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Sample records for linear response strength

  1. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings.

    PubMed

    Boos, William R; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-02-09

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a "tipping point." Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation's ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo.

  2. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings

    PubMed Central

    Boos, William R.; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a “tipping point.” Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation’s ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo. PMID:26811462

  3. Influence of linear and undulating strength periodization on physical fitness, physiological, and performance responses to simulated judo matches.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Emerson; Branco, Braulio M; Agostinho, Marcus F; Calmet, Michel; Candau, Robin

    2015-02-01

    To determine the most effective strength periodization model is important to improve judo athletes' performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training on anthropometrical, strength, and judo-specific performance. For this, 13 adult male judo athletes (LP = 6 and DUP = 7) completed a 8-week training program concomitantly to a typical judo training program. Athletes were submitted to a physical fitness test battery, before and after 8 weeks of training, consisting of: (a) maximal strength evaluation: bench press, squat, and row exercises 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests, and handgrip maximal isometric strength; (b) power evaluation: standing long jump test; (c) strength endurance evaluation: dynamic and isometric chin-up tests gripping the judogi; (d) anthropometry measurements: body mass, height, skinfold thickness and circumferences; (e) judo-specific fitness: performance during the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT); (f) match simulation: three 5-minute judo match simulations separated by 15-minute passive recovery. Eight weeks of linear and undulating strength training protocols induced similar significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in skinfold thicknesses (-6.5%) and increases in flexed arm (2.0%) and forearm (1.8%) circumferences, maximal isometric handgrip strength (4.6% and 6.1% for right and left hands, respectively), isometric strength endurance chin-up performance gripping the judogi (18.9%), maximal dynamic strength for row (11.5%), bench press (11.6%) and squat exercises (7.1%), total weight lifted at 70% 1RM for bench press (15.1%) and squat (9.6%) exercises, number of throws during sets B (3.1%) and C (9.5%) of the SJFT (resulting in increased total number of throws, 5.5%), and decreased index in this test, -4.2%). However, no changes were observed in the physiological, rating of perceived exertion, or technical actions during 3 match simulations. Thus, it seems that the short

  4. Conditioned reinforcement and response strength.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration.

  5. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    PubMed Central

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration. PMID:20885815

  6. Linear Response for Intermittent Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Todd, Mike

    2016-11-01

    We consider the one parameter family {α mapsto T_{α}} ({α in [0,1)}) of Pomeau-Manneville type interval maps {T_{α}(x) = x(1+2^{α} x^{α})} for {x in [0,1/2)} and {T_{α}(x)=2x-1} for {x in [1/2, 1]}, with the associated absolutely continuous invariant probability measure {μ_{α}}. For {α in (0,1)}, Sarig and Gouëzel proved that the system mixes only polynomially with rate {n^{1-1/{α}}} (in particular, there is no spectral gap). We show that for any {ψ in Lq}, the map {α to int_01 ψ d μ_{α}} is differentiable on {[0,1-1/q)}, and we give a (linear response) formula for the value of the derivative. This is the first time that a linear response formula for the SRB measure is obtained in the setting of slowly mixing dynamics. Our argument shows how cone techniques can be used in this context. For {α ≥ 1/2} we need the {n^{-1/{α}}} decorrelation obtained by Gouëzel under additional conditions.

  7. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-01-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  8. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-03-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable.

  9. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  10. Ionic Strength Responsive Sulfonated Polystyrene Opals.

    PubMed

    Nucara, Luca; Piazza, Vincenzo; Greco, Francesco; Robbiano, Valentina; Cappello, Valentina; Gemmi, Mauro; Cacialli, Franco; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2017-02-08

    Stimuli-responsive photonic crystals (PCs) represent an intriguing class of smart materials very promising for sensing applications. Here, selective ionic strength responsive polymeric PCs are reported. They are easily fabricated by partial sulfonation of polystyrene opals, without using toxic or expensive monomers and etching steps. The color of the resulting hydrogel-like ordered structures can be continuously shifted over the entire visible range (405-760 nm) by changing the content of ions over an extremely wide range of concentration (from about 70 μM to 4 M). The optical response is completely independent from pH and temperature, and the initial color can be fully recovered by washing the sulfonated opals with pure water. These new smart photonic materials could find important applications as ionic strength sensors for environmental monitoring as well as for healthcare screening.

  11. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  12. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways.

  13. Linear response theory applied to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodai, Tamas; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    We investigate in an intermediate-complexity climate model the applicability of linear response theory to a geoengineering problem. Global climate change with respect to an appropriate ensemble average of the surface air temperature ⟨[T]⟩ due to a given rise in carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] is attempted to be canceled out or modulated by an appropriately chosen modulation of the solar forcing. The latter is predicted by linear response theory in frequency-domain as: Δfs(ω) = (Δ⟨[T]⟩(ω) -χCO2(ω)ΔfCO2(ω))/χs(ω), where the χ's are linear susceptibilities. With a doubling of [CO2] the response is nonlinear to a certain degree, but a significant cancellation with respect to (wrt.) [T] is achieved, the asymptotic total response to combined forcing being only 10% of that with [CO2]-doubling alone. We investigate in this geoengineering scenario the response wrt. zonal or regional averages of T too. The nonlinearities have a more severe effect with respect to the predictability of the spatial total response pattern, but in actual fact a significant cancellation is achieved even locally. Similar conclusions can be drawn wrt. the model variable of large scale precipitation. The regional and global response can be characterized by a single dominant multi-year time scale. The spatial pattern of the response time is rather nontrivial.

  14. Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…

  15. Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…

  16. Qubit Measurement with a Nonlinear Cavity Detector Beyond Linear Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, Catherine; Clerk, Aashish

    2012-02-01

    We consider theoretically the use of a driven, nonlinear superconducting microwave cavity to measure a coupled superconducting qubit. This is similar to setups studied in recent experiments.ootnotetextM. Hatridge et al. Phys.Rev.B, 83,134501 (2011)^,ootnotetextF.R. Ong et al. PRL 106,167002 (2011) In a previous work, we demonstrated that for weak coupling (where linear response theory holds) one misses the quantum limit on QND detection in this system by a large factor proportional to the parametric gain.ootnotetextC. Laflamme and A.A. Clerk, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033803 (2011) Here we calculate measurement backaction beyond linear response by using an approximate mapping to a detuned degenerate parametric amplifier having both linear and dispersive couplings to the qubit. We find surprisingly that the backaction dephasing rate is far more sensitive to corrections beyond linear response than the detector response. Thus, increasing the coupling strength can significantly increase the efficiency of the measurement. We interpret this behavior in terms of the non-Gaussian photon number fluctuations of the nonlinear cavity. Our results have applications to quantum information processing and quantum amplification with superconducting microwave circuits.

  17. Chaos pass filter: linear response of synchronized chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Steffen; Kestler, Johannes; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The linear response of synchronized time-delayed chaotic systems to small external perturbations, i.e., the phenomenon of chaos pass filter, is investigated for iterated maps. The distribution of distances, i.e., the deviations between two synchronized chaotic units due to external perturbations on the transferred signal, is used as a measure of the linear response. It is calculated numerically and, for some special cases, analytically. Depending on the model parameters this distribution has power law tails in the region of synchronization leading to diverging moments of distances. This is a consequence of multiplicative and additive noise in the corresponding linear equations due to chaos and external perturbations. The linear response can also be quantified by the bit error rate of a transmitted binary message which perturbs the synchronized system. The bit error rate is given by an integral over the distribution of distances and is calculated analytically and numerically. It displays a complex nonmonotonic behavior in the region of synchronization. For special cases the distribution of distances has a fractal structure leading to a devil's staircase for the bit error rate as a function of coupling strength. The response to small harmonic perturbations shows resonances related to coupling and feedback delay times. A bidirectionally coupled chain of three units can completely filter out the perturbation. Thus the second moment and the bit error rate become zero.

  18. Acoustic methods to monitor sliver linear density and yarn strength

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for monitoring sliver and yarn characteristics. Transverse waves are generated relative to the sliver or yarn. At least one acoustic sensor is in contact with the sliver or yarn for detecting waves coupled to the sliver or yarn and for generating a signal. The generated signal is processed to identify the predefined characteristics including sliver or yarn linear density. The transverse waves can be generated with a high-powered acoustic transmitter spaced relative to the sliver or yarn with large amplitude pulses having a central frequency in a range between 20 KHz and 40 KHz applied to the transmitter. The transverse waves can be generated by mechanically agitating the sliver or yarn with a tapping member.

  19. Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Anthony P; Grace, Randolph C; Nevin, John A

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess resistance to change. Contrary to the generalized matching law, logarithms of response ratios in the two components were not a linear function of log reinforcer ratios, implying a failure of parameter invariance. Over a 2 log unit range, the function appeared linear and indicated undermatching, but in conditions with more extreme reinforcer ratios, approximate matching was observed. A model suggested by McLean (1991), originally for local contrast, predicts these changes in sensitivity to reinforcer ratios somewhat better than models by Herrnstein (1970) and by Williams and Wixted (1986). Prefeeding tests of resistance to change were conducted at each reinforcer ratio, and relative resistance to change was also a nonlinear function of log reinforcer ratios, again contrary to conclusions from previous work. Instead, the function suggests that resistance to change in a component may be determined partly by the rate of reinforcement and partly by the ratio of reinforcers to responses. PMID:22287804

  20. An update on the nonequilibrium linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiesi, M.; Maes, C.

    2013-01-01

    The unique fluctuation-dissipation theorem for equilibrium stands in contrast with the wide variety of nonequilibrium linear response formulae. Their most traditional approach is ‘analytic’, which, in the absence of detailed balance, introduces the logarithm of the stationary probability density as observable. The theory of dynamical systems offers an alternative with a formula that continues to work even when the stationary distribution is not smooth. We show that this method works equally well for stochastic dynamics, and we illustrate it with a numerical example for the perturbation of circadian cycles. A second ‘probabilistic’ approach starts from dynamical ensembles and expands the probability weights on path space. This line suggests new physical questions, as we meet the frenetic contribution to linear response, and the relevance of the change in dynamical activity in the relaxation to a (new) nonequilibrium condition.

  1. Linear Response Function of Bond-Order

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nayuta; Mitsuta, Yuki; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Yamanaka, Shusuke

    2016-01-01

    We present the linear response function of bond-orders (LRF-BO) based on a real space integration scheme for molecular systems. As in the case of the LRF of density, the LRF-BO is defined as the response of the bond order of the molecule for the virtual perturbation. Our calculations show that the LRF-BO enables us not only to detect inductive and resonating effects of conjugating systems, but also to predict pKa values on substitution groups via linear relationships between the Hammett constants and the LRF-BO values for meta- and para-substituted benzoic acids. More importantly, the LRF-BO values for the O-H bonds strongly depend on the sites to which the virtual perturbation is applied, implying that the LRF-BO values include essential information about reaction mechanism of the acid-dissociation of substituted benzoic acids. PMID:27792148

  2. Investigation of Torsional Strength of the VT6 Weld Joint Produced by Linear Friction Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimanova, G. R.; Kabirov, R. R.; Karavaeva, M. V.; Ershova, Yu. A.; Zhilyaev, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Results of measurement of torsional strength of the weld joint of the VT6 titanium alloy produced by linear friction welding are presented. For a comparison, the same method was used to test monolithic specimens of the VT6 alloy. Torsional strength values of the weld joint (τUS = 861 MPa and φ = 110°) correspond to the strength of the monolithic material. In this case, the specimens fail along the base metal.

  3. Ballistic transport in graphene beyond linear response

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, B.; Korniyenko, Y.; Lewkowicz, M.; Kao, H. C.

    2010-01-15

    The process of coherent creation of particle-hole excitations by an electric field in graphene is quantitatively described beyond linear response. We calculate the evolution of current density, number of pairs and energy in ballistic regime for electric field E using the tight-binding model. While for ballistic flight times smaller than t{sub nl}propor toE{sup -1/2} current is linear in E and independent of time, for larger ballistic times the current increases after t{sub nl} as Jpropor toE{sup 3/2}t and finally at yet larger times (t>t{sub B}propor toE{sup -1}) Bloch oscillations set in. It is shown that the number of pairs follows the 2D generalization of the Schwinger's creation rate npropor toE{sup 3/2} only on certain time segments with a prefactor different from that obtained using the asymptotic formula.

  4. Random Response of Linear Hysteretic Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, Claudio

    2008-07-08

    The probabilistic characterization of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with linear hysteretic damping excited by ground motion described by zero mean stationary Gaussian processes is achieved by profiting from a steady-state solution of the motion equation, valid when the excitation is given by the superposition of harmonics. The model of linear hysteretic damping has been introduced to fit damping mechanisms in which the dissipation rate is independent of frequency, and mathematically it is described by the Hilbert transform of the response. Though this model is debated since it violates the principle of causality, its intrinsic simplicity makes it preferable to other models. The steady-state solution of the motion equation proposed in this paper allows a closed form evaluation of the respone mean square value. However, the numerical examples show that this quantity is affected by the mechanism of energy dissipation only when this is large. On the contrary, for a low capacity of dissipation the response mean square value is rather insensitive to the dissipation mechanism.

  5. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE PAGES

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  6. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  7. Responsive linear-dendritic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Eva; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The combination of dendritic and linear polymeric structures in the same macromolecule opens up new possibilities for the design of block copolymers and for applications of functional polymers that have self-assembly properties. There are three main strategies for the synthesis of linear-dendritic block copolymers (LDBCs) and, in particular, the emergence of click chemistry has made the coupling of preformed blocks one of the most efficient ways of obtaining libraries of LDBCs. In these materials, the periphery of the dendron can be precisely functionalised to obtain functional LDBCs with self-assembly properties of interest in different technological areas. The incorporation of stimuli-responsive moieties gives rise to smart materials that are generally processed as self-assemblies of amphiphilic LDBCs with a morphology that can be controlled by an external stimulus. Particular emphasis is placed on light-responsive LDBCs. Furthermore, a brief review of the biomedical or materials science applications of LDBCs is presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  9. Neutron source strength measurements for Varian, Siemens, Elekta, and General Electric linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Followill, David S; Stovall, Marilyn S; Kry, Stephen F; Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2003-01-01

    The shielding calculations for high energy (>10 MV) linear accelerators must include the photoneutron production within the head of the accelerator. Procedures have been described to calculate the treatment room door shielding based on the neutron source strength (Q value) for a specific accelerator and energy combination. Unfortunately, there is currently little data in the literature stating the neutron source strengths for the most widely used linear accelerators. In this study, the neutron fluence for 36 linear accelerators, including models from Varian, Siemens, Elekta/Philips, and General Electric, was measured using gold-foil activation. Several of the models and energy combinations had multiple measurements. The neutron fluence measured in the patient plane was independent of the surface area of the room, suggesting that neutron fluence is more dependent on the direct neutron fluence from the head of the accelerator than from room scatter. Neutron source strength, Q, was determined from the measured neutron fluences. As expected, Q increased with increasing photon energy. The Q values ranged from 0.02 for a 10 MV beam to 1.44(x10(12)) neutrons per photon Gy for a 25 MV beam. The most comprehensive set of neutron source strength values, Q, for the current accelerators in clinical use are presented for use in calculating room shielding.

