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Sample records for linear response strength

  1. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings.

    PubMed

    Boos, William R; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-02-01

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a "tipping point." Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation's ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo. PMID:26811462

  2. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings

    PubMed Central

    Boos, William R.; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a “tipping point.” Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation’s ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo. PMID:26811462

  3. Linear response at criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, Adam; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    We study a set of cooperatively interacting units at criticality, and we prove with analytical and numerical arguments that they generate the same renewal non-Poisson intermittency as that produced by blinking quantum dots, thereby giving a stronger support to the results of earlier investigation. By analyzing how this out-of-equilibrium system responds to harmonic perturbations, we find that the response can be described only using a new form of linear response theory that accounts for aging and the nonergodic behavior of the underlying process. We connect the undamped response of the system at criticality to the decaying response predicted by the recently established nonergodic fluctuation-dissipation theorem for dichotomous processes using information about the second moment of the fluctuations. We demonstrate that over a wide range of perturbation frequencies the response of the cooperative system is greatest when at criticality.

  4. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    PubMed Central

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration. PMID:20885815

  5. Conditioned reinforcement and response strength.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration.

  6. Conditioned reinforcement and response strength.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration. PMID:20885815

  7. Linear Response for Intermittent Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Todd, Mike

    2016-11-01

    We consider the one parameter family {α mapsto T_{α}} ({α in [0,1)}) of Pomeau-Manneville type interval maps {T_{α}(x) = x(1+2^{α} x^{α})} for {x in [0,1/2)} and {T_{α}(x)=2x-1} for {x in [1/2, 1]}, with the associated absolutely continuous invariant probability measure {μ_{α}}. For {α in (0,1)}, Sarig and Gouëzel proved that the system mixes only polynomially with rate {n^{1-1/{α}}} (in particular, there is no spectral gap). We show that for any {ψ in Lq}, the map {α to int_01 ψ d μ_{α}} is differentiable on {[0,1-1/q)}, and we give a (linear response) formula for the value of the derivative. This is the first time that a linear response formula for the SRB measure is obtained in the setting of slowly mixing dynamics. Our argument shows how cone techniques can be used in this context. For {α ≥ 1/2} we need the {n^{-1/{α}}} decorrelation obtained by Gouëzel under additional conditions.

  8. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-01-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  9. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  10. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers.

    PubMed

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  11. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  12. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage-type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) -induced canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways. PMID:26085218

  13. Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…

  14. Acoustic methods to monitor sliver linear density and yarn strength

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for monitoring sliver and yarn characteristics. Transverse waves are generated relative to the sliver or yarn. At least one acoustic sensor is in contact with the sliver or yarn for detecting waves coupled to the sliver or yarn and for generating a signal. The generated signal is processed to identify the predefined characteristics including sliver or yarn linear density. The transverse waves can be generated with a high-powered acoustic transmitter spaced relative to the sliver or yarn with large amplitude pulses having a central frequency in a range between 20 KHz and 40 KHz applied to the transmitter. The transverse waves can be generated by mechanically agitating the sliver or yarn with a tapping member.

  15. Chaos pass filter: Linear response of synchronized chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Steffen; Kestler, Johannes; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The linear response of synchronized time-delayed chaotic systems to small external perturbations, i.e., the phenomenon of chaos pass filter, is investigated for iterated maps. The distribution of distances, i.e., the deviations between two synchronized chaotic units due to external perturbations on the transferred signal, is used as a measure of the linear response. It is calculated numerically and, for some special cases, analytically. Depending on the model parameters this distribution has power law tails in the region of synchronization leading to diverging moments of distances. This is a consequence of multiplicative and additive noise in the corresponding linear equations due to chaos and external perturbations. The linear response can also be quantified by the bit error rate of a transmitted binary message which perturbs the synchronized system. The bit error rate is given by an integral over the distribution of distances and is calculated analytically and numerically. It displays a complex nonmonotonic behavior in the region of synchronization. For special cases the distribution of distances has a fractal structure leading to a devil's staircase for the bit error rate as a function of coupling strength. The response to small harmonic perturbations shows resonances related to coupling and feedback delay times. A bidirectionally coupled chain of three units can completely filter out the perturbation. Thus the second moment and the bit error rate become zero.

  16. Random Response of Linear Hysteretic Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, Claudio

    2008-07-08

    The probabilistic characterization of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with linear hysteretic damping excited by ground motion described by zero mean stationary Gaussian processes is achieved by profiting from a steady-state solution of the motion equation, valid when the excitation is given by the superposition of harmonics. The model of linear hysteretic damping has been introduced to fit damping mechanisms in which the dissipation rate is independent of frequency, and mathematically it is described by the Hilbert transform of the response. Though this model is debated since it violates the principle of causality, its intrinsic simplicity makes it preferable to other models. The steady-state solution of the motion equation proposed in this paper allows a closed form evaluation of the respone mean square value. However, the numerical examples show that this quantity is affected by the mechanism of energy dissipation only when this is large. On the contrary, for a low capacity of dissipation the response mean square value is rather insensitive to the dissipation mechanism.

  17. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  18. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE PAGES

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  19. Hydration thermodynamics beyond the linear response approximation.

    PubMed

    Raineri, Fernando O

    2016-10-19

    The solvation energetics associated with the transformation of a solute molecule at infinite dilution in water from an initial state A to a final state B is reconsidered. The two solute states have different potentials energies of interaction, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], with the solvent environment. Throughout the A [Formula: see text] B transformation of the solute, the solvation system is described by a Hamiltonian [Formula: see text] that changes linearly with the coupling parameter ξ. By focusing on the characterization of the probability density [Formula: see text] that the dimensionless perturbational solute-solvent interaction energy [Formula: see text] has numerical value y when the coupling parameter is ξ, we derive a hierarchy of differential equation relations between the ξ-dependent cumulant functions of various orders in the expansion of the appropriate cumulant generating function. On the basis of this theoretical framework we then introduce an inherently nonlinear solvation model for which we are able to find analytical results for both [Formula: see text] and for the solvation thermodynamic functions. The solvation model is based on the premise that there is an upper or a lower bound (depending on the nature of the interactions considered) to the amplitude of the fluctuations of Y in the solution system at equilibrium. The results reveal essential differences in behavior for the model when compared with the linear response approximation to solvation, particularly with regards to the probability density [Formula: see text]. The analytical expressions for the solvation properties show, however, that the linear response behavior is recovered from the new model when the room for the thermal fluctuations in Y is not restricted by the existence of a nearby bound. We compare the predictions of the model with the results from molecular dynamics computer simulations for aqueous solvation, in which either (1) the solute

  20. Hydration thermodynamics beyond the linear response approximation.

    PubMed

    Raineri, Fernando O

    2016-10-19

    The solvation energetics associated with the transformation of a solute molecule at infinite dilution in water from an initial state A to a final state B is reconsidered. The two solute states have different potentials energies of interaction, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], with the solvent environment. Throughout the A [Formula: see text] B transformation of the solute, the solvation system is described by a Hamiltonian [Formula: see text] that changes linearly with the coupling parameter ξ. By focusing on the characterization of the probability density [Formula: see text] that the dimensionless perturbational solute-solvent interaction energy [Formula: see text] has numerical value y when the coupling parameter is ξ, we derive a hierarchy of differential equation relations between the ξ-dependent cumulant functions of various orders in the expansion of the appropriate cumulant generating function. On the basis of this theoretical framework we then introduce an inherently nonlinear solvation model for which we are able to find analytical results for both [Formula: see text] and for the solvation thermodynamic functions. The solvation model is based on the premise that there is an upper or a lower bound (depending on the nature of the interactions considered) to the amplitude of the fluctuations of Y in the solution system at equilibrium. The results reveal essential differences in behavior for the model when compared with the linear response approximation to solvation, particularly with regards to the probability density [Formula: see text]. The analytical expressions for the solvation properties show, however, that the linear response behavior is recovered from the new model when the room for the thermal fluctuations in Y is not restricted by the existence of a nearby bound. We compare the predictions of the model with the results from molecular dynamics computer simulations for aqueous solvation, in which either (1) the solute

  1. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  2. Hydration thermodynamics beyond the linear response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raineri, Fernando O.

    2016-10-01

    The solvation energetics associated with the transformation of a solute molecule at infinite dilution in water from an initial state A to a final state B is reconsidered. The two solute states have different potentials energies of interaction, {{\\Psi}\\text{A}} and {{\\Psi}\\text{B}} , with the solvent environment. Throughout the A \\to B transformation of the solute, the solvation system is described by a Hamiltonian H≤ft(ξ \\right) that changes linearly with the coupling parameter ξ. By focusing on the characterization of the probability density {{\\wp}ξ}≤ft( y\\right) that the dimensionless perturbational solute-solvent interaction energy Y=β ≤ft({{\\Psi}\\text{B}}-{{\\Psi}\\text{A}}\\right) has numerical value y when the coupling parameter is ξ, we derive a hierarchy of differential equation relations between the ξ-dependent cumulant functions of various orders in the expansion of the appropriate cumulant generating function. On the basis of this theoretical framework we then introduce an inherently nonlinear solvation model for which we are able to find analytical results for both {{\\wp}ξ} ≤ft( y\\right) and for the solvation thermodynamic functions. The solvation model is based on the premise that there is an upper or a lower bound (depending on the nature of the interactions considered) to the amplitude of the fluctuations of Y in the solution system at equilibrium. The results reveal essential differences in behavior for the model when compared with the linear response approximation to solvation, particularly with regards to the probability density {{\\wp}ξ} ≤ft( y\\right) . The analytical expressions for the solvation properties show, however, that the linear response behavior is recovered from the new model when the room for the thermal fluctuations in Y is not restricted by the existence of a nearby bound. We compare the predictions of the model with the results from molecular dynamics computer simulations for aqueous solvation, in

  3. Dissociation of value and response strength.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, W

    1987-11-01

    Four pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules and later to concurrent-chains schedules, with terminal links that had previously been multiple-schedule components. For 2 birds, the terminal-link schedules arranged an inverse relationship between response rate and reinforcement rate; for the other 2 birds a direct corresponding relationship was arranged. Those response rates were further modified by differentially reinforcing either longer or shorter interresponse times, relative to the current means. Although the birds' initial-link responses indicated preferences for terminal links with higher rates of reinforcement, in half the cases the birds responded during the terminal links in such a way as to produce lower rates of reinforcement, rates their initial-link behavior indicated they did not prefer. That outcome is inconsistent with maximization theory, but consistent with a strengthening analysis of behavior on single-key schedules.

  4. Respiratory muscle strength effect on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability parameters in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Cássia Da Luz; Simon, Julio Cristiano; Schneiders, Paloma De Borba; San Martin, Elisabete Antunes; Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; da Silva, Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recognized as a multisystemic inflammatory disease associated with extrapulmonary comorbidities, including respiratory muscle weakness and cardiovascular and cardiac autonomic regulation disorders. We investigated whether alterations in respiratory muscle strength (RMS) would affect cardiac autonomic modulation in COPD patients. Methods This study was a cross-sectional study done in ten COPD patients affected by moderate to very severe disease. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal was recorded using a Polar cardiofrequencimeter at rest in the sitting position (10 minutes) and during a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-M; 4 minutes). Linear analysis in the time and frequency domains and nonlinear analysis were performed on the recorded signals. RMS was assessed using a digital manometer, which provided the maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) and the maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax). Results During the RSA-M, patients presented an HRV power increase in the low-frequency band (LFnu) (46.9±23.7 vs 75.8±27.2; P=0.01) and a decrease in the high-frequency band (HFnu) (52.8±23.5 vs 24.0±27.0; P=0.01) when compared to the resting condition. Significant associations were found between RMS and HRV spectral indices: PImax and LFnu (r=−0.74; P=0.01); PImax and HFnu (r=0.74; P=0.01); PEmax and LFnu (r=−0.66; P=0.01); PEmax and HFnu (r=0.66; P=0.03); between PEmax and sample entropy (r=0.83; P<0.01) and between PEmax and approximate entropy (r=0.74; P=0.01). Using a linear regression model, we found that PImax explained 44% of LFnu behavior during the RSA-M. Conclusion COPD patients with impaired RMS presented altered cardiac autonomic control, characterized by marked sympathetic modulation and a reduced parasympathetic response; reduced HRV complexity was observed during the RSA-M. PMID:27555757

  5. Linear-response calculation in the time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Inakura, Tsunenori; Avogadro, Paolo; Ebata, Shuichiro; Sato, Koichi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2012-11-12

    Linear response calculations based on the time-dependent density-functional theory are presented. Especially, we report results of the finite amplitude method which we have recently proposed as an alternative and feasible approach to the (quasiparticle-)random-phase approximation. Calculated properties of the giant resonances and low-energy E1 modes are discussed. We found a universal linear correlation between the low-energy E1 strength and the neutron skin thickness.

  6. Strength and reversibility of stereotypes for a rotary control with linear scales.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Chan, W H

    2008-02-01

    Using real mechanical controls, this experiment studied strength and reversibility of direction-of-motion stereotypes and response times for a rotary control with horizontal and vertical scales. Thirty-eight engineering undergraduates (34 men and 4 women) ages 23 to 47 years (M=29.8, SD=7.7) took part in the experiment voluntarily. The effects of instruction of change of pointer position and control plane on movement compatibility were analyzed with precise quantitative measures of strength and a reversibility index of stereotype. Comparisons of the strength and reversibility values of these two configurations with those of rotary control-circular display, rotary control-digital counter, four-way lever-circular display, and four-way lever-digital counter were made. The results of this study provided significant implications for the industrial design of control panels for improved human performance.

  7. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm3 that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components. PMID:25749549

  8. Error Analysis for RADAR Neighbor Matching Localization in Linear Logarithmic Strength Varying Wi-Fi Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zengshan; Xu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical errors for the fingerprint-based RADAR neighbor matching localization with the linearly calibrated reference points (RPs) in logarithmic received signal strength (RSS) varying Wi-Fi environment. To the best of our knowledge, little comprehensive analysis work has appeared on the error performance of neighbor matching localization with respect to the deployment of RPs. However, in order to achieve the efficient and reliable location-based services (LBSs) as well as the ubiquitous context-awareness in Wi-Fi environment, much attention has to be paid to the highly accurate and cost-efficient localization systems. To this end, the statistical errors by the widely used neighbor matching localization are significantly discussed in this paper to examine the inherent mathematical relations between the localization errors and the locations of RPs by using a basic linear logarithmic strength varying model. Furthermore, based on the mathematical demonstrations and some testing results, the closed-form solutions to the statistical errors by RADAR neighbor matching localization can be an effective tool to explore alternative deployment of fingerprint-based neighbor matching localization systems in the future. PMID:24683349

  9. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  10. Error analysis for RADAR neighbor matching localization in linear logarithmic strength varying Wi-Fi environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mu; Tian, Zengshan; Xu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiang; Wu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical errors for the fingerprint-based RADAR neighbor matching localization with the linearly calibrated reference points (RPs) in logarithmic received signal strength (RSS) varying Wi-Fi environment. To the best of our knowledge, little comprehensive analysis work has appeared on the error performance of neighbor matching localization with respect to the deployment of RPs. However, in order to achieve the efficient and reliable location-based services (LBSs) as well as the ubiquitous context-awareness in Wi-Fi environment, much attention has to be paid to the highly accurate and cost-efficient localization systems. To this end, the statistical errors by the widely used neighbor matching localization are significantly discussed in this paper to examine the inherent mathematical relations between the localization errors and the locations of RPs by using a basic linear logarithmic strength varying model. Furthermore, based on the mathematical demonstrations and some testing results, the closed-form solutions to the statistical errors by RADAR neighbor matching localization can be an effective tool to explore alternative deployment of fingerprint-based neighbor matching localization systems in the future.

  11. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    DOE PAGES

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order ofmore » larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.« less

  12. Molecular analyses of the principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R; Hall, Scott S; Reilly, Mark P; Kettle, Lauren C

    2002-01-01

    Killeen and Hall (2001) showed that a common factor called strength underlies the key dependent variables of response probability, latency, and rate, and that overall response rate is a good predictor of strength. In a search for the mechanisms that underlie those correlations, this article shows that (a) the probability of responding on a trial is a two-state Markov process; (b) latency and rate of responding can be described in terms of the probability and period of stochastic machines called clocked Bernoulli modules, and (c) one such machine, the refractory Poisson process, provides a functional relation between the probability of observing a response during any epoch and the rate of responding. This relation is one of proportionality at low rates and curvilinearity at higher rates. PMID:12216975

  13. Static compressive strength prediction of open-hole structure based on non-linear shear behavior and micro-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangnan; Cai, Hongneng; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the strength of the constituents of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (CFRP), and a prediction of the static compressive strength of open-hole structure of polymer composites. The approach combined with non-linear analysis in macro-level and a linear elastic micromechanical failure analysis in microlevel (non-linear MMF) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. A face-centered cubic micromechanics model is constructed to analyze the stresses in fiber and matrix in microlevel. Non-interactive failure criteria are proposed to characterize the strength of fiber and matrix. The non-linear shear behavior of the laminate is studied experimentally, and a novel approach of cubic spline interpolation is used to capture significant non-linear shear behavior of laminate. The user-defined material subroutine UMAT for the non-linear share behavior is developed and combined in the mechanics analysis in the macro-level using the Abaqus Python codes. The failure mechanism and static strength of open-hole compressive (OHC) structure of polymer composites is studied based on non-linear MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of non-linear MMF.

  14. A consistent, linear-response approach to LDA+U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cococcioni, Matteo

    2006-03-01

    Hubbard U-correction to LDA or GGA has proven very effective in describing several strongly-correlated systems for which these approximations to DFT otherwise fail. Constrained DFT or semiempirical approaches have been often used to compute the Hubbard U. I introduce here an alternative scheme to evaluate the effective electronic interaction in a fully consistent way. This approach is based on the linear response of the system under consideration to a potential shift acting on the localized orbitals of the correlated sites. Using the occupations of these orbitals as the relevant electronic degrees of freedom we compute the on-site electronic coupling as the difference between the inverse of the bare and of the fully-interacting response matrices. The U computed in this way thus corresponds to the effective, atomically-averaged kernel of the Hartree-exchange-correlation interaction, in agreement with the second quantization expression of the "+U" energy functional. In this way the strength of the "+U" correction is evaluated from the same DFT scheme we aim to correct so that LDA+U becomes a consistent non-parametric method, with no need for semiempirical evaluations of the effective coupling. With this approach we successfully studied the structural, electronic, chemical and electrochemical properties of several transition-metal compounds. Examples will include minerals in the Earth's interior^1, cathode materials for next-generation lithium batteries^2 and metal-organic complexes ^3. 1) M. Cococcioni and S. de Gironcoli, PRB (2005). 2) F. Zhou, M. Cococcioni, A. C. Marianetti, D. Morgan and G. Ceder, PRB (2004). 3) H. J. Kulik, M. Cococcioni, D. Scherlis and N. Marzari, submitted to PRL.

  15. Improvement of impact strength in linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) by blending with amorphous polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabella, F.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the current work was to improve the film impact strength of commercial linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) resins, while maintaining or improving other desirable properties. The approach used was to blend rubber-like (i.e. essentially noncrystalline) polymer resins with the base resin LLDPE. The choice of the rubber-like components was largely dictated by their commercial availability. The rubber-like polymers chosen were poly (ethylene-vinyl acetate) [EVA], poly (ethylene-n-butyl acrylate) [EnBA], and poly (ethylene-propylene) rubber [EPR]. The weight percent range of addition of the rubber-like component was restricted to 5% - 20%. The preferred range was only up to 10%. The structure of the base LLDPE resin, rubber-like components and the blends thereof was characterized. The physical and mechanical properties of the blown films of the resin blends were measured and correlations between structure and properties were determined.

  16. Role of initial quantum correlation in transient linear response

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Chikako; Aihara, Masaki

    2010-10-15

    The linear transient response of a two-level system coupled with an environmental system is studied under correlated and factorized initial conditions. We find that the transient responses in these cases differ significantly from each other, especially for strong system-environment interaction at intermediate temperatures. This means that it is necessary to pay attention to the initial conditions chosen when analyzing experiments on transient linear response, because the conventional factorized initial condition results in an incorrect response, in which the quantum correlation between the relevant system and the environmental system is disregarded.

  17. Linear and non-linear forced response of a conical, ducted, laminar premixed flame

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, Nader; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong-Ho; Monty, Jason P.

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamics of a ducted, conical, laminar premixed flame subjected to acoustic excitation of varying amplitudes. The flame transfer function is measured over a range of forcing frequencies and equivalence ratios. In keeping with previous works, the measured flame transfer function is in good agreement with that predicted by linear kinematic theory at low amplitudes of acoustic velocity excitation. However, a systematic departure from linear behaviour is observed as the amplitude of the velocity forcing upstream of the flame increases. This non-linearity is mostly in the phase of the transfer function and manifests itself as a roughly constant phase at high forcing amplitude. Nonetheless, as predicted by non-linear kinematic arguments, the response always remains close to linear at low forcing frequencies, regardless of the forcing amplitude. The origin of this phase behaviour is then sought through optical data post-processing. (author)

  18. Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

  19. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

  20. LINEARIZING THE RESPONSE OF THE NSRL SYNCHRONOUS RECYCLING-INTEGRATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    ODDO, P.; RUSEK, A.; RUSSO, T.

    2005-05-16

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) designed recycling-integrators used for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) dosimetry feature excellent linearity. However, switching transients in the balancing source add a duty-cycle dependence to the response that manifests as a non-linearity near mid-scale and a slope-change above mid-scale. The onset of this non-linearity limits the typical usable dynamic range. Measurements during a recent run showed that at higher intensities the recycling-integrators would operate in the non-linear region enough to exceed the desired tolerance and over count the dose. This report will show how a FPGA, which implements the scalars, was used to compensate the non-linearity allowing higher dose-rates by effectively doubling the dynamic range of the dosimetry system.

  1. The Distribution of Subjective Memory Strength: List Strength and Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2009-01-01

    Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of…

  2. Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Hendrawan, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum likelihood framework. They are explicitly formulated…

  3. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed. PMID:27627270

  4. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.

  5. Media ionic strength impacts embryonic responses to engineered nanoparticle exposure

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Zaikova, Tatiana; Richman, Erik K.; Hutchison, James E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic zebrafish were used to assess the impact of solution ion concentrations on agglomeration and resulting in vivo biological responses of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The minimum ion concentration necessary to support embryonic development was determined. Surprisingly, zebrafish exhibit no adverse outcomes when raised in nearly ion-free media. During a rapid throughput screening of AuNPs, 1.2-nm 3-mercaptopropionic acid-functionalized AuNPs (1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs) rapidly agglomerate in exposure solutions. When embryos were exposed to 1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs dispersed in low ionic media, both morbidity and mortality were induced, but when suspended in high ionic media, there was little to no biological response. We demonstrated that the media ionic strength greatly affects agglomeration rates and biological responses. Most importantly, the insensitivity of the zebrafish embryo to external ions indicates that it is possible, and necessary, to adjust the exposure media conditions to optimize NP dispersion prior to assessment. PMID:21809903

  6. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, S.; Wolffsohn, J. S.; Gilmartin, B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (< 0.25 D change in mean level) even when the concurrent pupillary response was large (ca. 0.30 mm). The pupillary response to an isoluminant grating was sustained, delayed (by ca. 60 ms) and larger in amplitude than that for a isochromatic uniform stimulus, which supports previous work suggesting that the chromatic mechanism contributes to the pupillary response. In a second experiment, selected chromatic test gratings were used and isoresponse contours in cone contrast space were obtained. The results showed that the isoresponse contour in cone contrast space is well described (r(2) = 0.99) by a straight line with a positive slope. The results indicate that a /L - M/ linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses. PMID:11674867

  7. Ion strength limit of computed excess functions based on the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (L-PB) equation is examined for its κ-range of validity (κ, Debye reciprocal length). This is done for the Debye-Hückel (DH) theory, i.e., using a single ion size, and for the SiS treatment (D. Fraenkel, Mol. Phys. 2010, 108, 1435), which extends the DH theory to the case of ion-size dissimilarity (therefore dubbed DH-SiS). The linearization of the PB equation has been claimed responsible for the DH theory's failure to fit with experiment at > 0.1 m; but DH-SiS fits with data of the mean ionic activity coefficient, γ± (molal), against m, even at m > 1 (κ > 0.33 Å(-1) ). The SiS expressions combine the overall extra-electrostatic potential energy of the smaller ion, as central ion-Ψa>b (κ), with that of the larger ion, as central ion-Ψb>a (κ); a and b are, respectively, the counterion and co-ion distances of closest approach. Ψa>b and Ψb>a are derived from the L-PB equation, which appears to conflict with their being effective up to moderate electrolyte concentrations (≈1 m). However, the L-PB equation can be valid up to κ ≥ 1.3 Å(-1) if one abandons the 1/κ criterion for its effectiveness and, instead, use, as criterion, the mean-field electrostatic interaction potential of the central ion with its ion cloud, at a radial distance dividing the cloud charge into two equal parts. The DH theory's failure is, thus, not because of using the L-PB equation; the lethal approximation is assigning a single size to the positive and negative ions. PMID:26493019

  8. Ion strength limit of computed excess functions based on the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (L-PB) equation is examined for its κ-range of validity (κ, Debye reciprocal length). This is done for the Debye-Hückel (DH) theory, i.e., using a single ion size, and for the SiS treatment (D. Fraenkel, Mol. Phys. 2010, 108, 1435), which extends the DH theory to the case of ion-size dissimilarity (therefore dubbed DH-SiS). The linearization of the PB equation has been claimed responsible for the DH theory's failure to fit with experiment at > 0.1 m; but DH-SiS fits with data of the mean ionic activity coefficient, γ± (molal), against m, even at m > 1 (κ > 0.33 Å(-1) ). The SiS expressions combine the overall extra-electrostatic potential energy of the smaller ion, as central ion-Ψa>b (κ), with that of the larger ion, as central ion-Ψb>a (κ); a and b are, respectively, the counterion and co-ion distances of closest approach. Ψa>b and Ψb>a are derived from the L-PB equation, which appears to conflict with their being effective up to moderate electrolyte concentrations (≈1 m). However, the L-PB equation can be valid up to κ ≥ 1.3 Å(-1) if one abandons the 1/κ criterion for its effectiveness and, instead, use, as criterion, the mean-field electrostatic interaction potential of the central ion with its ion cloud, at a radial distance dividing the cloud charge into two equal parts. The DH theory's failure is, thus, not because of using the L-PB equation; the lethal approximation is assigning a single size to the positive and negative ions.

  9. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. PMID:23793020

  10. Linearity in the response of photopolymers as optical recording media.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sergi; Marquez, Andrés; Guardiola, Francisco J; Riquelme, Marina; Fernández, Roberto; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2013-05-01

    Photopolymer are appealing materials for diffractive elements recording. Two of their properties when they are illuminated are useful for this goal: the relief surface changes and the refractive index modifications. To this goal the linearity in the material response is crucial to design the optimum irradiance for each element. In this paper we measured directly some parameters to know how linear is the material response, in terms of the refractive index modulation versus exposure, then we can predict the refractive index distributions during recording. We have analyzed at different recording intensities the evolution of monomer diffusion during recording for photopolymers based on PVA/Acrylamide. This model has been successfully applied to PVA/Acrylamide photopolymers to predict the transmitted diffracted orders and the agreement with experimental values has been increased.

  11. Gaussian fluctuations and linear response in an electron transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In response to charge separation or transfer, polar liquids respond in a simple linear fashion. A similar linear response for proteins might be expected from the central limit theorem and is postulated in widely used theories of protein electrostatics, including the Marcus electron transfer theory and dielectric continuum theories. Although these theories are supported by a variety of experimental data, the exact validity of a linear protein dielectric response has been difficult to determine. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented that establish a linear dielectric response of both protein and surrounding solvent over the course of a biologically relevant electron transfer reaction: oxido-reduction of yeast cytochrome c in solution. Using an umbrella-sampling free energy approach with long simulations, an accurate treatment of long-range electrostatics and both classical and quantum models of the heme, good agreement is obtained with experiment for the redox potential relative to a heme–octapeptide complex. We obtain a reorganization free energy that is only half that for heme–octapeptide and is reproduced with a dielectric continuum model where the heme vicinity has a dielectric constant of only 1.1. This value implies that the contribution of protein reorganization to the electron transfer free energy barrier is reduced almost to the theoretical limit (a dielectric of one), and that the fluctuations of the electrostatic potential on the heme have a simple harmonic form, in accord with Marcus theory, even though the fluctuations of many individual protein groups (especially at the protein surface) are anharmonic. PMID:12011418

  12. Linear response of tripartite entanglement to infinitesimal noise

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2014-10-15

    Recent experimental progress in prolonging the coherence time of a quantum system prompts us to explore the behavior of quantum entanglement at the beginning of the decoherence process. The response of the entanglement under an infinitesimal noise can serve as a signature of the robustness of entangled states. A crucial problem of this topic in multipartite systems is to compute the degree of entanglement in a mixed state. We find a family of global noise in three-qubit systems, which is composed of four W states. Under its influence, the linear response of the tripartite entanglement of a symmetrical three-qubit pure state is studied. A lower bound of the linear response is found to depend completely on the initial tripartite and bipartite entanglement. This result shows that the decay of tripartite entanglement is hastened by the bipartite one. - Highlights: • We study a set of W-type noise and its linear effect on symmetric pure states. • Its effect on two-qubit entanglement depends only on the initial concurrence. • A lower bound of the effect on 3-tangle is found in terms of initial entanglements. • We obtain the time of three-tangle sudden death for two families of typical states. • These reveal that the bipartite entanglement speeds up the decay of the tripartite one.

  13. Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2016-09-01

    We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological N-body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, more direct, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naïve derivation assuming a universal mass function by approximately 8–20%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum and halo-dark matter cross-spectrum response to long wavelength fluctuations and derive second order halo bias from it, as well as the super-sample variance contribution to the galaxy power spectrum covariance matrix.

  14. Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2016-09-01

    We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological N-body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, more direct, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naïve derivation assuming a universal mass function by approximately 8-20%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum and halo-dark matter cross-spectrum response to long wavelength fluctuations and derive second order halo bias from it, as well as the super-sample variance contribution to the galaxy power spectrum covariance matrix.

  15. Global strength assessment in oblique waves of a large gas carrier ship, based on a non-linear iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnisoru, L.; Modiga, A.; Gasparotti, C.

    2016-08-01

    At the ship's design, the first step of the hull structural assessment is based on the longitudinal strength analysis, with head wave equivalent loads by the ships' classification societies’ rules. This paper presents an enhancement of the longitudinal strength analysis, considering the general case of the oblique quasi-static equivalent waves, based on the own non-linear iterative procedure and in-house program. The numerical approach is developed for the mono-hull ships, without restrictions on 3D-hull offset lines non-linearities, and involves three interlinked iterative cycles on floating, pitch and roll trim equilibrium conditions. Besides the ship-wave equilibrium parameters, the ship's girder wave induced loads are obtained. As numerical study case we have considered a large LPG liquefied petroleum gas carrier. The numerical results of the large LPG are compared with the statistical design values from several ships' classification societies’ rules. This study makes possible to obtain the oblique wave conditions that are inducing the maximum loads into the large LPG ship's girder. The numerical results of this study are pointing out that the non-linear iterative approach is necessary for the computation of the extreme loads induced by the oblique waves, ensuring better accuracy of the large LPG ship's longitudinal strength assessment.

  16. Linear response as a singular limit for a periodically driven closed quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomanno, Angelo; Silva, Alessandro; Santoro, Giuseppe E.

    2013-09-01

    We address the issue of the validity of linear response theory for a closed quantum system subject to a periodic external driving. Linear response theory (LRT) predicts energy absorption at frequencies of the external driving where the imaginary part of the appropriate response function is different from zero. Here we show that, for a fairly general nonlinear many-body system on a lattice subject to an extensive perturbation, this approximation should be expected to be valid only up to a time t* depending on the strength of the driving, beyond which the true coherent Schrödinger evolution departs from the linear response prediction and the system stops absorbing energy from the driving. We exemplify this phenomenon in detail with the example of a quantum Ising chain subject to a time-periodic modulation of the transverse field, by comparing an exact Floquet analysis with the standard results of LRT. In this context, we also show that if the perturbation is just local, the system is expected in the thermodynamic limit to keep absorbing energy, and LRT works at all times. We finally argue more generally the validity of the scenario presented for closed quantum many-body lattice systems with a bound on the energy-per-site spectrum, discussing the experimental relevance of our findings in the context of cold atoms in optical lattices and ultra-fast spectroscopy experiments.

  17. Linear optical response of Si1-xGex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriera da Silva, A.; Souza Dantas, N.; Ahuja, R.; Pepe, I.; da Silva, Eronides F., Jr.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Persson, C.

    2005-03-01

    Si1-xGex is a good candidate as a substitute material for Si in a low-power and high-speed semiconductor device technologies. Optical devices, such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, are already in industrial production. The samples are grown on Si(001) with both n- and p-type impurities and with different Ge concentrations. The linear optical response of Si1-xGex is investigated theoretically using a full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with respect to composition x. The calculated real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function ɛ(ω) = ɛ1(ω) + iɛ2(ω) were found to be in good agreement with recent spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements performed by Bahng et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13, 777 (2001). We also perform absorption measurements for different type of samples showing the variation of energy gaps as a function of Ge concentrations.

  18. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  19. Linear response theory for magnon transport in ferromagnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2012-02-01

    We study transverse response of magnons in ferromagnetic insulators within linear response theory. In analogy with the corresponding theory for electrons [1], magnon transverse response is described, including the Hall effect, Nernst effect, and thermal Hall effect. As is also the case for electrons [1], the response functions for magnons consist of the Kubo-formula term, and the term corresponding to the orbital angular momentum. We can rewrite the response functions in terms of the Berry curvature in momentum space [2]. We apply this theory to the (quantum-mechanical) magnons and to the classical magnetostatic waves. For the magnetostatic waves, the eigenmodes are given by a generalized eigenvalue problem, giving rise to the special form of the Berry curvature [2]. We explain various properties of this Berry curvature for the generalized eigenvalue problem, and discuss its implications for the physical properties of magnetostatic modes. [1] L. Smrcka and P. Streda, J. Phys. C, 10, 2153 (1977); H. Oji, P. Streda, Phys. Rev. B 31, 7291 (1985); [2] R. Matsumoto and S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 197202 (2011); Phys. Rev. B 84, 184406 (2011).

  20. Non-Linear Stress Analysis of Threaded Connection With High Strength Ratio Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Khair, K.R.; Singh, P.N.

    2002-07-01

    When the relative strength ratio of nut-to-bolt thread is high, the weaker of the two threads will deflect under the relatively stiff action of the other. The rules of the ASME B1.1-1989 provide general design rules for designing non-critical threaded joints. Most threaded joint designs are based on these rules. In most cases, the strengths of the stud and the nut are about the same. This paper addresses plastic deformation and strain in the threaded part of a component (stud) whose strength is about 7 times more than the mating threads. An axisymmetric finite element analysis was performed using nonlinear material properties and nonlinear contact elements between the surfaces of the threads. The results were used to calculate the collapse load for the thread following the rules of Appendix F of the ASME B and PV. It was found that the collapse (maximum allowed) load calculated using this nonlinear finite element approach and Appendix F of ASME code is 50% higher than the load calculated using the conventional elastic methods given in the ASME code rules would be acceptable. (authors)

  1. Dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of maraging steel linear cellular alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam E.; Fredenberg, David A.; McCoy, Tammy; Thadhani, Naresh; Cochran, Joe K.

    2012-03-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN finite element code. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with highspeed imaging. Analysis of observed deformation states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation.

  2. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Hannah W; Merrill, Evelyn H; Spiteri, Raymond J; Lewis, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them. PMID:22419990

  3. Linear and nonlinear optical response of spherical anisotropic semiconductor microcrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Nair, Selvakumar V.; Rustagi, Kailash C.

    1989-12-01

    We present a phenomenological theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties associated with the Fröhlich resonances of an optically anisotropic, spherical semiconductor crystallite. Using the Maxwell-Garnett approach, we calculate the effective dielectric function of a composite medium containing such crystallites. To study the effect of anisotropy, we take CdS and CdSe quantum dots as examples for the inclusions, and use a two-resonance model for the dielectric function. Even for randomly oriented inclusions, the Fröhlich resonances split as a result of anisotropic local-field corrections. At higher laser intensities, absorption saturation leads to bistability or tristability in the optical response of individual crystallites, while the response of the composite medium with randomly oriented inclusions shows multistability, with many intermediate branches. The nonlinear response of such a composite medium also exhibits a new kind of orientation-induced broadening of resonances. We also find that tristability is possible in another kind of inhomogeneous material, viz., a composite medium containing two types of isotropic spherical crystallites.

  4. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Ye, Huanchun . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Breizman, B.N. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-07-01

    The linear response of energetic particles to the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width: when the banana width {triangle}{sub b} is much larger than the mode thickness {triangle}{sub m}, we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} {much lt} 1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor of {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balance-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar} = {upsilon}{sub A} is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar}) = {upsilon}{sub A}/(2{ell} {minus} 1) with {ell} {ge} 2) is substantially reduced. 10 refs.

  5. Nonequilibrium thermal transport and its relation to linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, C.; Ilan, R.; Moore, J. E.

    2013-11-01

    We study the real-time dynamics of spin chains driven out of thermal equilibrium by an initial temperature gradient TL≠TR using density matrix renormalization group methods. We demonstrate that the nonequilibrium energy current saturates fast to a finite value if the linear-response thermal conductivity is infinite, i.e., if the Drude weight D is nonzero. Our data suggest that a nonintegrable dimerized chain might support such dissipationless transport (D>0). We show that the steady-state value JE of the current for arbitrary TL≠TR is of the functional form JE=f(TL)-f(TR), i.e., it is completely determined by the linear conductance. We argue for this functional form, which is essentially a Stefan-Boltzmann law in this integrable model; for the XXX ferromagnet, f can be computed via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz in good agreement with the numerics. Inhomogeneous systems exhibiting different bulk parameters as well as Luttinger liquid boundary physics induced by single impurities are discussed briefly.

  6. Hall Viscosity I: Linear Response Theory for Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlyn, Barry; Goldstein, Moshe; Read, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    In two dimensional systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, there can exist a non-dissipative viscosity coefficient [1,2,3]. This Hall viscosity is similar in nature to the non-dissipative Hall conductivity. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, we develop a linear response formalism for viscosity. We derive a Kubo formula for the frequency dependent viscosity tensor in the long wavelength limit. We compute the viscosity tensor for the free electron gas, integer quantum Hall systems, and two-dimensional paired superfluids. In the zero frequency limit, we show how the known results [3,4] for the Hall viscosity are recovered.[4pt] [1] J. Avron, R. Seiler, and P. Zograf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 697 (1995).[0pt] [2] P. Levay, J. Math. Phys. 36, 2792 (1995).[0pt] [3] N. Read, Phys. Rev. B 79, 045308 (2009).[0pt] [4] N. Read and E. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085316 (2011).

  7. Portable polarimetric underwater imaging system with a linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpel, Nir; Schechner, Yoav Y.

    2004-07-01

    Polarized light plays an important role in the underwater environment. Light that is scattered within the water is partially polarized. Biological and artificial systems can exploit this phenomenon. We aim to utilize this phenomenon in a new generation of underwater imaging systems in order to partially compensate for the loss of color and visibility. In order to obtain quantitative measurement of radiance and polarization, the imaging system should have a linear radiometric response and low noise. In addition, the interface of the camera with the water should have a minimum effect on the polarization. In this paper, we describe a portable lightweight imaging system that addresses these conditions. We detail the design considerations and empirical verifications.

  8. Linear Response Screening Models for Dense, Strongly-Coupled Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Liam; Murillo, Michael; Benage, John; Graziani, Frank

    2011-10-01

    Needs for accurate EOS and transport models of warm/hot dense matter have increased with the advent of new experiments that are able to more accurately probe these areas of phase-space. Molecular dynamics (MD) methods are often used for this, as they are apt for strongly-coupled systems. Unfortunately, the traditional Coulomb and Yukawa pair-potentials begin to fail at lower temperatures as degeneracy effects of the electron gas arise, and a more sophisticated treatment is required. We present a class of effective ion-ion interactions derived within the framework of linear response, which go beyond screening in the long-wavelength limit. These new potentials not only improve the accuracy of screening effects without contributing to the computational complexity of the model, but they also add physics entirely missing from Yukawa models (such as the onset of Friedel oscillations). Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-490713.

  9. Cellular Response to Linear and Branched Poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Whitty, Elizabeth G; Maniego, Alison R; Bentwitch, Sharon A; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Jones, Mark R; Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Poly(acrylic acid-co-sodium acrylate) (PNaA) is a pH-responsive polymer with potential in anticancer drug delivery. The cytotoxicity and intracellular effects of 3-arm star, hyperbranched and linear PNaA were investigated with L1210 progenitor leukemia cells and L6 myoblast cells. Free solution capillary electrophoresis demonstrated interactions of PNaA with serum proteins. In a 72 h MTT assay most PNaAs exhibited a IC50 between 7 and 14 mmol L(-1), showing that precipitation may be a sufficient purification for PNaA dilute solutions. Dialyzed 3-arm star and hyperbranched PNaA caused an increase in L6 cell viability, challenging the suitability of MTT as cytotoxicity assay for PNaA. Fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed merging of cellular lipids after exposure to PNaA, likely caused by serum starvation.

  10. Linear versus nonlinear response of a forced wave turbulence system.

    PubMed

    Cadot, Olivier; Touzé, Cyril; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2010-10-01

    A vibrating plate is set into a chaotic state of wave turbulence by a forcing having periodic and random components. Both components are weighted in order to explore continuously intermediate forcing from the periodic to the random one, but keeping constant its rms value. The transverse velocity of the plate is measured at the application point of the force. It is found that whatever the detail of the forcing is, the velocity spectra exhibit a universal cascade for frequencies larger than the forcing frequency range. In contrast, the velocity spectra strongly depend on the nature of the forcing within the range of forcing frequencies. The coherence function is used to extract the contribution of the velocity fluctuations that display a linear relationship with the forcing. The nonlinear contribution to the velocity fluctuations is found to be almost constant, about 55% of the total velocity fluctuations whatever the nature of the forcing from random to periodic. On the other hand, the nonlinear contribution to the fluctuations of the injected power depends on the nature of the forcing; it is significantly larger for the periodic forcing (60%) and decreases continuously as the randomness is increased, reaching a value of 40% for the pure random forcing. For all the cases of intermediate forcing from random to periodic, a simple model of the velocity response recovers in a fairly good agreement the probability density function of the injected power. The consequence of the existence of a linear-response component is discussed in the context of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem validation in experiments of out-of-equilibrium systems. PMID:21230369

  11. Quantum optimal control theory in the linear response formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Alberto; Tokatly, I. V.

    2011-09-15

    Quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) aims at finding an external field that drives a quantum system in such a way that optimally achieves some predefined target. In practice, this normally means optimizing the value of some observable, a so-called merit function. In consequence, a key part of the theory is a set of equations, which provides the gradient of the merit function with respect to parameters that control the shape of the driving field. We show that these equations can be straightforwardly derived using the standard linear response theory, only requiring a minor generalization: the unperturbed Hamiltonian is allowed to be time dependent. As a result, the aforementioned gradients are identified with certain response functions. This identification leads to a natural reformulation of QOCT in terms of the Keldysh contour formalism of the quantum many-body theory. In particular, the gradients of the merit function can be calculated using the diagrammatic technique for nonequilibrium Green's functions, which should be helpful in the application of QOCT to computationally difficult many-electron problems.

  12. Linearly polarized radiation from astrophysical masers due to magnetic fields of intermediate strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous solutions for polarization of astrophysical maser radiation due to closed-shell molecules in a magnetic field have potentially serious limitations. These solutions are mostly based on the approximation that the Zeeman frequency g-Omega is much greater than the rate for stimulated emission R and the rate for decay Gamma of the molecular state. Others are asymptotic solutions obtained for an angular momentum J = 1-0 transition. It has been unclear whether the polarizations due to plausible Zeeman splittings are adequately represented by the solutions obtained for g-Omega/Gamma much greater than 1 and g-Omega/R much greater than 1. Actual masing transitions tend to involve molecular states with angular momenta that are higher than J = 1 and 0. Numerical solutions for the linear polarization are presented here which do not have the foregoing restrictions on the g-Omega and which are not limited to a J = 1-0 transition.

  13. Impact of field strength and iron oxide nanoparticle concentration on the linearity and diagnostic accuracy of off-resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Christian T; Dai, Guangping; Novikov, Mikhail; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Weissleder, Ralph; Rosen, Bruce R; Sosnovik, David E

    2008-06-01

    Off-resonance imaging (ORI) techniques are being increasingly used to image iron oxide imaging agents such as monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION). However, the diagnostic accuracy, linearity, and field dependence of ORI have not been fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity, specificity, and linearity of ORI were thus examined as a function of both MION concentration and magnetic field strength (4.7 and 14 T). MION phantoms with and without an air interface as well as MION uptake in a mouse model of healing myocardial infarction were imaged. MION-induced resonance shifts were shown to increase linearly with MION concentration. In contrast, the ORI signal/sensitivity was highly non-linear, initially increasing with MION concentration until T2 became comparable to the TE and decreasing thereafter. The specificity of ORI to distinguish MION-induced resonance shifts from on-resonance water was found to decrease with increasing field because of the increased on-resonance water linewidths (15 Hz at 4.7 T versus 45 Hz at 14 T). Large resonance shifts ( approximately 300 Hz) were observed at air interfaces at 4.7 T, both in vitro and in vivo, and led to poor ORI specificity for MION concentrations less than 150 microg Fe/mL. The in vivo ORI sensitivity was sufficient to detect the accumulation of MION in macrophages infiltrating healing myocardial infarcts, but the specificity was limited by non-specific areas of positive contrast at the air/tissue interfaces of the thoracic wall and the descending aorta. Improved specificity and linearity can, however, be expected at lower fields where decreased on-resonance water linewidths, reduced air-induced resonance shifts, and longer T2 relaxation times are observed. The optimal performance of ORI will thus likely be seen at low fields, with moderate MION concentrations and with sequences containing very short TEs.

  14. Responses of proteins to different ionic environment are linearly interrelated.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Uversky, Alexey V; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-03-27

    Protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) is widely used as a convenient, inexpensive, and readily scaled-up separation technique. Protein partition behavior in ATPS is known to be readily manipulated by ionic composition. However, the available data on the effects of salts and buffer concentrations on protein partitioning are very limited. To fill this gap, partitioning of 15 proteins was examined in dextran-poly(ethylene glycol) ATPSs with different salt additives (Na2SO4, NaClO4, NaSCN, CsCl) in 0.11 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. This analysis reveals that there is a linear relationship between the logarithms of the protein partition coefficients determined in the presence of different salts. This relationship suggests that the protein response to ionic environment is determined by the protein structure and type and concentrations of the ions present. Analysis of the differences between protein structures (described in terms of proteins responses to different salts) and that of cytochrome c chosen as a reference showed that the peculiarities of the protein surface structure and B-factor used as a measure of the protein flexibility are the determining parameters. Our results provide better insight into the use of different salts in manipulating protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. These data also demonstrate that the protein responses to different ionic environments are interrelated and are determined by the structural peculiarities of protein surface. It is suggested that changes in ionic microenvironment of proteins may regulate protein transport and behavior in biological systems.

  15. Effect of torso rotational strength on angular hip, angular shoulder, and linear bat velocities of high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; McIntyre, Joseph S; Szymanski, Jessica M; Bradford, T Jason; Schade, Ryan L; Madsen, Nels H; Pascoe, David D

    2007-11-01

    This investigation examined the effect of torso rotational strength on angular hip (AHV), angular shoulder (ASV), linear bat-end (BEV), and hand velocities (HV) and 3 repetition maximum (RM) torso rotational and sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength (medicine ball hitter's throw) in high school baseball players (age 15.4 +/- 1.2 y). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 days a week for 12 weeks. A 3RM parallel squat and bench press were measured at 0 and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Participants were pre- and posttested for 3RM dominant and nondominant torso rotational strength and medicine ball hitter's throw. Angular hip velocities, ASV, BEV, and HV were recorded pre- and posttraining by a motion capture system that identified and digitally processed reflective markers attached to each participant's bat and body. Groups 1 and 2 increased (p < or = 0.05) BEV (3.6 and 6.4%), HV (2.6 and 3.6%), 3RM dominant (10.5 and 17.1%) and nondominant (10.2 and 18.3%) torso rotational strength, and medicine ball hitter's throw (3.0 and 10.6%) after 12 weeks. Group 2 increased AHV (6.8%) and ASV (8.8%). Group 2 showed greater improvements in BEV, AHV, ASV, 3RM dominant and nondominant torso rotational strength, and medicine ball hitter's throw than group 1. Groups 1 and 2 increased predicted 1RM parallel squat (29.7 and 26.7%) and bench press (17.2 and 16.7%) strength after 12 weeks. These data indicate that performing additional rotational medicine ball exercises 2 days a week for 12 weeks statistically improves baseball performance variables.

