type of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals is proposed to develop a delay-derivative-dependent admissibility condition in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The derivation combines the Wirtinger-based inequality and reciprocally convex combination method. The present criterion is also for the stability test of retarded and neutral systems with time-varying delays. Some examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.
Social inequality in chronic disease outcomes.
Nordahl, Helene
2014-11-01
Socioeconomic differences in morbidity and mortality, particularly across educational groups, are widening. Differential exposures to behavioural risk factors have been shown to play an important mediating role on the social inequality in chronic diseases such as heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. However, much less attention has been given to the potential role of interaction, where the same level of exposure to a behavioural risk factor has different effect across socioeconomic groups, creating subgroups that are more vulnerable than others. In this thesis, Paper 1 describes the unique cohort consortium which was established by pooling and harmonising prospective data from existing cohort studies in Denmark. This consortium generated a large study population with long follow-up sufficient to study power demanding questions of mechanisms underlying social inequalities in chronic disease outcomes. In Paper 2 on incidence of coronary heart disease, smoking and body mass index partially mediated the observed educational differences. This result suggested that some of the social inequality in coronary heart disease may be enhanced by differential exposure to behavioural risk factors (i.e. smoking and obesity). In Paper 3 on incidence of stroke, an observed interaction between education and smoking indicated that participants, particularly men, with low level of education may be more vulnerable to the effect of smoking than those with high level of education in terms of ischemic stroke. Finally, Paper 4 revealed that behavioural risk factors, primarily smoking, explained a considerable part of the educational differences in cause-specific mortality. Further, this paper added important knowledge about the considerable part of the mediated effect, which could be due to interaction between education and smoking. In conclusion, the research in this thesis is a practical implementation of contemporary statistical
Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji
2016-01-01
Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362
Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji
2016-09-01
Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362
Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability
Kwon, Younghun
2010-11-15
We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.
Income inequality and weight status in US metropolitan areas.
Chang, Virginia W; Christakis, Nicholas A
2005-07-01
Prior empirical studies have demonstrated an association between income inequality and general health endpoints such as mortality and self-rated health, and findings have been taken as support for the hypothesis that inequality is detrimental to individual health. Unhealthy weight statuses may function as an intermediary link between inequality and more general heath endpoints. Using individual-level data from the 1996-98 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examine the relationship between individual weight status and income inequality in US metropolitan areas. Income inequality is calculated with data from the 1990 US Census 5% Public Use Microsample. In analyses stratified by race-sex groups, we do not find a positive association between income inequality and weight outcomes such as body mass index, the odds of being overweight, and the odds of being obese. Among white women, however, we do find a statistically significant inverse association between inequality and each of these weight outcomes, despite adjustments for individual-level covariates, metropolitan-level covariates, and census region. We also find that greater inequality is associated with higher odds for trying to lose weight among white women, even adjusting for current weight status. Although our findings are suggestive of a contextual effect of metropolitan area income inequality, we do not find an increased risk for unhealthy weight outcomes, adding to recent debates surrounding this topic.
Summarizing health inequalities in a Balanced Scorecard. Methodological considerations.
Auger, Nathalie; Raynault, Marie-France
2006-01-01
The association between social determinants and health inequalities is well recognized. What are now needed are tools to assist in disseminating such information. This article describes how the Balanced Scorecard may be used for summarizing data on health inequalities. The process begins by selecting appropriate social groups and indicators, and is followed by the measurement of differences across person, place, or time. The next step is to decide whether to focus on absolute versus relative inequality. The last step is to determine the scoring method, including whether to address issues of depth of inequality.
On Semiclassical and Universal Inequalities for Eigenvalues of Quantum Graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirel, Semra; Harrell, Evans M.
We study the spectra of quantum graphs with the method of trace identities (sum rules), which are used to derive inequalities of Lieb-Thirring, Payne-Pólya-Weinberger, and Yang types, among others. We show that the sharp constants of these inequalities and even their forms depend on the topology of the graph. Conditions are identified under which the sharp constants are the same as for the classical inequalities. In particular, this is true in the case of trees. We also provide some counterexamples where the classical form of the inequalities is false.
Inequalities in oral health: the role of sociology.
Gibson, L B; Blake, M; Baker, S
2016-06-01
This paper seeks to identify an important point of contact between the literature on inequalities in oral health and the sociology of power. The paper begins by exploring the problem of social inequalities in oral health from the point of view of human freedom. It then goes on to briefly consider why inequalities in oral health matter before providing a brief overview of current approaches to reducing inequalities in oral health. After this the paper briefly introduces the problem of power in sociology before going on to outline why the problem of power matters in the problem of inequalities in oral health. Here the paper discusses how two key principles associated with the social bond have become central to how we think about health related inequalities. These principles are the principle of treating everyone the same (the principle of autonomy) and the related principle of allowing everyone to pursue their own goals (the principle of intimacy). These principles are outlined and subsequently discussed in detail with application to debates about interventions to reduce oral health related inequalities including that of water fluoridation. The paper highlights how the 'Childsmile' programme in Scotland appears to successfully negotiate the tensions inherent in attempting to do something about inequalities in oral health. It then concludes by highlighting some of the tensions that remain in attempting to alleviate oral health related inequalities.
Inequalities in oral health: the role of sociology.