  10. Predictions of tensile strength of binary tablets using linear and power law mixing rules.

    PubMed

    Michrafy, A; Michrafy, M; Kadiri, M S; Dodds, J A

    2007-03-21

    There has recently been an increased interest in predicting the tensile strength of binary tablets from the properties of the individual components. In this paper, measurements are reported for tensile strength of tablets compressed from single-component and binary powder mixtures of lactose with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and lactose with two types of silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC and SMCC-HD), which are different in compressibility. Measurements show the tensile strength increases with the relative density for single powders, and both with the relative density and the mass fraction of cellulose in the mixtures. It was also observed, for binary mixtures compacted at 50 and 150 MPa, that there was a slight variation in porosity with the mass fraction of celluloses. The predictions of the tensile strength of binary tablets from the characteristics of the single-components was analysed with the extended Ryshkewitch-Duckworth model by assuming both linear and power law mixing rules for the determination of the parameters "tensile strength at zero porosity and bonding capacity constant". As consequence, four models were analysed and compared with measurements using criteria based on the standard deviation from the mean values. Results showed a good prediction using a linear mixing rule combined with the power law. However, as the predictions of these models depend on the powders and the porosity range for the characterization of single-components, none of them can be systematically considered as being the best to predict binary behaviour from data for individual powders.

  11. M1 Strength in Photonuclear Reactions with Linearly Polarized γ-ray Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Horikawa, Ken; Miyamoto, Shuji; Amano, Sho; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Chiba, Satoshi; Akimune, Hidetoshi; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru

    The neutrino-nucleus interactions are important for understanding nucleosyntheses by neutrino-induced reactions as well as supernova explosion mechanisms. The M1 strength in atomic nuclei is important for estimation of neutrino-nucleus interactions. We studied neutron angular distribution from (γ, n) reactions with linear polarized laser Compton scattering (LCS) γ-rays to develop a method to measure the M1 strength and verified a theoretical prediction by Agodi [Il Nuovo Cimento 5 [1], 21 (1957)] as the first step.

  12. Dissociation of value and response strength

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, William

    1987-01-01

    Four pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules and later to concurrent-chains schedules, with terminal links that had previously been multiple-schedule components. For 2 birds, the terminal-link schedules arranged an inverse relationship between response rate and reinforcement rate; for the other 2 birds a direct corresponding relationship was arranged. Those response rates were further modified by differentially reinforcing either longer or shorter interresponse times, relative to the current means. Although the birds' initial-link responses indicated preferences for terminal links with higher rates of reinforcement, in half the cases the birds responded during the terminal links in such a way as to produce lower rates of reinforcement, rates their initial-link behavior indicated they did not prefer. That outcome is inconsistent with maximization theory, but consistent with a strengthening analysis of behavior on single-key schedules. PMID:16812498

  13. Linear-response calculation in the time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Inakura, Tsunenori; Avogadro, Paolo; Ebata, Shuichiro; Sato, Koichi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2012-11-12

    Linear response calculations based on the time-dependent density-functional theory are presented. Especially, we report results of the finite amplitude method which we have recently proposed as an alternative and feasible approach to the (quasiparticle-)random-phase approximation. Calculated properties of the giant resonances and low-energy E1 modes are discussed. We found a universal linear correlation between the low-energy E1 strength and the neutron skin thickness.

  14. Respiratory muscle strength effect on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability parameters in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Cássia Da Luz; Simon, Julio Cristiano; Schneiders, Paloma De Borba; San Martin, Elisabete Antunes; Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; da Silva, Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recognized as a multisystemic inflammatory disease associated with extrapulmonary comorbidities, including respiratory muscle weakness and cardiovascular and cardiac autonomic regulation disorders. We investigated whether alterations in respiratory muscle strength (RMS) would affect cardiac autonomic modulation in COPD patients. This study was a cross-sectional study done in ten COPD patients affected by moderate to very severe disease. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal was recorded using a Polar cardiofrequencimeter at rest in the sitting position (10 minutes) and during a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-M; 4 minutes). Linear analysis in the time and frequency domains and nonlinear analysis were performed on the recorded signals. RMS was assessed using a digital manometer, which provided the maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) and the maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax). During the RSA-M, patients presented an HRV power increase in the low-frequency band (LFnu) (46.9±23.7 vs 75.8±27.2; P=0.01) and a decrease in the high-frequency band (HFnu) (52.8±23.5 vs 24.0±27.0; P=0.01) when compared to the resting condition. Significant associations were found between RMS and HRV spectral indices: PImax and LFnu (r=-0.74; P=0.01); PImax and HFnu (r=0.74; P=0.01); PEmax and LFnu (r=-0.66; P=0.01); PEmax and HFnu (r=0.66; P=0.03); between PEmax and sample entropy (r=0.83; P<0.01) and between PEmax and approximate entropy (r=0.74; P=0.01). Using a linear regression model, we found that PImax explained 44% of LFnu behavior during the RSA-M. COPD patients with impaired RMS presented altered cardiac autonomic control, characterized by marked sympathetic modulation and a reduced parasympathetic response; reduced HRV complexity was observed during the RSA-M.

  15. Respiratory muscle strength effect on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability parameters in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Cássia Da Luz; Simon, Julio Cristiano; Schneiders, Paloma De Borba; San Martin, Elisabete Antunes; Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; da Silva, Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recognized as a multisystemic inflammatory disease associated with extrapulmonary comorbidities, including respiratory muscle weakness and cardiovascular and cardiac autonomic regulation disorders. We investigated whether alterations in respiratory muscle strength (RMS) would affect cardiac autonomic modulation in COPD patients. Methods This study was a cross-sectional study done in ten COPD patients affected by moderate to very severe disease. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal was recorded using a Polar cardiofrequencimeter at rest in the sitting position (10 minutes) and during a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-M; 4 minutes). Linear analysis in the time and frequency domains and nonlinear analysis were performed on the recorded signals. RMS was assessed using a digital manometer, which provided the maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) and the maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax). Results During the RSA-M, patients presented an HRV power increase in the low-frequency band (LFnu) (46.9±23.7 vs 75.8±27.2; P=0.01) and a decrease in the high-frequency band (HFnu) (52.8±23.5 vs 24.0±27.0; P=0.01) when compared to the resting condition. Significant associations were found between RMS and HRV spectral indices: PImax and LFnu (r=−0.74; P=0.01); PImax and HFnu (r=0.74; P=0.01); PEmax and LFnu (r=−0.66; P=0.01); PEmax and HFnu (r=0.66; P=0.03); between PEmax and sample entropy (r=0.83; P<0.01) and between PEmax and approximate entropy (r=0.74; P=0.01). Using a linear regression model, we found that PImax explained 44% of LFnu behavior during the RSA-M. Conclusion COPD patients with impaired RMS presented altered cardiac autonomic control, characterized by marked sympathetic modulation and a reduced parasympathetic response; reduced HRV complexity was observed during the RSA-M. PMID:27555757

  16. Linear response theory for open systems: Quantum master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Masashi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Arimitsu, Toshihico; Shibata, Fumiaki

    2017-02-01

    A linear response theory for open quantum systems is formulated by means of the time-local and time-nonlocal quantum master equations, where a relevant quantum system interacts with a thermal reservoir as well as with an external classical field. A linear response function that characterizes how a relaxation process deviates from its intrinsic process by a weak external field is obtained by extracting the linear terms with respect to the external field from the quantum master equation. It consists of four parts. One represents the linear response of a quantum system when system-reservoir correlation at an initial time and correlation between reservoir states at different times are neglected. The others are correction terms due to these effects. The linear response function is compared with the Kubo formula in the usual linear response theory. To investigate the properties of the linear response of an open quantum system, an exactly solvable model for a stochastic dephasing of a two-level system is examined. Furthermore, the method for deriving the linear response function is applied for calculating two-time correlation functions of open quantum systems. It is shown that the quantum regression theorem is not valid for open quantum systems unless their reduced time evolution is Markovian.

  17. Competitive inhibition can linearize dose-response and generate a linear rectifier.

    PubMed

    Savir, Yonatan; Tu, Benjamin P; Springer, Michael

    2015-09-23

    Many biological responses require a dynamic range that is larger than standard bi-molecular interactions allow, yet the also ability to remain off at low input. Here we mathematically show that an enzyme reaction system involving a combination of competitive inhibition, conservation of the total level of substrate and inhibitor, and positive feedback can behave like a linear rectifier-that is, a network motif with an input-output relationship that is linearly sensitive to substrate above a threshold but unresponsive below the threshold. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved yeast SAGA histone acetylation complex may possess the proper physiological response characteristics and molecular interactions needed to perform as a linear rectifier, and we suggest potential experiments to test this hypothesis. One implication of this work is that linear responses and linear rectifiers might be easier to evolve or synthetically construct than is currently appreciated.

  18. Competitive inhibition can linearize dose-response and generate a linear rectifier

    PubMed Central

    Savir, Yonatan; Tu, Benjamin P.; Springer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many biological responses require a dynamic range that is larger than standard bi-molecular interactions allow, yet the also ability to remain off at low input. Here we mathematically show that an enzyme reaction system involving a combination of competitive inhibition, conservation of the total level of substrate and inhibitor, and positive feedback can behave like a linear rectifier—that is, a network motif with an input-output relationship that is linearly sensitive to substrate above a threshold but unresponsive below the threshold. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved yeast SAGA histone acetylation complex may possess the proper physiological response characteristics and molecular interactions needed to perform as a linear rectifier, and we suggest potential experiments to test this hypothesis. One implication of this work is that linear responses and linear rectifiers might be easier to evolve or synthetically construct than is currently appreciated. PMID:26495436

  19. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  20. Linear response of zero-resistance states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkreiz, Maxim

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional electron system in the presence of a magnetic field and microwave irradiation can undergo a phase transition towards a zero-resistance state (ZRS). A widely used model predicts the ZRS to be a domain state, which responds to applied dc voltages or dc currents by slightly changing the domain structure. Here we propose an alternative response scenario, according to which the domain pattern remains unchanged. Surprisingly, a fixed domain pattern does not destroy zero-resistance, provided that the resistance is direction independent. Otherwise, if the symmetry of the domain pattern allows a direction dependence of the resistance, the domain state can be dissipative. We give examples for both situations and simulate the response behavior numerically.

  1. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm3 that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components. PMID:25749549

  2. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  3. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    DOE PAGES

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; ...

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order ofmore » larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.« less

  4. Error analysis for RADAR neighbor matching localization in linear logarithmic strength varying Wi-Fi environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mu; Tian, Zengshan; Xu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiang; Wu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical errors for the fingerprint-based RADAR neighbor matching localization with the linearly calibrated reference points (RPs) in logarithmic received signal strength (RSS) varying Wi-Fi environment. To the best of our knowledge, little comprehensive analysis work has appeared on the error performance of neighbor matching localization with respect to the deployment of RPs. However, in order to achieve the efficient and reliable location-based services (LBSs) as well as the ubiquitous context-awareness in Wi-Fi environment, much attention has to be paid to the highly accurate and cost-efficient localization systems. To this end, the statistical errors by the widely used neighbor matching localization are significantly discussed in this paper to examine the inherent mathematical relations between the localization errors and the locations of RPs by using a basic linear logarithmic strength varying model. Furthermore, based on the mathematical demonstrations and some testing results, the closed-form solutions to the statistical errors by RADAR neighbor matching localization can be an effective tool to explore alternative deployment of fingerprint-based neighbor matching localization systems in the future.

  5. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm3 that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  6. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm(3) that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  7. Descriptive Linear modeling of steady-state visual evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.; Kenner, K.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to explore use of the steady state visual-evoke electrocortical response as an indicator of cognitive task loading. Application of linear descriptive modeling to steady state Visual Evoked Response (VER) data is summarized. Two aspects of linear modeling are reviewed: (1) unwrapping the phase-shift portion of the frequency response, and (2) parsimonious characterization of task-loading effects in terms of changes in model parameters. Model-based phase unwrapping appears to be most reliable in applications, such as manual control, where theoretical models are available. Linear descriptive modeling of the VER has not yet been shown to provide consistent and readily interpretable results.

  8. On the tensile strength of soil grains in Hertzian response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi, Sadegh; Fonseca, Joana

    2017-06-01

    The breakage initiation of soil grains is controlled by its tensile capacity. Despite the importance of tensile strength, it is often disregarded due to difficulties in measurement. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the effect of tensile strength on Hertzian response of a single soil grain. Hertz theory is commonly used in numerical simulation to present the contact constitutive behaviour of a purely elastic grain under normal loading. This normal force:displacement comes from stress distribution and concentration inside the grain. When the stress reaches the tensile capacity, a crack initiates. A series of numerical tests have been conducted to determine the sensitivity of Hertzian response to the selected tensile strength used as an input data. An elastic-damage constitutive model has been employed for spherical grains in a combined finite-discrete element framework. The interpretation of results was enriched by considering previous theoretical work. In addition, systematic experimental tests have been carried out on both spherical glass beads and grains of two different sands, i.e. Leighton Buzzard silica sand and coarse carbonate sand from Persian Gulf. The preliminary results suggest that lower tensile strength leads to a softer response under normal loading. The wider range of responses obtained for the carbonate sand, are believed to be related to the large variety of grain shape associated with bioclastic origin of the constituent grains.

  9. The Perceived Psychological Responsibilities Of A Strength And Conditioning Coach.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Jon N; Comfort, Paul; Fawcett, Tom

    2016-09-22

    Research is limited in exploring the specific psychology oriented responsibilities of the strength and conditioning professional. The present research explored the psychological responsibilities adopted by accredited strength and conditioning coaches. Participants comprised 10 participants working within the UK, 3 within the USA and 5 within Australia offering a cross section of experience from raging sport disciplines and educational backgrounds. Participants were interviewed either in person or via Skype. Thematic clustering was employed utilizing interpretative phonological analysis to identify common themes. Over half (61%) of the respondents reported that their position as a strength and conditioning coach required additional psychology orientated responsibilities. These comprised a counselling role in the absence of psychologist the use of 'softer skills' in a mentoring role of the athlete during a challenging situation. The coach could play an influential role in shaping the mentality of the team. The coach identifies how the role results in working to relay information for the athlete to other support staff and similarly from the support staff through the athlete. The coach identifies how the role results in working to relay information for the athlete to other support staff and similarly from the support staff to the athlete. In addition to identifying the resonant psychological orientated responsibilities discussion is made with specific focus on the ethical boundary to which strength and conditioning coaches must reside regarding the competencies to provide psychological support.

  10. Linear and nonlinear response in sheared soft spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tighe, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Packings of soft spheres provide an idealized model of foams, emulsions, and grains, while also serving as the canonical example of a system undergoing a jamming transition. Packings' mechanical response has now been studied exhaustively in the context of ``strict linear response,'' i.e. by linearizing about a stable static packing and solving the resulting equations of motion. Both because the system is close to a critical point and because the soft sphere pair potential is non-analytic at the point of contact, it is reasonable to ask under what circumstances strict linear response provides a good approximation to the actual response. We simulate sheared soft sphere packings close to jamming and identify two distinct strain scales: (i) the scale on which strict linear response fails, coinciding with a topological change in the packing's contact network; and (ii) the scale on which linear superposition of the averaged stress-strain curve breaks down. This latter scale provides a ``weak linear response'' criterion and is likely to be more experimentally relevant.