  16. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  17. Dynamic Deformation and Fragmentation Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, D. A.; McCoy, T.; Thadhani, N. N.; Cochran, J.

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6 mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with high-speed imaging. For purpose of comparison, the response of 25% dense hollow cylinders of same density as the 9-cell LCA was also studied. Analysis of observed states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation. In comparison, the simple hollow cylinder undergoes significant radial lipping, eventually producing larger sized, external fragments. DTRA Grant No. HDTRA1-07-1-0018 and NDSEG Fellowship Program.

  18. Non-Linear Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Slit Shear Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KWAN, A. K. H.; DAI, H.; CHEUNG, Y. K.

    1999-09-01

    The reinforced concrete slit shear wall system has been introduced recently as a new breed of earthquake resistant structures. Some theoretical and experimental investigations have been conducted to study the behaviour of isolated connecting beams and slit shear wall models under static load, but little work has been carried out to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the structural system. In this paper, the non-linear seismic response of slit shear walls under earthquake excitation is analyzed. Based on a simplified structural model, which is shown to have sufficient accuracy for slit shear wall structures, the influence of the elasto-plastic behaviour of the connecting beams on the dynamic response of the slit shear wall structure is evaluated. The results reveal that yielding of the connecting beams can significantly reduce the deflection response of the slit shear wall structure and the seismic loading induced on it. Moreover, there appears to be an optimum yield strength value for the connecting beams that would lead to the best overall seismic performance of the slit shear wall system.

  19. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  20. Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major West Antarctic ice basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M.; Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise has recently been increasing. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance. Under unabated greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below West Antarctica's Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The ice basin's retrograde bed slope would allow for an unstable ice-sheet retreat, but the buttressing of the large ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. It is unclear whether future ice loss will be dominated by ice instability or anthropogenic forcing. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding-line retreat, that the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne ice basin is not dominated by ice instability and follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. We find that the ice loss reduces after each pulse of projected warm water intrusion. The long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice-sheet instability.

  1. Thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/non-linear thermal effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1991-01-01

    The thermally-induced strucural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/nonlinear thermal effects is presented in conjunction with 'unified' transient approaches for effectively tackling this class of interdisciplinary problems. For illustrative purposes, the flexural structural models are assumed to be of the Euler-Bernoulli type. The purpose of the present paper is to not only provide an understanding of the influence of general linear/nonlinear thermal effects on flexural configurations, but also to provide to the analyst effective computational tools which help preserve a unified technology for the interdisciplinary areas encompassing structural mechanics/dynamics and thermal sciences. Several numerical test models illustrate the representative thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations subjected to general linear/nonlinear temperature effects.

  2. Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kevin; Suchowski, Haim; Rho, Junsuk; Salandrino, Alessandro; Kante, Boubacar; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of optical second harmonic generation in 1961 started modern nonlinear optics. Soon after, R. C. Miller found empirically that the nonlinear susceptibility could be predicted from the linear susceptibilities. This important relation, known as Miller's Rule, allows a rapid determination of nonlinear susceptibilities from linear properties. In recent years, metamaterials, artificial materials that exhibit intriguing linear optical properties not found in natural materials, have shown novel nonlinear properties such as phase-mismatch-free nonlinear generation, new quasi-phase matching capabilities and large nonlinear susceptibilities. However, the understanding of nonlinear metamaterials is still in its infancy, with no general conclusion on the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties. The key question is then whether one can determine the nonlinear behaviour of these artificial materials from their exotic linear behaviour. Here, we show that the nonlinear oscillator model does not apply in general to nonlinear metamaterials. We show, instead, that it is possible to predict the relative nonlinear susceptibility of large classes of metamaterials using a more comprehensive nonlinear scattering theory, which allows efficient design of metamaterials with strong nonlinearity for important applications such as coherent Raman sensing, entangled photon generation and frequency conversion.

  3. Linear optical response of carbon nanotubes under axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2010-04-01

    We considered single walled carbon naotubes (SWCNTs) as real three dimensional (3D) systems in a cylindrical coordinate. The optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility, χ(ω), in the tight binding approximation in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index, l are calculated. In an external axial magnetic field optical frequency dependence of linear susceptibility are investigated. We found that axial magnetic field has two effects on the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. The first effect is broadening and the second, splitting. Also we found that for all metallic zigzag and armchair SWCNTs, the axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 1.5 eV, contrary to what is observed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  4. Linear response, multi-order grating interferometry using a reversal shearing imaging system.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhang; Tan, Jiubin; Cui, Jiwen

    2015-10-01

    Linear response, multi-order grating interferometry is proposed to measure grating displacement. The system, a combination of a reversal shearing interferometer and an imaging system, enables calculating multi-order, integrated intensity signals with a linear waveform response. A theoretical multi-order model for the linear response signal analysis is presented with a Fourier series expansion. The results of the experiment, which prove the validity of the theoretical model, indicate a linear response to displacement with a linearity of 98.7% and a resolution of 10 nm. We conclude that the proposed method enables the development of a new class of potent linear response grating interferometry for displacement metrology.

  5. Phase Response Synchronization in Neuronal Population with Time-Varying Coupling Strength

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xianfa; Zhao, Wanyu; Cao, Jinde

    2015-01-01

    We present the dynamic model of global coupled neuronal population subject to external stimulus by the use of phase sensitivity function. We investigate the effect of time-varying coupling strength on the synchronized phase response of neural population subjected to external harmonic stimulus. For a time-periodic coupling strength, we found that the stimulus with increasing intensity or frequency can reinforce the phase response synchronization in neuronal population of the weakly coupled neural oscillators, and the neuronal population with stronger coupling strength has good adaptability to stimulus. When we consider the dynamics of coupling strength, we found that a strong stimulus can quickly cause the synchronization in the neuronal population, the degree of synchronization grows with the increasing stimulus intensity, and the period of synchronized oscillation induced by external stimulation is related to stimulus frequency. PMID:26640514

  6. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  7. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    SciTech Connect

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan; Kongsted, Jacob Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2015-03-21

    We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of DALTON. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies. To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality to CASSCF/CASPT2 benchmarks.

  8. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedegârd, Erik Donovan; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan; Kongsted, Jacob; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2015-03-01

    We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of Dalton. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies. To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality to CASSCF/CASPT2 benchmarks.

  9. Response of silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M. O.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based linear energy transfer (LET) telescope,(e. g., DOSTEL and RRMD) have recently been flown in space. LET spectra measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters show differences that need to be fully understood. A Monte Carlo technique based on: 1. radiation transport cluster intra-cascade model. 2. Landau-Vavilov distribution, 3. telescope geometry and detector coincidence & discriminator settings, 4. spacecraft shielding geometry, and 5. the external free space radiation environment, including recent albedo measurements, was developed.

  10. Dynamic elastic moduli in magnetic gels: Normal modes and linear response.

    PubMed

    Pessot, Giorgio; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M

    2016-09-14

    In the perspective of developing smart hybrid materials with customized features, ferrogels and magnetorheological elastomers allow a synergy of elasticity and magnetism. The interplay between elastic and magnetic properties gives rise to a unique reversible control of the material behavior by applying an external magnetic field. Albeit few works have been performed on the time-dependent properties so far, understanding the dynamic behavior is the key to model many practical situations, e.g., applications as vibration absorbers. Here we present a way to calculate the frequency-dependent elastic moduli based on the decomposition of the linear response to an external stress in normal modes. We use a minimal three-dimensional dipole-spring model to theoretically describe the magnetic and elastic interactions on the mesoscopic level. Specifically, the magnetic particles carry permanent magnetic dipole moments and are spatially arranged in a prescribed way, before they are linked by elastic springs. An external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moments. On the one hand, we study regular lattice-like particle arrangements to compare with previous results in the literature. On the other hand, we calculate the dynamic elastic moduli for irregular, more realistic particle distributions. Our approach measures the tunability of the linear dynamic response as a function of the particle arrangement, the system orientation with respect to the external magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the magnetic interaction between the particles. The strength of the present approach is that it explicitly connects the relaxational modes of the system with the rheological properties as well as with the internal rearrangement of the particles in the sample, providing new insight into the dynamics of these remarkable materials. PMID:27634276

  11. Dynamic elastic moduli in magnetic gels: Normal modes and linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessot, Giorgio; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2016-09-01

    In the perspective of developing smart hybrid materials with customized features, ferrogels and magnetorheological elastomers allow a synergy of elasticity and magnetism. The interplay between elastic and magnetic properties gives rise to a unique reversible control of the material behavior by applying an external magnetic field. Albeit few works have been performed on the time-dependent properties so far, understanding the dynamic behavior is the key to model many practical situations, e.g., applications as vibration absorbers. Here we present a way to calculate the frequency-dependent elastic moduli based on the decomposition of the linear response to an external stress in normal modes. We use a minimal three-dimensional dipole-spring model to theoretically describe the magnetic and elastic interactions on the mesoscopic level. Specifically, the magnetic particles carry permanent magnetic dipole moments and are spatially arranged in a prescribed way, before they are linked by elastic springs. An external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moments. On the one hand, we study regular lattice-like particle arrangements to compare with previous results in the literature. On the other hand, we calculate the dynamic elastic moduli for irregular, more realistic particle distributions. Our approach measures the tunability of the linear dynamic response as a function of the particle arrangement, the system orientation with respect to the external magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the magnetic interaction between the particles. The strength of the present approach is that it explicitly connects the relaxational modes of the system with the rheological properties as well as with the internal rearrangement of the particles in the sample, providing new insight into the dynamics of these remarkable materials.

  12. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  13. The Generalized Logit-Linear Item Response Model for Binary-Designed Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…

  14. Acute Anabolic Response and Muscular Adaptation After Hypertrophy-Style and Strength-Style Resistance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M

    2016-10-01

    Gonzalez, AM. Acute anabolic response and muscular adaptation after hypertrophy-style and strength-style resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2959-2964, 2016-Resistance training paradigms are often divided into protocols designed to promote an increase in either hypertrophy or strength. Hypertrophy-style protocols (HYPs) typically involve greater volume (3-6 sets; 8-12 repetitions), moderate intensities (<85% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and short rest intervals (30-90 seconds), whereas strength-style protocols (STRs) typically involve higher intensities (≥85% 1RM), low volumes (2-6 sets; ≤6 repetitions), and longer rest intervals (3-5 minutes). However, the literature supporting such classifications is surprisingly sparse in trained individuals, and the distinct classifications of such protocols may be an oversimplification. Thus, the purpose of this review was to examine the acute anabolic responses and training-induced muscular adaptations after HYP and STR styles of resistance exercise in trained individuals. Despite the classification of training paradigms, HYP and STR resistance training routines appear to elicit similar magnitudes of muscle growth, although STR routines appear to be more conducive to increasing strength in resistance-trained individuals. Current evidence suggests that the classification of HYP and STR is an oversimplification, and practitioners are advised to look beyond the classification of resistance exercise protocols when aiming to elicit specific physiological responses.

  15. Laboratory observations of fault strength in response to changes in normal stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilgore, Brian D.; Lozos, Julian; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Oglesby, David

    2012-01-01

    Changes in fault normal stress can either inhibit or promote rupture propagation, depending on the fault geometry and on how fault shear strength varies in response to the normal stress change. A better understanding of this dependence will lead to improved earthquake simulation techniques, and ultimately, improved earthquake hazard mitigation efforts. We present the results of new laboratory experiments investigating the effects of step changes in fault normal stress on the fault shear strength during sliding, using bare Westerly granite samples, with roughened sliding surfaces, in a double direct shear apparatus. Previous experimental studies examining the shear strength following a step change in the normal stress produce contradictory results: a set of double direct shear experiments indicates that the shear strength of a fault responds immediately, and then is followed by a prolonged slip-dependent response, while a set of shock loading experiments indicates that there is no immediate component, and the response is purely gradual and slip-dependent. In our new, high-resolution experiments, we observe that the acoustic transmissivity and dilatancy of simulated faults in our tests respond immediately to changes in the normal stress, consistent with the interpretations of previous investigations, and verify an immediate increase in the area of contact between the roughened sliding surfaces as normal stress increases. However, the shear strength of the fault does not immediately increase, indicating that the new area of contact between the rough fault surfaces does not appear preloaded with any shear resistance or strength. Additional slip is required for the fault to achieve a new shear strength appropriate for its new loading conditions, consistent with previous observations made during shock loading.

  16. MODELING STREAM-AQUIFIER INTERACTIONS WITH LINEAR RESPONSE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of stream-aquifer interactions is pertinent to conjunctive-use management of water resources and riparian zone hydrology. Closed form solutions are derived for stream-aquifer interactions in rates and volumes expressed as convolution integrals of impulse response and ...

  17. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF) and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation…

  18. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond

    2015-10-06

    We present two iterative algorithms for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within linear response of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. These methods do not attempt to compute eigenvalues or eigenvectors of the linear response matrix. They are designed to approximate the absorption spectrum as a function directly. They take advantage of the special structure of the linear response matrix. Neither method requires the linear response matrix to be constructed explicitly. They only require a procedure that performs the multiplication of the linear response matrix with a vector. These methods can also be easily modified to efficiently estimate the density of states (DOS) of the linear response matrix without computing the eigenvalues of this matrix. We show by computational experiments that the methods proposed in this paper can be much more efficient than methods that are based on the exact diagonalization of the linear response matrix. We show that they can also be more efficient than real-time TDDFT simulations. We compare the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost.

  19. Effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Reichert, Thais; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults. Thirty-four older adults men were placed into two groups: deep water endurance training (ET; n = 16; 66 ± 4 years) and deep water strength prior to endurance training (concurrent training: CT; n = 18; 64 ± 4 years). The training period lasted 12 weeks, with three sessions a week. The resting heart rate and the oxygen uptake at peak (VO2peak) and at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2VT2) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after training. In addition, maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test--1RM) and local muscular resistance (maximum repetitions at 60% 1RM) of the knee extensors and flexors were evaluated. After the training period, the heart rate at rest decreased significantly, while the VO2peak and VO2VT2 showed significant increases in both groups (p<0.05). Only the VO2VT2 resulted in significantly greater values for the ET compared to the CT group after the training (p<0.05). In addition, after training, there was a significant increase in the maximal dynamic strength of the knee extensors and the local muscular endurance of the knee extensors and flexors, with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). In summary, the two training programs were effective at producing significant improvements in cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adult men. However, deep water endurance training at high intensities provides increased cardiorespiratory responses compared to CT and results in similar muscular strength responses. PMID:25700846

  20. Linear-response reflection coefficient of the recorder air-jet amplifier.

    PubMed

    Price, John C; Johnston, William A; McKinnon, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    In a duct-flute such as the recorder, steady-state oscillations are controlled by two parameters, the blowing pressure and the frequency of the acoustic resonator. As in most feedback oscillators, the oscillation amplitude is determined by gain-saturation of the amplifier, and thus it cannot be controlled independently of blowing pressure and frequency unless the feedback loop is opened. In this work, the loop is opened by replacing the recorder body with a waveguide reflectometer: a section of transmission line with microphones, a signal source, and an absorbing termination. When the mean flow from the air-jet into the transmission line is not blocked, the air-jet amplifier is unstable to edge-tone oscillations through a feedback path that does not involve the acoustic resonator. When it is blocked, the air-jet is deflected somewhat outward and the system becomes stable. It is then possible to measure the reflection coefficient of the air-jet amplifier versus blowing pressure and acoustic frequency under linear response conditions, avoiding the complication of gain-saturation. The results provide a revealing test of flute drive models under the simplest conditions and with few unknown parameters. The strengths and weaknesses of flute drive models are discussed.

  1. Linear-response reflection coefficient of the recorder air-jet amplifier.

    PubMed

    Price, John C; Johnston, William A; McKinnon, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    In a duct-flute such as the recorder, steady-state oscillations are controlled by two parameters, the blowing pressure and the frequency of the acoustic resonator. As in most feedback oscillators, the oscillation amplitude is determined by gain-saturation of the amplifier, and thus it cannot be controlled independently of blowing pressure and frequency unless the feedback loop is opened. In this work, the loop is opened by replacing the recorder body with a waveguide reflectometer: a section of transmission line with microphones, a signal source, and an absorbing termination. When the mean flow from the air-jet into the transmission line is not blocked, the air-jet amplifier is unstable to edge-tone oscillations through a feedback path that does not involve the acoustic resonator. When it is blocked, the air-jet is deflected somewhat outward and the system becomes stable. It is then possible to measure the reflection coefficient of the air-jet amplifier versus blowing pressure and acoustic frequency under linear response conditions, avoiding the complication of gain-saturation. The results provide a revealing test of flute drive models under the simplest conditions and with few unknown parameters. The strengths and weaknesses of flute drive models are discussed. PMID:26627801

  2. The linearity and selectivity of neuronal responses in awake visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Anand, Sanjiv; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Macknik, Stephen L.; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are frequently classified based on their response linearity: the extent in which their visual responses to drifting gratings resemble a linear replica of the stimulus. This classification is supported by the finding that response linearity is bimodally distributed across neurons in area V1 of anesthetized animals. However, recent studies suggest that such bimodal distribution may not reflect two neuronal types but a nonlinear relationship between the membrane potential and the spike output. A main limitation of these previous studies is that they measured response linearity in anesthetized animals, where the distance between the neuronal membrane potential and spike threshold is artificially increased by anesthesia. Here, we measured V1 response linearity in the awake brain and its correlation with the neuronal spontaneous firing rate, which is related to the distance between membrane potential and threshold. Our results demonstrate that response linearity is bimodally distributed in awake V1 but that it is poorly correlated with spontaneous firing rate. In contrast, the spontaneous firing rate is best correlated to the response selectivity and response latency to stimuli. PMID:19761345

  3. A Linear Variable-[theta] Model for Measuring Individual Differences in Response Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2011-01-01

    Models for measuring individual response precision have been proposed for binary and graded responses. However, more continuous formats are quite common in personality measurement and are usually analyzed with the linear factor analysis model. This study extends the general Gaussian person-fluctuation model to the continuous-response case and…

  4. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; McCoy, Tammy; Cochran, Joe; Thadhani, Naresh

    2009-06-01

    A refined Johnson-Cook material strength model is developed for predicting the dynamic strain and fracture response of Maraging 250 steel at high-strain rates. Finite element simulations of rod-on-anvil impacts are carried out at velocities exceeding 100m/s and compared with experimental impact tests performed on a 7.62mm gas gun. The transient and final dimensions of the simulated and experimentally impacted rods are compared and Johnson-Cook strength parameters are modified accordingly. The newly developed Maraging 250 steel Johnson-cook strength model is then applied to simulate the impact response of multiple, 25% dense linear cellular alloys (LCA) of various geometries at velocities exceeding 100m/s. Analyses of the deformation, fragmentation, and stress transfer behavior of the simulated LCAs are performed and validated through comparison of corresponding impact experiments performed on the LCAs produced via an extrusion and reduction process. Stress transfer to the interior walls varies as a function of LCA geometry, which also influences the outward fragmentation and energy retention at the cross-section of impact.

  5. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  6. Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.G.

    1980-05-28

    Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility.

  7. [Modeling and simulation of responses from ultrasonic linear phased array].

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Zhu, Yuanzhong; Wang, Yufeng; He, Lingli; Lai, Siyu

    2012-10-01

    Phased array transducers are very attractive because the beam generated by the arrays can be electronically focused and steered. The present work characterizes far-field 2D properties of phased array system by functions that are deduced from rectangle source, rectangle line array and phased array based on point source. Results are presented for the distribution of ultrasound intensity on plane xoz and on x-axis by simulation using numerical calculation. It is shown that the shape of response of rectangle line array is modulated by the single array element. It is also demonstrated that the delay time of phased array is the key to steer the beam, sacrificing the value of main lobe and increasing the number of side lobes.

  8. Linear response to a heat-driven spin torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitoussi, Lucas; Vetro, Francesco Antonio; Caspers, Christian; Gravier, Laurent; Yu, Haiming; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The existence of a heat-driven spin torque is demonstrated using Co/Cu/Co spin valves embedded in metallic nanowires. Heat currents flowing in one direction or its opposite were obtained by heating optically one end or the other of the nanowires. The spin torque associated with the heat-driven spin current pushes the magnetization out of equilibrium, resulting in a change of the magnetoresistance, which is detected using a charge current small enough not to cause heating or induced fields of any significance. The giant magnetoresistance response to this torque peaks with the magnetic susceptibility, whereas the spurious signal coming from the temperature dependence of the resistance produces merely a field independent baseline.

  9. AFFECTIVE RESPONSES TO PRESCRIBED AND SELF-SELECTED STRENGTH TRAINING INTENSITIES.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Eduardo M M; Lattari, Eduardo; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-10-01

    This study was an evaluation of the effects of self-selected intensity and three prescribed intensities of strength exercises on affective responses. 16 healthy active male participants (M age = 25.1 yr., SD = 5.5; M height = 168.0 cm, SD = 31.8; M weight = 84.4 kg, SD = 8.6) were randomly assigned to a control condition without exercise (Control); three prescribed exercise intensities at 40% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), 60% 1RM, and 80% 1RM; and one self-selected intensity (Self-selected). Affective response was assessed by the Feeling Scale and the Felt Arousal Scale. All prescribed intensities showed increased activation and only the session at 80% 1RM showed reduction valence compared to the Control condition. Thus, the affective response to strength training does not seem to be influenced by exercise intensity.

  10. Effects of qualitatively different reinforcers on the parameters of the response-strength equation.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M; Heyman, G M

    1994-01-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between two qualitatively different reinforcers and the parameters of a quantitative model of reinforced responding, referred to as the response-strength equation or the Herrnstein equation. A group of rats was first food deprived and later water deprived. An 11.5% sucrose solution served as the reinforcer in the food-deprivation condition, and water was the reinforcer in the water-deprivation condition. Each experimental session consisted of a series of seven variable-interval schedules, providing reinforcement rates that varied between 20 and 1,200 reinforcers per hour. The response rates increased in a negatively accelerating function in a manner consistent with the response-strength equation. This equation has two fitted parameters, k and Re. According to one theory, the k parameter is a measure of motor performance, and Re is indicative of the relative reinforcement efficacy of the background uncontrollable sources of reinforcement in relation to the experimentally arranged reinforcer. In this study, k did not change as a result of the different reinforcers, but Re was significantly larger in the sucrose-reinforcement condition. These results are consistent with the interpretation that k and Re measure two independent and experimentally distinguishable parameters and provide further evidence that absolute response rate is a function of relative reinforcement rate, as implied by the derivation of the response-strength equation based on the matching law.

  11. Reinforcer magnitude (sucrose concentration) and the matching law theory of response strength.

    PubMed

    Heyman, G M; Monaghan, M M

    1994-05-01

    This experiment investigated the relationship between reinforcer magnitude (sucrose concentration) and response rate. The purpose was to evaluate the behavior of two parameters of an equation that predicts absolute response rate as a function of reinforcement rate and two free parameters. According to Herrnstein's (1970) theory of reinforced behavior, one parameter of this "response-strength equation" measures the efficacy of the reinforcer maintaining responding and the other parameter measures motoric components of response rate, such as response duration. Seven rats served as subjects. Experimental sessions consisted of a series of five different variable-interval schedules of reinforcement, each in effect for 5 minutes. Within each session, obtained reinforcement rates varied over more than a 30-fold range, from about 20 per hour to 700 per hour. The reinforcer was sucrose solution, and, between sessions, its concentration was varied from 0.0 to 0.64 molar (0 to 21.9%). For sucrose concentrations of 0.16 to 0.64 m, response rate was a negatively accelerated function of reinforcement rate. Increases in sucrose concentration increased response rates maintained by low but not high reinforcement rates. This pattern of changes corresponds to a change in the reinforcement-efficacy parameter of the response-strength equation. In contrast, the motor-performance parameter did not change as a function of sucrose concentration. These findings are inconsistent with the results of a similar study (Bradshaw, Szabadi, & Bevan, 1978) but support Herrnstein's theory of reinforced behavior.

  12. Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric response of charged cellular polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kressmann, Reiner

    2001-10-01

    Piezoelectricity in a charged cellular polypropylene, called EMFi, is investigated with respect to nonlinearities to explain the strong differences in longitudinal piezoelectric constants published in the literature and ranging from 90 to 250 pC/N. The inverse constant was measured interferometrically to be 90 pm/V. Quasistatic and dynamic measurements with small loads yielded the same value for the direct constant. The direct constant was also investigated with respect to large-signal behavior becoming noticeable at static and dynamic loads higher than 10 kPa. Both the quasistatic and the dynamic constant increase up to 130 pC/N at such loads. Furthermore, an additional resonance appears under strong loading in the range of about 10 Hz shifting down with increasing load. In addition, the piezoelectric constant increases also with increasing dynamic load under constant static load. The nonlinearity also results in the generation of harmonics. Finally, boundary effects can be detected if just a small area of the sample is loaded. This effect appearing mainly at frequencies below 20 Hz is attributed to airflow between the air bubbles. A load-dependent Young's modulus, mainly responsible for the nonlinear behavior, is calculated from the experiments. It diminishes from 2 to 1.5 MPa at a load of 60 kPa.

  13. Cumulative Violence Exposures: Black Women’s Responses and Sources of Strength

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Holliday, Charvonne N.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Huerta, Julia; Cimino, Andrea; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2016-01-01

    Black women with cumulative violence exposures (CVE) may have unique needs for health care and safety. Qualitative data was analyzed from interviews with nine Black women with CVE to explore factors that motivated women to leave abusive relationships, women’s sources of strengths, and their responses to abuse. Quantitative data (N = 163) was analyzed to examine relationships between CVEs by intimate partner and health among Black women to further characterize the challenges these women face in making changes and finding their sources of strengths. Findings highlight the need to assess for CVE and identify multiple motivators for change, sources of strengths and coping strategies that could be potential points of intervention for women with CVE. PMID:26954765

  14. Cortico-subthalamic white matter tract strength predicts interindividual efficacy in stopping a motor response.

    PubMed

    Forstmann, Birte U; Keuken, Max C; Jahfari, Sara; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Neumann, Jane; Schäfer, Andreas; Anwander, Alfred; Turner, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small but vitally important structure in the basal ganglia. Because of its small volume, and its localization in the basal ganglia, the STN can best be visualized using ultra-high resolution 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, first we individually segmented 7 T MRI STN masks to generate atlas probability maps. Secondly, the individually segmented STN masks and the probability maps were used to derive cortico-subthalamic white matter tract strength. Tract strength measures were then taken to test two functional STN hypotheses which account for the efficiency in stopping a motor response: the right inferior fronto-subthalamic (rIFC-STN) hypothesis and the posterior medial frontal cortex-subthalamic (pMFC-STN) hypothesis. Results of two independent experiments show that increased white matter tract strength between the pMFC and STN results in better stopping behaviour.

  15. Linear and nonlinear light scattering and absorption in free-electron nanoclusters with diffuse surface: General considerations and linear response

    SciTech Connect

    Fomichev, S. V.; Becker, W.

    2010-06-15

    Both linear and nonlinear scattering and absorption of a laser pulse by spherical nanoclusters with free electrons and with a diffuse surface are considered in the collisionless hydrodynamics approximation. The developed model of forced collective motion of electrons confined to a cluster permits one consistently to introduce into the theory all the sources of nonlinearity, as well as the inhomogeneity of the cluster near its boundary. Two different perturbation theories corresponding to different laser intensity ranges are developed in this context, and both cold metal clusters and hot laser-heated or -ionized clusters are considered within the same approach. In the present article, after developing the full nonlinear model, the linear response to the laser field of the free-electron cluster with diffuse surface is investigated in detail, especially the properties of the linear Mie resonance (width and position). Under certain conditions, depending on the various cluster parameters secondary resonances are found. The properties of resonance-enhanced third-order harmonic generation and nonlinear laser absorption and their dependence on the shape of the diffuse surface will be presented separately.

  16. Linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and the variation of constants method. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  17. Dependences of Q-branch integrated intensity of linear-molecule pendular spectra on electric-field strength and rotational temperature and its potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Min; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Qin; Yin, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the pendular-state spectra of cold linear molecules, and investigated the dependences of “Q-branch” integrated intensity of pendular spectra on both electric-field strength and molecular rotation-temperature. A new multi-peak structure in the “Q-branch” spectrum is appearing when the Stark interaction strength ω = μE/B equal to or larger than the critical value. Our study shows that the above results can be used not only to measure the electric-field vector and its spatial distribution in some electrostatic devices, such as the Stark decelerator, Stark velocity filter and electrostatic trap and so on, but also to survey the orientation degree of cold linear molecules in a strong electrostatic field. PMID:27231057

  18. Physiological responses to linear treadmill and cycle ergometer exercise in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hsia, D; Casaburi, R; Pradhan, A; Torres, E; Porszasz, J

    2009-09-01

    Incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing work rate ideally increases linearly to the subject's tolerance within approximately 10 min. Widely used treadmill protocols often yield shorter exercise times in debilitated patients. We compared a recently described treadmill protocol featuring linear work rate increase, weight adjustments and a priori exercise tolerance estimates with standard cycle and treadmill protocols. We also compared treadmill and cycle responses to examine mechanisms of oxyhaemoglobin desaturation differences. In total, 16 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; mean+/-sd forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 36.5+/-10.9% predicted) performed incremental exercise using cycle, linear treadmill and modified Bruce protocols. Initial linear treadmill speed and grade yielded oxygen uptake (V'(O(2))) similar to cycle unloaded pedalling; Bruce protocol first stage elicited much higher V'(O(2)). Exercise duration was much shorter in Bruce than in cycle or linear treadmill protocols. At peak exercise, greater desaturation was noted in linear treadmill and Bruce protocols compared with cycle (-8.9+/-4.9 versus -8.5+/-4.7 versus -3.7+/-3.3%; p<0.001); at iso-V'(O(2)) values this difference widened as exercise proceeded. Iso-V'(O(2)) desaturation differences were largely related to higher ventilatory response to cycle than to treadmill exercise. The linear incremental treadmill protocol generates responses similar to cycle ergometry in severe COPD. However, cycle ergometry elicits less desaturation than does ambulation, making the linear treadmill protocol advantageous when evaluating COPD patients.

  19. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-12

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept-the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a 'dead' metal can be transformed into a 'smart' material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices. PMID:27347850

  20. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept—the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a ‘dead’ metal can be transformed into a ‘smart’ material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices.

  1. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Borrat, Xavier; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Gambus, Pedro; Caminal, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to improve the prediction of nociceptive responses with linear and non-linear measures calculated from EEG signal filtered in frequency bands higher than the traditional bands. Power spectral density and auto-mutual information function was applied in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. The proposed measures exhibit better performances than the bispectral index (BIS). Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were achieved combining EEG measures from the traditional frequency bands and higher frequency bands.

  2. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Borrat, Xavier; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Gambus, Pedro; Caminal, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to improve the prediction of nociceptive responses with linear and non-linear measures calculated from EEG signal filtered in frequency bands higher than the traditional bands. Power spectral density and auto-mutual information function was applied in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. The proposed measures exhibit better performances than the bispectral index (BIS). Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were achieved combining EEG measures from the traditional frequency bands and higher frequency bands. PMID:25901571

  3. Response Latency as an Index of Response Strength during Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dependent variables in research on problem behavior typically are based on measures of response repetition, but these measures may be problematic when behavior poses high risk or when its occurrence terminates a session. We examined response latency as the index of behavior during assessment. In Experiment 1, we compared response rate and latency…

  4. Ligand-Induced Protein Responses and Mechanical Signal Propagation Described by Linear Response Theories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lee-Wei; Kitao, Akio; Huang, Bang-Chieh; Gō, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general linear response theory (LRT) is formulated to describe time-dependent and -independent protein conformational changes upon CO binding with myoglobin. Using the theory, we are able to monitor protein relaxation in two stages. The slower relaxation is found to occur from 4.4 to 81.2 picoseconds and the time constants characterized for a couple of aromatic residues agree with those observed by UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectrometry and time resolved x-ray crystallography. The faster “early responses”, triggered as early as 400 femtoseconds, can be best described by the theory when impulse forces are used. The newly formulated theory describes the mechanical propagation following ligand-binding as a function of time, space and types of the perturbation forces. The “disseminators”, defined as the residues that propagate signals throughout the molecule the fastest among all the residues in protein when perturbed, are found evolutionarily conserved and the mutations of which have been shown to largely change the CO rebinding kinetics in myoglobin. PMID:25229149

  5. Hormonal responses to concurrent strength and endurance training with different exercise orders.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; dos Santos, Mariah Gonçalves; Martins, Jocelito Bijoldo; Rodrigues Lhullier, Francisco L; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Silva, Rodrigo Ferrari; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the intrasession sequencing of concurrent strength and aerobic training on the acute testosterone (TT) and cortisol (COR) responses. Ten recreationally strength-trained young men (23.5 ± 0.9 years) performed 2 exercise interventions: aerobic-strength (AS) and strength-aerobic (SA), which consisted of 30 minutes of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at 75% of maximal heart rate and 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 75% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in 4 strength exercises. Maximal heart rate was determined using a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Blood samples were collected before, between exercise modalities, and immediately after the concurrent training sessions to determine basal and acute total TT and COR concentrations. There were significant increases in TT after the first modality in both exercise orders (p < 0.05). However, the TT level remained significantly higher than the resting levels after the second exercise modality only in the AS (p < 0.05) which resulted in a significant higher relative total change after the complete concurrent training session compared with SA (p < 0.05). Regarding COR, there were significant increases after the first modality in both AS and SA orders (p < 0.05), but the COR returned to resting levels after the second modality in both AS and SA interventions. During AS and SA, the change observed after the first modality performance was greater than that after the second in both hormones. The present results suggest that the TT response is optimized after the AS order, whereas both AS and SA produced similar hormonal levels at all time points. However, it is important to state that the present results should be applied only when short duration and moderate intensity aerobic training is performed.

  6. Explicit solvent simulations of the aqueous oxidation potential and reorganization energy for neutral molecules: gas phase, linear solvent response, and non-linear response contributions.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Jennifer J; Tentscher, Peter R; Seijo, Marianne; Samuel Arey, J

    2015-06-14

    First principles simulations were used to predict aqueous one-electron oxidation potentials (Eox) and associated half-cell reorganization energies (λaq) for aniline, phenol, methoxybenzene, imidazole, and dimethylsulfide. We employed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the oxidized and reduced species in an explicit aqueous solvent, followed by EOM-IP-CCSD computations with effective fragment potentials for diabatic energy gaps of solvated clusters, and finally thermodynamic integration of the non-linear solvent response contribution using classical MD. A priori predicted Eox and λaq values exhibit mean absolute errors of 0.17 V and 0.06 eV, respectively, compared to experiment. We also disaggregate Eox into several well-defined free energy properties, including the gas phase adiabatic free energy of ionization (7.73 to 8.82 eV), the solvent-induced shift in the free energy of ionization due to linear solvent response (-2.01 to -2.73 eV), and the contribution from non-linear solvent response (-0.07 to -0.14 eV). The linear solvent response component is further apportioned into contributions from the solvent-induced shift in vertical ionization energy of the reduced species (ΔVIEaq) and the solvent-induced shift in negative vertical electron affinity of the ionized species (ΔNVEAaq). The simulated ΔVIEaq and ΔNVEAaq are found to contribute the principal sources of uncertainty in computational estimates of Eox and λaq. Trends in the magnitudes of disaggregated solvation properties are found to correlate with trends in structural and electronic features of the solute. Finally, conflicting approaches for evaluating the aqueous reorganization energy are contrasted and discussed, and concluding recommendations are given.

  7. Aging, isometric strength and endurance, and cardiovascular responses to static effort.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, J S; Lind, A R

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of age to isometric muscular strength are few, on isometric endurance rare, and on the physiological responses to static effort nonexistent. This investigation assessed the maximal handgrip strength, the duration of a fatiguing handgrip contraction at a tension of 40% of maximal strength and the heart rate and blood pressure during that contraction of 100 men aged from 22 to 62 yr. The subjects of this study were all men employed in a machine shop for a large aircraft corporation. The homogeneity of their occupations may well explain why, unlike previous reports, we found no change in muscular strength or muscular endurance with age. However, although heart rate increased during the contraction in all subjects, the increase in heart rate was greater in younger men. In contrast, while both systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased during the contraction in all subjects, the largest increase in systolic blood pressure was attained by the men in the older decades; there was no difference due to age in the diastolic blood pressures. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1110248

  8. NMR nuclear magnetic shielding anisotropy of linear molecules within the linear response within the elimination of the small component approach.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Azúa, MartínC; Giribet, Claudia G; Melo, Juan I

    2011-01-21

    The influence of the spin-Zeeman (SZ) operator in the evaluation of the spin-orbit effect on the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor in the context of the linear response within the elimination of the small component approach is critically discussed. It is shown that such term yields no contribution to the isotropic nuclear magnetic shielding constant, but it may be of great importance in the determination of individual tensor components, and particularly of the tensor anisotropy. In particular, an interesting relation between the SZ and orbital Zeeman contributions to the spin-orbit effect for the case of linear molecules is shown to hold. Numerical examples for the BrH, IH, and XeF(2) molecules are presented which show that, provided the SZ term is taken into account, results of the individual shielding tensor components and the tensor anisotropy are in good agreement with those obtained by other theoretical methods, and particularly by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach.

  9. Disentangling linear and nonlinear brain responses to evoked deep tissue pain.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Edwards, Robert R; Kim, Jieun; Vangel, Mark G; Wasan, Ajay D; Gollub, Randy L; Harris, Richard E; Park, Kyungmo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-10-01

    Pain stimuli evoke widespread responses in the brain. However, our understanding of the physiological significance underlying heterogeneous response within different pain-activated and -deactivated regions is still limited. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated brain responses to a wide range of stimulus intensity levels (1 innocuous, 7 painful) in order to estimate region-specific stimulus-response functions, which we hypothesized could illuminate that region's functional relationship to pain. Linear and nonlinear brain responses to pain were estimated through independent Legendre polynomial transformations of pain ratings within a general linear model. This approach identified at least 5 different, regionally specific activity profiles in the brain. Linearly increasing (eg, primary somatosensory/motor cortex, insulae) and intensity-independent (eg, secondary somatosensory cortex) activation was noted in traditional pain-processing areas, potentially reflecting sensory encoding and all-or-none salience responses, respectively. Multiple activity profiles were seen in areas of the default mode network (DMN): intensity-independent deactivation (eg, posterior cingulate cortex), linearly decreasing (eg, contralateral inferior parietal lobule), and quadratic (U-shaped; eg, medial prefrontal cortex). The latter observation suggests that: (1) different DMN subregions exhibit functional heterogeneity and (2) some DMN subregions respond in a percept-related manner to pain, suggesting closer linkage between the DMN and pain processing than previously thought. Future studies should apply a similar approach using innocuous stimuli of multiple intensities to evaluate whether the response profiles reported here can also be generalized to nonpainful somatosensory processing.

  10. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: theory and application to atoms.

    PubMed

    Fias, Stijn; Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N(s)] and [N(α), N(β)] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N(α), N(β)] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r') to a quantity χ(r, r'), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ(αβ)(r, r'), χ(βα)(r, r'), and χ(SS)(r, r') plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α(αα), α(αβ), α(βα), and α(ββ) have been calculated. PMID:25399132

  11. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fias, Stijn Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  12. Effects of negative ageing on deformation and strength response of geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M.; Towhata, I.; Yamada, S.; Qureshi, M. U.; Kawano, K.

    2009-04-01

    Negative ageing or decay of grains with time is often ignored in conventional geotechnical investigations. Geology is always vital in such a scenario but the micro-scale geotechnical point of concern is the time-dependent loss of strength and deformation characteristics. This paper presents unique data from torsional shear tests on crushed soft rocks from Yokosuka, Japan and 2005-Kashmir earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. Material being sensitive to disintegrate by water-action allowed to simulate the long-term stress-strain and volume change response under saturated conditions whereas dry tests on similar soil represent initial intact response of the material. Negative ageing is manipulated by an enormous decrease in shear strength parameters, changes in grain size curve and increase in volumetric compression. It is concluded that for long-term hazard evaluation of various geotechnical structures, the effects of loss of strength due to decay of grains with time should be incorporated in conventional analysis and design models.

  13. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the

  14. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  15. Age and response bias: evidence from the strength-based mirror effect.

    PubMed

    Criss, Amy H; Aue, William; Kılıç, Aslı

    2014-10-01

    Performance in episodic memory is determined both by accurate retrieval from memory and by decision processes. A substantial body of literature suggests slightly poorer episodic memory accuracy for older than younger adults; however, age-related changes in the decision mechanisms in memory have received much less attention. Response bias, the willingness to endorse an item as remembered, is an important decision factor that contributes to episodic memory performance, and therefore understanding age-related changes in response bias is critical to theoretical development. We manipulate list strength in order to investigate two aspects of response bias. First, we evaluate whether criterion placement in episodic memory differs for older and younger adults. Second, we ask whether older adults have the same degree of flexibility to adjust the criterion in response to task demands as younger adults. Participants were tested on weakly and strongly encoded lists where word frequency (Experiment 1) or similarity between targets and foils (Experiment 2) was manipulated. Both older and younger adults had higher hit rates and lower false-alarm rates for strong lists than for weak lists (i.e., a strength-based mirror effect). Older adults were more conservative (less likely to endorse an item as studied) than younger adults, and we found no evidence that older and younger adults differ in their ability to flexibly adjust their criterion based on the demands of the task.

  16. Linear response theory for symmetry improved two particle irreducible effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the linear response of an O (N ) scalar quantum field theory subject to external perturbations using the symmetry-improved two-particle irreducible effective action (SI-2PIEA) formalism [A. Pilaftsis and D. Teresi, Nucl. Phys. B874, 594 (2013)]. Despite satisfactory equilibrium behavior, we find a number of unphysical effects at the linear response level. Goldstone boson field fluctuations are overdetermined, with the only consistent solution being to set the fluctuations and their driving sources to zero, except for momentum modes where the Higgs and Goldstone self-energies obey a particular relationship. Also Higgs field fluctuations propagate masslessly, despite the Higgs propagator having the correct mass. These pathologies are independent of any truncation of the effective action and still exist even if we relax the overdetermining Ward identities, so long as the constraint is formulated O (N ) covariantly. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent incompatibility of the constraints and linear response approximation and possible ways forward.

  17. Quasi-Linear Cochlear Responses to Noise Can Result from Instantaneous Nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Wen; Neely, Stephen T.

    2011-11-01

    Responses to acoustic stimuli in the cochlea are known to be nonlinear. Many existing models of cochlear mechanics were built upon three basic assumptions: traveling-wave amplification is provided by active mechanisms in the outer hair cells (OHCs). Second, as the stimulus level increases, the gain decreases due to saturation nonlinearity in the OHCs. Finally, the saturation non-linearity is "instantaneous"; its input-output relation does not possess memory. These assumptions were recently challenged by reports that basilar-membrane (BM) responses to noise can be predicted well by level-dependent Wiener filters and are thus quasi-linear. It was argued that the quasi-linear responses could not result from instantaneous nonlinearity. In this paper, we present a model of cochlear mechanics which has instantaneous OHC saturation nonlinearity but produces quasi-linear responses to noise. Correlation coefficients were consistently greater than 0.9 between simulated noise responses and the responses predicted by equivalent Wiener filters. Further, Gaussianity in the acoustic stimuli was preserved on the BM. We conclude that the results support the common understandings and assumptions of cochlear mechanics.

  18. Response surface characterization of impact damage and residual strength degradation in composite sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarah, Issam Khder

    2003-06-01

    The influence of material configuration and impact parameters on the damage tolerance characteristics of sandwich composites comprised of carbon-epoxy woven fabric facesheets and Nomex honeycomb cores was investigated using empirically based response surfaces. A series of carefully selected tests were used to isolate the coupled influence of various combinations of the number of facesheet plies, core density, core thickness, impact energy, impactor diameter, and impact velocity on the damage formation and residual strength degradation due to normal impact. The ranges of selected material parameters were typical of those found in common aircraft applications. The diameter of the planar damage area associated with Through Transmission Ultrasonic C-scan measurements and the peak residual facesheet indentation depth were used to describe the extent of internal and detectable surface damage, respectively. Standard analysis of variance techniques were used to assess the significance of the regression models, individual model terms, and model lack-of-fit. In addition, the inherent variability associated with given types of experimental measurements was evaluated. Response surface estimates of the size of the planar damage region and compressive residual strength as a continuous function of material system and impact parameters correlated reasonably well with experimentally determined values. For a fixed set of impact parameters, regression results suggest that impact damage development and residual strength degradation is highly material and lay-up configuration dependent. Increasing the number of facesheet plies and the thickness of the core material generally resulted in the greatest improvement in the damage tolerance characteristics. An increase in the impact energy can result in a significant decrease in the estimated residual strength, particularly for those sandwich panels with thicker facesheets. The effects of variable impact velocity on damage formation and loss

  19. Beyond the Death of Linear Response: 1/f Optimal Information Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, Gerardo; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo; West, Bruce J.

    2010-07-01

    Nonergodic renewal processes have recently been shown by several authors to be insensitive to periodic perturbations, thereby apparently sanctioning the death of linear response, a building block of nonequilibrium statistical physics. We show that it is possible to go beyond the “death of linear response” and establish a permanent correlation between an external stimulus and the response of a complex network generating nonergodic renewal processes, by taking as stimulus a similar nonergodic process. The ideal condition of 1/f noise corresponds to a singularity that is expected to be relevant in several experimental conditions.

  20. Application of linear response theory to magnetotransport properties of dense plasmas.

    PubMed

    Adams, J R; Reinholz, H; Redmer, R

    2010-03-01

    Linear response theory, as developed within the Zubarev formalism, is a quantum statistical approach for describing systems out of but close to equilibrium, which has been successfully applied to a wide variety of plasmas in an external electric field and/or containing a temperature gradient. We present here an extension of linear response theory to include the effects of an external magnetic field. General expressions for the complete set of relevant transport properties are given. In particular, the Hall effect and the influence of a magnetic field on the dc electrical conductivity are discussed. Low-density limits including electron-electron scattering are presented as well as results for arbitrary degeneracy.

  1. Application of linear response theory to magnetotransport properties of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J. R.; Redmer, R.; Reinholz, H.

    2010-03-15

    Linear response theory, as developed within the Zubarev formalism, is a quantum statistical approach for describing systems out of but close to equilibrium, which has been successfully applied to a wide variety of plasmas in an external electric field and/or containing a temperature gradient. We present here an extension of linear response theory to include the effects of an external magnetic field. General expressions for the complete set of relevant transport properties are given. In particular, the Hall effect and the influence of a magnetic field on the dc electrical conductivity are discussed. Low-density limits including electron-electron scattering are presented as well as results for arbitrary degeneracy.

  2. A pharmacological examination of the resistance-to-change hypothesis of response strength.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S L

    1986-11-01

    The effects of d-amphetamine sulfate, sodium pentobarbital, haloperidol, and cholecystokinin-octapeptide were examined within the context of Nevin's (1974, 1979) resistance-to-change hypothesis of response strength. In three experiments, rats' responding was reinforced by delivery of food under chained random-interval 30-s random-interval 30-s, multiple fixed-interval 30-s fixed-interval 120-s, or multiple random-interval 30-s random-interval 120-s schedules. Each rat received several doses of each drug and changes in response rate were measured. The resistance-to-change hypothesis predicts greater disruption of response rate relative to baseline in the initial component of the chained schedule and in the 120-s component of the multiple schedules. In the chained schedule cholecystokinin-octapeptide produced greater reductions in response rate relative to baseline in the initial component. However, no differences between components were observed with haloperidol or sodium pentobarbital, and high doses of d-amphetamine reduced response rate in the terminal component relatively more than in the initial component. In the multiple schedules either no differences were observed between components or response rate was reduced more relative to baseline in the 30-s component. The data fail to support the notion that drugs may be viewed within the same context as other response disruptors such as extinction, satiation, and the presentation of alternative reinforcement.