Gibson, L B; Blake, M; Baker, S
2016-06-01
This paper seeks to identify an important point of contact between the literature on inequalities in oral health and the sociology of power. The paper begins by exploring the problem of social inequalities in oral health from the point of view of human freedom. It then goes on to briefly consider why inequalities in oral health matter before providing a brief overview of current approaches to reducing inequalities in oral health. After this the paper briefly introduces the problem of power in sociology before going on to outline why the problem of power matters in the problem of inequalities in oral health. Here the paper discusses how two key principles associated with the social bond have become central to how we think about health related inequalities. These principles are the principle of treating everyone the same (the principle of autonomy) and the related principle of allowing everyone to pursue their own goals (the principle of intimacy). These principles are outlined and subsequently discussed in detail with application to debates about interventions to reduce oral health related inequalities including that of water fluoridation. The paper highlights how the 'Childsmile' programme in Scotland appears to successfully negotiate the tensions inherent in attempting to do something about inequalities in oral health. It then concludes by highlighting some of the tensions that remain in attempting to alleviate oral health related inequalities. PMID:27352473
Income inequality, distributive fairness and political trust in Latin America.
Zmerli, Sonja; Castillo, Juan Carlos
2015-07-01
In the wake of rising levels of income inequality during the past two decades, widespread concerns emerged about the social and political consequences of the widening gap between the poor and the rich that can be observed in many established democracies. Several empirical studies substantiate the link between macro-level income inequality and political attitudes and behavior, pointing at its broad and negative implications for political equality. Accordingly, these implications are expected to be accentuated in contexts of high inequality, as is the case in Latin America. Despite these general concerns about the consequences of income inequality, few studies have accounted for the importance of individual perceptions of distributive fairness in regard to trust in political institutions. Even less is known about the extent to which distributive fairness perceptions co-vary with objective indicators of inequality. Moreover, the research in this area has traditionally focused on OECD countries, which have lower indexes of inequality than the rest of the world. This study aims at filling this gap by focusing on the relevance of distributive fairness perceptions and macro-level inequality for political trust and on how these two levels interact in Latin American countries. The analyses are based on the Latinobarometer survey 2011, which consists of 18 countries. Multilevel estimations suggest that both dimensions of inequality are negatively associated with political trust but that higher levels of macro-level inequality attenuate rather than increase the strength of the negative association between distributive fairness perceptions and political trust.
Better Bell-inequality violation by collective measurements
Liang, Y.-C.; Doherty, Andrew C.
2006-05-15
The standard Bell-inequality experiments test for violation of local realism by repeatedly making local measurements on individual copies of an entangled quantum state. Here we investigate the possibility of increasing the violation of a Bell inequality by making collective measurements. We show that the nonlocality of bipartite pure entangled states, quantified by their maximal violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality, can always be enhanced by collective measurements, even without communication between the parties. For mixed states we also show that collective measurements can increase the violation of Bell inequalities, although numerical evidence suggests that the phenomenon is not common as it is for pure states.
Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
2011-01-01
This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494
Operational approach to Bell inequalities: Application to qutrits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsina, Daniel; Cervera, Alba; Goyeneche, Dardo; Latorre, José I.; Życzkowski, Karol
2016-09-01
In this work we develop two methods to construct Bell inequalities for multipartite systems. By considering non-Hermitian operators we study Bell inequalities for the cases of three settings, three outcomes, and three to six parties. The maximal value achieved in the framework of quantum theory is computed for subsystems with three levels each. The other technique, based on a mapping from pure entangled states to Bell operators, allows us to construct further multipartite Bell inequalities. As a consequence, we reproduce some known results in a different way and find some multipartite Bell inequalities for systems having three settings and three outcomes per party.
Summarizing health inequalities in a Balanced Scorecard. Methodological considerations.
Auger, Nathalie; Raynault, Marie-France
2006-01-01
The association between social determinants and health inequalities is well recognized. What are now needed are tools to assist in disseminating such information. This article describes how the Balanced Scorecard may be used for summarizing data on health inequalities. The process begins by selecting appropriate social groups and indicators, and is followed by the measurement of differences across person, place, or time. The next step is to decide whether to focus on absolute versus relative inequality. The last step is to determine the scoring method, including whether to address issues of depth of inequality. PMID:17120870
Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint
Lempa, Jukka
2012-10-15
We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.
Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A; Schnohr, Christina W; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace
2011-11-01
Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO collaborative Study (N = 58,352 across 35 countries) were analysed using multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses for outcome measures life satisfaction score and binary high/low life satisfaction. National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross-nationally. Socioeconomic inequalities were greatest in poor countries and in countries with unequal income distribution. GDP (PPP US$) and Gini did not explain between country variance in socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. The existence of, and variation in, within-country socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent life satisfaction highlights the importance of identifying and addressing mediating factors during this life stage.