  11. Static compressive strength prediction of open-hole structure based on non-linear shear behavior and micro-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangnan; Cai, Hongneng; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the strength of the constituents of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (CFRP), and a prediction of the static compressive strength of open-hole structure of polymer composites. The approach combined with non-linear analysis in macro-level and a linear elastic micromechanical failure analysis in microlevel (non-linear MMF) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. A face-centered cubic micromechanics model is constructed to analyze the stresses in fiber and matrix in microlevel. Non-interactive failure criteria are proposed to characterize the strength of fiber and matrix. The non-linear shear behavior of the laminate is studied experimentally, and a novel approach of cubic spline interpolation is used to capture significant non-linear shear behavior of laminate. The user-defined material subroutine UMAT for the non-linear share behavior is developed and combined in the mechanics analysis in the macro-level using the Abaqus Python codes. The failure mechanism and static strength of open-hole compressive (OHC) structure of polymer composites is studied based on non-linear MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of non-linear MMF.

  12. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  13. Quantitative analysis of directional strengths in jointly stationary linear multivariate processes.

    PubMed

    Gigi, S; Tangirala, A K

    2010-08-01

    Identification and analysis of directed influences in multivariate systems is an important problem in many scientific areas. Recent studies in neuroscience have provided measures to determine the network structure of the process and to quantify the total effect in terms of energy transfer. These measures are based on joint stationary representations of a multivariate process using vector auto-regressive (VAR) models. A few important issues remain unaddressed though. The primary outcomes of this study are (i) a theoretical proof that the total coupling strength consists of three components, namely, the direct, indirect, and the interference produced by the direct and indirect effects, (ii) expressions to estimate/calculate these effects, and (iii) a result which shows that the well-known directed measure for linear systems, partial directed coherence (PDC) only aids in structure determination but does not provide a normalized measure of the direct energy transfer. Simulation case studies are shown to illustrate the theoretical results.

  14. Improvement of impact strength in linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) by blending with amorphous polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabella, F.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the current work was to improve the film impact strength of commercial linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) resins, while maintaining or improving other desirable properties. The approach used was to blend rubber-like (i.e. essentially noncrystalline) polymer resins with the base resin LLDPE. The choice of the rubber-like components was largely dictated by their commercial availability. The rubber-like polymers chosen were poly (ethylene-vinyl acetate) [EVA], poly (ethylene-n-butyl acrylate) [EnBA], and poly (ethylene-propylene) rubber [EPR]. The weight percent range of addition of the rubber-like component was restricted to 5% - 20%. The preferred range was only up to 10%. The structure of the base LLDPE resin, rubber-like components and the blends thereof was characterized. The physical and mechanical properties of the blown films of the resin blends were measured and correlations between structure and properties were determined.

  15. Linear response of an instrument entitled Sky Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Dong; Xu, Wen-qing; Fan, Ren-jie

    2016-11-01

    In order to validate the good linear response of an instrument entitled Sky Radiometer(abbreviated to DTL-1) and check the great accuracy of radiance, the experiments which checked the DTL-1 using the large diameter integrating sphere system verified that the instrument had fine linearity and working stability. At the same time, the sky radiance in Hefei was measured, and the validity and correctness of DTL-1 were verified using fibre-optical spectrometer. The results indicated that the instrument had fine work ability, including good linear response, and could satisfy the scientific research and the actual application. However, the linear response of the instrument entitled Sky Radiometer in different region will be validated.

  16. Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

  17. Effects of linear vs. daily undulatory periodized resistance training on maximal and submaximal strength gains.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Fabrício; Simão, Roberto; Rhea, Matthew; Bunker, Derek; Prestes, Jonato; Leite, Richard Diego; Miranda, Humberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of 2 periodized resistance training (RT) methods on the evolution of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and 8RM loads. Twenty resistance trained men were randomly assigned to 2 training groups: linear periodization (LP) group and daily undulating periodization (DUP) group. The subjects were tested at baseline and after 12 weeks for 1RM and 8RM loads in leg press (LEG) and bench press (BP) exercises. The training program was performed in alternated sessions for upper (session A: chest, shoulder and triceps) and lower body (session B: leg, back and biceps). The 12-week periodized training was applied only in the tested exercises, and in the other exercises, 3 sets of 6-8RM were performed. Both groups exhibited significant increases in 1RM loads on LEG and BP, but no statistically significant difference between groups was observed. The same occurred in 8RM loads on LEG and BP. However, DUP group presented superior effect size (ES) in 1RM and 8RM loads for LEG and BP exercises when compared to the LP group. In conclusion, periodized RT can be an efficient method for increasing the strength and muscular endurance in trained individuals. Although there was no statistically significant difference between periodization models, DUP promoted superior ES gains in muscular maximal and submaximal strength.

  18. Allometric functional response model: body masses constrain interaction strengths.

    PubMed

    Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Rall, Björn C; Kalinkat, Gregor; Brose, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    1. Functional responses quantify the per capita consumption rates of predators depending on prey density. The parameters of these nonlinear interaction strength models were recently used as successful proxies for predicting population dynamics, food-web topology and stability. 2. This study addressed systematic effects of predator and prey body masses on the functional response parameters handling time, instantaneous search coefficient (attack coefficient) and a scaling exponent converting type II into type III functional responses. To fully explore the possible combinations of predator and prey body masses, we studied the functional responses of 13 predator species (ground beetles and wolf spiders) on one small and one large prey resulting in 26 functional responses. 3. We found (i) a power-law decrease of handling time with predator mass with an exponent of -0.94; (ii) an increase of handling time with prey mass (power-law with an exponent of 0.83, but only three prey sizes were included); (iii) a hump-shaped relationship between instantaneous search coefficients and predator-prey body-mass ratios; and (iv) low scaling exponents for low predator-prey body mass ratios in contrast to high scaling exponents for high predator-prey body-mass ratios. 4. These scaling relationships suggest that nonlinear interaction strengths can be predicted by knowledge of predator and prey body masses. Our results imply that predators of intermediate size impose stronger per capita top-down interaction strengths on a prey than smaller or larger predators. Moreover, the stability of population and food-web dynamics should increase with increasing body-mass ratios in consequence of increases in the scaling exponents. 5. Integrating these scaling relationships into population models will allow predicting energy fluxes, food-web structures and the distribution of interaction strengths across food web links based on knowledge of the species' body masses.

  19. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

  20. Learning in higher order Boltzmann machines using linear response.

    PubMed

    Leisink, M A; Kappen, H J

    2000-04-01

    We introduce an efficient method for learning and inference in higher order Boltzmann machines. The method is based on mean field theory with the linear response correction. We compute the correlations using the exact and the approximated method for a fully connected third order network of ten neurons. In addition, we compare the results of the exact and approximate learning algorithm. Finally we use the presented method to solve the shifter problem. We conclude that the linear response approximation gives good results as long as the couplings are not too large.

  1. Linear and nonlinear responses to middle latitude surface temperature anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, John O.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear responses to fixed and seasonally varying surface temperature anomalies in a two-level hemispheric time-dependent coupled atmosphere-surface mixed layer model are described. Linear stationary models that are equivalent to the nonlinear time-dependent model are used to analyze these responses. A model linearized around the climatological zonal state of the time dependent model and forced by anomalous surface temperatures does not provide a reasonable estimate for the anomalous reponses, which are considerably underestimated. Better responses are obtained when the anomalous stationary nonlinear eddy fluxes are included in a model linearized around the full climatology. However, this latter model is overly sensitive, and anomalous responses are a small residual balance to the forcing by the surface temperature anomalies and the anomalous transient eddy fluxes. To better understand these linear responses, an eigenanalysis of the climatological state is performed. Seasonal anomalies appear to be dominated by one characteristic pattern near resonance which can be associated with a slowly growing coupled atmosphere-ocean instability.

  2. The Distribution of Subjective Memory Strength: List Strength and Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2009-01-01

    Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of…

  3. The Distribution of Subjective Memory Strength: List Strength and Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2009-01-01

    Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of…

  4. Endoreversible quantum heat engines in the linear response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghui; He, Jizhou; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-07-01

    We analyze general models of quantum heat engines operating a cycle of two adiabatic and two isothermal processes. We use the quantum master equation for a system to describe heat transfer current during a thermodynamic process in contact with a heat reservoir, with no use of phenomenological thermal conduction. We apply the endoreversibility description to such engine models working in the linear response regime and derive expressions of the efficiency and the power. By analyzing the entropy production rate along a single cycle, we identify the thermodynamic flux and force that a linear relation connects. From maximizing the power output, we find that such heat engines satisfy the tight-coupling condition and the efficiency at maximum power agrees with the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency known as the upper bound in the linear response regime.

  5. Cardiotachometer with linear beat-to-beat frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Pope, J. M.; Smith, D. B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cardiotachometer detects and displays the human heart rate during physiological studies. It provides linear response to the heart rate, records heart rate during rest and under heavy stress, provides a beat-to-beat indication of changes in heart rate, and is relatively free of interfering signals from activities other than the heart rate.

  6. Linear response formalism and ensemble adjoint methods for climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, T.; Eyink, G.; Lea, D.

    2003-04-01

    Climate sensitivities represent the response of long-time averages of relevant selected variables in geophysical systems to changes in an external forcing. e.g. the response of a global mean temperature averaged over many annual cycles to a change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Conceptually, such sensitivities are similar to the response of molecular systems to external forcings, such as the Ohmic response of a metallic conductor to an applied electric field. In the latter systems, linear response formalism gives simple "Green-Kubo formulae" for the derivative response or sensitivity matrix, such as the electrical conductivity in Ohm's law. Recently, the linear response formalism has been extended to general chaotic nonlinear dynamical systems, without any assumption of thermal equilibrium statistics [1]. In this generality, the formalism may be applied to geophysical models to calculate climate sensitivities. We show that the resulting "Green-Kubo formulae" can be evaluated by a novel ensemble adjoint technique. The new procedure is compared with a more standard ensemble adjoint method [2,3], in which an average is taken over an ensemble of adjoint calculations of the derivative response for the time-averaged quantity. The two methods are compared for their accuracy, convergence and stability and for their computational requirements on storage and number of model integrations. [1] D. Ruelle, "General linear response formula in statistical mechanics, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem far from equilibrium." Phys. Letters A 245: 220--224 (1998). [2] D. L. Lea, M. R. Allen, and T. W. N. Haine, "Sensitivity analysis of the climate of a chaotic system," Tellus 52A: 523--532 (2000) [3] D. L. Lea, M. R. Allen, T. W. N. Haine, and J. Hansen, "Sensitivity analysis of the climate of a chaotic ocean circulation model," in press, Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 2002.

  7. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN METAL-CERAMIC BOND STRENGTH AND COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION DIFFERENCE

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Stella Crosara; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Leal, Mônica Barbosa; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS) of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics) and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs) of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB) Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2), Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P), Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I) and Duceram (D) ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length) made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length) of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01) for the MCBS test results (MPa), with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72) than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10-6 °C-1) differences were: VBI (0.54), VBD (1.33), VB2I (-0.14), VB2D (0.63), PI (1.84) and PD (2.62). Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17) was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs. PMID:19274398

  9. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, S.; Wolffsohn, J. S.; Gilmartin, B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (< 0.25 D change in mean level) even when the concurrent pupillary response was large (ca. 0.30 mm). The pupillary response to an isoluminant grating was sustained, delayed (by ca. 60 ms) and larger in amplitude than that for a isochromatic uniform stimulus, which supports previous work suggesting that the chromatic mechanism contributes to the pupillary response. In a second experiment, selected chromatic test gratings were used and isoresponse contours in cone contrast space were obtained. The results showed that the isoresponse contour in cone contrast space is well described (r(2) = 0.99) by a straight line with a positive slope. The results indicate that a /L - M/ linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses. PMID:11674867

  10. Linearity in the response of photopolymers as optical recording media.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sergi; Marquez, Andrés; Guardiola, Francisco J; Riquelme, Marina; Fernández, Roberto; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2013-05-06

    Photopolymer are appealing materials for diffractive elements recording. Two of their properties when they are illuminated are useful for this goal: the relief surface changes and the refractive index modifications. To this goal the linearity in the material response is crucial to design the optimum irradiance for each element. In this paper we measured directly some parameters to know how linear is the material response, in terms of the refractive index modulation versus exposure, then we can predict the refractive index distributions during recording. We have analyzed at different recording intensities the evolution of monomer diffusion during recording for photopolymers based on PVA/Acrylamide. This model has been successfully applied to PVA/Acrylamide photopolymers to predict the transmitted diffracted orders and the agreement with experimental values has been increased.

  11. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. PMID:23793020

  12. Ion strength limit of computed excess functions based on the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2015-12-05

    The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (L-PB) equation is examined for its κ-range of validity (κ, Debye reciprocal length). This is done for the Debye-Hückel (DH) theory, i.e., using a single ion size, and for the SiS treatment (D. Fraenkel, Mol. Phys. 2010, 108, 1435), which extends the DH theory to the case of ion-size dissimilarity (therefore dubbed DH-SiS). The linearization of the PB equation has been claimed responsible for the DH theory's failure to fit with experiment at > 0.1 m; but DH-SiS fits with data of the mean ionic activity coefficient, γ± (molal), against m, even at m > 1 (κ > 0.33 Å(-1) ). The SiS expressions combine the overall extra-electrostatic potential energy of the smaller ion, as central ion-Ψa>b (κ), with that of the larger ion, as central ion-Ψb>a (κ); a and b are, respectively, the counterion and co-ion distances of closest approach. Ψa>b and Ψb>a are derived from the L-PB equation, which appears to conflict with their being effective up to moderate electrolyte concentrations (≈1 m). However, the L-PB equation can be valid up to κ ≥ 1.3 Å(-1) if one abandons the 1/κ criterion for its effectiveness and, instead, use, as criterion, the mean-field electrostatic interaction potential of the central ion with its ion cloud, at a radial distance dividing the cloud charge into two equal parts. The DH theory's failure is, thus, not because of using the L-PB equation; the lethal approximation is assigning a single size to the positive and negative ions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Linear response of tripartite entanglement to infinitesimal noise

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2014-10-15

    Recent experimental progress in prolonging the coherence time of a quantum system prompts us to explore the behavior of quantum entanglement at the beginning of the decoherence process. The response of the entanglement under an infinitesimal noise can serve as a signature of the robustness of entangled states. A crucial problem of this topic in multipartite systems is to compute the degree of entanglement in a mixed state. We find a family of global noise in three-qubit systems, which is composed of four W states. Under its influence, the linear response of the tripartite entanglement of a symmetrical three-qubit pure state is studied. A lower bound of the linear response is found to depend completely on the initial tripartite and bipartite entanglement. This result shows that the decay of tripartite entanglement is hastened by the bipartite one. - Highlights: • We study a set of W-type noise and its linear effect on symmetric pure states. • Its effect on two-qubit entanglement depends only on the initial concurrence. • A lower bound of the effect on 3-tangle is found in terms of initial entanglements. • We obtain the time of three-tangle sudden death for two families of typical states. • These reveal that the bipartite entanglement speeds up the decay of the tripartite one.