  3. Gray whale target strength measurements and the analysis of the backscattered response.

    PubMed

    Lucifredi, Irena; Stein, Peter J

    2007-03-01

    One of the current Integrated Marine Mammal Monitoring and Protection System (IMPAS) directions is concentrated on the design and development of the active sonar modality representing just one component of the global system. The active sonar was designed, built, and tested during the Marine Mammal Active Sonar Test (MAST 04), producing whale detections and whale tracks. The experiment was conducted in January 2004 off the coast of California. One of the objectives of the current work is to distinguish whale backscattered responses from the ones generated by the environmental clutter in a waveguide. Furthermore, the work aims to identify and analyze the target signature features that are necessary for enhanced active sonar detection and classification of marine mammals. Over the years there have been very few documented attempts to capture and analyze the backscattering response of whales using an active sonar system. Nevertheless, whales, mostly owing to their size, their motion, and the aspect dependence of their backscattered field, possess desirable properties that help distinguish their scattered response from clutter and other environment related false alarms. As an initial step, data collected during the MAST 04 experiment are presented, and gray whale target strength measurements are obtained. Results are compared to the previously published whale target strengths. Additionally, an investigation is conducted in an effort to provide whale feature identification points suitable for automated detection and classification, as means of relating gray whale active acoustic signatures to their inherent characteristics and their motion.

  4. Responsiveness of muscle size and strength to physical training in very elderly people: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, V H; Saunders, D H; Greig, C A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether very elderly muscle (>75 years) hypertrophies in response to physical training. The databases MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL Plus and SPORTDiscus were systematically literature searched with reference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews. Controlled trials (inactive elderly control group) involving healthy elderly participants over 75 years participating in an intervention complying with an established definition of physical training were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the PEDro scale. Data analysis was performed on muscle size and strength using RevMan (software version 5.1). Four studies were included of which four of four measured changes in gross muscle size. Training induced increases in muscle size from 1.5%-15.6% were reported in three of four studies, and one of four studies reported a decrease in muscle size (3%). The greatest gain in muscle mass was observed in a study of whole body vibration training. Meta-analysis of three studies found an increase of thigh muscle cross-sectional area (mean difference 2.31 cm(2) or 0.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62 to 4.00; P = 0.008) and muscle strength (standardized mean difference 1.04, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.43; P < 0.001). Physical training when delivered as resistance training has the ability to elicit hypertrophy and increase muscle strength in very elderly muscle.

  5. Responses to LBNP in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic capacity: Implications for flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mathes, Karen L.; Lasley, Mary L.; Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic stress is associated with strength and/or aerobic capacity. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and isokinetic dynamo meter tests to determine leg strength. Based on predetermined criteria, the subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each matched for age, height, and weight: (1) low strength/low aerobic fitness; (2) low strength/high aerobic fitness; (3) high strength/low aerobic fitness; and (4) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP through -50 mmHg or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences except for catecholamines. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. Subjects who showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP had greater elevations in vasopressin and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Peak VO2 nor leg strength were correlated with fall in MAP or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that neither aerobic nor strength fitness characteristics are good predictors of responses to LBNP stress.

  6. Environmental enrichment improves response strength, threshold, selectivity, and latency of auditory cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Navzer D; Percaccio, Cherie R; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 50 yr, environmental enrichment has been shown to generate more than a dozen changes in brain anatomy. The consequences of these physical changes on information processing have not been well studied. In this study, rats were housed in enriched or standard conditions either prior to or after reaching sexual maturity. Evoked potentials from awake rats and extracellular recordings from anesthetized rats were used to document responses of auditory cortex neurons. This report details several significant, new findings about the influence of housing conditions on the responses of rat auditory cortex neurons. First, enrichment dramatically increases the strength of auditory cortex responses. Tone-evoked potentials of enriched rats, for example, were more than twice the amplitude of rats raised in standard laboratory conditions. Second, cortical responses of both young and adult animals benefit from exposure to an enriched environment and are degraded by exposure to an impoverished environment. Third, housing condition resulted in rapid remodeling of cortical responses in <2 wk. Fourth, recordings made under anesthesia indicate that enrichment increases the number of neurons activated by any sound. This finding shows that the evoked potential plasticity documented in awake rats was not due to differences in behavioral state. Finally, enrichment made primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons more sensitive to quiet sounds, more selective for tone frequency, and altered their response latencies. These experiments provide the first evidence of physiologic changes in auditory cortex processing resulting from generalized environmental enrichment.

  7. A theoretical and experimental investigation of the linear and nonlinear impulse responses from a magnetoplasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grody, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear responses of a magnetoplasma resulting from inhomogeneity in the background plasma density are studied. The plasma response to an impulse electric field was measured and the results are compared with the theory of an inhomogeneous cold plasma. Impulse responses were recorded for the different plasma densities, static magnetic fields, and neutral pressures and generally appeared as modulated, damped oscillations. The frequency spectra of the waveforms consisted of two separated resonance peaks. For weak excitation, the results correlate with the linear theory of a cold, inhomogeneous, cylindrical magnetoplasma. The damping mechanism is identified with that of phase mixing due to inhomogeneity in plasma density. With increasing excitation voltage, the nonlinear impulse responses display stronger damping and a small increase in the frequency of oscillation.

  8. Flutter and Forced Response Analyses of Cascades using a Two-Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, O.

    1999-01-01

    Flutter and forced response analyses for a cascade of blades in subsonic and transonic flow is presented. The structural model for each blade is a typical section with bending and torsion degrees of freedom. The unsteady aerodynamic forces due to bending and torsion motions. and due to a vortical gust disturbance are obtained by solving unsteady linearized Euler equations. The unsteady linearized equations are obtained by linearizing the unsteady nonlinear equations about the steady flow. The predicted unsteady aerodynamic forces include the effect of steady aerodynamic loading due to airfoil shape, thickness and angle of attack. The aeroelastic equations are solved in the frequency domain by coupling the un- steady aerodynamic forces to the aeroelastic solver MISER. The present unsteady aerodynamic solver showed good correlation with published results for both flutter and forced response predictions. Further improvements are required to use the unsteady aerodynamic solver in a design cycle.

  9. VIBRA: An interactive computer program for steady-state vibration response analysis of linear damped structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive steady state frequency response computer program with graphics is documented. Single or multiple forces may be applied to the structure using a modal superposition approach to calculate response. The method can be reapplied to linear, proportionally damped structures in which the damping may be viscous or structural. The theoretical approach and program organization are described. Example problems, user instructions, and a sample interactive session are given to demonstate the program's capability in solving a variety of problems.

  10. Evaluating and interpreting the chemical relevance of the linear response kernel for atoms II: open shell.

    PubMed

    Boisdenghien, Zino; Fias, Stijn; Van Alsenoy, Christian; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-07-28

    Most of the work done on the linear response kernel χ(r,r') has focussed on its atom-atom condensed form χAB. Our previous work [Boisdenghien et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2013, 9, 1007] was the first effort to truly focus on the non-condensed form of this function for closed (sub)shell atoms in a systematic fashion. In this work, we extend our method to the open shell case. To simplify the plotting of our results, we average our results to a symmetrical quantity χ(r,r'). This allows us to plot the linear response kernel for all elements up to and including argon and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table and in the different representations of χ(r,r'). Within the context of Spin Polarized Conceptual Density Functional Theory, the first two-dimensional plots of spin polarized linear response functions are presented and commented on for some selected cases on the basis of the atomic ground state electronic configurations. Using the relation between the linear response kernel and the polarizability we compare the values of the polarizability tensor calculated using our method to high-level values. PMID:24837234

  11. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  12. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2016-06-01

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics' force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities.

  13. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2016-06-14

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics' force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities.

  14. A study of non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response using 120 UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; McIntyre, Neil; Oughton, Rachel H.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a catchment characteristic sensitivity analysis concerning the non-linearity of rainfall-runoff response in 120 UK catchments. Two approaches were adopted. The first approach involved, for each catchment, regression of a power-law to flow rate gradient data for recession events only. This approach was referred to as the recession analysis (RA). The second approach involved calibrating a rainfall-runoff model to the full data set (both recession and non-recession events). The rainfall-runoff model was developed by combining a power-law streamflow routing function with a one parameter probability distributed model (PDM) for soil moisture accounting. This approach was referred to as the rainfall-runoff model (RM). Step-wise linear regression was used to derive regionalization equations for the three parameters. An advantage of the RM approach is that it utilizes much more of the observed data. Results from the RM approach suggest that catchments with high base-flow and low annual precipitation tend to exhibit greater non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response. In contrast, the results from the RA approach suggest that non-linearity is linked to low evaporative demand. The difference in results is attributed to the aggregation of storm-flow and base-flow into a single system giving rise to a seemingly more non-linear response when applying the RM approach to catchments that exhibit a strongly dual storm-flow base-flow response. The study also highlights the value and limitations in a regionlization context of aggregating storm-flow and base-flow pathways into a single non-linear routing function.

  15. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  16. Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation in plasmas with various magnetic field strength

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2013-12-15

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z waves to electromagnetic radiation near the plasma and upper hybrid frequency in the presence of density gradients is potentially relevant to type II and III solar radio bursts, ionospheric radar experiments, pulsars, and continuum radiation for planetary magnetospheres. Here, we study mode conversion in warm, magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code when the density gradient has a wide range of angle, δ, to the ambient magnetic field, B{sub 0}, for a range of incident Langmuir/z wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Left-handed polarized ordinary (oL) and right-handed polarized extraordinary (xR) mode waves are produced in various ranges of δ for Ω{sub 0} = (ωL/c){sup 1/3}(ω{sub ce}/ω) < 1.5, where ω{sub ce} is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω is the angular wave frequency, L is the length scale of the (linear) density gradient, and c is the speed of light; (2) the xR mode is produced most strongly in the range, 40° < δ < 60°, for intermediately magnetized plasmas with Ω{sub 0} = 1.0 and 1.5, while it is produced over a wider range, 0° ≤ δ ≤ 90°, for weakly magnetized plasmas with Ω{sub 0} = 0.1 and 0.7; (3) the maximum total conversion efficiencies for wave power from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation are of order 50%–99% and the corresponding energy conversion efficiencies are 5%–14% (depending on the adiabatic index γ and β = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2}, where T{sub e} is the electron temperature and m{sub e} is the electron) for various Ω{sub 0}; (4) the mode conversion window becomes wider as Ω{sub 0} and δ increase. Hence, the results in this paper confirm that linear mode conversion under these conditions can explain the weak total circular polarization of interplanetary type II and III solar radio bursts because a strong xR mode can be generated via linear mode conversion near δ ∼ 45°.

  17. A novel multi-responsive polyampholyte composite hydrogel with excellent mechanical strength and rapid shrinking rate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Tan, Ying; Chen, Qiang; An, Huiyong; Li, Wenbo; Dong, Lisong; Wang, Pixin

    2010-05-15

    Series of hydrophilic core-shell microgels with cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as core and poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) as shell are synthesized via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Then, the microgels are treated with a small amount of potassium persulfate (KPS) to generate free radicals on the amine nitrogens of PVAm, which subsequently initiate the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), and acrylamide (AAm) onto microgels to prepare multi-responsive composite hydrogels. The composite hydrogels consist of cross-linked ungrafted polyampholyte chains as the first network and microgels with grafted polyampholyte chains as graft point and second network and show surprising mechanical strength and rapid response rate. The investigation shows the compress strength of composite hydrogels is up to 17-30 MPa, which is 60-100 times higher than that of the hydrogel matrix. The composite hydrogel shows reversible switch of transmittance when traveling the lowest critical temperature (LCST) of microgels. When the composite hydrogel swollen in pH 2.86 solution at ambient condition is immersed into the pH 7.00 solution at 45 °C, a rapid dynamic shrinking can be observed. And the character time (τ) of shrinking dynamic of composite hydrogel is 251.9 min, which is less than that of hydrogel matrix (τ=2273.7 min). PMID:20152987

  18. On the unphysical solutions of the Kadanoff-Baym equations in linear response: Correlation-induced homogeneous density-distribution and attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The Kadanoff-Baym equations, which allow for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of all one-particle observables, are found to yield unphysical electron density dynamics in the linear and nonlinear response, for Φ -derivable approximations, irrespective of interaction strength or type. In particular, we show that when calculated from the Kadanoff-Baym equations using correlated self-energy approximations, the linear response dynamics of isolated electron systems damps to an unphysical homogeneous density-distribution. The damping is also present for Hartree or Hartree-Fock self-energies. These surprising results supplement previous findings on the nonlinear response, and complement them by showing that the linear response is also plagued by unphysical dynamics. Being universal, this additional feature indicates the possible presence of an attractor that leads to amplitude death and a subsequent tendency to a homogeneous charge and density distribution. This unveils a scenario in which the Kadanoff-Baym dynamics simply breaks down, drastically restricting the parameter space for which the method can give physically meaningful insights. In addition to their relevance to the field of ultrafast electron dynamics in isolated and open systems, these findings may also impact the results obtained with the Bethe-Salpeter equation in linear response, due to the well-known equivalency between the two methods. This suggests the need for a different approach to the dynamics of quantum systems.

  19. Relationship between response rates and measures of reinforcing strength using a choice procedure in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Michael A

    2008-07-01

    Concurrent schedules of reinforcement are increasingly being used to investigate the reinforcing strength of abused drugs. A purported advantage of concurrent schedules is that the primary dependent measure, percentage of responses emitted on the drug-associated manipulandum, is independent of the rate-altering effects of drugs. Data supporting this hypothesis are, however, rarely presented, which was one goal of this study. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that drug-induced decreases in response rates provides an additional index to characterize abuse liability of drugs. This study examined the relationship between response rate and response allocation (i.e. drug choice) when 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 0.03-0.3 mg/kg/inj) or cocaine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/inj) was the alternative to food under concurrent fixed-ratio reinforcement schedules in rhesus (n=4) and cynomolgus (n=16) monkeys, respectively. Increasing doses of MDMA or cocaine resulted in increased drug choice and dose-dependent decreases in overall response rates. For both drugs, response rates on the drug-associated lever were not affected by dose and were not different from saline. Furthermore, at most doses, rates of responding on the food-associated lever were significantly higher than response rates on the drug-associated lever. Finally, MDMA but not cocaine decreased food-reinforced responding, providing evidence for potential differences between the drugs. These results demonstrate that under concurrent food-drug reinforcement schedules, response rates on the drug-associated lever are independent of measures of reinforcement, whereas disruptions in food-maintained responding may be inversely related to abuse liability. PMID:18622187

  20. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  1. Linear response theory for annealing of radiation damage in semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, Vitaly

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of the radiation/annealing response of MOS ICs is described. Although many experiments have been performed in this field, no comprehensive theory dealing with radiation/annealing response has been proposed. Many attempts have been made to apply linear response theory, but no theoretical foundation has been presented. The linear response theory outlined here is capable of describing a broad area of radiation/annealing response phenomena in MOS ICs, in particular, both simultaneous irradiation and annealing, as well as short- and long-term annealing, including the case when annealing is nearing completion. For the first time, a simple procedure is devised to determine the response function from experimental radiation/annealing data. In addition, this procedure enables us to study the effect of variable temperature and dose rate, effects which are of interest in spaceflight. In the past, the shift in threshold potential due to radiation/annealing has usually been assumed to depend on one variable: the time lapse between an impulse dose and the time of observation. While such a suggestion of uniformity in time is certainly true for a broad range of radiation annealing phenomena, it may not hold for some ranges of the variables of interest (temperature, dose rate, etc.). A response function is projected which is dependent on two variables: the time of observation and the time of the impulse dose. This dependence on two variables allows us to extend the theory to the treatment of a variable dose rate. Finally, the linear theory is generalized to the case in which the response is nonlinear with impulse dose, but is proportional to some impulse function of dose. A method to determine both the impulse and response functions is presented.

  2. Airfoil wake and linear theory gust response including sub and superresonant flow conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic gust response of a high solidity stator vane row is examined in terms of the fundamental gust modeling assumptions with particular attention given to the effects near an acoustic resonance. A series of experiments was performed with gusts generated by rotors comprised of perforated plates and airfoils. It is concluded that, for both the perforated plate and airfoil wake generated gusts, the unsteady pressure responses do not agree with the linear-theory gust predictions near an acoustic resonance. The effects of the acoustic resonance phenomena are clearly evident on the airfoil surface unsteady pressure responses. The transition of the measured lift coefficients across the acoustic resonance from the subresonant regime to the superresonant regime occurs in a simple linear fashion.

  3. Linear and undulating periodized strength plus aerobic training promote similar benefits and lead to improvement of insulin resistance on obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daniela Sayuri; De Mello, Marco Túlio; Foschini, Denis; Lira, Fabio Santos; De Piano Ganen, Aline; Da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; De Lima Sanches, Priscila; Silva, Patrícia Leão; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-03-01

    The present study compares the effectiveness of three types of physical training for obesity control in adolescents submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Forty-five post-puberty obese adolescents (15-18yo) were randomly placed in three different groups of physical trainings: aerobic training (AT n=20), aerobic plus strength training with linear periodization (LP n=13) and aerobic plus strength training with daily undulating periodization (DUP n=12). The body composition was evaluated by air-displacement plethysmography; the rest metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry; serum analysis was collected after an overnight fasting. The most important finding of this study was that both LP and DUP groups improved lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin concentration (p<0.01). The linear regression showed a negative association between delta (%) adiponectin and delta (%) insulin (p<0.05). Each group presented a significant reduction in body mass, body mass index and fat mass (kg) after short and long-term intervention (p<0.01). However, the AT group reduced the fat-free mass after short-term intervention (p<0.01) and enhanced protein oxidation (p<0.01), whereas only LP group was able to increase the fat-free mass and maintain the rest metabolic rate (RMR). There was a negative correlation between percentage of protein oxidation and RMR (r=-0.75) in all groups. The interdisciplinary therapy models that included aerobic plus strength training were more effective than only aerobic training to improve lipid profile and insulin sensitivity, as well as the inflammatory state by increasing adiponectin. In all groups were observed an improvement on anthropometric profile.

  4. Vestibular afferent responses to linear accelerations in the alert squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Christopher J.; Schor, Robert H.; Tomko, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous activity of 40 otolith afferents and 44 canal afferents was recorded in 4 alert, intact squirrel monkeys. Polarization vectors and response properties of otolith afferents were determined during static re-orientations relative to gravity and during Earth-horizontal, sinusoidal, linear oscillations. Canal afferents were tested for sensitivity to linear accelerations. For regular otolith afferents, a significant correlation between upright discharge rate and sensitivity to dynamic acceleration in the horizontal plane was observed. This correlation was not present in irregular units. The sensitivity of otolith afferents to both static tilts and dynamic linear acceleration was much greater in irregularly discharging units than in regularly discharging units. The spontaneous activity and static and dynamic response properties of regularly discharging otolith afferents were similar to those reported in barbiturate-anesthetized squirrel monkeys. Irregular afferents also had similar dynamic response properties when compared to anesthetized monkeys. However, this sample of irregular afferents in alert animals had higher resting discharge rates and greater sensitivity to static tilts. The majority of otolith polarization vectors were oriented near the horizontal in the plane of the utricular maculae; however, directions of maximum sensitivity were different during dynamic and static testing. Canal afferents were not sensitive to static tilts or linear oscillations of the head.

  5. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mathes, K. L.; Lasley, M. L.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Frey, M. A.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic challenge is associated with interactions between strength and aerobic power. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) and isokinetic dynamometer tests to determine knee extensor strength. Based on predetermined criteria, subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each, matched for age, height, and body mass: (a) low strength/average aerobic fitness, (b) low strength/high aerobic fitness, (c) high strength/average aerobic fitness, and (d) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 0.11 rad (6 degrees) head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP to -6.7 kPa or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min, while hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses were measured. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences between high and low strength characteristics. Subjects with high aerobic power exhibited greater (P < 0.05) stroke volume and lower (P < 0.05) heart rate, vascular peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure during rest, HDT, and LBNP. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. These subjects showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure during LBNP, had greater elevations in vasopressin, and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Neither VO2max nor leg strength were associated with fall in arterial pressure or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that interactions between aerobic and strength fitness characteristics do not influence responses to LBNP challenge.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Filled and Unfilled Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; Thadhani, Naresh

    2008-04-01

    We are investigating the mechanics of impact-induced stress transfer between a linear cellular alloy (LCA) and a reactive filler to determine the effect of cell geometry on deformation and fragmentation. LCAs are honeycomb structures made of maraging steel, and provide structural integrity for the reactive filler such as a powder mixture of Ta+Fe2O3. 3-D computations are used to determine stress and strain distributions in both filled and unfilled LCAs during impact. The strength and failure models used for maraging steel and the response of Ta+Fe2O3 are validated through experiment. The failure response of three different geometries: 9-cell, pie, and reinforced pie, are compared with the response of a hollow cylinder, for impact velocities of 100, 200, and 300 m/s. Unfilled, the cylindrical geometry provides the least resistance to deformation and fragmentation, while the reinforced pie LCA provides the most resistance. Understanding of the mechanics of deformation and failure is used to determine the most effective geometry for stress transfer to the filler.

  7. The composition of EphB2 clusters determines the strength in the cellular repulsion response

    PubMed Central

    Schaupp, Andreas; Sabet, Ola; Dudanova, Irina; Ponserre, Marion; Bastiaens, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Trans interactions of erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular (Eph) receptors with their membrane-bound ephrin ligands generate higher-order clusters that can form extended signaling arrays. The functional relevance of the cluster size for repulsive signaling is not understood. We used chemical dimerizers and fluorescence anisotropy to generate and visualize specific EphB2 cluster species in living cells. We find that cell collapse responses are induced by small-sized EphB2 clusters, suggesting that extended EphB2 arrays are dispensable and that EphB2 activation follows an ON–OFF switch with EphB2 dimers being inactive and trimers and tetramers being fully functional. Moreover, the strength of the collapse response is determined by the abundance of multimers over dimers within a cluster population: the more dimers are present, the weaker the response. Finally, we show that the C-terminal modules of EphB2 have negative regulatory effects on ephrin-induced clustering. These results shed new light on the mechanism and regulation of EphB2 activation and provide a model on how Eph signaling translates into graded cellular responses. PMID:24469634

  8. Nonlinear Response and Residual Strength of Damaged Stiffened Shells Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Britt, Vicki O.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Rankin, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the nonlinear response of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks are presented. The shells are modeled with a hierarchical modeling strategy and analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that maintains the shell in a nonlinear equilibrium state while the crack is grown. The analysis accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Fuselage skins, frames stringers and failsafe straps are included in the models. Results are presented for various combinations of internal pressure and mechanical bending, vertical shear and torsion loads, and the effects of crack orientation and location on the shell response are described. These results indicate that the nonlinear interaction between the in-plane stress resultants and the out-of-plane displacements near a crack can significantly affect the structural response of the shell, and the stress-intensity factors associated with a crack that are used to predict residual strength. The effects of representative combined loading conditions on the stress-intensity factors associated with a crack are presented. The effects of varying structural parameters on the stress-intensity factors associated with a crack, and on self-similar and non-self-similar crack-growth are also presented.

  9. Encoding of head acceleration in vestibular neurons. I. Spatiotemporal response properties to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, G. A.; Perachio, A. A.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were made in and around the medial vestibular nuclei in decerebrated rats. Neurons were functionally identified according to their semicircular canal input on the basis of their responses to angular head rotations around the yaw, pitch, and roll head axes. Those cells responding to angular acceleration were classified as either horizontal semicircular canal-related (HC) or vertical semicircular canal-related (VC) neurons. The HC neurons were further characterized as either type I or type II, depending on the direction of rotation producing excitation. Cells that lacked a response to angular head acceleration, but exhibited sensitivity to a change in head position, were classified as purely otolith organ-related (OTO) neurons. All vestibular neurons were then tested for their response to sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. 2. Convergence of macular and canal inputs onto central vestibular nuclei neurons occurred in 73% of the type I HC, 79% of the type II HC, and 86% of the VC neurons. Out of the 223 neurons identified as receiving macular input, 94 neurons were further studied, and their spatiotemporal response properties to sinusoidal stimulation with pure linear acceleration were quantified. Data were obtained from 33 type I HC, 22 type II HC, 22 VC, and 17 OTO neurons. 3. For each neuron the angle of the translational stimulus vector was varied by 15, 30, or 45 degrees increments in the horizontal head plane. In all tested neurons, a direction of maximum sensitivity was identified. An interesting difference among neurons was their response to translation along the direction perpendicular to that that produced the maximum response ("null" direction). For the majority of neurons tested, it was possible to evoke a nonzero response during stimulation along the null direction always had response phases that varied as a function of stimulus direction. 4. These spatiotemporal response properties were quantified in two

  10. The non-linear response of a superconductor to a few-cycle THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G. L.; Xi, Xiaoxiang

    2015-03-01

    We present a time-domain analysis of the response of a BCS superconductor (in the low temperature limit) to a few cycle THz pulse whose spectral content may span the absorption threshold for pair breaking. The analysis is based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach, in combination with a model susceptibility for a superconductor that includes an explicit dependence on the energy gap. The FDTD approach allows us to calculate the THz induced current density, from which we determine the modified energy gap at each instant of time during the THz wave's passage. The resulting non-linear susceptibility causes up-conversion of the incident THz wave into odd harmonics. The model results are compared with experiment for thin NbN films in both linear and non-linear regimes. Research supported by the U.S. Dep't of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  11. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-08

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations.

  12. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations. PMID

  13. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  14. [Physiological response of corn seedlings to changes of wind-sand flow strength].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ha-lin; Li, Jin; Zhou, Rui-lian; Qu, Hao; Yun, Jian-ying; Pan, Cheng-chen

    2015-01-01

    Corn seedlings are often harmed by strong wind-sand in the spring in semi-arid wind-sand area of west of Northeast China. In order to understand physiological response mechanisms of the corn seedlings to wind-sand damage, the changes in MDA content, membrane permeability, protective enzymes activities and osmotic regulation substances at 0 (CK) , 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 m . s-1 wind speed (wind-sand flow strength: 0, 1.00, 28.30, 63.28, 111.82 and 172.93 g . cm-1 . min-1, respectively) for 10 min duration were studied during the spring, 2013 in the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia. The results showed that effects of wind-sand flow blowing on the RWC of the corn seedling were lighter in the 6-12 m . s-1 treatments, but the RWC decreased by 19.0% and 18.7% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively. The MDA content tended to decline with increasing the wind-sand flow strength, and decreased by 35.0% and 39.0% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively. The membrane permeability increased significantly with increasing the wind-sand flow strength, and increased by 191.3% and 187.8% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively. With the increase of wind-sand flow strength, SOD activities decreased and changes of CAT activities were not significant, only POD activities increased significantly, which played an important role in the process of scavenging reactive oxygen species and protecting cell membrane against damage. For lighter water stress caused, by wind-sand flow blowing, proline and soluble sugar did not play any role in osmotic adjustment, but the proline content increased by 11.4% and 24.5% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively, which played an important role in osmotic adjustment.

  15. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    would encounter under hurricane strength winds. These flow fields can be used to estimate wind turbine loads and responses with AeroDyn (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/aerodyn/) and FAST (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/) codes also developed by NREL.

  16. Climate and marine carbon cycle response to changes in the strength of the Southern Hemispheric westerlies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menviel, L.; Timmermann, A.; Mouchet, A.; Timm, O.

    2008-12-01

    It has been previously suggested that changes in the strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies could be a key contributor to glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 variations. To test this hypothesis, we perform a series of sensitivity experiments using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. A strengthening of the climatological mean surface winds over the Southern Ocean induces stronger upwelling and increases the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Enhanced Ekman pumping brings more dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)-rich waters to the surface. However, the stronger upwelling also supplies more nutrients to the surface, thereby enhancing marine export production in the Southern Hemisphere and decreasing the DIC content in the euphotic zone. The net response is a small atmospheric CO2 increase (˜5 ppmv) compared to the full glacial-interglacial CO2 amplitude of ˜90 ppmv. Roughly the opposite results are obtained for a weakening of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds.

  17. Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bernard; Ramírez-San-Juan, Julio C.; Lotfi, Justin; Nelson, J. S.

    2006-07-01

    Noninvasive blood flow imaging can provide critical information on the state of biological tissue and the efficacy of approaches to treat disease. With laser speckle imaging (LSI), relative changes in blood flow are typically reported, with the assumption that the measured values are on a linear scale. A linear relationship between the measured and actual flow rate values has been suggested. The actual flow rate range, over which this linear relationship is valid, is unknown. Herein we report the linear response range and velocity dynamic range (VDR) of our LSI instrument at two relevant camera integration times. For integration times of 1 and 10 ms, the best case VDR was 80 and 60 dB, respectively, and the worst case VDR was 20 and 50 dB. The best case VDR values were similar to those reported in the literature for optical Doppler tomography. We also demonstrate the potential of LSI for monitoring blood flow dynamics in the rodent dorsal skinfold chamber model. These findings imply that LSI can provide accurate wide-field maps of microvascular blood flow rate dynamics and highlight heterogeneities in flow response to the application of exogenous agents.

  18. Damage of composite structures: Detection technique, dynamic response and residual strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Wahyu

    2001-10-01

    Reliable and accurate health monitoring techniques can prevent catastrophic failures of structures. Conventional damage detection methods are based on visual or localized experimental methods and very often require prior information concerning the vicinity of the damage or defect. The structure must also be readily accessible for inspections. The techniques are also labor intensive. In comparison to these methods, health-monitoring techniques that are based on the structural dynamic response offers unique information on failure of structures. However, systematic relations between the experimental data and the defect are not available and frequently, the number of vibration modes needed for an accurate identification of defects is much higher than the number of modes that can be readily identified in the experiment. These motivated us to develop an experimental data based detection method with systematic relationships between the experimentally identified information and the analytical or mathematical model representing the defective structures. The developed technique use changes in vibrational curvature modes and natural frequencies. To avoid misinterpretation of the identified information, we also need to understand the effects of defects on the structural dynamic response prior to developing health-monitoring techniques. In this thesis work we focus on two type of defects in composite structures, namely delamination and edge notch like defect. Effects of nonlinearity due to the presence of defect and due to the axial stretching are studied for beams with delamination. Once defects are detected in a structure, next concern is determining the effects of the defects on the strength of the structure and its residual stiffness under dynamic loading. In this thesis, energy release rate due to dynamic loading in a delaminated structure is studied, which will be a foundation toward determining the residual strength of the structure.

  19. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature, and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Giomi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence.

  20. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel; Giomi, Luca

    The Vicsek model is the prototypical system for studying collective behavior of interacting self propelled particles (SPPs). It has formed the basis for models explaining the collective behavior of many active systems including flocks of birds and swarms of insects. To the standard Vicsek model we introduce a small angular torque to a subset of the particles and observe how this effects the direction of polarisation of the entire swarm. This is analogous to a few informed birds trying to lead the rest of a large flock by initiating a turn. We find a linear response to this perturbation and fluctuations that are in agreement with fluctuation dissipation theorem. This allows the identification of an effective temperature for the Vicsek model that follows a power law with the noise amplitude. The linear response can also be extended to the process of decision-making, wherein flocks must decide between the behaviors of two competing subgroups of individuals.

  1. Evidence from retractor bulbi EMG for linearized motor control of conditioned nictitating membrane responses.

    PubMed

    Lepora, N F; Mavritsaki, E; Porrill, J; Yeo, C H; Evinger, C; Dean, P

    2007-10-01

    Classical conditioning of nictitating membrane (NM) responses in rabbits is a robust model learning system, and experimental evidence indicates that conditioned responses (CRs) are controlled by the cerebellum. It is unknown whether cerebellar control signals deal directly with the complex nonlinearities of the plant (blink-related muscles and peripheral tissues) or whether the plant is linearized to ensure a simple relation between cerebellar neuronal firing and CR profile. To study this question, the retractor bulbi muscle EMG was recorded with implanted electrodes during NM conditioning. Pooled activity in accessory abducens motoneurons was estimated from spike trains extracted from the EMG traces, and its temporal profile was found to have an approximately Gaussian shape with peak amplitude linearly related to CR amplitude. The relation between motoneuron activity and CR profiles was accurately fitted by a first-order linear filter, with each spike input producing an exponentially decaying impulse response with time constant of order 0.1 s. Application of this first-order plant model to CR data from other laboratories suggested that, in these cases also, motoneuron activity had a Gaussian profile, with time-of-peak close to unconditioned stimulus (US) onset and SD proportional to the interval between conditioned stimulus and US onsets. These results suggest that for conditioned NM responses the cerebellum is presented with a simplified "virtual" plant that is a linearized version of the underlying nonlinear biological system. Analysis of a detailed plant model suggests that one method for linearising the plant would be appropriate recruitment of motor units.

  2. Challenges within the linear response approximation when studying enzyme catalysis and effects of mutations.

    PubMed

    Sharir-Ivry, Avital; Varatharaj, Rajapandian; Shurki, Avital

    2015-01-13

    Various aspects of the linear response approximation (LRA) approach were examined when calculating reaction barriers within an enzyme and its different mutants. Scaling the electrostatic interactions is shown to slightly affect the absolute values of the barriers but not the overall trend when comparing wild-type and mutants. Convergence of the overall energetics was shown to depend on the sampling. Finally, the contribution of particular residues was shown to be significant, despite its small value. PMID:26574227

  3. Excited states with internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the linear response (LR) theory for the variant of internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) theory described by Hanauer and Köhn [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204211 (2011)] has been formulated and implemented for the computation of the excitation energies relative to a ground state of pronounced multireference character. We find that straightforward application of the linear-response formalism to the time-averaged ic-MRCC Lagrangian leads to unphysical second-order poles. However, the coupling matrix elements that cause this behavior are shown to be negligible whenever the internally contracted approximation as such is justified. Hence, for the numerical implementation of the method, we adopt a Tamm-Dancoff-type approximation and neglect these couplings. This approximation is also consistent with an equation-of-motion based derivation, which neglects these couplings right from the start. We have implemented the linear-response approach in the ic-MRCC singles-and-doubles framework and applied our method to calculate excitation energies for a number of molecules ranging from CH2 to p-benzyne and conjugated polyenes (up to octatetraene). The computed excitation energies are found to be very accurate, even for the notoriously difficult case of doubly excited states. The ic-MRCC-LR theory is also applicable to systems with open-shell ground-state wavefunctions and is by construction not biased towards a particular reference determinant. We have also compared the linear-response approach to the computation of energy differences by direct state-specific ic-MRCC calculations. We finally compare to Mk-MRCC-LR theory for which spurious roots have been reported [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044116 (2012)], being due to the use of sufficiency conditions to solve the Mk-MRCC equations. No such problem is present in ic-MRCC-LR theory.

  4. Linear response subordination to intermittent energy release in off-equilibrium aging dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Simon; Sibani, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    The interpretation of experimental and numerical data describing off-equilibrium aging dynamics crucially depends on the connection between spontaneous and induced fluctuations. The hypothesis that linear response fluctuations are statistically subordinated to irreversible outbursts of energy, so-called quakes, leads to predictions for the average values and the fluctuation spectra of physical observables in reasonable agreement with experimental results (see e.g. Sibani et al 2006 Phys. Rev. B 74 224407). Using simulational data from a simple but representative Ising model with plaquette interactions, direct statistical evidence supporting the subordination hypothesis is presented and discussed in this work. Both energy and magnetic fluctuations are analyzed, with and without an external magnetic field present. In all cases, fluctuation spectra have a Gaussian zero centered component. For large negative values, the energy spectrum additionally features an intermittent tail describing the quakes. In the magnetization spectrum, two intermittent tails are present. These are symmetric around zero for zero-field, but asymmetric in other cases. The field has thus a biasing effect on the spontaneous intermittent magnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, the field has a negligible effect on the energy fluctuation spectra. From the observed strict temporal correlation between quakes and intermittent magnetization fluctuations, it is possible to conclude that the linear response is controlled by the quakes and inherits their temporal statistics. On this basis, the information culled from intermittent linear response data can be analyzed in the same way as spontaneous thermal energy fluctuations. The latter have a central rôle in thermally activated dynamics, but are harder to measure than linear response data.

  5. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011)]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  6. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011)]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics. PMID:26565226

  7. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.230602]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  8. Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.

  9. Computed Linear/Nonlinear Acoustic Response of a Cascade for Single/Multi Frequency Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Hixon, R.; Sawyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines mode generation and propagation characteristics of a 2-D cascade due to incident vortical disturbances using a time domain approach. Full nonlinear Euler equations are solved employing high order accurate spatial differencing and time marching techniques. The solutions show the generation and propagation of mode orders that are expected from theory. Single frequency excitations show linear response over a wide range of amplitudes. The response for multi-frequency excitations tend to become nonlinear due to interaction between frequencies and self interaction.

  10. Microsecond linear optical response in the unusual nematic phase of achiral bimesogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, V. P.; Balachandran, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Vij, J. K.; Tamba, M. G.; Kohlmeier, A.; Mehl, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Some hydrocarbon linked mesogenic dimers are known to exhibit an additional nematic phase (Nx) below a conventional uniaxial nematic (Nu) phase. Although composed of non-chiral molecules, the Nx phase is found to exhibit linear (polar) switching under applied electric field. This switching has remarkably low response time of the order of a few microseconds. Two chiral domains with opposite handedness and consequently opposite responses are found in planar cells. Uniformly lying helix, electroclinic, and flexoelectric effects are given as possible causes for this intriguing phenomenon.

  11. The non-linear response of bubble clouds to pressure excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, D.; Bergamasco, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we numerically investigate the non-linear response of a bubble cloud against a periodic pressure excitation. By exciting a planar bubble curtain with an external acoustic pulse of given amplitude and frequency, we characterize the global dynamic response of the system using phase diagrams representing the void fraction against the excitation pressure. Even in the absence of mass transfer, the void fraction around which the system oscillates increases when increasing the excitation amplitude. We show how the maximum pressures reached during the collapse of bubbles are higher in polydisperse bubble clouds than in monodisperse clouds for strong pressure pulses.

  12. Acute Physiological Responses to Strongman Training Compared to Traditional Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Woulfe, Colm J; Wood, Matthew R; Dulson, Deborah K; Gluchowski, Ashley K; Keogh, Justin B

    2016-05-01

    Strongman training (ST) has become an increasingly popular modality, but data on physiological responses are limited. This study sought to determine physiological responses to an ST session compared to a traditional strength exercise training (RST) session. Ten healthy men (23.6 ± 27.5 years, 85.8 ± 10.3 kg) volunteered in a crossover design, where all participants performed an ST session, an RST session, and a resting session within 7 days apart. The ST consisted of sled drag, farmer's walk, 1 arm dumbbell clean and press, and tire flip at loads eliciting approximately 30 seconds of near maximal effort per set. The RST consisted of squat, deadlift, bench press, and power clean, progressing to 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Sessions were equated for approximate total set duration. Blood lactate and salivary testosterone were recorded immediately before and after training sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were measured throughout the resting session, both training protocols and for 80 minutes after training sessions. Analyses were conducted to determine differences in physiological responses within and between protocols. No significant changes in testosterone occurred at any time point for either session. Lactate increased significantly immediately after both sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were all elevated significantly during ST and RST. Heart rate and fat expenditure were significantly elevated compared to resting in both sessions' recovery periods; calorie and carbohydrate expenditures were not. Compared to RST, ST represents an equivalent physiological stimulus on key parameters indicative of potential training-induced adaptive responses. Such adaptations could conceivably include cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26439778

  13. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also

  14. Quasi-static and dynamic responses of advanced high strength steels: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Akhtar; Baig, Muneer; Choi, Shi Hoon; Yang, Hoe Seok; Sun, Xin

    2012-03-01

    Measured responses of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and their tailor welded blanks (TWBs), over a wide range of strain-rates (10*4 to 103 s*1) are presented. The steels investigated include transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), dual phase (DP), and drawing quality (DQ) steels. The TWBs include DQ-DQ and DP-DP laser welds. A tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was used for the dynamic experiments. AHSS and their TWB's were found to exhibit positive strain-rate sensitivity. The Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) constitutive model is shown to correlate and predict the observed responses reasonably well. Micro-texture characterization of DQ steels, DQ-DQ and DP-DP laser welds were performed to investigate the effect of strain-rate on texture evolution of these materials. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to analyze the micro-texture evolution and kernel average misorientation (KAM) map. Measurement of micro-hardness profile across the cross section of tensile samples was conducted to understand the effect of initial microstructure on ductility of laser weld samples.

  15. Mood state, issue involvement, and argument strength on responses to persuasive appeals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert C; Lovsin, Tanya K; Moore, Sean E

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of mood state, issue involvement, and argument strength on responses to persuasive appeals. Through an unrelated second study paradigm, 144 introductory psychology students were randomly assigned to High or Low Issue Involvement, Happy or Sad Mood Inductions, and Strong or Weak Argument conditions. Attitudes, measured on 9-point Likert-type scales, and cognitive responses, measured through a thought listing, were assessed. On attitudes, people in the Happy Induction condition were equally persuaded by Strong and Weak Arguments, whereas people in the Sad Induction condition were persuaded by Strong, but not Weak, Arguments. Involvement had no effect. On the thought-listing measures, people in the Happy Induction condition showed modest elaboration. A stronger pattern of effects, consistent with high elaboration, was noted on the thought listings of people in the Sad Induction condition and who were in the High Involvement group. Interestingly, people in the Sad Induction condition who were in the Low Involvement group showed mood-congruency on thoughts. The data suggest that the effects of mood state are not moderated by the effects of issue Involvement on this measure of attitudes but that there may be some moderation on measures of elaboration. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  16. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (linear velocity, in contrast to primary afferents that peaked in phase with linear acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements

  17. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis responsive to a gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Egan, C A; Smith, E P; Taylor, T B; Meyer, L J; Samowitz, W S; Zone, J J

    2001-06-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis is associated with a gluten-sensitive enteropathy in >85% of cases. Both the skin lesions and the enteropathy respond to gluten restriction. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis has a much lower prevalence of histological small bowel abnormalities, and lesions are not known to respond to gluten restriction. We report a patient with linear IgA bullous dermatosis and gluten-sensitive enteropathy. This report addresses the issue of whether linear IgA bullous dermatosis can be associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. We evaluated the response to gluten restriction and normal diet by following the status of the patient's jejunal biopsies and skin lesions. The patient responded to gluten restriction, as shown by resolution of jejunal abnormalities and skin lesions and subsequently by recurrence of jejunal abnormalities and skin lesions with reinstitution of a gluten-containing diet. This report demonstrates that linear IgA bullous dermatosis can respond to gluten restriction if an underlying gluten-sensitive enteropathy is present.

  18. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis - A case study of collapsed Margalla Tower in Islamabad during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Farooq, Khalid; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2016-07-01

    One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis was conducted in the Margalla Tower building in Islamabad, which collapsed during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The analyses were conducted in DEEPSOIL software, without considering the effect of ground water table. The input subsoil data were selected from laboratory and field tests conducted for the site with bedrock at a depth of 21 m as per site condition. The field and laboratory testing data showed that the subsoil beneath the Tower site was silty clay to lean clay according to the unified soil classification system. Four different accelerograms with PGA values of 0.17 g, 0.15 g, 0.22 g and 0.21 g, compatible with the earthquake in the target area were applied at the bedrock. The surface response spectra showed that, except the Accelerogram-1 all other three were amplified near the fundamental period of the site. The analyses showed that different PGA values (0.26 g, 0.21 g, 0.36 g and 0.21 g) were produced at the surface which can be explained due to the difference in the Fourier amplitude of input accelerograms. Furthermore, the different input accelerograms produced a different shear strain and thus mobilized different shear strengths along the soil profile depth. Finally, the calculated response spectra of accelerograms were compared with the response spectra of Islamabad. The calculated spectral acceleration values were found to be higher than reported by the Building Code of Pakistan (0.16 g to 0.24 g).

  19. Cancer risk assessment: Optimizing human health through linear dose-response models.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Shamoun, Dima Yazji; Hanekamp, Jaap C

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes that generic cancer risk assessments be based on the integration of the Linear Non-Threshold (LNT) and hormetic dose-responses since optimal hormetic beneficial responses are estimated to occur at the dose associated with a 10(-4) risk level based on the use of a LNT model as applied to animal cancer studies. The adoption of the 10(-4) risk estimate provides a theoretical and practical integration of two competing risk assessment models whose predictions cannot be validated in human population studies or with standard chronic animal bioassay data. This model-integration reveals both substantial protection of the population from cancer effects (i.e. functional utility of the LNT model) while offering the possibility of significant reductions in cancer incidence should the hormetic dose-response model predictions be correct. The dose yielding the 10(-4) cancer risk therefore yields the optimized toxicologically based "regulatory sweet spot". PMID:25916915

  20. Optical response of silver clusters and their hollow shells from linear-response TDDFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Peter; Marchesin, Federico; Foerster, Dietrich; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the optical response of compact and hollow icosahedral clusters containing up to 868 silver atoms by means of time-dependent density functional theory. We have studied the dependence on size and morphology of both the sharp plasmonic resonance at 3-4 eV (originated mainly from sp-electrons), and the less studied broader feature appearing in the 6-7 eV range (interband transitions). An analysis of the effect of structural relaxations, as well as the choice of exchange correlation functional (local density versus generalised gradient approximations) both in the ground state and optical response calculations is also presented. We have further analysed the role of the different atom layers (surface versus inner layers) and the different orbital symmetries on the absorption cross-section for energies up to 8 eV. We have also studied the dependence on the number of atom layers in hollow structures. Shells formed by a single layer of atoms show a pronounced red shift of the main plasmon resonances that, however, rapidly converge to those of the compact structures as the number of layers is increased. The methods used to obtain these results are also carefully discussed. Our methodology is based on the use of localised basis (atomic orbitals, and atom-centered and dominant-product functions), which bring several computational advantages related to their relatively small size and the sparsity of the resulting matrices. Furthermore, the use of basis sets of atomic orbitals also allows the possibility of extending some of the standard population analysis tools (e.g. Mulliken population analysis) to the realm of optical excitations. Some examples of these analyses are described in the present work.

  1. Transient response of multidegree-of-freedom linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to analyze the transient response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with unknown time dependence but having known bounds. Particular attention is given to forcing functions which include: (1) maximum displacement of any given mass element, (2) maximum relative displacement of any two adjacent masses, and (3) maximum acceleration of a given mass. Linear mechanical systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom and only one forcing function acting are considered. In the general case, the desired forcing function is found to be a function that switches from the upper-to-lower bound and vice-versa at certain moments of time. A general procedure for finding such switching times is set forth.

  2. Influence of gravity on the eye movement response elicited by periodic lateral linear acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, M; Wetzig, J; v Baumgarten, R; Watanabe, S; Baba, S

    1993-12-01

    Periodic linear acceleration elicits eye movements in human beings. This is generally considered to be the result of the otolithic-ocular reflex (OOR). However, otolith organs respond not only to the resultant inertial force caused by head motion, but also to the gravitational force. We investigated the influence of the resultant gravito-inertial vector on the OOR using a linear acceleration sled. Subjects were 10 healthy volunteers. The sled moving back and forth parallel to the lateral head axis stimulated the subjects. We tested each subject in 7 different positions in the pitch plane. Horizontal eye movements with nystagmic patterns were elicited by these stimuli. The results indicate that the responses were larger in the forward tilted positions than in the backward tilted positions. It can be concluded that the horizontal OOR is influenced by the gravity vector. The cause of this phenomenon is still unclear. However, it could be closely related to the nystagmus observed during off vertical axis rotation.

  3. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  4. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Tbeodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modem three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  5. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  6. Linear Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on Flow Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire flow response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-flows (7Q2) and annual seven day high-flows (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso linear regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate linear models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of linear regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate linear regression modeling.