A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takaki, Mitsuo; Cavalcanti, Diego; Gheyi, Rohit; Iyoda, Juliano; dAmorim, Marcelo; Prudencio, Ricardo
2009-01-01
The complexity of constraints is a major obstacle for constraint-based software verification. Automatic constraint solvers are fundamentally incomplete: input constraints often build on some undecidable theory or some theory the solver does not support. This paper proposes and evaluates several randomized solvers to address this issue. We compare the effectiveness of a symbolic solver (CVC3), a random solver, three hybrid solvers (i.e., mix of random and symbolic), and two heuristic search solvers. We evaluate the solvers on two benchmarks: one consisting of manually generated constraints and another generated with a concolic execution of 8 subjects. In addition to fully decidable constraints, the benchmarks include constraints with non-linear integer arithmetic, integer modulo and division, bitwise arithmetic, and floating-point arithmetic. As expected symbolic solving (in particular, CVC3) subsumes the other solvers for the concolic execution of subjects that only generate decidable constraints. For the remaining subjects the solvers are complementary.
Asteroseismic constraints for Gaia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creevey, O. L.; Thévenin, F.
2012-12-01
Distances from the Gaia mission will no doubt improve our understanding of stellar physics by providing an excellent constraint on the luminosity of the star. However, it is also clear that high precision stellar properties from, for example, asteroseismology, will also provide a needed input constraint in order to calibrate the methods that Gaia will use, e.g. stellar models or GSP_Phot. For solar-like stars (F, G, K IV/V), asteroseismic data delivers at the least two very important quantities: (1) the average large frequency separation < Δ ν > and (2) the frequency corresponding to the maximum of the modulated-amplitude spectrum ν_{max}. Both of these quantities are related directly to stellar parameters (radius and mass) and in particular their combination (gravity and density). We show how the precision in < Δ ν >, ν_{max}, and atmospheric parameters T_{eff} and [Fe/H] affect the determination of gravity (log g) for a sample of well-known stars. We find that log g can be determined within less than 0.02 dex accuracy for our sample while considering precisions in the data expected for V˜12 stars from Kepler data. We also derive masses and radii which are accurate to within 1σ of the accepted values. This study validates the subsequent use of all of the available asteroseismic data on solar-like stars from the Kepler field (>500 IV/V stars) in order to provide a very important constraint for Gaia calibration of GSP_Phot} through the use of log g. We note that while we concentrate on IV/V stars, both the CoRoT and Kepler fields contain asteroseismic data on thousands of giant stars which will also provide useful calibration measures.
Inviolable energy conditions from entanglement inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashkari, Nima; Rabideau, Charles; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Van Raamsdonk, Mark
2015-06-01
Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, fundamental constraints on the entanglement structure of quantum systems translate to constraints on spacetime geometries that must be satisfied in any consistent theory of quantum gravity. In this paper, we investigate such constraints arising from strong subadditivity and from the positivity and monotonicity of relative entropy in examples with highly-symmetric spacetimes. Our results may be interpreted as a set of energy conditions restricting the possible form of the stress-energy tensor in consistent theories of Einstein gravity coupled to matter.
Superresolution via sparsity constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donoho, David L.
1992-01-01
The problem of recovering a measure mu supported on a lattice of span Delta is considered under the condition that measurements are only available concerning the Fourier Transform at frequencies of Omega or less. If Omega is much smaller than the Nyquist frequency pi/Delta and the measurements are noisy, then stable recovery of mu is generally impossible. It is shown here that if, in addition, it is known that mu satisfies certain sparsity constraints, then stable recovery is possible. This finding validates practical efforts in spectroscopy, seismic prospecting, and astronomy to provide superresolution by imposing support limitations in reconstruction.
Performance constraints in decathletes.
Van Damme, Raoul; Wilson, Robbie S; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Aerts, Peter
2002-02-14
Physical performance by vertebrates is thought to be constrained by trade-offs between antagonistic pairs of ecologically relevant traits and between conflicting specialist and generalist phenotypes, but there is surprisingly little evidence to support this reasoning. Here we analyse the performance of world-class athletes in standardized decathlon events and find that it is subject to both types of trade-off, after correction has been made for differences between athletes in general ability across all 10 events. These trade-offs may have imposed important constraints on the evolution of physical performance in humans and other vertebrates. PMID:11845199
Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad
2012-01-01
Objectives This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Methods Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Results Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malmquist, Eve, Ed.
Organized to focus world-wide public attention on the massive gender inequalities in many areas of the world, a seminar entitled "Women and Literacy Development--Constraints and Prospects" was held in Sweden during August 1991. This book presents conference papers by female literacy experts from 12 developing nations (three in Latin America, five…
Rosinberg, M L; Munakata, T; Tarjus, G
2015-04-01
Response lags are generic to almost any physical system and often play a crucial role in the feedback loops present in artificial nanodevices and biological molecular machines. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study of small stochastic systems governed by an underdamped Langevin equation and driven out of equilibrium by a time-delayed continuous feedback control. In their normal operating regime, these systems settle in a nonequilibrium steady state in which work is permanently extracted from the surrounding heat bath. By using the Fokker-Planck representation of the dynamics, we derive a set of second-law-like inequalities that provide bounds to the rate of extracted work. These inequalities involve additional contributions characterizing the reduction of entropy production due to the continuous measurement process. We also show that the non-Markovian nature of the dynamics requires a modification of the basic relation linking dissipation to the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the level of trajectories. The modified relation includes a contribution arising from the acausal character of the reverse process. This, in turn, leads to another second-law-like inequality. We illustrate the general formalism with a detailed analytical and numerical study of a harmonic oscillator driven by a linear feedback, which describes actual experimental setups.