  14. Media ionic strength impacts embryonic responses to engineered nanoparticle exposure

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Zaikova, Tatiana; Richman, Erik K.; Hutchison, James E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic zebrafish were used to assess the impact of solution ion concentrations on agglomeration and resulting in vivo biological responses of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The minimum ion concentration necessary to support embryonic development was determined. Surprisingly, zebrafish exhibit no adverse outcomes when raised in nearly ion-free media. During a rapid throughput screening of AuNPs, 1.2-nm 3-mercaptopropionic acid-functionalized AuNPs (1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs) rapidly agglomerate in exposure solutions. When embryos were exposed to 1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs dispersed in low ionic media, both morbidity and mortality were induced, but when suspended in high ionic media, there was little to no biological response. We demonstrated that the media ionic strength greatly affects agglomeration rates and biological responses. Most importantly, the insensitivity of the zebrafish embryo to external ions indicates that it is possible, and necessary, to adjust the exposure media conditions to optimize NP dispersion prior to assessment. PMID:21809903

  15. Dielectric response based characterization and strength prediction of cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchiryal, Ram Kishore

    Electrical property based methods are powerful tools to sense the properties of cement based materials. Among the several non-invasive investigative techniques, those based on monitoring the electrical properties during the initial setting and in the subsequent hardening period have immense potential in performance prediction of concrete. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has emerged as one of the promising techniques to non-invasively probe the microstructure and property development in cement based materials. This thesis reports the results of a systematic investigation carried out to understand the influence of material parameters on the dielectric response of cement pastes and concretes, and also a methodology to property prediction in cementitious system using electrical properties. The influence of cement type, water-to-cementing materials ratio (w/cm), and the presence of fly ash as a cement replacement material on the conductivity of cement pastes is studied. The electrical conductivity---time relationships of cement pastes and concretes are expressed using a model that facilitates the extraction of initial and final conductivities, and a characteristic time parameter. These terms are used to derive information about the microstructural changes occurring with time in cement pastes. The experimental results are subjected to a range analysis to isolate the significant factors and factor interactions that influence the initial and final conductivities as well as the time parameter from the conductivity-time model for concrete mixtures. The material parameters that influence the measured conductivity are identified and their influence quantified. The changes in dielectric constant and conductivity spectra of cement paste and concretes are attributed to the polarization phenomena. There is an observed dielectric enhancement for fly ash modified pastes. The dielectric response of concrete is very similar to that of pastes, and the effect of dilution by the

  16. Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory in the linear response formalism.

    PubMed

    Zuehlsdorff, T J; Hine, N D M; Spencer, J S; Harrison, N M; Riley, D J; Haynes, P D

    2013-08-14

    We present an implementation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in the linear response formalism enabling the calculation of low energy optical absorption spectra for large molecules and nanostructures. The method avoids any explicit reference to canonical representations of either occupied or virtual Kohn-Sham states and thus achieves linear-scaling computational effort with system size. In contrast to conventional localised orbital formulations, where a single set of localised functions is used to span the occupied and unoccupied state manifold, we make use of two sets of in situ optimised localised orbitals, one for the occupied and one for the unoccupied space. This double representation approach avoids known problems of spanning the space of unoccupied Kohn-Sham states with a minimal set of localised orbitals optimised for the occupied space, while the in situ optimisation procedure allows for efficient calculations with a minimal number of functions. The method is applied to a number of medium sized organic molecules and a good agreement with traditional TDDFT methods is observed. Furthermore, linear scaling of computational cost with system size is demonstrated on (10,0) carbon nanotubes of different lengths.

  17. Cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and strength responses to acute ammonia inhalation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Blake G; Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Ammonia is used as a stimulant in strength based sports to increase arousal and offset fatigue however little is known about its physiological and performance effects. The purpose of this study was twofold (1) establish the physiological response to acute ammonia inhalation (2) determine whether the timing of the physiological response corresponds with a performance enhancement, if any. Fifteen healthy males completed two trials. Trial one investigated the beat-to-beat middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to ammonia inhalation. During trial two, participants performed a maximal single mid-thigh pull (MTP) at various time points following ammonia inhalation in a randomised order: MTPs were conducted immediately, 15, 30 and 60 s following ammonia inhalation. A MTP with no ammonia inhalation served as the control. During this trial maximal MTP force, rate of force development (RFD) and electromyography (EMG) activity were recorded. MCAvmean increased and peaked on average by 6 cm s(-1) (P < 0.001), 9.4 ± 5.5 s following ammonia inhalation. Similarly, HR was increased by 6 ± 11 beats per minute 15 s following ammonia inhalation (P < 0.001). MAP remained unchanged following inhalation (P = 0.51). The use and timing of ammonia inhalation had no effect on maximal force, RFD or EMG (all P > 0.2) compared to control. MCAv was elevated despite no increase in MAP occurring; this is indicative of a cerebrovascular vasodilation. Despite the marked cerebrovascular and cardiovascular response to ammonia inhalation no ergogenic effect was observed during the MTP, irrespective of the timing of administration.

  18. Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, A.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.

    2015-03-01

    Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin-orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the particle-hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin-isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.

  19. Stochastic simulation of anharmonic dissipation. I. Linear response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yun-An

    2016-11-01

    Over decades, the theoretical study of the quantum dissipative dynamics was mainly based on the linear dissipation model. The study of the nonlinear dissipative dynamics in condensed phases, where there exist an infinite number of bath modes, is extremely difficult even if not impossible. This work put forward a stochastic scheme for the simulation of the nonlinear dissipative dynamics. In the linear response regime, the second-order cumulant expansion becomes exact to reproduce the effect of the bath on the evolution of the reduced system. Consequently, a Hermitian stochastic Liouville equation is derived without explicit treatment of the bath. Stochastic simulations for an anharmonic model illustrate that the dynamics dissipated by anharmonic bath exhibits substantial difference on temperature dependence compared to that with the Caldeira-Leggett model.

  20. Thermoelectric effects in quantum Hall systems beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rosa; Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sánchez, David

    2014-12-01

    We consider a quantum Hall system with an antidot acting as a energy dependent scatterer. In the purely charge case, we find deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law that take place in the nonlinear regime of transport. We also discuss Peltier effects beyond linear response and describe both effects using magnetic-field asymmetric transport coefficients. For the spin case such as that arising along the helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator, we investigate the generation of spin currents as a result of applied voltage and temperature differences in samples attached to ferromagnetic leads. We find that in the parallel configuration the spin current can be tuned with the leads' polarization even in the linear regime of transport. In contrast, for antiparallel magnetizations the spin currents has a strict nonlinear dependence on the the applied fields.

  1. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  2. Global strength assessment in oblique waves of a large gas carrier ship, based on a non-linear iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnisoru, L.; Modiga, A.; Gasparotti, C.

    2016-08-01

    At the ship's design, the first step of the hull structural assessment is based on the longitudinal strength analysis, with head wave equivalent loads by the ships' classification societies’ rules. This paper presents an enhancement of the longitudinal strength analysis, considering the general case of the oblique quasi-static equivalent waves, based on the own non-linear iterative procedure and in-house program. The numerical approach is developed for the mono-hull ships, without restrictions on 3D-hull offset lines non-linearities, and involves three interlinked iterative cycles on floating, pitch and roll trim equilibrium conditions. Besides the ship-wave equilibrium parameters, the ship's girder wave induced loads are obtained. As numerical study case we have considered a large LPG liquefied petroleum gas carrier. The numerical results of the large LPG are compared with the statistical design values from several ships' classification societies’ rules. This study makes possible to obtain the oblique wave conditions that are inducing the maximum loads into the large LPG ship's girder. The numerical results of this study are pointing out that the non-linear iterative approach is necessary for the computation of the extreme loads induced by the oblique waves, ensuring better accuracy of the large LPG ship's longitudinal strength assessment.

  3. Linear control of neuronal spike timing using phase response curves.

    PubMed

    Stigen, Tyler; Danzl, Per; Moehlis, Jeff; Netoff, Theoden

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple, robust, linear method to control the spike timing of a periodically firing neuron. The control scheme uses the neuron's phase response curve to identify an area of optimal sensitivity for the chosen stimulation parameters. The spike advance as a function of current pulse amplitude is characterized at the optimal phase and a linear least-squares regression is fit to the data. The inverted regression is used as the control function for this method. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated through numerical simulations of a Hodgkin-Huxley style neuron model as well as in real neurons from rat hippocampal slice preparations. The study shows a proof of concept for the application of a linear control scheme to control neuron spike timing in-vitro. This study was done on an individual cell level, but translation to a tissue or network level is possible. Control schemes of this type could be implemented in a closed loop implantable device to treat neuromotor disorders involving pathologically neuronal activity such as epilepsy or Parkinson's disease.

  4. Linear response theory for magnon transport in ferromagnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2012-02-01

    We study transverse response of magnons in ferromagnetic insulators within linear response theory. In analogy with the corresponding theory for electrons [1], magnon transverse response is described, including the Hall effect, Nernst effect, and thermal Hall effect. As is also the case for electrons [1], the response functions for magnons consist of the Kubo-formula term, and the term corresponding to the orbital angular momentum. We can rewrite the response functions in terms of the Berry curvature in momentum space [2]. We apply this theory to the (quantum-mechanical) magnons and to the classical magnetostatic waves. For the magnetostatic waves, the eigenmodes are given by a generalized eigenvalue problem, giving rise to the special form of the Berry curvature [2]. We explain various properties of this Berry curvature for the generalized eigenvalue problem, and discuss its implications for the physical properties of magnetostatic modes. [1] L. Smrcka and P. Streda, J. Phys. C, 10, 2153 (1977); H. Oji, P. Streda, Phys. Rev. B 31, 7291 (1985); [2] R. Matsumoto and S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 197202 (2011); Phys. Rev. B 84, 184406 (2011).

  5. Heart rate increases linearly in response to acute isovolemic anemia.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Richard B; Feiner, John; Hopf, Harriet; Viele, Maurene K; Watson, Jessica J; Lieberman, Jeremy; Kelley, Scott; Toy, Pearl

    2003-02-01

    The cardiovascular response to acute isovolemic anemia in humans is thought to differ from that of other species. Studies of anesthetized humans have found either no change or a decreased heart rate. A previous study showed that in 32 healthy unmedicated humans, heart rate increased during acute isovolemic anemia. The hypothesis that heart rate in humans increases in response to acute isovolemic anemia and that the increase is affected by gender was tested. Acute isovolemic anemia to a Hb concentration of approximately 5 g per dL in 95 unmedicated healthy humans was produced by simultaneous withdrawal of blood and IV replacement with 5-percent HSA and autologous platelet-rich plasma. The relationship between heart rate and Hb concentration was examined using a mixed-effects linear regression model that allowed each person to have a fitted line with its own slope and intercept. Cubic and quadratic terms were added to determine if these improved the goodness of fit. The effect of gender was tested by including it and its interactions with Hb in the mixed model. The relationship between heart rate and Hb concentration was linear (p < 0.001) and consistent among the population studied: heart rate = 116.0-4.0 [Hb] (slope 95% CI: -4.2 to -3.8 beats/min/g Hb). Adding a cubic or quadratic term did not significantly improve the goodness of fit of the mathematical expression to the data, confirming the linear nature of the relationship between heart rate and Hb concentration. For women, the slope of the heart rate response was significantly greater than it was for males (difference +/- SE: 0.70 +/- 0.23, p < 0.005). In 95 unmedicated, healthy humans, heart rate was a linear function of Hb during acute isovolemic anemia. Females had a significantly greater slope of increase in heart rate with decreasing Hb concentration than did males. The relationship is consistent among individuals, is similar to that reported for conscious dogs, and differs from that found previously in

  6. Efficient calculation of optical linear response of large silicon clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gefei; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2005-03-01

    Nanoscale silicon clusters have potential applications as light-emitting devices and bio-sensors. Ab initio calculations of the optical linear response of small-size nanoparticles have been performed via time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)^1 and by solving many-body Bethe-Salpeter equations (MBSE)^2,3. We show that the ab initio calculations can be made much more efficient when the nanocluster possess high point group symmetry and symmetrized basis functions are used. This allows us to extend the ab initio calculation to much larger Si clusters (up to a few hundred Si atoms) on a personal computer. The optical linear response of Si nanocluster (passivated with hydrogen) as a function of cluster size is examined. The effect of phosphorus doping of Si nanocluster on its optical properties is also studied.1. Ogũt,S., J. R. Chelikowsky, and S. G. Louie, PRL 80, 3162(1998); Marques, M., A. Castro, and A. Rubio, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3006(2001). 2. Rohlfing, M., and S. G. Louie, PRL 80, 3320(1998);PRB 62, 4927(2000). 3. Grossman, J. C., M. Rohlfing, L. Mitas, S. G. Louie, and M. L. Cohen,PRL 86, 472(2001).

  7. Evaluating linear response in active systems with no perturbing field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szamel, Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    We present a method for the evaluation of time-dependent linear response functions for systems of active particles propelled by a persistent (colored) noise from unperturbed simulations. The method is inspired by the Malliavin weights sampling method proposed by Warren and Allen (Phys. Rev. Lett., 109 (2012) 250601) for out-of-equilibrium systems of passive Brownian particles. We illustrate our method by evaluating two linear response functions for a single active particle in an external harmonic potential. As an application, we calculate the time-dependent mobility function and an effective temperature, defined through the Einstein relation between the self-diffusion and mobility coefficients, for a system of many active particles interacting via a screened Coulomb potential. We find that this effective temperature decreases with increasing persistence time of the self-propulsion. Initially, for not too large persistence times, it changes rather slowly, but then it decreases markedly when the persistence length of the self-propelled motion becomes comparable with the particle size.

  8. Evaluation of electrospinning parameters on the tensile strength and suture retention strength of polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds through surface response methodology.

    PubMed

    Asvar, Zahra; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Azarpira, Negar; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fadaie, Milad

    2017-11-01

    Scaffolds should provide sufficient biomechanical support during tissue regeneration for tissue engineering (TE) applications. Electrospun scaffolds are commonly applied in TE applications due to their tunable physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as their similarity to extracellular matrix. Although the mechanical properties of electrospun scaffolds are highly dependent on processing parameters, a limited number of studies have systematically investigated this subject. The present study has investigated the effects of the main electrospinning parameters on tensile and suture retention strength of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using response surface methodology. Scaffolds morphology and cell-scaffold interaction were also investigated in this study. According to the fitted model, polymer concentration and feed rate have the most significant positive effect on both the tensile and suture retention strength. Whereas applied voltage negatively affected both the tensile and suture retention strength. The effect of distance on tensile strength was not significant while its effect on suture retention was different depending on its values. Changes in biomechanical properties were associated with gross alterations in morphology of the fibers and cell-scaffold interaction. Scaffolds with lowest tensile strength presented a beaded morphology while scaffolds with higher tensile strength presented beadless morphology with worm-like fibers. The increase in tensile strength was correlated with the increase in average diameter of the fibers and pore size. The results of cell culture study showed that fibroblasts stretched and proliferated more on scaffolds with lower tensile strength. The generated model might be helpful when PCL scaffold with desirable tensile and suture retention strength are required. Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in morphology and subsequent cell-scaffold interaction should be considered when these biomechanical properties

  9. Electric and flow linear dichroism of unfolded and condensed chromatin: a comparative study at low and intermediate ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Hagmar, P; Marquet, R; Colson, P; Kubista, M; Nielsen, P; Norden, B; Houssier, C

    1989-08-01

    Identical samples containing polynucleosomal chains of chicken erythrocyte (CE) and Ehrlich ascites tumour (EA) chromatin were studied under various ionic conditions with regard to electric linear dichroism (ELD) and flow linear dichroism (FLD). Both orientation techniques consistently confirmed that, in the limit of very low ionic strength and in the absence of multivalent cations, the reduced linear dichroism of chromatin is negative in the DNA-base absorption band, as expected for an extended zig-zag polynucleosomal conformation. With increasing electrolyte content, both ELD and FLD decreased drastically in amplitude, but in contrast to the ELD which remains negative in an intermediate range of low ionic strength (0.1-0.5 mM Mg2+) the FLD changes sign and becomes positive. The ELD and FLD amplitudes decrease with higher Mg2+ concentrations and FLD even vanishes in the region of 0.2-0.4 mM; both signals are positive above 0.4-0.5 mM Mg2+. The origin of the dissimilarities between ELD and FLD observations is still not fully understood. Several possibilities are considered: ELD signals are more influenced than FLD by the presence of short chromatin chains, nucleosomes and small pieces of naked DNA, while FLD is more susceptible to the presence of large, easily orientable, scattering aggregates. Different preferred orientation directions of the chromatin fibre with respect to electric and hydrodynamic fields may also be involved. Finally, FLD and ELD probably "see" different features of the chromatin structure.