  7. Influence of Response Prepotency Strength, General Working Memory Resources, and Specific Working Memory Load on the Ability to Inhibit Predominant Responses: A Comparison of Young and Elderly Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean, Julien; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    One conception of inhibitory functioning suggests that the ability to successfully inhibit a predominant response depends mainly on the strength of that response, the general functioning of working memory processes, and the working memory demand of the task (Roberts, Hager, & Heron, 1994). The proposal that inhibition and functional working memory…

  8. Skew-normal/independent linear mixed models for censored responses with applications to HIV viral loads

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lachos, Victor H.; Castro, Luis M.; Dey, Dipak K.

    2012-01-01

    Often in biomedical studies, the routine use of linear mixed-effects models (based on Gaussian assumptions) can be questionable when the longitudinal responses are skewed in nature. Skew-normal/elliptical models are widely used in those situations. Often, those skewed responses might also be subjected to some upper and lower quantification limits (viz. longitudinal viral load measures in HIV studies), beyond which they are not measurable. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian analysis of censored linear mixed models replacing the Gaussian assumptions with skew-normal/independent (SNI) distributions. The SNI is an attractive class of asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions that includes the skew-normal, the skew-t, skew-slash and the skew-contaminated normal distributions as special cases. The proposed model provides flexibility in capturing the effects of skewness and heavy tail for responses which are either left- or right-censored. For our analysis, we adopt a Bayesian framework and develop a MCMC algorithm to carry out the posterior analyses. The marginal likelihood is tractable, and utilized to compute not only some Bayesian model selection measures but also case-deletion influence diagnostics based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. The newly developed procedures are illustrated with a simulation study as well as a HIV case study involving analysis of longitudinal viral loads. PMID:22685005

  9. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  10. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  11. Differential viability response of prokaryotes and eukaryotes to high strength pulsed magnetic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boda, Sunil Kumar; Ravikumar, K; Saini, Deepak K; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-12-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a high strength pulsed magnetic field (PMF) towards bacterial inactivation in vitro, without compromising eukaryotic cell viability. The differential response of prokaryotes [Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli], and eukaryotes [C2C12 mouse myoblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells, hMSCs] upon exposure to varying PMF stimuli (1-4 T, 30 pulses, 40 ms pulse duration) is investigated. Among the prokaryotes, ~60% and ~70% reduction was recorded in the survival of staphylococcal species and E. coli, respectively at 4 T PMF as evaluated by colony forming unit (CFU) analysis and flow cytometry. A 2-5 fold increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels suggests oxidative stress as the key mediator in PMF induced bacterial death/injury. The 4 T PMF treated staphylococci also exhibited longer doubling times. Both TEM and fluorescence microscopy revealed compromised membranes of PMF exposed bacteria. Under similar PMF exposure conditions, no immediate cytotoxicity was recorded in C2C12 mouse myoblasts and hMSCs, which can be attributed to the robust resistance towards oxidative stress. The ion interference of iron containing bacterial proteins is invoked to analytically explain the PMF induced ROS accumulation in prokaryotes. Overall, this study establishes the potential of PMF as a bactericidal method without affecting eukaryotic viability. This non-invasive stimulation protocol coupled with antimicrobial agents can be integrated as a potential methodology for the localized treatment of prosthetic infections.

  12. Long-term prediction test procedure for most ICs, based on linear response theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, V.; Ivakhnenko, I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimentally, thermal annealing is known to be a factor which enables a number of different integrated circuits (IC's) to recover their operating characteristics after suffering radiation damage in the space radiation environment; thus, decreasing and limiting long term cumulative total-dose effects. This annealing is also known to be accelerated at elevated temperatures both during and after irradiation. Linear response theory (LRT) was applied, and a linear response function (LRF) to predict the radiation/annealing response of sensitive parameters of IC's for long term (several months or years) exposure to the space radiation environment were constructed. Compressing the annealing process from several years in orbit to just a few hours or days in the laboratory is achieved by subjecting the IC to elevated temperatures or by increasing the typical spaceflight dose rate by several orders of magnitude for simultaneous radiation/annealing only. The accomplishments are as follows: (1) the test procedure to make predictions of the radiation response was developed; (2) the calculation of the shift in the threshold potential due to the charge distribution in the oxide was written; (3) electron tunneling processes from the bulk Si to the oxide region in an MOS IC were estimated; (4) in order to connect the experimental annealing data to the theoretical model, constants of the model of the basic annealing process were established; (5) experimental data obtained at elevated temperatures were analyzed; (6) time compression and reliability of predictions for the long term region were shown; (7) a method to compress test time and to make predictions of response for the nonlinear region was proposed; and (8) nonlinearity of the LRF with respect to log(t) was calculated theoretically from a model.

  13. Reduced Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of an RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.

  14. Reduced-Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.

  15. Stray magnetic-field response of linear birefringent optical current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, Trevor W.; Hutchinson, Ted F.

    1995-07-01

    It is well known that the line integral, describing Faraday rotation in an optical medium, reduces to zero at low frequencies for a closed path that does not encircle a current source. If the closed optical path possesses linear birefringence in addition to Faraday rotation, the cumulative effects on the state of polarization result in a response to externally located current-carrying conductors. This effect can induce a measurable error of the order of 0.3% during certain steady-state operating conditions.

  16. Linear and nonlinear electrodynamic responses of bulk CaC6 in the microwave regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreone, A.; Cifariello, G.; Di Gennaro, E.; Lamura, G.; Emery, N.; Hérold, C.; Marêché, J. F.; Lagrange, P.

    2007-08-01

    The linear and nonlinear responses to a microwave electromagnetic field of two c-axis oriented polycrystalline samples of the recently discovered superconductor CaC6 (TC≈11.5K ) is studied in the superconducting state down to 2K. The surface resistance RS and the third order intermodulation distortion, arising from a two-tone excitation, have been measured as a function of temperature and microwave circulating power. Experiments are carried out using a dielectrically loaded copper cavity operating at 7GHz in a "hot finger" configuration. The results confirm recent experimental findings that CaC6 behaves as a weakly coupled, fully gapped, superconductor.

  17. Investigating the response of East Asian ozone to Chinese emission changes using a linear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Kazuyo; Uno, Itsushi; Irie, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    To illuminate the issue of trans-boundary O3 pollution and regional O3 reduction policies in East Asia, we have investigated the East Asian ozone (O3) response to perturbations caused by Chinese anthropogenic emissions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, a regional chemical transport model. The O3 responses have been examined for the range between -100 and +100% changes from the Chinese emissions level in 2004 in 10% intervals. We have found that springtime and summertime O3 responses both at the source and at the downwind areas can be regarded as linear over the range between -30 and +100% changes from the current emissions level. We therefore suggest that the perturbation between -30 and +100% is sufficiently small to avoid nonlinear chemical influence on O3 formation in a model experiment to investigate East Asian scale O3 source-receptor relationships. On the other hand, the O3 response is strongly nonlinear in April at Hong Kong, where the current NMVOCs/NOx ratio is low and the O3 production regime is easily moved to the NMVOCs sensitive region. The O3 responses to the NOx emission changes have been investigated using surface O3 concentrations at remote Japanese sites and tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (NO2 VCD) over central east China both with observations and with model simulations in springtime during 2003-2009. Analysis of satellite data shows that the observed range of NO2 VCD over central east China in 2003-2009 is the range between -25 and +34% from the 2004 level, which corresponds approximately to an emission variation between -21 and +29%. The O3 concentration in the downwind region during 2003-2009 responds linearly to a change of the NO2 VCD over central east China both in the model and in the observation. The corresponding O3 responses derived from surface observations at remote Japanese sites show linear features consistent with this expectation. The doubling of emissions, i.e., approximately 1.9-fold increase in

  18. Scaling regimes and linear/nonlinear responses of last millennium climate to volcanic and solar forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Varotsos, Costas

    2016-02-01

    At scales much longer than the deterministic predictability limits (about 10 days), the statistics of the atmosphere undergoes a drastic transition, the high-frequency weather acts as a random forcing on the lower-frequency macroweather. In addition, up to decadal and centennial scales the equivalent radiative forcings of solar, volcanic and anthropogenic perturbations are small compared to the mean incoming solar flux. This justifies the common practice of reducing forcings to radiative equivalents (which are assumed to combine linearly), as well as the development of linear stochastic models, including for forecasting at monthly to decadal scales. In order to clarify the validity of the linearity assumption and determine its scale range, we use last millennium simulations, with both the simplified Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model and the NASA GISS E2-R fully coupled GCM. We systematically compare the statistical properties of solar-only, volcanic-only and combined solar and volcanic forcings over the range of timescales from 1 to 1000 years. We also compare the statistics to multiproxy temperature reconstructions. The main findings are (a) that the variability in the ZC and GCM models is too weak at centennial and longer scales; (b) for longer than ≈ 50 years, the solar and volcanic forcings combine subadditively (nonlinearly) compounding the weakness of the response; and (c) the models display another nonlinear effect at shorter timescales: their sensitivities are much higher for weak forcing than for strong forcing (their intermittencies are different) and we quantify this with statistical scaling exponents.

  19. The neuronal response at extended timescales: a linearized spiking input–output relation

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Many biological systems are modulated by unknown slow processes. This can severely hinder analysis – especially in excitable neurons, which are highly non-linear and stochastic systems. We show the analysis simplifies considerably if the input matches the sparse “spiky” nature of the output. In this case, a linearized spiking Input–Output (I/O) relation can be derived semi-analytically, relating input spike trains to output spikes based on known biophysical properties. Using this I/O relation we obtain closed-form expressions for all second order statistics (input – internal state – output correlations and spectra), construct optimal linear estimators for the neuronal response and internal state and perform parameter identification. These results are guaranteed to hold, for a general stochastic biophysical neuron model, with only a few assumptions (mainly, timescale separation). We numerically test the resulting expressions for various models, and show that they hold well, even in cases where our assumptions fail to hold. In a companion paper we demonstrate how this approach enables us to fit a biophysical neuron model so it reproduces experimentally observed temporal firing statistics on days-long experiments. PMID:24765073

  20. The neuronal response at extended timescales: a linearized spiking input-output relation.

    PubMed

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Many biological systems are modulated by unknown slow processes. This can severely hinder analysis - especially in excitable neurons, which are highly non-linear and stochastic systems. We show the analysis simplifies considerably if the input matches the sparse "spiky" nature of the output. In this case, a linearized spiking Input-Output (I/O) relation can be derived semi-analytically, relating input spike trains to output spikes based on known biophysical properties. Using this I/O relation we obtain closed-form expressions for all second order statistics (input - internal state - output correlations and spectra), construct optimal linear estimators for the neuronal response and internal state and perform parameter identification. These results are guaranteed to hold, for a general stochastic biophysical neuron model, with only a few assumptions (mainly, timescale separation). We numerically test the resulting expressions for various models, and show that they hold well, even in cases where our assumptions fail to hold. In a companion paper we demonstrate how this approach enables us to fit a biophysical neuron model so it reproduces experimentally observed temporal firing statistics on days-long experiments.

  1. Scaling the Non-linear Impact Response of Flat and Curved Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Feraboli, Paolo; Jackson, Wade C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of scaling laws to thin flat and curved composite panels exhibiting nonlinear response when subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Previous research has shown that the elastic impact response of structural configurations exhibiting geometrically linear response can be effectively scaled. In the present paper, a preliminary experimental study is presented to assess the applicability of the scaling laws to structural configurations exhibiting geometrically nonlinear deformations. The effect of damage on the scalability of the structural response characteristics, and the effect of scale on damage development are also investigated. Damage is evaluated using conventional methods including C-scan, specimen de-plying and visual inspection of the impacted panels. Coefficient of restitution and normalized contact duration are also used to assess the extent of damage. The results confirm the validity of the scaling parameters for elastic impacts. However, for the panels considered in the study, the extent and manifestation of damage do not scale according to the scaling laws. Furthermore, the results indicate that even though the damage does not scale, the overall panel response characteristics, as indicated by contact force profiles, do scale for some levels of damage.

  2. Optimizing work output for finite-sized heat reservoirs: Beyond linear response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We uncover an optimization principle for the finite-time heat-work conversion process performed between two finite-sized heat reservoirs in the nonlinear response regime that is characterized by rather generic flux-force relations. We solve the problem of maximizing work output in a given time interval by means of the variational method. Moreover, in the limiting case that the cold reservoir is infinite, we find the corresponding optimized process can be determined by a single quantity, which plays the role similar to that of the Hamiltonian in classical mechanics. Some theoretical implications are discussed consequently, under the generalized tight-coupling condition which applies to both linear and nonlinear response cases. Our results can hopefully help design and control realistic thermodynamical processes. PMID:26871037

  3. Effect of microstructure on the fracture response of advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark David

    The effect of constituent hardness on formability performance for higher-strength dual phase (DP) steels was evaluated. A commercially-produced DP steel with 1080 MPa ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was processed to create eight additional constituent hardness conditions by tempering and cold-rolling, processes that primarily affected constituent hardness properties. Using nanoindentation, ferrite and martensite hardness values for the nine conditions of the DP steel (as-received, four as-tempered, four temper cold-rolled) provided a range of hardness values to evaluate formability performance. Formability performance for the nine steel conditions was evaluated using tensile and hole expansion testing. A decrease in martensite/ferrite hardness ratio corresponded to an increase in hole expansion ratio (HER), and an increase in yield strength (YS). A lower hardness ratio (increased similarity of ferrite and martensite hardness) was interpreted to increase strain-sharing between ferrite and martensite, which suppressed plastic strain localization to higher stresses for the case of YS, and to higher formability limits for the case of HER. A lower hardness ratio corresponded to a decrease in work-hardening, and was interpreted to be caused by the suppression of strain localization in ferrite. Multiple studies from literature correlated HER to tensile properties, and the nine steel conditions produced consistent trends with the data reported in each study, confirming the experimental HER and tensile properties obtained in the current study are consistent with literature. The microstructural response to plastic deformation was evaluated using two DP steels with equivalent UTS and different hardness ratios. Nanoindentation analyses on tensile specimens deformed to the UTS revealed a greater increase in ferrite hardness for the higher hardness ratio steel, interpreted to be caused by the greater amount of work hardening. EBSD crystallographic orientation maps for the two DP

  4. Responsiveness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a Sample of High-Risk Youth in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Chmelka, Mary B.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quality assessment of children's functioning is critical for both research and service delivery. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief, publicly-available instrument that provides such assessment. Although the SDQ has strong psychometric properties, less is known about its responsiveness or sensitivity to…

  5. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature, and decision making in flocks.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Daniel J G; Giomi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence. PMID:27627365

  6. Lead-lag relationships between stock and market risk within linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysov, Stanislav; Balatsky, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risks (standard deviation of daily stock returns) and market risk (standard deviation of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio) in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over stocks, using historical stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. The observed historical dynamics suggests that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when individual stock risks affect market risk and vice versa. This work was supported by VR 621-2012-2983.

  7. Effects of resistivity on linear plasma responses to resonant magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Juhyung; Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun

    2016-09-01

    Numerical studies are made of the effects of resistivity on linear plasma responses to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in tokamaks based on a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. From a local two-field model, it is suggested that the ratio of the poloidal electron advection to the resistivity diffusion rate α m can be a figure of merit parameter in linear RMP penetration physics. The shielding efficiency is governed by α m , and when α m ≳ 1 , RMPs are effectively shielded. Global simulations using a four-field model [Hazeltine and Meiss, Phys. Rep. 121, 1 (1985)] show that there exists an effective threshold of the perpendicular electron flow ( Ve , ⊥ c ) beyond which RMPs cannot penetrate. Resistivity is found to determine Ve , ⊥ c which increases as resistivity becomes higher, making RMP penetration easier. At low resistivity, small Ve , ⊥ c renders the RMP penetration sensitive to ion collisionality and the change in q95. The kink response is observed to be closely related to the residual level of RMPs at rational surfaces and can be also strongly affected by resistivity.

  8. Functional imaging of kinetic parameters from the time dependent linear response function by dynamic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Stritzke, P.; Knop, J.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Schneider, C.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the locally differing time dependent linear response function h(r,t) of a radioactive tracer injected into a patients blood pool B(t) by mathematical analysis of a dynamic scintigraphic study A(r,t). Transit times, uptake rates and clearance rates of different tracers are calculated from the linear response function at every matrix point by one computer program. The parameters are presented in functional images on a standard computer display. Thus the whole information from a dynamic study can be condensed within a few images. The integral equation A=h+B +c(r)*B (+ means convolution, c(r)*B(t)=nontarget activity) derived from tracer theory is deconvoluted by mathematical methods, which are unsensitive against noise contamination of the input data. The numerical technique is successfully applied in Iodide-123-Hippuran and Tc-99m-DMSA kidney studies, in Tc-99m-MDP and -DPD bone studies, in Tl-201 myocardial studies and in Iodide-123 thyroid studies. Because the regional blood pool-or nontarget activity is calculated and subtracted, the kinetic parameters are considered to be free from nontarget contributions in all dynamic scintigraphic studies. Examples are demonstrated and the usefulness for clinical application is discussed.

  9. Linear response, fluctuation-dissipation, and finite-system-size effects in superdiffusion.

    PubMed

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-07-01

    Lévy walks (LWs) are a popular stochastic tool to model anomalous diffusion and have recently been used to describe a variety of phenomena. We study the linear response behavior of this generic model of superdiffusive LWs in finite systems to an external force field under both stationary and nonstationary conditions. These finite-size LWs are based on power-law waiting time distributions with a finite-time regularization at τ(c), such that the physical requirements are met to apply linear response theory and derive the power spectrum with the correct short frequency limit, without the introduction of artificial cutoffs. We obtain the generalized Einstein relation for both ensemble and time averages over the entire process time and determine the turnover to normal Brownian motion when the full system is explored. In particular, we obtain an exact expression for the long time diffusion constant as a function of the scaling exponent of the waiting time density and the characteristic time scale τ(c).

  10. Recent developments in time-dependent density-functional theory within and beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, E. K. U.

    2013-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a popular and rather successful method in the description of photo-absorption spectra of atoms and molecules in the linear response regime. In extended solids, however, a satisfactory description of excitonic effects has become possible only recently with the advent of advanced approximations for the exchange-correlation kernel fxc. One of these advanced approximations is the so-called bootstrap kernel [S. Sharma et al, PRL 107, 186401 (2011)]. We shall explore the performance of this kernel in the long-wavelength limit and for finite values of q, looking at electron-loss as well as photo-absorption spectra. We find, in particular, that excitonic effects in LiF and Ar are enhanced for values of q away from the Γ-point [S. Sharma et al, New J Phys 14, 053052 (2012)]. Then we present two recent developments in TDDFT beyond the linear-response regime: (i) By using a geometrical partitioning, we calculate the angle and energy resolved photo-electron spectra of finite systems including multi-photon effects [De Giovannini, et al, A. Rubio, PRA 86, 062515 (2012)]. (ii) Finally we show how the dynamics of many-electron systems can be controlled with lasers by marrying TDDFT with optimal control theory [A. Castro et al, PRL 109, 153603 (2012)].

  11. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: Efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-01

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  12. Origin of the linearity no threshold (LNT) dose-response concept.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2013-09-01

    This paper identifies the origin of the linearity at low-dose concept [i.e., linear no threshold (LNT)] for ionizing radiation-induced mutation. After the discovery of X-ray-induced mutations, Olson and Lewis (Nature 121(3052):673-674, 1928) proposed that cosmic/terrestrial radiation-induced mutations provide the principal mechanism for the induction of heritable traits, providing the driving force for evolution. For this concept to be general, a LNT dose relationship was assumed, with genetic damage proportional to the energy absorbed. Subsequent studies suggested a linear dose response for ionizing radiation-induced mutations (Hanson and Heys in Am Nat 63(686):201-213, 1929; Oliver in Science 71:44-46, 1930), supporting the evolutionary hypothesis. Based on an evaluation of spontaneous and ionizing radiation-induced mutation with Drosophila, Muller argued that background radiation had a negligible impact on spontaneous mutation, discrediting the ionizing radiation-based evolutionary hypothesis. Nonetheless, an expanded set of mutation dose-response observations provided a basis for collaboration between theoretical physicists (Max Delbruck and Gunter Zimmer) and the radiation geneticist Nicolai Timoféeff-Ressovsky. They developed interrelated physical science-based genetics perspectives including a biophysical model of the gene, a radiation-induced gene mutation target theory and the single-hit hypothesis of radiation-induced mutation, which, when integrated, provided the theoretical mechanism and mathematical basis for the LNT model. The LNT concept became accepted by radiation geneticists and recommended by national/international advisory committees for risk assessment of ionizing radiation-induced mutational damage/cancer from the mid-1950s to the present. The LNT concept was later generalized to chemical carcinogen risk assessment and used by public health and regulatory agencies worldwide. PMID:23887208

  13. The Linear Response Function of an Idealized Atmosphere. Part I: Construction Using Green's Functions and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-09-01

    A linear response function (LRF) determines the mean-response of a nonlinear climate system to weak imposed forcings, and an eddy flux matrix (EFM) determines the eddy momentum and heat flux responses to mean-flow changes. Neither LRF nor EFM can be calculated from first principles due the lack of a complete theory for turbulent eddies. Here the LRF and EFM for an idealized dry atmosphere are computed by applying numerous localized weak forcings, one at a time, to a GCM with Held-Suarez physics and calculating the mean-responses. The LRF and EFM for zonally-averaged responses are then constructed using these forcings and responses through matrix inversion. Tests demonstrate that LRF and EFM are fairly accurate. Spectral analysis of the LRF shows that the most excitable dynamical mode, the neutral vector, strongly resembles the model's Annular Mode. The framework described here can be employed to compute the LRF/EFM for zonally-asymmetric responses and more complex GCMs. The potential applications of the LRF/EFM constructed here are i) forcing a specified mean-flow for hypothesis-testing, ii) isolating/quantifying the eddy-feedbacks in complex eddy-mean flow interaction problems, and iii) evaluating/improving more generally-applicable methods currently used to construct LRFs or diagnose eddy-feedbacks in comprehensive GCMs or observations. As an example for iii, in Part 2, the LRF is also computed using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT), and the previously-calculated LRF is exploited to investigate why FDT performs poorly in some cases. It is shown that dimension-reduction using leading EOFs, which is commonly used to construct LRFs from the FDT, can significantly degrade the accuracy due to the non-normality of the operator.

  14. Invariance of evoked-potential echo-responses to target strength and distance in an echolocating false killer whale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supin, Alexander Ya.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Breese, Marlee

    2005-06-01

    Brain auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens trained to accept suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. AEP collection was triggered by echolocation pulses transmitted by the animal. The target strength varied from -22 to -40 dB the distance varied from 1.5 to 6 m. All the records contained two AEP sets: the first one of a constant latency (transmission-related AEP) and a second one with a delay proportional to the distance (echo-related AEP). The amplitude of echo-related AEPs was almost independent of both target strength and distance, though combined variation of these two parameters resulted in echo intensity variation within a range of 42 dB. The amplitude of transmission-related AEPs was independent of distance but dependent on target strength: the less the target strength, the higher the amplitude. Recording of transmitted pulses has not shown their intensity dependence on target strength. It is supposed that the constancy of echo-related AEP results from variation of hearing sensitivity depending on the target strength and release of echo-related responses from masking by transmitted pulses depending on the distance. .

  15. An examination of the strength and electromyographic responses after concentric vs. eccentric exercise of the forearm flexors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and electromyographic (EMG) responses in exercised and nonexercised limbs after concentric (CON) vs. eccentric (ECC) exercise of the forearm flexors. Twenty-five men (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 3.8 years; height, 179.7 ± 6.6 cm; body weight, 87.4 ± 14.6 kg) performed 6 sets of 10 maximal CON isokinetic (CON exercise) or ECC isokinetic (ECC exercise) muscle actions of the dominant (DOM) forearm flexors on 2 separate randomly ordered visits. Each subject performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of both the DOM and nondominant (NONDOM) forearm flexors before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the exercise interventions. The DOM limb was the only limb exercised for both interventions. A bipolar EMG signal was detected from the biceps brachii during each MVC. The results showed that there were significant 17 and 21% decreases in maximal strength after the CON exercise and ECC exercise, respectively. When collapsed across exercise conditions, strength for the DOM and NONDOM limbs significantly decreased 36 and 4% after exercise, respectively. Accompanied with the strength losses, normalized EMG amplitude for the DOM and NONDOM limbs also reduced 21 and 7%, respectively. These findings suggested that the CON exercise and ECC exercise interventions caused similar strength losses for the exercised arm. There was also a strength loss in the contralateral nonexercised arm that was likely because of neural factors.

  16. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  17. Linear summation in the barn owl's brainstem underlies responses to interaural time differences.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Paula T; Ashida, Go; Carr, Catherine E; Wagner, Hermann; Kempter, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The neurophonic potential is a synchronized frequency-following extracellular field potential that can be recorded in the nucleus laminaris (NL) in the brainstem of the barn owl. Putative generators of the neurophonic are the afferent axons from the nucleus magnocellularis, synapses onto NL neurons, and spikes of NL neurons. The outputs of NL, i.e., action potentials of NL neurons, are only weakly represented in the neurophonic. Instead, the inputs to NL, i.e., afferent axons and their synaptic potentials, are the predominant origin of the neurophonic (Kuokkanen PT, Wagner H, Ashida G, Carr CE, Kempter R. J Neurophysiol 104: 2274-2290, 2010). Thus in NL the monaural inputs from the two brain sides converge and create a binaural neurophonic. If these monaural inputs contribute independently to the extracellular field, the response to binaural stimulation can be predicted from the sum of the responses to ipsi- and contralateral stimulation. We found that a linear summation model explains the dependence of the responses on interaural time difference as measured experimentally with binaural stimulation. The fit between model predictions and data was excellent, even without taking into account the nonlinear responses of NL coincidence detector neurons, although their firing rate and synchrony strongly depend on the interaural time difference. These results are consistent with the view that the afferent axons and their synaptic potentials in NL are the primary origin of the neurophonic. PMID:23554438

  18. Linear summation in the barn owl's brainstem underlies responses to interaural time differences

    PubMed Central

    Kuokkanen, Paula T.; Ashida, Go; Carr, Catherine E.; Wagner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The neurophonic potential is a synchronized frequency-following extracellular field potential that can be recorded in the nucleus laminaris (NL) in the brainstem of the barn owl. Putative generators of the neurophonic are the afferent axons from the nucleus magnocellularis, synapses onto NL neurons, and spikes of NL neurons. The outputs of NL, i.e., action potentials of NL neurons, are only weakly represented in the neurophonic. Instead, the inputs to NL, i.e., afferent axons and their synaptic potentials, are the predominant origin of the neurophonic (Kuokkanen PT, Wagner H, Ashida G, Carr CE, Kempter R. J Neurophysiol 104: 2274–2290, 2010). Thus in NL the monaural inputs from the two brain sides converge and create a binaural neurophonic. If these monaural inputs contribute independently to the extracellular field, the response to binaural stimulation can be predicted from the sum of the responses to ipsi- and contralateral stimulation. We found that a linear summation model explains the dependence of the responses on interaural time difference as measured experimentally with binaural stimulation. The fit between model predictions and data was excellent, even without taking into account the nonlinear responses of NL coincidence detector neurons, although their firing rate and synchrony strongly depend on the interaural time difference. These results are consistent with the view that the afferent axons and their synaptic potentials in NL are the primary origin of the neurophonic. PMID:23554438

  19. Fully relativistic description of spin-orbit torques by means of linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, S.; Chadova, K.; Seemann, M.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.

    2016-08-01

    Symmetry and magnitude of spin-orbit torques (SOT), i.e., current-induced torques on the magnetization of systems lacking inversion symmetry, are investigated in a fully relativistic linear response framework based on the Kubo formalism. By applying all space-time symmetry operations contained in the magnetic point group of a solid to the relevant response coefficient, the torkance expressed as torque-current correlation function, restrictions to the shape of the direct and inverse response tensors are obtained. These are shown to apply to the corresponding thermal analogs as well, namely the direct and inverse thermal SOT in response to a temperature gradient or heat current. Using an implementation of the Kubo-Bastin formula for the torkance into a first-principles multiple-scattering Green function framework and accounting for disorder effects via the so-called coherent potential approximation, all contributions to the SOT in pure systems, dilute as well as concentrated alloys can be treated on equal footing. This way, material specific values for all torkance tensor elements in the fcc (111) trilayer alloy system Pt| FexCo1 -x|Cu are obtained over a wide concentration range and discussed in comparison to results for electrical and spin conductivity, as well as to previous work—in particular concerning symmetry with respect to magnetization reversal and the nature of the various contributions.

  20. Non-linear dose-response of DNA-reactive genotoxins: recommendations for data analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, George E; Doak, Shareen H; Griffiths, Sioned M; Quick, Emma L; Skibinski, David O F; Zaïr, Zoulikha M; Jenkins, Gareth J

    2009-08-01

    Until recently, there has only been a limited amount of data available on the kinetics of mutation induction in the low dose region of exposure. In our publication Doak et al. [S.H. Doak, G.J. Jenkins, G.E. Johnson, E. Quick, E.M. Parry, J.M. Parry, Mechanistic influences for mutation induction curves after exposure to DNA-reactive carcinogens, Cancer Res. 67 (2007) 3904-3911] we showed that the two alkylating agents methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl-methanesulfonate (EMS) possess non-linear dose-response curves with no observed effect levels (NOEL) for mutation or chromosomal damage in vitro. These experiments were carried out in the AHH-1 human lymphoblastoid cell line, using the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, respectively. We have now carried out more advanced statistical analyses to define threshold values, which is critical as it has a dramatic impact on hazard and risk assessment. To do this, we re-analysed the data to see if the linear model or a more complex model (hockey stick or quadratic) gave a significant better fit of the data. For both EMS and MMS cytokinesis-block micronucleus data sets, the hockey stick model gave the most significant fit. The same was true for EMS, MMS and surprisingly ethylnitrosourea (ENU) in the HPRT assay in human AHH-1 cells. However, methylnitrosourea (MNU) was linear in both assays. These further analyses have shown that EMS and MMS have clear thresholds for both gene mutation and chromosome damage, as does ENU for gene mutation in AHH-1 cells. MNU was linear for gene and chromosome mutation and so was ENU for chromosome mutations at the concentrations tested. These findings correlate closely with those in vivo findings of Gocke et al. [E. Gocke, L. Müller, In vivo studies in the mouse to define a threshold for the genotoxicity of EMS and ENU, Mutat. Res. (this issue)] and together these data show a true threshold for EMS both in vitro and in

  1. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals’ budget set created by the famous “donut hole,” where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from “filling” the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that “filling” the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects “anticipatory” behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows – in a highly stylized way – for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year. PMID:26769984

  2. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies – one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants – were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook. PMID:26877584

  3. MCP PMT with high time response and linear output current for neutron time-of-flight detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolotov, A. S.; Konovalov, P. I.; Nurtdinov, R. I.

    2016-09-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a subnanosecond time response and a high linear output current has been developed. PMT is designed for detection of weak pulses of radiation in UV-, visible and nearer-IR ranges and can be used in neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors in experiments on laser compression of thermonuclear fuel. The results of measurements of MCP PMT main parameters are presented: photocathode spectral sensitivity, gain, maximum linear output current, and time response.

  4. The influence of age, muscle strength and speed of information processing on recovery responses to external perturbations in gait.

    PubMed

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Adam, J; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance caused by external perturbations to gait can successfully be counteracted by adequate recovery responses. The current study investigated how the recovery response is moderated by age, walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing. The gait pattern of 50 young and 45 elderly subjects was repeatedly perturbed at 20% and 80% of the first half of the swing phase using the Timed Rapid impact Perturbation (TRiP) set-up. Recovery responses were identified using 2D cameras. Muscular factors (dynamometer) and speed of information processing parameters (computer-based reaction time task) were determined. The stronger, faster reacting and faster walking young subjects recovered more often by an elevating strategy than elderly subjects. Twenty three per cent of the differences in recovery responses were explained by a combination of walking speed (B=-13.85), reaction time (B=-0.82), maximum extension strength (B=0.01) and rate of extension moment development (B=0.19). The recovery response that subjects employed when gait was perturbed by the TRiP set-up was modified by several factors; the individual contribution of walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing was small. Insight into remaining modifying factors is needed to assist and optimise fall prevention programmes.

  5. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  6. Heterogeneity in resistance training-induced muscle strength and mass responses in men and women of different ages.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Juha P; Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Holviala, Jarkko; Sillanpää, Elina; Karavirta, Laura; Sallinen, Janne; Mikkola, Jussi; Valkeinen, Heli; Mero, Antti; Hulmi, Juha J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity recommendations for public health include typically muscle-strengthening activities for a minimum of 2 days a week. The range of inter-individual variation in responses to resistance training (RT) aiming to improve health and well-being requires to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify high and low responders for RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength and to examine possible effects of age and sex on these responses. Previously collected data of untrained healthy men and women (age 19 to 78 years, n = 287 with 72 controls) were pooled for the present study. Muscle size and strength changed during RT are 4.8 ± 6.1 % (range from -11 to 30 %) and 21.1 ± 11.5 % (range from -8 to 60 %) compared to pre-RT, respectively. Age and sex did not affect to the RT responses. Fourteen percent and 12 % of the subjects were defined as high responders (>1 standard deviation (SD) from the group mean) for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. When taking into account the results of non-training controls (upper 95 % CI), 29 and 7 % of the subjects were defined as low responders for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. The muscle size and strength responses varied extensively between the subjects regardless of subject's age and sex. Whether these changes are associated with, e.g., functional capacity and metabolic health improvements due to RT requires further studies.

  7. Near-LTE linear response calculations with a collisional-radiative model for He-like Al ions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.; Kato, T.

    1998-04-06

    We investigate non-equilibrium atomic kinetics using a collisional- radiative model modified to include line absorption. Steady-state emission is calculated for He-like aluminum immersed in a specified radiation field having fixed deviations from a Planck spectrum. The calculated net emission is presented as a NLTE response matrix. In agreement with a rigorous general rule of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the linear response is symmetric. We compute the response matrix for 1% and {+-} 50% changes in the photon temperature and find linear response over a surprisingly large range.

  8. Partitioning non-linearities in the response of honey bee olfactory receptor neurons to binary odors.

    PubMed

    Getz, W M; Akers, R P

    1995-01-01

    In many organisms, of which honey bees are one example, a general (i.e., non-pheromonal) olfactory receptor neuron may respond to some odorants by increasing its firing rate and to others by decreasing its firing rate. In the latter case, this decrease will be with respect to a background firing rate determined by intrinsic (internal noise) and extrinsic (background odors) factors. To analyse receptor neurons of this complexity, we extend Beidler's model of receptor protein activation dynamics to account for the competition between depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pathways and couple the model to a phenomenological description of the non-linear relationship between the proportion of activate membrane receptors and the receptor cell spike generation rates. We then examine the implications of this theory for predicting the response of receptor neurons to odor mixtures based on their response to pure odorants at concentrations matched to the mixture. We derive inequalities that must be satisfied under our normative model, and propose that deviations from the model be designated as synergisms and inhibitions, depending on the direction in which various equalities and inequalities are violated. We then apply our inequalities to identifying synergisms and inhibitions in data analysed in a different way elsewhere (Akers, R.P. and Getz, W.M. Response of olfactory receptor neurons in honey bees to odorants and their binary mixtures. J. Comp. Physiol. (in press)). In these data regarding the response of honey bee placode sensilla to a number of odorants and their binary combinations, we demonstrate the presence of synergisms and inhibitions--that is, elevated or repressed responses that are not due to competitive interactions of mixture component odorants for receptor sites or Beidler (Beidler, L.M., 1962. Taste receptor stimulation. Prog. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 12, 107-151) saturation mechanisms. PMID:7727704

  9. Indoor calibration of Sky Quality Meters: Linearity, spectral responsivity and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravettoni, M.; Strepparava, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Klett, S.; Andretta, M.; Steiger, M.

    2016-09-01

    The indoor calibration of brightness sensors requires extremely low values of irradiance in the most accurate and reproducible way. In this work the testing equipment of an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for electrical testing, qualification and type approval of solar photovoltaic modules was modified in order to test the linearity of the instruments from few mW/cm2 down to fractions of nW/cm2, corresponding to levels of simulated brightness from 6 to 19 mag/arcsec2. Sixteen Sky Quality Meter (SQM) produced by Unihedron, a Canadian manufacturer, were tested, also assessing the impact of the ageing of their protective glasses on the calibration coefficients and the drift of the instruments. The instruments are in operation on measurement points and observatories at different sites and altitudes in Southern Switzerland, within the framework of OASI, the Environmental Observatory of Southern Switzerland. The authors present the results of the calibration campaign: linearity; brightness calibration, with and without protective glasses; transmittance measurement of the glasses; and spectral responsivity of the devices. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also provided, according to the ISO 17025 standard.

  10. Derivation of spin-orbit couplings in collinear linear-response TDDFT: A rigorous formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Franco de Carvalho, Felipe; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Tavernelli, Ivano; Penfold, Thomas J.

    2014-04-14

    Using an approach based upon a set of auxiliary many-electron wavefunctions we present a rigorous derivation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the framework of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT). Our method is based on a perturbative correction of the non-relativistic collinear TDDFT equations using a Breit-Pauli spin-orbit Hamiltonian. The derivation, which is performed within both the Casida and Sternheimer formulations of LR-TDDFT, is valid for any basis set. The requirement of spin noncollinearity for the treatment of spin-flip transitions is also discussed and a possible alternative solution for the description of these transitions in the collinear case is also proposed. Our results are validated by computing the SOC matrix elements between singlet and triplet states of two molecules, formaldehyde and acetone. In both cases, we find excellent agreement with benchmark calculations performed with a high level correlated wavefunction method.

  11. Linear-response theory for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method: Excitation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagau, Thomas-C.; Gauss, Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    The recently presented linear-response function for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method (Mk-MRCC) [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044115 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4734308 is employed to determine vertical excitation energies within the singles and doubles approximation (Mk-MRCCSD-LR) for ozone as well as for o-benzyne, m-benzyne, and p-benzyne, which display increasing multireference character in their ground states. In order to assess the impact of a multireference ground-state wavefunction on excitation energies, we compare all our results to those obtained at the single-reference coupled-cluster level of theory within the singles and doubles as well as within the singles, doubles, and triples approximation. Special attention is paid to the artificial splitting of certain excited states which arises from the redundancy intrinsic to Mk-MRCC theory and hinders the straightforward application of the Mk-MRCC-LR method.

  12. Random phase approximation correlation energy using a compact representation for linear response functions: application to solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaoui, Fawzi; Rocca, Dario

    2016-01-01

    A new approach was recently presented to compute correlation energies within the random phase approximation using Lanczos chains and an optimal basis set (Rocca 2014 J. Chem. Phys. 140 18A501). This novel method avoids the explicit calculation of conduction states and represents linear response functions on a compact auxiliary basis set obtained from the diagonalization of an approximate dielectric matrix that contains only the kinetic energy contribution. Here, we extend this formalism, originally implemented for molecular systems, to treat periodic solids. In particular, the approximate dielectric matrix used to build the auxiliary basis set is generalized to avoid unphysical negative gaps, that make the model inefficient. The numerical convergence of the method is discussed and the accuracy is demonstrated considering a set including three covalently bonded (C, Si, and SiC) and three weakly bonded (Ne, Ar, and Kr) solids.

  13. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  14. Response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Riley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of the maximum response of discrete, linear mechanical systems to arbitrary forcing functions which lie within specified bounds. Primary attention is focused on the complete determination of the forcing function which will engender maximum displacement to any particular mass element of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. In general, the desired forcing function is found to be a bang-bang type function, i.e., a function which switches from the maximum to the minimum bound and vice-versa at certain instants of time. Examples of two-degree-of-freedom systems, with and without damping, are presented in detail. Conclusions are drawn concerning the effect of damping on the switching times and the general procedure for finding these times is discussed.

  15. Effects of Initial Geometric Imperfections On the Non-Linear Response of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Young, Richard D.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the elastic buckling and nonlinear behavior of the liquid-oxygen tank for the new Space Shuttle superlightweight external fuel tank are presented. Selected results that illustrate three distinctly different types of non-linear response phenomena for thin-walled shells which are subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads are presented. These response phenomena consist of a bifurcation-type buckling response, a short-wavelength non-linear bending response and a non-linear collapse or "snap-through" response associated with a limit point. The effects of initial geometric imperfections on the response characteristics are emphasized. The results illustrate that the buckling and non-linear response of a geometrically imperfect shell structure subjected to complex loading conditions may not be adequately characterized by an elastic linear bifurcation buckling analysis, and that the traditional industry practice of applying a buckling-load knock-down factor can result in an ultraconservative design. Results are also presented that show that a fluid-filled shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections, and that the use a buckling-load knock-down factor is needed for this case.

  16. Circumventing chronological uncertainty in attempts to detect and understand non-linear ecosystem responses in shallow lake paleorecords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow lakes can undergo rapid changes in key biotic components. These phenomena, which include loss of submerged macrophytes, fish kills and algal blooms, can occur at sub-seasonal timescales and are often reported to be non-linear, threshold responses to a gradual intensification of an external driver and reflective of a change in state. Although such threshold responses are widely reported, a recent meta-analysis found that most such changes cannot be unequivocally confirmed as true threshold responses. This is because clear records of system stability in the face of a gradual increase in external driver intensity followed by rapid system change are lacking, as are records of post threshold stability in the new state following release of external driver pressure. That threshold responses were not confirmed often reflects insufficient time series of before or after data to establish driver variability and ecosystem stability. In this context, paleo studies provide a means to clearly identify non-linear, threshold responses in shallow lake ecosystems. The challenge of detecting evidence of non-linear responses in shallow lake ecosystems is often seen as a chronological one. Highly resolved and accurate sediment chronologies coupled with historical records of external driver intensity do provide a means to detect non-linear, threshold responses, but such chronologies are rare in shallow lakes. Fortunately, the 'tight chronology-historical record of external driver' approach is not the only, or even the most direct, way to detect non-linear ecosystem responses in paleo records. An alternative, more direct approach is ecosystem response and external driver intensity to be preserved in the same sedimentary record. Theoretically, it is arguable whether any chronological control is needed at all to determine if a non-linear response has occurred, for the key is not how quickly an ecosystem response may occur or if it is linear with respect to time, it is whether it is

  17. Influence of applied magnetic field strength and frequency response of pick-up coil on the magnetic barkhausen noise profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashista, M.; Moorthy, V.

    2013-11-01

    The influence of applied magnetic field strength and frequency response of the pick-up coil on the shape of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) profile have been studied. The low frequency MBN measurements have been carried out using 5 different MBN pick-up coils at two different ranges of applied magnetic field strengths on quenched and tempered (QT) and case-carburised and tempered (CT) 18CrNiMo7 steel bar samples. The MBN pick-up coils have been designed to obtain different frequency response such that the peak frequency response varies from ˜4 kHz to ˜32 kHz and the amplitude of low frequency signals decreases gradually. At lower applied magnetic field strength of ±14,000 A/m, all the pick-up coils produced a single peak MBN profile for both QT and CT sample. However, at higher applied magnetic field strength of ±22,000 A/m, the MBN profile showed two peaks for both QT and CT samples for pick-up coils with peak frequency response up to ˜17 kHz. Also, there is systematic reduction in peak 2 for QT sample and asymmetric reduction in the heights of peak 1 and peak 2 for CT sample with increase in peak frequency response of the pick-up coils. The decreasing sensitivity of pick-up coils with increasing peak frequency response to MBN signal generation is indicated by the gradual reduction in width of MBN profile and height of peak 2 in the QT sample. The drastic reduction in peak 1 as compared to peak 2 in the CT sample shows the effect of decreasing low frequency response of the pick-up coils on lowering skin-depth of MBN signal detection. This study clearly suggests that it is essential to optimise both maximum applied magnetic field strength and frequency response of the MBN pick-up coil for maximising the shape of the MBN profile for appropriate correlation with the magnetisation process and hence the material properties.

  18. Impact of Short and Moderate Rest Intervals on the Acute Immunometabolic Response to Exhaustive Strength Exercise: Part I.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Gerosa-Neto, Jose; Zanchi, Nelo E; Cholewa, Jason M; Lira, Fabio S

    2016-06-01

    Rossi, FE, Gerosa-Neto, J, Zanchi, NE, Cholewa, JM, and Lira, FS. Impact of short and moderate rest intervals on the acute immunometabolic response to exhaustive strength exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1563-1569, 2016-The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the short and moderate intervals of recovery in response to an acute bout of exhaustive strength exercise on performance, inflammatory, and metabolic responses in healthy adults. Eight healthy subjects (age = 24.6 ± 4.1 years) performed 2 randomized sequences: short = 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with 30 seconds of rest between sets; moderate = 70% of 1RM with 90 seconds of rest between sets. All sequences of exercises were performed over 4 sets until movement failure in the squat and bench press exercises, respectively. The total number of repetitions performed was recorded for each set of each exercise for all sequences. The percentages of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and nonester fatty acid were assessed, at baseline, immediately after exercise, after 15 and 30 minutes. When compared with the maximum number of repetitions and the total weight lifted, there was a statistically significant decrease after both intervals. The only statistically significant decreases over time occurred at the post-15 minutes assessment of the IL-6 and glucose when a moderate interval of recovery was performed. When comparing the alterations between the pools (the mean of the cluster of all periods in each variable), there was a statistically significant increase on the IL-6 and IL-10 when a moderate interval of recovery was performed again, however, not considering a statistical difference on the IL-10. Thus, we concluded that different interval of recovery in response to exhaustive strength exercise decreases performance but in only moderate intervals, it is associated with inflammatory and

  19. Equivalent linear response spectrum methodology for the seismic response of a simple structural system with a uni-directional support (tension only or compression only)

    SciTech Connect

    Gurdal, R.J.; Maxham, W.D.

    1996-12-01

    Typically, structures with significant non-linear supports are analyzed using either time-history algorithms or response spectrum enveloping techniques, with multiple stiffness values to represent the non-linear supports. However, there are problems associated with these methods: (1) time-history analyses require considerable computer time, and, more importantly, the generated response files can become too large; (2) linear response spectrum analyses, when used to envelop the non-linear solution, are excessively conservative. This paper presents an equivalent linear response spectrum methodology to analyze structural systems with a uni-directional support. The structure is free to move in one direction, and restricted with a support stiffness in the diametrically opposed direction. The mathematical formulas for this application are developed and presented. The results using this methodology are compared with actual results from corresponding time-history non-linear structural analyses. These comparisons, performed for the one-mass structural system, show that the equivalent linear response spectrum method closely approximates the time-history results.

  20. Effects of processing induced defects on laminate response - Interlaminar tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurdal, Zafer; Tomasino, Alfred P.; Biggers, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Four different layup methods were used in the present study of the interlaminar tensile strength of AS4/3501-6 graphite-reinforced epoxy as a function of defects from manufacturing-induced porosity. The methods were: (1) baseline hand layup, (2) solvent wipe of prepreg for resin removal, (3) moisture-introduction between plies, and (4) a low-pressure cure cycle. Pore characterization was conducted according to ASTM D-2734. A significant reduction is noted in the out-of-plane tensile strength as a function of increasing void content; the porosity data were used in an empirical model to predict out-of-plane strength as a function of porosity.

  1. Steady-state linear optical properties and Kerr nonlinear optical response of a four-level quantum dot with phonon-assisted transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Chao, She; Ting-Ting, Luo; Wei-Xi, Zhang; Mao-Wu, Ran; Deng-Long, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The linear optical properties and Kerr nonlinear optical response in a four-level loop configuration GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum dot are analytically studied with the phonon-assisted transition (PAT). It is shown that the changes among a single electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window, a double EIT window and the amplification of the probe field in the absorption curves can be controlled by varying the strength of PAT κ. Meanwhile, double switching from the anomalous dispersion regime to the normal dispersion regime can likely be achieved by increasing the Rabi energy of the external optical control field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the group velocity of the probe field can be practically regulated by varying the PAT and the intensity of the optical control field. In the nonlinear case, it is shown that the large SPM and XPM can be achieved as linear absorption vanishes simultaneously, and the PAT can suppress both third-order self-Kerr and the cross-Kerr nonlinear effect of the QD. Our study is much more practical than its atomic counterpart due to its flexible design and the controllable interference strength, and may provide some new possibilities for technological applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61367003), the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 12A140), and the Scientific Research Fund of Guizhou Provincial Education Department, China (Grant Nos. KY[2015]384 and KY[2015]446).