Economic Inequalities in Latin America at the Base of Adverse Health Indicators.
Ferre, Juan Cruz
2016-07-01
There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of a link between income inequalities and health outcomes. The main purpose of this article is to test whether economic inequalities are associated with poor population health in Latin American countries. Multi-country data from 1970 to 2012 were used to assess this question. The results show that the Gini coefficient has a strong correlation with health outcomes. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis using fixed effects shows that after controlling for gross national income per capita, literacy rate, and health expenditure, the Gini coefficient is independently negatively associated with health outcomes. In Latin American countries, for every percentage point increase in the Gini coefficient, the infant mortality rate grows by 0.467 deaths per 1,000 live births, holding all other variables constant. Additionally, an ordinary least squares estimation model suggests that countries that do not use International Monetary Fund loans perform better on health outcomes. These findings should alert policymakers, elected officials, and the public of the need to fight income inequalities and rethink the role of international financial institutions that dictate state policies. PMID:27287670
Rispel, Laetitia C; de Sousa, César A D Palha; Molomo, Boitumelo G
2009-08-01
The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries--Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate participation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating
Linearized motion estimation for articulated planes.
Datta, Ankur; Sheikh, Yaser; Kanade, Takeo
2011-04-01
In this paper, we describe the explicit application of articulation constraints for estimating the motion of a system of articulated planes. We relate articulations to the relative homography between planes and show that these articulations translate into linearized equality constraints on a linear least-squares system, which can be solved efficiently using a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system. The articulation constraints can be applied for both gradient-based and feature-based motion estimation algorithms and to illustrate this, we describe a gradient-based motion estimation algorithm for an affine camera and a feature-based motion estimation algorithm for a projective camera that explicitly enforces articulation constraints. We show that explicit application of articulation constraints leads to numerically stable estimates of motion. The simultaneous computation of motion estimates for all of the articulated planes in a scene allows us to handle scene areas where there is limited texture information and areas that leave the field of view. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of the algorithm in a variety of challenging real-world cases such as human body tracking, motion estimation of rigid, piecewise planar scenes, and motion estimation of triangulated meshes.
Modular Constraints on Calabi-Yau Compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Christoph A.; Ooguri, Hirosi
2013-11-01
We derive global constraints on the non-BPS sector of supersymmetric 2d sigma-models whose target space is a Calabi-Yau manifold. When the total Hodge number of the Calabi-Yau threefold is sufficiently large, we show that there must be non-BPS primary states whose total conformal weights are less than 0.656. Moreover, the number of such primary states grows at least linearly in the total Hodge number. We discuss implications of these results for Calabi-Yau geometry.
Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Mataria, Awad; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Ventelou, Bruno
2011-01-01
Socioeconomic-related inequalities in healthcare delivery have been extensively studied in developed countries, using standard linear models of decomposition. This paper seeks to assess equity in healthcare delivery in the particular context of the occupied Palestinian territory: the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, using a new method of decomposition based on microsimulations. Besides avoiding the 'unavoidable price' of linearity restriction that is imposed by the standard methods of decomposition, the microsimulation-based decomposition enables to circumvent the potentially contentious role of heterogeneity in behaviours and to better disentangle the various sources driving inequality in healthcare utilisation. Results suggest that the worse-off do have a disproportinately greater need for all levels of care. However with the exception of primary-level, utilisation of all levels of care appears to be significantly higher for the better-off. The microsimulation method has made it possible to identify the contributions of factors driving such pro-rich patterns. While much of the inequality in utilisation appears to be caused by the prevailing socioeconomic inequalities, detailed analysis attributes a non-trivial part (circa 30% of inequalities) to heterogeneity in healthcare-seeking behaviours across socioeconomic groups of the population. Several policy recommendations for improving equity in healthcare delivery in the occupied Palestinian territory are proposed.
On heterotic model constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchard, Vincent; Donagi, Ron
2008-08-01
The constraints imposed on heterotic compactifications by global consistency and phenomenology seem to be very finely balanced. We show that weakening these constraints, as was proposed in some recent works, is likely to lead to frivolous results. In particular, we construct an infinite set of such frivolous models having precisely the massless spectrum of the MSSM and other quasi-realistic features. Only one model in this infinite collection (the one constructed in [8]) is globally consistent and supersymmetric. The others might be interpreted as being anomalous, or as non-supersymmetric models, or as local models that cannot be embedded in a global one. We also show that the strongly coupled model of [8] can be modified to a perturbative solution with stable SU(4) or SU(5) bundles in the hidden sector. We finally propose a detailed exploration of heterotic vacua involving bundles on Calabi-Yau threefolds with Bbb Z6 Wilson lines; we obtain many more frivolous solutions, but none that are globally consistent and supersymmetric at the string scale.
Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.
Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity
Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah
2013-01-01
Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krumsvik, Rune J.
2008-01-01
This position paper highlights existing and emerging, prospective digital divides in Norwegian schools and asks whether we are now moving from traditional digital divides to digital inequality in our digitized society and schools. Despite very good technology density in Norwegian society and schools in general, there is the reason to pay attention…
Intersecting Inequalities: Research to Reduce Inequality for Immigrant-Origin Children and Youth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Tseng, Vivian
2015-01-01
As immigration has reached historic numbers in the United States, immigrant children have become an integral part of the national tapestry. While immigration has grown across all post-industrial nations, inequality has risen at a steep rate on a variety of indicators, including income distribution, child poverty, residential segregation, and…
Burns, Jonathan K.; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S.
