Invertible linear ordinary differential operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chetverikov, Vladimir N.
2017-03-01
We consider invertible linear ordinary differential operators whose inversions are also differential operators. To each such operator we assign a numerical table. These tables are described in the elementary geometrical language. The table does not uniquely determine the operator. To define this operator uniquely some additional information should be added, as it is described in detail in this paper. The possibility of generalization of these results to partial differential operators is also discussed.
Operator-valued measures and linear operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowak, Marian
2008-01-01
We study operator-valued measures , where stands for the space of all continuous linear operators between real Banach spaces X and Y and [Sigma] is a [sigma]-algebra of sets. We extend the Bartle-Dunford-Schwartz theorem and the Orlicz-Pettis theorem for vector measures to the case of operator-valued measures. We generalize the classical Vitali-Hahn-Saks theorem to sets of operator-valued measures which are compact in the strong operator topology.
Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers
Müller-Hermes, Alexander Wolf, Michael M.; Reeb, David
2016-01-15
We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task.
Electronic Non-Contacting Linear Position Measuring System
Post, Richard F.
2005-06-14
A non-contacting linear position location system employs a special transmission line to encode and transmit magnetic signals to a receiver on the object whose position is to be measured. The invention is useful as a non-contact linear locator of moving objects, e.g., to determine the location of a magnetic-levitation train for the operation of the linear-synchronous motor drive system.
Parametric Identification of Systems Via Linear Operators.
1978-09-01
A general parametric identification /approximation model is developed for the black box identification of linear time invariant systems in terms of... parametric identification techniques derive from the general model as special cases associated with a particular linear operator. Some possible
Linearization of manipulator dynamics using spatial operators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jain, A.; Rodriguez, G.
1993-01-01
Linearized dynamics models for manipulators are useful in robot analysis, motion planning, and control applications. Techniques from the spatial operator algebra are used to obtain closed form operator expressions for two types of linearized dynamics models, the linearized inverse and forward dynamics models. Spatially recursive algorithms of O(n) and O(n-squared) complexity for the computation of the perturbation vector and coefficient matrices for the linearized inverse dynamics model are developed first. Subsequently, operator factorization and inversion identities are used to develop corresponding closed-form expressions for the linearized forward dynamics model (LFDM). Once again, these are used to develop algorithms of O(n) and O(n-squared) complexity for the computation of the perturbation vector and the coefficient matrices. The algorithms for the LFDM do not require the explicit computation of the mass matrix nor its numerical inversion and are also of lower complexity than the conventional O(n-cubed) algorithms.
Linearization: Students Forget the Operating Point
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roubal, J.; Husek, P.; Stecha, J.
2010-01-01
Linearization is a standard part of modeling and control design theory for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems taught in basic undergraduate courses. Although linearization is a straight-line methodology, it is not applied correctly by many students since they often forget to keep the operating point in mind. This paper explains the topic and…
Position Sensor Integral with a Linear Actuator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, David E.; Alhorn, Dean C.
2004-01-01
A noncontact position sensor has been designed for use with a specific two-dimensional linear electromagnetic actuator. To minimize the bulk and weight added by the sensor, the sensor has been made an integral part of the actuator: that is to say, parts of the actuator structure and circuitry are used for sensing as well as for varying position. The actuator (see Figure 1) includes a C-shaped permanent magnet and an armature that is approximately centered in the magnet gap. The intended function of the actuator is to cause the permanent magnet to translate to, and/or remain at, commanded x and y coordinates, relative to the armature. In addition, some incidental relative motion along the z axis is tolerated but not controlled. The sensor is required to measure the x and y displacements from a nominal central position and to be relatively insensitive to z displacement. The armature contains two sets of electromagnet windings oriented perpendicularly to each other and electrically excited in such a manner as to generate forces in the x,y plane to produce the required motion. Small sensor excitation coils are mounted on the pole tips of the permanent magnet. These coils are excited with a sine wave at a frequency of 20 kHz. This excitation is transformer-coupled to the armature windings. The geometric arrangement of the excitation coils and armature windings is such that the amplitudes of the 20-kHz voltages induced in the armature windings vary nearly linearly with x and y displacements and do not vary significantly with small z displacements. Because the frequency of 20 kHz is much greater than the maximum frequency characteristic of the actuation signals applied to the armature windings, there is no appreciable interference between actuator and sensor functions of the armature windings.
Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo
2017-04-01
This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.
Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo
2017-02-01
This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.
Damage Identification with Linear Discriminant Operators
Farrar, C.R.; Nix, D.A.; Duffey, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Pardoen, G.C.
1999-02-08
This paper explores the application of statistical pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to vibration-based damage detection. First, the damage detection process is described in terms of a problem in statistical pattern recognition. Next, a specific example of a statistical-pattern-recognition-based damage detection process using a linear discriminant operator, ''Fisher's Discriminant'', is applied to the problem of identifying structural damage in a physical system. Accelerometer time histories are recorded from sensors attached to the system as that system is excited using a measured input. Linear Prediction Coding (LPC) coefficients are utilized to convert the accelerometer time-series data into multi-dimensional samples representing the resonances of the system during a brief segment of the time series. Fisher's discriminant is then used to find the linear projection of the LPC data distributions that best separates data from undamaged and damaged systems. The method i s applied to data from concrete bridge columns as the columns are progressively damaged. For this case, the method captures a clear distinction between undamaged and damaged vibration profiles. Further, the method assigns a probability of damage that can be used to rank systems in order of priority for inspection.
Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics
Costa, Bruno G. da
2014-06-15
We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.
New linear piezomotors for high-force precise positioning applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Letty, Ronan; Claeyssen, Frank; Barillot, Francois; Six, Marc F.; Bouchilloux, Philippe
1998-07-01
Piezomotors are an increasingly competitive alternative to electromagnetic stepper motors, especially in applications where large bandwidths and/or precise positioning control are desired. Piezomotors use a combination of electromechanical and frictional forces and, compared to conventional electromagnetic motors, have the advantages that no power supply is required to maintain the motor in position and no lubrication is necessary in the device. The operating principle of these motors relies on the use of an ultrasonic vibration, which is created via the piezoelectric effect (at resonance in most cases), in order to generate vibration forces at the `stator/rotor' contact interface. A mechanical preload is also applied at this contact interface and is responsible for the motor's holding force at rest. To meet the specifications of an aerospace application, we developed a new design of Linear PiezoMotors (LPMs). The first prototype we built shows very promising results, and makes the LPM a serious candidate to replace conventional stepper motors. The LPM features the following characteristics: a standing force of 100 N, a blocked force of 37 N, a maximum actuation speed of 23 mm/s, a maximum run of 10 mm, a mass of 500 g, an electrical power of 2.2 W, and a position accuracy superior to 1 micrometers . To our knowledge, the driving force delivered by the LPM has never before been achieved in resonant devices. This paper describes the physical operating principles of the LPM, as well as the modeling tools and experimental techniques we used for its development. Several implementation schemes are also presented and show the wide range of possible applications offered by the linear piezomotor.
Novel linear piezoelectric motor for precision position stage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chao; Shi, Yunlai; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Junshan
2016-03-01
Conventional servomotor and stepping motor face challenges in nanometer positioning stages due to the complex structure, motion transformation mechanism, and slow dynamic response, especially directly driven by linear motor. A new butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric motor for linear motion is presented. A two-degree precision position stage driven by the proposed linear ultrasonic motor possesses a simple and compact configuration, which makes the system obtain shorter driving chain. Firstly, the working principle of the linear ultrasonic motor is analyzed. The oscillation orbits of two driving feet on the stator are produced successively by using the anti-symmetric and symmetric vibration modes of the piezoelectric composite structure, and the slider pressed on the driving feet can be propelled twice in only one vibration cycle. Then with the derivation of the dynamic equation of the piezoelectric actuator and transient response model, start-upstart-up and settling state characteristics of the proposed linear actuator is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and is applicable to evaluate step resolution of the precision platform driven by the actuator. Moreover the structure of the two-degree position stage system is described and a special precision displacement measurement system is built. Finally, the characteristics of the two-degree position stage are studied. In the closed-loop condition the positioning accuracy of plus or minus <0.5 μm is experimentally obtained for the stage propelled by the piezoelectric motor. A precision position stage based the proposed butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric is theoretically and experimentally investigated.
A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Jinchuan
2010-09-01
Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from {\\mathcal B}(H) into {\\mathcal B}(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state ρ on HotimesK is separable if and only if (ΦotimesI)ρ >= 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators Φ. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.
Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory
Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.
2005-05-31
An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.
Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays
Post, Richard Freeman
2014-12-23
A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.
Linear positioning laser calibration setup of CNC machine tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sui, Xiulin; Yang, Congjing
2002-10-01
The linear positioning laser calibration setup of CNC machine tools is capable of executing machine tool laser calibraiotn and backlash compensation. Using this setup, hole locations on CNC machien tools will be correct and machien tool geometry will be evaluated and adjusted. Machien tool laser calibration and backlash compensation is a simple and straightforward process. First the setup is to 'find' the stroke limits of the axis. Then the laser head is then brought into correct alignment. Second is to move the machine axis to the other extreme, the laser head is now aligned, using rotation and elevation adjustments. Finally the machine is moved to the start position and final alignment is verified. The stroke of the machine, and the machine compensation interval dictate the amount of data required for each axis. These factors determine the amount of time required for a through compensation of the linear positioning accuracy. The Laser Calibrator System monitors the material temperature and the air density; this takes into consideration machine thermal growth and laser beam frequency. This linear positioning laser calibration setup can be used on CNC machine tools, CNC lathes, horizontal centers and vertical machining centers.
Perfect commuting-operator strategies for linear system games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleve, Richard; Liu, Li; Slofstra, William
2017-01-01
Linear system games are a generalization of Mermin's magic square game introduced by Cleve and Mittal. They show that perfect strategies for linear system games in the tensor-product model of entanglement correspond to finite-dimensional operator solutions of a certain set of non-commutative equations. We investigate linear system games in the commuting-operator model of entanglement, where Alice and Bob's measurement operators act on a joint Hilbert space, and Alice's operators must commute with Bob's operators. We show that perfect strategies in this model correspond to possibly infinite-dimensional operator solutions of the non-commutative equations. The proof is based around a finitely presented group associated with the linear system which arises from the non-commutative equations.
A position-aware linear solid constitutive model for peridynamics
Mitchell, John A.; Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.
2015-11-06
A position-aware linear solid (PALS) peridynamic constitutive model is proposed for isotropic elastic solids. The PALS model addresses problems that arise, in ordinary peridynamic material models such as the linear peridynamic solid (LPS), due to incomplete neighborhoods near the surface of a body. We improved model behavior in the vicinity of free surfaces through the application of two influence functions that correspond, respectively, to the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the deformation. Furthermore, the model is position-aware in that the influence functions vary over the body and reflect the proximity of each material point to free surfaces. Demonstration calculations on simple benchmark problems show a sharp reduction in error relative to the LPS model.
A position-aware linear solid constitutive model for peridynamics
Mitchell, John A.; Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.
2015-11-06
A position-aware linear solid (PALS) peridynamic constitutive model is proposed for isotropic elastic solids. The PALS model addresses problems that arise, in ordinary peridynamic material models such as the linear peridynamic solid (LPS), due to incomplete neighborhoods near the surface of a body. We improved model behavior in the vicinity of free surfaces through the application of two influence functions that correspond, respectively, to the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the deformation. Furthermore, the model is position-aware in that the influence functions vary over the body and reflect the proximity of each material point to free surfaces. Demonstration calculations onmore » simple benchmark problems show a sharp reduction in error relative to the LPS model.« less
On symmetric decompositions of positive operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anastasia Jivulescu, Maria; Nechita, Ion; Găvruţa, Paşc
2017-04-01
We present results concerning decompositions of positive operators acting on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our motivation is the study of a generalized version of the SIC–POVM problem, which has applications to Quantum Information Theory. We relax some of the conditions in the SIC–POVM setting (the elements sum up to the identity, resp. the elements have unit rank), and we focus on equiangular decompositions (the elements of the decomposition should have the same length, and pairs of distinct elements should have constant angles). We characterize all such decompositions, comparing our results with the case of SIC–POVMs. We also generalize some existing Welch-type inequalities.
Control methods to improve non-linear HVAC system operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phalak, Kaustubh Pradeep
The change of weather conditions and occupancy schedules makes heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems heavily dynamic. The mass and thermal inertia, nonlinear characteristics and interactions in HVAC systems make the control more complicated. As a result, some conventional control methods often cannot provide desired control performance under variable operating conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop control methods to improve the control performance of HVAC systems. This study focuses on optimizing the airflow-pressure control method of air side economizers, identifying robust building pressurization controls, developing a control method to control outdoor air and building pressure in absence of flow and pressure sensors, stabilizing the cooling coil valve operation and, return fan speed control. The improvements can be achieved by identifying and selecting a method with relatively linear performance characteristics out of the available options, applying fans rather than dampers to control building pressure, and improving the controller's stability range using cascade control method. A steady state nonlinear network model, for an air handling unit (AHU), air distribution system and conditioned space, is applied to analyze the system control performance of air-side economizers and building pressurization. The study shows that traditional controls with completely interlinked outdoor air, recirculated air, relief air dampers have the best control performance. The decoupled relief damper control may result in negative building static pressure at lower outdoor airflow ratio and excessively positive building static pressure at higher outdoor airflow ratio. On the other hand, return fan speed control has a better controllability on building pressurization. In absence of flow and pressure sensors fixed interlinked damper and linear return fan speed tracking control can maintain constant outside air ratio and positive building pressure. The
A linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yuxin; Cao, Jie; Guo, Zhao; Yu, Haoyong
2015-12-01
In this paper, a linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects is proposed based on a double friction drive principle using a single piezoelectric element (PZT). The linear actuator consists of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, which are connected by the PZT. The electromagnet serves as an object 1, and another object (object 2) is attached on the permanent magnet by the magnetic force. For positioning the dual objects independently, two different friction drive modes can be alternated by an on-off control of the electromagnet. When the electromagnet releases from the guide way, it can be driven by impact friction force generated by the PZT. Otherwise, when the electromagnet clamps on the guide way and remains stationary, the object 2 can be driven based on the principle of smooth impact friction drive. A prototype was designed and constructed and experiments were carried out to test the basic performance of the actuator. It has been verified that with a compact size of 31 mm (L) × 12 mm (W) × 8 mm (H), the two objects can achieve long strokes on the order of several millimeters and high resolutions of several tens of nanometers. Since the proposed actuator allows independent movement of two objects by a single PZT, the actuator has the potential to be constructed compactly.
Boolean linear differential operators on elementary cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín Del Rey, Ángel
2014-12-01
In this paper, the notion of boolean linear differential operator (BLDO) on elementary cellular automata (ECA) is introduced and some of their more important properties are studied. Special attention is paid to those differential operators whose coefficients are the ECA with rule numbers 90 and 150.
14 CFR 137.47 - Operation without position lights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation without position lights. 137.47... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.47 Operation without position lights. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, an aircraft may be operated without position lights if prominent unlighted objects...
14 CFR 137.47 - Operation without position lights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation without position lights. 137.47... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.47 Operation without position lights. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, an aircraft may be operated without position lights if prominent unlighted objects...
14 CFR 137.47 - Operation without position lights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation without position lights. 137.47... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.47 Operation without position lights. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, an aircraft may be operated without position lights if prominent unlighted objects...
14 CFR 137.47 - Operation without position lights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation without position lights. 137.47... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.47 Operation without position lights. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, an aircraft may be operated without position lights if prominent unlighted objects...
14 CFR 137.47 - Operation without position lights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation without position lights. 137.47... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.47 Operation without position lights. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, an aircraft may be operated without position lights if prominent unlighted objects...
Global Positioning System Simulator Field Operational Procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kizhner, Semion; Quinn, David A.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Global Positioning System (GPS) simulation is an important activity in the development or qualification of GPS signal receivers for space flight. Because a GPS simulator is a critical resource it is highly desirable to develop a set of field operational procedures to supplement the basic procedures provided by most simulator vendors. Validated field procedures allow better utilization of the GPS simulator in the development of new test scenarios and simulation operations. These procedures expedite simulation scenario development while resulting in scenarios that are more representative of the true design, as well as enabling construction of more complex simulations than previously possible, for example, spacecraft maneuvers. One difficulty in the development of a simulation scenario is specifying various modes of test vehicle motion and associated maneuvers requiring that a user specify some (but not all) of a few closely related simulation parameters. Currently this can only be done by trial and error. A stand-alone procedure that implements the simulator maneuver motion equations and solves for the motion profile transient times, jerk and acceleration would be of considerable value. Another procedure would permit the specification of some configuration parameters that would determine the simulated GPS signal composition. The resulting signal navigation message, for example, would force the receiver under test to use only the intended C-code component of the simulated GPS signal. A representative class of GPS simulation-related field operational procedures is described in this paper. These procedures were developed and used in support of GPS integration and testing for many successful spacecraft missions such as SAC-A, EO-1, AMSAT, VCL, SeaStar, sounding rockets, and by using the industry standard Spirent Global Simulation Systems Incorporated (GSSI) STR series simulators.
Reliability and Validity Assessment of a Linear Position Transducer
Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.; López-Lastra, Silvia; Maté-Muñoz, José L.
2015-01-01
The objectives of the study were to determine the validity and reliability of peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), peak power (PP) and average power (AP) measurements were made using a linear position transducer. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi and T-Force Dynamic Measurement Systemr (Ergotech, Murcia, Spain) during two resistance exercises, bench press (BP) and full back squat (BS), performed by 71 trained male subjects. For the reliability study, a further 32 men completed both lifts using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemz in two identical testing sessions one week apart (session 1 vs. session 2). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicating the validity of the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi were high, with values ranging from 0.853 to 0.989. Systematic biases and random errors were low to moderate for almost all variables, being higher in the case of PP (bias ±157.56 W; error ±131.84 W). Proportional biases were identified for almost all variables. Test-retest reliability was strong with ICCs ranging from 0.922 to 0.988. Reliability results also showed minimal systematic biases and random errors, which were only significant for PP (bias -19.19 W; error ±67.57 W). Only PV recorded in the BS showed no significant proportional bias. The Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and estimating power in resistance exercises. The low biases and random errors observed here (mainly AV, AP) make this device a useful tool for monitoring resistance training. Key points This study determined the validity and reliability of peak velocity, average velocity, peak power and average power measurements made using a linear position transducer The Tendo Weight-lifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and power. PMID:25729300
Construction of the wave operator for non-linear dispersive equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuruta, Kai Erik
In this thesis, we will study non-linear dispersive equations. The primary focus will be on the construction of the positive-time wave operator for such equations. The positive-time wave operator problem arises in the study of the asymptotics of a partial differential equation. It is a map from a space of initial data X into itself, and is loosely defined as follows: Suppose that for a solution ψlin to the dispersive equation with no non-linearity and initial data ψ +, there exists a unique solution ψ to the non-linear equation with initial data ψ0 such that ψ behaves as ψ lin as t → infinity. Then the wave operator is the map W+ that takes ψ + to ψ0. By its definition, W+ is injective. An important additional question is whether or not the map is also surjective. If so, then every non-linear solution emanating from X behaves, in some sense, linearly as it evolves (this is known as asymptotic completeness). Thus, there is some justification for treating these solutions as their much simpler linear counterparts. The main results presented in this thesis revolve around the construction of the wave operator(s) at critical non-linearities. We will study the "semi-relativistic" Schrodinger equation as well as the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system on R2 . In both cases, we will impose fairly general quadratic non-linearities for which conservation laws cannot be relied upon. These non-linearities fall below the scaling required to employ such tools as the Strichartz estimates. We instead adapt the "first iteration method" of Jang, Li, and Zhang to our setting which depends crucially on the critical decay of the non-linear interaction of the linear evolution. To see the critical decay in our problem, careful analysis is needed to treat the regime where one has spatial and/or time resonance.
Improvement of the position linearity in a comb-type one-dimensional position sensitive detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Jiuyao; Huang, Meizhen; Kim, Hoseob
2002-09-01
In a conventional, strip-type one-dimensional (1-D) position sensitive detector (PSD) the sensitive area and the position resistance area are combined together, the contact structure of the device is handicapped, so its accuracy and linearity is affected adversely. The sensitive area and the position resistance area in a new, comb-type 1-D PSD are separated to become the comb teeth and the comb ridge area respectively, moreover the position resistance area is made very narrow, thus the doping uniformity of that area is greatly improved. On the other hand, its position resistance can be largely increased owing to its narrower shape, if doping level is kept the same, so the restriction that is imposed on the contact structure previously can be lifted. Our measurements made on a strip-type 1-D PSD and a comb type 1-D PSD confirmed this difference, and showed that the accuracy and linearity of the comb type 1-D PSD has been increased markedly, especially the RMS nonlinearity of the comb type 1-D PSD is reduced to 0.090% from that of the strip-type 1-D PSD, 0.94%.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-15
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collision operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong -Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-05
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collisionmore » operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Furthermore, useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.« less
Equi-surjective systems of linear operators and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luc, D. T.; Minh, N. B.
2008-01-01
In this paper we study a system of linear operators between finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. Emphasis is made on unbounded systems and sufficient conditions are established for their equi-surjectivity. An application is presented in which a system of approximate Jacobian matrices is used to obtain a parametric interior mapping theorem. A multiplier rule for vector problems is also derived.
Fermionic effective operators and Higgs production at a linear collider
Kile, Jennifer; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.
2007-09-01
We study the possible contributions of dimension six operators containing fermion fields to Higgs production at a 500 GeV or 1 TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider. We show that--depending on the production mechanism--the effects of such operators can be kinematically enhanced relative to standard model (SM) contributions. We determine constraints on the operator coefficients implied by existing precision electroweak measurements and the scale of neutrino mass. We find that even in the presence of such constraints, substantial deviations from SM Higgs production cross sections are possible. We compare the effects of fermionic operators with those associated with purely bosonic operators that have been previously discussed in the literature.
Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna
Bogachev, N. N. Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A.
2015-10-15
The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.
Continuous-mode operation of a noiseless linear amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yi; Carvalho, André R. R.; James, Matthew R.
2016-05-01
We develop a dynamical model to describe the operation of the nondeterministic noiseless linear amplifier (NLA) in the regime of continuous-mode inputs. We analyze the dynamics conditioned on the detection of photons and show that the amplification gain depends on detection times and on the temporal profile of the input state and the auxiliary single-photon state required by the NLA. We also show that the output amplified state inherits the pulse shape of the ancilla photon.
Operations and maintenance manual for the linear accelerator (sled)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
The Linear Accelerator, a sliding chair which is pulled along a stationary platform in a horizontal axis is described. The driving force is a motor controlled by a velocity loop amplifier, and the mechanical link to the chair is a steel cable. The chair is moved in forward and reverse directions as indicated by the direction of motor rotation. The system operation is described with emphasis on the electronic control and monitoring functions. Line-by-line schematics and wire lists are included.
Distributed Control of Uncertain Systems using Superpositions of Linear operators
Sanger, Terence D.
2011-01-01
Control in the natural environment is difficult in part because of uncertainty in the effect of actions. Uncertainty can be due to added motor or sensory noise, unmodeled dynamics, or quantization of sensory feedback. Biological systems are faced with further difficulties, since control must be performed by networks of cooperating neurons and neural subsystems. Here, we propose a new mathematical framework for modeling and simulation of distributed control systems operating in an uncertain environment. Stochastic Differential Operators can be derived from the stochastic differential equation describing a system, and they map the current state density into the differential of the state density. Unlike discrete-time Markov update operators, stochastic differential operators combine linearly for a large class of linear and nonlinear systems, and therefore the combined effects of multiple controllable and uncontrollable subsystems can be predicted. Design using these operators yields systems whose statistical behavior can be specified throughout state space. The relationship to Bayesian estimation and discrete-time Markov processes is described. PMID:21521040
Distributed control of uncertain systems using superpositions of linear operators.
Sanger, Terence D
2011-08-01
Control in the natural environment is difficult in part because of uncertainty in the effect of actions. Uncertainty can be due to added motor or sensory noise, unmodeled dynamics, or quantization of sensory feedback. Biological systems are faced with further difficulties, since control must be performed by networks of cooperating neurons and neural subsystems. Here, we propose a new mathematical framework for modeling and simulation of distributed control systems operating in an uncertain environment. Stochastic differential operators can be derived from the stochastic differential equation describing a system, and they map the current state density into the differential of the state density. Unlike discrete-time Markov update operators, stochastic differential operators combine linearly for a large class of linear and nonlinear systems, and therefore the combined effects of multiple controllable and uncontrollable subsystems can be predicted. Design using these operators yields systems whose statistical behavior can be specified throughout state-space. The relationship to Bayesian estimation and discrete-time Markov processes is described.
Stabilization of linear undamped systems via position and delayed position feedbacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Hu, Haiyan
2008-05-01
This paper presents a systematic approach to stabilizing a kind of linear undamped systems of multiple degrees of freedom by using both position and delayed position feedbacks, namely, PDP feedbacks for short. For the fully actuated system, the approach enables one to complete the design of controller directly through the use of modal decoupling and a stability chart. For the under-actuated system, the approach includes two steps. The first step is to move all the eigenvalues of the system on the imaginary axis of the complex plane by using a position feedback, and the second step is to drag all the eigenvalues of the system to the left half open complex plane through the use of a delayed position feedback, which can be determined on the basis of sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues. Two examples, i.e., a fully actuated robotic manipulator and an under-actuated double inverted pendulum, are discussed in the paper to demonstrate the design of controllers for the two different types of systems and to support the efficacy of the proposed approach.
New low-cost dimensionally stable composite linear absolute position encoder scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassler, William L., Jr.; Nakayama, Robert K.
1990-11-01
A major problem in the use of standard linear position encoders is that the etched glass scales they use have a coefficient of thermal expansion (C. T. E. ) of about 1 1 . Oppm/ C. This means that their position measurements drift with changes in environmental temperature proportional to their C. T. E. . A new low cost dimensionally stable composite scale was made for use in a new absolute linear position encoder. The unidirectional Polyphenylene Sulfide/AS4 carbon fiber composite material that this scale is made of was tested for dimensional stability with respect to changes in temperature humidity and creep. The C. T. E. of the scale material was measured to be nominally 0. 29 ppm/ C with a standard deviation of 0. 12 over the operating temperature range of -2 to 62 C. The overall displacement strain due to 98 moisture absorption relative to 0 moisture absorption was measured to be 9 ppm. The strain due to stress-relief creep was found to be a maximum of 3 ppm over a period of 173 days. These results show that a linear position encoder scale made of this material is superior to those made of the standard glass currently being used and more cost effective than fused silica for most applications. 1.
Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object
Barkman, William E.
1980-01-01
A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.
Beam position and energy monitoring in compact linear accelerators for radiotherapy.
Ruf, Marcel; Müller, Sven; Setzer, Stefan; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter
2014-02-01
The experimental verification of a novel sensor topology capable of measuring both the position and energy of an electron beam inside a compact electron linear accelerator for radiotherapy is presented. The method applies microwave sensing techniques and allows for the noninterceptive monitoring of the respective beam parameters within compact accelerators for medical or industrial purposes. A state space feedback approach is described with the help of which beam displacements, once detected, can be corrected within a few system macropulses. The proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted with a prototype accelerator and customized hardware. Additionally, closed-loop operation with high accuracy is demonstrated.
Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia
2015-07-01
Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.
Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator.
Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia
2015-07-01
Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.
Positional and impulse strategies for linear problems of motion correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ananyev, B. I.; Gredasova, N. V.
2016-12-01
Control problems for a linear system with incomplete information are considered. It is supposed that a linear signal with an additive noise is observed. This noise along with the disturbances in the state equation is bounded by the quadratic constraints. The control action in the state equation may be contained in a compact set. In the second case, the total variation of the control is restricted. This case leads us to a sequence of impulse control actions (delta-functions). For both cases, we obtain the definite relations for optimal control actions that guarantee the minimax value of the terminal functional. We use methods of the control theory under uncertainty and the dynamic programming. Some examples from the theory of the movement of space and flight vehicles are investigated.
The cerebellum linearly encodes whisker position during voluntary movement
Chen, Susu; Augustine, George J; Chadderton, Paul
2016-01-01
Active whisking is an important model sensorimotor behavior, but the function of the cerebellum in the rodent whisker system is unknown. We have made patch clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in vivo to identify whether cerebellar output encodes kinematic features of whisking including the phase and set point. We show that Purkinje cell spiking activity changes strongly during whisking bouts. On average, the changes in simple spike rate coincide with or slightly precede movement, indicating that the synaptic drive responsible for these changes is predominantly of efferent (motor) rather than re-afferent (sensory) origin. Remarkably, on-going changes in simple spike rate provide an accurate linear read-out of whisker set point. Thus, despite receiving several hundred thousand discrete synaptic inputs across a non-linear dendritic tree, Purkinje cells integrate parallel fiber input to generate precise information about whisking kinematics through linear changes in firing rate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10509.001 PMID:26780828
Light-operated proximity detector with linear output
Simpson, Marc L.; McNeilly, David R.
1985-01-01
A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.
Light-operated proximity detector with linear output
Simpson, M.L.; McNeilly, D.R.
1984-01-01
A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phtotransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.
Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor.
Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu
2011-01-01
This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.
Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor
Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu
2011-01-15
This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.
Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu
2011-01-01
This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.
High Precision Piezoelectric Linear Motors for Operations at Cryogenic Temperatures and Vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, D.; Carman, G.; Stam, M.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sen, A.; Henry, P.; Bearman, G.; Moacanin, J.
1995-01-01
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluated the use of an electromechanical device for optically positioning a mirror system during the pre-project phase of the Pluto-Fast-Flyby (PFF) mission. The device under consideration was a piezoelectric driven linear motor functionally dependent upon a time varying electric field which induces displacements ranging from submicrons to millimeters with positioning accuracy within nanometers. Using a control package, the mirror system provides image motion compensation and mosaicking capabilities. While this device offers unique advantages, there were concerns pertaining to its operational capabilities for the PFF mission. The issues include irradiation effects and thermal concerns. A literature study indicated that irradiation effects will not significantly impact the linear motor's operational characteristics. On the other hand, thermal concerns necessitated an in depth study.
14 CFR 65.37 - Skill requirements: Operating positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements: Operating positions. 65.37 Section 65.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 65.37 Skill requirements: Operating positions. No person may act as an air traffic control...
Linear mode conversion and the operator theory of wave mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dendy, R. O.
1988-02-01
The linear mode conversion regime for the approximate dispersion relation [ω-ω1(x,k)][ω-ω2(x,k)]=η occurs near x=xc, k=kc such that ω1(xc,kc)=ω2(xc, kc). Cairns and Lashmore-Davies [Phys. Fluids 25, 1605 (1982); 26, 1268 (1983)] have recently expressed the associated energy flow in terms of a single parameter that involves η and the partial derivatives of ω1 and ω2. In this paper, a different, wave-mechanical approach is used to obtain the same result. The process of linear mode conversion is discussed using the system L̂Ψ=i ∂Ψ/∂t, where L̂ is a Hermitian operator. The degeneracy of plasma modes, and their coupling by warm plasma corrections in an inhomogeneous plasma, is dealt with using first-order perturbation theory. Simple coupled first-order differential equations for the wave amplitudes follow, which can be integrated directly. The calculated energy flow reproduces the expression that is obtained from the theory of Cairns and Lashmore-Davies.
An intelligent position-specific training system for mission operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, M. P.
1992-01-01
Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) payload ground controller training program provides very good generic training; however, ground controller position-specific training can be improved by including position-specific training systems in the training program. This report explains why MSFC needs to improve payload ground controller position-specific training. The report describes a generic syllabus for position-specific training systems, a range of system designs for position-specific training systems, and a generic development process for developing position-specific training systems. The report also describes a position-specific training system prototype that was developed for the crew interface coordinator payload operations control center ground controller position. The report concludes that MSFC can improve the payload ground controller training program by incorporating position-specific training systems for each ground controller position; however, MSFC should not develop position-specific training systems unless payload ground controller position experts will be available to participate in the development process.
2010-03-01
an integro - differential equation that is not directly solvable except in the simplest cases; therefore it requires a numerical approximation...AFIT researchers have developed a new approach to solving Discrete Ordinates equations , which approximate the linear Boltzmann Transport Equation ...linear equation . Positive, linear methods are available, but are only first-order accurate. The latter can achieve needed accuracy by using optically
Effects of Position and Operator on High-frequency Ultrasound Scan Quality
Burk, Ruth S.; Parker, Angela; Sievers, Lisa; Rooney, Melissa B.; Pepperl, Anathea; Schubert, Christine M.; Grap, Mary Jo
2015-01-01
Objectives High-frequency ultrasound may evaluate those at risk for pressure ulcers. Images may be obtained by clinicians with limited training. The prone position is recommended for obtaining sacral scans but may not be feasible in the critically ill. This study investigated image quality using multiple operators and a variety of patient positions. Research Methodology Sacral scans were performed in three randomized positions in 50 volunteers by three different investigators using a 20 MHz ultrasound system. General linear models and ANOVA random effects models were used to examine the effects of operator and position on image quality rating, and measures of dermal thickness, and dermal density. Results The best scan for each position and operator was used for analysis (N=447 images). Image rating varied by operator (p=0.0004), although mean ratings were 3.5 or above for all operators. Dermal thickness was less for the prone position than in 90° or 60° side-lying positions (p=0.0137, p=0.0003). Dermal density was lower for the prone position than for the 90° or 60° positions (p<0.0001 for both). Conclusions These data show that overall scan quality was acceptable in all positions with all operators. However, differences were found between side-lying positions and the prone for dermal thickness and dermal density measures. PMID:25636253
Linear operating region in the ozone dial photon counting system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrawis, Madeleine
1995-01-01
Ozone is a relatively unstable molecule found in Earth's atmosphere. An ozone molecule is made up of three atoms of oxygen. Depending on where ozone resides, it can protect or harm life on Earth. High in the atmosphere, about 15 miles up, ozone acts as a shield to protect Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. Without this shield, we would be more susceptible to skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems. Closer to Earth, in the air we breathe, ozone is a harmful pollutant that causes damage to lung tissue and plants. Since the early 1980's, airborne lidar systems have been used for making measurements of ozone. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is used in the remote measurement of O3. This system allows the O3 to be measured as function of the range in the atmosphere. Two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers are used to pump tunable dye lasers. The lasers are operating at 289 nm for the DIAL on-line wavelength of O3, and the other one is operated at 300 nm for the off-line wavelength. The DIAL wavelengths are produced in sequential laser pulses with a time separation of 300 micro s. The backscattered laser energy is collected by telescopes and measured using photon counting systems. The photon counting system measures the light signal by making use of the photon nature of light. The output pulse from the Photo-Multiplier Tube (PE), caused by a photon striking the PMT photo-cathode, is amplified and passed to a pulse height discriminator. The peak value of the pulse is compared to a reference voltage (discrimination level). If the pulse amplitude exceeds the discrimination level, the discriminator generates a standard pulse which is counted by the digital counter. Non-linearity in the system is caused by the overlapping of pulses and the finite response time of the electronics. At low count rates one expects the system to register one event for each output pulse from the PMT corresponding to a photon incident upon the
[Operative neurosurgery: personal view and historical backgrounds. 6. Positioning, instruments].
Yonekawa, Yasuhiro
2010-04-01
the use of linear incision was stressed at the time of performance of all these surgeries including the posterior circulation revascularization, occipital artery-posterior cerebral artery/superior cerebellar artery OA-PCA/SCA bypass and occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery OA-PICA bypass. As for the operating microscope, importance of the eyepiece-lens assembly with mouthpiece was emphasized. Appropriate selection of this system enables surgery of long duration in a comfortable and non-tiring condition in terms of the arm length of the surgeon and his immediate reaction especially at the time of intraoperative premature rupture of an aneurysm or of minute delicate focusing at the time of microvascular suturing without withdrawal of one or both hands from the operative field for handling the operating microscope. An arm rest enables secure, effective, precise and tireless performance of microsurgery in every operating position, so that the use of height an adjustable oil pressure driven arm rest was presented along with a simply height adjustable and easily movable chair. As for the bipolar coagulator pincette, the followings were discussed: more than three different lengths of byonett forceps, each of three different tip-sizes, with isolated tips, dosis and method of coagulation. Practically no need of monopolar coagulation was pointed out. Suction tube also should have different length and size according to the depth and situations. Its vacuum power should be regulated also in accordance with changing situation in every stage of surgery. The vacuum power is regulated at surgeon's request by scrub nurses or circulating nurses, so that the surgeon can concentrate only on the precise maneuver of the tip of the suction tube. For the same reason, foot pedals for the bipolar coagulator, drilling and trepanation should be stepped by other than the surgeon, so that he can concentrate on the tip the of instrument for precise maneuvering. As tissue destruction
Characterization of electron flow in positive-polarity linear-induction accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenthal, S. E.
Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories have studied the operation of the linear-induction accelerators, HELIA and Hermes 3, in positive polarity. These experiments have provided a unique opportunity to explore the consequences of multiple-cathode electron emission in magnetically insulated transmission lines. An examination of the total energy-canonical momentum distribution of the electrons explains the features of the magnetically insulated flow exhibited by these systems. Simple analysis based on the basic concept of pressure balance, in conjunction with particle-in-cell numerical simulations, shows how the line voltage is related to the anode and cathode currents. Two flow designations are introduced that can apply to multiple-cathode magnetically insulated transmission lines: full-gap flow (FGF), and locally emitted flow (LEF).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najson, Federico
2016-04-01
The present communication is concerned with uniform exponential stability, under arbitrary switching, in discrete-time switched positive linear systems. Lagrange duality is used in order to obtain a new characterisation for uniform exponential stability which is in terms of sets of inequalities involving each of the matrices that represent the modes of the system. These sets of inequalities are shown to generalise the classical linear Lyapunov inequality that characterises, in positive matrices, the property of being Schur. Each solution to these sets of inequalities is shown to provide a representation, in terms of a number of linear functionals, for a common Lyapunov function for the switched positive linear system. A result is further presented which conveys to, a conservative upper bound on the minimum required number of linear functionals (in the above mentioned representation), and also to a method for computing them. Our proof for the aforementioned characterisation is based on another (equivalent) characterisation, in terms of the solvability of a dynamic programming equation associated to the switched positive linear system, which is also reported in the paper. In particular, it is shown that the associated dynamic programming equation has at most one solution. And this solution is shown to be convex, monotonic, positively homogeneous, and it yields a common Lyapunov function for the switched positive linear system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Mukesh; Ojha, A.; Garg, A. D.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.