  2. On spurious detection of linear response and misuse of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in finite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Wormell, J. P.; Wouters, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Using a sensitive statistical test we determine whether or not one can detect the breakdown of linear response given observations of deterministic dynamical systems. A goodness-of-fit statistics is developed for a linear statistical model of the observations, based on results for central limit theorems for deterministic dynamical systems, and used to detect linear response breakdown. We apply the method to discrete maps which do not obey linear response and show that the successful detection of breakdown depends on the length of the time series, the magnitude of the perturbation and on the choice of the observable. We find that in order to reliably reject the assumption of linear response for typical observables sufficiently large data sets are needed. Even for simple systems such as the logistic map, one needs of the order of 106 observations to reliably detect the breakdown with a confidence level of 95 %; if less observations are available one may be falsely led to conclude that linear response theory is valid. The amount of data required is larger the smaller the applied perturbation. For judiciously chosen observables the necessary amount of data can be drastically reduced, but requires detailed a priori knowledge about the invariant measure which is typically not available for complex dynamical systems. Furthermore we explore the use of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in cases with limited data length or coarse-graining of observations. The FDT, if applied naively to a system without linear response, is shown to be very sensitive to the details of the sampling method, resulting in erroneous predictions of the response.

  3. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  4. Lanczos-driven coupled-cluster damped linear response theory for molecules in polarizable environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Coriani, Sonia; Kongsted, Jacob; Christiansen, Ove

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension of a previously reported implementation of a Lanczos-driven coupled-cluster (CC) damped linear response approach to molecules in condensed phases, where the effects of a surrounding environment are incorporated by means of the polarizable embedding formalism. We are specifically motivated by a twofold aim: (i) computation of core excitations in realistic surroundings and (ii) examination of the effect of the differential response of the environment upon excitation solely related to the CC multipliers (herein denoted the J matrix) in computations of excitation energies and transition moments of polarizable-embedded molecules. Numerical calculations demonstrate that the differential polarization of the environment due to the first-order CC multipliers provides only minor contributions to the solvatochromic shift for all transitions considered. We thus complement previous works by confirming numerically the validity of the routinely invoked neglect of the J matrix contribution as well as motivating future use of the approximation that offers a reduction of the dimensionality of the eigenvalue problem. Preliminary applications to K-edge absorption of liquid water and aqueous acrolein are presented and highlight the importance of the environment that gives rise to transition-specific shifts.

  5. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-12-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission-fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate.

  6. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-01-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission–fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate. PMID:24455148

  7. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-12-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission-fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate. PMID:24455148

  8. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  9. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations.

  10. Second-order variational coupled-cluster linear-response method: A Hermitian time-dependent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, Daniel; Usvyat, Denis; Schuetz, Martin

    2011-06-15

    The formalism is presented for the linear response of a time-dependent (TD) variational coupled cluster (VCC), truncated according to Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory, i.e., a TD-VCC[n] linear response, where n denotes the order of the corresponding quasienergy with respect to the fluctuation potential. The resulting eigenvalue problem determining the excitation energies is Hermitian and of the simple Tamm-Dancoff form. The VCC excitation energies are equivalent to those of the configuration-interaction singles (CIS) model, while the Casida equation for the TD-Hartree-Fock approach is an approximation to it. The TD-VCC response, the lowest-order method including electron correlation, is discussed in detail and the relations to other second-order methods, such as the CC2 linear response and the algebraic diagrammatic construction at second order [ADC(2)] are explored.

  11. Seismic Response Of Masonry Plane Walls: A Numerical Study On Spandrel Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, Michele; Galano, Luciano; Vignoli, Andrea

    2008-07-08

    The paper reports the results of a numerical investigation on masonry walls subjected to in-plane seismic loads. This research aims to verify the formulae of shear and flexural strength of masonry spandrels which are given in the recent Italian Standards. Seismic pushover analyses have been carried out using finite element models of unreinforced walls and strengthened walls introducing reinforced concrete (RC) beams at the floor levels. Two typologies of walls have been considered distinguished for the height to length ratio h/l of the spandrels: a) short beams (h/l = 1.33) and b) slender beams (h/l = 0.5). Results obtained for the unreinforced and the strengthened walls are compared with equations for shear and flexural strength provided in Standards [1]. The numerical analyses show that the reliability of these equations is at least questionable especially for the prediction of the flexural strength. In the cases in which the axial force has not been determined by the structural analysis, Standards seems to overestimate the flexural strength of short spandrels both for the unreinforced and the strengthened wall.

  12. Patterns of Response: A Case Study of Elementary Students with Spatial Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with spatial strengths have areas of remarkable talent but are often overlooked, underidentified, and underserved in American schools. Their preference for learning through imagistic reasoning conflicts with traditional verbal instructional techniques typically used in schools. To better serve these students who have the potential…

  13. Divergent selection for fiber length and bundle strength and correlated responses in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton breeders must develop cultivars to meet the demand for longer, stronger, and more uniform fibers. In the current study, two cycles of divergent selection for fiber upper-half mean length (UHML) and bundle strength (Str) were conducted within five diverse parental combinations selected based o...

  14. Linear response theory for two neural populations applied to gamma oscillation generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payeur, Alexandre; Lefebvre, Jérémie; Maler, Leonard; Longtin, André

    2013-03-01

    Linear response theory (LRT) can be used to compute spectral properties of single and populations of stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. The effects of inputs, both external and from delayed feedback, can be modeled within that theory when the neural function is sufficiently linearized by noise. It has been used to explain experiments where gamma oscillations are induced by spatially correlated stochastic inputs to a network with delayed inhibitory feedback. Here we expand this theory to include two distinct population types. We first show how to deal with homogeneous networks where both types of neurons have identical intrinsic properties. We further tackle the asymmetric case, where noise or bias differ. We also analyze the case where the membrane time constants differ, based on experimental evidence, which requires delicate alterations of the theory. We directly apply the theory to networks of ON and OFF cells in the electrosensory system, which together provide global delayed negative feedback to all cells; however, ON and OFF cells receive external inputs of opposite polarities. Theoretical results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of the two population network. In contrast to the case of a single ON cell population with feedback, the more realistic presence of both cell types can significantly reduce the propensity of the delayed feedback network to oscillate for spatially correlated inputs. Our results are further linked to recent predictions from deterministic neural field theory. Among other findings, our work suggests that the observed gamma oscillations could be explained only if the ON and OFF cell feedback pathways are anatomically segregated. Thus our two population LRT can make specific predictions about network topography in specific systems.

  15. Influence of Cutting Time on Brush Response: Implications for Herbivory in Linear (Transportation) Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Roy V.; Child, Kenneth N.; Spata, David P.; MacDonald, Douglas

    2007-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence the time of brush-cutting can have on plant regrowth and attractiveness to herbivores that browse in linear corridors. The influence of cutting time on leaf flush and senescence, shoot morphometry, and biomass was measured for 3 consecutive years after initial brush-cutting. Results indicate that morphological and phenological attributes of three woody deciduous plants were influenced by the timing of brush-cutting for up to 3 years after initial cutting. Brush-cutting generally stimulated plants to produce larger than normal shoots and delay leaf senescence. The degree to which plants were affected, however, varied with the timing of initial cutting and the species in question. Generally, plants cut later in the year resprouted more vigorously and were taller in the third year after cutting but produced less overall biomass than when cut earlier. In the years following brush-cutting, plants cut earlier flushed leaves earlier in the spring but delayed leaf senescence in the fall when compared to uncut controls. Results of these trials suggest that brush-cutting time influences plant response and several plant attributes known to influence plant attractiveness to moose and other herbivores. We therefore recommend that roadside and railside vegetation management plans consider the influence of cutting time on plant regrowth. Such considerations can ensure that brush is cut to reduce the attractiveness of plant regrowth in these linear corridors, reduce the utilization of such brush by herbivores, and, as such, mitigate collision risk between motorists and herbivores such as moose.

  16. Calculating the Linear Response Functions of Noninteracting Electrons with a Time-dependent Schroedinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iitaka, T.; Nomura, S.; Hirayama, H.; Zhao, X. W.; Aoyagi, Y.; Sugano, T.

    1997-08-01

    We introduce a new linear scaling( ( O(N) ) ) algorithm [1] for calculating linear response functions of non-interacting electrons. It requires only ( O(N) ) computational efforts where ( N ) is the dimension of the statevector, because it avoids ( O(N^3) ) computational effort for calculating large number of eigenstates, i.e., the occupied one-electron states up to the Fermi energy and the unoccupied states with higher energy. The advantage of this method compared to the Chebyshev polynomial method recently developed by Wang [2] is that it does not need any storage of huge statevectors on hard disks. The application of this method to photonic band structures [3], and silicon nanocrystalites [3,4] will be also presented. [ 1 ] T. Iitaka, S. Nomura, H. Hirayama, X.W. Zhao, Y. Aoyagi, T. Sugano, to appear in Phys. Rev. E, preprint is available at cond- mat/9703224. See also http://espero.riken.go.jp/. [ 2 ] L.W. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 49, 10154 (1994); L.W. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1039 (1994) . [ 3 ] H. Hirayama et al., S. Nomura et al., and T. Iitaka et al., in LDSD97, Lisbon, Portugal 19-20 May 1997. The proceedings will appear in Materials Science & Engineering B. [ 4 ] S. Nomura et al., (submitted to Phys. Rev. B).

  17. In-vitro investigations of a pH- and ionic-strength-responsive polyelectrolytic hydrogel using a piezoresistive microsensor

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Volker; Guenther, Margarita; Gerlach, Gerald; Magda, Jules J.; Tathireddy, Prashant; Rieth, Loren; Solzbacher, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Environmental responsive or smart hydrogels show a volume phase transition due to changes of external stimuli such as pH or ionic strength of an ambient solution. Thus, they are able to convert reversibly chemical energy into mechanical energy and therefore they are suitable as sensitive material for integration in biochemical microsensors and MEMS devices. In this work, micro-fabricated silicon pressure sensor chips with integrated piezoresistors were used as transducers for the conversion of mechanical work into an appropriate electrical output signal due to the deflection of a thin silicon bending plate. Within this work two different sensor designs have been studied. The biocompatible poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) (HPMA-DMA-TEGDMA) was used as an environmental sensitive element in piezoresistive biochemical sensors. This polyelectrolytic hydrogel shows a very sharp volume phase transition at pH values below about 7.4 which is in the range of the physiological pH. The sensor's characteristic response was measured in-vitro for changes in pH of PBS buffer solution at fixed ionic strength. The experimental data was applied to the Hill equation and the sensor sensitivity as a function of pH was calculated out of it. The time-dependent sensor response was measured for small changes in pH, whereas different time constants have been observed. The same sensor principal was used for sensing of ionic strength. The time-dependent electrical sensor signal of both sensors was measured for variations in ionic strength at fixed pH value using PBS buffer solution. Both sensor types showed an asymmetric swelling behavior between the swelling and the deswelling cycle as well as different time constants, which was attributed to the different nature of mechanical hydrogel-confinement inside the sensor. PMID:21152365

  18. In vitro investigations of a pH- and ionic-strength-responsive polyelectrolytic hydrogel using a piezoresistive microsensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Volker; Guenther, Margarita; Gerlach, Gerald U.; Magda, Jules J.; Tathireddy, Prashant; Rieth, Loren; Solzbacher, Florian

    2009-03-01

    Environmentally responsive or smart hydrogels show a volume phase transition due to changes of external stimuli such as pH or ionic strength of an ambient solution. Thus, they are able to convert reversibly chemical energy into mechanical energy and therefore they are suitable as sensitive material to be integrated in biochemical microsensors and MEMS devices. In this work, micro fabricated silicon pressure sensor chips with integrated piezoresistors were used as transducers for the conversion of mechanical work into an appropriate electrical output signal due to the deflection of a thin silicon bending plate. Within this work two different sensor designs have been studied. The biocompatible poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) (HPMADMA- TEGDMA) was used as an environmental-sensitive element in piezoresistive biochemical sensors. This polyelectrolytic hydrogel shows a very sharp volume phase transition at pH values below about 7.4 which is in the range of the physiological pH. The sensor's characteristic response was measured in-vitro for changes in pH of PBS buffer solution at fixed ionic strength. The experimental data was applied to the Hill equation and the sensor sensitivity as a function of pH was calculated out of it. The time-dependent sensor response was measured for small changes in pH, whereas different time constants have been observed. The same sensor principal was used for sensing the ionic strength. The time-dependent electrical output signal of both sensors was measured for variations in ionic strength at fixed pH value using PBS buffer solution. Both sensor types showed an asymmetric swelling behavior between the swelling and the deswelling cycle as well as different time constants, which was attributed to the different nature of mechanical hydrogel confinement inside the sensor.

  19. A mechanism responsible for reducing compression strength of through-the-thickness reinforced composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify one of the mechanisms that contributes to the reduced compression strength of composite materials with through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcements. In this study a series of thick (0/90) laminates with stitched and integrally woven TTT reinforcements were fabricated and statically tested. In both the stitching and weaving process a surface loop of TTT reinforcement yarn is created between successive TTT penetrations. It was shown that the surface loop of the TTT reinforcement 'kinked' the in-plane fibers in such a manner that they were made ineffective in carrying compressive load. The improvement in strength by removal of the surface loop and 'kinked' in-plane fibers was between 7 and 35 percent.

  20. Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) Variants Associate with the Muscle Strength and Size Response to Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Ash, Garrett I; Kostek, Matthew A; Lee, Harold; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Price, Thomas B; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Thompson, Paul D; Hoffman, Eric P; Pescatello, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) polymorphisms associate with obesity, muscle strength, and cortisol sensitivity. We examined associations among four NR3C1 polymorphisms and the muscle response to resistance training (RT). European-American adults (n = 602, 23.8±0.4yr) completed a 12 week unilateral arm RT program. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed isometric strength (kg) and MRI assessed biceps size (cm2) pre- and post-resistance training. Subjects were genotyped for NR3C1 -2722G>A, -1887G>A, -1017T>C, and +363A>G. Men carrying the -2722G allele gained less relative MVC (17.3±1.2vs33.5±6.1%) (p = 0.010) than AA homozygotes; men with -1887GG gained greater relative MVC than A allele carriers (19.6±1.4vs13.2±2.3%) (p = 0.016). Women carrying the -1017T allele gained greater relative size (18.7±0.5vs16.1±0.9%) (p = 0.016) than CC homozygotes. We found sex-specific NR3C1 associations with the muscle strength and size response to RT. Future studies should investigate whether these associations are partially explained by cortisol's actions in muscle tissue as they interact with sex differences in cortisol production. PMID:26821164

  1. Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) Variants Associate with the Muscle Strength and Size Response to Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Ash, Garrett I; Kostek, Matthew A; Lee, Harold; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Price, Thomas B; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Thompson, Paul D; Hoffman, Eric P; Pescatello, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) polymorphisms associate with obesity, muscle strength, and cortisol sensitivity. We examined associations among four NR3C1 polymorphisms and the muscle response to resistance training (RT). European-American adults (n = 602, 23.8±0.4yr) completed a 12 week unilateral arm RT program. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed isometric strength (kg) and MRI assessed biceps size (cm2) pre- and post-resistance training. Subjects were genotyped for NR3C1 -2722G>A, -1887G>A, -1017T>C, and +363A>G. Men carrying the -2722G allele gained less relative MVC (17.3±1.2vs33.5±6.1%) (p = 0.010) than AA homozygotes; men with -1887GG gained greater relative MVC than A allele carriers (19.6±1.4vs13.2±2.3%) (p = 0.016). Women carrying the -1017T allele gained greater relative size (18.7±0.5vs16.1±0.9%) (p = 0.016) than CC homozygotes. We found sex-specific NR3C1 associations with the muscle strength and size response to RT. Future studies should investigate whether these associations are partially explained by cortisol's actions in muscle tissue as they interact with sex differences in cortisol production.

  2. Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) Variants Associate with the Muscle Strength and Size Response to Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Garrett I.; Kostek, Matthew A.; Lee, Harold; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Gordon, Paul M.; Moyna, Niall M.; Visich, Paul S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Price, Thomas B.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Thompson, Paul D.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) polymorphisms associate with obesity, muscle strength, and cortisol sensitivity. We examined associations among four NR3C1 polymorphisms and the muscle response to resistance training (RT). European-American adults (n = 602, 23.8±0.4yr) completed a 12 week unilateral arm RT program. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed isometric strength (kg) and MRI assessed biceps size (cm2) pre- and post-resistance training. Subjects were genotyped for NR3C1 -2722G>A, -1887G>A, -1017T>C, and +363A>G. Men carrying the -2722G allele gained less relative MVC (17.3±1.2vs33.5±6.1%) (p = 0.010) than AA homozygotes; men with -1887GG gained greater relative MVC than A allele carriers (19.6±1.4vs13.2±2.3%) (p = 0.016). Women carrying the -1017T allele gained greater relative size (18.7±0.5vs16.1±0.9%) (p = 0.016) than CC homozygotes. We found sex-specific NR3C1 associations with the muscle strength and size response to RT. Future studies should investigate whether these associations are partially explained by cortisol’s actions in muscle tissue as they interact with sex differences in cortisol production. PMID:26821164

  3. Submitochondrial particle response to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and their biodegradation derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Argese, E.; Marcomini, A.; Bettiol, C.; Perin, G. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Miana, P. )

    1994-05-01

    The effects on mitochondrial respiratory parameters of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO), and some of their biotransformation products, namely sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs), nonylphenol (NP), and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC), were recorded by using the in vitro response of submitochondrial particles (SMP) from beef heart. The toxicity of these compounds was estimated by determining their effects on the energy-coupled reverse electron transfer (RET), which is induced by ATP and succinate at the first site level of the respiratory chain and reduces exogenous NAD[sup +] to NADH. The toxicity of the substances, expressed as the toxicant concentration decreasing the reduction rate of NAD[sup +] to an extent of 50% (EC50), ranged from 0.61 mg/L for a commercial LAS mixture to 18,000 mg/L for individual SPCs; from 1.3 mg/L for NPEO, with an average of 10 ethoxy units, to 8.2 and 1.8 mg/L for NP1EC and NP, respectively. These results were related to the molecular structure of each compound class and compared with the toxicity values obtained by a variety of biological systems currently used for toxicity testing. The acute toxicity data have demonstrated that (a) the SMP bioassay is suitable for reproducing the toxicological response of whole organisms, such as fishes and invertebrates, to the tested chemicals; and (b) the hydrophobic moiety of these compounds plays a significant role in eliciting their toxic effects. From a toxicological standpoint, attention must be paid to the occurrence in natural waters of residual LAS, whereas in the case of NPEO both unaltered surfactant and all biotransformation products need to be identified and quantified.

  4. Fundamental Constraints on Linear Response Theories of Fermi Superfluids above and Below Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Chien, Chih-Chun; He, Yan; Levin, K.

    2013-06-01

    We present fundamental constraints required for a consistent linear response theory of fermionic superfluids and address temperatures both above and below the transition temperature Tc. We emphasize two independent constraints, one associated with gauge invariance (and the related Ward identity) and another associated with the compressibility sum rule, both of which are satisfied in strict BCS theory. However, we point out that it is the rare many body theory which satisfies both of these. Indeed, well studied quantum Hall systems and random-phase approximations to the electron gas are found to have difficulties with meeting these constraints. We summarize two distinct theoretical approaches which are, however, demonstrably compatible with gauge invariance and the compressibility sum rule. The first of these involves an extension of BCS theory to a mean field description of the BCS-Bose Einstein condensation crossover. The second is the simplest Nozieres Schmitt-Rink (NSR) treatment of pairing correlations in the normal state. As a point of comparison we focus on the compressibility κ of each and contrast the predictions above Tc. We note here that despite the compliance with sum rules, this NSR based scheme leads to an unphysical divergence in κ at the transition. Because of the delicacy of the various consistency requirements, the results of this paper suggest that avoiding this divergence may repair one problem while at the same time introducing others.

  5. A Bayesian approach for inducing sparsity in generalized linear models with multi-category response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The dimension and complexity of high-throughput gene expression data create many challenges for downstream analysis. Several approaches exist to reduce the number of variables with respect to small sample sizes. In this study, we utilized the Generalized Double Pareto (GDP) prior to induce sparsity in a Bayesian Generalized Linear Model (GLM) setting. The approach was evaluated using a publicly available microarray dataset containing 99 samples corresponding to four different prostate cancer subtypes. Results A hierarchical Sparse Bayesian GLM using GDP prior (SBGG) was developed to take into account the progressive nature of the response variable. We obtained an average overall classification accuracy between 82.5% and 94%, which was higher than Support Vector Machine, Random Forest or a Sparse Bayesian GLM using double exponential priors. Additionally, SBGG outperforms the other 3 methods in correctly identifying pre-metastatic stages of cancer progression, which can prove extremely valuable for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Importantly, using Geneset Cohesion Analysis Tool, we found that the top 100 genes produced by SBGG had an average functional cohesion p-value of 2.0E-4 compared to 0.007 to 0.131 produced by the other methods. Conclusions Using GDP in a Bayesian GLM model applied to cancer progression data results in better subclass prediction. In particular, the method identifies pre-metastatic stages of prostate cancer with substantially better accuracy and produces more functionally relevant gene sets. PMID:26423345

  6. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Cahyna, P.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  7. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90° in ≈1 cm) and linear stretching to “rubber-band” levels of strain (e.g., up to ≈140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics. PMID:19015528

  8. Magnetization directions and geometries of helical microswimmers for linear velocity-frequency response.

    PubMed

    Fu, Henry C; Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Meshkati, Farshad

    2015-04-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in creating microswimmers or microrobots capable of controlled propulsion in fluidic environments. These microswimmers have numerous possible applications in biomedicine, microfabrication, and sensing. One type of effective microrobot consists of rigid magnetic helical microswimmers that are propelled when rotated at a range of frequencies by an external rotating magnetic field. Here we focus on investigating which magnetic dipoles and helical geometries optimally lead to linear velocity-frequency response, which may be desirable for the precise control and positioning of microswimmers. We identify a class of optimal magnetic field moments. We connect our results to the wobbling behavior previously observed and studied in helical microswimmers. In contrast to previous studies, we find that when the full helical geometry is taken into account, wobble-free motion is not possible for magnetic fields rotating in a plane. Our results compare well quantitatively to previously reported experiments, validating the theoretical analysis method. Finally, in the context of our optimal moments, we identify helical geometries for minimization of wobbling and maximization of swimming velocities.

  9. Musculoskeletal stiffness changes linearly in response to increasing load during walking gait.

    PubMed

    Caron, Robert R; Lewis, Cara L; Saltzman, Elliot; Wagenaar, Robert C; Holt, Kenneth G

    2015-04-13

    Development of biologically inspired exoskeletons to assist soldiers in carrying load is a rapidly expanding field. Understanding how the body modulates stiffness in response to changing loads may inform the development of these exoskeletons and is the purpose of the present study. Seventeen subjects walked on a treadmill at a constant preferred walking velocity while nine different backpack loading conditions ranging from 12.5% to 40% bodyweight (BW) were introduced in an ascending and then descending order. Kinematic data were collected using Optotrak, a 3D motion analysis system, and used to estimate the position of the center of mass (COM). Two different estimates of stiffness were computed for the stance phase of gait. Both measures of stiffness were positively and linearly related to load magnitudes, with the slopes of the relationships being larger for the descending than the ascending conditions. These results indicate that changes in mechanical stiffness brought about in the musculoskeletal system vary systematically during increases in load to ensure that critical kinematic variables measured in a previous publication remain invariant (Caron et al., 2013). Changes in stiffness and other kinematics measured at the 40% BW condition suggest a boundary in which gait stiffness control limit is reached and a new gait pattern is required. Since soldiers are now carrying up to 96% of body weight, the need for research with even heavier loads is warranted. These findings have implications on the development of exoskeletons to assist in carrying loads. PMID:25678200

  10. Global hybrids from the semiclassical atom theory satisfying the local density linear response.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Eduardo; Constantin, Lucian A; Cortona, Pietro; Della Sala, Fabio

    2015-01-13

    We propose global hybrid approximations of the exchange-correlation (XC) energy functional which reproduce well the modified fourth-order gradient expansion of the exchange energy in the semiclassical limit of many-electron neutral atoms and recover the full local density approximation (LDA) linear response. These XC functionals represent the hybrid versions of the APBE functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 186406] yet employing an additional correlation functional which uses the localization concept of the correlation energy density to improve the compatibility with the Hartree-Fock exchange as well as the coupling-constant-resolved XC potential energy. Broad energetic and structural testing, including thermochemistry and geometry, transition metal complexes, noncovalent interactions, gold clusters and small gold-molecule interfaces, as well as an analysis of the hybrid parameters, show that our construction is quite robust. In particular, our testing shows that the resulting hybrid, including 20% of Hartree-Fock exchange and named hAPBE, performs remarkably well for a broad palette of systems and properties, being generally better than popular hybrids (PBE0 and B3LYP). Semiempirical dispersion corrections are also provided. PMID:26574210

  11. Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin, Pablo; Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-03-14

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.

  12. Linear ground-water flow, flood-wave response program for programmable calculators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, John Michael

    1978-01-01

    Two programs are documented which solve a discretized analytical equation derived to determine head changes at a point in a one-dimensional ground-water flow system. The programs, written for programmable calculators, are in widely divergent but commonly encountered languages and serve to illustrate the adaptability of the linear model to use in situations where access to true computers is not possible or economical. The analytical method assumes a semi-infinite aquifer which is uniform in thickness and hydrologic characteristics, bounded on one side by an impermeable barrier and on the other parallel side by a fully penetrating stream in complete hydraulic connection with the aquifer. Ground-water heads may be calculated for points along a line which is perpendicular to the impermeable barrie and the fully penetrating stream. Head changes at the observation point are dependent on (1) the distance between that point and the impermeable barrier, (2) the distance between the line of stress (the stream) and the impermeable barrier, (3) aquifer diffusivity, (4) time, and (5) head changes along the line of stress. The primary application of the programs is to determine aquifer diffusivity by the flood-wave response technique. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Time-dependent density functional theory of open quantum systems in the linear-response regime.

    PubMed

    Tempel, David G; Watson, Mark A; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-02-21

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has recently been extended to describe many-body open quantum systems evolving under nonunitary dynamics according to a quantum master equation. In the master equation approach, electronic excitation spectra are broadened and shifted due to relaxation and dephasing of the electronic degrees of freedom by the surrounding environment. In this paper, we develop a formulation of TDDFT linear-response theory (LR-TDDFT) for many-body electronic systems evolving under a master equation, yielding broadened excitation spectra. This is done by mapping an interacting open quantum system onto a noninteracting open Kohn-Sham system yielding the correct nonequilibrium density evolution. A pseudoeigenvalue equation analogous to the Casida equations of the usual LR-TDDFT is derived for the Redfield master equation, yielding complex energies and Lamb shifts. As a simple demonstration, we calculate the spectrum of a C(2 +) atom including natural linewidths, by treating the electromagnetic field vacuum as a photon bath. The performance of an adiabatic exchange-correlation kernel is analyzed and a first-order frequency-dependent correction to the bare Kohn-Sham linewidth based on the Görling-Levy perturbation theory is calculated.

  14. Ab-initio study of transition-metal compounds through a consistent, linear-response LDA+U approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cococcioni, M.

    2007-12-01

    Hubbard U-corrected LDA or GGA have proven very effective in describing several systems characterized by strongly localized electronic states for which these standard approximations to DFT fail. I introduce here our scheme to evaluate the effective electronic interaction of the "+U" functional in a fully consistent way. This approach is based on the linear response of the considered system to a potential shift acting on the localized orbitals of the correlated sites. Using the occupations of these orbitals as the relevant electronic degrees of freedom we compute the needed on-site electronic coupling as the difference between the inverse of the bare and fully interacting response matrices. The computed U thus corresponds to the effective kernel of the electron-electron on-site interaction entering the second quantization expression of the "+U" energy functional. In this way the strength of the "+U" correction is consistently evaluated from the same DFT scheme we aim to correct and the LDA+U is transformed in a completely ab-initio method with no need for any semi-empirical or apriori evaluation of the effective coupling. The results are also largely independent on the choice of the localized orbitals: the same occupation matrix that enters the expression of the "+U" correction is consistently used to compute the effective interaction parameter. A further development in this approach also allowed us to obtain the the effective U "auto-consistently" from a correlated (LDA+U) ground state. With this approach we successfully studied the structural, electronic, chemical and electrochemical properties of several transition-metal compounds. Examples of applications will include minerals in the Earth's interior [1], cathode materials for next-generation lithium batteries [2] and catalytic reactions on molecules [3,4]. [1] M. Cococcioni and S. de Gironcoli, PRB (2005). [2] F. Zhou, M. Cococcioni, A. C. Marianetti, D. Morgan and G. Ceder, PRB (2004). [3] H. J. Kulik, M

  15. Familiarity and recollection produce distinct eye movement, pupil and medial temporal lobe responses when memory strength is matched.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity (F3) and recollection (R) responses. In Experiment 1, visual scanning behaviour at retrieval distinguished familiarity-based from recollection-based recognition. Recollection, relative to strength-matched familiarity, involved significantly larger pupil dilations and more dispersed fixation patterns. In Experiment 2, the hippocampus was selectively activated for recollected stimuli, while no evidence of activation was observed in the hippocampus for strong familiarity of matched accuracy. Recollection also activated the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while the adjacent perirhinal cortex (PRC) was actively engaged in response to strong familiarity (than to recollection). Activity in prefrontal and parietal areas differentiated familiarity and recollection in both the extent and the magnitude of activity they exhibited, while the dorsomedial thalamus showed selective familiarity-related activity, and the ventrolateral and anterior thalamus selective recollection-related activity. These findings are consistent with the view that the hippocampus and PRC play contrasting roles in supporting recollection and familiarity and that these differences are not a result of differences in memory strength. Overall, the combined pupil dilation, eye movement and fMRI data suggest the operation of recognition mechanisms drawing differentially on familiarity and recollection, whose neural bases are distinct within the MTL. PMID:22902538

  16. Linear optical response of current-carrying molecular junction: a nonequilibrium Green's function-time-dependent density functional theory approach.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Michael; Tretiak, Sergei

    2008-03-28

    We propose a scheme for calculation of linear optical response of current-carrying molecular junctions for the case when electronic tunneling through the junction is much faster than characteristic time of external laser field. We discuss relationships between nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approaches and derive expressions for optical response and linear polarizability within NEGF-TDDFT scheme. Corresponding results for isolated molecule, derived within TDDFT approach previously, are reproduced when coupling to contacts is neglected. PMID:18376958

  17. Strength and power training did not modify cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, H; Queiroz, A C C; Chehuen, M R; Costa, L A R; Wallerstein, L F; Mello, M T; Ugrinowitsch, C; Forjaz, C L M

    2011-09-01

    Resistance training increases muscle strength in older adults, decreasing the effort necessary for executing physical tasks, and reducing cardiovascular load during exercise. This hypothesis has been confirmed during strength-based activities, but not during aerobic-based activities. This study determined whether different resistance training regimens, strength training (ST, constant movement velocity) or power training (PT, concentric phase performed as fast as possible) can blunt the increase in cardiovascular load during an aerobic stimulus. Older adults (63.9 ± 0.7 years) were randomly allocated to: control (N = 11), ST (N = 13, twice a week, 70-90% 1-RM) and PT (N = 15, twice a week, 30-50% 1-RM) groups. Before and after 16 weeks, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured during a maximal treadmill test. Resting SBP and RPP were similarly reduced in all groups (combined data = -5.7 ± 1.2 and -5.0 ± 1.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Maximal SBP, HR and RPP did not change. The increase in measured VO(2), HR and RPP for the increment in estimated VO(2) (absolute load) decreased similarly in all groups (combined data = -9.1 ± 2.6, -14.1 ± 3.9, -14.2 ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.05), while the increments in the cardiovascular variables for the increase in measured VO(2) did not change. In elderly subjects, ST and PT did not blunt submaximal or maximal HR, SBP and RPP increases during the maximal exercise test, showing that they did not reduce cardiovascular stress during aerobic tasks.

  18. Near-LTE linear response calculations with a collisional-radiative model for He-like Al ions

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Kato, T.

    1998-01-06

    We investigate the non-equilibrium atomic kinetics using a collisional-radiative (CR) model modified to include line absorption. Steady-state emission is calculated for He-like aluminum ions immersed in a specified radiation field having fixed deviations from a Planck spectrum. The net emission is interpreted in terms of NLTE population changes. The calculation provides an NLTE response matrix, and in agreement with a general relation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the response matrix is symmetric. We compute the response matrix for 1% and 50% changes in the photon temperature and find linear response over a surprisingly large range.

  19. Functions Represented as Linear Sequential Data: Relationships between Presentation and Student Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' ways of attending to linear sequential data in two tasks, and conjectures possible relationships between those ways and elements of the task design. Drawing on the substantial literature about such situations, we focus for this paper on linear rate of change, and on covariation and correspondence approaches to…

  20. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  1. General-linear-models approach for comparing the response of several species in acute-toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, K.L.; Goyert, J.C.; Farrell, M.P.; Strand, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests (bioassays) estimate the concentration of a chemical required to produce a response (usually death) in fifty percent of a population (the LC50). Simple comparisons of LC5C values among several species are often inadequate because species can have identical LC50 values while their overall response to a chemical may differ in either the threshold concentration (intercept) or the rate of response (slope). A sequential approach using a general linear model is presented for testing differences among species in their overall response to a chemical. This method tests for equality of slopes followed by a test for equality of regression lines. This procedure employs the Statistical Analysis System's General Linear Models procedure for conducting a weighted least squares analysis with a convariable.

  2. The role of retardation in the structure and linear response of finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Crecca, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional random phase approximation (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) calculations of nuclear structure and the linear response employ interactions between nucleons that are instantaneous. However, N-N interactions derived from the exchange of mesons between nucleons must depend on the space-time separation of the nucleons since the mesons travel at finite speeds. Furthermore, a quantum field theory that contains interacting meson and nucleon degrees of freedom employ the Feynman propagator, i{Delta}{sub F}(x - x{prime}), to connect the nucleon-meson vertices of Feynman diagrams. This raises the question of whether calculations done with space-time dependent interactions differ significantly from the conventional calculations that employ instantaneous forces, and what are the qualitative features of the difference. The inquiry into this question begins by generalizing the traditional RPA and TDA equations into the domain of retarded (space-time dependant) interactions. This entails establishing an integral equation (the Bethe-Salpeter equation) for the polarization propagator with the appropriate RPA or TDA kernel such that the integral equation reduces to the usual RPA or TDA matrix equation for the polarization propagator as the interaction becomes instantaneous. After establishing this generalization of the RPA and TDA, a TDA calculation is performed for an interaction arising from the exchange of a scalar meson. The results are compared with those obtained from the conventional instantaneous reduction of the scalar meson exchange interaction, the Yukawa potential. Upon comparing these results one finds that in general the nuclear structure obtained from scalar meson exchange differ little less than 10%.

  3. Effects of Combined Loads on the Nonlinear Response and Residual Strength of Damaged Stiffened Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Rankin, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the nonlinear response of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks are presented. The shells are modeled with a hierarchical modeling strategy and analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that maintains the shell in a nonlinear equilibrium state while the crack is grown. The analysis accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Results are presented for various combinations of internal pressure and mechanical loads, and the effects of crack orientation on the shell response are described. The effects of combined loading conditions and the effects of varying structural parameters on the stress-intensity factors associated with a crack are presented.

  4. A linear discrete dynamic system model for temporal gene interaction and regulatory network influence in response to bioethanol conversion inhibitor HMF for ethanologenic yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A linear discrete dynamic system model is constructed to represent the temporal interactions among significantly expressed genes in response to bioethanol conversion inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural for ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study identifies the most significant linear...

  5. Response of the enzymes to nitrogen applications in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their relationships with fiber strength.

    PubMed

    Wang, YouHua; Feng, Ying; Xu, NaiYin; Chen, BingLin; Ma, RongHui; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the response of key enzymes to nitrogen (N) rates in cotton fiber and its relationship with fiber strength, experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 with cotton cultivars in Nanjing. Three N rates 0, 240 and 480 kgN/hm(2), signifying optimum and excessive nitrogen application levels were applied. The activities and the gene expressions of the key enzymes were affected by N, and the characteristics of cellulose accumulation and fiber strength changed as the N rate varied. Beta-1,3-glucanase activity in cotton fiber declined from 9 DPA till boll opening, and the beta-1, 3-glucanase coding gene expression also followed a unimodal curve in 12-24 DPA. In 240 kgN/hm(2) condition, the characteristics of enzyme activity and gene expression manner for sucrose synthase and beta-1,3-glucanase in developing cotton fiber were more favorable for forming a longer and more steady cellulose accumulation process, and for high strength fiber development.

  6. The horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex: a non-linear mechanism for context-dependent responses.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2012-01-01

    A bilateral model for the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR) is presented in this paper. It is shown that by assigning proper non-linear neural computations at the premotor level, the model is capable of replicating target-distance dependent VOR responses. Moreover, the model behavior in case of sensory plugging is also consistent with reported experimental observations.

  7. Maximizing the Information and Validity of a Linear Composite in the Factor Analysis Model for Continuous Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops results and procedures for obtaining linear composites of factor scores that maximize: (a) test information, and (b) validity with respect to external variables in the multiple factor analysis (FA) model. I treat FA as a multidimensional item response theory model, and use Ackerman's multidimensional information approach based…

  8. Linear interference and the northern annular mode response to El Niño and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Christopher G.; Minokhin, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The northern annular mode (NAM) characterizes a significant fraction of wintertime climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Understanding the processes governing changes in the NAM on interannual and longer timescales is therefore of critical importance. Previous work reveals a consensus around the negative NAM response to El Niño events (ELN), but considerable disagreement among model projections of the NAM response to climate change (CC), despite the tropical oceans warming in both cases. This work presents numerical simulations with two atmospheric GCMs that reveal robust opposite-signed NAM responses to prescribed sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies representing ELN (negative NAM) and CC (positive NAM). The primary driver of the sign and amplitude of the NAM response is the linear interference between the planetary waves generated in response to the SST perturbations, and the climatological stationary waves. However, the linear interference framework breaks down in the case involving CC, because the total wave driving of the NAM involves a balance between a strong negative contribution from the eddies related to linear interference, and a strong positive contribution from nonlinear and higher frequency eddies. In addition, the response to CC is less robust in the two models, which may be related to the models' parameterizations causing differences in the sensitivity to imposed SST anomalies.

  9. Responses of the central nervous system to high linear energy transfer radiation: NSCOR project highlights

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gregory; Fike, John; Limoli, Charles; Obenaus, André; Raber, Jacob; Soltesz, Ivan; Vlkolinský, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Overview: The five-university NSCOR project investigates the responses of the central nervous system to space-like charged particle exposure by evaluating: synaptic function, in vitro and in vivo neurogenesis, behavior and behaviorally induced gene expression, and oxidative stress of the mouse hippocampus and cultured neural precursor cells. To test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the effects of radiation exposure, we compare responses in a catalase overexpressing transgenic mouse strain to wild type. We also use computational models of the hippocampus in three dimensions, informed by experimental measurements, to provide insight into network behavior. Radiation exposure protocols include single, acute whole-body exposures to 1H, 28Si and 56Fe ions and mixed field exposures using 1H + 56Fe ions (24 h later). The animal models are 10-week-old C57BL/6J and MCATtg males which are evaluated at 30 and 90 days postirradiation. In vitro models are cultured murine and human neural stem cells irradiated with 1H, 16O, 28Si and 56Fe ions at multiple energies and are evaluated at times from days to weeks. Highlights: Neural stem cells organized into neurospheres were irradiated with several ions at doses as low as 0.75 cGy. Data show that significant oxidative stress occurs that alters survival, proliferation and differentiation. Overall trends indicate that changes in oxidative stress (persisting for weeks) correlate with particle linear energy transfer (LET). 56Fe ions elicited the largest and most persistent changes in stress markers, including antioxidant enzyme expression levels. The hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and novel object recognition (NOR) paradigms were used to assess cognition and showed cognitive deficits after irradiation with the NOR paradigm more sensitive than CFC. Analysis of neurogenesis indicates that overall neurogenesis is inhibited at doses ≥1 Gy, but newly born activated microglia are significantly

  10. Work volume and strength training responses to resistive exercise improve with periodic heat extraction from the palm.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Dennis A; Cao, Vinh H; Nguyen, Christopher M; Liu, Mengyuan T; Heller, H Craig

    2012-09-01

    Body core cooling via the palm of a hand increases work volume during resistive exercise. We asked: (a) "Is there a correlation between elevated core temperatures and fatigue onset during resistive exercise?" and (b) "Does palm cooling between sets of resistive exercise affect strength and work volume training responses?" Core temperature was manipulated by 30-45 minutes of fixed load and duration treadmill exercise in the heat with or without palm cooling. Work volume was then assessed by 4 sets of fixed load bench press exercises. Core temperatures were reduced and work volumes increased after palm cooling (Control: Tes = 39.0 ± 0.1° C, 36 ± 7 reps vs. Cooling: Tes = 38.4 ± 0.2° C, 42 ± 7 reps, mean ± SD, n = 8, p < 0.001). In separate experiments, the impact of palm cooling on work volume and strength training responses were assessed. The participants completed biweekly bench press or pull-up exercises for multiple successive weeks. Palm cooling was applied for 3 minutes between sets of exercise. Over 3 weeks of bench press training, palm cooling increased work volume by 40% (vs. 13% with no treatment; n = 8, p < 0.05). Over 6 weeks of pull-up training, palm cooling increased work volume by 144% in pull-up experienced subjects (vs. 5% over 2 weeks with no treatment; n = 7, p < 0.001) and by 80% in pull-up naïve subjects (vs. 20% with no treatment; n = 11, p < 0.01). Strength (1 repetition maximum) increased 22% over 10 weeks of pyramid bench press training (4 weeks with no treatment followed by 6 weeks with palm cooling; n = 10, p < 0.001). These results verify previous observations about the effects of palm cooling on work volume, demonstrate a link between core temperature and fatigue onset during resistive exercise, and suggest a novel means for improving strength and work volume training responses.

  11. Comparison of Nonlinear Random Response Using Equivalent Linearization and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed finite-element-based equivalent linearization approach for the analysis of random vibrations of geometrically nonlinear multiple degree-of-freedom structures is validated. The validation is based on comparisons with results from a finite element based numerical simulation analysis using a numerical integration technique in physical coordinates. In particular, results for the case of a clamped-clamped beam are considered for an extensive load range to establish the limits of validity of the equivalent linearization approach.

  12. Strength nutrition.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S

    2003-08-01

    Muscle strength is determined by muscle size and factors related to neural recruitment. Resistance training is a potent stimulus for increasing muscle size and strength. These increases are, to a large extent, influenced and mediated by changes in hormones that regulate important events during the recovery process following exercise. Provision of nutrients in the appropriate amounts and at the appropriate times is necessary to optimize the recovery process. This review discusses the results of research that has examined the potential for nutrition and dietary supplements to impact the acute response to resistance exercise and chronic adaptations to resistance training. To date, the most promising strategies to augment gains in muscle size and strength appear to be consumption of protein-carbohydrate calories before and after resistance exercise, and creatine supplementation.

  13. Step-response of a torsional device with multiple discontinuous non-linearities: Formulation of a vibratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.

  14. From stiffness to strength in site response predictions: Formulation and validation of a hybrid hyperbolic nonlinear soil model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimaki, D.; Shi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear site response analyses are becoming an increasingly important component of simulated ground motions intended for engineering applications. For regional-scale problems where geotechnical data are sparse, the challenge lies in computing nonlinear ground deformation to very strong ground shaking using a very small number of input parameters. We have developed a nonlinear model that addresses these issues: it simultaneously captures the soil's low-strain stiffness and large-strain strength of soil, and yields reliable predictions of soil response to weak and strong shaking using as sole input the shear wave velocity profile. We here present the formulation of the model and an extensive validation study based on downhole array recordings, with peak ground acceleration ranging from 0.01-0.9g. We also show that our model, referred to as hybrid hyperbolic, outperforms existing nonlinear formulations and simplified site response analyses widely used in practice for ground motions that induce more than 0.02% of soil strain (roughly equivalent to PGA higher than 0.02g). In addition to site-specific response predictions at sites with limited site characterization, the hybrid-hyperbolic model can help improve site amplification factors of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) by complementing the empirical data with simulated site response analyses for very strong ground shaking; as well as physics-based ground motion simulations, particularly for deeper sedimentary sites with low resonant frequencies.

  15. Linear Response Calculation using Canonical-basis TDHFB with a schematic pairing functional

    SciTech Connect

    Ebata, S.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Inakura, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yabana, K.

    2010-08-12

    We derive the Canonical-basis Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (CbTDHFB) equations using time-dependent variational principle with a special pairing energy functional. We obtain the isoscalar quadrupole strength functions for Neon isotopes with small-amplitude CbTDHFB calculation in the three-dimensional coordinate-space representation.

  16. Seismic response of structures: from non-stationary to non-linear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Smith, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The need for an effective seismic protection of buildings, and all the problems related to their management and maintenance over time, have led to a growing interest associated to develop of new integrated techniques for structural health monitoring and for damage detection and location during both ambient vibration and seismic events. It is well known that the occurrence of damage on any kind of structure is able to modify its dynamic characteristics. Indeed, the main parameters affected by the changes in stiffness characteristics are: periods of vibration, mode shapes and all the related equivalent viscous damping factors. With the aim to evaluate structural dynamic characteristics, their variation over time and after earthquakes, several Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed in the last years. Most of these are based on simplified relationship that provide the maximum inter-story drift evaluated combining structural variations in terms of: peak ground acceleration and/or structural eigenfrequencies and/or equivalent viscous damping factors related the main modes of the monitored structure. The NDE methods can be classified into four different levels. The progress of the level increases the quality and the number of the information. The most popular are certainly Level I methods being simple in implementation and economic in management. These kinds of methods are mainly based on the fast variation (less than 1 minute) of the structural fundamental frequency and the related variation of the equivalent viscous damping factor. Generally, it is possible to distinguish two types of variations: the long term variations, which may also be linked to external factors (temperature change, water content in the foundation soils, etc.) and short period variations (for example, due to seismic events), where apparent frequencies variations could occurred due to non-stationary phenomena (particular combination of input and structural response). In these

  17. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  18. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials

    PubMed Central

    Hu, L.; Zhang, Z.G.; Mouraux, A.; Iannetti, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  19. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  20. The effects of plyometric, tennis-drills, and combined training on reaction, lateral and linear speed, power, and strength in novice tennis players.

    PubMed

    Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Reaction time, first-step quickness, lateral (side steps), and forward speed over short distances are important parameters for tennis performance. The aims of this study were: (i) to diagnose the presence of laterality in tennis lateral movements and (ii) to compare the effects of plyometric training (PT), tennis-specific drills training (TDT), and combined training (CT) on performance in tennis-specific movements and power/strength of lower limbs. Sixty-four novice tennis players (21.1 +/- 1.3 years) were equally (n = 16) assigned to a control (C), PT, TDT, or CT. Training was performed 3 times/week for 9 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after training for the evaluation of reaction time (single lateral step), 4-m lateral and forward sprints, 12-m forward sprints with and without turn, reactive ability, power, and strength. There was a significant difference in lateral speed (side-steps) between the 2 sides (P < 0.05). PT, TDT, or CT improved the 4m lateral and forward sprints (P < 0.05). PT and CT improved also the reaction time of the "slow" side (P < 0.05), whereas TDT and CT improved the 12-m sprint performances with and without turn (P < 0.05). Power and strength improved in most tests after PT and CT. Lateral and forward sprints were correlated (r = -0.50 to -0.75; P < 0.05) with power/strength. In conclusion, PT improved fitness characteristics that rely more on reactive strength and powerful push-off of legs such as, lateral reaction time, 4-m lateral and forward sprints, drop jump and maximal force. TDT improved all 4-m and 12-m sprint performances, whereas CT appeared to incorporate the advantage of both programs and improved most tests items. Tennis coaches should be aware that each training regimen may induce more favorable changes to different aspects of fitness.