2014-01-01
Background Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. Aims The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. Method We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. Results One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD 11.9; range=1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = 0.02; 95% CI 1.00, 1.03). Conclusions Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital; and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia. PMID:23594564
Inequality Is the Problem: Prioritizing Research on Reducing Inequality. Annual Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gamoran, Adam
2013-01-01
Inequality in education and other domains of life stands in the way of economic and civic progress in the United States. It forestalls social mobility and economic productivity and impairs social cohesion. As a result, national and international leaders--from big-city mayors to Pope Francis--recognize that, as President Obama (2013) put it,…
Education Expansion, Educational Inequality, and Income Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan, 1976-2003
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Chun-Hung A.
2007-01-01
The expansion of higher education in Taiwan starting from the late 1980s has successfully raised the average level of education. Using the concept of the education Gini, we find that the educational inequality declined as average schooling rose during the period of 1976-2003. The impacts of a rising average schooling and a declining educational…
Sadi-Nakar, Merav
2010-01-01
The relationship between psychological disciplines and inequality has been a subject of great scholarly interest in the last several decades. Most works on the subject analyze macro features of psychological disciplines (mainly their evaluative tools, theoretical assumptions, and disciplinary power) and criticize them as biased against minorities. This paper re-examines the relationship between psychology and inequality from a micro, face-to-face standpoint. Drawing on close observations of 33 placement committees in which professionals from various psychological fields (psychology, social work, school counseling, etc.) discuss children’s eligibility for special education services, it portrays the actual doing of psychology as an inconsistent and malleable endeavor. In contrast to the macro-oriented research on the relationship between psychology and inequality, it shows that in actual face-to-face interactions, professionals use different types of folk concerns that often exchange formal evaluative criteria, theoretical assumptions or professional authority in final placement decisions. By revealing the different folk considerations professionals use to sort and analyze working- versus middle-class parents, this project adds an essential layer to scholarly understanding of the relationship between psychological practice and inequality.
Health and social inequities in Turkey.
Dedeoglu, N
1990-01-01
Social and economic policies of governments directly influence the health of the people. These policies, in turn, are determined by the national and foreign controllers of power. Economic and social factors in Turkey during the late 1970s led to a new modelling of the economic system, from a Keynesian to a market-oriented and monetarist model. The state mechanism was also altered to form a centralized, authoritarian regime in order to enforce the requirements of the economy. As a result, the middle class diminished in size, inequalities in income distribution increased, unemployment climbed, the purchasing power of wage earners decreased, government spending for education and health was cut and new oppressive laws were enacted. Health services were already urban-biased and hospital-oriented, but new free-market measures were instituted which promoted private health institutions and attempted to transform state-owned and financed hospitals into self-supporting, independent business enterprises. The only school of public health was closed down; preventive medicine expenditures were lowered while hospital rates and drug prices were increased. All these changes affected the health status of the population. Mortality and morbidity inequalities had already existed between the rich and the poor, men and women, urban and rural settlements, educated and illiterate, West and East, always in favour of the former. However, the new policies exacerbated the inequities. Infectious diseases including tuberculosis increased, nutrition worsened, occupational diseases and work accidents rose to be the highest in Europe. The power-holding minority is not interested in the health of populations and is committed to pursue its social and economic policies. Ad hoc research, especially cross-sectional mortality studies repeated at regular intervals can provide data on the most vulnerable groups as no other valid information exists. There is little hope of these data being used for
Health and social inequities in Turkey.
Dedeoglu, N
1990-01-01
Social and economic policies of governments directly influence the health of the people. These policies, in turn, are determined by the national and foreign controllers of power. Economic and social factors in Turkey during the late 1970s led to a new modelling of the economic system, from a Keynesian to a market-oriented and monetarist model. The state mechanism was also altered to form a centralized, authoritarian regime in order to enforce the requirements of the economy. As a result, the middle class diminished in size, inequalities in income distribution increased, unemployment climbed, the purchasing power of wage earners decreased, government spending for education and health was cut and new oppressive laws were enacted. Health services were already urban-biased and hospital-oriented, but new free-market measures were instituted which promoted private health institutions and attempted to transform state-owned and financed hospitals into self-supporting, independent business enterprises. The only school of public health was closed down; preventive medicine expenditures were lowered while hospital rates and drug prices were increased. All these changes affected the health status of the population. Mortality and morbidity inequalities had already existed between the rich and the poor, men and women, urban and rural settlements, educated and illiterate, West and East, always in favour of the former. However, the new policies exacerbated the inequities. Infectious diseases including tuberculosis increased, nutrition worsened, occupational diseases and work accidents rose to be the highest in Europe. The power-holding minority is not interested in the health of populations and is committed to pursue its social and economic policies. Ad hoc research, especially cross-sectional mortality studies repeated at regular intervals can provide data on the most vulnerable groups as no other valid information exists. There is little hope of these data being used for
Tang, Yongli; Ban, Tao
2016-01-01
Let [Formula: see text] be a generalized Calderón-Zygmund operator or [Formula: see text] ( the identity operator), let [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] be the linear operators, and let [Formula: see text]. Denote the Toeplitz type operator by [Formula: see text]where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is fractional integral operator. In this paper, we establish the sharp maximal function estimates for [Formula: see text] when b belongs to weighted Lipschitz function space, and the weighted norm inequalities of [Formula: see text] on weighted Lebesgue space are obtained.