2017-02-01
According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.
Method for quantitative estimation of position perception using a joystick during linear movement.
Wada, Y; Tanaka, M; Mori, S; Chen, Y; Sumigama, S; Naito, H; Maeda, M; Yamamoto, M; Watanabe, S; Kajitani, N
1996-12-01
We designed a method for quantitatively estimating self-motion perceptions during passive body movement on a sled. The subjects were instructed to tilt a joystick in proportion to perceived displacement from a giving starting position during linear movement with varying displacements of 4 m, 10 m and 16 m induced by constant acceleration of 0.02 g, 0.05 g and 0.08 g along the antero-posterior axis. With this method, we could monitor not only subjective position perceptions but also response latencies for the beginning (RLbgn) and end (RLend) of the linear movement. Perceived body position fitted Stevens' power law, where R=kSn (R is output of the joystick, k is a constant, S is the displacement from the linear movement and n is an exponent). RLbgn decreased as linear acceleration increased. We conclude that this method is useful in analyzing the features and sensitivities of self-motion perceptions during movement.
The New Positioning Technology for Sea Recovery Operations in Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Fuke, Hideyuki; Iijima, Issei; Izutsu, Naoki; Kato, Yoichi; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Namiki, Michiyoshi; Sato, Takatoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Toriumi, Michihiko; Kakehashi, Yuya; Mizuta, Eiichi
2012-07-01
In Japan which has few flat plain and high population density, it is very difficult to drop a balloon safely on to the land. Hence balloons launched from Japan have always been dropped on the sea. In order to recover the balloons and the gondolas floating on the sea surely and rapidly, and to keep the gondolas and ships safe, much efforts and innovations have been made. Ones of the important innovations are positioning buoys. A buoy attached on a balloon gondola floats independently after the splash down, and informs its position to the recovery team. We had developed some types of such buoys; `radio beacon buoy' transmits a pattern of radio signal to navigate the recovery boats to the gondola. Another type of the buoys, `GPS ARGOS buoy,' finds its position with the GPS and sends the information to the balloon base via ARGOS satellite communication network. These technologies had contributed so much to the sea recovery operations however they also had some limitations. Recently, a new positioning buoy with better performance has developed; `Iridium buoy' detects the position with the GPS, and informs it to the balloon base via the Iridium satellite communication network and the internet. The Iridium buoy provides the accurate position surely and immediately with good time resolution. Furthermore the information can be received by very common devices which can receive e-mails. Thanks to the new buoy, the balloon operation team can always know where the gondola is on the sea more precisely, more simultaneously and more easily. That enables the operation team to inform the gondola's location to the authorities concerned as well as the recovery team, which contributes to the safety of both of the gondola and the sea traffics. In this presentation, the Iridium Buoy will be introduced mainly. Also the overview of the present sea recovery operation with the buoy and the past operations will be mentioned
Time-delay control of a magnetic levitated linear positioning system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarn, J. H.; Juang, K. Y.; Lin, C. E.
1994-01-01
In this paper, a high accuracy linear positioning system with a linear force actuator and magnetic levitation is proposed. By locating a permanently magnetized rod inside a current-carrying solenoid, the axial force is achieved by the boundary effect of magnet poles and utilized to power the linear motion, while the force for levitation is governed by Ampere's Law supplied with the same solenoid. With the levitation in a radial direction, there is hardly any friction between the rod and the solenoid. The high speed motion can hence be achieved. Besides, the axial force acting on the rod is a smooth function of rod position, so the system can provide nanometer resolution linear positioning to the molecule size. Since the force-position relation is highly nonlinear, and the mathematical model is derived according to some assumptions, such as the equivalent solenoid of the permanently magnetized rod, so there exists unknown dynamics in practical application. Thus 'robustness' is an important issue in controller design. Meanwhile the load effect reacts directly on the servo system without transmission elements, so the capability of 'disturbance rejection; is also required. With the above consideration, a time-delay control scheme is chosen and applied. By comparing the input-output relation and the mathematical model, the time-delay controller calculates an estimation of unmodeled dynamics and disturbances and then composes the desired compensation into the system. Effectiveness of the linear positioning system and control scheme are illustrated with simulation results.
Stability analysis of switched positive linear systems with stable and unstable subsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ji-Shi; Wang, Yan-Wu; Xiao, Jiang-Wen; Shen, Yan-Jun
2014-12-01
This paper addresses the stability problem of switched positive linear systems with stable and unstable subsystems. Based on a multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function, and by using the average dwell time approach, some sufficient stability criteria of global uniform exponential stability are established in both the continuous-time and the discrete-time cases, respectively. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.
Ovule positions within linear fruit are correlated with nonrandom mating in Robinia pseudoacacia
Yuan, Cunquan; Sun, Yuhan; Sun, Peng; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Zhao, Keqi; Wang, Jinxing; Li, Yun
2016-01-01
Post-pollination processes can lead to nonrandom mating among compatible pollen donors. Moreover, morphological patterns of ovule development within linear fruits are reportedly nonrandom and depend on ovule position. However, little is known about the relationship between nonrandom mating and ovule position within linear fruit. Here, we combined controlled pollen competition experiments and paternity analyses on R. pseudoacacia to better understand nonrandom mating and its connection with ovule position. Molecular determination of siring success showed a significant departure from the expected ratio based on each kind of pollen mixture, suggesting a nonrandom mating. Outcrossed pollen grains, which were strongly favored, produced significantly more progeny than other pollen grains. Paternity analyses further revealed that the distribution of offspring produced by one specific pollen source was also nonrandom within linear fruit. The stylar end, which has a higher probability of maturation, produced a significantly higher number of outcrossed offspring than other offspring, suggesting a correlation between pollen source and ovule position. Our results suggested that a superior ovule position exists within the linear fruit in R. pseudoacacia, and the pollen that was strongly favored often preferentially occupies the ovules that were situated in a superior position, which ensured siring success and facilitated nonrandom mating. PMID:27819357
On almost surely bounded semigroups of random linear operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xia; Liu, Ming
2013-05-01
Menger proposed transferring the probabilistic notions of quantum mechanics to the underlying geometry. Following Menger's idea, the notion of random metric spaces is a random generalization of that of metric spaces and also plays an important role in the study of random operator equations. The main difficulty of this article is to work out a skill to give a property peculiar to a special semigroup of random operators, which is not involved in the classical case. Subsequently, some random operators equations are studied, in particular, we discuss the Schrödinger-type random equation, which considerably generalizes the corresponding result in the sense of Skorohod.
Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Ghorbanizadeh, Sajad; Abdinian, Mehrdad; Goroohi, Hossein; Badrian, Hamid
2012-01-01
Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of linear measurements in dry human skulls in ideal position and different deviated positions of the skull. Methods. 6 dry human skulls were included in the study. Opaque markers were attached to alveolar bone. Buccolingual and mesiodistal distances and heights were measured in 5 different regions of either jaws using a digital caliper. Radiographic distances were measured in ideal, rotation, tilt, flexion, and extension positions of the skulls. The physical and radiographic measurements were compared to estimate linear measurement accuracy. Results. The mean difference between physical measurements and radiographic measurements was 0.05 ± 0.45. There was a significant difference between physical measurements and radiographic measurements in ideal, rotation, tilt, and extension positions (P value < 0.05). Conclusions. The accuracy of measurements in GALILEOUS CBCT machine varies when the position of the skull deviates from ideal; however, the differences are not clinically significant. PMID:22844282
Various notions of positivity for bi-linear maps and applications to tri-partite entanglement
Han, Kyung Hoon; Kye, Seung-Hyeok
2016-01-15
We consider bi-linear analogues of s-positivity for linear maps. The dual objects of these notions can be described in terms of Schmidt ranks for tri-tensor products and Schmidt numbers for tri-partite quantum states. These tri-partite versions of Schmidt numbers cover various kinds of bi-separability, and so we may interpret witnesses for those in terms of bi-linear maps. We give concrete examples of witnesses for various kinds of three qubit entanglement.
[Antigravity suit used for neurosurgical operations in sitting position].
Szpiro-Zurkowska, A; Milczarek, Z; Marchel, A; Jagielski, J
1996-01-01
The aviator's antigravity suit (G-suit) was used for 40 operations on neurosurgical patients operated on in sitting position. The G-suit was filled with air to 0.2 atmosphere (20 kPa) pressure in 26 cases, and 0.3 atm. (30 kPa) in 14 cases. In all cases G-suit filling was followed by central venous pressure rise and mean arterial pressure rise. Venous air embolism was found in 5 (12.5%) patients. No other complications connected with the use of G-suit were observed.
Stabilization of positive linear discrete-time systems by using a Brauer's theorem.
Cantó, Begoña; Cantó, Rafael; Kostova, Snezhana
2014-01-01
The stabilization problem of positive linear discrete-time systems (PLDS) by linear state feedback is considered. A method based on a Brauer's theorem is proposed for solving the problem. It allows us to modify some eigenvalues of the system without changing the rest of them. The problem is studied for the single-input single-output (SISO) and for multi-input multioutput (MIMO) cases and sufficient conditions for stability and positivity of the closed-loop system are proved. The results are illustrated by numerical examples and the proposed method is used in stochastic systems.
Operator Factorization and the Solution of Second-Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robin, W.
2007-01-01
The theory and application of second-order linear ordinary differential equations is reviewed from the standpoint of the operator factorization approach to the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Using the operator factorization approach, the general second-order linear ODE is solved, exactly, in quadratures and the resulting…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beneduci, Roberto; Bullock, Thomas J.; Busch, Paul; Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro
2013-09-01
We exhibit an operational connection between mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures. Assuming that the latter exists, we show that there is a strong link between these two structures in all prime power dimensions. We also demonstrate that a similar link cannot exist in dimension 6.
Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors.
Ghosh, A; Paparao, P
1987-07-15
Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system.
Lumbar spine postures in marines during simulated operational positions.
Berry, David B; Rodríguez-Soto, Ana E; Su, Jeannie; Gombatto, Sara P; Shahidi, Bahar; Palombo, Laura; Chung, Christine; Jensen, Andrew; Kelly, Karen R; Ward, Samuel R
2017-01-04
Low back pain has a 70% higher prevalence in members of the armed forces than in the general population, possibly due to the loads and positions soldiers experience during training and combat. Although the influence of heavy load carriage on standing lumbar spine posture in this population is known, postures in other operationally relevant positions are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of simulated military operational positions under relevant loading conditions on global and local lumbar spine postures in active duty male US Marines. Secondary objectives were to evaluate if intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain affect lumbar spine postures. Magnetic resonance images were acquired on an upright scanner in the following operational positions: Natural standing with no external load, standing with body armor (11.3 kg), sitting with body armor, and prone on elbows with body armor. Custom software was used to measure global lumbar spine posture: Lumbosacral flexion, sacral slope, lordosis, local measures of intervertebral angles, and intervertebral distances. Sitting resulted in decreased lumbar lordosis at all levels of the spine except L1-L2. When subjects were prone on elbows, a significant increase in local lordosis was observed only at L5-S1 compared with all other positions. Marines with disc degeneration (77%) or history of low back pain (72%) had decreased lumbar range of motion and less lumbar extension than healthy Marines. These results indicate that a male Marine's pathology undergoes a stereotypic set of postural changes during functional tasks, which may impair performance. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:XX-XX, 2017.
Eck, H. J. N. van; Koppers, W. R.; Rooij, G. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes; Kleyn, A. W.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.
2009-03-15
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial magnetic field. In this way, the neutrals are prevented to reach the target region. The neutral flux to the target must be lower than the plasma flux to enable ITER relevant plasma-surface interaction (PSI) studies. It is therefore essential to control the neutral gas dynamics. The DSMC method was used to model the expansion of a hot gas in a low pressure vessel where a small discrepancy in shock position was found between the simulations and a well-established empirical formula. Two stage differential pumping was modeled and applied in the linear plasma devices Pilot-PSI and PLEXIS. In Pilot-PSI a factor of 4.5 pressure reduction for H{sub 2} has been demonstrated. Both simulations and experiments showed that the optimum skimmer position depends on the position of the shock and therefore shifts for different gas parameters. The shape of the skimmer has to be designed such that it has a minimum impact on the shock structure. A too large angle between the skimmer and the forward direction of the gas flow leads to an influence on the expansion structure. A pressure increase in front of the skimmer is formed and the flow of the plasma beam becomes obstructed. It has been shown that a skimmer with an angle around 53 deg. gives the best performance. The use of skimmers is implemented in the design of the large linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI. Here, a three stage differentially pumped vacuum system is used to reach low enough neutral pressures near the target, opening a door to PSI research in the ITER relevant regime.
Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics
Osipenko, K Yu
2014-10-31
The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. A number of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, a family of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.
Quantum position diffusion and its implications for the quantum linear Boltzmann equation
Kamleitner, I.; Cresser, J.
2010-01-15
We derive a quantum linear Boltzmann equation from first principles to describe collisional friction, diffusion, and decoherence in a unified framework. In doing so, we discover that the previously celebrated quantum contribution to position diffusion is not a true physical process, but rather an artifact of the use of a coarse-grained time scale necessary to derive Markovian dynamics.
Kaufman, A.N.; Brizard, A.J.; Morehead, J.J.; Tracy, E.R.
1997-12-31
The resonant interaction of a negative-energy wave with a positive-energy wave gives rise to a linear instability. Whereas a single crossing of rays in a nonuniform medium leads to a convectively saturated instability, we show that a double crossing can yield an absolute instability.
Conversion of operating theatre from positive to negative pressure environment.
Chow, T T; Kwan, A; Lin, Z; Bai, W
2006-12-01
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crisis led to the construction of a negative pressure operating theatre at a hospital in Hong Kong. It is currently used for treatment of suspected or confirmed airborne infection cases, and was built in anticipation of a return of SARS, an outbreak of avian influenza or other respiratory epidemics. This article describes the physical conversion of a standard positive pressure operating theatre into a negative pressure environment, problems encountered, airflow design, and evaluation of performance. Since entering regular service, routine measurements and observations have indicated that the airflow performance has been satisfactory. This has also been confirmed by regular air sampling checks. Computational fluid dynamics, a computer modelling technique, was used to compare the distribution of room air before and after the design changes from positive to negative pressure. The simulation results show that the physical environment and the dispersion pattern of bacteria in the negative pressure theatre were as good as, if not better than, those in the original positive pressure design.
Uncertainty relations for positive-operator-valued measures
Massar, Serge
2007-10-15
How much unavoidable randomness is generated by a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM)? We address this question using two complementary approaches. First, we study the variance of a real variable associated with the POVM outcomes. In this context we introduce an uncertainty operator which measures how much additional noise is introduced by carrying out a POVM rather than a von Neumann measurement. We illustrate this first approach by studying the variances of joint estimates of {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub z} for spin-1/2 particles. We show that for unbiased measurements the sum of these variances is lower bounded by 1. In our second approach we study the entropy of the POVM outcomes. In particular, we try to establish lower bounds on the entropy of the POVM outcomes. We illustrate this second approach by examples.
A New Approach to Detect Mover Position in Linear Motors Using Magnetic Sensors
Paul, Sarbajit; Chang, Junghwan
2015-01-01
A new method to detect the mover position of a linear motor is proposed in this paper. This method employs a simple cheap Hall Effect sensor-based magnetic sensor unit to detect the mover position of the linear motor. With the movement of the linear motor, Hall Effect sensor modules electrically separated 120° along with the idea of three phase balanced condition (va + vb + vc = 0) are used to produce three phase signals. The amplitude of the sensor output voltage signals are adjusted to unit amplitude to minimize the amplitude errors. With the unit amplitude signals three to two phase transformation is done to reduce the three multiples of harmonic components. The final output thus obtained is converted to position data by the use of arctangent function. The measurement accuracy of the new method is analyzed by experiments and compared with the conventional two phase method. Using the same number of sensor modules as the conventional two phase method, the proposed method gives more accurate position information compared to the conventional system where sensors are separated by 90° electrical angles. PMID:26506348
A new approach to detect mover position in linear motors using magnetic sensors.
Paul, Sarbajit; Chang, Junghwan
2015-10-21
A new method to detect the mover position of a linear motor is proposed in this paper. This method employs a simple cheap Hall Effect sensor-based magnetic sensor unit to detect the mover position of the linear motor. With the movement of the linear motor, Hall Effect sensor modules electrically separated 120° along with the idea of three phase balanced condition ( va + vb + vc = 0 ) are used to produce three phase signals. The amplitude of the sensor output voltage signals are adjusted to unit amplitude to minimize the amplitude errors. With the unit amplitude signals three to two phase transformation is done to reduce the three multiples of harmonic components. The final output thus obtained is converted to position data by the use of arctangent function. The measurement accuracy of the new method is analyzed by experiments and compared with the conventional two phase method. Using the same number of sensor modules as the conventional two phase method, the proposed method gives more accurate position information compared to the conventional system where sensors are separated by 90° electrical angles.
Advisory Algorithm for Scheduling Open Sectors, Operating Positions, and Workstations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloem, Michael; Drew, Michael; Lai, Chok Fung; Bilimoria, Karl D.
2012-01-01
Air traffic controller supervisors configure available sector, operating position, and work-station resources to safely and efficiently control air traffic in a region of airspace. In this paper, an algorithm for assisting supervisors with this task is described and demonstrated on two sample problem instances. The algorithm produces configuration schedule advisories that minimize a cost. The cost is a weighted sum of two competing costs: one penalizing mismatches between configurations and predicted air traffic demand and another penalizing the effort associated with changing configurations. The problem considered by the algorithm is a shortest path problem that is solved with a dynamic programming value iteration algorithm. The cost function contains numerous parameters. Default values for most of these are suggested based on descriptions of air traffic control procedures and subject-matter expert feedback. The parameter determining the relative importance of the two competing costs is tuned by comparing historical configurations with corresponding algorithm advisories. Two sample problem instances for which appropriate configuration advisories are obvious were designed to illustrate characteristics of the algorithm. Results demonstrate how the algorithm suggests advisories that appropriately utilize changes in airspace configurations and changes in the number of operating positions allocated to each open sector. The results also demonstrate how the advisories suggest appropriate times for configuration changes.
Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of long freight trains in positioning operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhihao; Kong, Xianchao
2012-09-01
Positioning operations are performed in a railway goods yard, in which the freight train is pulled precisely at a specific point by a positioner. The positioner moves strictly according to the predesigned speed and provides all the traction and braking forces which are highly dependent on the longitudinal dynamic response. In order to improve the efficiency and protect the wagons from damage during positioning operations, the design speed of the positioner has to be optimised based on the simulation of longitudinal train dynamics. However, traditional models of longitudinal train dynamics are not accurate enough in some aspects. In this study, we make some changes in the traditional theory to make it suitable for the study of long freight trains in positioning operations. In the proposed method, instead of the traction force on the train, the motion of the positioner is assumed to be known; more importantly, the traditional draft gear model with nonlinear spring and linear damping is replaced by a more detailed model based on the achievement of contact and impact mechanics; the switching effects of the resistance and the coupler slack are also taken into consideration. Numerical examples that deal with positioning operations on the straight lines, slope lines and curving lines are given.
Design of Compensation Coils for EMI Suppression in Magnetostrictive Linear Position Sensors
Zhang, Yongjie; Liu, Weiwen; Yang, Jinfeng; Lv, Chunfeng; Zhao, Hui
2012-01-01
This paper presents recent development on magnetostrictive linear position sensors (MLPS). A new compensation coil structure improves the EMI suppression and accuracy considerably. Furthermore, experimental results indicate that the new structure can improve the accuracy to ±0.13 mm nearly double the ±0.2 mm obtained with traditional structures. As another design continuation after the differential waveguide structure, this new structure is a practical and reliable implementation technique for the commercialization of MLPS. PMID:22778648
Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time-series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.
2017-01-01
A thorough understanding of time-dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time-series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time-series. In this paper, we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time-series. We use synthetic time-series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that the effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN) and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low-amplitude RW most severely biased. FN plus WN is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated RW variance for the special case of pure RW noise. Overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time-series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaomin; Zheng, You
Based on linear and nonlinear mathematical model of spacecraft formation flying and technology of relative position measurement of small satellites, the linear and nonlinear relative navigation strategies are developed in this paper. The dynamical characteristics of multi spacecraft formation flying have been researched in many references, including the authors' several International Astronautical Congress papers with numbers of IAF-98-A.2.06, IAA-99-IAA.11.1.09, IAA-01-IAA.11.4.08. Under conditions of short distance and short time, the linear model can describe relative orbit motion; otherwise, nonlinear model must be adopted. Furthermore the means of measurement and their error will influence relative navigation. Thus three kinds of relative navigation strategy are progressed. With consideration of difficulty in relative velocity measurement of small satellites, the three relative navigation strategies are proposed and only depend on sequential data of relative position through measuring the relative distance and relative orientation. The first kind of relative navigation strategy is based on linear model. The second relative navigation strategy is based on nonlinear model, with inclusion of the second order item. In fact the measurement error can not be avoided especially for small satellites, it is mainly considered in the third relative navigation strategy. This research is theoretical yet and a series of formulas of relative navigation are presented in this paper. Also the authors analyzed the three strategies qualitatively and quantitatively. According to results of simulation, the ranges of application are indicated and suggested in allusion to the three strategies of relative navigation. On the view of authors, the relative navigation strategies for small satellite formation flying based on relative position measurement are significant for engineering of small satellite formation flying.
Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.
2016-10-01
A thorough understanding of time dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time series. In this paper we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time series. We use synthetic time series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that the effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN), and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low amplitude RW most severely biased. Flicker noise plus white noise is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated random walk variance for the special case of pure random walk noise. Overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.
Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time-series
Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.
2016-10-20
A thorough understanding of time-dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time-series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time-series. In this study, we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time-series. We use synthetic time-series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that themore » effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN) and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low-amplitude RW most severely biased. FN plus WN is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated RW variance for the special case of pure RW noise. Finally, overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time-series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.« less
Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time-series
Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.
2016-10-20
A thorough understanding of time-dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time-series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time-series. In this study, we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time-series. We use synthetic time-series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that the effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN) and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low-amplitude RW most severely biased. FN plus WN is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated RW variance for the special case of pure RW noise. Finally, overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time-series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.
Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system
Horton, Richard H.
1980-01-01
A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape.
Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system
Horton, R.H.
1980-03-11
A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape. 11 figs.
High Precision Piezoelectric Linear Motors for Operations at Cryogenic Temperatures and Vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, D.; Carman, G.; Stam, M.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sen, A.; Henry, P.; Bearman, G.; Moacanin, J.
1995-01-01
The use of an electromechanical device for optically positioning a mirror system during the pre-project phase of the Pluto Fast Flyby mission was evaluated at JPL. The device under consideration was a piezoelectric driven linear motor functionally dependent upon a time varying electric field which induces displacements ranging from submicrons to millimeters with positioning accuracy within nanometers.
Study of a piecewise linear dynamic system with negative and positive stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Keguan; Nagarajaiah, Satish
2015-05-01
The present paper mainly focuses on numerical and analytical study of a piecewise linear dynamic oscillator with negative stiffness followed by positive stiffness which has not been studied to date. The dynamic system of interest stems from a previous analytical and experimental research on adaptive negative stiffness for the purpose of seismic protection. Numerical algorithms meant specifically for simulating piecewise smooth (PWS) systems like this nonlinear system are studied. An appropriate combination of negative stiffness and adequate damping can reduce the peak restoring or transmitted force with a slightly larger peak displacement. Essentially, the negative stiffness system in a dynamic system is very beneficial in reducing the amount of force transmitted. The exact solution is derived for free vibration. A modified Lindstedt-Poincaré method (modified L-P method) is adopted to derive approximate periodic solutions for the forced and damped system and its frequency-response curves are obtained through numerical simulation. The modified L-P solution obtained for the forced and damped case is found to agree well with the numerical results. In the piecewise linear dynamic system with initial negative stiffness followed by positive stiffness, it is found that the response remains bounded in a limit cycle. This system behaves similar to a van der Pol oscillator wherein negative damping is followed by positive damping. Presented herein is a special case as defined by the specified parameter ranges; thus, to make it more general future work is needed.
RKH space approximations for the feedback operator in a linear hereditary control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reneke, J. A.; Fennell, R. E.
1987-01-01
Computational implementation of feedback control laws for linear hereditary systems requires the approximation of infinite dimensional feedback operators with finite dimensional operators. The dense subspaces of K-polygonal functions in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, RKH spaces, suggest finite dimensional approximations of the matrix representations of the control operators. A convergence theorem is developed for the approximations and the numerical implementation of the approximations is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cullinan, F. J.; Boogert, S. T.; Farabolini, W.; Lefevre, T.; Lunin, A.; Lyapin, A.; Søby, L.; Towler, J.; Wendt, M.
2015-11-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires beam position monitors (BPMs) with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2 /3 ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.
Nonexpansiveness of a linearized augmented Lagrangian operator for hierarchical convex optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagishi, Masao; Yamada, Isao
2017-04-01
Hierarchical convex optimization concerns two-stage optimization problems: the first stage problem is a convex optimization; the second stage problem is the minimization of a convex function over the solution set of the first stage problem. For the hierarchical convex optimization, the hybrid steepest descent method (HSDM) can be applied, where the solution set of the first stage problem must be expressed as the fixed point set of a certain nonexpansive operator. In this paper, we propose a nonexpansive operator that yields a computationally efficient update when it is plugged into the HSDM. The proposed operator is inspired by the update of the linearized augmented Lagrangian method. It is applicable to characterize the solution set of recent sophisticated convex optimization problems found in the context of inverse problems, where the sum of multiple proximable convex functions involving linear operators must be minimized to incorporate preferable properties into the minimizers. For such a problem formulation, there has not yet been reported any nonexpansive operator that yields an update free from the inversions of linear operators in cases where it is utilized in the HSDM. Unlike previously known nonexpansive operators, the proposed operator yields an inversion-free update in such cases. As an application of the proposed operator plugged into the HSDM, we also present, in the context of the so-called superiorization, an algorithmic solution to a convex optimization problem over the generalized convex feasible set where the intersection of the hard constraints is not necessarily simple.
The development of an algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric positive definite linear systems
Vanek, P.; Mandel, J.; Brezina, M.
1996-12-31
An algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric, positive definite linear systems is developed based on the concept of prolongation by smoothed aggregation. Coarse levels are generated automatically. We present a set of requirements motivated heuristically by a convergence theory. The algorithm then attempts to satisfy the requirements. Input to the method are the coefficient matrix and zero energy modes, which are determined from nodal coordinates and knowledge of the differential equation. Efficiency of the resulting algorithm is demonstrated by computational results on real world problems from solid elasticity, plate blending, and shells.
On-Line Operating 3-D Seafloor Positioning System (1)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eguchi, T.
2003-12-01
We propose a new observation system of on-line 3-D positioning which will be deployed on the sea-bottom of convergent type plate boundaries where large inter-plate seismic events occurred historically. The system has observation sites at assigned intervals along optical fiber cables. Using the several cables, crossing each other, we can construct a real-time operating network of triangular base lines. Each observing site on the cable will be equipped with two-kind high gain instruments i.e., the laser ranging and pressure gauge sensors, as well as additional apparatuses to remove the influence of temperature and salinity etc. on the data. Attenuation rate of visible rays in seawater is relatively smaller at bands of blue-color (wave length; ˜ 450nm) to yellowish green-color ( ˜ 550nm). The attenuation rate of optical signals of blue to yellow-green color in highly transparent seawater is 0.1 ˜ 0.5 dB/m. If we can utilize the high power optical laser output of the blue to yellow-green band for the positioning, the signals can reach the target receiver station with highly sensitive detector located at the distance of 10**2 m or larger. Using additional data of thermal and salinity fields etc. for compensating refractive index of laser signal ray path in clean seawater, we may attain the resolution of laser ranging at an order of 1 mm for each triangular base line with the total length of 1 ˜ 2 km. The base line consists of several secondary positioning stations with the spacing of ˜ 10**2 m. To improve the data resolution, we apply signal processing such as low-pass filtering etc. As is important, we cannot decompose the change of the base line distance data into 3-D individual components. We need another kind data, such as pure vertical coordinate of the positioning sites to resolve the 3-D components. To measure the vertical coordinate of the seafloor stations, we utilize data from the high gain pressure sensor. In the case of crystallized quartz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.
2016-09-01
An accurate linear optical displacement transducer of about 0.2 mm resolution over a range of ∼40 mm is presented. This device consists of a stack of thin cellulose acetate strips, each strip longitudinally slid ∼0.5 mm over the precedent one so that one end of the stack becomes a stepped wedge of constant step. A narrowed light beam from a white LED orthogonally incident crosses the wedge at a known point, the transmitted intensity being detected with a phototransistor whose emitter is connected to a diode. We present the interesting analytical proof that the voltage across the diode is linearly dependent upon the ordinate of the point where the light beam falls on the wedge, as well as the experimental validation of such a theoretical proof. Applications to nonlinear oscillations are then presented—including the interesting case of a body moving under dry friction, and the more advanced case of an oscillator in a quartic energy potential—whose time-varying positions were accurately measured with our transducer. Our sensing device can resolve the dynamics of an object attached to it with great accuracy and precision at a cost considerably less than that of a linear neutral density wedge. The technique used to assemble the wedge of acetate strips is described.
A square-plate ultrasonic linear motor operating in two orthogonal first bending modes.
Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Shuxiang
2013-01-01
A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B₁) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B₁ modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Yi; D'Aloisio, Anson; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Jun; Shapiro, Paul R.
2015-04-01
The linear perturbation theory of inhomogeneous reionization (LPTR) has been developed as an analytical tool for predicting the global ionized fraction and large-scale power spectrum of ionized density fluctuations during reionization. In the original formulation of the LPTR, the ionization balance and radiative transfer equations are linearized and solved in Fourier space. However, the LPTR's approximation to the full solution of the radiative transfer equation is not straightforward to interpret, since the latter is most intuitively conceptualized in position space. To bridge the gap between the LPTR and the language of numerical radiative transfer, we present a new, equivalent, position-space formulation of the LPTR that clarifies the approximations it makes and facilitates its interpretation. We offer a comparison between the LPTR and the excursion-set model of reionization (ESMR), and demonstrate the built-in capability of the LPTR to explore a wide range of reionization scenarios, and to go beyond the ESMR in exploring scenarios involving X-rays.
Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.
Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning
2016-12-01
This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, S.-H.; Afanador, R.; Barnhart, D. L.; Crofford, M.; Degraff, B. D.; Doleans, M.; Galambos, J.; Gold, S. W.; Howell, M. P.; Mammosser, J.; McMahan, C. J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Peters, C.; Saunders, J. W.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.
2017-04-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenance activities for cryomodules are introduced.
Kim, Sang-Ho; Afanador, Ralph; Barnhart, Debra L.; ...
2017-02-04
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenancemore » activities for cryomodules are introduced.« less
Markov Jump Linear Systems-Based Position Estimation for Lower Limb Exoskeletons
Nogueira, Samuel L.; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Inoue, Roberto S.; Terra, Marco H.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we deal with Markov Jump Linear Systems-based filtering applied to robotic rehabilitation. The angular positions of an impedance-controlled exoskeleton, designed to help stroke and spinal cord injured patients during walking rehabilitation, are estimated. Standard position estimate approaches adopt Kalman filters (KF) to improve the performance of inertial measurement units (IMUs) based on individual link configurations. Consequently, for a multi-body system, like a lower limb exoskeleton, the inertial measurements of one link (e.g., the shank) are not taken into account in other link position estimation (e.g., the foot). In this paper, we propose a collective modeling of all inertial sensors attached to the exoskeleton, combining them in a Markovian estimation model in order to get the best information from each sensor. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, simulation results regarding a set of human footsteps, with four IMUs and three encoders attached to the lower limb exoskeleton, are presented. A comparative study between the Markovian estimation system and the standard one is performed considering a wide range of parametric uncertainties. PMID:24451469
A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.
Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang
2015-03-01
A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.
A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang
2015-03-01
A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm3) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, George T.
1987-01-01
An automatic control scheme for spacecraft proximity operations is presented. The controller is capable of holding the vehicle at a prescribed location relative to a target, or maneuvering it to a different relative position using straight line-of-sight translations. The autopilot uses a feedforward loop to initiate and terminate maneuvers, and for operations at nonequilibrium set-points. A multivariate feedback loop facilitates precise position and velocity control in the presence of sensor noise. The feedback loop is formulated using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) with Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) design procedure. Linear models of spacecraft dynamics, adapted from Clohessey-Wiltshire Equations, are augmented and loop shaping techniques are applied to design a target feedback loop. The loop transfer recovery procedure is used to recover the frequency domain properties of the target feedback loop. The resulting compensator is integrated into an autopilot which is tested in a high fidelity Space Shuttle Simulator. The autopilot performance is evaluated for a variety of proximity operations tasks envisioned for future Shuttle flights.
[Comparative studies of patient positioning for lumbar intervertebral disk operation].
Rudolph, Ch; Schaffranietz, L; Hellmundt, L; Vitzthum, H E; Olthoff, D
2002-01-01
For surgery on lumbar disks by the posterior route, patients are placed either on a Wilson frame or in genupectoral position. The aim of the prospective study was to record and describe the haemodynamic changes resulting from the patients' position. After written informed consent had been received, 80 neurosurgical patients undergoing lumbar disk surgery were randomly divided into two groups; group I--Wilson frame, group II--genupectoral position. In each group, 20 patients received total intravenous anaesthesia (Alfentanil or Remifentanil, Propofol) and 20 balanced anaesthesia with Isoflurane and Alfentanil or Remifentanil. Haemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure--MAP and heart rate--HR) were recorded automatically at three measuring times (MT): firstly, after induction of anaesthesia; secondly, before re-direction; thirdly, after re-direction on the Wilson frame or in the genupectoral position. Induction of anaesthesia did not lead to a significant decrease in MAP (MT 1: 92.5 +/- 15.2 mmHg, MT 2: 89 +/- 13.4 mmHg, n = 80). In group I (n = 40), no significant changes were observed in MAP and HR at MT 3 (p = 0.882, p = 0.051). In comparison to group I, the genupectoral position was associated with significant drops in MAP and HR. The genupectoral position caused a significant decrease in MAP (p < 0.001) and HR (p = 0.016) at MT 3. Our data suggest that body weight or body mass index do not necessarily lead to a preference for one of the two possible positions of the patient. Complications resulting from haemodynamic changes were not seen in either group. We recommend the Wilson frame for neurosurgical lumbar disk surgery in cases of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disorders. The adaptive capacities in the genupectoral position as a result of the modifying distribution of blood volume are limited in these patients. Furthermore, the dose-dependent effects of different anaesthetics on haemodynamic parameters in these prone positions should be explored.
An Automated Magnet Positioning System For Use in the Next Linear Collider
Viola, Robert J
2006-02-21
The Next Linear Collider (NLC) is conceived as the world's most powerful electron-positron particle accelerator. Throughout the NLC, the beam itself will be used to measure errors in the positions of the lattice elements. This beam-based alignment strategy is an essential element of the NLC's design and precision adjustment systems have been identified as a critical enabling technology. Square One proposes a new type of precision manipulator that could be adapted for applications throughout the accelerator. As envisioned, this Tri-Sphere Adjustment System will possess up to six, non-redundant degrees of freedom, be capable of sub-micron resolutions and have ultimate load capacities in excess of 10,000 kg. The system will accommodate thermal expansions and contractions of the objects being supported and can be either motorized or manually actuated. Phase I development tasks will include detailed manipulator design, solution of the associated kinematic equations of motion and evaluation of actuators, gear reducers and transmission systems. The Phase I effort will culminate in the fabrication and full evaluation of a system prototype. A successfully developed Tri-Sphere manipulator could also be used to actively position critical fusion optics, adjust communication dishes or perform parts handling tasks in harsh manufacturing environments.
Joint position paper on rural surgery and operative delivery.
Iglesias, Stuart; Kornelsen, Jude; Woollard, Robert; Caron, Nadine; Warnock, Garth; Friesen, Randall; Miles, Peter; Vogt Haines, Victoria; Batchelor, Bret; Blake, Jenny; Mazowita, Garey; Wyman, Roy; Geller, Brian; de Klerk, Braam
2015-01-01
Our professional organizations have prepared this paper as part of an integrated, multidisciplinary plan to ensure the availability of well-trained practitioner teams to sustain safe, effective and high-quality rural surgical and operative delivery services. Without these robust local (or nearby) surgical services, sustaining rural maternity care is much more difficult. This paper describes the "network model" as a health human resources solution to meet the surgical needs, including operative delivery, of rural residents; outlines necessary policy directions for achieving this solution; and poses a series of enabling recommendations.
14 CFR 65.37 - Skill requirements: Operating positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... and its use; (b) Weather reporting procedures and use of reports; (c) Notices to Airmen, and use of..., prescribed instrument approach, and departure procedures. (9) Radar alignment and technical operation. (10) The application of the prescribed radar and nonradar separation standard, as appropriate....
14 CFR 65.37 - Skill requirements: Operating positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... and its use; (b) Weather reporting procedures and use of reports; (c) Notices to Airmen, and use of..., prescribed instrument approach, and departure procedures. (9) Radar alignment and technical operation. (10) The application of the prescribed radar and nonradar separation standard, as appropriate....
14 CFR 65.37 - Skill requirements: Operating positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... and its use; (b) Weather reporting procedures and use of reports; (c) Notices to Airmen, and use of..., prescribed instrument approach, and departure procedures. (9) Radar alignment and technical operation. (10) The application of the prescribed radar and nonradar separation standard, as appropriate....
14 CFR 65.37 - Skill requirements: Operating positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... and its use; (b) Weather reporting procedures and use of reports; (c) Notices to Airmen, and use of..., prescribed instrument approach, and departure procedures. (9) Radar alignment and technical operation. (10) The application of the prescribed radar and nonradar separation standard, as appropriate....