  1. Note: An in situ method for measuring the non-linear response of a Fabry-Perot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenhao; Liu, Mengke; Xie, Dizhou; Yan, Bo

    2016-09-01

    The transfer cavity is a very important frequency reference for laser stabilization and is widely used for applications such as precision measurements and laser cooling of ions or molecules. But the non-linear response of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) in the Fabry-Perot cavity limits the performance of the laser stabilization. Thus, measuring and controlling such non-linearity is essential. Here we report an in situ, optical method to characterize this non-linearity by measuring the resonant signals of a dual-frequency laser. The differential measurement makes it insensitive to the laser and cavity drifts, while maintaining a very high sensitivity. It can be applied for various applications with PZTs, especially in an optical lab.

  2. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  3. Linearized blade row compression component model. Stability and frequency response analysis of a J85-3 compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, W. A.; Moszee, R. H.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    NASA developed stability and frequency response analysis techniques were applied to a dynamic blade row compression component stability model to provide a more economic approach to surge line and frequency response determination than that provided by time-dependent methods. This blade row model was linearized and the Jacobian matrix was formed. The clean-inlet-flow stability characteristics of the compressors of two J85-13 engines were predicted by applying the alternate Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to the Jacobian matrix. The predicted surge line agreed with the clean-inlet-flow surge line predicted by the time-dependent method to a high degree except for one engine at 94% corrected speed. No satisfactory explanation of this discrepancy was found. The frequency response of the linearized system was determined by evaluating its Laplace transfer function. The results of the linearized-frequency-response analysis agree with the time-dependent results when the time-dependent inlet total-pressure and exit-flow function amplitude boundary conditions are less than 1 percent and 3 percent, respectively. The stability analysis technique was extended to a two-sector parallel compressor model with and without interstage crossflow and predictions were carried out for total-pressure distortion extents of 180 deg, 90 deg, 60 deg, and 30 deg.

  4. Effects of resistivity and rotation on the linear plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, S. R.; Lanctot, M. J.; Liu, Y. Q.; Paz-Soldan, C.; King, J. D.; Blackwell, B. D.; Schmitz, O.

    2015-02-01

    Parameter scans show the strong dependence of the plasma response on the poloidal structure of the applied field highlighting the importance of being able to control this parameter using non-axisymmetric coil sets. An extensive examination of the linear single fluid plasma response to n = 3 magnetic perturbations in L-mode DIII-D lower single null plasmas is presented. The effects of plasma resistivity, toroidal rotation and applied field structure are calculated using the linear single fluid MHD code, MARS-F (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681). Measures which separate the response into a pitch-resonant and resonant field amplification (RFA) component are used to demonstrate the extent to which resonant screening and RFA occurs. The ability to control the ratio of pitch-resonant fields to RFA by varying the phasing between upper and lower resonant magnetic perturbations coils sets is shown. The predicted magnetic probe outputs and displacement at the x-point are also calculated for comparison with experiments. Additionally, modelling of the linear plasma response using experimental toroidal rotation profiles and Spitzer like resistivity profiles are compared with results which provide experimental evidence of a direct link between the decay of the resonant screening response and the formation of a 3D boundary (Schmitz et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 012001). Good agreement is found during the initial application of the MP, however, later in the shot a sudden drop in the poloidal magnetic probe output occurs which is not captured in the linear single fluid modelling.

  5. Acute Hormonal and Force Responses to Combined Strength and Endurance Loadings in Men and Women: The “Order Effect”

    PubMed Central

    S. Taipale, Ritva; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine acute responses and recovery of serum hormones and muscle force following combined strength (S) and endurance (E) loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs. SE). Methods This cross-over study design included recreationally endurance trained men and women (age 21–45 years, n = 12 men n = 10 women) who performed both loadings. Maximal bilateral isometric strength (MVC), isometric rate of force development (RFD) and serum concentrations of testosterone (T), cortisol (C), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured during and after both loadings. Results Both of the present combined (ES and SE) loadings led to a greater acute decrease in MVC in men than in women, while RFD was slightly affected only in men. Recovery of MVC and RFD to baseline was complete at 24 h regardless of the order of exercises. In men, neuromuscular fatigue was accompanied by increased C concentrations observed post SE. This was followed by decreased concentrations of T at 24 h and 48 h that were significantly lower than those observed following ES. GH response in men also differed significantly post loadings. In women, only a significant difference in T between ES and SE loadings was observed at post. Conclusion These observed differences in hormonal responses despite similarities in neuromuscular fatigue in men indicate the presence of an order effect as the body was not fully recovered at 48 h following SE. These findings may be applicable in training prescription in order to optimize specific training adaptations. PMID:23408956

  6. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  7. Short-Term Unilateral Resistance Training Results in Cross Education of Strength Without Changes in Muscle Size, Activation, or Endocrine Response.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Boone, Carleigh H; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON). Unilateral isometric force (PKF), leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) strength, muscle size (by ultrasonography) and activation (by electromyography) of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis, and the hormonal response (testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1) were tested pretraining and posttraining. Group × time interactions were present for PKF, LP, LE, and muscle size in DOM and for LP in NON. In all interactions, the URT group improved significantly better than CON. There was a significant acute hormonal response to URT, but no chronic adaptation after the 4-week training program. Four weeks of URT resulted in an increase in strength and size of the trained musculature, and cross education of strength in the untrained musculature, which may occur without detectable changes in muscle size, activation, or the acute hormonal response.

  8. Velocity, safety, or both? How do balance and strength of goal conflicts affect drivers' behaviour, feelings and physiological responses?

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Daffy, Martin; Brandenburg, Stefan; Beliavski, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Motivational models of driving behaviour agree that choice of speed is modulated by drivers' goals. Whilst it is accepted that some goals favour fast driving and others favour safe driving, little is known about the interplay of these conflicting goals. In the present study, two aspects of this interplay are investigated: the balance of conflict and the strength of conflict. Thirty-two participants completed several simulated driving runs in which fast driving was rewarded with a monetary gain if the end of the track was reached. However, unpredictably, some runs ended with the appearance of a deer. In these runs, fast driving was punished with a monetary loss. The ratio between the magnitudes of gains and losses varied in order to manipulate the balance of conflict. The absolute magnitudes of both gains and losses altered the strength of conflict. Participants drove slower, reported an increase in anxiety-related feelings, and showed indications of physiological arousal if there was more money at stake. In contrast, only marginal effects of varying the ratio between gains and losses were observed. Results confirm that the strength of a safety-velocity conflict is an important determinant of drivers' behaviour, feelings, and physiological responses. The lack of evidence for the balance of conflict playing a role suggests that in each condition, participants subjectively weighted the loss higher than the gain (loss aversion). It is concluded that the interplay of the subjective values that drivers attribute to objective incentives for fast and safe driving is a promising field for future research. Incorporating this knowledge into motivational theories of driving behaviour might improve their contribution to the design of adequate road safety measures.

  9. Comparison of Damage Models for Predicting the Non-Linear Response of Laminates Under Matrix Dominated Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Five models for matrix damage in fiber reinforced laminates are evaluated for matrix-dominated loading conditions under plane stress and are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. The emphasis of this study is on a comparison of the response of embedded plies subjected to a homogeneous stress state. Three of the models are specifically designed for modeling the non-linear response due to distributed matrix cracking under homogeneous loading, and also account for non-linear (shear) behavior prior to the onset of cracking. The remaining two models are localized damage models intended for predicting local failure at stress concentrations. The modeling approaches of distributed vs. localized cracking as well as the different formulations of damage initiation and damage progression are compared and discussed.

  10. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of the direct strike lightning response of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T. H.; Perala, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the work reported here is to develop a methodology by which electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning strike data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. A linear and time invariant approach based on a combination of Fourier transform and three dimensional finite difference techniques is demonstrated. This approach can obtain the lightning channel current in the absence of the aircraft for given channel characteristic impedance and resistive loading. The model is applied to several measurements from the NASA F106B lightning research program. A non-linear three dimensional finite difference code has also been developed to study the response of the F106B to a lightning leader attachment. This model includes three species air chemistry and fluid continuity equations and can incorporate an experimentally based streamer formulation. Calculated responses are presented for various attachment locations and leader parameters. The results are compared qualitatively with measured inflight data.

  11. Numerical tailoring of linear response from plasmonic nano-resonators grown on a layer of polystyrene spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetti, A. Belardini, A.; Veroli, A.; Centini, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2014-10-28

    We developed a geometrical method to reproduce the morphology of hybrid structures composed by self-ordered dielectric nanospheres covered by anisotropic plasmonic structures. Numerical analysis allowed to investigate the optical response of the considered system, and to identify the relevant parameters to achieve efficient and versatile light manipulation. In particular, we show that the overall structure, acting as a hybrid plasmonic-photonics meta-surface, can be engineered in order to maximize its linear and circular dichroic behavior at optical frequencies.

  12. Precision Interval Estimation of the Response Surface by Means of an Integrated Algorithm of Neural Network and Linear Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1999-01-01

    The integration of Radial Basis Function Networks and Back Propagation Neural Networks with the Multiple Linear Regression has been accomplished to map nonlinear response surfaces over a wide range of independent variables in the process of the Modem Design of Experiments. The integrated method is capable to estimate the precision intervals including confidence and predicted intervals. The power of the innovative method has been demonstrated by applying to a set of wind tunnel test data in construction of response surface and estimation of precision interval.

  13. Multiple responses analysis and modeling of Fenton process for treatment of high strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, Soraya; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Zahed, Mohammed Ali; Mohajeri, Leila; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Adlan, Mohd Nordin; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2011-01-01

    Landfill leachate is one of the most recalcitrant wastes for biotreatment and can be considered a potential source of contamination to surface and groundwater ecosystems. In the present study, Fenton oxidation was employed for degradation of stabilized landfill leachate. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze, model and optimize the process parameters, i.e. pH and reaction time as well as the initial concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion. Analysis of variance showed that good coefficients of determination were obtained (R2 > 0.99), thus ensuring satisfactory agreement of the second-order regression model with the experimental data. The results indicated that, pH and its quadratic effects were the main factors influencing Fenton oxidation. Furthermore, antagonistic effects between pH and other variables were observed. The optimum H2O2 concentration, Fe(II) concentration, pH and reaction time were 0.033 mol/L, 0.011 mol/L, 3 and 145 min, respectively, with 58.3% COD, 79.0% color and 82.1% iron removals.

  14. Short latency vestibular evoked responses to linear acceleration stimuli in small mammals: masking effects and experimental applications.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, A

    1995-01-01

    Different potential were recorded from a site close to the 8th nerve in chinchillas in response to linear acceleration pulses. Acoustic masking allowed us to distinguish between an early response (within 1 ms after initiation of the acceleration) of probable vestibular origin and later responses of probable cochlear origin. The latter were abolished by intense acoustic masking and by surgical ablation of the cochlea. The early potential was slightly reduced by simultaneous acoustic masking with white noise above 65 dB SPL and was most sensitive to 1 kHz narrow band masking. Vestibular neurons seem to be stimulated by high frequency movements of their hair cell cilia, and vestibular compound action potentials can be recorded as soon as a sufficient number of neurons are brought to a synchronized response. These vestibular evoked potentials may provide a tool for experimental studies on vestibular function in laboratory animals. PMID:8749097

  15. The Search for Non-Linear Exposure-Response Relationships at Ambient Levels in Environmental Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, Morton

    2005-01-01

    Environmental exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and to dioxin and related compounds are of considerable public health concern, and risk assessments for them have generally been based on linear, non-threshold models derived from epidemiological study data. While the epidemiological databases for PM, O3, and ETS have been sufficient to show that adverse health effects are occurring, the relative risks have been quite low, and it has not been possible, to date, to identify thresholds or non-linear relationships for them. For dioxin and related compounds, the evidence for excess cancer risks has been inadequate to establish causality, and there is suggestive evidence that hormesis may have occurred. PMID:19330159

  16. Direct X-Ray Response Of Charge-Coupled Devices And Photodiode Linear Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launspach, J.; Bourgade, J. L.; Cavailler, C.; de Mascureau, J.; Mens, A.; Sauneuf, R.

    1986-08-01

    For x-ray calibration of detectors used on laser created plasma experiments we have developed and characterized two kinds of sources : classical continuous x-ray sources operating at 1.8 keV and 5.4 keV and a pulsed source obtained by modifying a plasma Focus device. Calibration data for x-ray Charge - Coupled Devices (CCD) and photodiode linear array cameras are presented.

  17. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Lemos-Pinto, M.M.P.; Cadena, M.; Santos, N.; Fernandes, T.S.; Borges, E.; Amaral, A.

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates. PMID:26445334

  18. Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: A linear momentum response.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L; White, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Changing stride length during overhand throwing delivery is thought to alter total body and throwing arm linear momentums, thereby altering the proportion of throwing arm momentum relative to the total body. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each throw. Segmental linear momentums in each plane of motion were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different linear momentum profiles, in particular, anteriorly directed total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Pitchers with shorter strides generated lower forward (anterior) momentum before stride foot contact, whereas greater upward and lateral momentum (toward third base) were evident during the acceleration phase. The evidence suggests insufficient total body momentum in the intended throwing direction may potentially influence performance (velocity and accuracy) and perhaps precipitate throwing arm injuries. PMID:25457417

  19. Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: A linear momentum response.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L; White, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Changing stride length during overhand throwing delivery is thought to alter total body and throwing arm linear momentums, thereby altering the proportion of throwing arm momentum relative to the total body. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each throw. Segmental linear momentums in each plane of motion were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different linear momentum profiles, in particular, anteriorly directed total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Pitchers with shorter strides generated lower forward (anterior) momentum before stride foot contact, whereas greater upward and lateral momentum (toward third base) were evident during the acceleration phase. The evidence suggests insufficient total body momentum in the intended throwing direction may potentially influence performance (velocity and accuracy) and perhaps precipitate throwing arm injuries.

  20. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Lemos-Pinto, M M P; Cadena, M; Santos, N; Fernandes, T S; Borges, E; Amaral, A

    2015-10-01

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates.

  1. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Lemos-Pinto, M M P; Cadena, M; Santos, N; Fernandes, T S; Borges, E; Amaral, A

    2015-10-01

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates. PMID:26445334

  2. No Evidence for a Low Linear Energy Transfer Adaptive Response in Irradiated RKO Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Lewis, Adam J.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-01-06

    It has become increasingly evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. In this paper we examine recent data that suggest that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low LET exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic survival or micronucleus formation.

  3. Non-linear characteristics in the dynamic responses of seated subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    The effect of the magnitude of vertical vibration on the dynamic response of the seated human body has been investigated. Eight male subjects were exposed to random vibration in the 0.5 to 20 Hz frequency range at five magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ms(-2) r.m.s. The dynamic responses of the body were measured at eight locations: at the first, fifth, and tenth thoracic vertebrae (T1, T5, T10), at the first, third, and fifth lumbar vertebrae (L1, L3, L5) and at the pelvis (the posterior-superior iliac spine). At each location, the motions on the body surface were measured in the three orthogonal axes within the sagittal plane (i.e., the vertical, fore-and-aft, and pitch axes). The force at the seat surface was also measured. Frequency response functions (i.e., transmissibilities and apparent mass) were used to represent the responses of the body. Non-linear characteristics were observed in the apparent mass and in the transmissibilities to most measurement locations. Resonance frequencies in the frequency response functions decreased with increases in the vibration magnitude (e.g. for the vertical transmissibility to L3, a reduction from 6.25 to 4.75 Hz when the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 2.0 ms(-2) r.m.s.). The transmission of vibration within the spine also showed some evidence of a non-linear characteristic. It can be concluded from this study that the dynamic responses of seated subjects are clearly non-linear with respect to vibration magnitude, whereas previous studies have reported inconsistent conclusions. More understanding of the dependence on vibration magnitude of both the dynamic responses of the soft tissues of the body and the muscle activity (voluntary and involuntary) is required to identify the causes of the non-linear characteristics observed in this study.

  4. Effect of daily linear acceleration training on the hypergravity-induced vomiting response in house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Abe, Chikara; Iwata, Chihiro; Shiina, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake; Morita, Hironobu

    2011-09-20

    The effects of repeated linear acceleration training and the antimotion sickness drug, promethazine, on hypergravity-induced motion sickness were examined in musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which is known to show a vomiting response to motion stimulation. Animals were assigned into five groups: vestibular intact, untreated animals (Sham), vestibular lesioned (VL) animals, vestibular intact animals with promethazine hydrochloride administered as daily drinking water (Prom), vestibular intact animals who underwent horizontal linear accelerator motion training (Train), and vestibular intact animals treated with both promethazine hydrochloride and linear acceleration training (Prom+Train). In Sham animals, the number of vomiting episodes was 14±2 during 2 G exposure for 10min, and was accompanied by intense Fos expression in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the area postrema (AP), and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). The vomiting response and Fos expression were completely abolished in VL animals, indicating that these responses are mediated via the vestibular system. Although Train and Prom animals experienced a significantly reduced number of hypergravity-induced vomiting episodes compared with Sham animals, the effect was significantly greater in Train animals than in Prom animals. Fos expression in the NTS, AP, and PVN were significantly more reduced in Train animals than in Prom animals. Higher dose of bolus injection of promethazine (50mg/kg, i.p.) completely abolished the vomiting episodes, although the animals were drowsy and sedated due to side effects. In conclusion, daily linear acceleration training and promethazine could prevent the hypergravity-induced vomiting episodes.

  5. Head kinematics in mini-sled tests of foam padding: relevance of linear responses from free motion headform (FMH) testing to head angular responses.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, J; Viano, D C; Lövsund, P; Parnaik, Y

    2003-08-01

    The revised Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 201 specifies that the safety performance of vehicle upper interiors is determined from the resultant linear acceleration response of a free motion headform (FMH) impacting the interior at 6.7 m/s. This study addresses whether linear output data from the FMH test can be used to select an upper interior padding that decreases the likelihood of rotationally induced brain injuries. Using an experimental setup consisting of a Hybrid III head-neck structure mounted on a mini-sled platform, sagittal plane linear and angular head accelerations were measured in frontal head impacts into foam samples of various stiffness and density with a constant thickness (51 mm) at low (approximately 5.0 m/s), intermediate (approximately 7.0 m/s), and high (approximately 9.6 m/s) impact speeds. Provided that the foam samples did not bottom out, recorded peak values of angular acceleration and change in angular velocity increased approximately linearly with increasing peak resultant linear acceleration and value of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC36). The results indicate that the padding that produces the lowest possible peak angular acceleration and peak change in angular velocity without causing high peak forces is the one that produces the lowest possible HIC36 without bottoming out in the FMH test.

  6. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  7. Is Linear Displacement Information Or Angular Displacement Information Used During The Adaptation of Pointing Responses To An Optically Shifted Image?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, Abigail B.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four observers looked through a pair of 20 diopter wedge prisms and pointed to an image of a target which was displaced vertically from eye level by 6 cm at a distance of 30 cm. Observers pointed 40 times, using only their right hand, and received error-corrective feedback upon termination of each pointing response (terminal visual feedback). At three testing distances, 20, 30, and 40 cm, ten pre-exposure and ten post-exposure pointing responses were recorded for each hand as observers reached to a mirror-viewed target located at eye level. The difference between pre- and post-exposure pointing response (adaptive shift) was compared for both Exposed and Unexposed hands across all three testing distances. The data were assessed according to the results predicted by two alternative models for processing spatial-information: one using angular displacement information and another using linear displacement information. The angular model of spatial mapping best predicted the observer's pointing response for the Exposed hand. Although the angular adaptive shift did not change significantly as a function of distance (F(2,44) = 1.12, n.s.), the linear adaptive shift increased significantly over the three testing distances 02 44) = 4.90 p less than 0.01).

  8. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Fernando R; Malerba, Paola; White, John A

    2015-04-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances.

  9. Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the centrifuge arm with their head off-axis (Gz centrifugation). Pre-flight centrifugation, producing linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g along the Gy (interaural) axis, induced illusions of roll-tilt of 20 degrees and 34 degrees for gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) vector tilts of 27 degrees and 45 degrees , respectively. Pre-flight 0.5 g and 1 g Gz (head dorsoventral) centrifugation generated perceptions of backward pitch of 5 degrees and 15 degrees , respectively. In the absence of gravity during space flight, the same centrifugation generated a GIA that was equivalent to the centripetal acceleration and aligned with the Gy or Gz axes. Perception of tilt was underestimated relative to this new GIA orientation during early in-flight Gy centrifugation, but was close to the GIA after 16 days in orbit, when subjects reported that they felt as if they were 'lying on side'. During the course of the mission, inflight roll-tilt perception during Gy centrifugation increased from 45 degrees to 83 degrees at 1 g and from 42 degrees to 48 degrees at 0.5 g. Subjects felt 'upside-down' during in-flight Gz centrifugation from the first in-flight test session, which reflected the new GIA orientation along the head dorsoventral axis. The different levels of in-flight tilt perception during 0.5 g and 1 g Gy centrifugation suggests that other non-vestibular inputs, including an internal estimate of the body vertical and somatic sensation, were utilized in generating tilt perception. Interpretation of data by a weighted sum of body vertical and somatic vectors, with an estimate of the GIA from the otoliths, suggests that

  10. Effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on genes related to myostatin signaling pathway and muscle fiber responses.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo O; Tricoli, Valmor; Aoki, Marcelo S; Roschel, Hamilton; Brum, Patrícia C; Bacurau, Aline V N; Silva-Batista, Carla; Wilson, Jacob M; Neves, Manoel; Soares, Antonio G; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent training (CT) seems to impair training-induced muscle hypertrophy. This study compared the effects of CT, strength training (ST) and interval training (IT) on the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) response, and on the expression of selected genes involved in the myostatin (MSTN) signaling mRNA levels. Thirty-seven physically active men were randomly divided into 4 groups: CT (n = 11), ST (n = 11), IT (n = 8), and control group (C) (n = 7) and underwent an 8-week training period. Vastus lateralis biopsy muscle samples were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after the last training session. Muscle fiber CSA, selected genes expression, and maximum dynamic ST (1 repetition maximum) were evaluated before and after training. Type IIa and type I muscle fiber CSA increased from pre- to posttest only in the ST group (17.08 and 17.9%, respectively). The SMAD-7 gene expression significantly increased at the posttest in the ST (53.9%) and CT groups (39.3%). The MSTN and its regulatory genes ActIIb, FLST-3, FOXO-3a, and GASP-1 mRNA levels remained unchanged across time and groups. One repetition maximum increased from pre- to posttest in both the ST and CT groups (ST = 18.5%; CT = 17.6%). Our findings are suggestive that MSTN and their regulatory genes at transcript level cannot differentiate muscle fiber CSA responses between CT and ST regimens in humans. PMID:24832980

  11. Effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on genes related to myostatin signaling pathway and muscle fiber responses.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo O; Tricoli, Valmor; Aoki, Marcelo S; Roschel, Hamilton; Brum, Patrícia C; Bacurau, Aline V N; Silva-Batista, Carla; Wilson, Jacob M; Neves, Manoel; Soares, Antonio G; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent training (CT) seems to impair training-induced muscle hypertrophy. This study compared the effects of CT, strength training (ST) and interval training (IT) on the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) response, and on the expression of selected genes involved in the myostatin (MSTN) signaling mRNA levels. Thirty-seven physically active men were randomly divided into 4 groups: CT (n = 11), ST (n = 11), IT (n = 8), and control group (C) (n = 7) and underwent an 8-week training period. Vastus lateralis biopsy muscle samples were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after the last training session. Muscle fiber CSA, selected genes expression, and maximum dynamic ST (1 repetition maximum) were evaluated before and after training. Type IIa and type I muscle fiber CSA increased from pre- to posttest only in the ST group (17.08 and 17.9%, respectively). The SMAD-7 gene expression significantly increased at the posttest in the ST (53.9%) and CT groups (39.3%). The MSTN and its regulatory genes ActIIb, FLST-3, FOXO-3a, and GASP-1 mRNA levels remained unchanged across time and groups. One repetition maximum increased from pre- to posttest in both the ST and CT groups (ST = 18.5%; CT = 17.6%). Our findings are suggestive that MSTN and their regulatory genes at transcript level cannot differentiate muscle fiber CSA responses between CT and ST regimens in humans.

  12. Non-linearity dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Wilcox, D.A.; Stottlemyer, R.; Barrow, W.; Fagre, D.; Baron, J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Allen, C.D.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggerone, G.; Doyle, T.

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate cna lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  13. A study of thermal response of concrete towers employing linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, Mehdi; Zarbaf, Seyed Ehsan Haji Agha Mohammad; Dalvi, Aditi; Hunt, Victor; Helmicki, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown that the variations of structural properties due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature can be as significant as those caused by structural damage and even liveload. Therefore, tracking changes that are correlated with environmental variations is a necessary step in order to detect and assess structural damage in addition to the normal structural response to traffic. In this paper, daily measurement data that is collected from the concrete towers of the Ironton-Russell Bridge will be presented and correlation of the collected measurement data and temperature will be overviewed. Variation of the daily thermal response of tower concrete walls will be compared with the daily thermal responses of the steel box within the tower and finally, thermal coefficient for compensating the thermal induced responses will be estimated.

  14. Impact of Short and Moderate Rest Intervals on the Acute Immunometabolic Response to Exhaustive Strength Exercise: Part II.

    PubMed

    Gerosa-Neto, Jose; Rossi, Fabrício E; Campos, Eduardo Z; Antunes, Barbara M M; Cholewa, Jason M; Lira, Fabio S

    2016-06-01

    Gerosa-Neto, J, Rossi, FE, Campos, EZ, Antunes, BMM, Cholewa, JM, and Lira, FS. Impact of short and moderate rest intervals on the acute immunometabolic response to exhaustive strength exercise: Part II. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1570-1576, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of short and moderate recovery intervals during heavy strength exercise on performance, inflammatory, and metabolic responses in recreational weightlifters. Eight healthy subjects (age = 24.6 ± 4.1 years) performed 2 randomized sequences with different rest intervals: short = 90% of 1RM and 30 seconds rest allowed between sets; moderate = 90% of 1RM and 90 seconds rest allowed between sets. All sequences of exercises were performed over 4 sets until movement failure in the squat and bench press exercises, respectively. Glucose, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-10/TNF-α ratio, and nonester fatty acid concentrations were assessed at the baseline, immediately postexercise, post-15 and post-30 minutes. We observed a statistically significant decrease after 30 seconds on maximum number of repetitions (p = 0.003) and total weight lifted (p = 0.006) after the bench press, and there was a marginal decrease in the squat (p = 0.055). The glucose concentrations showed a significant increase post-15 minutes in the 30-second condition (pre-exercise = 86.1 ± 9.1, immediately = 85.3 ± 8.2, post-15 = 97.0 ± 9.0, post-30 = 87.1 ± 5.3 mg/dl; p = 0.015); on the other hand, IL-10 increased post-30 minutes in the 90-second condition (pre-exercise = 18.2 ± 12.7, immediately = 16.4 ± 10.7, post-15 = 16.8 ± 12.2, post-30 = 35.0 ± 13.1 pg/ml; p < 0.001). In addition, the 90-second condition showed anti-inflammatory effects (as indicated by IL-10/TNF-α ratio: pre-exercise = 1.08 ± 1.32, immediately = 1.23 ± 1.20, post-15 = 1.15 ± 1.14, post-30 = 2.48 ± 2.07; p = 0.020) compared with the 30-second condition (pre-exercise = 1.30 ± 2.04, immediately = 0.99 ± 1.27, post-15 = 1.23 ± 1

  15. Non-linear response in optical materials using ultra-short laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasi, David

    2007-02-01

    Ultra-short lasers at elevated peek powers combined with fairly moderate single pulse energies are able to induce very interesting non-linear optical interaction channels, such as multi-photon absorption, self-phase modulation and self focusing. These non-linear optical effects can be utilized to obtain surprising material reactions inside the bulk of optical dielectrics. With a certain degree of physical understanding and engineering experience, the material reaction can be controlled and optimized to generate e.g. internal markings, wave guides, 3d data storages or diffractive optical elements. As an example, laser-induced coloring of several type of glasses have been obtained at ultra-short bulk excitation, showing a strong resemblance to surface defects observed in most glasses after ionizing (e.g. X- and gamma-ray) hard radiation treatment. These laser-induced "color-centers" can alter the optical properties in dispersion and extinction locally in a well-defined volume, which can be described as a local change in the complex refractory index (n+ik). The implementation of this new technology can be characterized as "nik-engineering". New experimental results on laser-induced sub-surface modifications utilizing near infrared femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses inside different types of transparent dielectrics are presented and discussed in respect to the potential of "nik-engineering".

  16. Do Responses to Different Anthropogenic Forcings Add Linearly in Climate Models?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew; Bonfils, Celine; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Many detection and attribution and pattern scaling studies assume that the global climate response to multiple forcings is additive: that the response over the historical period is statistically indistinguishable from the sum of the responses to individual forcings. Here, we use the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM) simulations from the CMIP5 archive to test this assumption for multi-year trends in global-average, annual-average temperature and precipitation at multiple timescales. We find that responses in models forced by pre-computed aerosol and ozone concentrations are generally additive across forcings; however, we demonstrate that there are significant nonlinearities in precipitation responses to di?erent forcings in a configuration of the GISS model that interactively computes these concentrations from precursor emissions. We attribute these to di?erences in ozone forcing arising from interactions between forcing agents. Our results suggest that attribution to specific forcings may be complicated in a model with fully interactive chemistry and may provide motivation for other modeling groups to conduct further single-forcing experiments.

  17. No response to linear polarization cues in operant conditioning experiments with zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Melgar, Julian; Lind, Olle; Muheim, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Many animals can use the polarization of light in various behavioural contexts. Birds are well known to use information from the skylight polarization pattern for orientation and compass calibration. However, there are few controlled studies of polarization vision in birds, and the majority of them have not been successful in convincingly demonstrating polarization vision. We used a two-alternative forced choice conditioning approach to assess linear polarization vision in male zebra finches in the 'visible' spectral range (wavelengths >400 nm). The birds were trained to discriminate colour, brightness and polarization stimuli presented on either one of two LCD-screens. All birds were able to discriminate the colour and brightness stimuli, but they were unable to discriminate the polarization stimuli. Our results suggest that in the behavioural context studied here, zebra finches are not able to discriminate polarized light stimuli.

  18. A Step Response Based Mixed-Signal BIST Approach for Continuous-time Linear Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon; Lala, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new Mixed-Signal Built-in self-test approach that is based upon the step response of a reconfigurable (or multifunction) analog block is presented in this paper. The technique requires the overlapping step response of the Circuit Under Test (CUT) for two circuit configurations. Each configuration can be realized by changing the topology of the CUT or by sampling two CUT nodes with differing step responses. The technique can effectively detect both soft and hard faults and does not require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog converter(DAC). It also does not require any precision voltage sources or comparators. This approach does not require any additional analog circuits to realize the test signal generator and sample circuits. The paper is concluded with the application of the proposed approach to a circuit found in the work of Epstein et al and two ITC 97 analog benchmark circuits.

  19. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  20. Response analysis of a laminar premixed M-flame to flow perturbations using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.

    2015-04-15

    The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated.

  1. LINEAR STRUCTURAL MODELS FOR RESPONSE AND LATENCY PERFORMANCE IN ARITHMETIC. PSYCHOLOGY SERIES, TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUPPES, PATRICK; AND OTHERS

    A LEARNING MODEL TO IDENTIFY FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DIFFICULTY OF A PROBLEM ITEM WAS SUPPORTED EMPIRICALLY, AND INDICATED THAT THE NUMBER OF STEPS REQUIRED TO SOLVE A PROBLEM WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN PREDICTING BOTH ERROR PROBABILITY AND RESPONSE LATENCY. THE MODEL, IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH DIFFERENTIAL PREDICTIONS OF DIFFICULTY IN…

  2. Linear response function of the Mayer bond order: an indicator to describe intrinsic chemical reactivity of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Shusuke; Mitsuta, Yuki; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Yamaguchi, Kizashi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2015-02-01

    We here formulate and implement linear response function (LRF) of the Mayer bond order (MBO), which is expected to be a new indicator to describe intrinsic chemical reactivity of molecules. We calculate LRFs of the MBOs of para-substituted benzoic acids, and compare the results with the Hammett substituent constants and computational results of acid dissociation constants that were previously reported. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of the applicability of LRF of the MBO to estimate the relative reactivity of the substituted benzoic acids.

  3. Non-linear optical properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments: a quadratic density functional/molecular mechanics response theory.

    PubMed

    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Ågren, Hans

    2014-05-21

    We generalize a density functional theory/molecular mechanics approach for heterogeneous environments with an implementation of quadratic response theory. The updated methodology allows us to address a variety of non-linear optical, magnetic and mixed properties of molecular species in complex environments, such as combined metallic, solvent and confined organic environments. Illustrating calculations of para-nitroaniline on gold surfaces and in solution reveals a number of aspects that come into play when analyzing second harmonic generation of such systems--such as surface charge flow, coupled surface-solvent dynamics and induced geometric and electronic structure effects of the adsorbate. Some ramifications of the methodology for applied studies are discussed.

  4. Quenched Stresses And Linear Elastic Response Of Random Packings Of Frictionless Particles Near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Kamran

    We study stress correlations and elastic response in large-scale computer simulations of particle packings near jamming. We show that there are characteristic lengths in both the stresses and elastic response that diverge in similar ways as the confining pressure approaches zero from above. For the case of the stress field, we show that the power spectrum of the hydrostatic pressure and shear stress agrees with a field-theoretic framework proposed by Henkes and Chakraborty [15] at short to intermediate wavelengths (where the power is flat in Fourier space), but contains significant excess power at wavelengths larger than about 50 to 100 particle diameters, with the specific crossover point going to larger wavelength at decreasing pressure, consistent with a divergence at p = 0. These stress correlations were missed in previous studies by other groups due to limited system size. For the case of the elastic response, we probe the system in three ways: i) point forcing, ii) constrained homogeneous deformation where the system is driven with no-slip boundary conditions, and iii) free periodic homogeneous deformation. For the point force, we see distinct characteristic lengths for longitudinal and transverse modes each of which diverges in a different way with decreasing pressure with xiT ˜ p--1/4 and xiL ˜ p--0.4 respectively. For the constrained homogeneous deformation we see a scaling of the local shear modulus with the size of the probing region consistent with xi ˜ p--1/2 similar to the xiL ˜ p --0.4 observed in the longitudinal component of the point response and in perfect agreement with the rigidity length discussed in recently proposed scenarios for jamming. Finally, we show that the transverse and longitudinal contributions to the strain field in response to unconstrained deformation (either volumetric or shear) have markedly different behavior. The transverse contribution is surprisingly invariant with respect to p with localized shear transformations

  5. Gauge-invariant theories of linear response for strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyack, Rufus; Anderson, Brandon M.; Wu, Chien-Te; Levin, K.

    2016-09-01

    We present a diagrammatic theory for determining consistent electromagnetic response functions in strongly correlated fermionic superfluids. While a gauge-invariant electromagnetic response is well understood at the BCS level, a treatment of correlations beyond BCS theory requires extending this theoretical formalism. The challenge in such systems is to maintain gauge invariance, while simultaneously incorporating additional self-energy terms arising from strong correlation effects. Central to our approach is the application of the Ward-Takahashi identity, which introduces collective mode contributions in the response functions and guarantees that the f -sum rule is satisfied. We outline a powerful method, which determines these collective modes in the presence of correlation effects and in a manner compatible with gauge invariance. Since this method is based on fundamental aspects of quantum field theory, the underlying principles are broadly applicable to strongly correlated superfluids. As an illustration of the technique, we apply it to a simple class of theoretical models that contain a frequency-independent order parameter. These models include BCS-BEC crossover theories of the ultracold Fermi gases, along with models specifically associated with the high-Tc cuprates. Finally, as an alternative approach, we contrast with the path integral formalism. Here, the calculation of gauge-invariant response appears more straightforward. However, the collective modes introduced are those of strict BCS theory, without any modification from additional correlations. As the path integral simultaneously addresses electrodynamics and thermodynamics, we emphasize that it should be subjected to a consistency test beyond gauge invariance, namely that of the compressibility sum rule. We show how this sum rule fails in the conventional path integral approach.

  6. Dose-response relationship between total cadmium intake and prevalence of renal dysfunction using general linear models.

    PubMed

    Hochi, Y; Kido, T; Nogawa, K; Kito, H; Shaikh, Z A

    1995-01-01

    To determine the maximum allowable intake limits for chronic dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), the dose-response relationship between total Cd intake and prevalence of renal dysfunction was examined using general linear models considering the effect of age as a confounder. The target population comprised 1850 Cd-exposed and 294 non-exposed inhabitants of Ishikawa, Japan. They were divided into 96 subgroups by sex, age (four categories) cadmium concentrations in rice (three categories) and length of residence (four categories). As indicators of the cadmium-induced renal dysfunction, glucose, total protein, amino nitrogen, beta 2-microglobulin and metallothionein in urine were employed. General linear models were fitted statistically to the relationship among prevalence of renal dysfunction, sex, age and total Cd intake. Prevalence of abnormal urinary findings other than glucosuria had significant associations with total Cd intake. When total Cd intake corresponding to the mean prevalence of each abnormal urinary finding in the non-exposed subjects was calculated using general linear models, total Cd intakes corresponding to glucosuria, proteinuria, aminoaciduria (men only) and proteinuria with glucosuria were determined to be ca. 2.2-3.8 g and those corresponding to prevalence of metallothioneinuria were calculated as ca. 1.5-2.6 g. The low-molecular-weight protein in urine was confirmed to be a more sensitive indicator of renal dysfunction, and these total Cd intake values were close to those calculated previously by simple regression analysis, suggesting them to be reasonable values as the maximum allowable intake of Cd.

  7. EMS in Viracept--initial ('traditional') assessment of risk to patients based on linear dose response relations.

    PubMed

    Gocke, Elmar; Müller, Lutz; Pfister, Thomas

    2009-11-12

    Prior to having performed in depth toxicological, genotoxicological and DMPK studies on ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) providing solid evidence for a thresholded dose response relationship, we had prepared and shared with regulatory authorities a preliminary risk estimate based on standard linear dose-effect projections. We estimated that maximal lifetime cancer risk was in the order of 10(-3) (for lifetime ingestion of the maximally contaminated tablets) or 10(-4) for the exposure lasting for 3 months. This estimate was based on a lifetime cancer study with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; as insufficient data were available for EMS) in rodents and default linear back extrapolation. Analogous estimates were made specifically for breast cancer based on short term tumorigenicity studies with EMS in rats, for the induction of heritable mutations based on specific locus and dominant lethal tests in mice and for the induction of birth defects based on teratogenicity studies in mice. We concluded that even under worst case assumptions of linear dose relations the chance of experiencing these adverse effects would be very small, comprising at most a minute additional burden among the background incidence of the patients.

  8. Enhanced non-linear optical response in hybrid GSPN crystals: Structural, optical and dielectric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, M. M.; Dongare, S. S.; Patil, S. B.; Pati, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    Transparent and well defined crystals of GSPN series have been grown with alpha-glycine in simultaneous presence of two nitrates (NaNO 3 and KNO 3). Transparent and well defined crystals (22 mm × 13 mm × 5 mm) have been obtained in 3-4 weeks time by slow cooling. Addition of a strong acid (0.5% HCl) during growth is seen to enhance solubility, SHG efficiency by 2.78 times, Meyer's hardness index by 1.7 times and M.P by 42 °C of that of GSPN crystals. The SHG efficiency of acid added-GSPN has been found to be more than that of KDP crystal. GSPN is found to crystallize in orthorhombic symmetry and the presence of chemical components/groups has been identified by CHNS, EDAX and NMR analysis. Comparative FTIR and Laser Raman analysis shows the presence of active peaks indicating the molecule with a lack of center of symmetry. The UV spectrum shows existence of wide transparency window suitable for optoelectronic applications with band gap energy of about 5.72 eV. The crystals exhibit linear I-V characteristic followed by switching at 41 V/cm. The dielectric loss was seen to decrease exponentially with applied frequency from 100 Hz to 1 MHz.

  9. Impact of observed North Atlantic multidecadal variations to European summer climate: a linear baroclinic response to surface heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Rohit; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna; Bader, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The observed prominent multidecadal variations in the central to eastern (C-E) European summer temperature are closely related to the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV). Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis project version 2 data for the period of 1930-2012, we present a mechanism by which the multidecadal variations in the C-E European summer temperature are associated to a linear baroclinic atmospheric response to the AMV-related surface heat flux. Our results suggest that over the north-western Atlantic, the positive heat flux anomaly triggers a surface baroclinic pressure response to diabatic heating with a negative surface pressure anomaly to the east of the heat source. Further downstream, this response induces an east-west wave-like pressure anomaly. The east-west wave-like response in the sea level pressure structure, to which we refer as North-Atlantic-European East West (NEW) mode, is independent of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and is the principal mode of variations during summer over the Euro-Atlantic region at multidecadal time scales. The NEW mode causes warming of the C-E European region by creating an atmospheric blocking-like situation. Our findings also suggest that this NEW mode is responsible for the multidecadal variations in precipitation over the British Isles and north-western Europe.

  10. Dose-response of 1, 3, and 5 sets of resistance exercise on strength, local muscular endurance, and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, Regis; Fleck, Steven J; Leite, Thalita; Leite, Richard D; Pinto, Ronei S; Fernandes, Liliam; Simão, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The study's purpose was to compare the response of performing 1, 3, and 5 sets on measures of performance and muscle hypertrophy. Forty-eight men, with no weight training experience, were randomly assigned to one of the 3 training groups, 1 SET, 3 SETS, 5 SETS, or control group. All training groups performed 3 resistance training sessions per week for 6 months. The 5 repetition maximum (RM) for all training groups increased in the bench press (BP), front lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), and leg press (LP) (p ≤ 0.05), with the 5 RM increases in the BP and LPD being significantly greater for 5 SETS compared with the other training groups (p ≤ 0.05). Bench press 20 RM in the 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased with the increase being significantly greater than the 1-SET group and the 5-SET group increase being significantly greater than the 3-SET group (p ≤ 0.05). LP 20 RM increased in all training groups (p ≤ 0.05), with the 5-SETS group showing a significantly greater increase than the 1-SET group (p ≤ 0.05). The 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) with the 5-SET increase being significantly greater than the other 2 training groups (p ≤ 0.05). The 5-SET group significantly increased elbow extensor MT with the increase being significantly greater than the other training groups (p ≤ 0.05). All training groups decreased percent body fat, increased fat-free mass, and vertical jump ability (p ≤ 0.05), with no differences between groups. The results demonstrate a dose-response for the number of sets per exercise and a superiority of multiple sets compared with a single set per exercise for strength gains, muscle endurance, and upper arm muscle hypertrophy.

  11. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao

    2016-08-01

    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative. PMID:27586619

  12. Computation of Raman Spectra from Density Matrix Linear Response Theory in Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklasson, Anders; Coe, Joshua; Cawkwell, Marc

    2011-06-01

    Linear response calculations based on density matrix perturbation theory [A. M. N. Niklasson and M. Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] have been developed within a self-consistent tight-binding method for extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 123004 (2008)]. Besides the nuclear coordinates, extended auxiliary electronic degrees of freedom are added to the regular Born-Oppenheimer Lagrangian, both for the electronic ground state and response densities. This formalism enables highly efficient, on-the-fly, analytic computations of the polarizability autocorrelation functions and the Raman spectra during energy conserving Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories. We will illustrate these capabilities via time-resolved Raman spectra computed during explicit, reactive molecular dynamics simulations of the shock compression of methane, benzene, tert-butylacetylene. Comparisons will be made with experimental results where possible.

  13. Natural vibration response based damage detection for an operating wind turbine via Random Coefficient Linear Parameter Varying AR modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño-Valencia, L. D.; Fassois, S. D.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of damage detection in an operating wind turbine under normal operating conditions is addressed. This is characterized by difficulties associated with the lack of measurable excitation(s), the vibration response non-stationary nature, and its dependence on various types of uncertainties. To overcome these difficulties a stochastic approach based on Random Coefficient (RC) Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) AutoRegressive (AR) models is postulated. These models may effectively represent the non-stationary random vibration response under healthy conditions and subsequently used for damage detection through hypothesis testing. The performance of the method for damage and fault detection in an operating wind turbine is subsequently assessed via Monte Carlo simulations using the FAST simulation package.

  14. A bias in the "mass-normalized" DTT response - An effect of non-linear concentration-response curves for copper and manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrier, Jessica G.; McFall, Alexander S.; Vu, Kennedy K.-T.; Baroi, James; Olea, Catalina; Hasson, Alam; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-11-01

    The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay is widely used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter. Results are typically presented in mass-normalized units (e.g., pmols DTT lost per minute per microgram PM) to allow for comparison among samples. Use of this unit assumes that the mass-normalized DTT response is constant and independent of the mass concentration of PM added to the DTT assay. However, based on previous work that identified non-linear DTT responses for copper and manganese, this basic assumption (that the mass-normalized DTT response is independent of the concentration of PM added to the assay) should not be true for samples where Cu and Mn contribute significantly to the DTT signal. To test this we measured the DTT response at multiple PM concentrations for eight ambient particulate samples collected at two locations in California. The results confirm that for samples with significant contributions from Cu and Mn, the mass-normalized DTT response can strongly depend on the concentration of PM added to the assay, varying by up to an order of magnitude for PM concentrations between 2 and 34 μg mL-1. This mass dependence confounds useful interpretation of DTT assay data in samples with significant contributions from Cu and Mn, requiring additional quality control steps to check for this bias. To minimize this problem, we discuss two methods to correct the mass-normalized DTT result and we apply those methods to our samples. We find that it is possible to correct the mass-normalized DTT result, although the correction methods have some drawbacks and add uncertainty to DTT analyses. More broadly, other DTT-active species might also have non-linear concentration-responses in the assay and cause a bias. In addition, the same problem of Cu- and Mn-mediated bias in mass-normalized DTT results might affect other measures of acellular redox activity in PM and needs to be addressed.

  15. Hemispheric asymmetry non-linear analysis of EEG during emotional responses from idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies show right hemisphere has a unique contribution to emotion processing. The present study investigated EEG using non-linear measures during emotional processing in PD patients with respect to motor symptom asymmetry (i.e., most affected body side). We recorded 14-channel wireless EEGs from 20 PD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls (HC) by eliciting emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. PD patients were divided into two groups, based on most affected body side and unilateral motor symptom severity: left side-affected (LPD, n = 10) or right side-affected PD patients (RPD, n = 10). Nonlinear analysis of these emotional EEGs were performed by using approximate entropy, correlation dimension, detrended fluctuation analysis, fractal dimension, higher order spectra, hurst exponent (HE), largest Lyapunov exponent and sample entropy. The extracted features were ranked using analysis of variance based on F value. The ranked features were then fed into classifiers namely fuzzy K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine to obtain optimal performance using minimum number of features. From the experimental results, we found that (a) classification performance across all frequency bands performed well in recognizing emotional states of LPD, RPD, and HC; (b) the emotion-specific features were mainly related to higher frequency bands; and (c) predominantly LPD patients (inferred right-hemisphere pathology) were more impaired in emotion processing compared to RPD, as showed by a poorer classification performance. The results suggest that asymmetric neuronal degeneration in PD patients may contribute to the impairment of emotional communication. PMID:27275378

  16. Hemispheric asymmetry non-linear analysis of EEG during emotional responses from idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies show right hemisphere has a unique contribution to emotion processing. The present study investigated EEG using non-linear measures during emotional processing in PD patients with respect to motor symptom asymmetry (i.e., most affected body side). We recorded 14-channel wireless EEGs from 20 PD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls (HC) by eliciting emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. PD patients were divided into two groups, based on most affected body side and unilateral motor symptom severity: left side-affected (LPD, n = 10) or right side-affected PD patients (RPD, n = 10). Nonlinear analysis of these emotional EEGs were performed by using approximate entropy, correlation dimension, detrended fluctuation analysis, fractal dimension, higher order spectra, hurst exponent (HE), largest Lyapunov exponent and sample entropy. The extracted features were ranked using analysis of variance based on F value. The ranked features were then fed into classifiers namely fuzzy K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine to obtain optimal performance using minimum number of features. From the experimental results, we found that (a) classification performance across all frequency bands performed well in recognizing emotional states of LPD, RPD, and HC; (b) the emotion-specific features were mainly related to higher frequency bands; and (c) predominantly LPD patients (inferred right-hemisphere pathology) were more impaired in emotion processing compared to RPD, as showed by a poorer classification performance. The results suggest that asymmetric neuronal degeneration in PD patients may contribute to the impairment of emotional communication.