Tang, Yongli; Ban, Tao
2016-01-01
Let [Formula: see text] be a generalized Calderón-Zygmund operator or [Formula: see text] ( the identity operator), let [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] be the linear operators, and let [Formula: see text]. Denote the Toeplitz type operator by [Formula: see text]where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is fractional integral operator. In this paper, we establish the sharp maximal function estimates for [Formula: see text] when b belongs to weighted Lipschitz function space, and the weighted norm inequalities of [Formula: see text] on weighted Lebesgue space are obtained. PMID:27588245
Socioeconomic inequalities in youth smoking in Brazil
Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Giatti, Luana
2013-01-01
Objective The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic inequalities in health is increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. Youth smoking may play an important role in the increasing social inequalities related to smoking. This study investigates social determinants of smoking among 15-year-old to 19-year-old individuals. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The study uses data of 3536 participants aged 15–19 years of age of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and the National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostragem de Domicilio, PNAD) obtained from household interviews. Smoking was defined as currently smoking tobacco products, regardless of frequency. Household socioeconomic indicators included per capita income, the educational level and sex of the head of the household, the presence of smoking restrictions and the number of smokers (excluding adolescents). Adolescent social factors included years of delaying school and social status (full-time student, working, and neither working nor studying). The hierarchical logistic regression analysis considered the effect of the complex sampling design. Results From 3536 participants, 6.2% were smokers (95% CI 5.4 to 7.1). More men than women had the habit of smoking (7.2%; 5.9 to 8.6 vs 3.6%; 2.7 to 4.6). The likelihood of smoking was significantly greater for men and older teens. There was an upward trend in the OR of smoking according to the number of smokers in the house. Adolescents living in households with no smoking restrictions had a greater likelihood of being smokers. OR of smoking rose as the number of years of delaying school increased, being about three times greater among adolescents who were working and five times greater among those who were neither studying nor working. Conclusions Results demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality in smoking is established at younger ages and that school delay as well as school abandonment may contribute to increased smoking
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.
Constructive entanglement test from triangle inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Horodecki, Paweł; Życzkowski, Karol
2014-10-01
We derive a simple lower bound on the geometric measure of entanglement for mixed quantum states in the case of a general multipartite system. The main ingredient of the presented derivation is the triangle inequality applied to the root infidelity distance in the space of density matrices. The obtained bound leads to entanglement criteria with a straightforward interpretation. The proposed criteria provide an experimentally accessible, powerful entanglement test. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Income inequality and urban/rural migration.
Slottje, D J; Hayes, K J
1987-01-01
"The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the consequences of [U.S.] migration trends from 1970-1980, focusing on the relationship of income inequality within a state with population shifts within and across states. Furthermore, we wish to determine if the movement of wealth and the changing employment opportunities [have] had any effect on the distribution of income within the four census regions and for urban and rural populations across all fifty states." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses.
Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms.
Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P
1999-04-01
The relationship between income and health is well established: the higher an individual's income, the better his or her health. However, recent research suggests that health may also be affected by the distribution of income within society. We outline the potential mechanisms underlying the so-called relative income hypothesis, which predicts that an individual's health status is better in societies with a more equal distribution of incomes. The effects of income inequality on health may be mediated by underinvestment in social goods, such as public education and health care; disruption of social cohesion and the erosion of social capital; and the harmful psychosocial effects of invidious social comparisons.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold. PMID:26230779
Proposed test for temporal Bell inequalities
Paz, J.P. ); Mahler, G. )
1993-11-15
Temporal Bell inequalities can be violated for sequences of events (histories) for which probabilities satisfying consistent sum rules cannot be defined. We discuss possible experiments in which such violations, never observed so far, may indeed be seen. The basic scheme, which uses three optically driven and mutually interacting two-level systems, could be implemented in a variety of nanostructures. It could even be mapped onto the dynamics of a single electron four-level system thus allowing for a realization in atomic physics.
[Inequity in health: its historical development].
Salaverry García, Oswaldo
2013-01-01
Health inequity, main issue of contemporary debates on public health, is based on philosophical and historical concepts that date back to the idea of justice from classic Greece. The Aristotelian approach on distributive justice and its higher form, epiekeia or equity, has been reviewed, as well as how this evolves from the Middle Ages and modernity to the heart of the debate of a variety of thinkers such as liberal Rawls and Nobel laureate Amartya Sen. On this conceptual debate lies the World Health Organization version that links equity to health determinants and intends to make it operational through the equitable provision of health services. PMID:24448954
Stress and the biology of inequality.
Brunner, E.