Tian, Xiaohong; Liu, Chunqin; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping
2015-08-30
Job burnout is a major concern within the service industry. However, there is a lack of research exploring positive resources for combating burnout among telephone operators. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resilience, psychological empowerment, and job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. A cross-sectional survey of 575 telephone operators was conducted in 2 call centers in Shandong Province, China. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess job burnout symptoms, resilience, and psychological empowerment. Hierarchical linear regression was performed to analyze the degree to which resilience and psychological empowerment are associated with job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. The results showed that resilience and psychological empowerment had significant "net effects" on job burnout, which may represent positive resources for combating job burnout. Psychological empowerment may partially mediate the relationship between resilience and job burnout. Thus, interventions focused on resilience and psychological empowerment may be useful options for managers concerned about burnout.
Linear optics only allows every possible quantum operation for one photon or one port
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyano-Fernández, Julio José; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2017-01-01
We study the evolution of the quantum state of n photons in m different modes when they go through a lossless linear optical system. We show that there are quantum evolution operators U that cannot be built with linear optics alone unless the number of photons or the number of modes is equal to one. The evolution for single photons can be controlled with the known realization of any unitary proved by Reck, Zeilinger, Bernstein and Bertani. The evolution for a single mode corresponds to the trivial evolution in a phase shifter. We analyze these two cases and prove that any other combination of the number of photons and modes produces a Hilbert state too large for the linear optics system to give any desired evolution.
A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in face-diagonal-bending mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang
2013-09-01
We report a piezoelectric standing wave linear ultrasonic motor with double driving tips for generating precision motion. The motor's piezoelectric actuator was made of a simple Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 square-plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm3) operating in a single face-diagonal-bending standing wave mode to produce symmetric, bi-directional linear motion. The motor generated a driving force of 3.0 N and a moving speed of up to 165 mm/s under a relatively low applied electric field of 75 Vpp/mm at a resonance frequency of 141.5 kHz. This motor is superior to those previously reported because of the double friction-tip standing wave driving mechanism and the operating mode.
Project Scheduling to Maximize Positive Impacts of Reconstruction Operations
2009-03-01
require intervention — military or otherwise — by concerned states, and the frequency with which these interventions occur is increasing. To meet...this new op- erational challenge, the US military must adapt its planning procedures to account for Security, Stabilization, Transition, and...reconstruction activities in such a way as to maximize the positive impacts during the initial phase of SSTRO. Specifically, this research proposes to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Song; Ruan, Ningjuan; Su, Yun; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang
2015-10-01
There has been much recent interest in quantum technology for applications to high resolution imaging and interference measurement. Due to noise and photon loss in the transmission between the telescopes, the current optical interferometers have quite limited baselines to a few hundred meters at most, which limit the resolutions. Here we propose to use noiseless linear amplifier (NLA) to reduce optical loss in the transmission. We also show that NLA can be further improved with local squeezing operator. We envisage that our analysis on this squeezing operator assisted NLA method could help to develop higher resolution interferometers, which would have many applications in stellar observation.
Nishimura, Shin
2015-12-15
The spherical coordinates expressions of the Rosenbluth potentials are applied to the field particle portion in the linearized Coulomb collision operator. The Sonine (generalized Laguerre) polynomial expansion formulas for this operator allowing general field particles' velocity distributions are derived. An important application area of these formulas is the study of flows of thermalized particles in NBI-heated or burning plasmas since the energy space structure of the fast ions' slowing down velocity distribution cannot be expressed by usual orthogonal polynomial expansions, and since the Galilean invariant property and the momentum conservation of the collision must be distinguished there.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshghi, M.; Alesheikh, A. A.
2015-12-01
Recent advances in spatial data collection technologies and online services dramatically increase the contribution of ordinary people to produce, share, and use geographic information. Collecting spatial data as well as disseminating them on the internet by citizens has led to a huge source of spatial data termed as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) by Mike Goodchild. Although, VGI has produced previously unavailable data assets, and enriched existing ones. But its quality can be highly variable and challengeable. This presents several challenges to potential end users who are concerned about the validation and the quality assurance of the data which are collected. Almost, all the existing researches are based on how to find accurate VGI data from existing VGI data which consist of a) comparing the VGI data with the accurate official data, or b) in cases that there is no access to correct data; therefore, looking for an alternative way to determine the quality of VGI data is essential, and so forth. In this paper it has been attempt to develop a useful method to reach this goal. In this process, the positional accuracy of linear feature of Iran, Tehran OSM data have been analyzed.
Non-linear states of a positive or negative refraction index material in a cavity with feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mártin, D. A.; Hoyuelos, M.
2010-06-01
We study a system composed by a cavity with plane mirrors containing a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. The aim of the work is to present a general picture of possible non-linear states in terms of the relevant parameters of the system. The parameters are the ones that appear in a reduced description that has the form of the Lugiato-Lefever equation. This equation is obtained from two coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations for the electric and magnetic field amplitudes.
Parameter identification of fractional order linear system based on Haar wavelet operational matrix.
Li, Yuanlu; Meng, Xiao; Zheng, Bochao; Ding, Yaqing
2015-11-01
Fractional order systems can be more adequate for the description of dynamical systems than integer order models, however, how to obtain fractional order models are still actively exploring. In this paper, an identification method for fractional order linear system was proposed. This is a method based on input-output data in time domain. The input and output signals are represented by Haar wavelet, and then fractional order systems described by fractional order differential equations are transformed into fractional order integral equations. Taking use of the Haar wavelet operational matrix of the fractional order integration, the fractional order linear system can easily be converted into a system of algebraic equation. Finally, the parameters of the fractional order system are determined by minimizing the errors between the output of the real system and that of the identified system. Numerical simulations, involving integral and fractional order systems, confirm the efficiency of the above methodology.
A linear stochastic model of the human operator. [pilot control of an aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durrett, J. C.
1973-01-01
A linear stochastic model of the human operator is developed and applied to the problem of piloted control of an aircraft. The pilot and aircraft are modeled as linear time-invariant systems containing both process and measurement noise. The loop closure by the pilot is determined by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic control problem. The solution to the optimal control problem yields not only the pilot's optimal control output which he uses to control the vehicle, but also the optimal combination of his observations of the vehicle states upon which the pilot bases his control. A method is presented so that, using experimental pilot vehicle data, the cost functional which is minimized in the optimal control problem will be numerically equal to the pilot rating that the pilot would associate with the given vehicle and task.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raitoharju, Matti; Nurminen, Henri; Piché, Robert
2015-12-01
Indoor positioning based on wireless local area network (WLAN) signals is often enhanced using pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based on an inertial measurement unit. The state evolution model in PDR is usually nonlinear. We present a new linear state evolution model for PDR. In simulated-data and real-data tests of tightly coupled WLAN-PDR positioning, the positioning accuracy with this linear model is better than with the traditional models when the initial heading is not known, which is a common situation. The proposed method is computationally light and is also suitable for smoothing. Furthermore, we present modifications to WLAN positioning based on Gaussian coverage areas and show how a Kalman filter using the proposed model can be used for integrity monitoring and (re)initialization of a particle filter.
Linear Wegner estimate for alloy-type Schrödinger operators on metric graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helm, Mario; Veselić, Ivan
2007-09-01
We study spectra of alloy-type random Schrödinger operators on metric graphs. For finite edge subsets we prove a Wegner estimate which is linear in the volume (i.e., the total length of the edges) and the length of the energy interval. The single site potential needs to have fixed sign; the metric graph does not need to have a periodic structure. A further result is the existence of the integrated density of states for ergodic random Hamiltonians on metric graphs with a Zν structure. For certain models the two above results together imply the Lipschitz continuity of the integrated density of states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam
In recent years particle swarm optimization emerges as one of the most efficient global optimization tools. In this paper, a hybrid particle swarm with differential evolution operator, termed DEPSO, is applied for the synthesis of linear array geometry. Here, the minimum side lobe level and null control, both are obtained by optimizing the spacing between the array elements by this technique. Moreover, a statistical comparison is also provided to establish its performance against the results obtained by Genetic Algorithm (GA), classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA), Differential Evolution (DE) and Memetic Algorithm (MA).
Comparison of position repeatability of a human operator and an industrial manipulating robot.
Zupancic, J; Bajd, T
1998-07-01
Robot performance criteria of position repeatability are studied. Weight-to-payload ratio is in manipulating robots significantly higher than in human operators. Bracing strategy improving the robot performances is introduced in the paper. The strategy copies human behavior during fine motion operations. A comparison is made between the robot and the human operator performing approximately the same manipulating task. Contactless measurements of position repeatability were accomplished with the OPTOTRAK motion analysis system. The results of tests demonstrate considerable improvement of robot and human operator's position repeatability when using bracing.
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E.S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E.F.; Worley, P.H.; Chang, C.S.
2016-06-15
Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. In this article, the non-linear single-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. The finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker–Planck–Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computing systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. The collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.
2016-04-04
Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. The non-linear single-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. Moreover, the finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker–Planck–Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computing systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. As a result, the collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; ...
2016-04-04
Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. The non-linear single-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. Moreover, the finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker–Planck–Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computingmore » systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. As a result, the collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.
2016-06-01
Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. In this article, the non-linear single-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. The finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker-Planck-Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computing systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. The collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-10-12
... recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology Society... draft guidance from the Marine Technology Society (MTS) DP Committee for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...] Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating...
Symmetry operators and decoupled equations for linear fields on black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araneda, Bernardo
2017-02-01
In the class of vacuum Petrov type D spacetimes with cosmological constant, which includes the Kerr-(A)dS black hole as a particular case, we find a set of four-dimensional operators that, when composed off shell with the Dirac, Maxwell and linearized gravity equations, give a system of equations for spin weighted scalars associated with the linear fields, that decouple on shell. Using these operator relations we give compact reconstruction formulae for solutions of the original spinor and tensor field equations in terms of solutions of the decoupled scalar equations. We also analyze the role of Killing spinors and Killing–Yano tensors in the spin weight zero equations and, in the case of spherical symmetry, we compare our four-dimensional formulation with the standard 2 + 2 decomposition and particularize to the Schwarzschild-(A)dS black hole. Our results uncover a pattern that generalizes a number of previous results on Teukolsky-like equations and Debye potentials for higher spin fields.
Optimal Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Generation using Non-linear Programming Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.
2012-05-01
Hydropower generation is one of the vital components of reservoir operation, especially for a large multi-purpose reservoir. Deriving optimal operational rules for such a large multi-purpose reservoir serving various purposes like irrigation, hydropower and flood control are complex, because of the large dimension of the problem and the complexity is more if the hydropower production is not an incidental. Thus optimizing the operations of a reservoir serving various purposes requires a systematic study. In the present study such a large multi-purpose reservoir, namely, Koyna reservoir operations are optimized for maximizing the hydropower production subject to the condition of satisfying the irrigation demands using a non-linear programming model. The hydropower production from the reservoir is analysed for three different dependable inflow conditions, representing wet, normal and dry years. For each dependable inflow conditions, various scenarios have been analyzed based on the constraints on the releases and the results are compared. The annual power production, combined monthly power production from all the powerhouses, end of month storage levels, evaporation losses and surplus are discussed. From different scenarios, it is observed that more hydropower can be generated for various dependable inflow conditions, if the restrictions on releases are slightly relaxed. The study shows that Koyna dam is having potential to generate more hydropower.
Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map.
Li, Jay-Shake; Huston, Joseph P
2002-01-01
Previous efforts to apply non-linear dynamic tools to the analysis of operant behavior revealed some promise for this kind of approach, but also some doubts, since the complexity of animal behavior seemed to be beyond the analyzing ability of the available tools. We here outline a series of studies based on a novel approach. We modified the so-called 'return map' and developed a new method, the 'extended return map' (ERM) to extract information from the highly irregular time series data, the inter-response time (IRT) generated by Skinner-box experiments. We applied the ERM to operant lever pressing data from rats using the four fundamental reinforcement schedules: fixed interval (FI), fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI) and variable ratio (VR). Our results revealed interesting patterns in all experiment groups. In particular, the FI and VI groups exhibited well-organized clusters of data points. We calculated the fractal dimension out of these patterns and compared experimental data with surrogate data sets, that were generated by randomly shuffling the sequential order of original IRTs. This comparison supported the finding that patterns in ERM reflect the dynamics of the operant behaviors under study. We then built two models to simulate the functional mechanisms of the FI schedule. Both models can produce similar distributions of IRTs and the stereotypical 'scalloped' curve characteristic of FI responding. However, they differ in one important feature in their formulation: while one model uses a continuous function to describe the probability of occurrence of an operant behavior, the other one employs an abrupt switch of behavioral state. Comparison of ERMs showed that only the latter was able to produce patterns similar to the experimental results, indicative of the operation of an abrupt switch from one behavioral state to another over the course of the inter-reinforcement period. This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of
Ancilla dimensions needed to carry out positive-operator-valued measurement
Chen Pingxing; Bergou, Janos A.; Zhu Shiyao; Guo Guangcan
2007-12-15
To implement a positive-operator-valued measurement (POVM), which is defined on the d{sub S}-dimensional Hilbert space of a physical system, one has to extend the Hilbert space to include d{sub A} additional dimensions (called the ancilla). This is done via either the tensor product extension (TPE) or the direct sum extension (DSE). The implementation of a POVM utilizes the available resources more efficiently if it requires fewer additional dimensions. To determine how to implement a POVM with the least additional dimensions is, therefore, an important task in quantum information. We have determined the necessary and sufficient (hence minimal) number of the additional dimensions needed to implement the same POVM by the TPE and the DSE, respectively. If the POVM has n elements and r{sub i} is the rank of the ith element, then the dimension of the minimal ancilla is d{sub A}={sigma}{sub i=1}{sup n}r{sub i}-d{sub S} for the DSE implementation, and this represents a lower bound for the added dimensions in the TPE implementation. In the proof, we explicitly construct the DSE implementation of a general POVM with elements of arbitrary rank. As an example, we determine d{sub A} for the unambiguous discrimination of N linearly independent states and provide the full DSE implementation of a state-discriminating POVM for N=2.
Spectral Analysis of the Bounded Linear Operator in the Reproducing Kernel Space W2m(D)
Guo, Lihua; Li, Songsong; Wu, Boying; Zhang, Dazhi
2014-01-01
We first introduce some related definitions of the bounded linear operator L in the reproducing kernel space W2m(D). Then we show spectral analysis of L and derive several property theorems. PMID:25250385
Non-Contact Linear Actuator Position Sensor Having a PID-Compensating Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A position sensor or controller generates a response signal in existing armature windings of an actuator and detects the response signal to determine the position of the armature. To generate the response signal, the actuator includes a sensor excitation winding near the armature. Two sensor excitation windings can be provided, above and below the armature, to cancel out z components and thus allow for a variable gap. The sensor excitation winding or windings are supplied with an excitation signal to induce the response signal in the armature windings. The response signal is derived by differentially amplifying and frequency filtering a raw output of the armature windings. The response signal is demodulated to determine position. If a position controller rather than a mere sensor is desired, the position signal can be buffered, PID compensated, amplified, and fed back to the armature windings.
Schwestka, R; Engelke, D; Zimmer, B; Kubein-Meesenburg, D
1991-10-01
In orthognathic surgery a three-dimensional positioning of the maxilla is possible by means of the Le Fort I osteotomy and subsequent maxillary movement. In treatment planning and at the time of surgery it is very important to achieve an exact positioning of the upper incisors in relation to the upper lip and the rest of the skull. The Model Positioning Device described here allows three-dimensional positioning of the upper incisors in one- or two-jaw surgery. The reference plane is the upper surface of the upper part of a semi-individually adjustable articulator. The application of the Sandwich Splint enables the three-dimensional positioning of the maxilla in relation to the rest of the skull. The Sandwich Splint ensures that the vertical position of the mandible in relation to the rest of the skull above the osteotomy plane is exactly reproducible in the pre- and post-operative situation in both model surgery and at time of surgery. To this mandibular position the maxilla is positioned in three dimensions, as preplanned. The vertical dimension, which is identically reproducible before and after surgery is measured with a caliper. After surgery the mandible can be rotated into the planned new intercuspidation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd; Abdullah, Shahrum Shah; Kamarudin, Muhammad Nizam; Rahman, Ahmad Fadzli Nizam Abdul; Azis, Fadilah Abd; Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan
2015-05-01
This paper describes the effectiveness of observer-based output feedback for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) with Linear Quadratic Regulation (LQR) performance. Tuning of observer parameters is crucial for tracking purpose. Prior to tuning facility, the ranges of observer and LQR parameters are obtained via system output cum error. The validation of this technique using unmanned underwater vehicles called Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) modelling helps to improve steady state performance of system response. The ROV modeling is focused for depth control using ROV 1 developed by the Underwater Technology Research Group (UTeRG). The results are showing that this technique improves steady state performances in term of overshoot and settling time of the system response.
General linear codes for fault-tolerant matrix operations on processor arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nair, V. S. S.; Abraham, J. A.
1988-01-01
Various checksum codes have been suggested for fault-tolerant matrix computations on processor arrays. Use of these codes is limited due to potential roundoff and overflow errors. Numerical errors may also be misconstrued as errors due to physical faults in the system. In this a set of linear codes is identified which can be used for fault-tolerant matrix operations such as matrix addition, multiplication, transposition, and LU-decomposition, with minimum numerical error. Encoding schemes are given for some of the example codes which fall under the general set of codes. With the help of experiments, a rule of thumb for the selection of a particular code for a given application is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urushihara, Shiro; Kamano, Takuya; Yura, Satoshi; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki
One of fundamental problems in the factory automation is how to obtain linear motion. Linear motors produce directly the linear motion force without a motion-transform mechanism. Linear d.c. motors (LDMs) have excellent performance and controllability. However, the dynamics of small-sized LDMs is adversely affected by the dead-band due to the friction between brushes and commutators. In this paper, it is described that the design of the two-degree-of-freedom positioning system with a LDM using model reference type sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed positioning system consists of a fixed gain feedforward controller and a SMC used as a feedback controller. The objective of the SMC is to repress the influence of nonlinear characteristics (the dead-band and parameter variations etc.). The tracking performance can be improved as the fixed gain feedforward controller makes a dynamic inverse system in the feedforward path. The effectiveness of the proposed system for improvement of the tracking performance is demonstrated by experimental results.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle for simultaneous measurement of positive-operator-valued measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki
2008-11-01
A limitation on simultaneous measurement of two arbitrary positive-operator-valued measures is discussed. In general, simultaneous measurement of two noncommutative observables is only approximately possible. Following Werner’s formulation, we introduce a distance between observables to quantify an accuracy of measurement. We derive an inequality that relates the achievable accuracy with noncommutativity between two observables. As a byproduct a necessary condition for two positive-operator-valued measures to be simultaneously measurable is obtained.
Weighted A-Statistical Convergence for Sequences of Positive Linear Operators
Mohiuddine, S. A.
2014-01-01
We introduce the notion of weighted A-statistical convergence of a sequence, where A represents the nonnegative regular matrix. We also prove the Korovkin approximation theorem by using the notion of weighted A-statistical convergence. Further, we give a rate of weighted A-statistical convergence and apply the classical Bernstein polynomial to construct an illustrative example in support of our result. PMID:25105160
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric
2014-01-01
We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.
Low-sensitivity H ∞ filter design for linear delta operator systems with sampling time jitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiang-Gui; Yang, Guang-Hong
2012-04-01
This article is concerned with the problem of designing H ∞ filters for a class of linear discrete-time systems with low-sensitivity to sampling time jitter via delta operator approach. Delta-domain model is used to avoid the inherent numerical ill-condition resulting from the use of the standard shift-domain model at high sampling rates. Based on projection lemma in combination with the descriptor system approach often used to solve problems related to delay, a novel bounded real lemma with three slack variables for delta operator systems is presented. A sensitivity approach based on this novel lemma is proposed to mitigate the effects of sampling time jitter on system performance. Then, the problem of designing a low-sensitivity filter can be reduced to a convex optimisation problem. An important consideration in the design of correlation filters is the optimal trade-off between the standard H ∞ criterion and the sensitivity of the transfer function with respect to sampling time jitter. Finally, a numerical example demonstrating the validity of the proposed design method is given.
Geostationary satellite positioning by DLR/GSOC operations and management methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brittinger, Peter
1994-01-01
Starting with a short description of the GSOC (German Space Operations Center) and its role within the wider framework of the research institute DLR, this paper provides a review of the geostationary telecommunications satellites positioned by the GSOC. The paper then proceeds to describe the evolution of the operations and management structures and methods which have been effectively used to accomplish these missions.
Vanishing Corrections for the Position in a Linear Model of FKPP Fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berestycki, Julien; Brunet, Éric; Harris, Simon C.; Roberts, Matt
2017-02-01
Take the linearised FKPP equation {partialth = partial2xh + h} with boundary condition h( m( t), t) = 0. Depending on the behaviour of the initial condition h 0( x) = h( x, 0) we obtain the asymptotics—up to a o(1) term r( t)—of the absorbing boundary m( t) such that {ω(x) := lim_{tto∞} h(x + m(t) ,t)} exists and is non-trivial. In particular, as in Bramson's results for the non-linear FKPP equation, we recover the celebrated {-3/2 log t} correction for initial conditions decaying faster than {x^{ν}e^{-x}} for some {ν < -2}. Furthermore, when we are in this regime, the main result of the present work is the identification (to first order) of the r( t) term, which ensures the fastest convergence to {ω(x)}. When h 0( x) decays faster than {x^{ν}e^{-x}} for some {ν < -3}, we show that r( t) must be chosen to be {-3√{π/t}}, which is precisely the term predicted heuristically by Ebert-van Saarloos (Phys. D Nonlin. Phenom. 146(1): 1-99, 2000) in the non-linear case (see also Mueller and Munier Phys Rev E 90(4):042143, 2014, Henderson, Commun Math Sci 14(4):973-985, 2016, Brunet and Derrida Stat Phys 1-20, 2015). When the initial condition decays as {x^{ν}e^{-x}} for some {ν in [-3, -2)}, we show that even though we are still in the regime where Bramson's correction is {-3/2 log t}, the Ebert-van Saarloos correction has to be modified. Similar results were recently obtained by Henderson CommunMath Sci 14(4):973-985, 2016 using an analytical approach and only for compactly supported initial conditions.
Vanishing Corrections for the Position in a Linear Model of FKPP Fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berestycki, Julien; Brunet, Éric; Harris, Simon C.; Roberts, Matt
2016-12-01
Take the linearised FKPP equation {partialth = partial2xh + h} with boundary condition h(m(t), t) = 0. Depending on the behaviour of the initial condition h 0(x) = h(x, 0) we obtain the asymptotics—up to a o(1) term r(t)—of the absorbing boundary m(t) such that {ω(x) := lim_{tto∞} h(x + m(t) ,t)} exists and is non-trivial. In particular, as in Bramson's results for the non-linear FKPP equation, we recover the celebrated {-3/2 log t} correction for initial conditions decaying faster than {x^{ν}e^{-x}} for some {ν < -2} . Furthermore, when we are in this regime, the main result of the present work is the identification (to first order) of the r(t) term, which ensures the fastest convergence to {ω(x)} . When h 0(x) decays faster than {x^{ν}e^{-x}} for some {ν < -3} , we show that r(t) must be chosen to be {-3√{π/t}} , which is precisely the term predicted heuristically by Ebert-van Saarloos (Phys. D Nonlin. Phenom. 146(1): 1-99, 2000) in the non-linear case (see also Mueller and Munier Phys Rev E 90(4):042143, 2014, Henderson, Commun Math Sci 14(4):973-985, 2016, Brunet and Derrida Stat Phys 1-20, 2015). When the initial condition decays as {x^{ν}e^{-x}} for some {ν in [-3, -2)} , we show that even though we are still in the regime where Bramson's correction is {-3/2 log t} , the Ebert-van Saarloos correction has to be modified. Similar results were recently obtained by Henderson CommunMath Sci 14(4):973-985, 2016 using an analytical approach and only for compactly supported initial conditions.
Evaluation and Correction of the Non-linear Distortion of CEBAF Beam Position Monitors
M. Spata, T.L. Allison, K.E. Cole, J. Musson, J. Yan
2011-09-01
The beam position monitors at CEBAF have four antenna style pickups that are used to measure the location of the beam. There is a strong nonlinear response when the beam is far from the electrical center of the device. In order to conduct beam experiments at large orbit excitation we need to correct for this nonlinearity. The correction algorithm is presented and compared to measurements from our stretched wire BPM test stand.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Yang, Tae-Keun; Forck, Peter; Noh, Seon Yeong; Hahn, Garam; Choi, Minkyoo
2017-04-01
A beam position monitor with high precision and resolution is required to control the beam trajectory for matching to the injection orbit and acceleration in a heavy-ion synchrotron. It will be also used for measuring the beta function, tune, and chromaticity. Since the bunch length at heavy ion synchrotron is relatively long, a few meters, a boxlike device with plates of typically 20 cm length is used to enhance the signal strength and to get a precise linear dependence with respect to the beam displacement. Especially, the linear-cut beam position monitor is adopted to satisfy the position resolution of 100 μm and accuracy of 200 μm for a nominal beam intensity in the KHIMA synchrotron of ∼ 7 ×108 particles for the carbon beams and ∼ 2 ×1010 for the proton beams. In this paper, we show the electromagnetic design of the electrode and surroundings to satisfy the resolution of 100 μm, the criteria for mechanical aspect to satisfy the position accuracy of 200 μm, the measurement results by using wire test-bench, design and measurement of a high input impedance pre-amplifier, and the beam-test results with long (∼1.6 μs) electron beam in Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardo, J.; Franco, L.; Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Pazos, A.; Pena, J.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pombar, M.; Sendón, J.
2005-04-01
A liquid isooctane (C8H18) filled ionization linear array for radiotherapy quality assurance has been designed, built and tested. The detector consists of 128 pixels, each of them with an area of 1.7 mm × 1.7 mm and a gap of 0.5 mm. The small pixel size makes the detector ideal for high gradient beam profiles such as those present in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and radiosurgery. As the read-out electronics we use the X-ray Data Acquisition System with the Xchip developed by the CCLRC. Studies concerning the collection efficiency dependence on the polarization voltage and on the dose rate have been made in order to optimize the device operation. In the first tests, we have studied dose rate and energy dependences. Dose rate dependence was found to be lower than 2.1% up to 5 Gy min-1, and energy dependence lower than 2.5% up to 20 cm depth in solid water. Output factors and penumbras for several rectangular fields have been measured with the linear array and were compared with the results obtained with a 0.125 cm3 air ionization chamber and radiographic film, respectively. Finally, we have acquired profiles for an IMRT field and for a virtual wedge. These profiles have also been compared with radiographic film measurements. All the comparisons show a good correspondence. The device has proved its capability to verify on-line therapy beams with good spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio.
Hui Zhang; Steve M. Brokman; Ning Fang; Nicola L. Pohl; Edward S. Yeung
2008-03-20
The discrimination of isomeric disaccharides with different linkage types and different monosaccharide residues--glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and mannose (Man) at the non-reducing end - was investigated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS has strong interference peaks from matrix ions in the low mass region (<500 Da). This greatly limits the application of MALDI-MS for the analysis of small molecules such as saccharides. We solved this problem by using LDI with acidic fullerene matrix, which gives a very clean background in the low-mass region. Disaccharides with different linkage types give different tandem mass spectral profiles from various cross-ring fragmentation pathways. Disaccharides with the same linkage type but with three different kinds of monosaccharide residues bear the same fragmentation profiles. However, the relative ratios of the fragment ion intensities were found to be distinctly different among the three disaccharide isomers. By employing statistical tools such as LDA to classify the tandem mass spectra, disaccharide isomers with either different linkages or different monosaccharide residues were successfully classified.
Hui Zhang; Steve M. Brokman; Ning Fang; Nicola L. Pohl; Edward S. Yeung
2008-03-20
The discrimination of isomeric disaccharides with different linkage types and different monosaccharide residues--glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and mannose (Man) at the non-reducing end--was investigated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS has strong interference peaks from matrix ions in the low mass region (<500 Da). This greatly limits the application of MALDI-MS for the analysis of small molecules such as saccharides. We solved this problem by using LDI with acidic fullerene matrix, which gives a very clean background in the low-mass region. Disaccharides with different linkage types give different tandem mass spectral profiles from various cross-ring fragmentation pathways. Disaccharides with the same linkage type but with three different kinds of monosaccharide residues bear the same fragmentation profiles. However, the relative ratios of the fragment ion intensities were found to be distinctly different among the three disaccharide isomers. By employing statistical tools such as LDA to classify the tandem mass spectra, disaccharide isomers with either different linkages or different monosaccharide residues were successfully classified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCormack, J. P.; Allen, D. R.; Coy, L.; Eckermann, S. D.; Stajner, I.
2005-12-01
The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) will deliver real-time ozone data for assimilation in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This information will benefit forecasts by improving the modeled stratospheric heating rates and providing better first-guess temperature profiles needed for infrared satellite radiance retrieval algorithms. Operational ozone data assimilation for NWP requires a fast, accurate treatment of stratospheric ozone photochemistry. We present results from the new NRL CHEM2D Ozone Photochemistry Parameterization (CHEM2D-OPP), which is based on output from the zonally averaged NRL-CHEM2D middle atmosphere photochemical-transport model. CHEM2D-OPP is a linearized parameterization of gas-phase stratospheric ozone photochemistry developed for NOGAPS-ALPHA, the Navy's prototype global high altitude NWP model. A recent study of NOGAPS-ALPHA ozone simulations found that a preliminary version of the CHEM2D-based photochemistry parameterization generally performed better than other current photochemistry schemes that are now widely used in operational NWP and data assimilation systems. A new, improved version of CHEM2D-OPP is now available. Here we report the first quantitative performance assessments of the updated CHEM2D-OPP package in the NRL Global Ozone Assimilation Testing System (GOATS). This study compares the mean differences between GOATS ozone analyses and SBUV/2 ozone measurements (both vertical profile and total column) during September 2002 using several different ozone photochemistry schemes. We find that CHEM2D-OPP generally delivers the best performance out of all the photochemistry schemes we tested. Future development plans for CHEM2D-OPP, such as interfacing it with a "cold tracer" parameterization for heterogeneous ozone-hole chemistry, will also be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, A. F.; Weaver, W. R.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Wood, G. P.
1971-01-01
A 20-megawatt linear plasma accelerator facility, a steady flow, Faraday-type plasma accelerator facility for high velocity aerodynamic testing, was constructed, developed, and brought to an operational status. The accelerator has a 63.5-mm-square and 0.5-meter-long channel and utilizes nitrogen-seeded with 2 % mole fraction of cesium vapor. Modification of the original accelerator design characteristics and the improvements necessary to make the arc heater a suitable plasma source are described. The measured accelerator electrode current distribution and the electrode-wall potential distributions are given. The computed and the measured values are in good agreement. Measured pitot pressure indicates that an accelerator exit velocity of 9.2 km/sec, is obtained with 30 of the 36 electrode pairs powered and corresponds to a velocity increase to about 2 1/4 times the computed entrance velocity. The computed stagnation enthalpy at the accelerator exit is 92 MJ/kg, and the mass density corresponds to an altitude of about 58 km. The 92 MJ/kg stagnation enthalpy corresponds to a kinetic energy content at low temperature equivalent to a velocity of 13.6 km/sec.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, Peng; Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Yi-Nan; Sun, Dengfent
2012-01-01
A class of strategies has been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. A 3D grid based on weather data and the cruising altitude level of aircraft is adjusted to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to fuel-efficiency. In this paper, the authors introduce a contrail avoidance strategy on 3D grid by considering additional operationally feasible constraints from an air traffic controller's aspect. First, shifting too many aircraft to the same cruising level will make the miles-in-trail at this level smaller than the safety separation threshold. Furthermore, the high density of aircraft at one cruising level may exceed the workload for the traffic controller. Therefore, in our new model we restrict the number of total aircraft at each level. Second, the aircraft count variation for successive intervals cannot be too drastic since the workload to manage climbing/descending aircraft is much larger than managing cruising aircraft. The contrail reduction is formulated as an integer-programming problem and the problem is shown to have the property of total unimodularity. Solving the corresponding relaxed linear programming with the simplex method provides an optimal and integral solution to the problem. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the methodology.
Linear alkanesulfonates as carbon and energy sources for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Reichenbecher, W; Murrell, J C
1999-01-01
Several bacteria from soil and rainwater samples were enriched and isolated with propanesulfonate or butanesulfonate as sole carbon and energy source. Most of the strains isolated utilized nonsubstituted alkanesulfonates with a chain length of C3-C6 and the substituted sulfonates taurine and isethionate as carbon and energy source. A gram-positive isolate, P40, and a gram-negative isolate, P53, were characterized in more detail. Phylogenetic analysis grouped strain P40 within group IV of the genus Rhodococcus and showed a close relationship with Rhodococcus opacus. After phylogenetic and physiological analyses, strain P53 was identified as Comamonas acidovorans. Both bacteria also utilized a wide range of sulfonates as sulfur source. Strain P40, but not strain P53, released sulfite into the medium during dissimilation of sulfonated compounds. Cell-free extracts of strain P53 exhibited high sulfite oxidase activity [2.34 U (mg protein)-1] when assayed with ferricyanide, but not with cytochrome c. Experiments with whole-cell suspensions of both strains showed that the ability to dissimilate 1-propanesulfonate was specifically induced during growth on this substrate and was not present in cells grown on propanol, isethionate or taurine. Whole-cell suspensions of both strains accumulated acetone when oxidizing the non-growth substrate 2-propanesulfonate. Strain P40 cells also accumulated sulfite under these conditions. Stoichiometric measurements with 2-propanesulfonate as substrate in oxygen electrode experiments indicate that the nonsubstituted alkanesulfonates were degraded by a monooxygenase. When strain P53 grew with nonsubstituted alkanesulfonates as carbon and energy source, cells expressed high amounts of yellow pigments, supporting the proposition that an oxygenase containing iron sulfur centres or flavins was involved in their degradation.
Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A
2009-02-27
We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities.
Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned InP/GaInP quantum dots
Braun, T.; Unsleber, S.; Baumann, V.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Gschrey, M.; Rodt, S.; Reitzenstein, S.
2013-11-04
We report on the optical characterization of site-controlled InP/GaInP quantum dots (QDs). Spatially resolved low temperature cathodoluminescence proves the long-range ordering of the buried emitters, revealing a yield of ∼90% of optically active, positioned QDs and a strong suppression of emitters on interstitial positions. The emission of single QDs shows a pronounced degree of linear polarization along the [0,−1,1] crystal axis with an average degree of polarization of 94%. Photon correlation measurements of the emission from a single QD indicate the single-photon character of the exciton and biexciton emission lines as well as the cascaded nature of the photon pair.
Absolute continuity for operator valued completely positive maps on C∗-algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gheondea, Aurelian; Kavruk, Ali Şamil
2009-02-01
Motivated by applicability to quantum operations, quantum information, and quantum probability, we investigate the notion of absolute continuity for operator valued completely positive maps on C∗-algebras, previously introduced by Parthasarathy [in Athens Conference on Applied Probability and Time Series Analysis I (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 34-54]. We obtain an intrinsic definition of absolute continuity, we show that the Lebesgue decomposition defined by Parthasarathy is the maximal one among all other Lebesgue-type decompositions and that this maximal Lebesgue decomposition does not depend on the jointly dominating completely positive map, we obtain more flexible formulas for calculating the maximal Lebesgue decomposition, and we point out the nonuniqueness of the Lebesgue decomposition as well as a sufficient condition for uniqueness. In addition, we consider Radon-Nikodym derivatives for absolutely continuous completely positive maps that, in general, are unbounded positive self-adjoint operators affiliated to a certain von Neumann algebra, and we obtain a spectral approximation by bounded Radon-Nikodym derivatives. An application to the existence of the infimum of two completely positive maps is indicated, and formulas in terms of Choi's matrices for the Lebesgue decomposition of completely positive maps in matrix algebras are obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud
1993-01-01
Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the geostationary launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a geostationary point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.
New techniques of determining focus position in gamma knife operation using 3D image reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Yingen; Wang, Dezong; Zhou, Quan
1994-09-01
In this paper, new techniques of determining the focus of a disease position in a gamma knife operation are presented. In these techniques, the transparent 3D color image of the human body organ is reconstructed using a new three-dimensional reconstruction method, and then the position, the area, and the volume of focus of a disease such as cancer or a tumor are calculated. They are used in the gamma knife operation. The CT pictures are input into a digital image processing system. The useful information is extracted and the original data are obtained. Then the transparent 3D color image is reconstructed using these original data. By using this transparent 3D color image, the positions of the human body organ and the focus of a disease are determined in a coordinate system. While the 3D image is reconstructed, the area and the volume of human body organ and focus of a disease can be calculated at the same time. It is expressed through actual application that the positions of human body organ and focus of a disease can be determined exactly by using the transparent 3D color image. It is very useful in gamma knife operation or other surgical operation. The techniques presented in this paper have great application value.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattern, Duane; Ouzts, Peter
1991-01-01
The implementation of multi-variable control systems on turbofan engines requires the use of limit protection to maintain safe engine operation. Since a turbofan engine typically encounters limits during transient operation, the use of a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop may void the desired 'guarantees' associated with linear multi-variable control design methods, necessitating considerable simulation to validate the control with limit protection. An alternative control design structure is proposed that maintains the desired linear feedback properties when certain safety limits are encountered by moving the limit protection scheme outside of the feedback loop. This proposed structure is compared to a structure with a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop properties. The two design structures are compared using both linear and nonlinear simulations. The evaluation emphasizes responses where the fan surge margin limit is encountered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattern, Duane; Ouzts, Peter
1991-01-01
The implementation of multi-variable control systems on turbofan engines requires the use of limit protection to maintain safe engine operation. Since a turbofan engine typically encounters limits during transient operation, the use of a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop may void the desired 'guarantees' associated with linear multi-variable control design methods, necessitating considerable simulation to validate the control with limited protection. An alternative control design structure is proposed that maintains the desired linear feedback properties when certain safety limits are encountered by moving the limit protection scheme outside the feedback loop. This proposed structure is compared to a structure with a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop properties. The two design structures are compared using both linear and nonlinear simulations. The evaluation emphasizes responses where the fan surge margin limit is encountered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conone, Ruth M.
The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…
Positive affect as implicit motivator: on the nonconscious operation of behavioral goals.
Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk
2005-08-01
Recent research has revealed that nonconscious activation of desired behavioral states--or behavioral goals--promotes motivational activity to accomplish these states. Six studies demonstrate that this nonconscious operation of behavioral goals emerges if mental representations of specific behavioral states are associated with positive affect. In an evaluative-conditioning paradigm, unobtrusive linking of behavioral states to positive, as compared with neutral or negative, affect increased participants' wanting to accomplish these states. Furthermore, participants worked harder on tasks that were instrumental in attaining behavioral states when these states were implicitly linked to positive affect, thereby mimicking the effects on motivational behavior of preexisting individual wanting and explicit goal instructions to attain the states. Together, these results suggest that positive affect plays a key role in nonconscious goal pursuit. Implications for behavior-priming research are discussed.
Makov, Yu N; Sánchez-Morcillo, V J; Camarena, F; Espinosa, V
2008-12-01
A comprehensive experimental, analytical and numerical study of the true focal region drift relative to the geometrical focus (focal shift effect) in acoustic focused beams and its nonlinear evolution is presented. For this aim, the concept of Fresnel number, proportional to the linear gain, is introduced as a convenient parameter for characterizing focused sources. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is strongly dependent on the Fresnel number of the source, being larger for weakly focused systems where a large initial shift occurs. Analytical expressions for axial pressure distributions in linear regime are presented for the general case of truncated Gaussian beams. The main new contribution of this work is the examination of the connection between the linear and nonlinear stages of the focal shift effect, and its use for the estimation of the more complicated nonlinear stage. Experiments were carried out using a continuous-wave ultrasonic beam in water, radiated by a focused source with nominal frequency f=1 MHz, aperture radius a=1.5 cm and geometrical focal distance R=11.7 cm, corresponding to a Fresnel number N(F)=1.28. The maximum measured shifts for peak pressure and intensity were 4.4 and 1.1cm, respectively. The evolution of the different maxima with the source amplitude, and the disparity in their axial positions, is interpreted in terms of the dynamics of the nonlinear distortion process. Analytical results for the particular case of a sound beam with initial Gaussian distribution are also presented, demonstrating that the motion of peak pressure and peak intensity may occur in opposite directions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganjefar, Soheil; Rezaei, Sara; Hashemzadeh, Farzad
2017-03-01
In this paper, a new bounded force feedback control law is proposed to guarantee position and force tracking in nonlinear teleoperation systems in the presence of passive and nonpassive input interaction forces, time varying delay in their communication channels and sandwich linearity in their actuators. The proposed control is a nonlinear-proportional plus nonlinear damping (nP+nD) controller with the addition of a nonlinear function of the environment force on the slave side and nonlinear function of the human force and force error on the master side, the transparency of the proposed scheme will be improved. The controller prevents the inputs from reaching their usual actuator bounds. Using a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the asymptotic stability and tracking performance of the teleoperation system are established under some conditions on the controller parameters, actuator saturation characteristics and maximum allowable time delays.
Tameshtit, Allan
2012-04-01
High-temperature and white-noise approximations are frequently invoked when deriving the quantum Brownian equation for an oscillator. Even if this white-noise approximation is avoided, it is shown that if the zero-point energies of the environment are neglected, as they often are, the resultant equation will violate not only the basic tenet of quantum mechanics that requires the density operator to be positive, but also the uncertainty principle. When the zero-point energies are included, asymptotic results describing the evolution of the oscillator are obtained that preserve positivity and, therefore, the uncertainty principle.
Design and operation of a button-probe, beam-position measurements
Gilpatrick, J.D.; Power, J.F.; Meyer, R.E.; Rose, C.R.
1993-01-01
Beam position measurement systems have been installed on the Advanced Free Electron Laser (AFEL) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The position measurement uses a capacitive- or button-style probe that differentiates the beam-bunch charge distribution induced on each of the four probe lobes. These induced signals are fed to amplitude-to-phase processing electronics that provide output signals proportional to the arc tangent of the probe's opposite-lobe, signal-voltage ratios. An associated computer system then digitizes and linearizes these processed signals based on theoretical models and measured responses. This paper will review the processing electronics and capacitive probe responses by deriving simple theoretical models and comparing these models to actual measured responses.
Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.
Zhukovsky, K V
2016-01-01
We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.
Effects of drugs that potentiate GABA on extinction of positively-reinforced operant behaviour.
Leslie, Julian C; Shaw, David; McCabe, Ciara; Reynolds, David S; Dawson, Gerard R
2004-05-01
Extinction following positively reinforced operant conditioning reduces response frequency, at least in part through the aversive or frustrative effects of non-reinforcement. According to J.A. Gray's theory, non-reinforcement activates the behavioural inhibition system which in turn causes anxiety. As predicted, anxiolytic drugs including benzodiazepines affect the operant extinction process. Recent studies have shown that reducing GABA-mediated neurotransmission retards extinction of aversive conditioning. We have shown in a series of studies that anxiolytic compounds that potentiate GABA facilitate extinction of positively reinforced fixed-ratio operant behaviour in C57B1/6 male mice. This effect does not occur in the early stages of extinction, nor is it dependent on cumulative effects of the compound administered. Potentiation of GABA at later stages has the effect of increasing sensitivity to the extinction contingency and facilitates the inhibition of the behaviour that is no longer required. The GABAergic hypnotic, zolpidem, has the same selective effects on operant extinction in this procedure. The effects of zolpidem are not due to sedative action. There is evidence across our series of experiments that different GABA-A subtype receptors are involved in extinction facilitation and anxiolysis. Consequently, this procedure may not be an appropriate model for anxiolytic drug action, but it may be a useful technique for analysing the neural bases of extinction and designing therapeutic interventions in humans where failure to extinguish inappropriate behaviours can lead to pathological conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder.
Countable Alphabet Random Subhifts of Finite Type with Weakly Positive Transfer Operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, Volker; Urbański, Mariusz
2015-09-01
We deal with countable alphabet locally compact random subshifts of finite type (the latter merely meaning that the symbol space is generated by an incidence matrix) under the absence of big images property and under the absence of uniform positivity of the transfer operator. We first establish the existence of random conformal measures along with good bounds for the iterates of the Perron-Frobenius operator. Then, using the technique of positive cones and proving a version of Bowen's type contraction (see Equilibrium states and the ergodic theory of Anosov diffeomorphisms, 1975), we also establish a fairly complete thermodynamical formalism. This means that we prove the existence and uniqueness of fiberwise invariant measures (giving rise to a global invariant measure) equivalent to the fiberwise conformal measures. Furthermore, we establish the existence of a spectral gap for the transfer operators, which in the random context precisely means the exponential rate of convergence of the normalized iterated transfer operator. This latter property in a relatively straightforward way entails the exponential decay of correlations and the Central Limit Theorem.
Controlling mouse pointer position using an infrared head-operated joystick.
Evans, D G; Drew, R; Blenkhorn, P
2000-03-01
This paper describes the motivation for and the design considerations of a low-cost head-operated joystick. The paper briefly summarizes the requirements of head-operated mouse pointer control for people with disabilities before discussing a set of technological approaches that can be used to satisfy these requirements. The paper focuses on the design of a head-operated joystick that uses infrared light emitting diodes (LED's) and photodetectors to determine head position, which is subsequently converted into signals that emulate a Microsoft mouse. There are two significant findings. The first is that, while nonideal device characteristics might appear to make the joystick difficult to use, users naturally compensate for nonlinearities, in a transparent manner, because of visual feedback of mouse pointer position. The second finding, from relatively informal, independent trials, indicates that disabled users prefer a head-operated device that has the characteristics of a joystick (a relative pointing device) to those of a mouse (an absolute pointing device).
Magoon, Michael A; Critchfield, Thomas S; Merrill, Dustin; Newland, M Christopher; Schneider, W Joel
2017-01-01
Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical. Steeper matching slopes were produced compared to a baseline consisting of all positive reinforcement. This free-operant differential outcomes effect supports the notion that that stimulus-presentation positive reinforcement and stimulus-elimination negative reinforcement are functionally "different." However, a control experiment showed that the feedback asymmetry of more traditional positive and negative reinforcement schedules also is sufficient to create a "difference" when the type of consequence is held constant. We offer these findings as a small step in meeting the very large challenge of moving negative reinforcement theory beyond decades of relative quiescence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Li, Ronghua; Huang, Jianming
2015-12-01
In order to achieve the rendezvous and capture of the space non-cooperative target, the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target must be resolved. Since the marker is not installed into the non-cooperative target and there is no inter satellite link to transfer the information, so it is very difficult to measure the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target. The solar array connecting frame of non-cooperative targets have their characters and are easy to capture, so the position and pose measurement of specific operation site of non-cooperative target based on stereo vision has been studied in this paper. The method composed of image acquiring, image filtering, edge detection, feature extraction and relative pose measurement. Finally, the relative position and attitude parameters of the solar wing connection were obtained and provided to the control system. The results of simulation and ground verification show that the algorithm is accurate and effective, and can satisfy the technical requirements of the on orbit operation. The measurement approach can be used for engineering implementation.
First Operating Experiences of Beam Position Monitors in the TESLA Test Facility Linac
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, R.; Sachwitz, M.; Schreiber, H. J.; Tonisch, F.; Castellano, M.; Patteri, P.; Tazzioli, F.; Catani, L.
1997-05-01
Different types of monitors where installed in the TESLA Test Facility Linac to measure the beam position. At each superconducting quadrupole, the transverse beam position will be measured with a resolution of better than 10 μm, using a cylindrical cavity excited in the TM_110-mode by an off-center beam. In addition, two 'warm' cavities working at room temperature were built for the Injector I and the Bunch Compressor. The amplitude of the TM_110-mode and its phase are measured in a homodyne receiver. For the experimental area, stripline monitors having a resolution of better than 100 μm were built, tested and installed. The averaged position of the whole bunch train of Injector I is measured in a narrowband receiver using the amplitude-to-phase conversion. This paper summarizes the designs, cold tests and first operating experiences of both monitor types.
Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Keon Sik
2014-07-01
We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented.
Operating instructions for ORELA (Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator) positron beam line
Donohue, D.L.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.
1990-11-01
This report will contain details of the construction and operation of the positron beam line. Special procedures which are performed on a less frequent basis will also be described. Appendices will contain operating instructions for experiments which make use of the positron beam and are connected to the beam line. Finally, a review of safety-related considerations will be presented.
Muir, P.F.
1992-01-01
Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command of the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, a practical methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree-of-freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.
Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin
2014-10-06
The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin.
Effect of Traffic Position Accuracy for Conducting Safe Airport Surface Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.
2014-01-01
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept proposes many revolutionary operational concepts and technologies, such as display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM displaying traffic of various position accuracies as well as the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability. Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidences were averted.
Ryan, Jason C; Banerjee, Ashis Gopal; Cummings, Mary L; Roy, Nicholas
2014-06-01
Planning operations across a number of domains can be considered as resource allocation problems with timing constraints. An unexplored instance of such a problem domain is the aircraft carrier flight deck, where, in current operations, replanning is done without the aid of any computerized decision support. Rather, veteran operators employ a set of experience-based heuristics to quickly generate new operating schedules. These expert user heuristics are neither codified nor evaluated by the United States Navy; they have grown solely from the convergent experiences of supervisory staff. As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are introduced in the aircraft carrier domain, these heuristics may require alterations due to differing capabilities. The inclusion of UAVs also allows for new opportunities for on-line planning and control, providing an alternative to the current heuristic-based replanning methodology. To investigate these issues formally, we have developed a decision support system for flight deck operations that utilizes a conventional integer linear program-based planning algorithm. In this system, a human operator sets both the goals and constraints for the algorithm, which then returns a proposed schedule for operator approval. As a part of validating this system, the performance of this collaborative human-automation planner was compared with that of the expert user heuristics over a set of test scenarios. The resulting analysis shows that human heuristics often outperform the plans produced by an optimization algorithm, but are also often more conservative.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crassidis, John L.; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Markley, F. Landis
1998-01-01
In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from Global Positioning System signals. The new algorithm is derived from a generalized nonlinear predictive filter for nonlinear systems. This uses a one time-step ahead approach to propagate a simple kinematics model for attitude determination. The advantages of the new algorithm over previously developed methods include: it provides optimal attitudes even for coplanar baseline configurations; it guarantees convergence even for poor initial conditions; it is a non-iterative algorithm; and it is computationally efficient. These advantages clearly make the new algorithm well suited to on-board applications. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator. Results indicate that the new algorithm accurately estimates the attitude of a moving vehicle, and provides robust attitude estimates even when other methods, such as a linearized least-squares approach, fail due to poor initial starting conditions.
Quantum Operator Approach Applied to the Position-Dependent Mass Schrödinger Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovando, G.; Peña, J. J.; Morales, J.
2014-03-01
In this work, the quantum operator approach is applied to both, the position-dependent mass Schrödinger equation (PDMSE) and the Schrodinger equation with constant mass (CMSE). This fact enable us to find the factorization operators that relates both Hamiltonians by means of a kinetic energy operator that comes from the proposal of Morrow and Brownstein. With this approach is possible to find the exactly-solvable PDMSE, for any value of the parameters α and γ in the von Roos's Hamiltonian. For that, our proposal can be considered as a unified treatment of the PDMSE because it contains as particular cases, the kinetic energy operators of various authors such as BenDaniel-Duke, Gora-Williams, Zhu-Kroemer and Li-Kuhn among others. To show the usefulness of our result, we show the solvable PDMSE that comes from the harmonic oscillator potential model for the CMSE. The proposal is general and can easily be extended to other potential models and mass distributions which will be given in the extended paper.
Entanglement properties of positive operators with ranges in completely entangled subspaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sengupta, R.; Arvind, Singh, Ajit Iqbal
2014-12-01
We prove that the projection on a completely entangled subspace S of maximum dimension obtained by Parthasarathy [K. R. Parthasarathy, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Math. Sci. 114, 365 (2004), 10.1007/BF02829441] in a multipartite quantum system is not positive under partial transpose. We next show that a large number of positive operators with a range in S also have the same property. In this process we construct an orthonormal basis for S and provide a theorem to link the constructions of completely entangled subspaces due to Parthasarathy (as cited above), Bhat [B. V. R. Bhat, Int. J. Quantum Inf. 4, 325 (2006), 10.1142/S0219749906001797], and Johnston [N. Johnston, Phys. Rev. A 87, 064302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.064302].
Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space
Kuramochi, Yui
2015-10-15
We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.
Two-qubit Bell inequality for which positive operator-valued measurements are relevant
Vertesi, T.; Bene, E.
2010-12-15
A bipartite Bell inequality is derived which is maximally violated on the two-qubit state space if measurements describable by positive operator valued measure (POVM) elements are allowed, rather than restricting the possible measurements to projective ones. In particular, the presented Bell inequality requires POVMs in order to be maximally violated by a maximally entangled two-qubit state. This answers a question raised by N. Gisin [in Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle: Essays in Honour of Abner Shimony, edited by W. C. Myrvold and J. Christian (Springer, The Netherlands, 2009), pp. 125-138].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosyk, G. M.; Zozor, S.; Portesi, M.; Osán, T. M.; Lamberti, P. W.
2014-11-01
We provide a twofold extension of Landau-Pollak uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states and for positive operator-valued measures, by recourse to geometric considerations. The generalization is based on metrics between pure states, having the form of a function of the square of the inner product between the states. The triangle inequality satisfied by such metrics plays a crucial role in our derivation. The usual Landau-Pollak inequality is thus a particular case (derived from Wootters metric) of the family of inequalities obtained, and, moreover, we show that it is the most restrictive relation within the family.
Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Chris
2015-01-01
The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid, the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM), is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder from an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique, and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) at NASA GSFC in collaboration with JPL, NASA JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratory, Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis is done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuator suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis includes a wide field of view camera, LiDAR, and an IMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper presents an overview of the linear covariance analysis techniques and simulation tool, provides sensor and actuator models, and addresses the feasibility of descending to the surface of the asteroid within allocated requirements as well as the possibility of maintaining a halo orbit to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yu; Hu, Jingpei; Cao, Bing; Wang, Miao; Wang, Chinhua
2017-01-01
We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a silicon-based linear polarizer with multilayer nanogratings working in 3 to 5 μm of an infrared region. A dielectric grating is first fabricated in a low-refractive index thin layer on a Si-substrate and then double-layer metallic gratings are formed by evaporating a metallic film onto the dielectric grating. With the designed structure of multilayer nanogratings coupled with a low-refractive-index dielectric layer on the high-refractive index silicon substrate, both high transverse magnetic transmission (TMT) and high extinction ratio (ER) can be effectively achieved across 3- to 5-μm range in the infrared band without the complicated metallic ion etching process that is required in conventional nanowire grids. An ER of 40 dB and TMT of averagely higher than 80% were obtained experimentally from a linear polarizer with a multilayer grating of 280-nm period. The Si-based multilayer grating structure shows possibilities of implementing polarization in a fashion of relatively easy-fabrication, semiconductor process compatible, and high performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara
2011-07-01
On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to a variety of heavy particles (HZE particles) which differ in terms of particle energy and particle linear energy transfer. The present experiments were designed to evaluate how these physical characteristics of different particles affect cognitive performance, specifically operant responding. Following exposure to 28Si, 48Ti, 12C and 16O particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory rats were tested for their ability to respond appropriately to changes in reinforcement schedules using an operant task. The results showed that the effectiveness of different particles in disrupting cognitive performance, defined as the lowest dose that produced a performance decrement, varied as a function of the energy of the specific particle: for comparisons between different energies of the same particle ( e.g., 56Fe) the effectiveness of the particle was directly proportional to particle linear energy transfer, whereas for comparisons between different particles ( e.g., 56Fe and 16O) effectiveness was inversely proportional to particle linear energy transfer. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms that influence the effectiveness of different particles and energies and in terms of their implications for analyzing the possible risks to astronauts of decrements in cognitive performance following exposure to HZE particles on long-duration exploratory class missions.
Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R.
2015-01-01
Many mining commodities are packaged and shipped using bags. Small bags are typically loaded onto pallets for transport and require a significant amount of manual handling by workers. This specific task of manual bag handling has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially low back disorders. This study evaluates the biomechanical demands of different work layouts when performing manual palletizing of small bags, and evaluates the biomechanical stresses associated with different stacking techniques. Results indicate that peak forward bending moments as well as spinal compression and shear forces are higher when the pallet is situated at the side of the conveyor as opposed to the end of the conveyor. At low levels of the pallet, controlled bag placement results in higher peak forward bending moments than stacking at higher levels and when dropping the bag to lower levels. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of an audit tool for bagging operations in the mining industry. Relevance to industry In many cases for workers loading small bags, compression forces exceed the NIOSH criterion of 3400 N. Orientation of the pallet has a significant impact on spinal compression, and positioning the pallet at the end of the conveyor reduces the estimated compressive loading on the lumbar spine by approximately 800 N. PMID:26190879
Ci, Penghong; Chen, Zhijiang; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang
2014-01-01
We report a piezoelectric linear motor made of a single Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 square-plate, which operates in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes to produce precision linear motion. A 15 × 15 × 2 mm prototype was fabricated, and the motor generated a driving force of up to 1.8 N and a speed of 170 mm/s under an applied voltage of 100 Vpp at the resonance frequency of 136.5 kHz. The motor shows such advantages as large driving force under relatively low driving voltage, simple structure, and stable motion because of its isomorphic face-diagonal-bending mode.
Construction of extremal local positive-operator-valued measures under symmetry
Virmani, S.; Plenio, M.B.
2003-06-01
We study the local implementation of positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs) when we require only the faithful reproduction of the statistics of the measurement outcomes for all initial states. We first demonstrate that any POVM with separable elements can be implemented by a separable superoperator, and develop techniques for calculating the extreme points of POVMs under a certain class of constraint that includes separability and positive partial transposition. As examples we consider measurements that are invariant under various symmetry groups (Werner, isotropic, Bell diagonal, local orthogonal), and demonstrate that in these cases separability of the POVM elements is equivalent to implementability via local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We also calculate the extrema of these classes of measurement under the groups that we consider, and give explicit LOCC protocols for attaining them. These protocols are hence optimal methods for locally discriminating between states of these symmetries. One of many interesting consequences is that the best way to locally discriminate Bell-diagonal mixed states is to perform a two-outcome POVM using local von Neumann projections. This is true regardless of the cost function, the number of states being discriminated, or the prior probabilities. Our results give the first cases of local mixed-state discrimination that can be analyzed quantitatively in full, and may have application to other problems such as demonstrations of nonlocality, experimental entanglement witnesses, and perhaps even entanglement distillation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saraceno, Marcos; Ermann, Leonardo; Cormick, Cecilia
2017-03-01
The problem of finding symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measures (SIC-POVMs) has been solved numerically for all dimensions d up to 67 [A. J. Scott and M. Grassl, J. Math. Phys. 51, 042203 (2010), 10.1063/1.3374022], but a general proof of existence is still lacking. For each dimension, it was shown that it is possible to find a SIC-POVM that is generated from a fiducial state upon application of the operators of the Heisenberg-Weyl group. We draw on the numerically determined fiducial states to study their phase-space features, as displayed by the characteristic function and the Wigner, Bargmann, and Husimi representations, adapted to a Hilbert space of finite dimension. We analyze the phase-space localization of fiducial states, and observe that the SIC-POVM condition is equivalent to a maximal delocalization property. Finally, we explore the consequences in phase space of the conjectured Zauner symmetry. In particular, we construct a Hermitian operator commuting with this symmetry that leads to a representation of fiducial states in terms of eigenfunctions with definite semiclassical features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaczorek, Tadeusz
2016-09-01
Using the Caputo-Fabrizio definition of fractional order derivative the positivity and asymptotic stability of the fractional standard and descriptor continuous-time linear systems are investigated. The solution to the matrix fractional differential state equations is derived. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity and asymptotic stability of the fractional linear systems are established. Tests for checking of the asymptotic stability of the systems are given. The Weierstrass-Kronecker theorem on the decomposition of the regular pencil is extended to the fractional descriptor continuous-time linear systems described by the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative. A method for computing of the solution of the continuoustime systems is presented. Necessary and sufficient conditions for positivity and stability of the descriptor systems are established.
García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol
2013-01-01
In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. PMID:23793020
Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Christopher; DeWeese, Keith
2015-01-01
The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder off an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSOO) and NASA GSFC in colloboration with JPL, NASA, JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratories Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis was done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuaor suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis will include a wide field of view camera, Lidar, and a MMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper will present an overview of the analysis discuss sensor and actuator models and address the feasibility of descending to the boulder within the requirements as the feasibility of maintaining the halo orbit in order to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractory technique.
Optimal Operation of a Thermal Energy Storage Tank Using Linear Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Civit Sabate, Carles
In this thesis, an optimization procedure for minimizing the operating costs of a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank is presented. The facility in which the optimization is based is the combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) plant at the University of California, Irvine. TES tanks provide the ability of decoupling the demand of chilled water from its generation, over the course of a day, from the refrigeration and air-conditioning plants. They can be used to perform demand-side management, and optimization techniques can help to approach their optimal use. The proposed optimization approach provides a fast and reliable methodology of finding the optimal use of the TES tank to reduce energy costs and provides a tool for future implementation of optimal control laws on the system. Advantages of the proposed methodology are studied using simulation with historical data.
TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.
1994-01-01
Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.
Positive bias temperature instability of SiC-MOSFETs induced by gate-switching operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Eiichi; Furuichi, Takahiro; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Oda, Kazuhiro
2017-04-01
Despite the advances in SiC-MOSFET technology in recent years, high-temperature stability remains a significant issue. In this work, we examine the positive bias temperature instability of SiC-MOSFETs induced by gate-switching operation (AC-PBTI). The dependence of the threshold voltage shift (ΔV th) on the duty-cycle of gate pulses (1 kHz) is measured, which shows a strong dependence on the gate off-voltage V gs(OFF). When using V gs(OFF) = ‑5 V, ΔV th becomes negligible even in a 90% duty cycle, which is practically informative for power circuit applications. The trap–detrap model for Si is used to explain this marked behavior. Finally, by considering the band bending at V gs(OFF), we propose the interface-state-assisted detrapping mechanism as one possible explanation for this behavior.
Schneider, Susan M; Lickliter, Robert
2010-01-01
Operant generalization has been demonstrated in neonates only recently. To investigate the development of intradimensional stimulus control immediately after hatching, northern bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) pecked for brief heat presentations while hearing a high-pitched sound repeated at two constant rates: an S+ tempo signaling a rich reinforcement schedule, alternating with an S- tempo signaling a leaner schedule. Tempo generalization was then assessed in extinction. The expected excitatory gradients were produced after a threshold number of training sessions; unexpectedly, below that threshold, gradients were inhibitory. The chicks' rapidly developing thermoregulatory capability may have resulted in a change from perceived negative reinforcement initially to positive reinforcement later. Given past research showing excitatory gradients after negative reinforcement, we suggest that these results demonstrate that all negative reinforcement is not equivalent, and, further, that classical conditioning effects require consideration.
Asamoah, Daniel A; Sharda, Ramesh; Rude, Howard N; Doran, Derek
2016-10-12
Long queues and wait times often occur at hospitals and affect smooth delivery of health services. To improve hospital operations, prior studies have developed scheduling techniques to minimize patient wait times. However, these studies lack in demonstrating how such techniques respond to real-time information needs of hospitals and efficiently manage wait times. This article presents a multi-method study on the positive impact of providing real-time scheduling information to patients using the RFID technology. Using a simulation methodology, we present a generic scenario, which can be mapped to real-life situations, where patients can select the order of laboratory services. The study shows that information visibility offered by RFID technology results in decreased wait times and improves resource utilization. We also discuss the applicability of the results based on field interviews granted by hospital clinicians and administrators on the perceived barriers and benefits of an RFID system.
1995-08-01
The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).
Jarrett, Thomas
2008-01-01
Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.
NASA's Space Launch System: Positioning Assets for Tele-Robotic Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.
2013-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is designing and developing America's most capable launch vehicle to support high-priority human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System (SLS) will initially lift 70 metric tons (t) on its first flights, slated to begin in 2017, and will be evolved after 2021 to a full 130-t capability-larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket. This superior lift and associated volume capacity will support game-changing exploration in regions that were previously unattainable, being too costly and risky to reach. On the International Space Station, astronauts are training for long-duration missions to asteroids and cis-martian regions, but have not had transportation out of Earth's orbit - until now. Simultaneously, productive rovers are sending scientists - and space fans - unprecedented information about the composition and history of Mars, the planet thought to be most like Earth. This combination of experience and information is laying the foundation for future missions, such as those outlined in NASA's "Mars Next Decade" report, that will rely on te1e-robotic operations to take exploration to the next level. Within this paradigm, NASA's Space Launch System stands ready to manifest the unique payloads that will be required for mission success. Ultimately, the ability to position assets - ranging from orbiters, to landers, to communication satellites and surface systems - is a critical step in broadening the reach of technological innovation that will benefit all Earth's people as the Space Age unfolds. This briefing will provide an overview of how the Space Launch System will support delivery of elements for tele-robotic operations at destinations such as the Moon and Mars, which will synchronize the human-machine interface to deliver hybrid on-orbit capabilities. Ultimately, telerobotic operations will open entirely new vistas and the doors of discovery. NASA's Space Launch System will be a
Ergonomic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Light-Weight Seat Lever Position and Operation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maida, J.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
During a Shuttle flight in the early part of 1999, one of the crewmembers was unable to operate the backrest lever for the light-weight seat in microgravity. It is essential that the crewmembers are able to adjust this back-rest lever, which is titled forward 2 degrees from vertical during launch and then moved backwards to 10 degrees aft of vertical upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crewmembers during an inadvertent crash landing situation. The original Shuttle seats, which had seat controls located on the front left and right sides of the seat, were replaced recently with the new light-weight seats. The controls for these new, seats were moved to the night side with one control at the front and the other at the back. While it was uncertain whether the problem encountered was unique to that crewmember or not it was clear to the personnel responsible for maintaining the Shuttle seats that not knowing the cause of the problem posed a safety concern for NASA. Hence the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) of the Johnson Space Center was requested to perform an evaluation of the seat controls and provide NASA with appropriate recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The ABF designed an experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by subjects, wearing an unpressurized or pressurized crew launch escape suit, when controls were placed in the front and back (on the right side) of the light-weight seat. Single-axis load cells were attached to the seat levers, which measured the maximum static pull forces that were exerted by the subjects. Twelve subjects, six male and six female, participated in this study. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results from this study showed that as a whole (or in general), the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bostan, Mohamad; Hadi Afshar, Mohamad; Khadem, Majed
2015-04-01
This article proposes a hybrid linear programming (LP-LP) methodology for the simultaneous optimal design and operation of groundwater utilization systems. The proposed model is an extension of an earlier LP-LP model proposed by the authors for the optimal operation of a set of existing wells. The proposed model can be used to optimally determine the number, configuration and pumping rates of the operational wells out of potential wells with fixed locations to minimize the total cost of utilizing a two-dimensional confined aquifer under steady-state flow conditions. The model is able to take into account the well installation, piping and pump installation costs in addition to the operational costs, including the cost of energy and maintenance. The solution to the problem is defined by well locations and their pumping rates, minimizing the total cost while satisfying a downstream demand, lower/upper bound on the pumping rates, and lower/upper bound on the water level drawdown at the wells. A discretized version of the differential equation governing the flow is first embedded into the model formulation as a set of additional constraints. The resulting mixed-integer highly constrained nonlinear optimization problem is then decomposed into two subproblems with different sets of decision variables, one with a piezometric head and the other with the operational well locations and the corresponding pumping rates. The binary variables representing the well locations are approximated by a continuous variable leading to two LP subproblems. Having started with a random value for all decision variables, the two subproblems are solved iteratively until convergence is achieved. The performance and ability of the proposed method are tested against a hypothetical problem from the literature and the results are presented and compared with those obtained using a mixed-integer nonlinear programming method. The results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method for
Improvements In Ball-Screw Linear Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iskenderian, Theodore; Joffe, Benjamin; Summers, Robert
1996-01-01
Report describes modifications of design of type of ball-screw linear actuator driven by dc motor, with linear-displacement feedback via linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT). Actuators used to position spacecraft engines to direct thrust. Modifications directed toward ensuring reliable and predictable operation during planned 12-year cruise and interval of hard use at end of cruise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isah, Abdulnasir; Chang, Phang
2016-06-01
In this article we propose the wavelet operational method based on shifted Legendre polynomial to obtain the numerical solutions of non-linear systems of fractional order differential equations (NSFDEs). The operational matrix of fractional derivative derived through wavelet-polynomial transformation are used together with the collocation method to turn the NSFDEs to a system of non-linear algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are given in order to demonstrate the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed techniques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Timothy D.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye; Keller, Dennis J.
1998-01-01
The all rocket mode of operation is shown to be a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. An axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and multiple linear regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inlet diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis, using both the Spalart-Allmaras and k-omega turbulence models, was performed with the NPARC code to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both the full flow and gas generator configurations increasing mixer-ejector area ratio and rocket area ratio increase performance, while increasing mixer-ejector inlet area ratio and mixer-ejector length-to-diameter ratio decrease performance. Increasing injected secondary flow increased performance for the gas generator analysis, but was not statistically significant for the full flow analysis. Chamber pressure was found to be not statistically significant.
Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler) estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM)-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS) component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS) components. Then, the analytically closed-form expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) on the Cartesian coordinates of target position and velocity are calculated, which can be adopted as a performance metric to access the target parameter estimation accuracy for LFM-based radar network systems in a Rice fading environment. It is found that the cumulative Fisher information matrix (FIM) is a linear combination of both DS component and WIS components, and it also demonstrates that the joint CRLB is a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), target’s radar cross section (RCS) and transmitted waveform parameters, as well as the relative geometry between the target and the radar network architectures. Finally, numerical results are provided to indicate that the joint target parameter estimation performance of active radar networks can be significantly improved with the exploitation of DS component. PMID:27929433
Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang
2016-12-06
This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler) estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM)-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS) component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS) components. Then, the analytically closed-form expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) on the Cartesian coordinates of target position and velocity are calculated, which can be adopted as a performance metric to access the target parameter estimation accuracy for LFM-based radar network systems in a Rice fading environment. It is found that the cumulative Fisher information matrix (FIM) is a linear combination of both DS component and WIS components, and it also demonstrates that the joint CRLB is a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), target's radar cross section (RCS) and transmitted waveform parameters, as well as the relative geometry between the target and the radar network architectures. Finally, numerical results are provided to indicate that the joint target parameter estimation performance of active radar networks can be significantly improved with the exploitation of DS component.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao
2016-08-01
We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.
Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao
2016-05-13
Here, we propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. Finally, the method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.
Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao
2016-08-01
We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.
Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo
2009-01-01
A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.
Experimental findings from zero-tank net positive suction head operation of the J-2 hydrogen pump
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stinson, H. P.; Strickland, R. J.
1972-01-01
The results of a series of liquid hydrogen turbopump tests to demonstrate the feasibility of zero-tank net positive suction head are presented. A J-2 engine hydrogen pump and S-IVB stage fuel feed system were used for this investigation. The pump was operated at flows and speeds equivalent to normal J-2 engine operating conditions and at hydrogen bulk temperatures between 39 and 45 R. These tests show zero-tank not positive suction head to be a realistic operating mode that should be considered for future applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clancy, John P.
1988-01-01
The object of the invention is to provide a mechanical force actuator which is lightweight and manipulatable and utilizes linear motion for push or pull forces while maintaining a constant overall length. The mechanical force producing mechanism comprises a linear actuator mechanism and a linear motion shaft mounted parallel to one another. The linear motion shaft is connected to a stationary or fixed housing and to a movable housing where the movable housing is mechanically actuated through actuator mechanism by either manual means or motor means. The housings are adapted to releasably receive a variety of jaw or pulling elements adapted for clamping or prying action. The stationary housing is adapted to be pivotally mounted to permit an angular position of the housing to allow the tool to adapt to skewed interfaces. The actuator mechanisms is operated by a gear train to obtain linear motion of the actuator mechanism.
Martin, Chris C.; Keyes, Corey L. M.
2015-01-01
This paper attempts to reconcile two perspectives on the impact of positive trait change. The first perspective views positive trait change as salubrious because it reflects the process of self-enhancement, whereas the second perspective views positive change as costly because it disrupts the self-verification process. We propose that benefits and costs accrue at discrete rates, such that moderate positive trait change is more beneficial than too little and too much positive change. This constitutes a Goldilocks hypothesis. Using the MIDUS longitudinal dataset (N = 1,725) we test this hypothesis on four traits, namely, social extraversion, agentic extraversion (agency), conscientiousness, and neuroticism. The Goldilocks hypothesis was supported for social extraversion, agentic extraversion (agency), and conscientiousness. Reduction in neuroticism seemed uniformly predictive of higher well-being. Thus, not all amounts of positive trait change are beneficial. While we find no evidence for a limit to the benefits of reduced neuroticism, there is a “just right” amount of positive change in extraversion and conscientiousness that results in the highest level of well-being. Our findings suggest that non-monotonic models may be more valid in investigations of personality change and well-being. PMID:26161648
FatMan vs. LittleBoy: Scaling up Linear Algebraic Operations in Scale-out Data Platforms
Lim, Seung-Hwan; Xu, Luna; Butt, Ali R; Sukumar, Sreenivas Rangan; Kannan, Ramakrishnan
2016-01-01
Linear algebraic operations such as matrix manipulations form the kernel of many machine learning and other crucial algorithms. Scaling up as well as scaling out such algorithms are highly desirable to enable efficient processing over millions of data points. To this end, we present a matrix manipulation approach to effectively scale-up each node in a scale-out data parallel platform such as Apache Spark. Specifically, we enable hardware acceleration for matrix multiplications in a distributed Spark setup without user intervention. Our approach supports both dense and sparse distributed matrices, and provides flexible control of acceleration by matrix density. We demonstrate the benefit of our approach for generalized matrix multiplication operations over large matrices with up to four billion elements. To connect the effectiveness of our approach with machine learning applications, we performed Gramian matrix computation via generalized matrix multiplications. Our experiments show that our approach achieves more than 2x performance speed-up, and up to 96.1% computation improvement, compared to a state of the art Spark MLlib for dense matrices.
Shirai, Yoshiro; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Endoh, Kaori; Miyauchi, Rie; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao
2016-03-01
The relationship between drinking frequency and amount of alcohol consumption (i.e., drinking habits) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We aimed to clarify either a linear or J-shaped dose-response relationship between drinking habits and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a biomarker for identifying individuals at high risk of CKD. In a large-scale cross-sectional study, 403 men and 121 women with an eGFR of 30-60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were defined as cases, and 1209 men and 363 women with ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were randomly extracted as controls (one case subject was matched with three control subjects, matched according to age and season of data collection). We calculated multivariate-adjusted CKD risk and the corresponding mean eGFR according to drinking habits. In men, negative and positive linear relationships with drinking habits were found for CKD risk and mean eGFR (p < 0.001 for all linear terms), respectively, but there were no corresponding J-shaped relationships (not significant for all quadratic terms). In regard to the mean eGFR, however, positive linear relationships were only shown in men in the highest eGFR quartile (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 for drinking frequency and amount of alcohol consumption, respectively). In women, no association was found. Regarding each drinking habit, we found a positive linear dose-response relationship to eGFR in middle-aged men with an eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m(2).
Aeschleman, Stanley R.; Rosen, Christopher C.; Williams, Melissa R.
2003-02-28
The differential effects of non-contingent positive and negative reinforcement operations on the acquisition of superstitious behaviors and rules were investigated in two experiments. College students were instructed to try to produce and/or keep the word "GOOD" on a computer screen (positive reinforcement), or to try to prevent and/or remove the word "BAD" from the screen (negative reinforcement) using response keys. Data from both experiments indicated that participants exposed to lean schedules of negative reinforcers believed that they had greater control over non-contingent stimulus events than participants exposed to either rich or lean schedules of positive reinforcers. These findings and results from research investigating everyday superstitious activities suggest that, relative to positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement operations may provide a more fertile condition for the development and maintenance of superstitious behaviors.