  10. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Hannah W.; Merrill, Evelyn H.; Spiteri, Raymond J.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator–prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them. PMID:22419990

  11. Metrics of separation performance in chromatography: Part 3: General separation performance of linear solvent strength gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Leonid M; Desmet, Gert

    2015-09-25

    The separation performance metrics defined in Part 1 of this series are applied to the evaluation of general separation performance of linear solvent strength (LSS) gradient LC. Among the evaluated metrics was the peak capacity of an arbitrary segment of a chromatogram. Also evaluated were the peak width, the separability of two solutes, the utilization of separability, and the speed of analysis-all at an arbitrary point of a chromatogram. The means are provided to express all these metrics as functions of an arbitrary time during LC analysis, as functions of an arbitrary outlet solvent strength changing during the analysis, as functions of parameters of the solutes eluting during the analysis, and as functions of several other factors. The separation performance of gradient LC is compared with the separation performance of temperature-programmed GC evaluated in Part 2.

  12. Dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of maraging steel linear cellular alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam E.; Fredenberg, David A.; McCoy, Tammy; Thadhani, Naresh; Cochran, Joe K.

    2012-03-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN finite element code. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with highspeed imaging. Analysis of observed deformation states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation.

  13. Nonequilibrium thermal transport and its relation to linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, C.; Ilan, R.; Moore, J. E.

    2013-11-01

    We study the real-time dynamics of spin chains driven out of thermal equilibrium by an initial temperature gradient TL≠TR using density matrix renormalization group methods. We demonstrate that the nonequilibrium energy current saturates fast to a finite value if the linear-response thermal conductivity is infinite, i.e., if the Drude weight D is nonzero. Our data suggest that a nonintegrable dimerized chain might support such dissipationless transport (D>0). We show that the steady-state value JE of the current for arbitrary TL≠TR is of the functional form JE=f(TL)-f(TR), i.e., it is completely determined by the linear conductance. We argue for this functional form, which is essentially a Stefan-Boltzmann law in this integrable model; for the XXX ferromagnet, f can be computed via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz in good agreement with the numerics. Inhomogeneous systems exhibiting different bulk parameters as well as Luttinger liquid boundary physics induced by single impurities are discussed briefly.

  14. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B. N.; Ye, Huanchun

    1992-03-01

    The linear response of energetic particles of the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width; when the banana width Δ b is much larger than the mode thickness Δ m, we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When Δm/ Δb≪1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor Δm/ Δb from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balanced-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances (| v‖|= vA) is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands (| v‖|= vA/(2 l-1) with l⩾2) is substantially reduced.

  15. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.; Ye, Huanchun; Breizman, B. N.

    1991-07-01

    The linear response of energetic particles to the toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width: when the banana width delta(sub b) is much larger than the mode thickness delta(sub m), we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When delta(sub m)/delta(sub b) is much less than 1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor of delta(sub m)/delta(sub b) from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balance-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances (absolute value of upsilon(parallel) = upsilon(sub A) is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands (absolute value of upsilon(parallel) = upsilon(sub A)/(2l - 1) with l greater than or = 2) is substantially reduced.

  16. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Ye, Huanchun . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Breizman, B.N. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-07-01

    The linear response of energetic particles to the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width: when the banana width {triangle}{sub b} is much larger than the mode thickness {triangle}{sub m}, we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} {much lt} 1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor of {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balance-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar} = {upsilon}{sub A} is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar}) = {upsilon}{sub A}/(2{ell} {minus} 1) with {ell} {ge} 2) is substantially reduced. 10 refs.

  17. A Transient Response Method for Linear Coupled Substructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, J. R.; Brunty, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the transient response of a discrete coordinate model of a linear structural system composed of substructures. The method is applicable to systems consisting of any number of substructures, both determinate and indeterminate interface boundaries, and any topological arrangement of the substructures. The method is simple to implement from a computational point of view because the equations of motion of each of the substructures are solved independently, and the interface boundary compatibility conditions are enforced at each integration time step by a matrix multiplication. The method is demonstrated for a structural system consisting of two beam segments and acted upon by a time dependent force. The numerical results from the demonstration problem validates the accuracy of the method. The application of this method to structural systems with changing interface boundary conditions between substructures is discussed.

  18. Intercorrelations among white space responses on Rorschach, ego strength, conformity, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Martin, J D; MaKinster, J G; Pfaadt, N K

    1983-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the magnitude of relationship between the white space responses (S) on the Rorschach and ego strength, as determined by Barron's Ego Strength Scale. Correlations between the white space response (S) and conformity, as measured by the conformity scale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and S and self-esteem, as measured by the self-esteem scale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, were also investigated. For 44 female and 12 male undergraduates the correlation between white space responses and ego strength was non-significant, as were correlations between white space responses and ego strength, conformity, and self-esteem. Intercorrelations among ego strength, conformity, and self-esteem were significant. Also, white space responses (S) and the total number of responses (R) were significantly correlated.

  19. Quantum optimal control theory in the linear response formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Alberto; Tokatly, I. V.

    2011-09-15

    Quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) aims at finding an external field that drives a quantum system in such a way that optimally achieves some predefined target. In practice, this normally means optimizing the value of some observable, a so-called merit function. In consequence, a key part of the theory is a set of equations, which provides the gradient of the merit function with respect to parameters that control the shape of the driving field. We show that these equations can be straightforwardly derived using the standard linear response theory, only requiring a minor generalization: the unperturbed Hamiltonian is allowed to be time dependent. As a result, the aforementioned gradients are identified with certain response functions. This identification leads to a natural reformulation of QOCT in terms of the Keldysh contour formalism of the quantum many-body theory. In particular, the gradients of the merit function can be calculated using the diagrammatic technique for nonequilibrium Green's functions, which should be helpful in the application of QOCT to computationally difficult many-electron problems.

  20. Magnetoelectric Effect in Topological Insulator Films Beyond Linear Response Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiakov, Oleg; Baasanjav, Dashdeleg; Nomura, Kentaro

    2014-03-01

    We study the response of topological insulator films to strong magnetic and electric fields beyond the linear response theory. As a model, we use three-dimensional lattice Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian where we simultaneously introduce both magnetic field as Aharonov Bohm phase and electric field as potential energy depending on lattice coordinate. We compute the energy spectrum by numerically diagonalizing this Hamiltonian for electrons and obtain the quantized magnetoelectric polarizability. In addition, we find that the magnetoelectric effect vanishes as width of the film decreases, due to the hybridization of surface wavefunctions. Furthermore, by applying a gate voltage between the surfaces, we observe multiple quantized plateaus of θ-term. We explain that the multiple quantization rule of θ is mainly determined by the physics of Landau level structures on the top and bottom surfaces of topological insulator, whereas the small deviations from the exact quantization are coming from the asymmetry of the surface wavefunctions in the bulk. We also show that the magnetoelectric effect persists even for strong bulk interactions with magnetic field or magnetic impurities. We acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 24740211, No. 25800184, and No. 25247056) from the MEXT, Japan.

  1. Optimal mixing rate in linear solvent strength gradient liquid chromatography. Balanced mixing program.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Leonid M; Desmet, Gert

    2016-12-09

    The mixing rate (Rϕ) is the temporal rate of increase in the solvent strength in gradient LC. The optimal Rϕ (Rϕ,Opt) is the one at which a required peak capacity of gradient LC analysis is obtained in the shortest time. The balanced mixing program is a one where, for better separation of early eluting solutes, the mixing ramp is preceded by a balanced isocratic hold of the duration depending on Rϕ. The improvement in the separation of the earlier eluites due to the balanced programming has been evaluated. The value of Rϕ,Opt depends on the solvent composition range covered by the mixing ramp and on the column pressure conditions. The Rϕ,Opt for a column operating at maximum instrumental pressure is different from Rϕ,Opt for a column operating below the instrumental pressure limit. On the other hand, it has been shown that the difference in the Rϕ,Opt values under different conditions is not very large so that a single default Rϕ previously recommended for gradient analyses without the isocratic hold also yields a good approximation to the shortest analysis time for all conditions in the balanced analyses. With or without the initial balance isocratic hold, the recommended default Rϕ is about 5%/t0 (5% increase in the solvent strength per each t0-long increment in time) for small-molecule samples, and about an order of magnitude slower (0.5%/t0) for protein samples. A discussion illustrating the use of the optimization criteria employed here for the techniques other than LSS gradient LC is included.

  2. Responses of proteins to different ionic environment are linearly interrelated.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Uversky, Alexey V; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-03-27

    Protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) is widely used as a convenient, inexpensive, and readily scaled-up separation technique. Protein partition behavior in ATPS is known to be readily manipulated by ionic composition. However, the available data on the effects of salts and buffer concentrations on protein partitioning are very limited. To fill this gap, partitioning of 15 proteins was examined in dextran-poly(ethylene glycol) ATPSs with different salt additives (Na2SO4, NaClO4, NaSCN, CsCl) in 0.11 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. This analysis reveals that there is a linear relationship between the logarithms of the protein partition coefficients determined in the presence of different salts. This relationship suggests that the protein response to ionic environment is determined by the protein structure and type and concentrations of the ions present. Analysis of the differences between protein structures (described in terms of proteins responses to different salts) and that of cytochrome c chosen as a reference showed that the peculiarities of the protein surface structure and B-factor used as a measure of the protein flexibility are the determining parameters. Our results provide better insight into the use of different salts in manipulating protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. These data also demonstrate that the protein responses to different ionic environments are interrelated and are determined by the structural peculiarities of protein surface. It is suggested that changes in ionic microenvironment of proteins may regulate protein transport and behavior in biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model.

    PubMed

    La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.

  4. Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.

  5. Lower limb muscle strength is associated with poor balance in middle-aged women: linear and nonlinear analyses.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Callisaya, M; Laslett, L L; Wills, K; Zhou, Y; Jones, G; Winzenberg, T

    2016-07-01

    This was the first study investigating both linear associations between lower limb muscle strength and balance in middle-aged women and the potential for thresholds for the associations. There was strong evidence that even in middle-aged women, poorer LMS was associated with reduced balance. However, no evidence was found for thresholds. Decline in balance begins in middle age, yet, the role of muscle strength in balance is rarely examined in this age group. We aimed to determine the association between lower limb muscle strength (LMS) and balance in middle-aged women and investigate whether cut-points of LMS exist that might identify women at risk of poorer balance. Cross-sectional analysis of 345 women aged 36-57 years was done. Associations between LMS and balance tests (timed up and go (TUG), step test (ST), functional reach test (FRT), and lateral reach test (LRT)) were assessed using linear regression. Nonlinear associations were explored using locally weighted regression smoothing (LOWESS) and potential cut-points identified using nonlinear least-squares estimation. Segmented regression was used to estimate associations above and below the identified cut-points. Weaker LMS was associated with poorer performance on the TUG (β -0.008 (95 % CI: -0.010, -0.005) second/kg), ST (β 0.031 (0.011, 0.051) step/kg), FRT (β 0.071 (0.047, 0.096) cm/kg), and LRT (β 0.028 (0.011, 0.044) cm/kg), independent of confounders. Potential nonlinear associations were evident from LOWESS results; significant cut-points of LMS were identified for all balance tests (29-50 kg). However, excepting ST, cut-points did not persist after excluding potentially influential data points. In middle-aged women, poorer LMS is associated with reduced balance. Therefore, improving muscle strength in middle-age may be a useful strategy to improve balance and reduce falls risk in later life. Middle-aged women with low muscle strength may be an effective target group for future randomized

  6. Linearly polarized radiation from astrophysical masers due to magnetic fields of intermediate strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous solutions for polarization of astrophysical maser radiation due to closed-shell molecules in a magnetic field have potentially serious limitations. These solutions are mostly based on the approximation that the Zeeman frequency g-Omega is much greater than the rate for stimulated emission R and the rate for decay Gamma of the molecular state. Others are asymptotic solutions obtained for an angular momentum J = 1-0 transition. It has been unclear whether the polarizations due to plausible Zeeman splittings are adequately represented by the solutions obtained for g-Omega/Gamma much greater than 1 and g-Omega/R much greater than 1. Actual masing transitions tend to involve molecular states with angular momenta that are higher than J = 1 and 0. Numerical solutions for the linear polarization are presented here which do not have the foregoing restrictions on the g-Omega and which are not limited to a J = 1-0 transition.