  17. Macroscopic Response Of The Retinal Mosaic To The Light Stimulus: Linear Array Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P. K.; Calvo, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that the cones and rods of the retina have directional sensitivity. For a normal observer, in the absence of aberrations like myopia, astigmatism, etc. the light entering the pupil of the eye is directly focussed on the retinal plane by the optical system of the eye. There, in the retina, the cones and the rods are regularly distributed in different retinal regions forming a mosaic structure. It is very well established from the earlier works of Enoch, (1), that both types of optical photoreceptors act as optical waveguides. This behaviour can be accounted for due to their special optical properties allowing conditions for total internal reflections inside its structure. At the time of the confinement of the energy inside each single receptor an important phenomenon of orientation takes place as well. In this work, we wish to establish that the various effects arising out of this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of a possible apodising action of the eye.It will be shown that an improvement in the resolution of the retinal image detection is possible by comparing the human visual system with an apodised optical system. For that purpose we have established a linear array model for a section of the fovea, ( all receptors having the same geometry and optical properties ), then, we have calculated the distribution of the density of energy captured in this particular section of the retina, by assuming that the receptors are acting as monomode optical waveguides.The orientation mechanism is also considered, by including an inclination factor affecting each single receptor. We have compared the so obtained distribution to the one associated to a single receptor

  18. Swelling and Shrinking Properties of Thermo-Responsive Polymeric Ionic Liquid Hydrogels with Embedded Linear pNIPAAM

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J.; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50–80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL. PMID:24681582

  19. Swelling and shrinking properties of thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid hydrogels with embedded linear pNIPAAM.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50-80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL.

  20. Dynamic linear response of atoms in plasmas and photo-absorption cross-section in the dipole approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caizergues, C.; Blenski, T.; Piron, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report results on the self-consistent linear response theory of quantum average-atoms in plasmas. The approach is based on the two first orders of the cluster expansion of the plasma susceptibility. A change of variable is applied, which allows us to handle the diverging free-free transitions contribution in the self-consistent induced electron density and potential. The method is first tested on the case of rare gas isolated neutral atoms. A test of the Ehrenfest-type sum rule is then performed in a case of an actual average-atom in a plasma. At frequencies much higher than the plasma frequency, the sum rule seems to be fulfilled within the accuracy of the numerical methods. Close to the plasma frequency, the method seems not to account for the cold-plasma dielectric function renormalization in the sum rule, which was correctly reproduced in the case of the Thomas-Fermi-Bloch self-consistent linear response. This suggests the need for a better accounting for the outgoing waves in the asymptotic boundary conditions.

  1. Glycemic Response and Fermentation of Crystalline Short Linear α-Glucans from Debranched Waxy Maize Starch.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Lauren R; Weber, Casey; Haub, Mark; Cai, Liming; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is used to rank foods based on postprandial blood glucose response. GI test requires that 50 g of available carbohydrate be used. Available carbohydrate is often calculated as total carbohydrate minus dietary fiber; yet, AOAC fiber methods do not always include resistant starch (RS). The objective of this study was to examine GI response and fermentation properties of crystalline short-chain α-glucan (CSCA), which has high RS content, but no total dietary fiber (TDF) content as measured by AOAC method 991.43. Using the standard GI method, 10 adults were fed 50 g of waxy maize starch and CSCA, consumed alone and in mixed formulation. Breath hydrogen was also determined over 6 h. Fifty grams of CSCA was not entirely available in vivo, and breath hydrogen testing indicated that CSCA was as likely to ferment. Products high in RS, but with no TDF, would yield reduced GI values, and this calls for the need of a method to define available carbohydrate.

  2. Identification of linear and threshold responses in streams along a gradient of urbanization in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, R.T.; Frenzel, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined biotic and physiochemical responses in urbanized Anchorage, Alaska, to the percent of impervious area within stream basins, as determined by high-resolution IKONOS satellite imagery and aerial photography. Eighteen of the 86 variables examined, including riparian and instream habitat, macroinvertebrate communities, and water/sediment chemistry, were significantly correlated with percent impervious area. Variables related to channel condition, instream substrate, water chemistry, and residential and transportation right-of-way land uses were identified by principal components analysis as significant factors separating site groups. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the macroinvertebrate communities responded to an urbanization gradient closely paralleling the percent of impervious area within the subbasin. A sliding regression analysis of variables significantly correlated with percent impervious area revealed 8 variables exhibiting threshold responses that correspond to a mean of 4.4-5.8% impervious area, much lower than mean values reported in other, similar investigations. As contributing factors to a subbasin's impervious area, storm drains and roads appeared to be important elements influencing the degradation of water quality with respect to the biota.

  3. The ABCA1 domain responsible for interaction with HIV-1 Nef is conformational and not linear

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Daria; Hunegnaw, Ruth; Sabyrzyanova, Tatyana A.; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Chekhov, Vladimir O.; Adzhubei, Alexei A.; Kalebina, Tatyana S.; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef is an accessory protein responsible for inactivation of a number of host cell proteins essential for anti-viral immune responses. In most cases, Nef binds to the target protein and directs it to a degradation pathway. Our previous studies demonstrated that Nef impairs activity of the cellular cholesterol transporter, ABCA1, and that Nef interacts with ABCA1. Mutation of the 2226DDDHLK motif in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of ABCA1 disrupted interaction with Nef. Here, we tested Nef interaction with the ABCA1 C-terminal cytoplasmic fragment using yeast 2-hybrid system assay and co-immunoprecipitation analysis in human cells. Surprisingly, analysis in a yeast 2-hybrid system did not reveal any interaction between Nef and the C-terminal cytoplasmic fragment of ABCA1. Using coimmunoprecipitation from HEK 293T cells expressing these polypeptides, only a very weak interaction could be detected. The 2226DDDHLK motif in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of ABCA1 found previously to be essential for interaction between ABCA1 and Nef is insufficient to bestow strong binding to Nef. Molecular modeling suggested that interaction with Nef may be mediated by a conformational epitope composed of the sequences within the cytoplasmic loop of ABCA1 and the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Studies are now underway to characterize this epitope. PMID:24406162

  4. Glycemic Response and Fermentation of Crystalline Short Linear α-Glucans from Debranched Waxy Maize Starch.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Lauren R; Weber, Casey; Haub, Mark; Cai, Liming; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is used to rank foods based on postprandial blood glucose response. GI test requires that 50 g of available carbohydrate be used. Available carbohydrate is often calculated as total carbohydrate minus dietary fiber; yet, AOAC fiber methods do not always include resistant starch (RS). The objective of this study was to examine GI response and fermentation properties of crystalline short-chain α-glucan (CSCA), which has high RS content, but no total dietary fiber (TDF) content as measured by AOAC method 991.43. Using the standard GI method, 10 adults were fed 50 g of waxy maize starch and CSCA, consumed alone and in mixed formulation. Breath hydrogen was also determined over 6 h. Fifty grams of CSCA was not entirely available in vivo, and breath hydrogen testing indicated that CSCA was as likely to ferment. Products high in RS, but with no TDF, would yield reduced GI values, and this calls for the need of a method to define available carbohydrate. PMID:26447350

  5. Calculating linear-response functions for finite temperatures on the basis of the alloy analogy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, H.; Mankovsky, S.; Chadova, K.; Polesya, S.; Minár, J.; Ködderitzsch, D.

    2015-04-01

    A scheme is presented that is based on the alloy analogy model and allows one to account for thermal lattice vibrations as well as spin fluctuations when calculating response quantities in solids. Various models to deal with spin fluctuations are discussed concerning their impact on the resulting temperature-dependent magnetic moment, longitudinal conductivity, and Gilbert damping parameter. It is demonstrated that, by using the Monte Carlo (MC) spin configuration as input, the alloy analogy model is capable of reproducing the results of MC simulations on the average magnetic moment within all spin fluctuation models under discussion. On the other hand, the response quantities are much more sensitive to the spin fluctuation model. Separate calculations accounting for the thermal effect due to either lattice vibrations or spin fluctuations show that they give comparable contributions to the electrical conductivity and Gilbert damping. However, comparison to results accounting for both thermal effects demonstrates violation of Matthiessen's rule, showing the nonadditive effect of lattice vibrations and spin fluctuations. The results obtained for bcc Fe and fcc Ni are compared with the experimental data, showing rather good agreement for the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity and the Gilbert damping parameter.

  6. Postprocessing of protein-ligand docking poses using linear response MM-PB/SA: application to Wee1 kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wichapong, Kanin; Lawson, Michael; Pianwanit, Somsak; Kokpol, Sirirat; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2010-09-27

    Prediction of the binding strength of untested ligands is a central issue in structure-based drug design. In order to rapidly screen large compound databases, simple scoring schemes are often used in target-based virtual screening. The resulting scores often correlate poorly with biological affinities. More rigorous scoring methods, such as MM-PB/SA, correlate better with biological data by considering solvation effects and protein flexibility in the calculation of the binding free energy of a ligand. Here we describe the performance of a modified MM-PB/SA method on 222 Wee1 kinase inhibitors (48 pyridopyrimidine and 174 pyrrolocarbazole derivatives). Docking of these inhibitors into the available Wee1 kinase crystal structure yielded a consistent binding mode, and the derived MM-PB/SA models showed a significant correlation between calculated and experimental data (r(2) values between 0.64 and 0.67). Further study of these models on external test sets of Wee1 kinase inhibitors and structurally related decoys showed that a model based on a single kinase-inhibitor conformation can discriminate the active inhibitors from decoys. We also tested whether the linear interaction energy method with continuum electrostatics (LIECE) yields comparable results to MM-PB/SA and whether the LIECE and MM-PB/SA models can be applied for virtual screening of compound libraries.

  7. Linear response of light deformed nuclei investigated by self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Losa, C.; Doessing, T.; Pastore, A.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2010-06-15

    We present a calculation of the properties of vibrational states in deformed, axially-symmetric even-even nuclei, within the framework of a fully self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). The same Skyrme energy density and density-dependent pairing functionals are used to calculate the mean field and the residual interaction in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. We have tested our software in the case of spherical nuclei against fully self-consistent calculations published in the literature, finding excellent agreement. We investigate the consequences of neglecting the spin-orbit and Coulomb residual interactions in QRPA. Furthermore we discuss the improvement obtained in the QRPA result associated with the removal of spurious modes. Isoscalar and isovector responses in the deformed {sup 24-26}Mg, {sup 34}Mg isotopes are presented and compared to experimental findings.

  8. Integrative Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions under a Multi-response Partially Linear Varying Coefficient Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cen; Cui, Yuehua; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    Consider the integrative analysis of genetic data with multiple correlated response variables. The goal is to identify important gene-environment (G×E) interactions along with main gene and environment effects that are associated with the responses. The homogeneity and heterogeneity models can be adopted to describe the genetic basis of multiple responses. To accommodate possible nonlinear effects of some environment effects, a multi-response partially linear varying coefficient (MPLVC) model is assumed. Penalization is adopted for marker selection. The proposed penalization method can select genetic variants with G×E interactions, no G×E interactions, and no main effects simultaneously. It adopts different penalties to accommodate the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. The proposed method can be effectively computed using a coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation study and the analysis of Health Professional’s Follow-up Study (HPFS), which has two correlated continuous traits, SNP measurements, and multiple environment effects, show superior performance of the proposed method over its competitors. PMID:25146388

  9. Response evaluation for horizontally loaded fixed-head pile groups using 3-D non-linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comodromos, Emilios M.; Pitilakis, Kyriazis D.

    2005-05-01

    The response of laterally loaded pile foundations may be significantly important in the design of structures for such loads. A static horizontal pile load test is able to provide a load-deflection curve for a single free-head pile, which significantly differs from that of a free- or fixed-head pile group, depending on the particular group configuration. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the interaction between the piles of a group fixed in a rigid pile cap on both the lateral load capacity and the stiffness of the group. For this purpose, a parametric three-dimensional non-linear numerical analysis was carried out for different arrangements of pile groups. The response of the pile groups is compared to that of the single pile. The influence of the number of piles, the spacing and the deflection level to the group response is discussed. Furthermore, the contribution of the piles constituting the group to the total group resistance is examined. Finally, a relationship is proposed allowing a reasonable prediction of the response of fixed-head pile groups at least for similar soil profile conditions.

  10. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC‑1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8–2.5 K TtC‑1.

  11. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate-carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC-1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8-2.5 K TtC-1.

  12. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    SciTech Connect

    BARNABY,H.J.; CIRBA,C.R.; SCHRIMPF,R.D.; FLEETWOOD,D.M.; PEASE,R.L.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; TURFLINGER,T.; KRIEG,J.F.; MAHER,M.C.

    2000-11-15

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N{sub ot}) and interface traps (N{sub it}) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations.

  13. Non-linear responses of glaciated prairie wetlands to climate warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Carter; Werner, Brett; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    The response of ecosystems to climate warming is likely to include threshold events when small changes in key environmental drivers produce large changes in an ecosystem. Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are especially sensitive to climate variability, yet the possibility that functional changes may occur more rapidly with warming than expected has not been examined or modeled. The productivity and biodiversity of these wetlands are strongly controlled by the speed and completeness of a vegetation cover cycle driven by the wet and dry extremes of climate. Two thresholds involving duration and depth of standing water must be exceeded every few decades or so to complete the cycle and to produce highly functional wetlands. Model experiments at 19 weather stations employing incremental warming scenarios determined that wetland function across most of the PPR would be diminished beyond a climate warming of about 1.5–2.0 °C, a critical temperature threshold range identified in other climate change studies.

  14. Avoidance response of Danio rerio to a fungicide in a linear contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Shinn, Cândida; Mendes, Lucas B; Delello-Schneider, Danieli; Sanchez, André L; Espíndola, Evaldo L G

    2014-06-15

    The present study examines the ability of juvenile Danio rerio to avoid pyrimethanil-contaminated water. An avoidance assay system was used with a contamination gradient formed by seven compartments, through which the fish could move and choose the preferred compartment(s). Additionally, the influence of fish movements in promoting the mixing between compartments and thus disruption of the gradient over time was also examined by testing sodium chloride (NaCl) at sublethal concentrations. Samples with pyrimethanil were obtained from the commercial formulation Mythos®, which was applied to mesocosm systems. Samples of the pyrimethanil-contaminated mesocosms water were collected and a series of seven concentrations (0.2 to 1.4mgL(-1) plus a control) diluted with reference (uncontaminated) mesocosm water were added to the system to form the gradient. After 4h exposure, fish avoidance in the three highest pyrimethanil concentrations ranged from 29 to 66%. The 4h-AC50 (concentration at which 50% of the fish avoided pyrimethanil after 4h exposure) was 1.10 (confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.12)mgL(-1). However, the avoidance pattern after 12h was strongly reduced and it was not possible to calculate the AC50. This is explained by the results of the NaCl experiment, which showed that the movement of fish in the system accelerates the mixing of the solutions between compartments. As pyrimethanil can trigger avoidance response in D. rerio, this fungicide, even at non-lethal concentrations, could be considered an environmental disturber.

  15. Linear response and Berry curvature in two-dimensional topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlyn, Barry J.

    cannot contribute to low-temperature thermoelectric transport other than the ordinary Hall conductivity; the other thermoelectric effects (if they occur) are thus purely edge effects. The stress response to time-dependent strains is given by the Hall viscosity, which is robust against perturbations and related to the spin current. Finally, we address the issue of calculating the topological central charge from bulk wavefunctions for a topological phase. Using the form of the topological terms in the induced action, we show that we can calculate the various coefficients of these terms as Berry curvatures associated to certain metric and electromagnetic vector potential perturbations. We carry out this computation explicitly for quantum Hall trial wavefunctions that can be represented as conformal blocks in a chiral conformal field theory (CFT). These calculations make use of the gauge and gravitational anomalies in the underlying chiral CFT.

  16. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E.; Göktepe, F.; Karahan, N.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  17. Changes in muscle strength and pain in response to surgical repair of posterior abdominal wall disruption followed by rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, A; Herrington, L; Blower, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Posterior abdominal wall deficiency (PAWD) is a tear in the external oblique aponeurosis or the conjoint tendon causing a posterior wall defect at the medial end of the inguinal canal. It is often known as sportsman's hernia and is believed to be caused by repetitive stress. Objective: To assess lower limb and abdominal muscle strength of patients with PAWD before intervention compared with matched controls; to evaluate any changes following surgical repair and rehabilitation. Methods: Sixteen subjects were assessed using a questionnaire, isokinetic testing of the lower limb strength, and pressure biofeedback testing of the abdominals. After surgery and a six week rehabilitation programme, the subjects were re-evaluated. A control group were assessed using the same procedure. Results: Quadriceps and hamstrings strength was not affected by this condition. A deficit hip muscle strength was found on the affected limb before surgery, which was significant for the hip flexors (p = 0.05). Before surgery, 87% of the patients compared with 20% of the controls failed the abdominal obliques test. Both the injured and non-injured sides had improved significantly in strength after surgery and rehabilitation. The strength of the abdominal obliques showed the most significant improvement over the course of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions: Lower limb muscle strength may have been reduced as the result of disuse atrophy or pain inhibition. Abdominal oblique strength was deficient in the injured patients and this compromises rotational control of the pelvis. More sensitive investigations (such as electromyography) are needed to assess the link between abdominal oblique function and groin injury. PMID:12547744

  18. Dose-Volume Response Relationship for Brain Metastases Treated with Frameless Single-Fraction Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianmin; Yusuf, Mehran B; Dragun, Anthony; Dunlap, Neal; Guan, Timothy; Boling, Warren; Rai, Shesh; Woo, Shiao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to identify a dose-volume response relationship for brain metastases treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: We reviewed patients who underwent frameless single-fraction linear accelerator SRS for brain metastases between 2007 and 2013 from an institutional database. Proportional hazards modeling was used to identify predictors of outcome. A ratio of maximum lesion dose per mm-diameter (Gy/mm) was constructed to establish a dose-volume relationship. Results: There were 316 metastases evaluated in 121 patients (2 - 33 mm in the largest diameter). The median peripheral dose was 18.0 Gy (range: 10.0 – 24.0 Gy). Local control was 84.8% for all lesions and was affected by location, peripheral dose, maximum dose, and lesion size (p values < 0.050). A dose-volume response relationship was constructed using the maximum dose and lesion size. A unit increase in Gy/mm was associated with decreased local failure (p = 0.005). Local control of 80%, 85%, and 90% corresponded to maximum doses per millimeter of 1.67 Gy/mm, 2.86 Gy/mm, and 4.4 Gy/mm, respectively. Toxicity was uncommon and only 1.0% of lesions developed radionecrosis requiring surgery. Conclusions: For brain metastases less than 3 cm, a dose-volume response relationship exists between maximum radiosurgical dose and lesion size, which is predictive of local control. PMID:27284495

  19. Switching dynamics and linear response spectra of a driven one-dimensional nonlinear lattice containing an intrinsic localized mode.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Imai, S; Fujita, N; Shi, W; Takao, Y; Sada, Y; Hubbard, B E; Ilic, B; Sievers, A J

    2013-01-01

    An intrinsic localized mode (ILM) represents a localized vibrational excitation in a nonlinear lattice. Such a mode will stay in resonance as the driver frequency is changed adiabatically until a bifurcation point is reached, at which point the ILM switches and disappears. The dynamics behind switching in such a many body system is examined here through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Linear response spectra of a driven micromechanical array containing an ILM were measured in the frequency region between two fundamentally different kinds of bifurcation points that separate the large amplitude ILM state from the two low amplitude vibrational states. Just as a natural frequency can be associated with a driven harmonic oscillator, a similar natural frequency has been found for a driven ILM via the beat frequency between it and a weak, tunable probe. This finding has been confirmed using numerical simulations. The behavior of this nonlinear natural frequency plays important but different roles as the two bifurcation points are approached. At the upper transition its frequency coalesces with the driver and the resulting bifurcation is very similar to the saddle-node bifurcation of a single driven Duffing oscillator, which is treated in an Appendix. The lower transition occurs when the four-wave mixing partner of the natural frequency of the ILM intersects the topmost extended band mode of the same symmetry. The properties of linear local modes associated with the driven ILM are also identified experimentally for the first time and numerically but play no role in these transitions. PMID:23410417

  20. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's kappa as a function of response-force requirement.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Wood, H M

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes ( cent/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's kappa were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) kappa increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of kappa was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of kappa was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's kappa.

  1. Effect of geometric elastic non-linearities on the impact response of flexible multi-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakr, E. M.; Shabana, A. A.

    1987-02-01

    The intermittent motion behavior of large scale geometrically non-linear flexible multi-body systems due to impact loading is investigated. Impacts and the associated impulsive forces are incorporated into the dynamic formulation by using a generalized momentum balance. The solution of the momentum equation provides the jump discontinuities in the system velocities and reaction forces. Flexible components in the system are discretized by using the finite element method. Because of the large rotations of the system components, a set of reference co-ordinates are employed to describe the motion of a selected body reference. The rigid body modes of the finite element shape functions are eliminated by using a set of reference conditions and accordingly a unique displacement field is defined. In order to account for the inertia and elastic non-linearities which are, respectively, the results of the large rotations and finite deformations, the system inertia and stiffness characteristics have to be iteratively updated. Two numerical examples of different nature are presented. The first example is a high speed slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. In the second example, however, the dynamic response of a flexible multi-body aircraft during the touch down impact is predicted.

  2. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's κ as a function of response-force requirement

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J. J; Wood, Helena M.

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes (¢/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's κ were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) κ increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of κ was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of κ was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's κ. PMID:16812408

  3. Acute Endocrine and Force Responses and Long-Term Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Women.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Schumann, Moritz; Kraemer, William J; Izquierdo, Mikel; Taipale, Ritva S; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined acute hormone and force responses and strength and endurance performance and muscle hypertrophy before and after 24 weeks of same-session combined strength and endurance training in previously untrained women. Subjects were assigned 1 of 2 training orders: endurance preceding strength (E + S, n = 15) or vice versa (S + E, n = 14). Acute force and hormone responses to a combined loading (continuous cycling and a leg press protocol in the assigned order) were measured. Additionally, leg press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), maximal workload during cycling (Wmax), and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed. Loading-induced decreases in force were significant (p < 0.01-0.001) before (E + S = 20 ± 11%, S + E = 18 ± 5%) and after (E + S = 24 ± 6%, S + E = 22 ± 8%) training. Recovery was completed within 24 hours in both groups. The acute growth hormone (GH) response was significantly (p < 0.001) higher after S + E than E + S at both weeks 0 and 24. Testosterone was significantly (p < 0.001) elevated only after the S + E loading at week 24 but was not significantly different from E + S. Both groups significantly (p < 0.001) improved 1RM (E + S = 13 ± 12%, S + E = 16 ± 10%), Wmax (E + S = 21 ± 10%, S + E = 16 ± 12%), and CSA (E + S = 15 ± 10%, S + E = 11 ± 8%). This study showed that the acute GH response to combined endurance and strength loadings was significantly larger in S + E compared with E + S both before and after 24 weeks of same-session combined training. Strength and endurance performance and CSA increased to similar extents in both groups during 24 weeks despite differences in the kinetics of GH. Previously untrained women can improve performance and increase muscle CSA using either exercise order.

  4. Linear response of a one-dimensional conductor coupled to a dynamical impurity with a Fermi edge singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyman, I.

    2014-02-01

    I study the dynamical correlations that a quantum impurity induces in the Fermi sea to which it is coupled. I consider a quantum transport setup in which the impurity can be realized in a double quantum dot. The same Hamiltonian describes tunneling states in metallic glasses, and can be mapped onto the Ohmic spin-boson model. It exhibits a Fermi edge singularity, i.e., many fermion correlations result in an impurity decay rate with a nontrivial power-law energy dependence. I show that there is a simple relation between temporal impurity correlations on the one hand and the linear response of the Fermi sea to external perturbations on the other. This results in a power-law singularity in the space and time dependence of the nonlocal polarizability of the Fermi sea, which can be detected in transport experiments.

  5. Electrostatic Solvation Free Energy of Amino Acid Side Chain Analogs: Implications for the Validity of Electrostatic Linear Response in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bin; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2011-04-15

    Electrostatic free energies of solvation for 15 neutral amino acid side chain analogs are computed. We compare three methods of varying computational complexity and accuracy for three force fields: free energy simulations, Poisson-Boltzmann (PB), and linear response approximation (LRA) using AMBER, CHARMM, and OPLSAA force fields. We find that deviations from simulation start at low charges for solutes. The approximate PB and LRA produce an overestimation of electrostatic solvation free energies for most of molecules studied here. These deviations are remarkably systematic. The variations among force fields are almost as large as the variations found among methods. Our study confirms that success of the approximate methods for electrostatic solvation free energies comes from their ability to evaluate free energy differences accurately.

  6. Non-linear response of two-dimensional electron systems at low temperatures to electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Kalmanovitz, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    The nonlinear behavior of low-dimensional electron systems has attracted a great deal of attention for its fundamental interest as well as for potentially important applications in nanoelectronics. This work focuses on experimental results related to the nonlinear behavior of two dimensional electron systems. We first observed the non-linear zero-differential resistance state (ZDRS) that occurs for highly mobile two dimensional electron systems in response to a dc bias in the presence of a strong magnetic field applied perpendicular to the electron plane is suppressed. We found that it disappears gradually as the magnetic field is tilted away from the perpendicular at fixed filling factor. Good agreement is found with a model that considers the effect of the Zeeman splitting of Landau levels enhanced by the in-plane component of the magnetic field. Furthermore, we observed that when an electric field is applied to conductors, it heats electric charge carriers. It is demonstrated that an electric field applied to a conductor with a discrete electron spectrum produces a non-equilibrium electron distribution, which cannot be described by temperature. Such electron distribution changes significantly the conductivity of the electrons in a magnetic field, and forces them into a state with a zero differential resistance. Most importantly, the results demonstrate that in general, the effective overheating in the systems with discrete spectrum is significantly stronger than the one in systems with continuous and homogeneous distribution of the energy levels at the same input power. In the last part we observed non-linear behavior in a silicon MOSFET. Measurements of the rectification of microwave radiation at the boundary between two-dimensional electron systems separated by a narrow gap on a silicon surface for different temperatures, electron densities and microwave power, were performed. A theory is proposed that attributes the rectification to the thermoelectric

  7. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.Y.; Kwak, H.S.; Choi, J.S.; Ahn, H.K.; Oh, Y.J.; Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  8. Linearized formulation for fluid-structure interaction: Application to the linear dynamic response of a pressurized elastic structure containing a fluid with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schotté, J.-S.; Ohayon, R.

    2013-05-01

    To control the linear vibrations of structures partially filled with liquids is of prime importance in various industries such as aerospace, naval, civil and nuclear engineering. It is proposed here to investigate a linearized formulation adapted to a rational computation of the vibrations of such coupled systems. Its particularity is to be fully Lagrangian since it considers the fluid displacement field with respect to a static equilibrium configuration as the natural variable describing the fluid motion, as classically done in structural dynamics. As the coupled system considered here is weakly damped in the low frequency domain (low modal density), the analysis of the vibrations of the associated undamped conservative system constitutes the main objective of this paper. One originality of the present formulation is to take into account the effect of the pressurization of the tank on the dynamics of the system, particularly in the case of a compressible liquid. We propose here a new way of deriving the linearized equations of the coupled problem involving a deformable structure and an inner inviscid liquid with a free surface. A review of the classical case considering a heavy incompressible liquid is followed by an application to the new case involving a light compressible liquid. A solution procedure in the frequency domain is proposed and a numerical discretization using the finite element method is discussed. In order to reduce the computational costs, an appropriate reduced order matrix model using modal synthesis approach is also presented.

  9. Direct forecasting of subsurface flow response from non-linear dynamic data by linear least-squares in canonical functional principal component space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, Aaditya; Caers, Jef

    2015-03-01

    Inverse modeling is widely used to assist with forecasting problems in the subsurface. However, full inverse modeling can be time-consuming requiring iteration over a high dimensional parameter space with computationally expensive forward models and complex spatial priors. In this paper, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) that aims at building a statistical relationship between data variables and forecast variables, avoiding the inversion of model parameters altogether. The statistical relationship is built by first applying the forward model related to the data variables and the forward model related to the prediction variables on a limited set of spatial prior models realizations, typically generated through geostatistical methods. The relationship observed between data and prediction is highly non-linear for many forecasting problems in the subsurface. In this paper we propose a Canonical Functional Component Analysis (CFCA) to map the data and forecast variables into a low-dimensional space where, if successful, the relationship is linear. CFCA consists of (1) functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for dimension reduction of time-series data and (2) canonical correlation analysis (CCA); the latter aiming to establish a linear relationship between data and forecast components. If such mapping is successful, then we illustrate with several cases that (1) simple regression techniques with a multi-Gaussian framework can be used to directly quantify uncertainty on the forecast without any model inversion and that (2) such uncertainty is a good approximation of uncertainty obtained from full posterior sampling with rejection sampling.

  10. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  11. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week.

  12. Representation of linear orders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D A; Kim, J O; Sudevan, P

    1984-01-01

    Two binary classification tasks were used to explore the associative structure of linear orders. In Experiment 1, college students classified English letters as targets or nontargets, the targets being consecutive letters of the alphabet. The time to reject nontargets was a decreasing function of the distance from the target set, suggesting response interference mediated by automatic associations from the target to the nontarget letters. The way in which this interference effect depended on the placement of the boundaries between the target and nontarget sets revealed the relative strengths of individual interletter associations. In Experiment 2, students were assigned novel linear orders composed of letterlike symbols and asked to classify pairs of symbols as being adjacent or nonadjacent in the assigned sequence. Reaction time was found to be a joint function of the distance between any pair of symbols and the relative positions of those symbols within the sequence. The effects of both distance and position decreased systematically over 6 days of practice with a particular order, beginning at a level typical of unfamiliar orders and converging on a level characteristic of familiar orders such as letters and digits. These results provide an empirical unification of two previously disparate sets of findings in the literature on linear orders, those concerning familiar and unfamiliar orders, and the systematic transition between the two patterns of results suggests the gradual integration of a new associative structure.

  13. The Non-Linear Response of a Water Free Surface to a Pressure Distribution Moving at Constant Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.; Akylas, T. R.

    2011-11-01

    The non-linear response of a water free surface to a localized pressure distribution moving at constant speed just below the minimum phase speed (Cmin) of gravity-capillary waves is studied experimentally. The experiments are performed in a tank that is 6 m long and 0.25 m wide with water depths ranging from 15 to 40 mm. The pressure distribution is generated by blowing air on the water surface via a vertically oriented 2-mm-ID tube that is mounted on an instrument carriage. The bottom of the tank is made of clear plastic and covered with translucent paper. A checkerboard pattern is printed on the paper and this pattern is viewed from above the water surface with a high-speed digital movie camera. The images of the checkerboard pattern are distorted by refraction at the water free surface and yield qualitative observations and quantitative measurements of the temporal evolution of the wave pattern. At towing speeds close to but below Cmin, a gravity-capillary lump appears behind the pressure source. For higher speeds, but still below Cmin an unsteady wave pattern consisting of a wide V is generated. At the boundary between the two response states, the pattern is asymmetric in the cross-stream direction. Above this boundary, lumps are shed from the tips of the V and the frequency of shedding increases with towing speed.

  14. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  15. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  16. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  17. Responses to rotating linear acceleration vectors considered in relation to a model of the otolith organs. [human oculomotor response to transverse acceleration stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, A. J.; Barnes, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Human subjects were exposed to a linear acceleration vector that rotated in the transverse plane of the skull without angular counterrotation. Lateral eye movements showed a sinusoidal change in slow phase velocity and an asymmetry or bias in the same direction as vector rotation. A model is developed that attributes the oculomotor response to otolithic mechanisms. It is suggested that the bias component is the manifestation of torsion of the statoconial plaque relative to the base of the utricular macula and that the sinusoidal component represents the translational oscillation of the statoconia. The model subsumes a hypothetical neural mechanism which allows x- and y-axis accelerations to be resolved. Derivation of equations of motion for the statoconial plaque in torsion and translation, which take into account forces acting in shear and normal to the macula, yield estimates of bias and sinusoidal components that are in qualitative agreement with the diverse experimental findings.

  18. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B₁ levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-08-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B₁ (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  19. Non-linear responsivity characterisation of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for high resolution imaging of the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M.; Stefanov, K.; Weatherill, D.; Holland, A.; Gow, J.; Leese, M.

    2015-02-01

    The Jovian system is the subject of study for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), an ESA mission which is planned to launch in 2022. The scientific payload is designed for both characterisation of the magnetosphere and radiation environment local to the spacecraft, as well as remote characterisation of Jupiter and its satellites. A key instrument on JUICE is the high resolution and wide angle camera, JANUS, whose main science goals include detailed characterisation and study phases of three of the Galilean satellites, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa, as well as studies of other moons, the ring system, and irregular satellites. The CIS115 is a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor from e2v technologies selected for the JANUS camera. It is fabricated using 0.18 μ m CMOS imaging sensor process, with an imaging area of 2000 × 1504 pixels, each 7 μ m square. A 4T pixel architecture allows for efficient correlated double sampling, improving the readout noise to better than 8 electrons rms, whilst the sensor is operated in a rolling shutter mode, sampling at up to 10 Mpixel/s at each of the four parallel outputs.A primary parameter to characterise for an imaging device is the relationship that converts the sensor's voltage output back to the corresponding number of electrons that were detected in a pixel, known as the Charge to Voltage Factor (CVF). In modern CMOS sensors with small feature sizes, the CVF is known to be non-linear with signal level, therefore a signal-dependent measurement of the CIS115's CVF has been undertaken and is presented here. The CVF is well modelled as a quadratic function leading to a measurement of the maximum charge handling capacity of the CIS115 to be 3.4 × 104 electrons. If the CIS115's response is assumed linear, its CVF is 21.1 electrons per mV (1/47.5 μ V per electron).

  20. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  1. Differential Effects of Hypnosis, Biofeedback Training, and Trophotropic Responses on Anxiety, Ego Strength, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John D.

    1980-01-01

    College students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: hypnotic treatment, biofeedback treatment, trophotropic treatment, and control. Results indicated hypnosis was more effective in lowering anxiety levels. With regard to increasing ego strength, both the hypnotic and biofeedback training groups proved to be significant. Presented at the…

  2. Transient Earth system responses to cumulative carbon dioxide emissions: linearities, uncertainties, and probabilities in an observation-constrained model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2016-02-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil CO2 emissions and multiple climate targets is essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient response of a climate or environmental variable per trillion tonnes of CO2 emissions, termed TRE, is quantified for a set of impact-relevant climate variables and from a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization. An ˜ 1000-member ensemble of the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model is applied and model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-type framework. Uncertainties in TRE estimates include both scenario uncertainty and model response uncertainty. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.9 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.3 to 2.7 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and a steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic meridional overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The constrained model ensemble is also applied to determine the response to a pulse-like emission and in idealized CO2-only simulations. The transient climate response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the equilibrium climate sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  3. Calibration of membrane inlet mass spectrometric measurements of dissolved gases: differences in the responses of polymer and nano-composite membranes to variations in ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Miranda, L D; Byrne, R H; Short, R T; Bell, R J

    2013-11-15

    This work examines the transmission behavior of aqueous dissolved methane, nitrogen, argon and carbon dioxide through two types of membranes: a polysiloxane nano-composite (PNC) membrane and a conventional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. Transmission properties at 30 °C were examined by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) at nearly constant gas partial pressures in NaCl solutions over a range of ionic strength (0-1 molal). Gas flow rates were examined as a function of dissolved gas concentrations using the Setschenow equation. Although MIMS measurements with PDMS and PNC membranes produced signal responses that were directly proportional to aqueous dissolved gas concentrations, the proportionalities varied with ionic strength and were distinctly different for the two types of membranes. With the exception of carbon dioxide, the PNC membrane had membrane salting coefficients quite similar to Setschenow coefficients reported for gases in aqueous solution. In contrast, the PDMS membrane had membrane salting coefficients that were generally smaller than the corresponding Setschenow gas coefficient for each gas. Differences between Setschenow coefficients and membrane salting coefficients lead to MIMS calibrations (gas-flow vs. gas-concentration proportionalities) that vary with ionic strength. Accordingly, gas-flow vs. gas-concentration relationships for MIMS measurements with PDMS membranes are significantly dependent on ionic strength. In contrast, for PNC membranes, flow vs. concentration relationships are independent (argon, methane, nitrogen) or weakly dependent (CO2) on ionic strength. Comparisons of gas Setschenow and membrane salting coefficients can be used to quantitatively describe the dependence of membrane gas-flow on gas-concentrations and ionic strength for both PDMS and PNC membranes.

  4. Nonlinear and linear site response and basin effects in Seattle for the M 6.8 Nisqually, Washington, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Carver, D.L.; Williams, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We used recordings of the M 6.8 Nisqually earthquake and its ML 3.4 aftershock to study site response and basin effects for 35 locations in Seattle, Washington. We determined site amplification from Fourier spectral ratios of the recorded horizontal ground motions, referenced to a soft-rock site. Soft-soil sites (generally National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program [NEHRP] class E) on artificial fill and young alluvium have the largest 1-Hz amplifications (factors of 3-7) for both the mainshock and aftershock. These amplifications are correlated with areas of higher damage from the mainshock to major buildings and liquefaction. There are several indications of nonlinear response at the soft-soil sites for the mainshock ground motions, despite relatively modest peak accelerations in the S waves of 15%-22%g. First, the mainshock spectral ratios do not show amplification at 2-8 Hz as do the aftershock spectral ratios. Spectral peaks at frequencies below 2 Hz generally occur at lower frequencies for the mainshock spectral ratios than for the aftershock ratios. At one soft-soil site, there is a clear shift of the resonant frequency to a lower frequency for the mainshock compared with the aftershock. The frequency of this resonance increases in the coda of the mainshock record, indicating that the site response during the weaker motions of the coda is more linear than that of the initial S wave. Three of the soft-soil sites display cusped, one-sided mainshock accelerograms after the S wave. These soft-soil sites also show amplification at 10-20 Hz in the S wave, relative to the rock site, that is not observed for the aftershock. The cusped waveforms and 10-20-Hz amplification are symptomatic of nonlinear response at the soft-soil sites. These sites had nearby liquefaction. The largest amplifications for 0.5 Hz occur at soft-soil sites on the southern portion of the Seattle Basin. Stiff-soil sites (NEHRP classes D and C) on Pleistocene-age glacial deposits display

  5. Identification of combined action types in experiments with two toxicants: a response surface linear model with a cross term.

    PubMed

    Panov, Vladimir G; Varaksin, Anatoly N

    2016-02-01

    Within the framework of the response surface linear model with a cross term, i.e. a model of the type Y(x1, x2) = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2 + b12x1x2 (hyperbolic paraboloid), a complete solution of identification of combined action types of two toxicants x1 and x2 is presented. It is shown that the type of combined effect in this model is determined by two factors: the direction in which the toxicants act (unidirectional or oppositely directed), and the position of the saddle point S of a hyperbolic paraboloid. For unidirectional actions of toxicants, already-known ways to identify the type of combined effect (including a shape of the isobole: concave-up or concave-down) provided identical and unambiguous answers regarding the type of combined effect (antagonism or synergism). For oppositely directed actions of toxicants, the shape of the isobole (concave-up or concave-down) did not allow us to determine the type of combined action type unambiguously. We show that in both cases (unidirectional or oppositely directed actions of toxicants) the signs of the model coefficients b1, b2 and b12, in conjunction with the coordinates of the saddle point S help unambiguously identify the type of combined action by comparing the observed effect with the zero interaction response surface. An atlas of all possibly combined action types for two toxicants for the hyperbolic paraboloid model was created. Applications of the developed formalism to experimental data are provided.

  6. Number-conserving linear-response study of low-velocity ion stopping in a collisional magnetized classical plasma.

    PubMed

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude; Das, Amal K

    2011-03-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the low-velocity stopping power of ions in a magnetized collisional and classical plasma are reported. The stopping power for an ion is calculated through the linear-response (LR) theory. The collisions, which lead to a damping of the excitations in the plasma, are taken into account through a number-conserving relaxation time approximation in the LR function. In order to highlight the effects of collisions and magnetic field, we present a comparison of our analytical and numerical results obtained for nonzero damping or magnetic field with those for vanishing damping or magnetic field. It is shown that the collisions remove the anomalous friction obtained previously [Nersisyan et al., Phys. Rev. E 61, 7022 (2000)] for the collisionless magnetized plasmas at low ion velocities. One of the major objectives of this paper is to compare and to contrast our theoretical results with those obtained through a diffusion coefficient formulation based on the Dufty-Berkovsky relation evaluated for a magnetized one-component plasma modeled with target ions and electrons. PMID:21517600

  7. Application of relativistic coupled cluster linear response theory to helium-like ions embedded in plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Madhulita; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Sinha Mahapatra, Uttam; Mukherjee, P. K.

    2011-08-01

    Ionization potential and low lying 1S0\\longrightarrow1P1 excitation energies (EE) of highly stripped He-like ions C4 +, Al11 +, and Ar16 + embedded in plasma environment are calculated for the first time using the state-of-the-art coupled cluster (CC)-based linear response theory (LRT) with the four-component relativistic spinors and compared with available experimental data from laser plasma experiments. Debye's screening model is used to estimate the effect of plasma on the ions within the relativistic and non-relativistic framework. The transition energies computed at the CCLRT level using the Debye model agree well with experiment and with other available theoretical data. To our knowledge, no prior CCLRT calculations within the Dirac-Fock framework are available for these systems. Our calculated transition energies for helium-like ions are in accord with experiment; we trust that our predicted EE might be acceptably good for the systems considered. Our preliminary result indicates that CCLRT with the four-component relativistic spinors appears to be a valuable tool for studying the atomic systems where accurate treatments of correlation effects play a crucial role in shaping the spectral lines of ions subjected to plasma environment.

  8. Reappraisal of nuclear quadrupole moments of atomic halogens via relativistic coupled cluster linear response theory for the ionization process.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rajat K; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Mahapatra, Uttam Sinha

    2013-11-27

    The coupled cluster based linear response theory (CCLRT) with four-component relativistic spinors is employed to compute the electric field gradients (EFG) of (35)Cl, (79)Br, and (127)I nuclei. The EFGs resulting from these calculations are combined with experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCC) to determine the nuclear quadrupole moments (NQM), Q of the halide nuclei. Our estimated NQMs [(35)Cl = -81.12 mb, (79)Br = 307.98 mb, and (127)I = -688.22 mb] agree well with the new atomic values [(35)Cl = -81.1(1.2), (79)Br = 302(5), and (127)I = -680(10) mb] obtained via Fock space multireference coupled cluster method with the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. Although our estimated Q((79)Br) value deviates from the accepted reference value of 313(3) mb, it agrees well with the recently recommended value, Q((79)Br) = 308.7(20) mb. Good agreement with current reference data indicates the accuracy of the proposed value for these halogen nuclei and lends credence to the results obtained via CCLRT approach. The electron affinities yielded by this method with no extra cost are also in good agreement with experimental values, which bolster our belief that the NQMs values for halogen nuclei derived here are reliable.

  9. Number-conserving linear-response study of low-velocity ion stopping in a collisional magnetized classical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B.; Deutsch, Claude; Das, Amal K.

    2011-03-15

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the low-velocity stopping power of ions in a magnetized collisional and classical plasma are reported. The stopping power for an ion is calculated through the linear-response (LR) theory. The collisions, which lead to a damping of the excitations in the plasma, are taken into account through a number-conserving relaxation time approximation in the LR function. In order to highlight the effects of collisions and magnetic field, we present a comparison of our analytical and numerical results obtained for nonzero damping or magnetic field with those for vanishing damping or magnetic field. It is shown that the collisions remove the anomalous friction obtained previously [Nersisyan et al., Phys. Rev. E 61, 7022 (2000)] for the collisionless magnetized plasmas at low ion velocities. One of the major objectives of this paper is to compare and to contrast our theoretical results with those obtained through a diffusion coefficient formulation based on the Dufty-Berkovsky relation evaluated for a magnetized one-component plasma modeled with target ions and electrons.

  10. Optimizing the general linear model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy: an adaptive hemodynamic response function approach

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Dan, Haruka; Watanabe, Eiju

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies utilize a general linear model (GLM) approach, which serves as a standard statistical method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. While fMRI solely measures the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, fNIRS measures the changes of oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) signals at a temporal resolution severalfold higher. This suggests the necessity of adjusting the temporal parameters of a GLM for fNIRS signals. Thus, we devised a GLM-based method utilizing an adaptive hemodynamic response function (HRF). We sought the optimum temporal parameters to best explain the observed time series data during verbal fluency and naming tasks. The peak delay of the HRF was systematically changed to achieve the best-fit model for the observed oxy- and deoxy-Hb time series data. The optimized peak delay showed different values for each Hb signal and task. When the optimized peak delays were adopted, the deoxy-Hb data yielded comparable activations with similar statistical power and spatial patterns to oxy-Hb data. The adaptive HRF method could suitably explain the behaviors of both Hb parameters during tasks with the different cognitive loads during a time course, and thus would serve as an objective method to fully utilize the temporal structures of all fNIRS data. PMID:26157973

  11. The structure, bond strength and apatite-inducing ability of micro-arc oxidized tantalum and their response to annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Feng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the tantalum oxide coatings were formed on pure tantalum (Ta) by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solutions of calcium acetate and β-glycerophosphate disodium, and the effect of the applied voltage on the microstructure and bond strength of the MAO coatings was systematically investigated. The effect of annealing treatment on the microstructure, bond strength and apatite-inducing ability of the MAO coatings formed at 350 and 450 V was also studied. The study revealed that during the preparation of tantalum oxide coatings on Ta substrate by MAO, the applied voltage considerably affected the phase components, morphologies and bond strength of the coatings, but had little effect on surface chemical species. After annealing treatment, newly formed CaTa4O11 phase mainly contributed to the much more stronger apatite-inducing ability of the annealed tantalum oxide coatings than those that were not annealed. The better apatite-inducing ability of the MAO coatings formed at 450 V compared to those formed at 350 V was attributed to the less amorphous phase and more crystalline phase as well as more Ca and P contained in the MAO coatings with increasing the applied voltage.

  12. Strength of Shocked Aluminum Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Feng, R.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a polycrystalline and transparent ceramic. An accurate characterization of its shock response is critically important for its applications as transparent armor. Shock wave profiles measured in a series of plate impact experiments on AlON [Thornhill, et al., SCCM-2005, 143-146 (2006)] have been reanalyzed using finite element wave propagation simulations and considering an effective strength behavior that is pressure- and time-dependent. The results show a stiffer shock response than that calculated previously using the jump conditions. The material has a Hugoniot elastic limit of 10.37 GPa and sustains a maximum shear stress of 4.38 GPa for shock compressions up to a shock stress of 96 GPa. The mean stress response determined from the simulations displays no sign of phase transformation and corresponds to a linear shock speed-particle velocity relation with a slope of 0.857. These results have been successfully summarized into an AlON material model consisting of compression-dependent nonlinear elasticity, pressure-dependent equilibrium strength, and over-stress relaxation. The wave profiles simulated with the model show very good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  13. Analysis of responsive characteristics of ionic-strength-sensitive hydrogel with consideration of effect of equilibrium constant by a chemo-electro-mechanical model.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Lai, Fukun; Luo, Rongmo

    2009-11-17

    A multiphysics model is presented in this paper for analysis of the influence of various equilibrium constants on the smart hydrogel responsive to the ionic strength of environmental solution, and termed the multieffect-coupling ionic-strength stimulus (MECis) model. The model is characterized by a set of partial differential governing equations by consideration of the mass and momentum conservations of the system and coupled chemical, electrical, and mechanical multienergy domains. The Nernst-Planck equations are derived by the mass conservation of the ionic species in both the interstitial fluid of the hydrogel and the surrounding solution. The binding reaction between the fixed charge groups of the hydrogel and the mobile ions in the solution is described by the fixed charge equation, which is based on the Langmuir monolayer theory. As an important effect for the binding reaction, the equilibrium constant is incorporated into the fixed charge equation. The kinetics of the hydrogel swelling/deswelling is illustrated by the mechanical equation, based on the law of momentum conservation for the solid polymeric networks matrix within the hydrogel. The MECis model is examined by comparison of the numerical simulations and experiments from open literature. The analysis of the influence of different equilibrium constants on the responsive characteristics of the ionic-strength-sensitive hydrogel is carried out with detailed discussion.