Engel, P C; Ferdinand, W
1973-01-01
1. Lineweaver-Burk plots for glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and several other enzymes show one or more abrupt transitions between apparently linear sections. These transitions correspond to abrupt increases in the apparent K(m) and V(max.) with increasing concentration of the varied substrate. 2. The generalized reciprocal initial-rate equation for a multi-site enzyme requires several restrictions to be put on it in order to generate such plots. These mathematical conditions are explored. 3. It is shown that the effective omission of a term in the denominator of the reciprocal initial-rate equation represents a minimal requirement for generation of abrupt transitions. This corresponds in physical terms to negative co-operativity followed by positive co-operativity affecting the catalytic rate constant for the reaction. 4. Previous models for glutamate dehydrogenase cannot adequately account for the results. On the other hand, the model based on both negative and positive co-operativity gives a good fit to the experimental points. 5. The conclusions are discussed in relation to current knowledge of the structure and mechanism of glutamate dehydrogenase.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edrisinha, Chaturi; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Choi, Ha Young
2011-01-01
We examined the effects of an establishing operation (EO) and abolishing operation (AO) on stimulus control of challenging behavior. Two participants with developmental disabilities and challenging behavior participated. In Phase I, a functional analysis was conducted to identify the consequences maintaining challenging behavior. In Phase II, a…
Bukin, N; McKeever, C; Burgos-Parra, E; Keatley, P S; Hicken, R J; Ogrin, F Y; Beutier, G; Dupraz, M; Popescu, H; Jaouen, N; Yakhou-Harris, F; Cavill, S A; van der Laan, G
2016-10-31
The magnetisation dynamics of the vortex core and Landau pattern of magnetic thin-film elements has been studied using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator (HERALDO). Here we present the first time-resolved x-ray measurements using this technique and investigate the structure and dynamics of the domain walls after excitation with nanosecond pulsed magnetic fields. It is shown that the average magnetisation of the domain walls has a perpendicular component that can change dynamically depending on the parameters of the pulsed excitation. In particular, we demonstrate the formation of wave bullet-like excitations, which are generated in the domain walls and can propagate inside them during the cyclic motion of the vortex core. Based on numerical simulations we also show that, besides the core, there are four singularities formed at the corners of the pattern. The polarisation of these singularities has a direct relation to the vortex core, and can be switched dynamically by the wave bullets excited with a magnetic pulse of specific parameters. The subsequent dynamics of the Landau pattern is dependent on the particular configuration of the polarisations of the core and the singularities.
Optically operated linear electrooptical effect in δ-Bi1-xNdxB3O6/polymer composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrunik, M.; Ebothé, J.; Majchrowski, A.; Michel, J.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Kityk, I. V.
2016-04-01
A novel type of laser operated polymer composites based on orthorhombic δ-Bi1-xNdxB3O6 powders (where x=0.025÷0.100) was prepared. The powders were synthesized by means of polymeric precursor method through the citrate way. They were analyzed using XRD, and HRTEM methods, then embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) photopolymer. During solidification the additional DC-electric field alignment was carried out. The composite films with thickness up to 0.4 mm were studied using the Senarmont method at wavelength of CW He-Ne laser 633 nm with simultaneous application of the DC-electric field at 50 kHz frequency possessing rectangular symmetrical form. As a source of photoinducing beam we used polarized 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation and its power density was varied using a Glan prism polarizer. The linear electrooptical (EO) effect measurements were carried out during and after Nd:YAG laser treatment at different temperatures. The laser stimulated EO effect was explored versus the Nd3+ content and temperature. It was shown that the Nd3+ ion content plays the crucial role in the observed EO effect efficiency. The contribution of the piezo-electrical and piezo-optical phenomena as well as phonons in the observed effects is discussed.
Bukin, N.; McKeever, C.; Burgos-Parra, E.; Keatley, P. S.; Hicken, R. J.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Beutier, G.; Dupraz, M.; Popescu, H.; Jaouen, N.; Yakhou-Harris, F.; Cavill, S. A.; van der Laan, G.
2016-01-01
The magnetisation dynamics of the vortex core and Landau pattern of magnetic thin-film elements has been studied using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator (HERALDO). Here we present the first time-resolved x-ray measurements using this technique and investigate the structure and dynamics of the domain walls after excitation with nanosecond pulsed magnetic fields. It is shown that the average magnetisation of the domain walls has a perpendicular component that can change dynamically depending on the parameters of the pulsed excitation. In particular, we demonstrate the formation of wave bullet-like excitations, which are generated in the domain walls and can propagate inside them during the cyclic motion of the vortex core. Based on numerical simulations we also show that, besides the core, there are four singularities formed at the corners of the pattern. The polarisation of these singularities has a direct relation to the vortex core, and can be switched dynamically by the wave bullets excited with a magnetic pulse of specific parameters. The subsequent dynamics of the Landau pattern is dependent on the particular configuration of the polarisations of the core and the singularities. PMID:27796347
Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R
2015-05-01
Many mining commodities are packaged and shipped using bags. Small bags are typically loaded onto pallets for transport and require a significant amount of manual handling by workers. This specific task of manual bag handling has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially low back disorders. This study evaluates the biomechanical demands of different work layouts when performing manual palletizing of small bags, and evaluates the biomechanical stresses associated with different stacking techniques. Results indicate that peak forward bending moments as well as spinal compression and shear forces are higher when the pallet is situated at the side of the conveyor as opposed to the end of the conveyor. At low levels of the pallet, controlled bag placement results in higher peak forward bending moments than stacking at higher levels and when dropping the bag to lower levels. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of an audit tool for bagging operations in the mining industry.
Pawar, Ravikiran R; Johnson, Ben; Chong, Bun S
2016-01-01
Introduction: Handheld X-ray devices are now offered in dental practice. Handheld X-ray units challenge the concept of a restricted access to the “controlled area” as they are held by the operator. Although an integral lead shield is provided, the distance from the body is variable, dependent on how the device is held. The aim of this article was to investigate the level of operator dose when using a handheld X-ray device in various positions. Material and Methods: A NOMAD Pro™ Handheld X-ray system (Aribex Inc., Charlotte, NC) fitted with a remote control and mounted on a tripod was used in this study. A maxillofacial phantom ATOM® Max Dental and Diagnostic Phantom, model 711 HN (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA) was used to simulate the patient's head position. A mannequin was used to represent the operator. Pre-calibrated thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (Qados, Agar Scientific, Stansted, UK) were placed on the mannequin close to the eyes and at the level of thyroid, trunk, waist, hand (right finger + left palm) and feet, and three TLDs were used for background radiation. Three test scenarios were investigated; Position 1, close to operators' body and parallel to the ground; Position 2, away from the body with the arms fully extended (approximately 40 cm distance) and parallel to the ground; Position 3, perpendicular to the ground while the arms are partially extended. 30 exposures each of 1 s were performed in each test. Results: Background radiation was measured at 0.0110 mGy. The highest exposure after subtracting background radiation was recorded on the palm of the left hand (0.0310 mGy) at Position 3. The estimated dose to the operator was calculated based on an average workload of 100 intraoral radiographs weekly for a dental practitioner working 46 weeks a year. Conclusions: There is a negligible increase in operator exposure levels using handheld X-ray devices which remain well below the recommended levels of the Ionizing Radiation
WKB propagators in position and momentum space for a linear potential with a ‘ceiling’ boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapata, T. A.; Fulling, S. A.
2017-03-01
As a model for the semiclassical analysis of quantum-mechanical systems with both potentials and boundary conditions, we construct the WKB propagator for a linear potential sloping away from an impenetrable boundary. First, we find all classical paths from point y to point x in time t and calculate the corresponding action and amplitude functions. A large part of space-time turns out to be classically inaccessible, and the boundary of this region is a caustic of an unusual type, where the amplitude vanishes instead of diverging. We show that this curve is the limit of caustics in the usual sense when the reflecting boundary is approximated by steeply rising smooth potentials. Then, to improve the WKB approximation we construct the propagator for initial data in momentum space; this requires classifying the interesting variety of classical paths with initial momentum p arriving at x after time t. The two approximate propagators are compared by applying them to Gaussian initial packets by numerical integration; the results show physically expected behavior, with advantages to the momentum-based propagator in the classically forbidden regime (large t).
Heuristics-enhanced dead-reckoning (HEDR) for accurate position tracking of tele-operated UGVs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borenstein, Johann; Borrell, Adam; Miller, Russell; Thomas, David
2010-04-01
This paper introduces a new approach for precision indoor tracking of tele-operated robots, called "Heuristics-Enhanced Dead-reckoning" (HEDR). HEDR does not rely on GPS, or external references; it uses odometry and a low-cost MEMS-based gyro. Our method corrects heading errors incurred by the high drift rate of the gyro by exploiting the structured nature of most indoor environments, but without having to directly measure features of the environment. The only operator feedback offered by most tele-operated robots is the view from a low to the ground onboard camera. Live video lets the operator observe the robot's immediate surroundings, but does not establish the orientation or whereabouts of the robot in its environment. Mentally keeping track of the robot's trajectory is difficult, and operators easily become disoriented. Our goal is to provide the tele-operator with a map view of the robot's current location and heading, as well as its previous trajectory, similar to the information provided by an automotive GPS navigation system. This frees tele-operators to focus on controlling the robot and achieving other mission goals, and provides the precise location of the robot if it becomes disabled and needs to be recovered.
McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H
2010-03-01
Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishing operation conditions decreased problem behavior during tests.
Robust Operation of Tendon-Driven Robot Fingers Using Force and Position-Based Control Laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A robotic system includes a tendon-driven finger and a control system. The system controls the finger via a force-based control law when a tension sensor is available, and via a position-based control law when a sensor is not available. Multiple tendons may each have a corresponding sensor. The system selectively injects a compliance value into the position-based control law when only some sensors are available. A control system includes a host machine and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having a control process, which is executed by the host machine to control the finger via the force- or position-based control law. A method for controlling the finger includes determining the availability of a tension sensor(s), and selectively controlling the finger, using the control system, via the force or position-based control law. The position control law allows the control system to resist disturbances while nominally maintaining the initial state of internal tendon tensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navon, M. I.; Stefanescu, R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Marchand, M.
2012-12-01
NASA's launch of the GOES-R Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 will provide continuous, full disc, high resolution total lightning (IC + CG) data. The data will be available at a horizontal resolution of approximately 9 km. Compared to other types of data, the assimilation of lightning data into operational numerical models has received relatively little attention. Previous efforts of lightning assimilation mostly have employed nudging. This paper will describe the implementation of 1D+3D/4D Var assimilation schemes of existing ground-based WTLN (Worldwide Total Lightning Network) lightning observations using non-linear observation operators in the incremental WRFDA system. To mimic the expected output of GLM, the WTLN data were used to generate lightning super-observations characterized by flash rates/81 km2/20 min. A major difficulty associated with variational approaches is the complexity of the observation operator that defines the model equivalent of lightning. We use Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) as a proxy between lightning data and model variables. This operator is highly nonlinear. Marecal and Mahfouf (2003) have shown that nonlinearities can prevent direct assimilation of rainfall rates in the ECMWF 4D-VAR (using the incremental formulation proposed by Courtier et al. (1994)) from being successful. Using data from the 2011 Tuscaloosa, AL tornado outbreak, we have proved that the direct assimilation of lightning data into the WRF 3D/4D - Var systems is limited due to this incremental approach. Severe threshold limits must be imposed on the innovation vectors to obtain an improved analysis. We have implemented 1D+3D/4D Var schemes to assimilate lightning observations into the WRF model. Their use avoids innovation vector constrains from preventing the inclusion of a greater number of lightning observations Their use also minimizes the problem that nonlinearities in the moist convective scheme can introduce discontinuities in the cost function
Lalonde, Nadine M; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Parent, Stefan; Pannetier, Romain; Villemure, Isabelle
2010-01-01
The intra-operative prone position used for the posterior instrumentation of scoliotic patients has been shown to reduce the spinal deformities prior to instrumentation by 37% on average. However, the effects of the lateral decubitus position used for anterior approaches and minimally invasive techniques have not been investigated. The objectives were to characterize, model and study the biomechanics of this intra-operative posture. Several clinical indices were measured on the pre- and intra-operative radiographs of six scoliotic patients. A personalized finite element mode (FEM) was developed using the pre-op 3D reconstruction, and a three-step method was developed to simulate the lateral decubitus positioning. Two additional intra-op postures, simulating different pelvic obliquities, were also tested by varying the inclination of L5. The radiographic evaluation of the lateral decubitus position showed a significant reduction of 44% of the major curve with 18 mm of apical vertebra translation. The FEM was able to reproduce the intra-op spine geometry with no significant difference with the measured values. Simulations also showed that the pelvic obliquity had different effects on the lumbar and major Cobb angles depending on the scoliotic curve type. The lateral decubitus posture reduces significantly the scoliotic curvatures prior to instrumentation, which was dependent on the pelvic obliquity.
Cohomology of 𝔞𝔣𝔣(2|1) acting on the space of linear differential operators on the superspace ℝ1|2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basdouri, Imed; Derbali, Ammar; Chraygui, Mohamed Elkhames
2016-08-01
We compute the first cohomology of the affine Lie superalgebra 𝔞𝔣𝔣(2|1) on the (1,2)-dimensional real superspace with coefficients in the superspace 𝔇λ;μ2 of linear differential operators acting on weighted densities. We also compute the same, but 𝔞𝔣𝔣(1|1)-relative, cohomology. We explicitly give 1-cocycles spanning these cohomology.
Quantum-classical correspondences for atomic operators: a positive P representation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, L.; Cooper, J.; Zoller, P.
1995-10-01
We demonstrate the successful simulation of classical stochastic differential equations obtained from the positive P phase-space technique for two-level atoms pumped by a near-resonant laser. Numerical results for both the resonance fluorescence spectrum and the absorption spectrum are compared with the exact results. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Shane R.; Soltwisch, Jens; Heeren, Ron M. A.
2014-05-01
In this study, we describe the implementation of a position- and time-sensitive detection system (Timepix detector) to directly visualize the spatial distributions of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization ion cloud in a linear-time-of-flight (MALDI linear-ToF) as it is projected onto the detector surface. These time-resolved images allow direct visualization of m/z-dependent ion focusing effects that occur within the ion source of the instrument. The influence of key parameters, namely extraction voltage ( E V ), pulsed-ion extraction (PIE) delay, and even the matrix-dependent initial ion velocity was investigated and were found to alter the focusing properties of the ion-optical system. Under certain conditions where the spatial focal plane coincides with the detector plane, so-called x-y space focusing could be observed (i.e., the focusing of the ion cloud to a small, well-defined spot on the detector). Such conditions allow for the stigmatic ion imaging of intact proteins for the first time on a commercial linear ToF-MS system. In combination with the ion-optical magnification of the system (~100×), a spatial resolving power of 11-16 μm with a pixel size of 550 nm was recorded within a laser spot diameter of ~125 μm. This study demonstrates both the diagnostic and analytical advantages offered by the Timepix detector in ToF-MS.
Willis, David J. Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M.
2009-01-01
The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.
Willis, David J; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M
2009-01-01
The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional "snapshots," but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.
Edrisinha, Chaturi; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Choi, Ha Young
2011-01-01
We examined the effects of an establishing operation (EO) and abolishing operation (AO) on stimulus control of challenging behavior. Two participants with developmental disabilities and challenging behavior participated. In Phase I, a functional analysis was conducted to identify the consequences maintaining challenging behavior. In Phase II, a discrimination between SD and SΔ was trained. In Phase III, pre-session MOs (i.e., EO and AO conditions) were arranged to assess their effects on challenging behavior. Finally in Phase IV, in addition to manipulating pre-session MOs the challenging behavior was evaluated under extinction in both SD and SΔ conditions. Results indicated that in the context of extinction when pre-session EO and AO conditions were manipulated, responding not only became differentiated but was higher in both SD and SΔ conditions in the pre-session EO condition when compared to the pre-session AO condition.
A study on positive-feedback configuration of a bipolar SiC high temperature operational amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kargarrazi, Saleh; Lanni, Luigia; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
2016-02-01
This paper reports on the design and implementation of an integrated operational amplifier in bipolar SiC, and elaborates on its operation in positive-feedback configuration.The opamp is studied in different feedback setups: closed-loop compensated amplifier, comparator with hysteresis (Schmitt trigger), and as a relaxation oscillator. Measurement results suggest a stable closed-loop opamp with ∼40 dB gain, a Schmitt trigger with constant threshold levels over a wide temperature range, and a relaxation oscillator tested up to 540 kHz. All the setups were tested from 25 °C up to 500 °C.
First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS
Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.
1992-08-01
The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.
First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS
Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.
1992-01-01
The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.
1991-06-07
security , movement, and communication tasks. KEY POINT *3: Retaining the engineer bridge company in the division will allow continued habitual training...1991 Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. 91-15486 Oc :,+,I dm ’+’REPORT DOCUMENTATIOu>PAGE, 0MB No 0704-0188 PbVic f0portin brdnq... PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIITED. A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 woris) This study researches the positioning of the current Heavy Division Bridge
Morales, J.; Ovando, G.; Pena, J. J.
2010-12-23
One of the most important scientific contributions of Professor Marcos Moshinsky has been his study on the harmonic oscillator in quantum theory vis a vis the standard Schroedinger equation with constant mass [1]. However, a simple description of the motion of a particle interacting with an external environment such as happen in compositionally graded alloys consist of replacing the mass by the so-called effective mass that is in general variable and dependent on position. Therefore, honoring in memoriam Marcos Moshinsky, in this work we consider the position-dependent mass Schrodinger equations (PDMSE) for the harmonic oscillator potential model as former potential as well as with equi-spaced spectrum solutions, i.e. harmonic oscillator isospectral partners. To that purpose, the point canonical transformation method to convert a general second order differential equation (DE), of Sturm-Liouville type, into a Schroedinger-like standard equation is applied to the PDMSE. In that case, the former potential associated to the PDMSE and the potential involved in the Schroedinger-like standard equation are related through a Riccati-type relationship that includes the equivalent of the Witten superpotential to determine the exactly solvable positions-dependent mass distribution (PDMD)m(x). Even though the proposed approach is exemplified with the harmonic oscillator potential, the procedure is general and can be straightforwardly applied to other DEs.
Bonaretti, S; Vilayphiou, N; Chan, C M; Yu, A; Nishiyama, K; Liu, D; Boutroy, S; Ghasem-Zadeh, A; Boyd, S K; Chapurlat, R; McKay, H; Shane, E; Bouxsein, M L; Black, D M; Majumdar, S; Orwoll, E S; Lang, T F; Khosla, S; Burghardt, A J
2017-01-01
In this study, we determined that operator positioning precision contributes significant measurement error in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Moreover, we developed software to quantify intra- and inter-operator variability and demonstrated that standard positioning training (now available as a web-based application) can significantly reduce inter-operator variability.
1984-07-01
W (U4 oC) .- 4 0 { 0.. L. CC E I. isla ad ontolSttin 0 0 0U 0 0 4) J :3000 C~ > . 0 U LLO 00 0 5. V V.00 ( 02 0( X 1. Display and Control Station 5 0...0 0 0 24 4. Install/replace User Readout ( URO ) (applies only to manpack, surface vehicle, and auxiliary ground unit operators). 16 17 5 0 0 4 42...Replace manpack unit support 0-o equipment, such as sling, field > > . pack, pack frame or URO holder 0 W L q . 0 (applies only to manpack unit C
Simulation and analysis of differential global positioning system for civil helicopter operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denaro, R. P.; Cabak, A. R.
1983-01-01
A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) computer simulation was developed, to provide a versatile tool for assessing DGPS referenced civil helicopter navigation. The civil helicopter community will probably be an early user of the GPS capability because of the unique mission requirements which include offshore exploration and low altitude transport into remote areas not currently served by ground based Navaids. The Monte Carlo simulation provided a sufficiently high fidelity dynamic motion and propagation environment to enable accurate comparisons of alternative differential GPS implementations and navigation filter tradeoffs. The analyst has provided the capability to adjust most aspects of the system, the helicopter flight profile, the receiver Kalman filter, and the signal propagation environment to assess differential GPS performance and parameter sensitivities. Preliminary analysis was conducted to evaluate alternative implementations of the differential navigation algorithm in both the position and measurement domain. Results are presented to show that significant performance gains are achieved when compared with conventional GPS but that differences due to DGPS implementation techniques were small. System performance was relatively insensitive to the update rates of the error correction information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debes, John H.
2013-05-01
As part of the calibration of the second lifetime position on the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) far-ultraviolet (FUV) detectors, observations of the external target, G191-B2B, were obtained with the G130M, G160M, and G140L gratings in combi- nation with the Bright Object Aperture. The observations were designed to verify the performance of these spectroscopic modes by reproducing similar observations taken during the SM4 Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) of COS. These observations allowed for a detailed determination of the spatial location and profile of the spectra from the three gratings, as well as a determination of the spectral resolution of the G130M grating prior to and after the lifetime move. In general, the negligi- ble differences which exist between the two lifetime positions can be attributed to slight differences in the optical path. In particular, the spectral resolution appears to be slightly improved. The stability of the absolute and relative flux calibration was investigated for G130M as well using STIS echelle data of G191-B2B. We determine that the COS ab- solute flux calibration with the BOA is accurate to 10%, and flux calibrated data are reproducible at the 1-2% level since SMOV.
Thompson, Wiley C
2010-01-01
The modern cast of disaster relief actors includes host nations, non-governmental organisations, private volunteer organisations, military organisations and others. Each group, civilian or military, has valuable skills and experiences critical to disaster relief work. The goal of this paper is to supplement the study of civil-military relief efforts with contemporary anecdotal experience. The paper examines the interaction between US military forces and other disaster relief actors during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake relief effort. The author uses direct observations made while working in Pakistan to contrast the relationships and activities from that effort with other accounts in prevailing scholarly disaster literature and military doctrine. Finally, this paper suggests that the Kashmir model of integration, coordination and transparency of intent creates a framework in which future humanitarian assistance operations could be successfully executed. Recommendations to improve civil-military interaction in future relief efforts will also be addressed.
Seasonal changes in the apparent position of the Sun as elementary applications of vector operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levine, Jonathan
2014-11-01
Many introductory courses in physics face an unpleasant chicken-and-egg problem. One might choose to introduce students to physical quantities such as velocity, acceleration, and momentum in over-simplified one-dimensional applications before introducing vectors and their manipulation; or one might first introduce vectors as mathematical objects and defer demonstration of their physical utility. This paper offers a solution to this pedagogical problem: elementary vector operations can be used without mechanics concepts to understand variations in the solar latitude, duration of daylight, and orientation of the rising and setting Sun. I show how sunrise and sunset phenomena lend themselves to exercises with scalar products, vector products, unit vectors, and vector projections that can be useful for introducing vector analysis in the context of physics.
Manipulator control by exact linearization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruetz, K.
1987-01-01
Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.
Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Abrial, Catherine; Mouret-Reynier, Marie-Ange; Raoelfils, Inès; Durando, Xavier; Leheurteur, Marianne; Gimbergues, Pierre; Tortochaux, Jacques; Curé, Hervé; Chollet, Philippe
2007-04-01
Recent trials of induction chemotherapy in bulky operable breast cancer have shown much higher pathological complete response (pCR) rates with trastuzumab-driven combinations. However, it is useful to take into account the specific chemosensitivity of HER-2-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the pCR rate according to HER-2 status in response to chemotherapy, without an anti-HER-2 specific biological agent, in 710 operable breast cancer patients. Since 1982, these patients have been treated with several different neoadjuvant chemotherapy combinations. During this period, HER-2 overexpression was most often not assessed. Subsequently, we assessed HER-2 expression using archival paraffin-embedded tissue. A technically usable specimen was available for 413 of the 710 patients. Before treatment, 51 patients were HER-2 positive, 287 patients were HER-2 negative, and the results were inconclusive for 75 patients. Of these patients, a pCR in breast and nodes was obtained in 94 patients (14.3%), but this event was threefold more frequent for HER-2-positive patients (23.5%) than for HER-2-negative patients (7%). The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates at 10 years were 66.6% and 57.4%, respectively. The DFS rate was, as expected, better for HER-2-negative patients, with HER-2 status assessed before as well as after chemotherapy. A significant difference was found for OS in favor of HER-2-negative patients only with postchemotherapy assessment of HER-2, a fact similar to our previous findings. Finally, there was a tendency toward a higher DFS rate for HER-2-positive patients who achieved a pCR compared with HER-2-positive patients who did not.
First cohomology of 𝔞𝔣𝔣(1) and 𝔞𝔣𝔣(1|1) acting on linear differential operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basdouri, Imed; Boujelben, Maha; Derbali, Ammar
2016-10-01
We consider the 𝔞𝔣𝔣(1)-module structure on the spaces of differential operators acting on the spaces of weighted densities. We compute the first differential cohomology of the Lie superalgebra 𝔞𝔣𝔣(1) with coefficients in differential operators acting on the spaces of weighted densities. We study also the super analogue of this problem getting the same results.
2017-04-12
Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Tuan, P H; Chang, C C; Lee, C Y; Cho, C Y; Liang, H C; Chen, Y F
2016-11-14
The characteristics of a convex-concave linear resonator under the thermal lensing effect are theoretically analyzed to find an analytical model for designing end-pumped solid-state lasers with flexible cavity lengths. By exploiting the design model, the power scaling for continuous-wave operation under strong thermal lensing can be easily achieved in the proposed resonator with different cavity lengths. Furthermore, the proposed resonator is applied to explore the exclusive influence of cavity length on the self-mode-locked (SML) operation. It is discovered that the lasing longitudinal modes will split into multiple groups in optical spectrum to lead to a multi-pulse mode-locked temporal state when the cavity length increases. Finally, a theoretical model is derived to reconstruct the experimental results of SML operation to deduce a simple relationship between the group number of lasing modes and the cavity length.
Marchand, A; Buisson, C; Martin, L; Martin, J-A; Molina, A; Ressiot, D
2017-03-11
Anti-doping controls in non-major events are relatively infrequent and athletes that compete only in these events are less likely to be controlled. The French Anti-Doping Agency carried out an anti-doping operation during a regional cycling competition in Guadeloupe. The urine and serum samples were analyzed by the French anti-doping laboratory. Out of 42 athletes, 7 were positive for one or more substances prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Four serum samples contained continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) and one a recombinant erythropoietin. However, no traces were found in the corresponding urines. One of the athletes positive for CERA was also positive for growth hormone (GH), identified using the GH isoform test. The same serum was negative with the GH biomarkers test, probably because of the brief interval between injection and control (less than a day). The stimulants heptaminol and dimethylbutylamine, as well as the glucocorticoid prednisone and its metabolite prednisolone, were also found. Strikingly, 16.6% of the controlled athletes were using one or more prohibited drugs. These findings indicate that doping is widespread in athletes competing regionally and that CERA is still a popular drug for endurance sports. They underline the need for more controls, particularly blood sampling during non-major competitions.
Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J
2011-05-01
The best method of assessing muscular force qualities during isoinertial stretch shorten cycle lower body movements remains a subject of much debate. This study had 2 purposes: Firstly, to calculate the interday reliability of peak force (PF) measurement and a variety of force-time measures, and, secondly, to compare the reliability of the 2 most common technologies for measuring force during loaded jump squats, the linear position transducer (PT), and the force plate (FP). Twenty-five male elite level rugby union players performed 3 rebound jump squats with a 40-kg external load on 2 occasions 1 week apart. Vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) were directly measured via an FP, and force was differentiated from position data collected using a PT. From these data, a number of force-time variables were calculated for both the FP and PT. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and percent change in the mean were used as measures of between-session reliability. Additionally, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients were used to investigate intercorrelations between variables and technologies. Both FP and PT were found to be a reliable means of measuring PF (ICC = 0.88-0.96, CV = 2.3-4.8%), and the relationship between the 2 technologies was very high and high for days 1 and 2, respectively (r = 0.67-0.88). Force-time variables calculated from FP data tended to have greater relative and absolute consistency (ICC = 0.70-0.96, CV = 5.1-51.8%) than those calculated from differentiated PT data (ICC = 0.18-0.95, CV = 7.7-93.6%). Intercorrelations between variables ranged from trivial to practically perfect (r = 0.00-1.00). It was concluded that PF can be measured reliably with both FP and PT technologies, and these measurements are related. A number of force-time values can also be reliably calculated via the use of GRF data. Although some of these force-time variables can be reliably calculated using position data, variation of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Stelcer, Eduard; Atanacio, Armand J.
2012-12-01
Over 900 fine particle Teflon filters were collected within the Sydney Basin between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 and analyzed using simultaneous PIXE, PIGE, RBS and PESA techniques to determine 21 different elements between hydrogen and lead. These elements were used in positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multi-linear engine (ME) techniques together with HYSPLIT wind back trajectory techniques to quantitatively determine source fingerprints and their contributions from coal-fired power stations. The power stations were many kilometers outside the greater Sydney metropolitan area but still had a significant impact on the fine particle mass loadings measured at the sampling site within this metropolitan area. The PM2.5 eleven year average mass at the sampling site was 6.48 μg m-3. The corresponding ammonium sulfate estimate was 1.65 μg m-3 or 26% of the PM2.5 mass. By applying back trajectory data and (ME) analysis methods, two power related fingerprints, secondary sulfate (2ndrySPower) and aged industrial sulfur (IndSagedPower) were determined. These two power related fingerprints were responsible for between 14 and 18% of the total PM2.5 mass and 34-47% of the total sulfate measured at the sampling site. That is on average somewhere between a third and a half of all the sulfate measured in the greater Sydney region could be attributed to coal-fired power station emissions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.
1992-05-01
Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p < .001) was noted. The same technology was used to pass two channels of light through the scalp of brain-injured patients with prolonged, decreased level of consciousness in a tertiary care neuroscience ICU. Transmission data were collected with gross superficial-to-deep spatial resolution. Saturation calculation based on the deep signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.
Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi
2016-03-15
Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton–Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas and Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi
2016-03-01
Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton-Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas & Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.
Franks, N.
1980-07-29
A maneuverable tool means for attachment to the end of a pipe string to maneuver the position of the pipe string end during lowering to and for alignment with a well part, comprising a tool body member adapted to be connected to the end of a pipe string and having a wall defining a chamber; thrust means including thrust valve means within said chamber, said thrust valve means having a discharge nozzle externally of said wall and directed radially laterally of the body member; fluid pressure means in communication with the thrust means for selectively imparting thrust forces to move the tool body member and the end of the pipe string; and remote control means for said fluid pressure means and operation of said thrust valve means at said tool body member.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramins, P.; Fox, T. A.
1980-01-01
An axisymmetric, multistage, depressed collector of fixed geometric design was evaluated in conjunction with an octave bandwidth, dual mode traveling wave tube (TWT). The TWT was operated over a wide range of conditions to simulate different applications. The collector performance was optimized (within the constraint of fixed geometric design) over the range of TWT operating conditions covered. For operation of the TWT in the linear, low distortion range, 90 percent and greater collector efficiencies were obtained leading to TWT overall efficiencies of 20 to 35 percent, as compared with 2 to 5 percent with an undepressed collector. With collectors of this efficiency and minimized beam interception losses, it becomes practical to design dual mode TWT's such that the low mode can represent operation well below saturation. Consequently, the required pulse up in beam current can be reduced or eliminated, and this mitigates beam control and dual mode TWT circuit design problems. For operation of the dual mode TWT at saturation, average collector efficiencies in excess of 85 percent were obtained for both the low and high modes across an octave bandwidth, leading to a three to fourfold increase in the TWT overall efficiency.
Zou, Kelly H.; O’Malley, A. James
2005-01-01
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a useful evaluative method of diagnostic accuracy. A Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear regression model for ROC analysis was developed. A validation analysis of diagnostic accuracy was conducted using prospective multi-center clinical trial prostate cancer biopsy data collected from three participating centers. The gold standard was based on radical prostatectomy to determine local and advanced disease. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of PSA level at fixed levels of Gleason score, a normality transformation was applied to the outcome data. A hierarchical regression analysis incorporating the effects of cluster (clinical center) and cancer risk (low, intermediate, and high) was performed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated. PMID:16161801
Simultaneous operation of two soft x-ray free-electron lasers driven by one linear accelerator
Faatz, B.; Plönjes, E.; Ackermann, S.; Agababyan, A.; Asgekar, V.; Ayvazyan, V.; Baark, S.; Baboi, N.; Balandin, V.; Bargen, N. von; Bican, Y.; Bilani, O.; Bödewadt, J.; Böhnert, M.; Böspflug, R.; Bonfigt, S.; Bolz, H.; Borges, F.; Borkenhagen, O.; Brachmanski, M.; Braune, M.; Brinkmann, A.; Brovko, O.; Bruns, T.; Castro, P.; Chen, J.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Damker, H.; Decking, W.; Degenhardt, M.; Delfs, A.; Delfs, T.; Deng, H.; Dressel, M.; Duhme, H-T; Düsterer, S.; Eckoldt, H.; Eislage, A.; Felber, M.; Feldhaus, J.; Gessler, P.; Gibau, M.; Golubeva, N.; Golz, T.; Gonschior, J.; Grebentsov, A.; Grecki, M.; Grün, C.; Grunewald, S.; Hacker, K.; Hänisch, L.; Hage, A.; Hans, T.; Hass, E.; Hauberg, A.; Hensler, O.; Hesse, M.; Heuck, K.; Hidvegi, A.; Holz, M.; Honkavaara, K.; Höppner, H.; Ignatenko, A.; Jäger, J.; Jastrow, U.; Kammering, R.; Karstensen, S.; Kaukher, A.; Kay, H.; Keil, B.; Klose, K.; Kocharyan, V.; Köpke, M.; Körfer, M.; Kook, W.; Krause, B.; Krebs, O.; Kreis, S.; Krivan, F.; Kuhlmann, J.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kube, G.; Laarmann, T.; Lechner, C.; Lederer, S.; Leuschner, A.; Liebertz, D.; Liebing, J.; Liedtke, A.; Lilje, L.; Limberg, T.; Lipka, D.; Liu, B.; Lorbeer, B.; Ludwig, K.; Mahn, H.; Marinkovic, G.; Martens, C.; Marutzky, F.; Maslocv, M.; Meissner, D.; Mildner, N.; Miltchev, V.; Molnar, S.; Mross, D.; Müller, F.; Neumann, R.; Neumann, P.; Nölle, D.; Obier, F.; Pelzer, M.; Peters, H-B; Petersen, K.; Petrosyan, A.; Petrosyan, G.; Petrosyan, L.; Petrosyan, V.; Petrov, A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Piotrowski, A.; Pisarov, Z.; Plath, T.; Pototzki, P.; Prandolini, M. J.; Prenting, J.; Priebe, G.; Racky, B.; Ramm, T.; Rehlich, K.; Riedel, R.; Roggli, M.; Röhling, M.; Rönsch-Schulenburg, J.; Rossbach, J.; Rybnikov, V.; Schäfer, J.; Schaffran, J.; Schlarb, H.; Schlesselmann, G.; Schlösser, M.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt-Föhre, F.; Schmitz, M.; Schneidmiller, E.; Schöps, A.; Scholz, M.; Schreiber, S.; Schütt, K.; Schütz, U.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Schulz, M.; Shabunov, A.; Smirnov, P.; Sombrowski, E.; Sorokin, A.; Sparr, B.; Spengler, J.; Staack, M.; Stadler, M.; Stechmann, C.; Steffen, B.; Stojanovic, N.; Sychev, V.; Syresin, E.; Tanikawa, T.; Tavella, F.; Tesch, N.; Tiedtke, K.; Tischer, M.; Treusch, R.; Tripathi, S.; Vagin, P.; Vetrov, P.; Vilcins, S.; Vogt, M.; Wagner, A. de Zubiaurre; Wamsat, T.; Weddig, H.; Weichert, G.; Weigelt, H.; Wentowski, N.; Wiebers, C.; Wilksen, T.; Willner, A.; Wittenburg, K.; Wohlenberg, T.; Wortmann, J.; Wurth, W.; Yurkov, M.; Zagorodnov, I.; Zemella, J.
2016-06-20
Extreme-ultraviolet to x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) in operation for scientific applications are up to now single-user facilities. While most FELs generate around 100 photon pulses per second, FLASH at DESY can deliver almost two orders of magnitude more pulses in this time span due to its superconducting accelerator technology. This makes the facility a prime candidate to realize the next step in FELs—dividing the electron pulse trains into several FEL lines and delivering photon pulses to several users at the same time. Hence, FLASH has been extended with a second undulator line and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) is demonstrated in both FELs simultaneously. Here, FLASH can now deliver MHz pulse trains to two user experiments in parallel with individually selected photon beam characteristics. First results of the capabilities of this extension are shown with emphasis on independent variation of wavelength, repetition rate, and photon pulse length.
Simultaneous operation of two soft x-ray free-electron lasers driven by one linear accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faatz, B.; Plönjes, E.; Ackermann, S.; Agababyan, A.; Asgekar, V.; Ayvazyan, V.; Baark, S.; Baboi, N.; Balandin, V.; von Bargen, N.; Bican, Y.; Bilani, O.; Bödewadt, J.; Böhnert, M.; Böspflug, R.; Bonfigt, S.; Bolz, H.; Borges, F.; Borkenhagen, O.; Brachmanski, M.; Braune, M.; Brinkmann, A.; Brovko, O.; Bruns, T.; Castro, P.; Chen, J.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Damker, H.; Decking, W.; Degenhardt, M.; Delfs, A.; Delfs, T.; Deng, H.; Dressel, M.; Duhme, H.-T.; Düsterer, S.; Eckoldt, H.; Eislage, A.; Felber, M.; Feldhaus, J.; Gessler, P.; Gibau, M.; Golubeva, N.; Golz, T.; Gonschior, J.; Grebentsov, A.; Grecki, M.; Grün, C.; Grunewald, S.; Hacker, K.; Hänisch, L.; Hage, A.; Hans, T.; Hass, E.; Hauberg, A.; Hensler, O.; Hesse, M.; Heuck, K.; Hidvegi, A.; Holz, M.; Honkavaara, K.; Höppner, H.; Ignatenko, A.; Jäger, J.; Jastrow, U.; Kammering, R.; Karstensen, S.; Kaukher, A.; Kay, H.; Keil, B.; Klose, K.; Kocharyan, V.; Köpke, M.; Körfer, M.; Kook, W.; Krause, B.; Krebs, O.; Kreis, S.; Krivan, F.; Kuhlmann, J.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kube, G.; Laarmann, T.; Lechner, C.; Lederer, S.; Leuschner, A.; Liebertz, D.; Liebing, J.; Liedtke, A.; Lilje, L.; Limberg, T.; Lipka, D.; Liu, B.; Lorbeer, B.; Ludwig, K.; Mahn, H.; Marinkovic, G.; Martens, C.; Marutzky, F.; Maslocv, M.; Meissner, D.; Mildner, N.; Miltchev, V.; Molnar, S.; Mross, D.; Müller, F.; Neumann, R.; Neumann, P.; Nölle, D.; Obier, F.; Pelzer, M.; Peters, H.-B.; Petersen, K.; Petrosyan, A.; Petrosyan, G.; Petrosyan, L.; Petrosyan, V.; Petrov, A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Piotrowski, A.; Pisarov, Z.; Plath, T.; Pototzki, P.; Prandolini, M. J.; Prenting, J.; Priebe, G.; Racky, B.; Ramm, T.; Rehlich, K.; Riedel, R.; Roggli, M.; Röhling, M.; Rönsch-Schulenburg, J.; Rossbach, J.; Rybnikov, V.; Schäfer, J.; Schaffran, J.; Schlarb, H.; Schlesselmann, G.; Schlösser, M.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt-Föhre, F.; Schmitz, M.; Schneidmiller, E.; Schöps, A.; Scholz, M.; Schreiber, S.; Schütt, K.; Schütz, U.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Schulz, M.; Shabunov, A.; Smirnov, P.; Sombrowski, E.; Sorokin, A.; Sparr, B.; Spengler, J.; Staack, M.; Stadler, M.; Stechmann, C.; Steffen, B.; Stojanovic, N.; Sychev, V.; Syresin, E.; Tanikawa, T.; Tavella, F.; Tesch, N.; Tiedtke, K.; Tischer, M.; Treusch, R.; Tripathi, S.; Vagin, P.; Vetrov, P.; Vilcins, S.; Vogt, M.; de Zubiaurre Wagner, A.; Wamsat, T.; Weddig, H.; Weichert, G.; Weigelt, H.; Wentowski, N.; Wiebers, C.; Wilksen, T.; Willner, A.; Wittenburg, K.; Wohlenberg, T.; Wortmann, J.; Wurth, W.; Yurkov, M.; Zagorodnov, I.; Zemella, J.