  7. Impact of field strength and iron oxide nanoparticle concentration on the linearity and diagnostic accuracy of off-resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Christian T; Dai, Guangping; Novikov, Mikhail; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Weissleder, Ralph; Rosen, Bruce R; Sosnovik, David E

    2008-06-01

    Off-resonance imaging (ORI) techniques are being increasingly used to image iron oxide imaging agents such as monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION). However, the diagnostic accuracy, linearity, and field dependence of ORI have not been fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity, specificity, and linearity of ORI were thus examined as a function of both MION concentration and magnetic field strength (4.7 and 14 T). MION phantoms with and without an air interface as well as MION uptake in a mouse model of healing myocardial infarction were imaged. MION-induced resonance shifts were shown to increase linearly with MION concentration. In contrast, the ORI signal/sensitivity was highly non-linear, initially increasing with MION concentration until T2 became comparable to the TE and decreasing thereafter. The specificity of ORI to distinguish MION-induced resonance shifts from on-resonance water was found to decrease with increasing field because of the increased on-resonance water linewidths (15 Hz at 4.7 T versus 45 Hz at 14 T). Large resonance shifts ( approximately 300 Hz) were observed at air interfaces at 4.7 T, both in vitro and in vivo, and led to poor ORI specificity for MION concentrations less than 150 microg Fe/mL. The in vivo ORI sensitivity was sufficient to detect the accumulation of MION in macrophages infiltrating healing myocardial infarcts, but the specificity was limited by non-specific areas of positive contrast at the air/tissue interfaces of the thoracic wall and the descending aorta. Improved specificity and linearity can, however, be expected at lower fields where decreased on-resonance water linewidths, reduced air-induced resonance shifts, and longer T2 relaxation times are observed. The optimal performance of ORI will thus likely be seen at low fields, with moderate MION concentrations and with sequences containing very short TEs. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Impact of field strength and iron oxide nanoparticle concentration on the linearity and diagnostic accuracy of off-resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Christian T.; Dai, Guangping; Novikov, Mikhail; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Weissleder, Ralph; Rosen, Bruce R.; Sosnovik, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Off-resonance imaging (ORI) techniques are being increasingly used to image iron oxide imaging agents such as monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION). However, the diagnostic accuracy, linearity, and field dependence of ORI have not been fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity, specificity, and linearity of ORI were thus examined as a function of both MION concentration and magnetic field strength (4.7 and 14 T). MION phantoms with and without an air interface as well as MION uptake in a mouse model of healing myocardial infarction were imaged. MION-induced resonance shifts were shown to increase linearly with MION concentration. In contrast, the ORI signal/sensitivity was highly non-linear, initially increasing with MION concentration until T2 became comparable to the TE and decreasing thereafter. The specificity of ORI to distinguish MION-induced resonance shifts from on-resonance water was found to decrease with increasing field because of the increased on-resonance water linewidths (15 Hz at 4.7 T versus 45 Hz at 14 T). Large resonance shifts (∼300 Hz) were observed at air interfaces at 4.7 T, both in vitro and in vivo, and led to poor ORI specificity for MION concentrations less than 150 μg Fe/mL. The in vivo ORI sensitivity was sufficient to detect the accumulation of MION in macrophages infiltrating healing myocardial infarcts, but the specificity was limited by non-specific areas of positive contrast at the air/tissue interfaces of the thoracic wall and the descending aorta. Improved specificity and linearity can, however, be expected at lower fields where decreased on-resonance water linewidths, reduced air-induced resonance shifts, and longer T2 relaxation times are observed. The optimal performance of ORI will thus likely be seen at low fields, with moderate MION concentrations and with sequences containing very short TEs. PMID:17918777

  9. Effect of Neck Muscle Strength and Anticipatory Cervical Muscle Activation on the Kinematic Response of the Head to Impulsive Loads

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Oh, Youkeun K.; Joshi, Monica S.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. Hypotheses In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (DV) and peak angular velocity (Dv) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, DV and Dv will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head DV and Dv. Results Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head DV and Dv after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P\\.001). Inverse relationships between neck strength and head DV and Dv presented moderately strong effect sizes (r = 0.417 to r = 0.657), varying by direction of motion and cervical muscle activation. Conclusion In male and female athletes across the age spectrum, greater neck strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation (“bracing for impact”) can reduce the magnitude of the head's kinematic response. Future studies should determine whether neck strength contributes to the observed sex and

  10. Linear response formula for piecewise expanding unimodal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Smania, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    The average R(t)=\\int \\varphi\\,\\rmd \\mu_t of a smooth function phiv with respect to the SRB measure μt of a smooth one-parameter family ft of piecewise expanding interval maps is not always Lipschitz (Baladi 2007 Commun. Math. Phys. 275 839-59, Mazzolena 2007 Master's Thesis Rome 2, Tor Vergata). We prove that if ft is tangent to the topological class of f, and if ∂t ft|t = 0 = X circle f, then R(t) is differentiable at zero, and R'(0) coincides with the resummation proposed (Baladi 2007) of the (a priori divergent) series \\sum_{n=0}^\\infty \\int X(y) \\partial_y (\\varphi \\circ f^n)(y)\\,\\rmd \\mu_0(y) given by Ruelle's conjecture. In fact, we show that t map μt is differentiable within Radon measures. Linear response is violated if and only if ft is transversal to the topological class of f.

  11. A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-03-01

    Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

  12. Process Setting through General Linear Model and Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjuntichai, Angsumalin

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the efficiency of the flow-wrap packaging process in soap industry through the reduction of defectives. At the 95% confidence level, with the regression analysis, the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimper are found to be the significant factors for the flow-wrap process with respect to the number/percentage of defectives. Twenty seven experiments have been designed and performed according to three levels of each controllable factor. With the general linear model (GLM), the suggested values for the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimpers are 185, 85 and 85° C, respectively while the response surface method (RSM) provides the optimal process conditions at 186, 89 and 88° C. Due to different assumptions between percentage of defective and all three temperature parameters, the suggested conditions from the two methods are then slightly different. Fortunately, the estimated percentage of defectives at 5.51% under GLM process condition and the predicted percentage of defectives at 4.62% under RSM process condition are not significant different. But at 95% confidence level, the percentage of defectives under RSM condition can be much lower approximately 2.16% than those under GLM condition in accordance with wider variation. Lastly, the percentages of defectives under the conditions suggested by GLM and RSM are reduced by 55.81% and 62.95%, respectively.

  13. Acute Strength Training Increases Responses to Stimulation of Corticospinal Axons.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, James L; Barry, Benjamin K; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2016-01-01

    Acute strength training of forearm muscles increases resting twitch forces from motor cortex stimulation. It is unclear if such effects are spinal in origin and if they also occur with training of larger muscles. With the use of subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons, the current study examined if one session of strength training of the elbow flexor muscles leads to spinal cord changes and if the type of training is important. In experiment 1, 10 subjects completed ballistic isometric training, ballistic concentric training, and no training (control) on separate days. In experiment 2, 13 subjects completed ballistic isometric training and slow-ramp isometric training. Before and after training, transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral motor cortex elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the resting biceps brachii, and electrical stimulation of corticospinal tract axons at the cervicomedullary junction elicited cervicomedullary motor-evoked potentials (CMEPs). Motor-evoked potential and CMEP twitch forces were also measured. In experiment 1, CMEPs and CMEP twitch forces were significantly facilitated after ballistic isometric training compared to control. In experiment 2, MEPs, MEP twitch forces, CMEPs, and CMEP twitch forces increased for 15 to 25 min after ballistic and slow-ramp isometric training. Via processes within the spinal cord, one session of strength training of the elbow flexors increases net output from motoneurons projecting to the trained muscles. Likely mechanisms include increased efficacy of corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses or increased motoneuron excitability. However, the rate of force generation during training is not important for inducing these changes. A concomitant increase in motor cortical excitability is likely. These short-term changes may represent initial neural adaptations to strength training.

  14. External stimulation strength controls actin response dynamics in Dictyostelium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Zykov, Vladimir; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Self-sustained oscillation and the resonance frequency of the cytoskeletal actin polymerization/depolymerization have recently been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report that the resonance frequency is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and depolymerization time at different levels of external stimulation. We found that polymerization time is independent of external stimuli but the depolymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation increases. These observations can be successfully reproduced in the frame work of our time delayed differential equation model.

  15. Lower Rydberg series of methane: a combined coupled cluster linear response and molecular quantum defect orbital calculation.

    PubMed

    Velasco, A M; Pitarch-Ruiz, J; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M J; Sánchez-Marín, J; Martin, I

    2006-03-28

    Vertical excitation energies as well as related absolute photoabsorption oscillator strength data are very scarce in the literature for methane. In this study, we have characterized the three existing series of low-lying Rydberg states of CH4 by computing coupled cluster linear response (CCLR) vertical excitation energies together with oscillator strengths in the molecular-adapted quantum defect orbital formalism from a distorted Cs geometry selected on the basis of outer valence green function calculations. The present work provides a wide range of data of excitation energies and absolute oscillator strengths which correspond to the Rydberg series converging to the three lower ionization potential values of the distorted methane molecule, in energy regions for which experimentally measured data appear to be unavailable.

  16. Radiographic response of brain metastasis after linear accelerator radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Maryam; Cox, J Bridger; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Carter, Jamal H; Friedman, William A

    2012-01-01

    Radiographic response of brain metastasis to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) over time has not been well characterized. Being able to predict SRS-induced changes in tumor size over time may allow improved counseling of patients and potentially earlier recognition of poor response to SRS. To quantify the rate of change in size of metastatic brain tumors after treatment with a linear accelerator (LINAC) SRS. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with single metastatic brain tumors treated with LINAC SRS at the University of Florida between 1992 and 2009 who had at least one MRI after treatment. A total of 218 patients with 406 follow-up MRI scans were included in the study. Tumor area was calculated by measuring the largest tumor area on axial imaging and using the equation for area of an ellipse. Primary outcome was percent change in tumor size. The contribution of several factors including gender, primary tumor histology, synchronous or asynchronous presentation, prior treatment, primary tumor control, and SRS dose were examined using multivariate analysis. Mean patient age was 58.3 years (range 4-86), and 48.6% of patients were female. Sixty-three percent of patients had primary tumor control and 70.6% had asynchronous presentation of their brain metastases. SRS peripheral dose range was 1,000-2,250 cGy with a median of 1,750 cGy. The mean percent size change was -22.6% with a mean rate of change of -7.0% per month. The median percent change was -49.7% with a median rate of change of -8.8% per month. The median follow-up was 4.8 months (range 0.3-52.5). Female gender and melanoma histology were found to be significant predictors of an increase in tumor size. Lack of previous surgical resection was a significant predictor of a decrease in tumor size after SRS. Other factors tested with multivariate analysis, including age, synchronicity of presentation, dose, dose volume, Karnofsky performance score, and primary tumor control, were not significant in

  17. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  18. Do Processing Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Predict Differential Treatment Response?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob L.; Taylor, W. Pat; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    No previous empirical study has investigated whether the learning disabilities (LD) identification decisions of proposed methods to operationalize processing strengths and weaknesses approaches for LD identification are associated with differential treatment response. We investigated whether the identification decisions of the…

  19. Do Processing Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Predict Differential Treatment Response?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob L.; Taylor, W. Pat; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    No previous empirical study has investigated whether the learning disabilities (LD) identification decisions of proposed methods to operationalize processing strengths and weaknesses approaches for LD identification are associated with differential treatment response. We investigated whether the identification decisions of the…

  20. Dynamic Deformation and Fragmentation Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, D. A.; McCoy, T.; Thadhani, N. N.; Cochran, J.

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6 mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with high-speed imaging. For purpose of comparison, the response of 25% dense hollow cylinders of same density as the 9-cell LCA was also studied. Analysis of observed states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation. In comparison, the simple hollow cylinder undergoes significant radial lipping, eventually producing larger sized, external fragments. DTRA Grant No. HDTRA1-07-1-0018 and NDSEG Fellowship Program.

  1. Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major West Antarctic ice basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M.; Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise has recently been increasing. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance. Under unabated greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below West Antarctica's Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The ice basin's retrograde bed slope would allow for an unstable ice-sheet retreat, but the buttressing of the large ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. It is unclear whether future ice loss will be dominated by ice instability or anthropogenic forcing. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding-line retreat, that the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne ice basin is not dominated by ice instability and follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. We find that the ice loss reduces after each pulse of projected warm water intrusion. The long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice-sheet instability.

  2. Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kevin; Suchowski, Haim; Rho, Junsuk; Salandrino, Alessandro; Kante, Boubacar; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of optical second harmonic generation in 1961 started modern nonlinear optics. Soon after, R. C. Miller found empirically that the nonlinear susceptibility could be predicted from the linear susceptibilities. This important relation, known as Miller's Rule, allows a rapid determination of nonlinear susceptibilities from linear properties. In recent years, metamaterials, artificial materials that exhibit intriguing linear optical properties not found in natural materials, have shown novel nonlinear properties such as phase-mismatch-free nonlinear generation, new quasi-phase matching capabilities and large nonlinear susceptibilities. However, the understanding of nonlinear metamaterials is still in its infancy, with no general conclusion on the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties. The key question is then whether one can determine the nonlinear behaviour of these artificial materials from their exotic linear behaviour. Here, we show that the nonlinear oscillator model does not apply in general to nonlinear metamaterials. We show, instead, that it is possible to predict the relative nonlinear susceptibility of large classes of metamaterials using a more comprehensive nonlinear scattering theory, which allows efficient design of metamaterials with strong nonlinearity for important applications such as coherent Raman sensing, entangled photon generation and frequency conversion.

  3. The linear and non-linear magnetic response of a tri-uranium single molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaram, B. S.; Colineau, E.; Griveau, J.; Kumar, P.; Celli, V.

    2017-03-01

    We report here low temperature magnetization isotherms for the single molecule magnet, (UO2-L)3. By analyzing the low temperature magnetization in terms of M  =  χ 1 B  +  χ 3 B 3 we extract the linear susceptibility χ 1 and the leading order nonlinear susceptibility χ 3. We find that χ 1 exhibits a peak at a temperature of T 1  =  10.4 K with χ 3 also exhibiting a peak but at a reduced temperature T 3  =  5 K. At the lowest temperatures the isotherms exhibit a critical field B c  =  11.5 T marked by a clear point of inflection. A minimal Hamiltonian employing S  =  1 (pseudo) spins with only a single energy scale (successfully used to model the behavior of bulk f-electron metamagnets) is shown to provide a good description of the observed linear scaling between T 1, T 3 and B c. We further show that a Heisenberg Hamiltonian previously employed by Carretta et al (2013 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25 486001) to model this single molecule magnet gives formulas for the angle averaged susceptibilities (in the Ising limit) very similar to those of the minimal model.

  4. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  5. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  6. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  7. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  8. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  9. Response of silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M. O.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based linear energy transfer (LET) telescope,(e. g., DOSTEL and RRMD) have recently been flown in space. LET spectra measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters show differences that need to be fully understood. A Monte Carlo technique based on: 1. radiation transport cluster intra-cascade model. 2. Landau-Vavilov distribution, 3. telescope geometry and detector coincidence & discriminator settings, 4. spacecraft shielding geometry, and 5. the external free space radiation environment, including recent albedo measurements, was developed.

  10. Response of silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M. O.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based linear energy transfer (LET) telescope,(e. g., DOSTEL and RRMD) have recently been flown in space. LET spectra measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters show differences that need to be fully understood. A Monte Carlo technique based on: 1. radiation transport cluster intra-cascade model. 2. Landau-Vavilov distribution, 3. telescope geometry and detector coincidence & discriminator settings, 4. spacecraft shielding geometry, and 5. the external free space radiation environment, including recent albedo measurements, was developed.

  11. Development of data optimization methodology for nondestructive testing of concrete strength by the parameters of the electric response to impact excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursa, T. V.; Surzhikov, A. P.; Petrov, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents the research results by the improvement of the non-destructive testing method of concrete strength by the parameters of the electric response to impact excitation. The electric response parameters from the set of identical concrete samples sized of 100×100×100 mm were studied. It is shown that the use of linear filtering procedure reduces the variance of diagnostic electric parameter for concrete strength determination and is in a good agreement with the elastic characteristics of the material.

  12. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p < .05). Immediately following the respective exercise protocols all training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p < .05). ST and END-ST resulted in greater increases in cortisol than ST-END (both p < .05). The testosterone:cortisol ratio was similar following the respective exercise protocols. Blood lactate concentrations post-training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p < .05). Conducting endurance exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  13. Handgrip strength in cardiac rehabilitation: normative values, interaction with physical function, and response to training.