  14. On the potential importance of non-linear viscoelastic material modelling for numerical prediction of brain tissue response: test and application.

    PubMed

    Brands, Dave W A; Bovendeerd, Peter H M; Wismans, Jac S H M

    2002-11-01

    In current Finite Element (FE) head models, brain tissue is commonly assumed to display linear viscoelastic material behaviour. However, brain tissue behaves like a non-linear viscoelastic solid for shear strains above 1%. The main objective of this study was to study the effect of non-linear material behaviour on the predicted brain response. We used a non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model, developed on the basis of experimental shear data presented elsewere. First we tested the numerical implementation of the constitutive model by simulating the response of a silicone gel (Sylgard 572 A&B) filled cylindrical cup, subjected to a transient rotational acceleration. The experimental results could be reproduced within 9%. Subsequently, the effect of non-linear material modelling on computed brain response was investigated in an existing three-dimensional head model subjected to an eccentric rotation. At the applied external load strains in the brain were approximately ten times larger than was expected on the basis of published data. This is probably caused by the values of the shear moduli applied in the model. These are at least a factor of ten lower than the ones used in head models in literature but comparable to material data in recent literature. Non-linear material behaviour was found to influence the levels of predicted strains (+20%) and stresses (-11%) but not their temporal and spatial distribution. The pressure response was independent of non-linear material behaviour. In fact it could be predicted by the equilibrium of momentum, and thus it is independent of the choice of the brain constitutive model.

  15. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

    2014-05-21

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device

  16. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients in response to endurance and strength training.

    PubMed

    Broholm, Christa; Mathur, Neha; Hvid, Thine; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Frøsig, Christian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindegaard, Birgitte

    2013-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both endurance and resistance training improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study aims to identify the molecular pathways involved in the beneficial effects of training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients. Eighteen sedentary male HIV-infected patients underwent a 16 week supervised training intervention, either resistance or strength training. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with muscle biopsies were performed before and after the training interventions. Fifteen age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative men served as a sedentary baseline group. Phosphorylation and total protein expression of insulin signaling molecules as well as glycogen synthase (GS) activity were analyzed in skeletal muscle biopsies in relation to insulin stimulation before and after training. HIV-infected patients had reduced basal and insulin-stimulated GS activity (%fractional velocity, [FV]) as well as impaired insulin-stimulated Akt(thr308) phosphorylation. Despite improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, neither endurance nor strength training changed the phosphorylation status of insulin signaling proteins or affected GS activity. However; endurance training markedly increased the total Akt protein expression, and both training modalities increased hexokinase II (HKII) protein. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and defects in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(thr308). Endurance and strength training increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in these patients, and the muscular training adaptation is associated with improved capacity for phosphorylation of glucose by HKII, rather than changes in markers of insulin signaling to glucose uptake

  17. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  18. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

    2014-04-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded

  19. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  20. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  1. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  2. Responses and toxin bioaccumulation in duckweed (Lemna minor) under microcystin-LR, linear alkybenzene sulfonate and their joint stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Song, Lirong; Wang, Chunbo; Zhang, Junqian

    2012-08-30

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) are commonly found in eutrophic lakes due to toxic cyanobacterial blooms and exogenous organic compounds pollution. However, the ecotoxicological risk of their combination in the aquatic environment is unknown. This study investigated the effects of MCLR, LAS and their mixture on duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and physiological responses. MCLR accumulation in duckweed, with or without LAS, was also examined. Growth of duckweed and chlorophyll-a contents were significantly reduced after 8d exposure to high concentrations of MCLR (≥ 3 μg/ml), LAS (≥ 20 μg/ml) and their mixture (≥ 3+10 μg/ml). After 2d of exposure, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content in duckweed increased with increasing concentrations of MCLR, LAS and their mixture, with a significant difference observable after 8d of exposure. When MCLR and LAS concentrations were lower (≤ 0.1+1 μg/ml), the interaction of them is synergistic, but when the concentrations were higher, the synergy was weak. MC accumulation was much higher at 2d than at 8d when duckweed was exposed to lower concentrations of MCLR (≤ 3 μg/ml) or MCLR-LAS (≤ 3+10 μg/ml). Furthermore, LAS significantly enhanced the accumulation of MCLR in duckweed, even with LAS concentrations as low as 0.3 μg/ml (environmental concentration), indicating that greater negative ecological risks and higher MCLR phytoremediation potentials of duckweed might occur in MCLR-LAS-concomitant water.

  3. Characterization of the Earwig, Doru lineare, as a Predator of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: A Functional Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Sueldo, Mabel Romero; Bruzzone, Octavio A.; Virla, Eduardo G.

    2010-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as the most important pest of maize in almost all tropical America. In Argentina, the earwig Doru lineare Eschscholtz (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been observed preying on S. frugiperda egg masses in corn crops, but no data about its potential role as a biocontrol agent of this pest have been provided. The predation efficiency of D. lineare on newly emerged S. frugiperda larva was evaluated through a laboratory functional response study. D. lineare showed type II functional response to S. frugiperda larval density, and disc equation estimations of searching efficiency and handling time were (a) = 0.374 and (t) = 182.9 s, respectively. Earwig satiation occurred at 39.4 S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:20575739

  4. Integration of aquatic fate and ecological responses to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in model stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Belanger, S E; Bowling, J W; Lee, D M; LeBlanc, E M; Kerr, K M; McAvoy, D C; Christman, S C; Davidson, D H

    2002-06-01

    An integrated model stream ecosystem fate and effect study of dodecyl linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C(12)LAS) was performed in the summer and fall of 1996. The study addressed responses of periphytic microbes, immature benthic fauna including abundance, drift, and emergence of adult insects in a 56-day exposure. Exposures ranged from 126 to 2978 microg/L and were continuously presented in a single-pass, flow-through test system. Microbial heterotrophs acclimated to C(12)LAS exposure quickly (14 days) and biodegraded C(12)LAS at all concentrations. Blue-green algae responded by increasing in abundance with increasing C(12)LAS concentration. Invertebrates responded by increased drift and reduced benthic abundances at concentrations exceeding 293 microg/L. Emergence at 927 microg/L also declined relative to the control. Adverse responses for mayflies and chironomids were indicated using univariate statistical techniques. Multivariate techniques indicated these taxa plus mollusks, aquatic worms, caddisflies, and stoneflies were impaired at some concentrations. Bioavailability of C(12)LAS was investigated in streams as a function of the total suspended solid load in the water column driven by local weather and watershed patterns. A continuous bioavailability model indicated exposure was reduced by an average of 8.5+/-8.9%. A model ecosystem no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was concluded to be 293 microg/L based on measured water column exposure and adjusted to 268 microg/L by the bioavailability model. A literature review of 13 available model ecosystem studies was conducted and NOEC conclusions were adjusted by a structure-activity relationship to a dodecyl chain length (sulfophenyl position and distribution being ignored due to lack of information in the reviewed studies). Lentic studies (n=7) were found to have higher NOECs than lotic studies (n=6) and were more variable. Mean NOECs+/-SD for all studies, lentic studies only, and lotic studies only were 3320

  5. Familiarity and Recollection Produce Distinct Eye Movement, Pupil and Medial Temporal Lobe Responses when Memory Strength Is Matched

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity…

  6. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Student Response System in Teaching Biology to the Non-Major Utilizing Nine Group-Paced, Linear Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessler, William Carl

    This paper presents the procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to determine the effectiveness of an electronic student response system in teaching biology to the non-major. Nine group-paced linear programs were used. Subjects were 664 college students divided into treatment and control groups. The effectiveness of the response…

  7. Kernel-Smoothing Estimation of Item Characteristic Functions for Continuous Personality Items: An Empirical Comparison with the Linear and the Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2004-01-01

    This study used kernel-smoothing procedures to estimate the item characteristic functions (ICFs) of a set of continuous personality items. The nonparametric ICFs were compared with the ICFs estimated (a) by the linear model and (b) by Samejima's continuous-response model. The study was based on a conditioned approach and used an error-in-variables…

  8. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N.

    2013-09-11

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  9. Strength and timing of motor responses mediated by rebound firing in the cerebellar nuclei after Purkinje cell activation.

    PubMed

    Witter, Laurens; Canto, Cathrin B; Hoogland, Tycho M; de Gruijl, Jornt R; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum refines the accuracy and timing of motor performance. How it encodes information to perform these functions is a major topic of interest. We performed whole cell and extracellular recordings of Purkinje cells (PCs) and cerebellar nuclei neurons (CNs) in vivo, while activating PCs with light in transgenic mice. We show for the first time that graded activation of PCs translates into proportional CN inhibition and induces rebound activity in CNs, which is followed by graded motor contractions timed to the cessation of the stimulus. Moreover, activation of PC ensembles led to disinhibition of climbing fiber activity, which coincided with rebound activity in CNs. Our data indicate that cessation of concerted activity in ensembles of PCs can regulate both timing and strength of movements via control of rebound activity in CNs.

  10. Strength and Mechanical Response of NaCl Using In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Compression and Nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Peng; Fang, Te-Hua; Kang, Sho-Hui

    2016-03-01

    Strength and mechanical properties of single crystal sodium chloride (NaCl) are characterized. Critical deformation variations of NaCl pillared structures and films are estimated using in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) compression tests and nanoindentation experiments. Young's modulus and contact stiffness of NaCl pillars with diameters of 300 to 500 nm were 10.4-23.9 GPa, and 159-230 N/m, respectively. The nanohardness and Vickers hardness of the NaCl (001) film were 282-596 and 196-260 MPa, respectively. The results could provide useful information for understanding the mechanical properties, contact and local deformation of NaCl pillars and films. PMID:27455676

  11. Acute neuromuscular and endocrine responses and recovery to single-session combined endurance and strength loadings: "order effect" in untrained young men.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Eklund, Daniela; Taipale, Ritva S; Nyman, Kai; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Arja; Izquierdo, Mikel; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate acute neuromuscular and endocrine responses and recovery to a single session of combined endurance and strength loading using 2 loading orders. Forty-two men were demographically matched to perform a single session of combined endurance + strength (E + S) or strength + endurance (S + E) loading. The strength loading was conducted on a leg press and included sets of power, maximal strength, and hypertrophic loads with an overall duration of 30 minutes. The endurance loading was conducted on a bike ergometer and performed by continuous cycling over 30 minutes at 65% of subject's individual maximal watts. Both loading conditions led to significant acute reductions in maximal force production (E + S: -27%, p < 0.001; S + E: -22%, p < 0.001), rapid force produced in 500 milliseconds (E + S: -26%, p < 0.001; S + E: -18%, p < 0.001), and countermovement jump height (E + S: -15%, p < 0.001; S + E: -12%, p < 0.001), whereas no significant differences between the 2 loadings were observed. Maximal and explosive force production recovered after 48 hours after both loading conditions. Whereas no significant acute responses were found in concentrations of serum testosterone (T) and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the 2 loading conditions, concentrations of T were significantly reduced in E + S during recovery at 24 hours (-13%, p < 0.05) and 48 hours (-11%, p = 0.068), but not in S + E, and concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone significantly reduced after both loading conditions (24 hours: E + S, -32%, p < 0.001; S + E, -25%, p < 0.01; 48 hours: E + S, -25%, p < 0.001; S + E, -18%, p < 0.01). The loading conditions in this study showed that neuromuscular performance recovered already within 2 days, whereas endocrine function, observed particularly by decreased concentrations in serum T after the E + S loading order, remained altered still after 48 hours of recovery. These results emphasize the different needs for recovery after

  12. Responsiveness, Sensitivity, and Minimally Detectable Difference of the Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension, Version 1.0.

    PubMed

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Ahn, Henry; Askes, Heather; Drew, Brian; Curt, Armin; Popovic, Milos R; Wang, Justin; Verrier, Mary C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    As spinal cord injury (SCI) trials begin to involve subjects with acute cervical SCI, establishing the property of an upper limb outcome measure to detect change over time is critical for its usefulness in clinical trials. The objectives of this study were to define responsiveness, sensitivity, and minimally detectable difference (MDD) of the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP). An observational, longitudinal study was conducted. International Standards of Neurological Classification of SCI (ISNCSCI), GRASSP, Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire (CUE-Q), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) were administered 0-10 days, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. Standardized Response Means (SRM) for GRASSP and ISNCSCI measures were calculated. Longitudinal construct validity was calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. Smallest real difference for all subtests was calculated to define the MDD values for all GRASSP subtests. Longitudinal construct validity demonstrated GRASSP and all external measures to be responsive to neurological change for 1 year post-injury. SRM values for the GRASSP subtests ranged from 0.25 to 0.85 units greater than that for ISNCSCI strength and sensation, SCIM-SS, and CUE-Q. MDD values for GRASSP subtests ranged from 2-5 points. GRASSP demonstrates good responsiveness and excellent sensitivity that is superior to ISNCSCI and SCIM III. MDD values are useful in the evaluation of interventions in both clinical and research settings. The responsiveness and sensitivity of GRASSP make it a valuable condition-specific measure in tetraplegia, where changes in upper limb neurological and functional outcomes are essential for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. PMID:26560017

  13. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants. PMID:26340594

  14. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants.

  15. Dynamical DMRG study of non-linear optical response in one-dimensional dimerized Hubbard model with nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and alternating on-site potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, Shigetoshi; Tohyama, Takami; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2012-02-01

    The optical response of organic compounds has been attracting much attention. The one of the reasons is the huge non-linear and ultrafast optical response [K. Yamamoto et. al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 074709(2008)]. In order to investigate such optical properties, we carry out dynamical DMRG calculations to obtain optical responses in the 1/4-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model including the nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and the alternating electron hopping. The charge gap [S. Nishimoto, M. Takahashi, and Y. Ohta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 1594(2000)] and the bound state [H. Benthien and E. Jeckelmann, Eur. Phys. J. B 44, 287(2005)] in this model have been discussed based on DMRG calculations. In the present study, we introduce an alternating on-site potential giving the polarization in the system into the dimerized Hubbard model, which breaks the reflection symmetry of the system. In this talk, we discuss the obtained linear and the 2nd order non-linear optical susceptibility in order to make a prediction for non-linear optical experiments in the future.

  16. A study of microstructure, quasi-static response, fatigue, deformation and fracture behavior of high strength alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Manigandan

    The history of steel dates back to the 17th century and has been instrumental in the betterment of every aspect of our lives ever since, from the pin that holds the paper together to the Automobile that takes us to our destination steel touches everyone every day. Path breaking improvements in manufacturing techniques, access to advanced machinery and understanding of factors like heat treatment, corrosion resistance have aided in the advancement in the properties of steel in the last few years. In this dissertation document, the results of a study aimed at the influence of alloy chemistry, processing and influence of the quasi static and fatigue behavior of seven alloy steels is discussed. The microstructure of the as-received steel was examined and characterized for the nature and morphology of the grains and the presence of other intrinsic features in the microstructure. The tensile, cyclic fatigue and bending fatigue tests were done on a fully automated closed-loop servo-hydraulic test machine at room temperature. The failed samples of high strength steels were examined in a scanning electron microscope for understanding the fracture behavior, especially the nature of loading be it quasi static, cyclic fatigue or bending fatigue . The quasi static and cyclic fatigue fracture behavior of the steels examined coupled with various factors contributing to failure are briefly discussed in light of the conjoint and mutually interactive influences of intrinsic microstructural effects, nature of loading, and stress (load)-deformation-microstructural interactions.

  17. Hedgehog Signaling Strength Is Orchestrated by the mir-310 Cluster of MicroRNAs in Response to Diet

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Ibrahim Ömer; Karaca, Samir; Brankatschk, Marko; Eaton, Suzanne; Urlaub, Henning; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) only two decades ago, they have emerged as an essential component of the gene regulatory machinery. miRNAs have seemingly paradoxical features: a single miRNA is able to simultaneously target hundreds of genes, while its presence is mostly dispensable for animal viability under normal conditions. It is known that miRNAs act as stress response factors; however, it remains challenging to determine their relevant targets and the conditions under which they function. To address this challenge, we propose a new workflow for miRNA function analysis, by which we found that the evolutionarily young miRNA family, the mir-310s (mir-310/mir-311/mir-312/mir-313), are important regulators of Drosophila metabolic status. mir-310s-deficient animals have an abnormal diet-dependent expression profile for numerous diet-sensitive components, accumulate fats, and show various physiological defects. We found that the mir-310s simultaneously repress the production of several regulatory factors (Rab23, DHR96, and Ttk) of the evolutionarily conserved Hedgehog (Hh) pathway to sharpen dietary response. As the mir-310s expression is highly dynamic and nutrition sensitive, this signal relay model helps to explain the molecular mechanism governing quick and robust Hh signaling responses to nutritional changes. Additionally, we discovered a new component of the Hh signaling pathway in Drosophila, Rab23, which cell autonomously regulates Hh ligand trafficking in the germline stem cell niche. How organisms adjust to dietary fluctuations to sustain healthy homeostasis is an intriguing research topic. These data are the first to report that miRNAs can act as executives that transduce nutritional signals to an essential signaling pathway. This suggests miRNAs as plausible therapeutic agents that can be used in combination with low calorie and cholesterol diets to manage quick and precise tissue-specific responses to nutritional changes. PMID:26801178

  18. Relationship between ADP-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength and anti-platelet responsiveness in ticagrelor treated ACS patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Xu-Yun; Xi, Shao-Zhi; Liu, Jia; Qin, Liu-An; Jing, Jing; Yin, Tong; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2016-01-01

    Background Ticagrelor provides enhanced antiplatelet efficacy but increased risk of bleeding and dyspnea. This study aimed to display the relationship between ADP-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength (MAADP) and clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients treated by ticagrelor. Methods Consecutive Chinese-Han patients with ACS who received maintenance dose of ticagrelor on top of aspirin were recruited. After 5-day ticagrelor maintenance treatment, MAADP measured by thrombelastography (TEG) were recorded for the evaluation of ticagrelor anti-platelet reactivity. Pre-specified cutoffs of MAADP > 47 mm for high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) and MAADP < 31 mm for low on-treatment platelet reactivity (LTPR) were applied for evaluation. The occurrences of primary ischemic cardiovascular events (including a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke), the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) defined bleeding events, and ticagrelor related dyspnea were recorded after a follow-up of three months. Results Overall, 176 ACS patients (Male: 79.55%, Age: 59.91 ± 10.54 years) under ticagrelor maintenance treatment were recruited. The value of MAADP ranged from 4.80% to 72.90% (21.27% ± 12.07% on average), with the distribution higher skewed towards the lower values. Using the pre-specific cutoffs for HTPR and LTPR, seven patients (3.98%) were identified as HTPR and 144 patients (81.82%) as LTPR. After a follow-up of three months in 172 patients, major cardiovascular events occurred in no patient, but TIMI bleeding events in 81 (47.09%) with major bleedings in three patients. All patients with major bleedings were classified as LTPR. Ticagrelor related dyspnea occurred in 31 (18.02%) patients, with 30 (21.28%) classified as LTPR and no one as HTPR (P = 0.02). Conclusions In ticagrelor treated ACS patients, MAADP measured by TEG might be valuable for the prediction of major bleeding and ticagrelor related dyspnea

  19. Performance of low-cost few-mode fiber Bragg grating sensor systems: polarization sensitivity and linearity of temperature and strain response.

    PubMed

    Ganziy, D; Rose, B; Bang, O

    2016-08-10

    We evaluate whether 850 nm fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems can use low-cost 1550 nm telecom fibers; in other words, how detrimental the influence of higher-order modes is to the polarization stability and linearity of the strain and temperature response. We do this by comparing polarization sensitivity of a few-mode 850 nm FBG sensor to a strictly single-mode 850 nm FBG sensor system using 850 nm single-mode fibers. We also compare the performance of the FBGs in strain and temperature tests. Our results show that the polarization stability and the linearity of the response degrade due to the presence of the higher-order modes. We demonstrate that, by using simple coiling of the 1550 nm fiber, one can regain the performance of the few-mode system and make it usable for high precision measurements. PMID:27534455

  20. Comparison of skin stripping, in vitro release, and skin blanching response methods to measure dose response and similarity of triamcinolone acetonide cream strengths from two manufactured sources.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Lynn K; Bakhtian, Shahrzad; Poncelet, Craig E; Corlett, Judy L; Shah, Vinod P

    2002-05-01

    The collective studies compare in vitro drug release, in vivo skin stripping, and skin blanching response methods for dose responsiveness and bioequivalence assessment of triamcinolone acetonide cream products, as a function of application duration, drug concentration, and manufacturer source. Commercially available triamcinolone acetonide creams (0.025%, 0.1%, and 0.5%) from two manufacturers were evaluated in vitro for rate and extent of drug release across synthetic membranes and in vivo for rate, extent, and variability of drug uptake into human stratum corneum and skin blanching response in human forearm skin. Data demonstrate that increasing triamcinolone acetonide cream concentration applied increased the rate and extent of drug released in vitro as well as the extent of drug uptake and skin blanching response in human skin in vivo. No difference (p < 0.05) between the two sources of 0.1% or 0.5% creams was measured by the skin stripping or skin blanching response methods. Dermatopharmacokinetic analysis of triamcinonide acetonide in vivo is therefore dose responsive to drug concentration applied and application duration and agrees with in vivo skin blanching results. Data support the use of dermatopharmacokinetic methods for bioequivalence and bioavailability assessment of topical drug products.

  1. Analysis of the Non-Linearity of El Niño Southern Oscillation Teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauen, Claudia; Dommenget, Dietmar; Rezny, Michael; Wales, Scott

    2014-05-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has significant variations and non-linearities in its pattern and strength. ENSO events are shifted along the equator, with some located in the central Pacific (CP) and others in the east Pacific (EP). To study how these variations are reflected in global ENSO teleconnections we analyze observations and idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. Clear non-linearities exist in observed teleconnections of sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation. However, it is difficult to distinguish if these are caused by the different signs, strengths or spatial patterns of events (strong El Niño events mostly being EP events and strong La Niña events mostly being CP events) or by combinations of these. Therefore, sensitivity experiments are performed with an AGCM forced with idealized EP and CP ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) patterns with varying signs and strengths. It can be shown that in general the response is stronger for warm events than for cold events and the teleconnections shift following the SST anomaly patterns. EP events show stronger non-linearities than CP events. The non-linear responses to ENSO events can be explained as a combination of non-linear responses to a linear ENSO (fixed pattern but varying signs and strengths) and a linear response to a non-linear ENSO (varying patterns). Any observed event is a combination of these aspects. While in most tropical regions these add up leading to stronger non-linear responses than expected from the single components, in some regions they cancel each other resulting in little overall non-linearity. This leads to strong regional differences in ENSO teleconnections.

  2. Acute response of peripheral CCr5 chemoreceptor and NK cells in individuals submitted to a single session of low-intensity strength exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Gilson Pires; Colato, Alana Schraiber; Galvão, Simone Lunelli; Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Ribeiro, Jerri Luiz; Romão, Pedro Roosevelt; Peres, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the peripheral expression of natural killers and CCR5 in a session of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion and in high-intensity training. Young males were randomized into session groups of a high-intensity strength training (HI) and a session group of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion (LI-BFR). The exercise session consisted in knee extension and bicep curl in 80% 1RM (HI) and 30% 1RM (LI-BFR) with equalized volumes. Blood collection was made before, immediately after and 24 h after each training session. Immunophenotyping was carried out through CD195+ (CCR5) e CD3-CD16+CD56+ (NK) in peripheral blood and analysed by flow cytometry and presented in frequency (%). Peripheral frequency of NK cells showed no significant difference in LI-BFR group in time effect, while a gradual reduction of NK cells was identified in HI group in before-24 h postexercise and after-24 h postexercise comparison. However, significant differences have been found in relative change of NK cells immediately after exercise between sessions. In addition, HI and LI-BFR groups showed a significant reduction in the cells expressed CCR5 during 24 h postsession compared to the postsession, but CCR5 also differed when comparing before-24 h after session in the HI group. No differences were observed amongst the groups. LIO induced CCR5 response similar to the HI session, while the NK cells remained in similar frequency during the studied moments in LI-BFR, but not in HI group, suggesting that local hypoxia created by the blood flow restriction was able to prevent a change in the frequency of peripheral cells and a possible immunosuppression.

  3. Are source and sink strengths genetically linked in maize plants subjected to water deficit? A QTL study of the responses of leaf growth and of Anthesis-Silking Interval to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Welcker, C; Boussuge, B; Bencivenni, C; Ribaut, J-M; Tardieu, F

    2007-01-01

    Leaf growth and Anthesis-Silking Interval (ASI) are the main determinants of source and sink strengths of maize via their relations with light interception and yield, respectively. They depend on the abilities of leaves and silks to expand under fluctuating environmental conditions, so the possibility is raised that they may have a partly common genetic determinism. This possibility was tested in a mapping population which segregates for ASI. Maximum leaf elongation rate per unit thermal time (parameter a) and the slopes of its responses to evaporative demand and soil water status (parameters b and c) were measured in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments, in two series of 120 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) studied in 2004 and 2005 with 33 RILs in common both years. ASI was measured in three and five fields under well-watered conditions and water deficit, respectively. For each RIL, the maximum elongation rate per unit thermal time was reproducible over several experiments in well-watered plants. It was accounted for by five QTLs, among which three co-localized with QTLs of ASI of well-watered plants. The alleles conferring high leaf elongation rate conferred a low ASI (high silk elongation rate). The responses of leaf elongation rate to evaporative demand and to predawn leaf water potential were linear, allowing each RIL to be characterized by the slopes of these response curves. These slopes had three QTLs in common with ASI of plants under water deficit. The allele for leaf growth maintenance was, in all cases, that for shorter ASI (maintained silk elongation rate). By contrast, other regions influencing ASI had no influence on leaf growth. These results may have profound consequences for modelling the genotype x environment interaction and for designing drought-tolerant ideotypes.

  4. Comment on "Scaling regimes and linear/nonlinear responses of last millennium climate to volcanic and solar forcing" by S. Lovejoy and C. Varotsos (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lovejoy and Varotsos (2016) (L&V) analyse the temperature response to solar, volcanic, and solar plus volcanic forcing in the Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model, and to solar and solar plus volcanic forcing in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) E2-R model. By using a simple wavelet filtering technique they conclude that the responses in the ZC model combine subadditively on timescales from 50 to 1000 years. Nonlinear response on shorter timescales is claimed by analysis of intermittencies in the forcing and the temperature signal for both models. The analysis of additivity in the ZC model suffers from a confusing presentation of results based on an invalid approximation, and from ignoring the effect of internal variability. We present tests without this approximation which are not able to detect nonlinearity in the response, even without accounting for internal variability. We also demonstrate that internal variability will appear as subadditivity if it is not accounted for. L&V's analysis of intermittencies is based on a mathematical result stating that the intermittencies of forcing and response are the same if the response is linear. We argue that there are at least three different factors that may invalidate the application of this result for these data. It is valid only for a power-law response function; it assumes power-law scaling of structure functions of forcing as well as temperature signal; and the internal variability, which is strong at least on the short timescales, will exert an influence on temperature intermittence which is independent of the forcing. We demonstrate by a synthetic example that the differences in intermittencies observed by L&V easily can be accounted for by these effects under the assumption of a linear response. Our conclusion is that the analysis performed by L&V does not present valid evidence for a detectable nonlinear response in the global temperature in these climate models.

  5. Allelic variation in two distinct Pseudomonas syringae flagellin epitopes modulates the strength of plant immune responses but not bacterial motility

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christopher R.; Chinchilla, Delphine; Hind, Sarah R.; Taguchi, Fumiko; Miki, Ryuji; Ichinose, Yuki; Martin, Gregory B.; Leman, Scotland; Felix, Georg; Vinatzer, Boris A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The bacterial flagellin (FliC) epitopes flg22 and flgII-28 are microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). While flg22 is recognized by many plant species via the pattern recognition receptor FLS2, neither the flgII-28 receptor nor the extent of flgII-28 recognition by different plant families is known.Here we tested the significance of flgII-28 as a MAMP and the importance of allelic diversity in flg22 and flgII-28 in plant–pathogen interactions using purified peptides and a Pseudomonas syringae ΔfliC mutant complemented with different fliC alleles.Plant genotype and allelic diversity in flg22 and flgII-28 were found to significantly affect the plant immune response but not bacterial motility. Recognition of flgII-28 is restricted to a number of Solanaceous species. While the flgII-28 peptide does not trigger any immune response in Arabidopsis, mutations in both flg22 and flgII-28 have FLS2-dependent effects on virulence. However, expression of a tomato allele of FLS2 does not confer to Nicotiana benthamiana the ability to detect flgII-28 and tomato plants silenced for FLS2 are not altered in flgII-28 recognition.Therefore, MAMP diversification is an effective pathogen virulence strategy and flgII-28 appears to be perceived by a yet unidentified receptor in the Solanaceae although it has an FLS2-dependent virulence effect in Arabidopsis. PMID:23865782

  6. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández S, A. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Cano, M. E. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Torres-Arenas, J.

    2014-11-07

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  7. Impact of turbulence on the prediction of linear aeroacoustic interactions: Acoustic response of a turbulent shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gikadi, Jannis; Föller, Stephan; Sattelmayer, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    A powerful model to predict aeroacoustic interactions in the linear regime is the perturbed compressible linearized Navier-Stokes equations. Thus far, the frequently employed derivation suggests that the effect of turbulence and its associated Reynolds stresses is neglected and a quasi-laminar model is employed. In this paper, dynamic perturbation equations are derived incorporating the effect of turbulence and its interaction with perturbation quantities. This is done by employing a triple decomposition of the instantaneous variables. The procedure results in a closure problem for the Reynolds stresses for which a linear eddy-viscosity model is proposed. The resulting perturbation equations are applied to a grazing flow in a T-joint for which strong shear layer instabilities at certain frequencies are experimentally observed. Passive scattering properties of the grazing flow are validated against the experiments performed by Karlsson and Åbom and perturbation equations being quasi-laminar. We find that prediction models must include the effect of Reynolds stresses to capture the aeroacoustic interaction effects correctly. Neglecting its effect naturally results in the over prediction of vortex growth at the frequencies of shear layer instability and therewith in an over prediction of aeroacoustic interactions.

  8. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Purabed, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured. Also, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise.

  9. Non-Linear Neuronal Responses as an Emergent Property of Afferent Networks: A Case Study of the Locust Lobula Giant Movement Detector

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez i Badia, Sergi; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In principle it appears advantageous for single neurons to perform non-linear operations. Indeed it has been reported that some neurons show signatures of such operations in their electrophysiological response. A particular case in point is the Lobula Giant Movement Detector (LGMD) neuron of the locust, which is reported to locally perform a functional multiplication. Given the wide ramifications of this suggestion with respect to our understanding of neuronal computations, it is essential that this interpretation of the LGMD as a local multiplication unit is thoroughly tested. Here we evaluate an alternative model that tests the hypothesis that the non-linear responses of the LGMD neuron emerge from the interactions of many neurons in the opto-motor processing structure of the locust. We show, by exposing our model to standard LGMD stimulation protocols, that the properties of the LGMD that were seen as a hallmark of local non-linear operations can be explained as emerging from the dynamics of the pre-synaptic network. Moreover, we demonstrate that these properties strongly depend on the details of the synaptic projections from the medulla to the LGMD. From these observations we deduce a number of testable predictions. To assess the real-time properties of our model we applied it to a high-speed robot. These robot results show that our model of the locust opto-motor system is able to reliably stabilize the movement trajectory of the robot and can robustly support collision avoidance. In addition, these behavioural experiments suggest that the emergent non-linear responses of the LGMD neuron enhance the system's collision detection acuity. We show how all reported properties of this neuron are consistently reproduced by this alternative model, and how they emerge from the overall opto-motor processing structure of the locust. Hence, our results propose an alternative view on neuronal computation that emphasizes the network properties as opposed to the local

  10. A note on the relationships between multiple imputation, maximum likelihood and fully Bayesian methods for missing responses in linear regression models

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Imputation, Maximum Likelihood and Fully Bayesian methods are the three most commonly used model-based approaches in missing data problems. Although it is easy to show that when the responses are missing at random (MAR), the complete case analysis is unbiased and efficient, the aforementioned methods are still commonly used in practice for this setting. To examine the performance of and relationships between these three methods in this setting, we derive and investigate small sample and asymptotic expressions of the estimates and standard errors, and fully examine how these estimates are related for the three approaches in the linear regression model when the responses are MAR. We show that when the responses are MAR in the linear model, the estimates of the regression coefficients using these three methods are asymptotically equivalent to the complete case estimates under general conditions. One simulation and a real data set from a liver cancer clinical trial are given to compare the properties of these methods when the responses are MAR. PMID:25309677

  11. An update on modeling dose-response relationships: Accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variance in linear and nonlinear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M A D; Bello, N M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    Advanced methods for dose-response assessments are used to estimate the minimum concentrations of a nutrient that maximizes a given outcome of interest, thereby determining nutritional requirements for optimal performance. Contrary to standard modeling assumptions, experimental data often present a design structure that includes correlations between observations (i.e., blocking, nesting, etc.) as well as heterogeneity of error variances; either can mislead inference if disregarded. Our objective is to demonstrate practical implementation of linear and nonlinear mixed models for dose-response relationships accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variances. To illustrate, we modeled data from a randomized complete block design study to evaluate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio dose-response on G:F of nursery pigs. A base linear mixed model was fitted to explore the functional form of G:F relative to Trp:Lys ratios and assess model assumptions. Next, we fitted 3 competing dose-response mixed models to G:F, namely a quadratic polynomial (QP) model, a broken-line linear (BLL) ascending model, and a broken-line quadratic (BLQ) ascending model, all of which included heteroskedastic specifications, as dictated by the base model. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (version 9.4) was used to fit the base and QP models and the NLMIXED procedure was used to fit the BLL and BLQ models. We further illustrated the use of a grid search of initial parameter values to facilitate convergence and parameter estimation in nonlinear mixed models. Fit between competing dose-response models was compared using a maximum likelihood-based Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The QP, BLL, and BLQ models fitted on G:F of nursery pigs yielded BIC values of 353.7, 343.4, and 345.2, respectively, thus indicating a better fit of the BLL model. The BLL breakpoint estimate of the SID Trp:Lys ratio was 16.5% (95% confidence interval [16.1, 17.0]). Problems with

  12. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  13. Implementation of the CCSD-PCM linear response function for frequency dependent properties in solution: Application to polarizability and specific rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, Marco

    2013-09-01

    This work reports the first implementation of the frequency dependent linear response (LR) function for the coupled cluster singles and doubles method (CCSD) combined with the polarizable continuum model of solvation for the calculation of frequency dependent properties in solution. In particular, values of static and dynamic polarizability as well as specific rotation are presented for various test molecules. Model calculations of polarizability show that a common approximation used in the definition of the LR function with solvation models recovers over 70% of the full response while maintaining a computational cost comparable to gas phase LR-CCSD. Calculations of specific rotation for three compounds for which gas phase methods predict the wrong sign of the rotation show that accounting for the electronic response of the solvent may be essential to assign the correct absolute configuration of chiral molecules.

  14. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood.

  15. The strength of the antibody response to the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides inversely correlates with levels of B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between BAFF and specific antibodies against Ascaris and mites in 448 controls and 448 asthmatics. Soluble BAFF was measured by ELISA and BAFF mRNA by qPCR. Surface expression of BAFF and its receptor (BAFF-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Individuals with specific IgE levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had lower levels of soluble BAFF; those with specific IgG levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had reduced BAFF mRNA. Total IgE and specific IgE to mites were not related to BAFF levels. There were no differences in soluble BAFF or mRNA levels between asthmatics and controls. There was an inverse relationship between the cell-surface expression of BAFF-R on CD19+ B cells and BAFF levels at the transcriptional and protein level. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in BAFF levels are related to the strength of the antibody response to Ascaris. PMID:24906685

  16. Non Linear Step By Step Seismic Response and the Push Over Analysis Comparison of a Reinforced Concrete of Ductile Frames 25 Level Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Jorge A.; Martinez, Eduardo

    2008-07-01

    Based on a ductile frames 25 level building, a non-linear analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads (Push-Over) was made in order to determine its collapse and its principal responses were compared against the time-history seismic responses determined with the SCT-EW-85 record. The seismic-resistance design and faced to gravitational loads was made according to the Complementary Technical Norms of Concrete Structures Design (NTC-Concrete) and the NTC-Seismic of the Mexico City Code (RDF-04), satisfying the limit service states (relative lateral displacement between story height maximum relations, story drifts ⩽0.012) and failure (seismic behavior factor, Q = 3). The compressible (soft) seismic zone IIIb and the office use type (group B) were considered. The non-lineal responses were determined with nominal and over-resistance effects. The comparison were made with base shear force-roof lateral displacement relations, global distribution of plastic hinges, failure mechanics tendency, lateral displacements and story drift and its distribution along the height of the building, local and global ductility demands, etc. For the non-linear static analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads, was important to select the type of lateral forces distribution.

  17. Structural, optical and electrical studies on amino acid based new GBC crystals having non linear optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, Mahendra M.; Dongare, Shailesh S.; Patil, Shirish B.; Satpute, P. P.; Pati, Shankar P.

    2011-09-01

    Transparent crystals of α-glycine with barium nitrate and calcium nitrate (GBC) have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 22 × 25 × 4 mm 3 have been obtained in 3-4 weeks time. The solubility of GBC has been determined in water. The grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with cell parameters a = 12.7321 A.U, b = 13.7752 A.U and c = 8.6002 A.U with unit cell volume of 1508.36 (A.U) 3. Comparative IR and Raman studies indicate a molecule with a lack of center of symmetry. A wide transparency window useful for optoelectronic applications is indicated by the UV Studies. Using Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency of GBC is found to be 0.702 times than that of standard KDP. On exposure to light the GBC crystals exhibit positive photoconductivity. I-V characteristics, dielectrics studies, electrical and Vickers micro hardness measurement have been carried out. The GBC crystal exhibits more mechanical strength compared to the reported GSN crystals.

  18. Dose-response relationships in chemical carcinogenesis: superposition of different mechanisms of action, resulting in linear-nonlinear curves, practical thresholds, J-shapes.

    PubMed

    Lutz, W K

    1998-09-20

    The shape of a carcinogen dose-cancer incidence curve is discussed as the result of a superposition of dose-response relationships for various effects of the carcinogen on the process of carcinogenesis. Effects include direct DNA damage, e.g., by covalent binding, indirect DNA damage, e.g., by increased formation of reactive oxygen species or interaction with DNA replication or chromosome integrity. The 'fixation' of a DNA adduct as a heritable mutation depends on its pro-mutagenic potency and on the rates of DNA repair and DNA replication. Endogenous and unavoidable DNA damage is responsible for a background rate of the process of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis and forms the basis of spontaneous cancer incidence. For DNA-reactive carcinogens, linearity of the dose response at the low-dose end is expected. With increasing dose, saturation of DNA repair can introduce a sublinearity (example: dimethylnitrosamine). Stimulation of cell division as a result of high-dose toxicity and regenerative proliferation also results in a sublinear deviation from low-dose linearity. If the DNA-damaging potency of the carcinogen is low in comparison with the high-dose effects, the linear part of the low dose-cancer incidence curve might be hidden within the background variability. Under such conditions, 'practical thresholds' could be discussed (formaldehyde). If a carcinogen increases the rate of cell division or the level of oxidative stress at high dose but has an antimitogenic or antioxidative effect at low dose, a J-shaped (or: U-shaped) curve with a decrease of the spontaneous tumor incidence at low dose could result (caffeic acid; TCDD). This phenomenon has been observed even under conditions of a genotoxic contribution (ionizing radiation; diesel exhaust particles). For a mechanism-based assessment of a low-dose cancer risk, information on the various modes of action and modulations should be available over the full dose range, and models should be refined to incorporate the

  19. Comparison of real-time and linear-response time-dependent density functional theories for molecular chromophores ranging from sparse to high densities of states

    SciTech Connect

    Tussupbayev, Samat; Govind, Niranjan; Lopata, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2015-03-10

    We assess the performance of real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) for the calculation of absorption spectra of 12 organic dye molecules relevant to photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells with 8 exchange-correlation functionals (3 traditional, 3 global hybrids, and 2 range-separated hybrids). We compare the calculations with traditional linear-response (LR) TDDFT. In addition, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RT-TDDFT approach to calculate wide absorption spectra of two large chromophores relevant to photovoltaics and molecular switches.

  20. Polarizability and optical rotation calculated from the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.; Koch, Henrik

    2004-05-01

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model using Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals is presented. Significantly reducing storage demands and computational effort without sacrificing accuracy compared to the conventional model, the algorithm is well suited for large-scale applications. Extensive basis set convergence studies are presented for the static and frequency-dependent electric dipole polarizability of benzene and C60, and for the optical rotation of CNOFH2 and (-)-trans-cyclooctene (TCO). The origin-dependence of the optical rotation is calculated and shown to persist for CC2 even at basis set convergence.

  1. Non-Linear Responses to Precipitation and Shrub Encroachment in Semi-Arid Grassland: Isotopes and CO2 Fluxes Reveal Soil Microsite Alteration as Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cable, J. M.; Sun, W.; Ogle, K.; Williams, D. G.; Potts, D. L.; Scott, R. L.; Huxman, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Responses of net ecosystem production (NEP) to growing season rainfall amount is non-linear over a gradient of woody-plant encroachment in semi-arid riparian grassland. NEP is positively correlated with growing season precipitation amount in the grassland, but is negatively correlated with precipitation amount in a former C4 grassland now occupied by large mesquite (Prosopis) individuals. NEP at sites with intermediate stages of mesquite encroachment have a complex, threshold response to precipitation amount. Mesquite encroachment creates patchy soil microsites and spatial variation in rooting depth and activity. We hypothesized that variation in soil microsite properties (e.g., temperature, labile carbon) and root activity affect soil CO2 efflux in such a way that explains the non-linearity in response of NEP to precipitation. We measured soil CO2 efflux during the dry pre-monsoon (early summer) and wet monsoon (mid summer) periods on old floodplain terraces along the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. We made intensive spatial and temporal measurements of soil CO2 flux in four microsites associated with woody-plant encroachment: inter-canopy space and beneath the canopies of grasses, medium mesquite, and large mesquite. We also measured the δ13C of soil-respired CO2, which provided insight into the contribution of different sources (e.g., roots vs. microbes) to soil CO2 efflux. Soil respiration was highest beneath large mesquite near the canopy center, and lowest beneath medium mesquite and in inter-canopy spaces. The δ13C data revealed that soil respiration was dominated by a C4 signal during the pre-monsoon, but it switched to being dominated by the C3 mesquite signal during the wet monsoon period. Respiration was most sensitive to precipitation inputs beneath the large mesquite, where labile carbon in the form of mesquite litter is readily available. Conversely, soil respiration was least sensitive to precipitation in the open, inter- canopy space

  2. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in…

  3. Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2015-02-01

    An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.

  4. Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.

  5. Growth, structural, optical and electrical behavior of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN) crystal with non-linear optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, M. M.; Pati, S. P.

    2011-02-01

    New trapezoidal, non-linear optical crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN) have been grown by slow cooling from solutions with an initial pH of 4.3. Chemical composition, phase formation and functional groups have been verified by CHN, EDAX, XRF, NMR, XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. UV studies show a much lower cut off wavelength (195 nm) compared to the much investigated glycine sodium nitrate (GSN). The powder SHG efficiency of GPN is found to be 0.6 times compared to that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Cut and polished crystals exposed to light indicate positive photoconductivity. Electrical conductivity studies show an activation energy of 0.16 eV and the dielectric loss is found to decay drastically at higher frequencies (1 MHz) which is desirable in electronic applications. Vickers microhardness studies indicate a Mayer's index value of 2.78. Well resolved, elongated and oriented etch pits have been observed on the side habit face (220) treated in glacial acetic acid for 5 s. Typical circular features resisting the formation of etch pits representing impurity elements have been observed on the cleavage faces. Moisture has been traced on the surface of the crystals subjected to heat treatment.

  6. Use of a non-linear model in examining growth responses of loblolly pine to ozone and acid precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Matthew C.; Shadwick, Douglas S.; Meldahl, Ralph S.; Chappelka, Arthur H.; Lockaby, B. Graeme

    Monthly diameter 2 × height ( d 2h ) data were measured over two years in open-top chambers at Auburn University, Alabama. This study exposed seedlings from two half-sibling loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) families to ozone and acid precipitation treatments. For these data, the accumulation of d 2h ) by individual trees over two years was efficiently represented by a six-parameter non-linear model of ln ( d 2h ) as a function of time. Multivariate analysis of variance using these six estimated parameters for each seedling resulted in greater sensitivity to treatment differences as measured by tests of hypotheses than did analysis of covariance on ln (final d 2h ). This result illustrates the importance of utilizing appropriate analyses that can bring as much of the data as is possible to bear on the question at hand. A test for additional information indicated that five of the six parameters contributed important information concerning treatment differences for at least one of the two families tested. It may be inferred that the treatments have an important effect on the nature of d 2h accumulation within a growing season as well as on the d 2h at the end of the growing season.

  7. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401

  8. Response of Silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers: Implication for Radiation Risk Assessment in Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; O'Neill, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison of the absorbed dose and radiation quality factors calculated from these telescopes with that estimated from measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter show differences which need to be fully understood if these telescopes are to be used for astronaut radiation risk assessments. Instrument performance is complicated by a variety of factors. A Monte Carlo-based technique was developed to model the behavior of both single element detectors in a proton beam, and the performance of a two-element, wide-angle telescope, in the trapped belt proton field inside the Space Shuttle. The technique is based on: (1) radiation transport intranuclear-evaporation model that takes into account the charge and angular distribution of target fragments, (2) Landau-Vavilov distribution of energy deposition allowing for electron escape, (3) true detector geometry of the telescope, (4) coincidence and discriminator settings, (5) spacecraft shielding geometry, and (6) the external space radiation environment, including albedo protons. The value of such detailed modeling and its implications in astronaut risk assessment is addressed. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Approaching the quantum limit for plasmonics: linear atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Emily; Bryant, Garnett

    Linear atomic chains, such as atom chains on surfaces, linear arrays of dopants in semiconductors, or linear molecules, provide ideal testbeds for studying quantum plasmonics in nanosystems. We study the many-body excitations of finite (10-25) linear atomic chains. We use both time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and exact diagonalization to analyze the excitations. TDDFT reveals optically driven excitations that can be single-particle-like, plasmon-like or mixed states. Such states can have very different dependencies on the electron-electron interaction strength, which can be used to help identify the states. TDDFT can identify plasmonic resonances, but it does not reveal how to quantize them. Exact diagonalization is used to get the full quantum description. However, exact diagonalization results can be very different from TDDFT results. Highly correlated, multi-excitonic states, also strongly dependent on the electron-electron interaction strength, appear in the exact response but not in TDDFT excitation spectra. These excitonic many-body states make it hard to identify plasmonic excitations. Exact results are also strongly dependent on the strength of the exchange interaction. We present these results to show how quantum plasmons appear in linear atomic chains.

  10. A simple linear catchment-response model for investigating sediment efflux associated with climate and land use change in Goodwin Creek, MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Thompson, S. E.; Hassan, M. A.; Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Erosion and sediment transport are influenced by hydrological regime (rainfall-runoff), catchment properties (vegetation, topography, soil properties), management practices (land use), and their interactions. Here, we use a simple linear catchment response model to describe sediment transport in the Goodwin Creek catchment. The model includes two linear stores, one for the hillslope and one for the fluvial network. The hillslope store is supplied with sediments from upland erosion, with event-driven mobilization occurring over the effective duration of each storm. Some of the mobilized sediments are redeposited on the hillslope and the remainder is transferred to the river network. Additional sediment supply to the network occurs from the channel via bank erosion. Suspended sediment transport and deposition are considered along river channels in order to determine the timing and magnitude of sediment efflux from the catchment. In environments dominated by hillslope erosion, sediment delivery ratio (the ratio between upland erosion and sediment yield at the outlet) is expected to be closely related to catchment hydrological response. However, fluvial storage obscures this relationship by modulating the morphodynamic response to primary hydrological and geomorphological drivers. We used the model to distinguish the relativ