2016-06-01
Extreme-ultraviolet to x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) in operation for scientific applications are up to now single-user facilities. While most FELs generate around 100 photon pulses per second, FLASH at DESY can deliver almost two orders of magnitude more pulses in this time span due to its superconducting accelerator technology. This makes the facility a prime candidate to realize the next step in FELs—dividing the electron pulse trains into several FEL lines and delivering photon pulses to several users at the same time. Hence, FLASH has been extended with a second undulator line and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) is demonstrated in both FELs simultaneously. FLASH can now deliver MHz pulse trains to two user experiments in parallel with individually selected photon beam characteristics. First results of the capabilities of this extension are shown with emphasis on independent variation of wavelength, repetition rate, and photon pulse length.
Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Tomita, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J
2017-04-07
The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a one-repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 males, 10 females) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated measures ANOVA calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited a SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p < 0.01. Subjects lifted a greater load in the HHBD (154.50 ± 45.29 kg) compared to the CD (134.72 ± 40.63 kg). Lift distance and duration were 22% and 25% shorter during the 1RM HHBD, respectively. The HHBD featured greater peak power and velocity, and peak and mean force; more work was done in the CD. Most subjects did not exhibit a CD (68%) or HHBD (77%) SR. There were no differences in CD or HHBD mechanics between subjects with or without a SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength training adaptations over time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.
2013-01-01
Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…
Simultaneous operation of two soft x-ray free-electron lasers driven by one linear accelerator
Faatz, B.; Plönjes, E.; Ackermann, S.; ...
2016-06-20
Extreme-ultraviolet to x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) in operation for scientific applications are up to now single-user facilities. While most FELs generate around 100 photon pulses per second, FLASH at DESY can deliver almost two orders of magnitude more pulses in this time span due to its superconducting accelerator technology. This makes the facility a prime candidate to realize the next step in FELs—dividing the electron pulse trains into several FEL lines and delivering photon pulses to several users at the same time. Hence, FLASH has been extended with a second undulator line and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) is demonstrated inmore » both FELs simultaneously. Here, FLASH can now deliver MHz pulse trains to two user experiments in parallel with individually selected photon beam characteristics. First results of the capabilities of this extension are shown with emphasis on independent variation of wavelength, repetition rate, and photon pulse length.« less
Xu, Shoujiang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Taihong; Li, Jinghong
2011-05-15
In this work, we report a cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol at a positive potential (ca. 0.05 V vs Ag/AgCl) with a strong light emission on the graphene-modified glass carbon electrode. The resulted graphene-modified electrode offers an excellent platform for high-performance biosensing applications. On the basis of the cathodic ECL signal of luminol on the graphene-modified electrode, an ECL sandwich immunosensor for sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers at low potential was developed with a multiple signal amplification strategy from functionalized graphene and gold nanorods multilabeled with glucose oxidase (GOx) and secondary antibody (Ab(2)). The functionalized graphene improved the electron transfer on the electrode interface and was employed to attach the primary antibody (Ab(1)) due to it large surface area. The gold nanorods were not only used as carriers of secondary antibody (Ab(2)) and GOx but also catalyzed the ECL reaction of luminol, which further amplified the ECL signal of luminol in the presence of glucose and oxygen. The as-proposed low-potential ECL immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and specificity on the detection of prostate protein antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostate cancer that was used as a model. A linear relationship between ECL signals and the concentrations of PSA was obtained in the range from 10 pg mL(-1) to 8 ng mL(-1). The detection limit of PSA was 8 pg mL(-1) (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Moreover, the as-proposed low-potential ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility. The graphene-based ECL immunosensor accurately detected PSA concentration in 10 human serum samples from patients demonstrated by excellent correlations with standard chemiluminescence immunoassay. The results suggest that the as-proposed graphene ECL immunosensor will be promising in the point-of-care diagnostics application of clinical screening of cancer biomarkers.
Pastalkova, E; Kelemen, E; Bures, J
2003-02-18
The present study describes a task testing the ability of rats to trigger operant behavior by their relative spatial position to inaccessible rotating objects. Rats were placed in a Skinner box with a transparent front wall through which they could observe one or two adjacent objects fixed on a slowly rotating arena (d = 1 m) surrounded by an immobile black cylinder. The direction of arena rotation was alternated at a sequence of different time intervals. Rats were reinforced for the first bar-press that was emitted when a radius separating the two adjacent objects or dividing a single object into two halves (pointing radius) entered a 60 degrees sector of its circular trajectory defined with respect to the stationary Skinner box (reward sector). Well trained rats emitted 62.1 +/- 3.6% of responses in a 60 degrees sector preceding the reward sector and in the first 30 degrees of the reward sector. Response rate increased only when the pointing radius was approaching the reward sector, regardless of the time elapsed from the last reward. In the extinction session, when no reward was delivered, rats responded during the whole passage of the pointing radius through the former reward sector and spontaneously decreased responding after the pointing radius left this area. This finding suggests that rats perceived the reward sector as a continuous single region. The same results were obtained when the Skinner box with the rat was orbiting around the immobile scene. It is concluded that rats can recognize and anticipate their position relative to movable objects.
Laycock, J F; Gartside, I B
1985-08-01
Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (BDI) received daily subcutaneous injections of vasopressin in the form of Pitressin tannate (0.5 IU/24 hr). They were initially deprived of food and then trained to work for food reward in a Skinner box to a fixed ratio of ten presses for each pellet received. Once this schedule had been learned the rats were given a discrimination task daily for seven days. The performances of these BDI rats were compared with those of rats of the parent Long Evans (LE) strain receiving daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle (arachis oil). Comparisons were also made between these two groups of treated animals and untreated BDI and LE rats studied under similar conditions. In the initial learning trial, both control and Pitressin-treated BDI rats performed significantly better, and manifested less fear initially, than the control or vehicle-injected LE rats when first placed in the Skinner box. Once the initial task had been learned there was no marked difference in the discrimination learning between control or treated BDI and LE animals. These results support the view that vasopressin is not directly involved in all types of learning behaviour, particularly those involving positively reinforced operant conditioning.
Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.
2015-01-01
Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.
Marami Milani, Mohammad Reza; Hense, Andreas; Rahmani, Elham; Ploeger, Angelika
2016-07-23
This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new), and respiratory rate predictor RRP) with three main components of cow's milk (yield, fat, and protein) for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest number of climate predictors. Uncertainty estimation is employed by applying bootstrapping through resampling. Cross validation is used to avoid over-fitting. Climatic parameters are calculated from the NASA-MERRA global atmospheric reanalysis. Milk data for the months from April to September, 2002 to 2010 are used. The best linear regression models are found in spring between milk yield as the predictand and THI, ESI, ETI, HLI, and RRP as predictors with p-value < 0.001 and R² (0.50, 0.49) respectively. In summer, milk yield with independent variables of THI, ETI, and ESI show the highest relation (p-value < 0.001) with R² (0.69). For fat and protein the results are only marginal. This method is suggested for the impact studies of climate variability/change on agriculture and food science fields when short-time series or data with large uncertainty are available.
Computer Program For Linear Algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.
1987-01-01
Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Shigetaka; Harima, Takashi
2016-03-01
The mean flowfield of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets run through transversely with a two-dimensional jet, has been investigated, experimentally. The object of this experiment is to operate both the velocity scale and the length scale of the multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet. The reason of the adoption of this nozzle exit shape was caused by the reports of authors in which the cruciform nozzle promoted the inward secondary flows strongly on both the two jet axes. Aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzle used in this experiment was 12.5. Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue (≅ 39 m / s) was kept constant 25000. Longitudinal mean velocity was measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (lh = 3.1 μm in diameter, dh = 0.6 mm effective length : dh / lh = 194) operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC), and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 60 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the magnitude of the inward secondary flows on both the y and z axes in the upstream region of the present jet was promoted by a two-dimensional jet which run through transversely perpendicular to the multiple rectangular jets, therefore the potential core length on the x axis of the present jet extended 2.3 times longer than that of the multiple rectangular jets, and the half-velocity width on the rectangular jet axis of the present jet was suppressed 41% shorter compared with that of the multiple rectangular jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John
2009-01-01
T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousseau, Jérôme Le; Robbiano, Luc
2010-03-01
In a bounded domain of R n+1, n ≧ 2, we consider a second-order elliptic operator, {A=-{partial_{x_0}^2} - nabla_x \\cdot (c(x) nabla_x)}, where the (scalar) coefficient c( x) is piecewise smooth yet discontinuous across a smooth interface S. We prove a local Carleman estimate for A in the neighborhood of any point of the interface. The “observation” region can be chosen independently of the sign of the jump of the coefficient c at the considered point. The derivation of this estimate relies on the separation of the problem into three microlocal regions and the Calderón projector technique. Following the method of Lebeau and Robbiano (Comm Partial Differ Equ 20:335-356, 1995) we then prove the null controllability for the linear parabolic initial problem with Dirichlet boundary conditions associated with the operator {{partial_t - nabla_x \\cdot (c(x) nabla_x)}}.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.
2014-01-01
The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.
Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.
2014-03-14
The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS{sub 1} − S{sub 2} introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the S-circumflex operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters’ two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} broadened by N{sub 2}. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds
These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency Geospatial Quality Council developed this document to harmonize the process of collecting, editing, and exporting spatial data of known quality using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Each organizational entity may adopt this d...
Bueno, María Jesús Martínez; Agüera, Ana; Hernando, María Dolores; Gómez, María José; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R
2009-08-07
The LC-MS/MS analysis of a group of 14 organic pollutants in wastewater--including pharmaceuticals (analgesics/anti-inflammatories, lipid regulators and diuretics), pesticides (diuron) and disinfectants (chlorophene)--has been carried out using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). In order to take advantage of the capabilities of the QqLIT system, two methods have been developed and compared, based on the application of different operation modes. One of them uses selected reaction monitoring (SRM), which is the standard mode for quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. The other is based on the use of an information dependent acquisition scan function (IDA), which allows the combination of a SRM acting as the survey scan and an enhanced product ion scan (EPI) as dependent scan within the same analysis. Performance of both methods was compared, especially in terms of their limits of detection and identification capability. The advantages and limitations of both techniques are discussed. Finally, the two methodologies developed were applied to real samples for evaluation of effluent wastewater in a treatment plant on the south-eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain. The presence of most of the target compounds was detected at mean concentrations ranging from 50 ng/L (mefenamic acid) to 3373 ng/L (hydrochlorothiazide).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Min; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenji; Pu, Ruiliang; Liu, Ke
2016-01-01
Mapping vegetation abundance by using remote sensing data is an efficient means for detecting changes of an eco-environment. With Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) imagery acquired on July 31, 2013, both linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) and multinomial logit model (MNLM) methods were applied to estimate and assess the vegetation abundance in the Wild Duck Lake Wetland in Beijing, China. To improve mapping vegetation abundance and increase the number of endmembers in spectral mixture analysis, normalized difference vegetation index was extracted from OLI imagery along with the seven reflective bands of OLI data for estimating the vegetation abundance. Five endmembers were selected, which include terrestrial plants, aquatic plants, bare soil, high albedo, and low albedo. The vegetation abundance mapping results from Landsat OLI data were finally evaluated by utilizing a WorldView-2 multispectral imagery. Similar spatial patterns of vegetation abundance produced by both fully constrained LSMA algorithm and MNLM methods were observed: higher vegetation abundance levels were distributed in agricultural and riparian areas while lower levels in urban/built-up areas. The experimental results also indicate that the MNLM model outperformed the LSMA algorithm with smaller root mean square error (0.0152 versus 0.0252) and higher coefficient of determination (0.7856 versus 0.7214) as the MNLM model could handle the nonlinear reflection phenomenon better than the LSMA with mixed pixels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, T.
This book is intended to be used as a textbook in a one-semester course at a variety of levels. Because of self-study features incorporated, it may also be used by practicing electronic engineers as a formal and thorough introduction to the subject. The distinction between linear and digital integrated circuits is discussed, taking into account digital and linear signal characteristics, linear and digital integrated circuit characteristics, the definitions for linear and digital circuits, applications of digital and linear integrated circuits, aspects of fabrication, packaging, and classification and numbering. Operational amplifiers are considered along with linear integrated circuit (LIC) power requirements and power supplies, voltage and current regulators, linear amplifiers, linear integrated circuit oscillators, wave-shaping circuits, active filters, DA and AD converters, demodulators, comparators, instrument amplifiers, current difference amplifiers, analog circuits and devices, and aspects of troubleshooting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langer-Osuna, Jennifer
2015-01-01
This paper draws on the constructs of hybridity, figured worlds, and cultural capital to examine how a group of African-American students in a technology-driven, project-based algebra classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities during group work. Analyses of several vignettes of small…
Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Simões Dornellas de Barros, Alfredo Carlos; Martins de Andrade, Felipe Eduardo; Barbosa Bevilacqua, Jose Luiz; Morales Piato, José Roberto; Lopes Pelosi, Edilson; Martella, Eduardo; Fernandes da Silva, João Luis; Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de
2014-08-01
Purpose: To present local control, complications, and cosmetic outcomes of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for early breast cancer, as well as technical aspects related to the use of a nondedicated linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: This prospective trial began in May of 2004. Eligibility criteria were biopsy-proven breast-infiltrating ductal carcinoma, age >40 years, tumor <3 cm, and cN0. Exclusion criteria were in situ or lobular types, multicentricity, skin invasion, any contraindication for surgery and/or radiation therapy, sentinel lymph node involvement, metastasis, or another malignancy. Patients underwent classic quadrantectomy with intraoperative sentinel lymph node and margins evaluation. If both free, the patient was transferred from operative suite to linear accelerator room, and IORT was delivered (21 Gy). Primary endpoint: local recurrence (LR); secondary endpoints: toxicities and aesthetics. Quality assurance involved using a customized shield for chest wall protection, applying procedures to minimize infection caused by patient transportation, and using portal films to check collimator-shield alignment. Results: A total of 152 patients were included, with at least 1 year follow-up. Median age (range) was 58.3 (40-85.4) years, and median follow-up time was 50.7 (12-110.5) months. The likelihood of 5-year local recurrence was 3.7%. There were 3 deaths, 2 of which were cancer related. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year actuarial estimates of overall, disease-free, and local recurrence-free survivals were 97.8%, 92.5%, and 96.3%, respectively. The overall incidences of acute and late toxicities were 12.5% and 29.6%, respectively. Excellent, good, fair, and bad cosmetic results were observed in 76.9%, 15.8%, 4.3%, and 2.8% of patients, respectively. Most treatments were performed with a 5-cm collimator, and in 39.8% of the patients the electron-beam energy used was ≥12 MeV. All patients underwent portal film evaluation, and the shielding was
Lama, Prem; Das, Raj Kumar; Smith, Vincent J; Barbour, Leonard J
2014-06-21
A novel semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF has been synthesized and characterized by variable temperature powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The material displays an unusual combination of thermal expansion (TE) i.e. negative, zero and positive, which is an extremely rare finding, especially for metal-organic frameworks as a result of a combined stretching-tilting mechanism.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, Sidney E., III (Inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (Inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (Inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.
Almberg, S. S.; Frengen, J.; Lindmo, T.
2012-08-15
Purpose: To compare dosimetric characteristics of 6 MV photon fields originating from a linear accelerator operating with (FF) and without (FFF) a flattening-filter. The main objective is to establish a FFF model that results in similar depth-dose and build-up profiles as the original FF model, and subsequently estimate and compare out-of-field dose distributions. Methods: The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for photon beam simulations of an Elekta linear accelerator and dose calculations in a water phantom, respectively. Three beam models were analyzed: (1) the conventional linear accelerator with the flattening-filter in place and incident electron energy 6.45 MeV (FF 6.45 MeV), (2) similar flattening-filter-free model (FFF 6.45 MeV), and (3) as (2) but with increased electron energy (FFF 8.0 MeV). The field size 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} was used for characterization of dose output, depth dose profiles, and photon spectrum. The field size 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was used for characterization of cross-field photon energy, photon fluence, and dose distributions. Out-of-field dose distributions were analyzed in both in-plane and cross-plane directions for 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} fields. Results: Comparable depth dose distributions, including the build-up region, for FF and FFF fields were achieved by increasing the electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV for the FFF beam. The FFF beams result in reduced out-of-field dose compared to the FF beam: the reduction was most apparent in the cross-plane direction and more pronounced by the FFF 8.0 MeV beam compared to the FFF 6.45 MeV beam. Differences in out-of-field dose due to direction (in-plane vs cross-plane) were up to 40% for the FF beam; this effect was significantly reduced for the FFF beams. As the flattening-filter is a major source of contaminating electrons, superficial out-of-field dose was expected, and was
Borso, C.S.
1984-01-01
The advent of high-intensity X-ray synchrotron sources has made possible the measurement of fluctuations in small-angle scattering parameters from typical specimens on a submillisecond time scale in real-time. The fundamental design of any fast detector system optimized for such measurements will incorporate some type of solid state detector array capable of rapid encoding algorithms. A prototype with a self-scanning photodiode array has been designed and tested at beamline 1 to 4 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), and the results indicate that the device will operate at speeds yielding submillisecond temporal resolution in real-time.
LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations
Miller, M.A.
1990-05-01
LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).
LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations
Dongarra, J.J.
1982-05-02
LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).
Linearization of Robot Manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreutz, Kenneth
1987-01-01
Four nonlinear control schemes equivalent. Report discusses theory of nonlinear feedback control of robot manipulator, emphasis on control schemes making manipulator input and output behave like decoupled linear system. Approach, called "exact external linearization," contributes efforts to control end-effector trajectories, positions, and orientations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer-Osuna, Jennifer
2015-03-01
This paper draws on the constructs of hybridity, figured worlds, and cultural capital to examine how a group of African-American students in a technology-driven, project-based algebra classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities during group work. Analyses of several vignettes of small group dynamics highlight how hybridity was established as the students engaged in multiple on-task and off-task computer-based activities, each of which drew on different lived experiences and forms of cultural capital. The paper ends with a discussion on how classrooms that make use of student-led collaborative work, and where students are afforded autonomy, have the potential to support the academic engagement of students from historically marginalized communities.
Hong, X; Gao, H
2014-06-15
Purpose: The Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation (LBTE) solved through statistical Monte Carlo (MC) method provides the accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the alternative way for accurately solving LBTE using deterministic numerical method due to its possible advantage in computational speed from MC. Methods: Instead of using traditional spherical harmonics to approximate angular scattering kernel, our deterministic numerical method directly computes angular scattering weights, based on a new angular discretization method that utilizes linear finite element method on the local triangulation of unit angular sphere. As a Result, our angular discretization method has the unique advantage in positivity, i.e., to maintain all scattering weights nonnegative all the time, which is physically correct. Moreover, our method is local in angular space, and therefore handles the anisotropic scattering well, such as the forward-peaking scattering. To be compatible with image-guided radiotherapy, the spatial variables are discretized on the structured grid with the standard diamond scheme. After discretization, the improved sourceiteration method is utilized for solving the linear system without saving the linear system to memory. The accuracy of our 3D solver is validated using analytic solutions and benchmarked with Geant4, a popular MC solver. Results: The differences between Geant4 solutions and our solutions were less than 1.5% for various testing cases that mimic the practical cases. More details are available in the supporting document. Conclusion: We have developed a 3D LBTE solver based on a new angular discretization method that guarantees the positivity of scattering weights for physical correctness, and it has been benchmarked with Geant4 for photon dose calculation.
A study on the influence of operating circuit on the position of emission point of fluorescent lamp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uetsuki, Tadao; Genba, Yuki; Kanda, Takashi
2009-10-01
High efficiency fluorescent lamp systems driven by high frequency are very popular for general lighting. Therefore it is very beneficial to be able to predict the lamp's life before the lamp dying, because people can buy a new lamp just before the lamp dying and need not have stocks. In order to judge the lifetime of a lamp it is very useful to know where the emission point is on the electrode filament. With regard to a method for grasping the emission point, it has been reported that the distance from the emission point to the end of the filament can be calculated by measuring the voltage across the filament and the currents flowing in both ends of the filament. The lamp's life can be predicted by grasping the movement of the emission point with operating time. Therefore it is very important to confirm whether the movement of the emission point changes or not when the operating circuit is changed. The authors investigated the difference in the way the emission points moved for two lamp systems which are very popular. One system had an electronic ballast having an auxiliary power source for the heating cathode. Another system had an electronic ballast with no power source, but with a capacitor connected to the lamp in parallel. In this presentation these measurement results will be reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-01
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
Duan, Xiongwei; Xiao, Manjun; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Xiangdong; Peng, Wenhong; Duan, Linrui; Tan, Hua; Lei, Gangtie; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo
2015-08-26
Two isomeric A-Ar-A-type small molecules of DPP2An(9,10) and DPP2An(2,6), were synthesized with two acceptor arms of diketopyrropyrroles (DPP) and a planar aryl hydrocarbon core of the different substituted anthracene (An), respectively. Their thermal stability, crystallinity, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic performances were investigated. Significantly red-shifted absorption profile and higher HOMO level were observed for the DPP2An(2,6) with 2,6-substituted anthracene relative to the DPP2An(9,10) with 9,10-substituted anthracene, as the former exhibited better planarity and a larger conjugate system. As a result, the solution-processing solar cells based on DPP2An(2,6) and PC71BM (w/w,1:1) displayed remarkably increased power conversion efficiency of 5.44% and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 11.90 mA/cm(2) under 1% 1,8-diiodooctane additive. The PCE and Jsc values were 3.7 and 2.9 times those of the optimized DPP2An(9,10)-based cells, respectively. This work demonstrates that changing the linkage position of the anthracene core in the A-Ar-A-type SMs can strongly improve the photovoltaic properties in organic solar cells.
Fault tolerant linear actuator
Tesar, Delbert
2004-09-14
In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas
2014-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In- Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. Tests were performed within NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 at background pressure levels that were six times lower than what has previously been attained in other vacuum facilities. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the cathode-to-anode flow fraction and cathode position on the performance and operational characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster. In addition, the impact of injecting additional xenon propellant in the vicinity of the cathode was also assessed. Cathode-to-anode flow fraction sensitivity tests were performed for power levels between 1.0 and 3.9 kW. It was found that varying the cathode flow fraction from 5 to approximately 10% of the anode flow resulted in the cathode-to-ground voltage becoming more positive. For an operating condition of 3.8 kW and 500 V, varying the cathode position from a distance of closest approach to 600 mm away did not result in any substantial variation in thrust but resulted in the cathode-to-ground changing from -17 to -4 V. The change in the cathode-to-ground voltage along with visual observations indicated a change in how the cathode plume was coupling to the thruster discharge. Finally, the injection of secondary xenon flow in the vicinity of the cathode had an impact similar to increasing the cathode-to-anode flow fraction, where the cathode-to-ground voltage became more positive and discharge current and thrust increased slightly. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned with a centrally mounted cathode in order to further assess the impact of cathode position on thruster performance.
On manipulator control by exact linearization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreutz, Kenneth
1989-01-01
Comments are given on the application to rigid-link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end-effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid-link manipulator is positive definite, and the fact that there is an independent input for each degree of freedom, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular.
Improved Electrohydraulic Linear Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamtil, James
2004-01-01
A product line of improved electrohydraulic linear actuators has been developed. These actuators are designed especially for use in actuating valves in rocket-engine test facilities. They are also adaptable to many industrial uses, such as steam turbines, process control valves, dampers, motion control, etc. The advantageous features of the improved electrohydraulic linear actuators are best described with respect to shortcomings of prior electrohydraulic linear actuators that the improved ones are intended to supplant. The flow of hydraulic fluid to the two ports of the actuator cylinder is controlled by a servo valve that is controlled by a signal from a servo amplifier that, in turn, receives an analog position-command signal (a current having a value between 4 and 20 mA) from a supervisory control system of the facility. As the position command changes, the servo valve shifts, causing a greater flow of hydraulic fluid to one side of the cylinder and thereby causing the actuator piston to move to extend or retract a piston rod from the actuator body. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) directly linked to the piston provides a position-feedback signal, which is compared with the position-command signal in the servo amplifier. When the position-feedback and position-command signals match, the servo valve moves to its null position, in which it holds the actuator piston at a steady position.
Quantum Operation Time Reversal
Crooks, Gavin E.
2008-03-25
The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.
FUNGWITHAYA, Punpichaya; BRIKSHAVANA, Pasakorn; CHANCHAITHONG, Pattrarat; PRAPASARAKUL, Nuvee
2016-01-01
This study aimed to investigate the spread of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) among veterinary staff, hand-touch sites and surgical tissue during cystotomy operations on cats and dogs that were patients, and to analyze the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. Human and environmental samples were obtained from the nasal passageways of 12 surgeons and veterinary assistants and from 29 hand-touch sites of instruments in operative units and subjected to bacterial isolation and enumeration. Swab samples were collected in triplicate from 29 dogs and three cats at the site of incision, from the incision area, from the peritoneum during surgery and from the peritoneum before suture. MRCoPS were identified by mecA gene detection and characterized by their antibiogram profile, SCCmec type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four staphylococci were isolated, derived from one veterinary assistant, 12 operating room floor areas and hand-touch sites, three dogs and one cat. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) was found on an electric clipper and rebreathing circuits in the operating room. Three dogs were positive for MRSP during surgery, and one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in a cat. All MRCoPS were resistant to doxycycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and enrofloxacin, but no patients developed surgical site infections. According to their genotypic patterns, the clones obtained from the environment and human sources differed from the animal clones. Despite intensive hygienic management, a variety of MRCoPS clones were present within the surgical unit and during surgery. PMID:27990009
Fungwithaya, Punpichaya; Brikshavana, Pasakorn; Chanchaithong, Pattrarat; Prapasarakul, Nuvee
2017-02-28
This study aimed to investigate the spread of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) among veterinary staff, hand-touch sites and surgical tissue during cystotomy operations on cats and dogs that were patients, and to analyze the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. Human and environmental samples were obtained from the nasal passageways of 12 surgeons and veterinary assistants and from 29 hand-touch sites of instruments in operative units and subjected to bacterial isolation and enumeration. Swab samples were collected in triplicate from 29 dogs and three cats at the site of incision, from the incision area, from the peritoneum during surgery and from the peritoneum before suture. MRCoPS were identified by mecA gene detection and characterized by their antibiogram profile, SCCmec type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four staphylococci were isolated, derived from one veterinary assistant, 12 operating room floor areas and hand-touch sites, three dogs and one cat. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) was found on an electric clipper and rebreathing circuits in the operating room. Three dogs were positive for MRSP during surgery, and one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in a cat. All MRCoPS were resistant to doxycycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and enrofloxacin, but no patients developed surgical site infections. According to their genotypic patterns, the clones obtained from the environment and human sources differed from the animal clones. Despite intensive hygienic management, a variety of MRCoPS clones were present within the surgical unit and during surgery.
Gulay, Ucarli; Meltem, Turkay; Nadir, Sinikoglu Sitki; Aysin, Alagol
2015-01-01
Background and Objective: The aim was to compare visibility of the spinal space in sitting and lateral positions, number of attempts, spinal needle depth, skin-dura mater distance and the possible complications; in application of spinal anesthesia, using ultrasound in pregnant patients scheduled to receive elective cesarean operations. Methods: The study was conducted prospective-randomly after receiving approval from the ethics committee and the patients’ permission. ASA I-II 50 pregnant patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group SP were those placed in a sitting position and the patients in Group LP were those placed in a lateral position. In both groups, the skin-dura mater distance was recorded through an out-of plane technique accompanied by ultrasound. The depth of the spinal needle was measured. The number of attempts, the level of attempts recorded. The degree of visibility of the vertebral space was observed through ultrasound and was numerically scored. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: There was no difference between the number of attempts, Modified Bromage Scale and mean measurements of skin-dura mater distance observed through ultrasound. The mean needle depths of Group LP were statistically found significantly higher than Group SP (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our study supports the notion that access to the skin-dura mater distance is longer in the lateral decubitus position when skin-dura mater distance is evaluated by measuring needle depth. PMID:25878618
1985-04-01
for a Stirling cycle cryocooler . 26 * .*o .. * COMPRESSOR MOTOR FORCE VERSUS ROTOR AXIAL POSITION COMPRESSOR P-V DIAGRAM *COMPRESSOR MOTOR COMPRESSOR...potential. However, the limited test program has demonstrated the application of linear motor drive technology to a Stirling cycle cryocooler design. L...Ace-ss Ion& For flTIC TAB - TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE IPAGE - 2. DETAILED DESIGN OF LINEAR RESONANCE CRYOCOOLER ......... 3 2.2 Expander
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A Linear Motion Encoding device for measuring the linear motion of a moving object is disclosed in which a light source is mounted on the moving object and a position sensitive detector such as an array photodetector is mounted on a nearby stationary object. The light source emits a light beam directed towards the array photodetector such that a light spot is created on the array. An analog-to-digital converter, connected to the array photodetector is used for reading the position of the spot on the array photodetector. A microprocessor and memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the linear displacement of the moving object based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Jelger, P; Wang, P; Sahu, J K; Laurell, F; Clarkson, W A
2008-06-23
In this work a volume Bragg grating is used as a wavelength selective element in a high-power cladding-pumped Yb-doped silica fiber laser. The laser produced 138 W of linearly-polarized single-spatial-mode output at 1066 nm with a relatively narrow linewidth of 0.2 nm for approximately 202 W of launched pump power at 976 nm. The beam propagation factor (M(2)) for the output beam was determined to be 1.07. Thermal limitations of volume Bragg gratings are discussed in the context of power scaling for fiber lasers.
Rouesse, Jacques . E-mail: j.rouesse@stcloud-huguenin.org; Lande, Brigitte de la; Bertheault-Cvitkovic, Frederique; Serin, Daniel; Graic, Yvon; Combe, Martin; Leduc, Bernard; Lucas, Virginie; Demange, Liliane; Tan Dat Nguyen; Castera, Daniel; Krzisch, Claude; Villet, Richard; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Garbay, Jean-Remy; Nogues, Catherine
2006-03-15
Purpose: To compare concomitant and sequential adjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimens in node-positive, operable breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized, French, multicenter, phase III trial enrolling 638 eligible women with prior breast surgery and positive axillary dissection. Patients in Arm A received 500 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil, 12 mg/m{sup 2} mitoxantrone, and 500 mg/m{sup 2} cyclophosphamide, with concomitant radiotherapy (50 Gy {+-} 10-20-Gy boost). Patients in Arm B received 500 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil, 60 mg/m{sup 2} epirubicin, and 500 mg/m{sup 2} cyclophosphamide, with subsequent radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was administered on Day 1 every 21 days for 4 cycles. Results: Median treatment durations were 64 and 126 days (Arms A and B, respectively), with no significant difference in overall or disease-free survival. Five-year locoregional relapse-free survival favored patients with conservative surgery (two thirds of the population), with less local and/or regional recurrence in Arm A than in Arm B (3% vs. 9%; p 0.01). Multivariate analysis in this subgroup showed a 2.8-fold increased risk of locoregional recurrence with sequential chemoradiotherapy, independent of other prognostic factors (p = 0.027). Febrile neutropenia and Grade 3-4 leukopenia were significantly more frequent in Arm A. Subclinical left ventricular ejection fraction events at 1 year were more frequent with concomitant radiotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Concomitant radiotherapy with adjuvant fluorouracil, mitoxantrone, and cyclophosphamide has significantly better locoregional control in node-positive breast cancer after conservative surgery and 50% shorter treatment, albeit with slightly more acute toxicity. With mitoxantrone no longer available for adjuvant breast cancer treatment, alternative concomitant chemoradiotherapy studies are needed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morel, Danielle; Levy, William B.
2006-03-01
Information processing in the brain is metabolically expensive and energy usage by the different components of the nervous system is not well understood. In a continuing effort to explore the costs and constraints of information processing at the single neuron level, dendritic processes are being studied. More specifically, the role of various ion channel conductances is explored in terms of integrating dendritic excitatory synaptic input. Biophysical simulations of dendritic behavior show that the complexity of voltage-dependent, non-linear dendritic conductances can produce simplicity in the form of linear synaptic integration. Over increasing levels of synaptic activity, it is shown that two types of voltage-dependent conductances produce linearization over a limited range. This range is determined by the parameters defining the ion channel and the 'passive' properties of the dendrite. A persistent sodium and a transient A-type potassium channel were considered at steady-state transmembrane potentials in the vicinity of and hyperpolarized to the threshold for action potential initiation. The persistent sodium is seen to amplify and linearize the synaptic input over a short range of low synaptic activity. In contrast, the A-type potassium channel has a broader linearization range but tends to operate at higher levels of synaptic bombardment. Given equivalent 'passive' dendritic properties, the persistent sodium is found to be less costly than the A-type potassium in linearizing synaptic input.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janousek, Martin
2010-05-01
Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evanoski-Cole, A.; Prenni, A. J.; Sive, B. C.; Zhou, Y.; Benedict, K. B.; Day, D.; Schurman, M. I.; Sullivan, A.; Li, Y.; Callahan, S. L.; Hand, J. L.; Gebhart, K. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Fischer, E. V.; Collett, J. L., Jr.
2015-12-01
As the oil and natural gas industry expands into rural areas of the United States, it is becoming increasingly important to investigate its impact on air quality in nearby national parks and other protected federal lands. Data from two different field studies centered in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado and the north unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota will be used to perform a comprehensive source apportionment study. Measurements at both locations include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PM2.5 and their precursor gases, and meteorological variables. Both sites are located near concentrated oil and natural gas operations but other local and regional emission sources differ. Other potential sources near Theodore Roosevelt National Park include increased diesel truck traffic, coal fired power plants and road dust. Rocky Mountain National Park is impacted by the transport of emissions from urban centers and agriculture in eastern Colorado. Additionally, the study at Theodore Roosevelt National Park occurred over two consecutive winters and the measurements at Rocky Mountain National Park were collected during the summer. Using these field study data and the EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) tool, the different source factors for each field site will be investigated. In particular, the differences in the oil and gas factor from each study location will be discussed.
Development of a Linear Stirling Model with Varying Heat Inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.
2007-01-01
The linear model of the Stirling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been extended to include a user-specified heat input. Previously developed linear models were limited to the Stirling convertor and electrical load. They represented the thermodynamic cycle with pressure factors that remained constant. The numerical values of the pressure factors were generated by linearizing GRC s non-linear System Dynamic Model (SDM) of the convertor at a chosen operating point. The pressure factors were fixed for that operating point, thus, the model lost accuracy if a transition to a different operating point were simulated. Although the previous linear model was used in developing controllers that manipulated current, voltage, and piston position, it could not be used in the development of control algorithms that regulated hot-end temperature. This basic model was extended to include the thermal dynamics associated with a hot-end temperature that varies over time in response to external changes as well as to changes in the Stirling cycle. The linear model described herein includes not only dynamics of the piston, displacer, gas, and electrical circuit, but also the transient effects of the heater head thermal inertia. The linear version algebraically couples two separate linear dynamic models, one model of the Stirling convertor and one model of the thermal system, through the pressure factors. The thermal system model includes heat flow of heat transfer fluid, insulation loss, and temperature drops from the heat source to the Stirling convertor expansion space. The linear model was compared to a nonlinear model, and performance was very similar. The resulting linear model can be implemented in a variety of computing environments, and is suitable for analysis with classical and state space controls analysis techniques.
Colgate, S.A.
1958-05-27
An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.
1988-01-01
Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.
Linear dependencies in Weyl-Heisenberg orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Hoan Bui; Blanchfield, Kate; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Appleby, D. M.
2013-11-01
Five years ago, Lane Hughston showed that some of the symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures (SICs) in dimension 3 coincide with the Hesse configuration (a structure well known to algebraic geometers, which arises from the torsion points of a certain elliptic curve). This connection with elliptic curves is signalled by the presence of linear dependencies among the SIC vectors. Here we look for analogous connections between SICs and algebraic geometry by performing computer searches for linear dependencies in higher dimensional SICs. We prove that linear dependencies will always emerge in Weyl-Heisenberg orbits when the fiducial vector lies in a certain subspace of an order 3 unitary matrix. This includes SICs when the dimension is divisible by 3 or equal to 8 mod 9. We examine the linear dependencies in dimension 6 in detail and show that smaller dimensional SICs are contained within this structure, potentially impacting the SIC existence problem. We extend our results to look for linear dependencies in orbits when the fiducial vector lies in an eigenspace of other elements of the Clifford group that are not order 3. Finally, we align our work with recent studies on representations of the Clifford group.
Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud
2016-01-01
Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.
1993-01-01
Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.
Thompson, Joseph T; Shelton, Ryan M; Kier, William M
2014-06-15
Hollow cylindrical muscular organs are widespread in animals and are effective in providing support for locomotion and movement, yet are subject to significant non-uniformities in circumferential muscle strain. During contraction of the mantle of squid, the circular muscle fibers along the inner (lumen) surface of the mantle experience circumferential strains 1.3 to 1.6 times greater than fibers along the outer surface of the mantle. This transmural gradient of strain may require the circular muscle fibers near the inner and outer surfaces of the mantle to operate in different regions of the length-tension curve during a given mantle contraction cycle. We tested the hypothesis that circular muscle contractile properties vary transmurally in the mantle of the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We found that both the length-twitch force and length-tetanic force relationships of the obliquely striated, central mitochondria-poor (CMP) circular muscle fibers varied with radial position in the mantle wall. CMP circular fibers near the inner surface of the mantle produced higher force relative to maximum isometric tetanic force, P0, at all points along the ascending limb of the length-tension curve than CMP circular fibers near the outer surface of the mantle. The mean ± s.d. maximum isometric tetanic stresses at L₀ (the preparation length that produced the maximum isometric tetanic force) of 212 ± 105 and 290 ± 166 kN m(-2) for the fibers from the outer and inner surfaces of the mantle, respectively, did not differ significantly (P=0.29). The mean twitch:tetanus ratios for the outer and inner preparations, 0.60 ± 0.085 and 0.58 ± 0.10, respectively, did not differ significantly (P=0.67). The circular fibers did not exhibit length-dependent changes in contraction kinetics when given a twitch stimulus. As the stimulation frequency increased, L₀ was approximately 1.06 times longer than LTW, the mean preparation length that yielded maximum isometric twitch
Linear analysis of a force reflective teleoperator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biggers, Klaus B.; Jacobsen, Stephen C.; Davis, Clark C.
1989-01-01
Complex force reflective teleoperation systems are often very difficult to analyze due to the large number of components and control loops involved. One mode of a force reflective teleoperator is described. An analysis of the performance of the system based on a linear analysis of the general full order model is presented. Reduced order models are derived and correlated with the full order models. Basic effects of force feedback and position feedback are examined and the effects of time delays between the master and slave are studied. The results show that with symmetrical position-position control of teleoperators, a basic trade off must be made between the intersystem stiffness of the teleoperator, and the impedance felt by the operator in free space.
Combustion powered linear actuator
Fischer, Gary J.
2007-09-04
The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.
Wideband Linear Phase Modulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mysoor, Narayan R.; Mueller, Robert O.
1994-01-01
Phase modulator for transmission in X band provides large phase deviation that remains nearly linear with voltage over relatively wide range. Operates with low loss over wide frequency band and with stable characteristics over wide temperature range. Phase modulator contains two varactor-diode phase shifters coupled via circulators. Separate drive circuit applies modulating voltages to varactor diodes. Modulation voltages vary in accordance with input to drive circuit.
Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiess, J. R.
1977-01-01
Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.
Marami Milani, Mohammad Reza; Hense, Andreas; Rahmani, Elham; Ploeger, Angelika
2016-01-01
This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new), and respiratory rate predictor RRP) with three main components of cow’s milk (yield, fat, and protein) for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest number of climate predictors. Uncertainty estimation is employed by applying bootstrapping through resampling. Cross validation is used to avoid over-fitting. Climatic parameters are calculated from the NASA-MERRA global atmospheric reanalysis. Milk data for the months from April to September, 2002 to 2010 are used. The best linear regression models are found in spring between milk yield as the predictand and THI, ESI, ETI, HLI, and RRP as predictors with p-value < 0.001 and R2 (0.50, 0.49) respectively. In summer, milk yield with independent variables of THI, ETI, and ESI show the highest relation (p-value < 0.001) with R2 (0.69). For fat and protein the results are only marginal. This method is suggested for the impact studies of climate variability/change on agriculture and food science fields when short-time series or data with large uncertainty are available. PMID:28231147
Multidimensional Approximation Operators Generated by Lebesgue-Stieltjes Measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, Yu I.
1984-06-01
A general class of sequences of multidimensional positive linear operators is defined and studied; it includes, in particular, sequences of multidimensional Berstein polynomials. The main asymptotic term is obtained in the remainder when derivatives of functions in certain classes are approximated by derivatives of the values of the operators on these functions. Bibliography: 10 titles.
Anan'ev, E P; Polupan, A A; Savin, I A; Goryachev, A S; Troitskiy, A P; Kolokol'nikov, A E; Kulikovskiy, V P; Matskovskiy, I V; Abramov, T A; Podlepich, V V; Krylov, K Yu; Sychev, A A; Tabasaranskiy, T F; Pashin, A A; Lubnin, A Yu
2016-01-01
Paradoxical air embolism (PAE) is a rare life-threatening complication when air emboli enter arteries of the systemic circulation and cause their occlusion. Here, we describe a clinical case of PAE developed during neurosurgery in a patient in the sitting position. PAE led to injuries to the cerebral blood vessels, coronary arteries, and lungs, which caused death of the patient. An effective measure for preventing PAE is abandoning surgery in the sitting position in favor of surgery in the prone position.
Optical Position Encoders for High or Low Temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leviton, Douglas B.
2004-01-01
Optoelectronic pattern-recognition systems (optical encoders) for measuring positions of objects of interest at temperatures well below or well above room temperature are undergoing development. At present, the development effort is concentrated on absolute linear, rotary, and Cartesian encoders and Cartesian autocollimators for scientific instruments that operate in cryostats.
Parametric testing of a linearly driven Stirling cryogenic refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stolfi, F. R.; Daniels, A.
1985-01-01
The parametric testing of a novel Stirling cycle cryogenic refrigerator which incorporates electromagnetic bearings, clearance seals and electronically controlled linear motion was studied. The last feature, which involves the use of two linear motors, position transducers and a highly accurate electronic feedback network, produces the system capability which forms the basis for the tests. The test results provide designers with an understanding of the basic operation of the Stirling cycle and give potential users some indication of the capabilities of this refrigerator under off design conditions.
Parametric testing of a linearly driven Stirling cryogenic refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolfi, F. R.; Daniels, A.
1985-05-01
The parametric testing of a novel Stirling cycle cryogenic refrigerator which incorporates electromagnetic bearings, clearance seals and electronically controlled linear motion was studied. The last feature, which involves the use of two linear motors, position transducers and a highly accurate electronic feedback network, produces the system capability which forms the basis for the tests. The test results provide designers with an understanding of the basic operation of the Stirling cycle and give potential users some indication of the capabilities of this refrigerator under off design conditions.
Sparse Representation of Smooth Linear Operators
1990-08-01
received study by many authors, resulting in constructions with a variety of properties. Meyer [13] constructed orthonormal wavelets for which h E CI(R...Lemmas 2.3 and 2.4; in fact, substitution of the finite sums which determine the elements of UTUT for the integrals in those lemmas yields the...some k the orthogonal matrices U1,..., U, defined in Section 4.1 have been computed (1 = log2(n/k)). We now present a procedure for computation of UTUT
Piezoelectric Linear Motors for Driving Head Element of CD-ROM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yabuki, Akira; Aoyagi, Manabu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro
1994-09-01
This paper deals with piezoelectric linear motors for driving an optical pickup element of CD-ROM. These linear motors have such merits in that they can be made thin because of their simple construction, and they are suitable for precise positioning owing to their operation principle of using ultrasonic vibrations of essentially very small displacements. We can expect that the input power of these motors will be economized due to their self-position-retention function. Therefore, in order to achieve such linear motors, we have already reported some piezoelectric linear motors of the self-moving type. On the other hand, in this paper, the authors investigated some stationary piezoelectric linear motors which could easily be constructed in a flat shape. Compared with the self-moving piezoelectric linear motors reported previously, the stationary piezoelectric linear motors have the merit that they easily generate a uniform pressing force. In this paper, the structure, operation principles, and characteristics of such stationary linear motors are described, and moreover, a method to lower the driving voltage of these linear motors is reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.
LINEAR - DERIVATION AND DEFINITION OF A LINEAR AIRCRAFT MODEL
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duke, E. L.
1994-01-01
interest, or a full non-linear aerodynamic model as used in simulations. LINEAR is written in FORTRAN and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS with a virtual memory requirement of approximately 296K of 8 bit bytes. Both an interactive and batch version are included. LINEAR was developed in 1988.
Operator-assisted planning and execution of proximity operations subject to operational constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.
1991-01-01
Future multi-vehicle operations will involve multiple scenarios that will require a planning tool for the rapid, interactive creation of fuel-efficient trajectories. The planning process must deal with higher-order, non-linear processes involving dynamics that are often counter-intuitive. The optimization of resulting trajectories can be difficult to envision. An interaction proximity operations planning system is being developed to provide the operator with easily interpreted visual feedback of trajectories and constraints. This system is hosted on an IRIS 4D graphics platform and utilizes the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. An inverse dynamics algorithm is used to remove non-linearities while the trajectory maneuvers are decoupled and separated in a geometric spreadsheet. The operator has direct control of the position and time of trajectory waypoints to achieve the desired end conditions. Graphics provide the operator with visualization of satisfying operational constraints such as structural clearance, plume impingement, approach velocity limits, and arrival or departure corridors. Primer vector theory is combined with graphical presentation to improve operator understanding of suggested automated system solutions and to allow the operator to review, edit, or provide corrective action to the trajectory plan.
Daskalaki, A; Agelaki, S; Perraki, M; Apostolaki, S; Xenidis, N; Stathopoulos, E; Kontopodis, E; Hatzidaki, D; Mavroudis, D; Georgoulias, V
2009-01-01
Background: To compare detection rates and evaluate the clinical relevance of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA-positive cells in the peripheral blood (circulating tumour cells, CTCs) and bone marrow (disseminated tumour cells; DTCs) of patients with early breast cancer. Methods: Paired samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow were obtained from 165 patients with stage I–II breast cancer before the initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy. In 84 patients, paired blood and bone marrow samples were also available after chemotherapy. The detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs and DTCs was assessed by real-time PCR. Results: CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs and DTCs were detected in 55.2 and 57.6% of patients before chemotherapy, respectively. After chemotherapy, CTCs and DTCs were identified in 44 (52.4%) and 43 (51.2%) of the 84 patients, respectively. There was a 93.9% (McNemar; P=0.344) and 72.6% (McNemar; P=0.999) concordance between blood and bone marrow samples before and after chemotherapy, respectively. The detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs or DTCs before chemotherapy was associated with decreased overall survival (P=0.024 and P=0.015, respectively). In addition, their simultaneous detection was also associated with an increased incidence of disease-related death and decreased overall survival (P=0.016). Conclusions: The detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs using reverse transcription-PCR (RT–PCR) both before and after chemotherapy is correlated with the detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive DTCs in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The determination of the CTC status by RT–PCR conveys clinically relevant information that is not inferior to DTC status and, owing to the ease of sampling, warrants further evaluation as a tool for monitoring minimal residual disease. PMID:19623181
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oldroyd, Betty K.; Schroder, J. J.
1982-01-01
Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different types of term combination using the positional logic capability of online information retrieval systems and describes a study in which searches for material on "microwave integrated circuits" were conducted in order to find the most economical way of generating the most relevant…
Dakhlaoui, Hassen
2015-04-07
In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values for carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Randolph, Joseph L.; Shepard, Kenneth E.
1990-01-01
The Satellite Resources Management and Tracking System was developed specifically for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program, and now, NASA has the ability to immediately access the necessary data for planning successful orbital satellite servicing operations. This system is an online, real-time data base system that contains a plethora of data on each item identified to support the HST throughout its planned 15 year life. Some of the information provided includes the current status, location, quantity, and history of each asset, a separate record for each discrete serial numbered item, procurement lead times on items sensitive to technology obsolescence, and the maintenance and repair history of each asset. Finally, details are provided on organizational, operational and logistics requirements.
Fleisch, M. C.; Bremerich, D.; Schulte-Mattler, W.; Tannen, A.; Teichmann, A. T.; Bader, W.; Balzer, K.; Renner, S. P.; Römer, T.; Roth, S.; Schütz, F.; Thill, M.; Tinneberg, H.; Zarras, K.
2015-01-01
Purpose: Official guideline published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Positioning injuries after lengthy gynecological procedures are rare, but the associated complications can be potentially serious for patients. Moreover, such injuries often lead to claims of malpractice and negligence requiring detailed medical investigation. To date, there are no binding evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of such injuries. Methods: This S1-guideline is the work of an interdisciplinary group of experts from a range of different professions who were commissioned by DGGG to carry out a systematic literature search of positioning injuries. Members of the participating scientific societies develop a consensus in an informal procedure. Afterwards the directorate of the scientific society approves the consensus. The recommendations cover: PMID:26365999
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlowicz, Michael
The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) will soon become more accurate for civilian users, improving the quality of navigation and of some types of scientific research. The Clinton Administration announced March 29 that within a decade, the federal government will stop degrading the civilian GPS signal and will allow nonmilitary users access to the same clear signals that U.S. troops rely upon.Designed as dual-use system with primary use by the American military, the GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that allows soldiers to determine their exact positions (in latitude and longitude) anywhere in the world. While the GPS is operated by the Department of Defense (DoD), scientists and adventurous civilians have been able to purchase small, portable GPS devices. However, the U.S. military has kept to itself a capability known as “selective availability” that provides a much more precise signal than is available to the public. According to the White House, that selected signal will be available to all users within 4-10 years.
The Linear-Non-Linear Frontier for the Goldstone Higgs
Gavela, M. B.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P. A.N.; Saa, S.
2016-10-25
The minimal $SO(5)/SO(4)$ sigma model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson ancestry. Varying the $\\sigma$ mass allows to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators.
The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavela, M. B.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P. A. N.; Saa, S.
2016-12-01
The minimal SO(5) / SO(4) σ -model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators.
Generation of linear dynamic models from a digital nonlinear simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniele, C. J.; Krosel, S. M.
1979-01-01
The results and methodology used to derive linear models from a nonlinear simulation are presented. It is shown that averaged positive and negative perturbations in the state variables can reduce numerical errors in finite difference, partial derivative approximations and, in the control inputs, can better approximate the system response in both directions about the operating point. Both explicit and implicit formulations are addressed. Linear models are derived for the F 100 engine, and comparisons of transients are made with the nonlinear simulation. The problem of startup transients in the nonlinear simulation in making these comparisons is addressed. Also, reduction of the linear models is investigated using the modal and normal techniques. Reduced-order models of the F 100 are derived and compared with the full-state models.
Relation of the nonlinear Heisenberg algebras in two dimensions with linear ones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Won Sang
2015-07-01
In this paper, we discuss the relation of the nonlinear Heisenberg algebras in two dimensions with linear ones following the Nowicki and Tkachuk's approach for one-dimensional case. For one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, we obtain the solution explicitly. For the nonlinear Heisenberg algebras in two dimensions, we introduce two generators to transform this algebra into the linear one. For the linear version of the nonlinear Heisenberg algebras in two dimensions, we obtain the eigenfunction for the position and angular momentum operator and solve the harmonic oscillator problem in two dimensions.
Fisher, Robert S; Cross, J Helen; French, Jacqueline A; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirsch, Edouard; Jansen, Floor E; Lagae, Lieven; Moshé, Solomon L; Peltola, Jukka; Roulet Perez, Eliane; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Zuberi, Sameer M
2017-04-01
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure types, and to adopt more transparent names. Because current knowledge is insufficient to form a scientifically based classification, the 2017 Classification is operational (practical) and based on the 1981 Classification, extended in 2010. Changes include the following: (1) "partial" becomes "focal"; (2) awareness is used as a classifier of focal seizures; (3) the terms dyscognitive, simple partial, complex partial, psychic, and secondarily generalized are eliminated; (4) new focal seizure types include automatisms, behavior arrest, hyperkinetic, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional; (5) atonic, clonic, epileptic spasms, myoclonic, and tonic seizures can be of either focal or generalized onset; (6) focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure replaces secondarily generalized seizure; (7) new generalized seizure types are absence with eyelid myoclonia, myoclonic absence, myoclonic-atonic, myoclonic-tonic-clonic; and (8) seizures of unknown onset may have features that can still be classified. The new classification does not represent a fundamental change, but allows greater flexibility and transparency in naming seizure types.
Next-generation inductive transducers for position measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, Mark A.
2012-06-01
Position transducers are common but critical elements in defence, aerospace, security and surveillance equipment. Traditional solutions such as potentiometers, optical encoders and inductive detectors, struggle to match the high operational, environmental and lifetime requirements demanded by such equipment. This paper outlines a radically new approach to position measurement suitable for a wide variety of shapes and sizes including rotary, linear, 2D and 3D geometries. The technology's main components are arrays of printed conductors on thin, lightweight flexible substrates. The result is a non-contact, absolute measurement technique which offers high reliability, accuracy and robust operation in a compact, non-ITAR and lightweight form.
Barut—Girardello Coherent States for Nonlinear Oscillator with Position-Dependent Mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amir, Naila; Iqbal, Shahid
2016-07-01
Using ladder operators for the non-linear oscillator with position-dependent effective mass, realization of the dynamic group SU(1,1) is presented. Keeping in view the algebraic structure of the non-linear oscillator, coherent states are constructed using Barut—Girardello formalism and their basic properties are discussed. Furthermore, the statistical properties of these states are investigated by means of Mandel parameter and second order correlation function. Moreover, it is shown that in the harmonic limit, all the results obtained for the non-linear oscillator with spatially varying mass reduce to corresponding results of the linear oscillator with constant mass.
Borot de Battisti, M; Maenhout, M; Lagendijk, J J W; Van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A; Senneville, B Denis de
2015-06-15
Purpose: To develop adaptive planning with feedback for MRI-guided focal HDR prostate brachytherapy with a single divergent needle robotic implant device. After each needle insertion, the dwell positions for that needle are calculated and the positioning of remaining needles and dosimetry are both updated based on MR imaging. Methods: Errors in needle positioning may occur due to inaccurate needle insertion (caused by e.g. the needle’s bending) and unpredictable changes in patient anatomy. Consequently, the dose plan quality might dramatically decrease compared to the preplan. In this study, a procedure was developed to re-optimize, after each needle insertion, the remaining needle angulations, source positions and dwell times in order to obtain an optimal coverage (D95% PTV>19 Gy) without exceeding the constraints of the organs at risk (OAR) (D10% urethra<21 Gy, D1cc bladder<12 Gy and D1cc rectum<12 Gy). Complete HDR procedures with 6 needle insertions were simulated for a patient MR-image set with PTV, prostate, urethra, bladder and rectum delineated. Random angulation errors, modeled by a Gaussian distribution (standard deviation of 3 mm at the needle’s tip), were generated for each needle insertion. We compared the final dose parameters for the situations (I) without re-optimization and (II) with the automatic feedback. Results: The computation time of replanning was below 100 seconds on a current desk computer. For the patient tested, a clinically acceptable dose plan was achieved while applying the automatic feedback (median(range) in Gy, D95% PTV: 19.9(19.3–20.3), D10% urethra: 13.4(11.9–18.0), D1cc rectum: 11.0(10.7–11.6), D1cc bladder: 4.9(3.6–6.8)). This was not the case without re-optimization (median(range) in Gy, D95% PTV: 19.4(14.9–21.3), D10% urethra: 12.6(11.0–15.7), D1cc rectum: 10.9(8.9–14.1), D1cc bladder: 4.8(4.4–5.2)). Conclusion: An automatic guidance strategy for HDR prostate brachytherapy was developed to compensate
Raitsimring, A.; Astashkin, A. V.; Enemark, J. H.; Kaminker, I.; Goldfarb, D.; Walter, E. D.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.
2012-12-29
In this work, the experimental conditions and parameters necessary to optimize the long-distance (≥ 60 Å) Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) measurements of biomacromolecules labeled with Gd(III) tags are analyzed. The specific parameters discussed are the temperature, microwave band, the separation between the pumping and observation frequencies, pulse train repetition rate, pulse durations and pulse positioning in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. It was found that: (i) in optimized DEER measurements, the observation pulses have to be applied at the maximum of the EPR spectrum; (ii) the optimal temperature range for Ka-band measurements is 14-17 K, while in W-band the optimal temperatures are between 6-9 K; (iii) W-band is preferable to Ka-band for DEER measurements. Recent achievements and the conditions necessary for short-distance measurements (<15 Å) are also briefly discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, Sidney E., III
1994-01-01
This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The linear proof mass actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (mass, upper housing, lower housing, and center support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operating testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, S. E., III
1995-01-01
This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The Linear Proof Mass Actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (Mass, Upper Housing, Lower Housing, and Center Support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operational testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.
Brunon, J
2015-01-16
To treat or not to treat an asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic benign meningioma, that is the question. And if treatment is necessary, what is the best technique: radical resection, sub-total resection or radiotherapy? This question is also pertinent for meningiomas of the skull base, posterior part of the sagittal sinus, anterior part of the foramen magnum and cerebellopontine angle. When the results of the treatment are good, the patient and the surgeon are satisfied. But when a new neurological deficit appears after the treatment, the patient is entitled to obtain compensation. What should be the position of the specialist medical assessor in this situation when the prognosis of these benign tumors is unknown? Is the preoperative information that is due to the patient complete, objective and sufficient? Is the therapeutic indication unquestionable? Is the technique irreproachable? For meningiomas, there is no "evidence-based medicine"; the therapeutic option is often based on the personal experience and/or the education of the surgeon and thus is, in fact, highly subjective.
Linear Back-Drive Differentials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waydo, Peter
2003-01-01
Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.
Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Beyer, Benoît; Sobczak, Stéphane; Salvia, Patrick; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique
2014-10-01
To date, kinematics data analyzing continuous 3D motion of upper cervical spine (UCS) manipulation is lacking. This in vitro study aims at investigating inter- and intra-operator reliability of kinematics during high velocity low amplitude manipulation of the UCS. Three fresh specimens were used. Restricted dissection was realized to attach technical clusters to each bone (skull to C2). Motion data was obtained using an optoelectronic system during manipulation. Kinematics data were integrated into specific-subject 3D models to provide anatomical motion representation during thrust manipulation. The reliability of manipulation kinematics was assessed for three practitioners performing two sessions of three repetitions on two separate days. For pre-manipulation positioning, average UCS ROM (SD) were 10° (5°), 22° (5°) and 14° (4°) for lateral bending, axial rotation and flexion-extension, respectively. For the impulse phase, average axial rotation magnitude ranged from 7° to 12°. Reliability analysis showed average RMS up to 8° for pre-manipulation positioning and up to 5° for the impulse phase. As compared to physiological ROM, this study supports the limited angular displacement during manipulation for UCS motion components, especially for axial rotation. Kinematics reliability confirms intra- and inter-operator consistency although pre-manipulation positioning reliability is slightly lower between practitioners and sessions.
Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the operator-repressor system, and least squares approaches.
Hadeler, Karl Peter
2013-01-01
The Michaelis-Menten (MM) function is a fractional linear function depending on two positive parameters. These can be estimated by nonlinear or linear least squares methods. The non-linear methods, based directly on the defect of the MM function, can fail and not produce any minimizer. The linear methods always produce a unique minimizer which, however, may not be positive. Here we give sufficient conditions on the data such that the nonlinear problem has at least one positive minimizer and also conditions for the minimizer of the linear problem to be positive. We discuss in detail the models and equilibrium relations of a classical operator-repressor system, and we extend our approach to the MM problem with leakage and to reversible MM kinetics. The arrangement of the sufficient conditions exhibits the important role of data that have a concavity property (chemically feasible data).
Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, B. C., Jr.; Reoner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.
1977-01-01
A surjective bounded linear operator T from a Banach space X to a Banach space Y must be a sufficient statistic for a dominated family of probability measures defined on the Borel sets of X. These results were applied, so that they characterize linear sufficient statistics for families of the exponential type, including as special cases the Wishart and multivariate normal distributions. The latter result was used to establish precisely which procedures for sampling from a normal population had the property that the sample mean was a sufficient statistic.
A New Linearization Method of Unbalanced Electrical Distribution Networks
Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin
2014-01-01
Abstract--- With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. As DN control and operation strategies are mostly based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages, line currents, power loss) and control variables (e.g., power injections, transformer tap positions), efficient and precise calculation of these sensitivity coefficients, i.e. linearization of DN, is of fundamental importance. In this paper, the derivation of the node voltages and power loss as functions of the nodal power injections and transformers' tap-changers positions is presented, and then solved by a Gauss-Seidel method. Compared to other approaches presented in the literature, the proposed method takes into account different load characteristics (e.g., constant PQ, constant impedance, constant current and any combination of above) of a generic multi-phase unbalanced DN and improves the accuracy of linearization. Numerical simulations on both IEEE 13 and 34 nodes test feeders show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
Analytic streamline calculations on linear tetrahedra
Diachin, D.P.; Herzog, J.A.
1997-06-01
Analytic solutions for streamlines within tetrahedra are used to define operators that accurately and efficiently compute streamlines. The method presented here is based on linear interpolation, and therefore produces exact results for linear velocity fields. In addition, the method requires less computation than the forward Euler numerical method. Results are presented that compare accuracy measurements of the method with forward Euler and fourth order Runge-Kutta applied to both a linear and a nonlinear velocity field.
NAVSTAR Global Positioning System.
1988-04-01
number) The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, Jam-resistant, continuous-operations space-based, passive radio navigation and...with an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ). II. Problem: To fight the next battle...navigation equipment and was not able to navigate on instruments or across a distant 9000-foot mountain. Had a NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS
Linear determining equations for differential constraints
Kaptsov, O V
1998-12-31
A construction of differential constraints compatible with partial differential equations is considered. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the classical determining equations used in the search for admissible Lie operators. As applications of this approach equations of an ideal incompressible fluid and non-linear heat equations are discussed.
... breast with your other hand. The Clutch or Football Hold This is also a good position for ... same time may also choose this position. The football hold allows babies to take milk more easily — ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, Christopher
2009-01-01
Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
Linear Corrugating - Final Technical Report
Lloyd Chapman
2000-05-23
Linear Corrugating is a process for the manufacture of corrugated containers in which the flutes of the corrugated medium are oriented in the Machine Direction (MD) of the several layers of paper used. Conversely, in the conventional corrugating process the flutes are oriented at right angles to the MD in the Cross Machine Direction (CD). Paper is stronger in MD than in CD. Therefore, boxes made using the Linear Corrugating process are significantly stronger-in the prime strength criteria, Box Compression Test (BCT) than boxes made conventionally. This means that using Linear Corrugating boxes can be manufactured to BCT equaling conventional boxes but containing 30% less fiber. The corrugated container industry is a large part of the U.S. economy, producing over 40 million tons annually. For such a large industry, the potential savings of Linear Corrugating are enormous. The grant for this project covered three phases in the development of the Linear Corrugating process: (1) Production and evaluation of corrugated boxes on commercial equipment to verify that boxes so manufactured would have enhanced BCT as proposed in the application; (2) Production and evaluation of corrugated boxes made on laboratory equipment using combined board from (1) above but having dual manufactures joints (glue joints). This box manufacturing method (Dual Joint) is proposed to overcome box perimeter limitations of the Linear Corrugating process; (3) Design, Construction, Operation and Evaluation of an engineering prototype machine to form flutes in corrugating medium in the MD of the paper. This operation is the central requirement of the Linear Corrugating process. Items I and II were successfully completed, showing predicted BCT increases from the Linear Corrugated boxes and significant strength improvement in the Dual Joint boxes. The Former was constructed and operated successfully using kraft linerboard as the forming medium. It was found that tensile strength and stretch
Nadler, J W; Evans, J L; Fang, E; Preud'Homme, X A; Daughtry, R L; Chapman, J B; Bolognesi, M P; Attarian, D E; Wellman, S S; Krystal, A D
2017-03-02
Previous pilot work has established an association between obstructive sleep apnoea and the development of acute postoperative delirium , but it remains unclear to what extent this risk factor is modifiable in the 'real world' peri-operative setting. In a single-blind randomised controlled trial, 135 elderly surgical patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnoea were randomly assigned to receive peri-operative continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or routine care. Of the 114 patients who completed the study, 21 (18.4%) experienced delirium. Delirium was equally common in both groups: 21% (12 of 58 subjects) in the CPAP group and 16% (9 of 56 subjects) in the routine care group (OR = 1.36 [95%CI 0.52-3.54], p = 0.53). Delirious subjects were slightly older - mean (SD) age 68.9 (10.7) vs. 64.9 (8.2), p = 0.07 - but had nearly identical pre-operative STOP-Bang scores (4.19 (1.1) versus 4.27 (1.3), p = 0.79). Subjects in the CPAP group used their devices for a median (IQR [range]) of 3 (0.25-5 [0-12]) nights pre-operatively (2.9 (0.1-4.8 [0.0-12.7]) hours per night) and 1 (0-2 [0-2]) nights postoperatively (1.4 (0.0-5.1 [0.0-11.6]) hours per night). Among the CPAP subjects, the residual pre-operative apnoea-hypopnea index had a significant effect on delirium severity (p = 0.0002). Although we confirm that apnoea is associated with postoperative delirium, we did not find that providing a short-course of auto-titrating CPAP affected its likelihood or severity. Voluntary adherence to CPAP is particularly poor during the initiation of therapy.
Henry, J.J.
1961-09-01
A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.
Linear accelerator for radioisotope production
Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.
1982-02-01
A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.
Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph
2010-01-01
A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics
Translation and rotation positioning motor
Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver
2006-07-04
A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.
Translation and rotation positioning motor
Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver
2005-02-01
A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.
Intertwining operator in thermal CFTd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohya, Satoshi
2017-01-01
It has long been known that two-point functions of conformal field theory (CFT) are nothing but the integral kernels of intertwining operators for two equivalent representations of conformal algebra. Such intertwining operators are known to fulfill some operator identities — the intertwining relations — in the representation space of conformal algebra. Meanwhile, it has been known that the S-matrix operator in scattering theory is nothing but the intertwining operator between the Hilbert spaces of in- and out-particles. Inspired by this algebraic resemblance, in this paper, we develop a simple Lie-algebraic approach to momentum-space two-point functions of thermal CFT living on the hyperbolic space-time ℍ1 × ℍd‑1 by exploiting the idea of Kerimov’s intertwining operator approach to exact S-matrix. We show that in thermal CFT on ℍ1 × ℍd‑1, the intertwining relations reduce to certain linear recurrence relations for two-point functions in the complex momentum space. By solving these recurrence relations, we obtain the momentum-space representations of advanced and retarded two-point functions as well as positive- and negative-frequency two-point Wightman functions for a scalar primary operator in arbitrary space-time dimension d ≥ 3.
On the Linear Stability of Crystals in the Schrödinger-Poisson Model.
Komech, A; Kopylova, E
2016-01-01
We consider the Schrödinger-Poisson-Newton equations for crystals with one ion per cell. We linearize this dynamics at the periodic minimizers of energy per cell and introduce a novel class of the ion charge densities that ensures the stability of the linearized dynamics. Our main result is the energy positivity for the Bloch generators of the linearized dynamics under a Wiener-type condition on the ion charge density. We also adopt an additional 'Jellium' condition which cancels the negative contribution caused by the electrostatic instability and provides the 'Jellium' periodic minimizers and the optimality of the lattice: the energy per cell of the periodic minimizer attains the global minimum among all possible lattices. We show that the energy positivity can fail if the Jellium condition is violated, while the Wiener condition holds. The proof of the energy positivity relies on a novel factorization of the corresponding Hamilton functional. The Bloch generators are nonselfadjoint (and even nonsymmetric) Hamilton operators. We diagonalize these generators using our theory of spectral resolution of the Hamilton operators with positive definite energy (Komech and Kopylova in, J Stat Phys 154(1-2):503-521, 2014, J Spectral Theory 5(2):331-361, 2015). The stability of the linearized crystal dynamics is established using this spectral resolution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuey, R. C.
1972-01-01
Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.
... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... Therapy (SBRT) . top of page How does the equipment work? The linear accelerator uses microwave technology (similar ...
BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.
1994-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.
Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.
1997-01-01
In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilbert, Bryan
2012-10-01
These observations will be used to monitor the signal non-linearity of the IR channel, as well as to update the IR channel non-linearity calibration reference file. The non-linearity behavior of each pixel in the detector will be investigated through the use of full frame and subarray flat fields, while the photometric behavior of point sources will be studied using observations of 47 Tuc. This is a continuation of the Cycle 19 non-linearity monitor, program 12696.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilbert, Bryan
2013-10-01
These observations will be used to monitor the signal non-linearity of the IR channel, as well as to update the IR channel non-linearity calibration reference file. The non-linearity behavior of each pixel in the detector will be investigated through the use of full frame and subarray flat fields, while the photometric behavior of point sources will be studied using observations of 47 Tuc. This is a continuation of the Cycle 20 non-linearity monitor, program 13079.
Elementary operators on self-adjoint operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molnar, Lajos; Semrl, Peter
2007-03-01
Let H be a Hilbert space and let and be standard *-operator algebras on H. Denote by and the set of all self-adjoint operators in and , respectively. Assume that and are surjective maps such that M(AM*(B)A)=M(A)BM(A) and M*(BM(A)B)=M*(B)AM*(B) for every pair , . Then there exist an invertible bounded linear or conjugate-linear operator and a constant c[set membership, variant]{-1,1} such that M(A)=cTAT*, , and M*(B)=cT*BT, .
Multivariate neural network operators with sigmoidal activation functions.
Costarelli, Danilo; Spigler, Renato
2013-12-01
In this paper, we study pointwise and uniform convergence, as well as order of approximation, of a family of linear positive multivariate neural network (NN) operators with sigmoidal activation functions. The order of approximation is studied for functions belonging to suitable Lipschitz classes and using a moment-type approach. The special cases of NN operators, activated by logistic, hyperbolic tangent, and ramp sigmoidal functions are considered. Multivariate NNs approximation finds applications, typically, in neurocomputing processes. Our approach to NN operators allows us to extend previous convergence results and, in some cases, to improve the order of approximation. The case of multivariate quasi-interpolation operators constructed with sigmoidal functions is also considered.
Development of a Linear Stirling System Model with Varying Heat Inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.
2007-01-01
The linear model of the Stirling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been extended to include a user-specified heat input. Previously developed linear models were limited to the Stirling convertor and electrical load. They represented the thermodynamic cycle with pressure factors that remained constant. The numerical values of the pressure factors were generated by linearizing GRC's nonlinear System Dynamic Model (SDM) of the convertor at a chosen operating point. The pressure factors were fixed for that operating point, thus, the model lost accuracy if a transition to a different operating point were simulated. Although the previous linear model was used in developing controllers that manipulated current, voltage, and piston position, it could not be used in the development of control algorithms that regulated hot-end temperature. This basic model was extended to include the thermal dynamics associated with a hot-end temperature that varies over time in response to external changes as well as to changes in the Stirling cycle. The linear model described herein includes not only dynamics of the piston, displacer, gas, and electrical circuit, but also the transient effects of the heater head thermal inertia. The linear version algebraically couples two separate linear dynamic models, one model of the Stirling convertor and one model of the thermal system, through the pressure factors. The thermal system model includes heat flow of heat transfer fluid, insulation loss, and temperature drops from the heat source to the Stirling convertor expansion space. The linear model was compared to a nonlinear model, and performance was very similar. The resulting linear model can be implemented in a variety of computing environments, and is suitable for analysis with classical and state space controls analysis techniques.
Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.
1989-08-22
A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.
Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.
1989-01-01
A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.
The continuity of the output entropy of positive maps
Shirokov, Maxim E
2011-10-31
Global and local continuity conditions for the output von Neumann entropy for positive maps between Banach spaces of trace-class operators in separable Hilbert spaces are obtained. Special attention is paid to completely positive maps: infinite dimensional quantum channels and operations. It is shown that as a result of some specific properties of the von Neumann entropy (as a function on the set of density operators) several results on the output entropy of positive maps can be obtained, which cannot be derived from the general properties of entropy type functions. In particular, it is proved that global continuity of the output entropy of a positive map follows from its finiteness. A characterization of positive linear maps preserving continuity of the entropy (in the following sense: continuity of the entropy on an arbitrary subset of input operators implies continuity of the output entropy on this subset) is obtained. A connection between the local continuity properties of two completely positive complementary maps is considered. Bibliography: 21 titles.
THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES BY GASEOUS DIFFUSION: A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL,
URANIUM, ISOTOPE SEPARATION), (*GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION, LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (* LINEAR PROGRAMMING , GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, GAS FLOW, NUCLEAR REACTORS, OPERATIONS RESEARCH
Zweig, George
2015-08-01
An active, three-dimensional, short-wavelength model of cochlear mechanics is derived from an older, one-dimensional, long-wavelength model containing time-delay forces. Remarkably, the long-wavelength model with nonlocal temporal interactions behaves like a short-wavelength model with instantaneous interactions. The cochlear oscillators are driven both by the pressure and its time derivative, the latter presumably a proxy for forces contributed by outer hair cells. The admittance in the short-wavelength region is used to find an integral representation of the transfer function valid for all wavelengths. There are only two free parameters: the pole position in the complex frequency plane of the admittance, and the slope of the transfer-function phase at low frequencies. The new model predicts a dip in amplitude and a corresponding rapid drop in phase, past the peak of the traveling wave. Linear models may be compared by their wavelengths, and if they have the same dimension, by the singularity structure of their admittances.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.
2006-01-01
Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…
Positive Loadings and Factor Correlations from Positive Covariance Matrices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krijnen, Wim P.
2004-01-01
In many instances it is reasonable to assume that the population covariance matrix has positive elements. This assumption implies for the single factor analysis model that the loadings and regression weights for best linear factor prediction are positive. For the multiple factor analysis model where each variable loads on a single factor and a…
Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almheiri, Ahmed; Dong, Xi; Swingle, Brian
2017-02-01
We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of `entropy operators' in general systems with a large number of degrees of freedom.