    PubMed

    Mroszczyk-McDonald, Alex; Savage, Patrick D; Ades, Philip A

    2007-01-01

    To determine normative values for handgrip (HG) strength at entry into cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to examine the relationship of HG strength with self-reported physical function and the response of HG strength to exercise training. HG strength was measured in 1,960 patients with coronary heart disease. Other measures obtained included oxygen consumption/ unit time (peak VO2), body composition, physical function and depression questionnaires, and assessment of comorbid conditions. Subsequently, HG strength and other measures were obtained in 666 participants who completed 36 sessions of CR exercise training. HG strength was significantly greater in men than in women (40.6 +/- 10.1 kg vs 22.6 +/- 6.5 kg, P < .0001), but diminished with age in both men and women from the third to the eight decade. Factors most strongly correlated with HG strength were gender (r = 0.40, P < .0001), height (r = 0.37, P < .0001), peak VO2 (r = 0.32, P < .0001), and age (r = -0.23, P < .0001). Baseline HG strength was correlated with physical function capacity in patients older than 65 years but not in younger patients. Following CR, HG strength increased overall by 4.6% in comparison with baseline values (34.9 +/- 11.4 to 36.5 +/- 11.6 kg, P < .0001). For the entire cohort, the increase in HG strength was associated with an increase in physical function score (P < .05). In patients with coronary heart disease, HG strength decreases with age and is lower in women, patients with diabetes, and patients with lower peak Vo2. It remains to be determined whether a training protocol that specifically focuses on increasing HG strength would have a greater impact on overall functional status.

  14. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method.

    PubMed

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan; Kongsted, Jacob; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2015-03-21

    We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of Dalton. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies. To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality to CASSCF/CASPT2 benchmarks.

  15. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    SciTech Connect

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan; Kongsted, Jacob Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2015-03-21

    We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of DALTON. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies. To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality to CASSCF/CASPT2 benchmarks.

  16. Testing for the linearity of responses to multiple anthropogenic climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, C. E.; Stone, P. H.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    To test whether climate forcings are additive, we compare climate model simulations in which anthropogenic forcings are applied individually and in combination. Tests are performed with different values for climate system properties (climate sensitivity and rate of heat uptake by the deep ocean) as well as for different strengths of the net aerosol forcing, thereby testing for the dependence of linearity on these properties. The MIT 2D Land-Ocean Climate Model used in this study consists of a zonally averaged statistical-dynamical atmospheric model coupled to a mixed-layer Q-flux ocean model, with heat anomalies diffused into the deep ocean. Following our previous studies, the anthropogenic forcings are the changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (1860-1995), sulfate aerosol (1860-1995), and stratospheric and tropospheric ozone (1979-1995). The sulfate aerosol forcing is applied as a surface albedo change. For an aerosol forcing of -1.0 W/m2 and an effective ocean diffusitivity of 2.5 cm2/s, the nonlinearity of the response of global-mean surface temperatures to the combined forcing shows a strong dependence on climate sensitivity. The fractional change in decadal averages ([(Δ TG + Δ TS + Δ TO) - Δ TGSO ]/ Δ TGSO) for the 1986-1995 period compared to pre-industrial times are 0.43, 0.90, and 1.08 with climate sensitivities of 3.0, 4.5, and 6.2 oC, respectively. The values of Δ TGSO for these three cases are 0.52, 0.62, and 0.76 oC. The dependence of linearity on climate system properties, the role of climate system feedbacks, and the implications for the detection of climate system's response to individual forcings will be presented. Details of the model and forcings can be found at http://web.mit.edu/globalchange/www/.

  17. Testing For The Linearity of Responses To Multiple Anthropogenic Climate Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, C. E.; Stone, P. H.; Sokolov, A. P.

    To test whether climate forcings are additive, we compare climate model simulations in which anthropogenic forcings are applied individually and in combination. Tests are performed with different values for climate system properties (climate sensitivity and rate of heat uptake by the deep ocean) as well as for different strengths of the net aerosol forcing, thereby testing for the dependence of linearity on these properties. The MIT 2D Land-Ocean Climate Model used in this study consists of a zonally aver- aged statistical-dynamical atmospheric model coupled to a mixed-layer Q-flux ocean model, with heat anomalies diffused into the deep ocean. Following our previous stud- ies, the anthropogenic forcings are the changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (1860-1995), sulfate aerosol (1860-1995), and stratospheric and tropospheric ozone (1979-1995). The sulfate aerosol forcing is applied as a surface albedo change. For an aerosol forcing of -1.0 W/m2 and an effective ocean diffusitivity of 2.5 cm2/s, the nonlinearity of the response of global-mean surface temperatures to the combined forcing shows a strong dependence on climate sensitivity. The fractional change in decadal averages ([(TG + TS + TO) - TGSO]/TGSO) for the 1986-1995 period compared to pre-industrial times are 0.43, 0.90, and 1.08 with climate sensitiv- ities of 3.0, 4.5, and 6.2 C, respectively. The values of TGSO for these three cases o are 0.52, 0.62, and 0.76 C. The dependence of linearity on climate system properties, o the role of climate system feedbacks, and the implications for the detection of climate system's response to individual forcings will be presented. Details of the model and forcings can be found at http://web.mit.edu/globalchange/www/.

  18. Dynamic elastic moduli in magnetic gels: Normal modes and linear response.

    PubMed

    Pessot, Giorgio; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M

    2016-09-14

    In the perspective of developing smart hybrid materials with customized features, ferrogels and magnetorheological elastomers allow a synergy of elasticity and magnetism. The interplay between elastic and magnetic properties gives rise to a unique reversible control of the material behavior by applying an external magnetic field. Albeit few works have been performed on the time-dependent properties so far, understanding the dynamic behavior is the key to model many practical situations, e.g., applications as vibration absorbers. Here we present a way to calculate the frequency-dependent elastic moduli based on the decomposition of the linear response to an external stress in normal modes. We use a minimal three-dimensional dipole-spring model to theoretically describe the magnetic and elastic interactions on the mesoscopic level. Specifically, the magnetic particles carry permanent magnetic dipole moments and are spatially arranged in a prescribed way, before they are linked by elastic springs. An external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moments. On the one hand, we study regular lattice-like particle arrangements to compare with previous results in the literature. On the other hand, we calculate the dynamic elastic moduli for irregular, more realistic particle distributions. Our approach measures the tunability of the linear dynamic response as a function of the particle arrangement, the system orientation with respect to the external magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the magnetic interaction between the particles. The strength of the present approach is that it explicitly connects the relaxational modes of the system with the rheological properties as well as with the internal rearrangement of the particles in the sample, providing new insight into the dynamics of these remarkable materials.

  19. Dynamic elastic moduli in magnetic gels: Normal modes and linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessot, Giorgio; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2016-09-01

    In the perspective of developing smart hybrid materials with customized features, ferrogels and magnetorheological elastomers allow a synergy of elasticity and magnetism. The interplay between elastic and magnetic properties gives rise to a unique reversible control of the material behavior by applying an external magnetic field. Albeit few works have been performed on the time-dependent properties so far, understanding the dynamic behavior is the key to model many practical situations, e.g., applications as vibration absorbers. Here we present a way to calculate the frequency-dependent elastic moduli based on the decomposition of the linear response to an external stress in normal modes. We use a minimal three-dimensional dipole-spring model to theoretically describe the magnetic and elastic interactions on the mesoscopic level. Specifically, the magnetic particles carry permanent magnetic dipole moments and are spatially arranged in a prescribed way, before they are linked by elastic springs. An external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moments. On the one hand, we study regular lattice-like particle arrangements to compare with previous results in the literature. On the other hand, we calculate the dynamic elastic moduli for irregular, more realistic particle distributions. Our approach measures the tunability of the linear dynamic response as a function of the particle arrangement, the system orientation with respect to the external magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the magnetic interaction between the particles. The strength of the present approach is that it explicitly connects the relaxational modes of the system with the rheological properties as well as with the internal rearrangement of the particles in the sample, providing new insight into the dynamics of these remarkable materials.

  20. Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology and Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The purpose of the conference was to attract researchers from diverse backgrounds who are working in the common area of non-linear dose - response relationships...This unique interdisciplinary conference represents an important step in furthering the understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanisms, significance and practical applications of non-linear dose - response relationships.

  1. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  2. The Generalized Logit-Linear Item Response Model for Binary-Designed Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…

  3. Using crosscorrelation techniques to determine the impulse response of linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallabetta, Michael J.; Li, Harry W.; Demuth, Howard B.

    1993-01-01

    A crosscorrelation method of measuring the impulse response of linear systems is presented. The technique, implementation, and limitations of this method are discussed. A simple system is designed and built using discrete components and the impulse response of a linear circuit is measured. Theoretical and software simulation results are presented.

  4. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  5. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ/ω_{b}<0.26), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength

  6. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωb<0.26 ), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength (up to ˜10 % ) within the

  7. Stationary engines in and beyond the linear response regime at the Carnot efficiency.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    The condition for stationary engines to attain the Carnot efficiency in and beyond the linear response regime is investigated. We find that this condition for finite-size engines is significantly different from that for macroscopic engines in the thermodynamic limit. For the case of finite-size engines, the tight-coupling condition in the linear response regime directly implies the attainability of the Carnot efficiency beyond the linear response regime. As opposed to this, for the case of macroscopic engines in the thermodynamic limit, there are three types of mechanisms to attain the Carnot efficiency. One mechanism allows engines to attain the Carnot efficiency only in the linear response limit, while the other two mechanisms enable engines to attain the Carnot efficiency beyond the linear response regime. These three mechanisms are classified by introducing a tight-coupling window.

  8. Stationary engines in and beyond the linear response regime at the Carnot efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    The condition for stationary engines to attain the Carnot efficiency in and beyond the linear response regime is investigated. We find that this condition for finite-size engines is significantly different from that for macroscopic engines in the thermodynamic limit. For the case of finite-size engines, the tight-coupling condition in the linear response regime directly implies the attainability of the Carnot efficiency beyond the linear response regime. As opposed to this, for the case of macroscopic engines in the thermodynamic limit, there are three types of mechanisms to attain the Carnot efficiency. One mechanism allows engines to attain the Carnot efficiency only in the linear response limit, while the other two mechanisms enable engines to attain the Carnot efficiency beyond the linear response regime. These three mechanisms are classified by introducing a tight-coupling window.

  9. The Pavlovian "principle of strength".

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1995-01-01

    The Pavlovian principle of strength assumed that the magnitude of the conditional response is a linear function of the intensity of the external conditional stimulus. But experiments failed to provide evidence for the universality of the principle. The Pavlovians tried to identify conditions that distorted the linearity of this relationship. Some of the disturbing conditions were external and some were internal intervening variables. It is possible that the relation between the strength of the conditional stimulus and the magnitude of the conditional response is not linear but logarithmic. Pavlov acknowledged the lack of experimental evidence to support the principle of strength in its original form.

  10. Pair potentials for simple metallic systems: Beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. A.; Ashcroft, N. W.; Chester, G. V.

    2010-06-01

    The formalism of electron response theory is extended to second order in a perturbing pseudopotential, and the consequences for effective ionic pair potentials of simple metals under standard conditions are then examined. Inclusion of second-order response terms in the pair potentials leads to the potential minima for sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and metallic silicon being located quite close to the experimental nearest-neighbor distances in the respective crystalline solids. Second-order effects are found to become increasingly important with higher valence. As a test case, it is also found that, for an assumed metallic form of hydrogen, inclusion of second-order response terms is insufficient to reproduce the experimental intramolecular distance under standard conditions: higher-order response terms are necessary to obtain the correct (Heitler-London-type) result. For any element treatable by response methods, the results further show that neglect of even one of the second-order response terms may significantly impact the determination of the pair potential.

  11. Linear ubiquitination by LUBEL has a role in Drosophila heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Tomoko; Almagro, Jorge; Ehrhardt, Christine; Tsai, Isabella; Schleiffer, Alexander; Deszcz, Luiza; Junttila, Sini; Ringrose, Leonie; Mechtler, Karl; Kavirayani, Anoop; Gyenesei, Attila; Hofmann, Kay; Duchek, Peter; Rittinger, Katrin; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2016-11-01

    The HOIP ubiquitin E3 ligase generates linear ubiquitin chains by forming a complex with HOIL-1L and SHARPIN in mammals. Here, we provide the first evidence of linear ubiquitination induced by a HOIP orthologue in Drosophila We identify Drosophila CG11321, which we named Linear Ubiquitin E3 ligase (LUBEL), and find that it catalyzes linear ubiquitination in vitro We detect endogenous linear ubiquitin chain-derived peptides by mass spectrometry in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells and adult flies. Furthermore, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we establish linear ubiquitination-defective flies by mutating residues essential for the catalytic activity of LUBEL Linear ubiquitination signals accumulate upon heat shock in flies. Interestingly, flies with LUBEL mutations display reduced survival and climbing defects upon heat shock, which is also observed upon specific LUBEL depletion in muscle. Thus, LUBEL is involved in the heat response by controlling linear ubiquitination in flies.

  12. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF) and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation…

  13. MODELING STREAM-AQUIFIER INTERACTIONS WITH LINEAR RESPONSE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of stream-aquifer interactions is pertinent to conjunctive-use management of water resources and riparian zone hydrology. Closed form solutions are derived for stream-aquifer interactions in rates and volumes expressed as convolution integrals of impulse response and ...

  14. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process. PMID:28590456

  15. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-06-07

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process.

  16. Ipsilateral corticomotor responses are confined to the homologous muscle following cross-education of muscular strength.

    PubMed

    Mason, Joel; Frazer, Ashlyn K; Horvath, Deanna M; Pearce, Alan J; Avela, Janne; Howatson, Glyn; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2017-08-22

    Cross-education of strength occurs when strength-training one limb increases the strength of the untrained limb and is restricted to the untrained homologous muscle. Cortical circuits located ipsilateral to the trained limb might be involved. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticomotor responses from the untrained homologous (biceps brachii) and non-homologous (flexor carpi radialis) muscle following strength-training of the right elbow flexors. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the untrained left biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men, aged 18-35 years; training group; n = 10 and control group; n = 10) before and after 3-weeks of strength-training the right biceps brachii at 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). Recruitment-curves for corticomotor excitability and inhibition of the untrained homologous and non-homologous muscle were constructed and assessed by examining the area under the recruitment curve (AURC). Strength-training increased strength of the trained elbow flexors (29%), resulting in a 18% increase in contralateral strength of the untrained elbow flexors (P <0.0001). The trained wrist flexors increased by 19%, resulting in a 12% increase in strength of the untrained wrist flexors (P = 0.005). TMS showed increased corticomotor excitability and decreased corticomotor inhibition for the untrained homologous muscle (P < 0.05); however, there were no changes in the untrained non-homologous muscle (P > 0.05). These findings show that the cross-education of muscular strength is spatially distributed; however, the neural adaptations are confined to the motor pathway ipsilateral to the untrained homologous agonist.

  17. Impact of high versus low fixed loads and non-linear training loads on muscle hypertrophy, strength and force development.