1997-01-01
It is well established that health depends on socioeconomic circumstances, but the biology of this relation is not well described. Psychosocial factors operating throughout the life course, beginning in early life, influence a variety of biological variables. Research with non-human primates shows the effects of dominance hierarchy on biology, and similar metabolic differentials are evident in a hierarchy of white collar civil servants. The neuroendocrine "fight or flight" response produces physiological and metabolic alterations which parallel those observed with lower socioeconomic status. The biological effects of the psychosocial environment could explain health inequalities between relatively affluent groups. PMID:9167568
Bell's Inequalities, Superquantum Correlations, and String Theory
Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
2011-01-01
We offermore » an interpretation of superquantum correlations in terms of a “doubly” quantum theory. We argue that string theory, viewed as a quantum theory with two deformation parameters, the string tension α ' , and the string coupling constant g s , is such a superquantum theory that transgresses the usual quantum violations of Bell's inequalities. We also discuss the ℏ → ∞ limit of quantum mechanics in this context. As a superquantum theory, string theory should display distinct experimentally observable supercorrelations of entangled stringy states.« less
The probabilistic origin of Bell's inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krenn, Guenther
1994-01-01
The concept of local realism entails certain restrictions concerning the possible occurrence of correlated events. Although these restrictions are inherent in classical physics they have never been noticed until Bell showed in 1964 that general correlations in quantum mechanics can not be interpreted in a classical way. We demonstrate how a local realistic way of thinking about measurement results necessarily leads to limitations with regard to the possible appearance of correlated events. These limitations, which are equivalent to Bell's inequality can be easily formulated as an immediate consequence of our discussion.
Social determinants of health inequalities: towards a theoretical perspective using systems science.
Jayasinghe, Saroj
2015-01-01
A systems approach offers a novel conceptualization to natural and social systems. In recent years, this has led to perceiving population health outcomes as an emergent property of a dynamic and open, complex adaptive system. The current paper explores these themes further and applies the principles of systems approach and complexity science (i.e. systems science) to conceptualize social determinants of health inequalities. The conceptualization can be done in two steps: viewing health inequalities from a systems approach and extending it to include complexity science. Systems approach views health inequalities as patterns within the larger rubric of other facets of the human condition, such as educational outcomes and economic development. This anlysis requires more sophisticated models such as systems dynamic models. An extension of the approach is to view systems as complex adaptive systems, i.e. systems that are 'open' and adapt to the environment. They consist of dynamic adapting subsystems that exhibit non-linear interactions, while being 'open' to a similarly dynamic environment of interconnected systems. They exhibit emergent properties that cannot be estimated with precision by using the known interactions among its components (such as economic development, political freedom, health system, culture etc.). Different combinations of the same bundle of factors or determinants give rise to similar patterns or outcomes (i.e. property of convergence), and minor variations in the initial condition could give rise to widely divergent outcomes. Novel approaches using computer simulation models (e.g. agent-based models) would shed light on possible mechanisms as to how factors or determinants interact and lead to emergent patterns of health inequalities of populations. PMID:26303914
The association of major depressive episodes with income inequality and the human development index.
Cifuentes, Manuel; Sembajwe, Grace; Tak, SangWoo; Gore, Rebecca; Kriebel, David; Punnett, Laura
2008-08-01
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between country income distribution and human development with the 12-month occurrence of major depressive episodes across countries. A total of 251,158 people surveyed by the World Health Organization from 2002 to 2003 from 65 countries were included in the study. The survey contained items for identifying major depressive episodes (MDE) in the previous 12 months, attained education (used as an indicator of individual socioeconomic status) and other demographic information. Income inequality was measured with the Gini index, a national-level indicator; the United Nations human development index (HDI) measured overall country development. Country-level and multilevel linear regression models were utilized to study the associations. We found that moderately developed countries had the lowest adjusted prevalence of MDE followed by high and low developed countries. The Gini index was positively associated with major depressive episodes, but only among high HDI countries. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education and HDI, the multilevel prevalence ratio indicated a 4% increase in risk of MDE for a person living in a country associated with a 1% increment in income equality. This finding means, for example, that comparing two highly developed countries, one with low income inequality (Gini=0.25) with another with high income inequality (Gini=0.39), one would expect to see an increase in the prevalence of MDE from 4.0% to 6.2%. These findings raise important questions about the role of income inequality on social forces that can lead to depression.
Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?
van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M
2015-04-14
Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help. PMID:25784199
Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?
van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M
2015-04-14
Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.
Social determinants of health inequalities: towards a theoretical perspective using systems science.
Jayasinghe, Saroj
2015-08-25
A systems approach offers a novel conceptualization to natural and social systems. In recent years, this has led to perceiving population health outcomes as an emergent property of a dynamic and open, complex adaptive system. The current paper explores these themes further and applies the principles of systems approach and complexity science (i.e. systems science) to conceptualize social determinants of health inequalities. The conceptualization can be done in two steps: viewing health inequalities from a systems approach and extending it to include complexity science. Systems approach views health inequalities as patterns within the larger rubric of other facets of the human condition, such as educational outcomes and economic development. This anlysis requires more sophisticated models such as systems dynamic models. An extension of the approach is to view systems as complex adaptive systems, i.e. systems that are 'open' and adapt to the environment. They consist of dynamic adapting subsystems that exhibit non-linear interactions, while being 'open' to a similarly dynamic environment of interconnected systems. They exhibit emergent properties that cannot be estimated with precision by using the known interactions among its components (such as economic development, political freedom, health system, culture etc.). Different combinations of the same bundle of factors or determinants give rise to similar patterns or outcomes (i.e. property of convergence), and minor variations in the initial condition could give rise to widely divergent outcomes. Novel approaches using computer simulation models (e.g. agent-based models) would shed light on possible mechanisms as to how factors or determinants interact and lead to emergent patterns of health inequalities of populations.