Ultra-Precision Linear Actuator for optical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nalbandian, Ruben
2000-10-01
The Ultra-Precision Linear Actuator presented in this paper was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescopes' (NGST) primary mirror surface figure control. The development was a joint effort between Alson E. Hatheway, Inc (AEH) and Moog, Schaeffer Magnetics Division (SMD). The goal of this project was to demonstrate an extremely light weight, relatively high stiffness actuator capable of operating uniformly well over the range of 2- degree(s)K to 300 degree(s)K and achieving diffraction-limited performance (+/- 10 nm) in the optical band for weeks at a time, while consuming no electrical power and dissipating no heat. The essence of the design challenge was to develop a lightweight, high stiffness, low power, thermally stable linear positioning mechanism. Actuation systems with resolutions comparable to that of this design normally are operated in a closed-loop control system to compensate for any non-linearities and hysteresis inherent in their enabling technologies, such as piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers. These technologies require continuous application of power and therefore are not low power consumption devices. The development challenge was met through the use of Alson E. Hatheway's (AEH) patented Rubicontm elastic transducer which consists of two elastic elements; a soft spring and a stiff flexural member. Deflection of the soft spring applies a force input to the stiff flexure, which responds with a proportionally reduced output deflection. To maintain linearity, the displacements, and hence the stresses, developed in both elastic members are kept well below the elastic yield strength of the material. The AEH transducer is inherently linear and hysteresis free.
Why quantum dynamics is linear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Thomas F.
2009-11-01
A seed George planted 45 years ago is still producing fruit now. In 1961, George set out the fundamental proposition that quantum dynamics is described most generally by linear maps of density matrices. Since the first sprout from George's seed appeared in 1962, we have known that George's fundamental proposition can be used to derive the linear Schrodinger equation in cases where it can be expected to apply. Now we have a proof of George's proposition that density matrices are mapped linearly to density matrices, that there can be no nonlinear generalization of this. That completes the derivation of the linear Schrodinger equation. The proof of George's proposition replaces Wigner's theorem that a symmetry transformation is represented by a linear or antilinear operator. The assumption needed to prove George's proposition is just that the dynamics does not depend on anything outside the system but must allow the system to be described as part of a larger system. This replaces the physically less compelling assumption of Wigner's theorem that absolute values of inner products are preserved. The history of this question is reviewed. Nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics have been proposed. They predict small but clear nonlinear effects, which very accurate experiments have not seen. This begs the question. Is there a reason in principle why nonlinearity is not found? Is it impossible? Does quantum dynamics have to be linear? Attempts to prove this have not been decisive, because either their assumptions are not compelling or their arguments are not conclusive. The question has been left unsettled. The simple answer, based on a simple assumption, was found in two steps separated by 44 years.
Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry
2014-05-01
The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the
Inductive Non-Contact Position Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youngquist, Robert; Garcia, Alyssa; Simmons, Stephen
2010-01-01
Optical hardware has been developed to measure the depth of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter's windows. In this hardware, a mirror is translated such that its position corresponds to the defect's depth, so the depth measurement problem is transferred to a mirror-position measurement problem. This is preferable because the mirror is internal to the optical system and thus accessible. Based on requirements supplied by the window inspectors, the depth of the defects needs to be measured over a range of 200 microns with a resolution of about 100 nm and an accuracy of about 400 nm. These same requirements then apply to measuring the position of the mirror, and in addition, since this is a scanning system, a response time of about 10 ms is needed. A market search was conducted and no sensor that met these requirements that also fit into the available housing volume (less than one cubic inch) was found, so a novel sensor configuration was constructed to meet the requirements. This new sensor generates a nearly linearly varying magnetic field over a small region of space, which can easily be sampled, resulting in a voltage proportional to position. Experiments were done with a range of inductor values, drive voltages, drive frequencies, and inductor shapes. A rough mathematical model was developed for the device that, in most aspects, describes how it operates and what electrical parameters should be chosen for best performance. The final configuration met all the requirements, yielding a small rugged sensor that was easy to use and had nanometer resolution over more than the 200-micron range required. The inductive position sensor is a compact device (potentially as small as 2 cubic centimeters), which offers nanometer-position resolution over a demonstrated range of nearly 1 mm. One of its advantages is the simplicity of its electrical design. Also, the sensor resolution is nearly uniform across its operational range, which is in contrast to eddy current and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A membrane structure includes at least one electroactive bending actuator fixed to a supporting base. Each electroactive bending actuator is operatively connected to the membrane for controlling membrane position. Any displacement of each electroactive bending actuator effects displacement of the membrane. More specifically, the operative connection is provided by a guiding wheel assembly and a track, wherein displacement of the bending actuator effects translation of the wheel assembly along the track, thereby imparting movement to the membrane.
Nuclear core positioning system
Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.
1979-01-01
A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.
A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem
Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez
2016-01-01
An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146
... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ... a mother. As you become more used to breastfeeding your baby, you can try different positions or ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Auty, Geoffrey
1988-01-01
Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)
Precision Linear Actuator for Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) Siderostat Pointing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Brant; Braun, David; Hankins, Steve; Koenig, John; Moore, Don
2008-01-01
'SIM PlanetQuest will exploit the classical measuring tool of astrometry (interferometry) with unprecedented precision to make dramatic advances in many areas of astronomy and astrophysics'(1). In order to obtain interferometric data two large steerable mirrors, or Siderostats, are used to direct starlight into the interferometer. A gimbaled mechanism actuated by linear actuators is chosen to meet the unprecedented pointing and angle tracking requirements of SIM. A group of JPL engineers designed, built, and tested a linear ballscrew actuator capable of performing submicron incremental steps for 10 years of continuous operation. Precise, zero backlash, closed loop pointing control requirements, lead the team to implement a ballscrew actuator with a direct drive DC motor and a precision piezo brake. Motor control commutation using feedback from a precision linear encoder on the ballscrew output produced an unexpected incremental step size of 20 nm over a range of 120 mm, yielding a dynamic range of 6,000,000:1. The results prove linear nanometer positioning requires no gears, levers, or hydraulic converters. Along the way many lessons have been learned and will subsequently be shared.
Operator pencil passing through a given operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biggs, A.; Khudaverdian, H. M.
2013-12-01
Let Δ be a linear differential operator acting on the space of densities of a given weight λ0 on a manifold M. One can consider a pencil of operators {widehat{Pi }}(Δ )=lbrace Δ _{λ }rbrace passing through the operator Δ such that any Δλ is a linear differential operator acting on densities of weight λ. This pencil can be identified with a linear differential operator widehat{Δ } acting on the algebra of densities of all weights. The existence of an invariant scalar product in the algebra of densities implies a natural decomposition of operators, i.e., pencils of self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint operators. We study lifting maps that are on one hand equivariant with respect to divergenceless vector fields, and, on the other hand, with values in self-adjoint or anti-self-adjoint operators. In particular, we analyze the relation between these two concepts, and apply it to the study of diff (M)-equivariant liftings. Finally, we briefly consider the case of liftings equivariant with respect to the algebra of projective transformations and describe all regular self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint liftings. Our constructions can be considered as a generalisation of equivariant quantisation.
Operator pencil passing through a given operator
Biggs, A. E-mail: adam.biggs@student.manchester.ac.uk; Khudaverdian, H. M. E-mail: adam.biggs@student.manchester.ac.uk
2013-12-15
Let Δ be a linear differential operator acting on the space of densities of a given weight λ{sub 0} on a manifold M. One can consider a pencil of operators Π-circumflex(Δ)=(Δ{sub λ}) passing through the operator Δ such that any Δ{sub λ} is a linear differential operator acting on densities of weight λ. This pencil can be identified with a linear differential operator Δ-circumflex acting on the algebra of densities of all weights. The existence of an invariant scalar product in the algebra of densities implies a natural decomposition of operators, i.e., pencils of self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint operators. We study lifting maps that are on one hand equivariant with respect to divergenceless vector fields, and, on the other hand, with values in self-adjoint or anti-self-adjoint operators. In particular, we analyze the relation between these two concepts, and apply it to the study of diff (M)-equivariant liftings. Finally, we briefly consider the case of liftings equivariant with respect to the algebra of projective transformations and describe all regular self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint liftings. Our constructions can be considered as a generalisation of equivariant quantisation.
Linear phase compressive filter
McEwan, Thomas E.
1995-01-01
A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.
Linear phase compressive filter
McEwan, T.E.
1995-06-06
A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.
Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran
2015-01-01
Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells.
Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.
2007-01-19
The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.
Richter, B.
1985-12-01
A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The status of the machine and the detectors are discussed and an overview is given of the physics which can be done at this new facility. Some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built are given.
Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baratta, Wendy
2011-01-01
The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…
Alfonso, R; Belinchon, I
2001-01-01
Linear eruptions are sometimes associated with systemic diseases and they may also be induced by various drugs. Paradoxically, such acquired inflammatory skin diseases tend to follow the system of Blaschko's lines. We describe a case of unilateral linear drug eruption caused by ibuprofen, which later became bilateral and generalized.
Linear models: permutation methods
Cade, B.S.; Everitt, B.S.; Howell, D.C.
2005-01-01
Permutation tests (see Permutation Based Inference) for the linear model have applications in behavioral studies when traditional parametric assumptions about the error term in a linear model are not tenable. Improved validity of Type I error rates can be achieved with properly constructed permutation tests. Perhaps more importantly, increased statistical power, improved robustness to effects of outliers, and detection of alternative distributional differences can be achieved by coupling permutation inference with alternative linear model estimators. For example, it is well-known that estimates of the mean in linear model are extremely sensitive to even a single outlying value of the dependent variable compared to estimates of the median [7, 19]. Traditionally, linear modeling focused on estimating changes in the center of distributions (means or medians). However, quantile regression allows distributional changes to be estimated in all or any selected part of a distribution or responses, providing a more complete statistical picture that has relevance to many biological questions [6]...
Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C
2006-11-01
Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer
Ellis, James F.; Walstrom, Peter L.
1977-06-14
A nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer for accurately measuring mechanical displacements in the presence of high magnetic fields is provided. The device utilizes a movable primary coil inside a fixed secondary coil that consists of two series-opposed windings. Operation is such that the secondary output voltage is maintained in phase (depending on polarity) with the primary voltage. The transducer is well-suited to long cable runs and is useful for measuring small displacements in the presence of high or alternating magnetic fields.
Support Operators Method for the Diffusion Equation in Multiple Materials
Winters, Andrew R.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.
2012-08-14
A second-order finite difference scheme for the solution of the diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes is implemented. The method allows the heat conductivity to be discontinuous. The algorithm is formulated on a one dimensional mesh and is derived using the support operators method. A key component of the derivation is that the discrete analog of the flux operator is constructed to be the negative adjoint of the discrete divergence, in an inner product that is a discrete analog of the continuum inner product. The resultant discrete operators in the fully discretized diffusion equation are symmetric and positive definite. The algorithm is generalized to operate on meshes with cells which have mixed material properties. A mechanism to recover intermediate temperature values in mixed cells using a limited linear reconstruction is introduced. The implementation of the algorithm is verified and the linear reconstruction mechanism is compared to previous results for obtaining new material temperatures.
Symmetry algebras of linear differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapovalov, A. V.; Shirokov, I. V.
1992-07-01
The local symmetries of linear differential equations are investigated by means of proven theorems on the structure of the algebra of local symmetries of translationally and dilatationally invariant differential equations. For a nonparabolic second-order equation, the absence of nontrivial nonlinear local symmetries is proved. This means that the local symmetries reduce to the Lie algebra of linear differential symmetry operators. For the Laplace—Beltrami equation, all local symmetries reduce to the enveloping algebra of the algebra of the conformal group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Long; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xiaolin; Su, Rongtao; Zhou, Pu
2016-07-01
We demonstrate a high-power 1152 nm narrow-linewidth linearly polarized fiber laser based on a commercial polarization-maintaining double cladding Yb-doped fiber and cladding-pump regime at 976 nm. By carefully selecting the parameters of the cavity and heating the gain fiber, a maximum output power of 13 W with a slope efficiency of ~45% is obtained, with the amplified spontaneous emission suppressed more than 35 dB lower than the signal wavelength. The polarization extinction ratio and 3 dB linewidth at the maximum output power are 18 dB and 0.14 nm (~42 GHz) respectively, while no spectral broadening and polarization degradation are observed in the process of power scaling, which is an attractive result for some special applications, such as frequency doubling.
Is Africa a 'Graveyard' for Linear Accelerators?
Reichenvater, H; Matias, L Dos S
2016-12-01
Linear accelerator downtimes are common and problematic in many African countries and may jeopardise the outcome of affected radiation treatments. The predicted increase in cancer incidence and prevalence on the African continent will require, inter alia, improved response with regard to a reduction in linear accelerator downtimes. Here we discuss the problems associated with the maintenance and repair of linear accelerators and propose alternative solutions relevant for local conditions in African countries. The paper is based on about four decades of experience in capacity building, installing, commissioning, calibrating, servicing and repairing linear accelerators in Africa, where about 40% of the low and middle income countries in the world are geographically located. Linear accelerators can successfully be operated, maintained and repaired in African countries provided proper maintenance and repair plans are put in place and executed.
Fast feedback for linear colliders
Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.
1995-05-01
A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.
Linear ubiquitination in immunity.
Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning
2015-07-01
Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types.
Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ
2016-06-01
This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2016-04-01
We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.
1979-12-01
OPTIMAL LINEAR CONTROL C.A. HARVEY M.G. SAFO NOV G. STEIN J.C. DOYLE HONEYWELL SYSTEMS & RESEARCH CENTER j 2600 RIDGWAY PARKWAY j [ MINNEAPOLIS...RECIPIENT’S CAT ALC-’ W.IMIJUff’? * J~’ CR2 15-238-4F TP P EI)ŕll * (~ Optimal Linear Control ~iOGRPR UBA m a M.G Lnar o Con_ _ _ _ _ _ R PORT__ _ _ I RE...Characterizations of optimal linear controls have been derived, from which guides for selecting the structure of the control system and the weights in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Studer, P. A. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.
Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyubomirsky, Sonja
2012-01-01
Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…
Linear phase distribution of acoustical vortices
Gao, Lu; Zheng, Haixiang; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong
2014-07-14
Linear phase distribution of phase-coded acoustical vortices was theoretically investigated based on the radiation theory of point source, and then confirmed by experimental measurements. With the proposed criterion of positive phase slope, the possibility of constructing linear circular phase distributions is demonstrated to be determined by source parameters. Improved phase linearity can be achieved at larger source number, lower frequency, smaller vortex radius, and/or longer axial distance. Good agreements are observed between numerical simulations and measurement results for circular phase distributions. The favorable results confirm the feasibility of precise phase control for acoustical vortices and suggest potential applications in particle manipulation.
Linear and non-linear bias: predictions versus measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, K.; Bel, J.; Gaztañaga, E.
2017-02-01
We study the linear and non-linear bias parameters which determine the mapping between the distributions of galaxies and the full matter density fields, comparing different measurements and predictions. Associating galaxies with dark matter haloes in the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) Grand Challenge N-body simulation, we directly measure the bias parameters by comparing the smoothed density fluctuations of haloes and matter in the same region at different positions as a function of smoothing scale. Alternatively, we measure the bias parameters by matching the probability distributions of halo and matter density fluctuations, which can be applied to observations. These direct bias measurements are compared to corresponding measurements from two-point and different third-order correlations, as well as predictions from the peak-background model, which we presented in previous papers using the same data. We find an overall variation of the linear bias measurements and predictions of ∼5 per cent with respect to results from two-point correlations for different halo samples with masses between ∼1012and1015 h-1 M⊙ at the redshifts z = 0.0 and 0.5. Variations between the second- and third-order bias parameters from the different methods show larger variations, but with consistent trends in mass and redshift. The various bias measurements reveal a tight relation between the linear and the quadratic bias parameters, which is consistent with results from the literature based on simulations with different cosmologies. Such a universal relation might improve constraints on cosmological models, derived from second-order clustering statistics at small scales or higher order clustering statistics.
Versatile, low-cost, computer-controlled, sample positioning system for vacuum applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.
1991-01-01
A versatile, low-cost, easy to implement, microprocessor-based motorized positioning system (MPS) suitable for accurate sample manipulation in a Second Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) system, and for other ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications was designed and built at NASA LeRC. The system can be operated manually or under computer control. In the latter case, local, as well as remote operation is possible via the IEEE-488 bus. The position of the sample can be controlled in three linear orthogonal and one angular coordinates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laughlin, Darren
1995-01-01
Inertial linear actuators developed to suppress residual accelerations of nominally stationary or steadily moving platforms. Function like long-stroke version of voice coil in conventional loudspeaker, with superimposed linear variable-differential transformer. Basic concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations of terrestrial platforms. For example, laboratory table equipped with such actuators plus suitable vibration sensors and control circuits made to vibrate much less in presence of seismic, vehicular, and other environmental vibrational disturbances.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.
1991-01-01
The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.
Non-Linear Control Allocation Using Piecewise Linear Functions
2003-08-01
A novel method is presented for the solution of the non- linear control allocation problem. Historically, control allocation has been performed by... linear control allocation problem to be cast as a piecewise linear program. The piecewise linear program is ultimately cast as a mixed-integer linear...piecewise linear control allocation method is shown to be markedly improved when compared to the performance of a more traditional control allocation approach that assumes linearity.
Feedback linearization for control of air breathing engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Stephen; Mattern, Duane
1991-01-01
The method of feedback linearization for control of the nonlinear nozzle and compressor components of an air breathing engine is presented. This method overcomes the need for a large number of scheduling variables and operating points to accurately model highly nonlinear plants. Feedback linearization also results in linear closed loop system performance simplifying subsequent control design. Feedback linearization is used for the nonlinear partial engine model and performance is verified through simulation.
Linear programming model to develop geodiversity map using utility theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehr, Adel
2015-04-01
In this article, the classification and mapping of geodiversity based on a quantitative methodology was accomplished using linear programming, the central idea of which being that geosites and geomorphosites as main indicators of geodiversity can be evaluated by utility theory. A linear programming method was applied for geodiversity mapping over Khorasan-razavi province located in eastern north of Iran. In this route, the main criteria for distinguishing geodiversity potential in the studied area were considered regarding rocks type (lithology), faults position (tectonic process), karst area (dynamic process), Aeolian landforms frequency and surface river forms. These parameters were investigated by thematic maps including geology, topography and geomorphology at scales 1:100'000, 1:50'000 and 1:250'000 separately, imagery data involving SPOT, ETM+ (Landsat 7) and field operations directly. The geological thematic layer was simplified from the original map using a practical lithologic criterion based on a primary genetic rocks classification representing metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The geomorphology map was provided using DEM at scale 30m extracted by ASTER data, geology and google earth images. The geology map shows tectonic status and geomorphology indicated dynamic processes and landform (karst, Aeolian and river). Then, according to the utility theory algorithms, we proposed a linear programming to classify geodiversity degree in the studied area based on geology/morphology parameters. The algorithm used in the methodology was consisted a linear function to be maximized geodiversity to certain constraints in the form of linear equations. The results of this research indicated three classes of geodiversity potential including low, medium and high status. The geodiversity potential shows satisfied conditions in the Karstic areas and Aeolian landscape. Also the utility theory used in the research has been decreased uncertainty of the evaluations.
Fluorescent optical position sensor
Weiss, Jonathan D.
2005-11-15
A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.
Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Inês Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana
2010-01-01
Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defined foci that promote preferred higher-order chromatin arrangements. The positioning of genes within the nuclear landscape relative to specific functional landmarks plays an important role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:20484389
Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.
1959-09-15
A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.
Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul
1986-01-01
An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.
Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul
1986-05-06
An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.
Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.
1983-07-07
An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.
Modabberifar, M
2013-06-01
The present paper proposes a method for positioning and control of dielectric sheet displacement using a novel built-in position sensor for an electrostatic induction sheet conveyor (EISC) which is used for dielectric sheet conveying. The actuator utilizes electrostatic actuation technology based on induced charges and can be used in automated systems for conveying dielectric sheets. The proposed sensing system superimposes a high-frequency sensors signal onto a low-frequency driving signal and uses the actuator's electrodes for position sensing. The operational principle of the built-in sensor is similar to typical capacitance-type linear encoder. In this paper, details of the built-in position sensor based on the exact model of the actuator and feedback position control are reported. The experimental results confirmed that the sensor can work successfully by sharing the same electrodes with the driving operation.
Global Positioning Satellite Recorder
Reeves, George
1997-11-10
The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions prior to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.
Feedback Linearization in a Six Degree-of-Freedom MAG-LEV Stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ludwick, Stephen J.; Trumper, David L.; Holmes, Michael L.
1996-01-01
A six degree-of-freedom electromagnetically suspended motion control stage (the Angstrom Stage) has been designed and constructed for use in short-travel, high-resolution motion control applications. It achieves better than 0.5 nm resolution over a 100 micron range of travel. The stage consists of a single moving element (the platen) floating in an oil filled chamber. The oil is crucial to the stage's operation since it forms squeeze film dampers between the platen and the frame. Twelve electromagnetic actuators provide the forces necessary to suspend and servo the platen, and six capacitance probes measure its position relative to the frame. The system is controlled using a digital signal processing board residing in a '486 based PC. This digital controller implements a feedback linearization algorithm in real-time to account for nonlinearities in both the magnetic actuators and the fluid film dampers. The feedback linearization technique reduces a highly nonlinear plant with coupling between the degrees of freedom into one that is linear, decoupled, and setpoint independent. The key to this procedure is a detailed plant model. The operation of the feedback linearization procedure is transparent to the outer loop of the controller, and so a proportional controller is sufficient for normal operation. We envision applications of this stage in scanned probe microscopy and for integrated circuit measurement.
Superconducting linear actuator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Bruce; Hockney, Richard
1993-01-01
Special actuators are needed to control the orientation of large structures in space-based precision pointing systems. Electromagnetic actuators that presently exist are too large in size and their bandwidth is too low. Hydraulic fluid actuation also presents problems for many space-based applications. Hydraulic oil can escape in space and contaminate the environment around the spacecraft. A research study was performed that selected an electrically-powered linear actuator that can be used to control the orientation of a large pointed structure. This research surveyed available products, analyzed the capabilities of conventional linear actuators, and designed a first-cut candidate superconducting linear actuator. The study first examined theoretical capabilities of electrical actuators and determined their problems with respect to the application and then determined if any presently available actuators or any modifications to available actuator designs would meet the required performance. The best actuator was then selected based on available design, modified design, or new design for this application. The last task was to proceed with a conceptual design. No commercially-available linear actuator or modification capable of meeting the specifications was found. A conventional moving-coil dc linear actuator would meet the specification, but the back-iron for this actuator would weigh approximately 12,000 lbs. A superconducting field coil, however, eliminates the need for back iron, resulting in an actuator weight of approximately 1000 lbs.
Adamo, Diane E; Martin, Bernard J
2009-01-01
Asymmetries in upper limb position sense have been explained in the context of a left limb advantage derived from differences in hemispheric specialization in the processing of kinesthetic information. However, it is not clearly understood how the comparison of perceptual information associated with passive limb displacement and the corresponding matching movement resulting from the execution of a motor command contributes to these differences. In the present study, upper limb position sense was investigated in 12 right-hand-dominant young adults performing wrist position matching tasks which varied in terms of interhemispheric transfer, memory retrieval and whether the reference position was provided by the same or opposite limb. Right and left hand absolute matching errors were similar when the reference and matching positions were produced by the same hand but were 36% greater when matching the reference position with the opposite hand. When examining the constant errors generated from matching movements made with the same hand that provided the reference, the right and left hand matching errors (approximately 3 degrees) were similar. However, when matching with the opposite limb, a large overshoot (P < 0.05) characterized the error when the right hand matched the left hand reference while a large undershoot (P < 0.05) characterized the error when the left hand matched the right hand reference. The overshoot and undershoot were of similar magnitude (approximately 4 degrees). Although asymmetries in the central processing of proprioceptive information such as interhemispheric transfer may exist, the present study suggests that asymmetries in position sense predominantly result from a difference in the "gain of the respective proprioceptive sensory-motor loops". This new hypothesis is strongly supported by a dual-linear model representing the right and left hand sensory-motor systems as well as morphological and physiological data.
Characterizations of linear Volterra integral equations with nonnegative kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naito, Toshiki; Shin, Jong Son; Murakami, Satoru; Ngoc, Pham Huu Anh
2007-11-01
We first introduce the notion of positive linear Volterra integral equations. Then, we offer a criterion for positive equations in terms of the resolvent. In particular, equations with nonnegative kernels are positive. Next, we obtain a variant of the Paley-Wiener theorem for equations of this class and its extension to perturbed equations. Furthermore, we get a Perron-Frobenius type theorem for linear Volterra integral equations with nonnegative kernels. Finally, we give a criterion for positivity of the initial function semigroup of linear Volterra integral equations and provide a necessary and sufficient condition for exponential stability of the semigroups.
Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala
2006-01-01
Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.
Asymmetric linear efficiency and bunching mechanisms of TM modes for electron cyclotron maser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, T. H.; Huang, W. C.; Yao, H. Y.; Hung, C. L.; Chen, W. C.; Su, B. Y.
2017-02-01
This study examines the transverse magnetic (TM) waveguide modes, which have long been considered as the unsuitable ones for the operation of the electron cyclotron maser. The beam-wave coupling strength of the TM modes, as expected, is found to be relatively weak as compared with that of the transverse electric (TE) waveguide modes. Unlike TE modes, surprisingly, the linear behavior of the TM modes depends on the sign of the wave number kz. The negative kz has a much stronger linear efficiency than that of the positive kz. The bunching mechanism analysis further exhibits that the azimuthal bunching and axial bunching do not compete but cooperate with each other for the backward-wave operation (negative kz). The current findings are encouraging and imply that TM modes might be advantageous to the gyrotron backward-wave oscillators.
Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun
2013-08-01
Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).
Noise limitations in optical linear algebra processors.
Batsell, S G; Jong, T L; Walkup, J F; Krile, T F
1990-05-10
A general statistical noise model is presented for optical linear algebra processors. A statistical analysis which includes device noise, the multiplication process, and the addition operation is undertaken. We focus on those processes which are architecturally independent. Finally, experimental results which verify the analytical predictions are also presented.
Physics Case for the International Linear Collider
Fujii, Keisuke; Grojean, Christophe; Peskin, Michael E.; Barklow, Tim; Gao, Yuanning; Kanemura, Shinya; Kim, Hyungdo; List, Jenny; Nojiri, Mihoko; Perelstein, Maxim; Poeschl, Roman; Reuter, Juergen; Simon, Frank; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Yu, Jaehoon; Wells, James D.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; /Tohoku U.
2015-06-23
We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the key motivations for the ILC presented in the literature, updating the projected measurement uncertainties for the ILC experiments in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of the most recent simulation studies.
Exact Linearization For Control Of Robots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreutz, Kenneth K.
1990-01-01
Equivalence of several theoretical approaches discussed. Report comments on application of geometric control theory (GCT), resolved-acceleration control (RAC), operational-space control (OSC), and nonlinear-decoupling theory (NDT) to remote manipulator consisting of multiple rigid links. Principal concern, search for nonlinear feedback law making end effector behave, for purposes of control, as though its dynamics linear and decoupled.
Linear transformer driver for pulse generation
Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A
2015-04-07
A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, J. A. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
The linear motion valve is described. The valve spool employs magnetically permeable rings, spaced apart axially, which engage a sealing assembly having magnetically permeable pole pieces in magnetic relationship with a magnet. The gap between the ring and the pole pieces is sealed with a ferrofluid. Depletion of the ferrofluid is minimized.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.
Position feedback control system
Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.
2003-01-01
Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.
Basic linear algebra subprograms for FORTRAN usage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, C. L.; Hanson, R. J.; Kincaid, D. R.; Krogh, F. T.
1977-01-01
A package of 38 low level subprograms for many of the basic operations of numerical linear algebra is presented. The package is intended to be used with FORTRAN. The operations in the package are dot products, elementary vector operations, Givens transformations, vector copy and swap, vector norms, vector scaling, and the indices of components of largest magnitude. The subprograms and a test driver are available in portable FORTRAN. Versions of the subprograms are also provided in assembly language for the IBM 360/67, the CDC 6600 and CDC 7600, and the Univac 1108.
Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders
Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC
2011-11-08
Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.
Coherent communication with linear optics
Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lee, Hwang
2008-02-15
We show how to implement several continuous-variable coherent protocols with linear optics. Noise can accumulate when implementing each coherent protocol with realistic optical devices. Our analysis bounds the level of noise accumulation. We highlight the connection between a coherent channel and a nonlocal quantum nondemolition interaction and give two new protocols that implement a coherent channel. One protocol is superior to a previous method for a nonlocal quantum nondemolition interaction because it requires fewer communication resources. We then show how continuous-variable coherent superdense coding implements two nonlocal quantum nondemolition interactions with a quantum channel and bipartite entanglement. We finally show how to implement continuous-variable coherent teleportation experimentally and provide a way to verify the correctness of its operation.
Approach toward Linear Scaling QMC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Bryan; Ceperley, David; de Sturler, Eric
2007-03-01
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of fermions are currently done for relatively small system sizes, e.g., fewer than one thousand fermions. The most time-consuming part of the code for larger systems depends critically on the speed with which the ratio of a wavefunction for two different configurations can be evaluated. Most of the time goes into calculating the ratio of two determinants; this scales naively as O(n^3) operations. Work by Williamson, et al. (2) have improved the procedure for evaluating the elements of the Slater matrix, so it can be done in linear time. Our work involves developing methods to evaluate the ratio of these Slater determinants quickly. We compare a number of methods including work involving iterative techniques, sparse approximate inverses, and faster matrix updating.(2) A. J. Williamson, R.Q. Hood and J.C. Grossman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 246406 (2001)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinson, John
1998-01-01
In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. A successful X-33 flight test program will validate the aerospike nozzle concept, a key technical feature of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar(trademark) reusable launch vehicle. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of high chamber pressure bell engines, in part because of perceived technical risk. The aerospike engine (discussed below) has several performance advantages over conventional bell engines. However, these performance advantages are difficult to validate by ground test. The space shuttle, a multibillion dollar program intended to provide all of NASA's future space lift could not afford the gamble of choosing a potentially superior though unproven aerospike engine over a conventional bell engine. The X-33 demonstrator provides an opportunity to prove the aerospike's performance advantage in flight before commiting to an operational vehicle.
Performance of the SLAC Linear Collider klystrons
Allen, M.A.; Fowkes, W.R.; Koontz, R.F.; Schwarz, H.D.; Seeman, J.T.; Vlieks, A.E.
1987-01-01
There are now 200 new, high power 5045 klystrons installed on the two-mile Stanford Linear Accelerator. Peak power per klystron averages over 63 MW. Average energy contribution is above 240 MeV per station. Electron beam energy has been measured as high as 53 GeV. Energy instability due to klystron malfunction is less than 0.2%. The installed klystrons have logged over one million operating hours with close to 20,000 klystron hours cumulative operating time between failures. Data are being accumulated on klystron operation and failure modes with failure signatures starting to become apparent. To date, no wholesale failure modes have surfaced that would impair the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) program.
Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aldridge, Hal A.
1997-01-01
Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.
Quenel-Tueux, Nathalie; Debled, Marc; Rudewicz, Justine; MacGrogan, Gaetan; Pulido, Marina; Mauriac, Louis; Dalenc, Florence; Bachelot, Thomas; Lortal, Barbara; Breton-Callu, Christelle; Madranges, Nicolas; de Lara, Christine Tunon; Fournier, Marion; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Soueidan, Hayssam; Nikolski, Macha; Gros, Audrey; Daly, Catherine; Wood, Henry; Rabbitts, Pamela; Iggo, Richard
2015-01-01
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant anastrozole and fulvestrant treatment of large operable or locally advanced hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer not eligible for initial breast-conserving surgery, and to identify genomic changes occurring after treatment. Methods: One hundred and twenty post-menopausal patients were randomised to receive 1 mg anastrozole (61 patients) or 500 mg fulvestrant (59 patients) for 6 months. Genomic DNA copy number profiles were generated for a subgroup of 20 patients before and after treatment. Results: A total of 108 patients were evaluable for efficacy and 118 for toxicity. The objective response rate determined by clinical palpation was 58.9% (95% CI=45.0–71.9) in the anastrozole arm and 53.8% (95% CI=39.5–67.8) in the fulvestrant arm. The breast-conserving surgery rate was 58.9% (95% CI=45.0–71.9) in the anastrozole arm and 50.0% (95% CI=35.8–64.2) in the fulvestrant arm. Pathological responses >50% occurred in 24 patients (42.9%) in the anastrozole arm and 13 (25.0%) in the fulvestrant arm. The Ki-67 score fell after treatment but there was no significant difference between the reduction in the two arms (anastrozole 16.7% (95% CI=13.3–21.0) before, 3.2% (95% CI=1.9–5.5) after, n=43; fulvestrant 17.1% (95%CI=13.1–22.5) before, 3.2% (95% CI=1.8–5.7) after, n=38) or between the reduction in Ki-67 in clinical responders and non-responders. Genomic analysis appeared to show a reduction of clonal diversity following treatment with selection of some clones with simpler copy number profiles. Conclusions: Both anastrozole and fulvestrant were effective and well-tolerated, enabling breast-conserving surgery in over 50% of patients. Clonal changes consistent with clonal selection by the treatment were seen in a subgroup of patients. PMID:26171933
Linear polarization of a group of symbiotic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Piirola, V.; Scaltriti, F.; Quiroga, C.
2000-08-01
We report linear polarization measurements of a set of symbiotic stars, made at several epochs during the period 1994-1998. Evidence of intrinsic polarization is looked for from the wavelength dependence of the polarization degree and position angle in UBVRI bands. The results have also been analysed to search for temporal variability of polarization. Several objects have shown a polarization spectrum different from that produced by interstellar dust grains and/or polarimetric variations on time scales as short as several days or months, indicating the presence of polarization component of circumstellar origin. Based on observations taken at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, the Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.
Reticle stage based linear dosimeter
Berger, Kurt W.
2007-03-27
A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.
Reticle stage based linear dosimeter
Berger, Kurt W.
2005-06-14
A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.
Hu, Tengjiang; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Xiuyuan; Zhao, You; Bai, Yingwei
2016-03-01
The design, fabrication, and testing of a novel electro-thermal linear motor for micro manipulators is presented in this paper. The V-shape electro-thermal actuator arrays, micro lever, micro spring, and slider are introduced. In moving operation, the linear motor can move nearly 1 mm displacement with 100 μm each step while keeping the applied voltage as low as 17 V. In holding operation, the motor can stay in one particular position without consuming energy and no creep deformation is found. Actuation force of 12.7 mN indicates the high force generation capability of the device. Experiments of lifetime show that the device can wear over two million cycles of operation. A silicon-on-insulator wafer is introduced to fabricate a high aspect ratio structure and the chip size is 8.5 mm × 8.5 mm × 0.5 mm.
A forward operator and its adjoint for GPS slant total delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zus, Florian; Dick, Galina; Heise, Stefan; Wickert, Jens
2015-05-01
In a recent study we developed a fast and accurate algorithm to compute Global Positioning System (GPS) Slant Total Delay (STDs) utilizing numerical weather model data. Having developed a forward operator we construct in this study the tangent linear (adjoint) operator by application of the chain rule of differential calculus in forward (reverse) mode. Armed with these operators we show in a simulation study the potential benefit of GPS STDs in inverse modeling. We conclude that the developed operators are tailored for three (four)-dimensional variational data assimilation and/or travel time tomography.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.
1988-06-21
A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.
McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.
2014-01-01
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036
2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report
1998-11-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology
Assessment of a linear accelerator for segmented conformal radiation therapy.
Zacarias, A S; Lane, R G; Rosen, I I
1993-01-01
Segmented conformal radiation therapy is a new computer-controlled treatment technique under investigation in which the target volume is subdivided into thick transverse segments each of which is then treated individually by rectangular transverse abutting fields. In order to obtain uniform dose at abutments, the machine isocenter remains fixed in the patient and field edges are defined by independently moving focused collimator jaws to give matching geometric divergence. Mechanical variation in jaw and gantry positioning will create some dose variation at field abutments. Film dosimetry was used to study the radiation field positioning accuracy and precision of a commercial linear accelerator. A method of field position calibration was developed using multiple nonabutting fields exposed on the same radiograph. Verification of collimator jaw calibration measurements was performed using multiple abutting fields exposed on a single radiograph. Measurements taken over 5 months of clinical accelerator operation studied the effects of simple jaw motion, simple gantry motion, and combined jaw/gantry motion on jaw position precision and accuracy. The inherent precision and accuracy of radiation field positioning was found to be better than +/- 0.3 mm for both jaws with all types of motions except for the Y2 jaw under combined jaw/gantry motion. When the ability to deliver abutting beams was verified in clinical mode, the average dose variation at abutments was less than 6% at all gantry angles except for one. However, due to accelerator software limitations in clinical mode, the settings for collimator positions could not take advantage of the maximum accuracy of which the hardware is capable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Groover, Richard S.
1981-01-01
Operation Waste Watch is a seven-unit program for grades K-6 which addresses such topics as litter control, recycling, and resources recovery. It is designed to instill in students positive feelings about the environment. (DS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.
Linear control of the flywheel inverted pendulum.
Olivares, Manuel; Albertos, Pedro
2014-09-01
The flywheel inverted pendulum is an underactuated mechanical system with a nonlinear model but admitting a linear approximation around the unstable equilibrium point in the upper position. Although underactuated systems usually require nonlinear controllers, the easy tuning and understanding of linear controllers make them more attractive for designers and final users. In a recent paper, a simple PID controller was proposed by the authors, leading to an internally unstable controlled plant. To achieve global stability, two options are developed here: first by introducing an internal stabilizing controller and second by replacing the PID controller by an observer-based state feedback control. Simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the design.
Unpacking the Complexity of Linear Equations from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngu, Bing Hiong; Phan, Huy P.
2016-01-01
The degree of element interactivity determines the complexity and therefore the intrinsic cognitive load of linear equations. The unpacking of linear equations at the level of operational and relational lines allows the classification of linear equations in a hierarchical level of complexity. Mapping similar operational and relational lines across…
Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction.
Yang, Rong-Cai
2014-01-01
The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments.
Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction
Yang, Rong-Cai
2014-01-01
The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments. PMID:25101112
High-gradient compact linear accelerator
Carder, Bruce M.
1998-01-01
A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.
High-gradient compact linear accelerator
Carder, B.M.
1998-05-26
A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter. 10 figs.
High-gradient compact linear accelerator
Carder, B.M.
1995-12-31
A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.
Ultrasonic linear measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.