H2 control of linear uncertain systems considering input quantization with encoder/decoder mismatch.
Zheng, Bo-Chao; Yang, Guang-Hong
2013-09-01
In this paper, an H2 control design for linear uncertain systems with input quantization in the presence of more general encoder/decoder mismatch is investigated. The construction of the control law includes two parts: linear part and nonlinear part. The gain of the linear part is derived from linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and the linear part of the control law is designed for achieving the H2 performance against system characteristic matrix uncertainty and encoder/decoder mismatch. The nonlinear part is designed to eliminate the influence of external disturbance and quantization error. Finally, examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Strict Constraint Feasibility in Analysis and Design of Uncertain Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty, where hard inequality constraints are present. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations prescribed by the uncertainty model. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles. These models make it possible to consider sets of parameters having comparable as well as dissimilar levels of uncertainty. Two alternative formulations for hyper-rectangular sets are proposed, one based on a transformation of variables and another based on an infinity norm approach. The suite of tools developed enable us to determine if the satisfaction of hard constraints is feasible by identifying critical combinations of uncertain parameters. Since this practice is performed without sampling or partitioning the parameter space, the resulting assessments of robustness are analytically verifiable. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness of competing design alternatives, the approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness characteristics are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the solution methods only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, the tools developed are applicable to a broad range of problems in several disciplines.
Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare
2013-01-01
Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671
Socioeconomic inequalities and mortality trends in BRICS, 1990–2010
Mújica, Oscar J; Vázquez, Enrique; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Cortez-Escalante, Juan J; Molina, Joaquin
2014-01-01
Abstract Objective To explore the presence and magnitude of – and change in – socioeconomic and health inequalities between and within Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – the countries known as BRICS – between 1990 and 2010. Methods Comparable data on socioeconomic and health indicators, at both country and primary subnational levels, were obtained from publicly available sources. Health inequalities between and within countries were identified and summarized by using standard gap and gradient metrics. Findings Four of the BRICS countries showed increases in both income level and income inequality between 1990 and 2010. The exception was Brazil, where income inequality decreased over the same period. Between-country inequalities in level of education and access to sanitation remained mostly unchanged but the largest between-country difference in mean life expectancy increased, from 9 years in 1990 to 20 years in 2010. Throughout the study period, there was disproportionality in the burden of disease between BRICS. However, the national infant mortality rate fell substantially over the study period in all five countries. In Brazil and China, the magnitude of subnational income-related inequalities in infant mortality, both absolute and relative, also decreased substantially. Conclusion Despite the economic prosperity and general improvements in health seen since 1990, profound inequalities in health persist both within and between BRICS. However, the substantial reductions observed – within Brazil and China – in the inequalities in income-related levels of infant mortality are encouraging. PMID:24940014
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…
Stratification in Higher Education, Choice and Social Inequalities in Greece
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni
2010-01-01
Higher education has expanded to a remarkable extent in many countries in recent decades. Although this has led to high levels of participation, inequalities not only persist but are also strengthened. The persistence of inequalities is partly the result of policies for the widening of participation having been accompanied by institutional…
Inequalities and Crossings: Literacy and the Spaces-in-Between
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kell, Catherine
2011-01-01
Debates on literacy inequalities have been powerfully advanced through Jan Blommaert's work, which demonstrates the ways in which discourse forms can lose function as they are moved into different environments. Looking through a south-north lens, Blommaert maps this feature of loss of function against world wide inequalities conceptualised through…
Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…
Measurement of Inequality: The Gini Coefficient and School Finance Studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lows, Raymond L.
1984-01-01
Discusses application of the "Lorenz Curve" (a graphical representation of the concentration of wealth) with the "Gini Coefficient" (an index of inequality) to measure social inequality in school finance studies. Examines the basic assumptions of these measures and suggests a minor reconception. (MCG)
The Sources of American Inequality, 1896-1948.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Jeffrey G.
This paper discusses American long-term experience with changes in the distribution of income since the turn of the century. It supplies quantitative documentation of a pronunced secular swing in inequality. Inequality indicators were on the rise up to 1914, exhibited no trend to 1926 or 1929, and traced out a well known egalitatian leveling up to…
Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.
2013-01-01
Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…
Rural-Urban Dimensions of Inequality Change. Working Papers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eastwood, Robert; Lipton, Michael
This study reviews evidence that overall within-country inequality, although showing no trends from 1960-80, increased after 1980-85, focusing on developing and transitional countries. It explores trends in rural-urban, intrarural, and intraurban inequality of income, poverty risk, health, and education, and the offsetting trends in inequality…
Economic Inequality and Higher Education: Access, Persistence, and Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Ed.; Rubenstein, Ross, Ed.
2007-01-01
The vast disparities in college attendance and graduation rates between students from different class backgrounds is a growing social concern. "Economic Inequality and Higher Education" investigates the connection between income inequality and unequal access to higher education, and proposes solutions that the state and federal governments and…
Urban Inequality and Racial Differences in Risk for Violent Victimization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Like, Toya Z.
2011-01-01
Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…