    PubMed

    Fink, Julius; Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Terada, Kentaro; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of resistance training protocols with different loads on muscle hypertrophy and strength. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 (n = 7 for each) resistance training (RT) protocols to failure: High load 80 % 1RM (8-12 repetitions) (H group), low load 30 % 1RM (30-40 repetitions) (L group) and a mixed RT protocol (M group) in which the participants switch from H to L every 2 weeks. RT consisted of three sets of unilateral preacher curls performed with the left arm 3 times/week with 90 s rest intervals between sets. The right arm served as control. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the elbow flexors (elbow angle: 90°) and rate of force development (RFD, 0-50, 50-100, 100-200 and 200-300 ms) were measured. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the elbow flexors was measured via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All measurements were conducted before and after the 8 weeks of RT (72-96 h after the last RT). Statistical evaluations were performed with two-way repeated measures (time × group). After 8 weeks of 3 weekly RT sessions, significant increases in the left elbow flexor CSA [H: 9.1 ± 6.4 % (p = 0.001), L: 9.4 ± 5.3 % (p = 0.001), M: 8.8 ± 7.9 % (p = 0.001)] have been observed in each group, without significant differences between groups. Significant changes in elbow flexor isometric MVC have been observed in the H group (26.5 ± 27.0 %, p = 0.028), while no significant changes have been observed in the M (11.8 ± 36.4 %, p = 0.26) and L (4.6 ± 23.9 %, p = 0.65) groups. RFD significantly increased during the 50-100 ms phase in the H group only (p = 0.049). We conclude that, as long as RT is conducted to failure, training load might not affect muscle hypertrophy in young men. Nevertheless, strength and RFD changes seem to be load-dependent. Furthermore, a non-linear RT protocol switching loads every 2 weeks might not lead to superior muscle hypertrophy nor

  18. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond

    2015-10-06

    We present two iterative algorithms for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within linear response of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. These methods do not attempt to compute eigenvalues or eigenvectors of the linear response matrix. They are designed to approximate the absorption spectrum as a function directly. They take advantage of the special structure of the linear response matrix. Neither method requires the linear response matrix to be constructed explicitly. They only require a procedure that performs the multiplication of the linear response matrix with a vector. These methods can also be easily modified to efficiently estimate the density of states (DOS) of the linear response matrix without computing the eigenvalues of this matrix. We show by computational experiments that the methods proposed in this paper can be much more efficient than methods that are based on the exact diagonalization of the linear response matrix. We show that they can also be more efficient than real-time TDDFT simulations. We compare the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost.

  19. Linear-response reflection coefficient of the recorder air-jet amplifier.

    PubMed

    Price, John C; Johnston, William A; McKinnon, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    In a duct-flute such as the recorder, steady-state oscillations are controlled by two parameters, the blowing pressure and the frequency of the acoustic resonator. As in most feedback oscillators, the oscillation amplitude is determined by gain-saturation of the amplifier, and thus it cannot be controlled independently of blowing pressure and frequency unless the feedback loop is opened. In this work, the loop is opened by replacing the recorder body with a waveguide reflectometer: a section of transmission line with microphones, a signal source, and an absorbing termination. When the mean flow from the air-jet into the transmission line is not blocked, the air-jet amplifier is unstable to edge-tone oscillations through a feedback path that does not involve the acoustic resonator. When it is blocked, the air-jet is deflected somewhat outward and the system becomes stable. It is then possible to measure the reflection coefficient of the air-jet amplifier versus blowing pressure and acoustic frequency under linear response conditions, avoiding the complication of gain-saturation. The results provide a revealing test of flute drive models under the simplest conditions and with few unknown parameters. The strengths and weaknesses of flute drive models are discussed.

  20. Linear-response reflection coefficient of the recorder air-jet amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, John C.; Johnston, William A.; McKinnon, Daniel D.

    2015-11-01

    In a duct-flute such as the recorder, steady-state oscillations are controlled by two parameters, the blowing pressure and the frequency of the acoustic resonator. As in most feedback oscillators, the oscillation amplitude is determined by gain-saturation of the amplifier, and thus it cannot be controlled independently of blowing pressure and frequency unless the feedback loop is opened. In this work, the loop is opened by replacing the recorder body with a waveguide reflectometer: a section of transmission line with microphones, a signal source, and an absorbing termination. When the mean flow from the air-jet into the transmission line is not blocked, the air-jet amplifier is unstable to edge-tone oscillations through a feedback path that does not involve the acoustic resonator. When it is blocked, the air-jet is deflected somewhat outward and the system becomes stable. It is then possible to measure the reflection coefficient of the air-jet amplifier versus blowing pressure and acoustic frequency under linear response conditions, avoiding the complication of gain-saturation. The results provide a revealing test of flute drive models under the simplest conditions and with few unknown parameters. The strengths and weaknesses of flute drive models are discussed.

  1. Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling.

  2. Responses of rostral fastigial neurons to linear acceleration in an alert monkey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W; Tang, B F; King, W M

    2001-07-01

    Vestibular-only neuronal responses to angular acceleration have been systematically characterized in the rostral fastigial nucleus (FN) by several studies. However, responses of these neurons to linear acceleration have not been examined. In this study, we recorded single-unit activity of vestibular-only neurons in an alert monkey during pure sinusoidal linear acceleration along different directions in the horizontal plane. Spatiotemporal response properties were quantified by computing two-dimensional response ellipses in the horizontal plane. Based on this analysis, neurons were classified as narrowly or broadly tuned. About 29% (5/17) of neurons were broadly tuned. The other 71% (12/17) were narrowly tuned. Unlike vestibular nuclei neurons, all recorded FN neurons exhibited irregular resting discharge rates (CV*0.2). Based on studies of linear motion-sensitive neurons in the vestibular nuclei, the data suggest that irregular neurons in the rostral FN and the vestibular nuclei have similar responses to linear acceleration in behaving monkeys.

  3. Thermal shifts and intermittent linear response of aging systems.

    PubMed

    Sibani, Paolo; Christiansen, Simon

    2008-04-01

    At time t after an initial quench, an aging system responds to a perturbation turned on at time twresponse on the ratio t/tw . Further insight is obtained imposing small temperature steps, so-called T shifts. The average response as a function of t/tw,eff , where tw,eff is the effective age, is similar to the response of a system aged isothermally at the final temperature. Using an Ising model with plaquette interactions, the applicability of analytic formulas for the average isothermal magnetization is confirmed. The T -shifted aging behavior of the model is approximately described using effective ages. Large positive shifts nearly reset the effective age. Negative T shifts offer a more detailed probe of the dynamics. Assuming the marginal stability of the "current" attractor against thermal noise fluctuations, the scaling form tw,eff=tw x and the dependence of the exponent x on the aging temperatures before and after the shift are theoretically available. The predicted form of x has no adjustable parameters. Both the algebraic scaling of the effective age and the form of the exponent reasonably agree with the data. The present simulations thus confirm the crucial role of marginal stability in glassy relaxation.

  4. The linearity and selectivity of neuronal responses in awake visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Anand, Sanjiv; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Macknik, Stephen L.; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are frequently classified based on their response linearity: the extent in which their visual responses to drifting gratings resemble a linear replica of the stimulus. This classification is supported by the finding that response linearity is bimodally distributed across neurons in area V1 of anesthetized animals. However, recent studies suggest that such bimodal distribution may not reflect two neuronal types but a nonlinear relationship between the membrane potential and the spike output. A main limitation of these previous studies is that they measured response linearity in anesthetized animals, where the distance between the neuronal membrane potential and spike threshold is artificially increased by anesthesia. Here, we measured V1 response linearity in the awake brain and its correlation with the neuronal spontaneous firing rate, which is related to the distance between membrane potential and threshold. Our results demonstrate that response linearity is bimodally distributed in awake V1 but that it is poorly correlated with spontaneous firing rate. In contrast, the spontaneous firing rate is best correlated to the response selectivity and response latency to stimuli. PMID:19761345

  5. Beyond ROC curvature: Strength effects and response time data support continuous-evidence models of recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Chad; Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    A classic question in the recognition memory literature is whether retrieval is best described as a continuous-evidence process consistent with signal detection theory (SDT), or a threshold process consistent with many multinomial processing tree (MPT) models. Because receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) based on confidence ratings are typically curved as predicted by SDT, this model has been preferred in many studies of recognition memory (Wixted, 2007). Recently, Bröder and Schütz (2009) argued that curvature in ratings ROCs may be produced by variability in scale usage; therefore, ratings ROCs are not diagnostic in deciding between the two approaches. From this standpoint, only ROCs constructed via experimental manipulations of response bias (‘binary’ ROCs) are predicted to be linear by threshold MPT models. The authors claimed that binary ROCs are linear, consistent with the assumptions of threshold MPT models. We compared SDT and the double high-threshold MPT model using binary ROCs differing in target strength. Results showed that the SDT model provided a superior account of both the ROC curvature and the effect of strength compared to the MPT model. Moreover, the bias manipulation produced differences in RT distributions that were well described by the diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978), a dynamic version of SDT. PMID:22988336

  6. Beyond ROC curvature: Strength effects and response time data support continuous-evidence models of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Dube, Chad; Starns, Jeffrey J; Rotello, Caren M; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-10-01

    A classic question in the recognition memory literature is whether retrieval is best described as a continuous-evidence process consistent with signal detection theory (SDT), or a threshold process consistent with many multinomial processing tree (MPT) models. Because receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) based on confidence ratings are typically curved as predicted by SDT, this model has been preferred in many studies of recognition memory (Wixted, 2007). Recently, Bröder and Schütz (2009) argued that curvature in ratings ROCs may be produced by variability in scale usage; therefore, ratings ROCs are not diagnostic in deciding between the two approaches. From this standpoint, only ROCs constructed via experimental manipulations of response bias ('binary' ROCs) are predicted to be linear by threshold MPT models. The authors claimed that binary ROCs are linear, consistent with the assumptions of threshold MPT models. We compared SDT and the double high-threshold MPT model using binary ROCs differing in target strength. Results showed that the SDT model provided a superior account of both the ROC curvature and the effect of strength compared to the MPT model. Moreover, the bias manipulation produced differences in RT distributions that were well described by the diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978), a dynamic version of SDT.

  7. Signaling Responses After Varying Sequencing of Strength and Endurance Training in a Fed State.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Walshe, Ian H; Hamilton, David L; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; Price, Oliver J; Gibson, Alan St Clair; French, Duncan N

    2016-10-01

    To compare anabolic signaling responses to differing sequences of concurrent strength and endurance training in a fed state. Eighteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to the following experimental conditions: strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), or endurance followed by strength training (END-ST). Muscle tissue samples were taken from the vastus lateralis before each exercise protocol, on cessation of exercise, and 1 h after cessation of strength training. Tissue was analyzed for total and phosphorylated (p-) signaling proteins linked to the mTOR and AMPK networks. Strength-training performance was similar between ST, ST-END, and END-ST. p-S6k1 was elevated from baseline 1 h posttraining in ST and ST-END (both P < .05). p-4E-BP1 was significantly lower than baseline post-ST (P = .01), whereas at 1 h postexercise in the ST-END condition p-4E-BP1 was significantly greater than postexercise (P = .04). p-ACC was elevated from baseline both postexercise and 1 h postexercise (both P < .05) in the END-ST condition. AMPK, mTOR, p38, PKB, and eEF2 responded similarly to ST, ST-END, and END-ST. Signaling responses to ST, ST-END, and END were largely similar. As such it cannot be ascertained which sequence of concurrent strength and endurance training is most favorable in promoting anabolic signaling. In the case of the current study an acute bout of concurrent training of differing sequences elicited similar responses of the AMPK and mTOR networks.

  8. Laboratory observations of fault strength in response to changes in normal stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilgore, Brian D.; Lozos, Julian; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Oglesby, David

    2012-01-01

    Changes in fault normal stress can either inhibit or promote rupture propagation, depending on the fault geometry and on how fault shear strength varies in response to the normal stress change. A better understanding of this dependence will lead to improved earthquake simulation techniques, and ultimately, improved earthquake hazard mitigation efforts. We present the results of new laboratory experiments investigating the effects of step changes in fault normal stress on the fault shear strength during sliding, using bare Westerly granite samples, with roughened sliding surfaces, in a double direct shear apparatus. Previous experimental studies examining the shear strength following a step change in the normal stress produce contradictory results: a set of double direct shear experiments indicates that the shear strength of a fault responds immediately, and then is followed by a prolonged slip-dependent response, while a set of shock loading experiments indicates that there is no immediate component, and the response is purely gradual and slip-dependent. In our new, high-resolution experiments, we observe that the acoustic transmissivity and dilatancy of simulated faults in our tests respond immediately to changes in the normal stress, consistent with the interpretations of previous investigations, and verify an immediate increase in the area of contact between the roughened sliding surfaces as normal stress increases. However, the shear strength of the fault does not immediately increase, indicating that the new area of contact between the rough fault surfaces does not appear preloaded with any shear resistance or strength. Additional slip is required for the fault to achieve a new shear strength appropriate for its new loading conditions, consistent with previous observations made during shock loading.

  9. [Modeling and simulation of responses from ultrasonic linear phased array].

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Zhu, Yuanzhong; Wang, Yufeng; He, Lingli; Lai, Siyu

    2012-10-01

    Phased array transducers are very attractive because the beam generated by the arrays can be electronically focused and steered. The present work characterizes far-field 2D properties of phased array system by functions that are deduced from rectangle source, rectangle line array and phased array based on point source. Results are presented for the distribution of ultrasound intensity on plane xoz and on x-axis by simulation using numerical calculation. It is shown that the shape of response of rectangle line array is modulated by the single array element. It is also demonstrated that the delay time of phased array is the key to steer the beam, sacrificing the value of main lobe and increasing the number of side lobes.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; McCoy, Tammy; Cochran, Joe; Thadhani, Naresh

    2009-06-01

    A refined Johnson-Cook material strength model is developed for predicting the dynamic strain and fracture response of Maraging 250 steel at high-strain rates. Finite element simulations of rod-on-anvil impacts are carried out at velocities exceeding 100m/s and compared with experimental impact tests performed on a 7.62mm gas gun. The transient and final dimensions of the simulated and experimentally impacted rods are compared and Johnson-Cook strength parameters are modified accordingly. The newly developed Maraging 250 steel Johnson-cook strength model is then applied to simulate the impact response of multiple, 25% dense linear cellular alloys (LCA) of various geometries at velocities exceeding 100m/s. Analyses of the deformation, fragmentation, and stress transfer behavior of the simulated LCAs are performed and validated through comparison of corresponding impact experiments performed on the LCAs produced via an extrusion and reduction process. Stress transfer to the interior walls varies as a function of LCA geometry, which also influences the outward fragmentation and energy retention at the cross-section of impact.

  11. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  12. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  13. Generalized linear porokeratosis: a rare entity with excellent response to acitretin.

    PubMed

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Varghese, Bincy; Barara, Meenu; Nangia, Anita

    2011-05-15

    Linear porokeratosis is a rare disorder of keratinization that usually presents at birth. We report a 17-year-old male with generalized linear porokeratosis, a very rare variant of porokeratosis, with extensive involvement of the trunk and extremities along with nail and genital involvement. The patient was treated with oral acitretin with excellent clinical response.

  14. Effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Reichert, Thais; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults. Thirty-four older adults men were placed into two groups: deep water endurance training (ET; n = 16; 66 ± 4 years) and deep water strength prior to endurance training (concurrent training: CT; n = 18; 64 ± 4 years). The training period lasted 12 weeks, with three sessions a week. The resting heart rate and the oxygen uptake at peak (VO2peak) and at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2VT2) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after training. In addition, maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test--1RM) and local muscular resistance (maximum repetitions at 60% 1RM) of the knee extensors and flexors were evaluated. After the training period, the heart rate at rest decreased significantly, while the VO2peak and VO2VT2 showed significant increases in both groups (p<0.05). Only the VO2VT2 resulted in significantly greater values for the ET compared to the CT group after the training (p<0.05). In addition, after training, there was a significant increase in the maximal dynamic strength of the knee extensors and the local muscular endurance of the knee extensors and flexors, with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). In summary, the two training programs were effective at producing significant improvements in cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adult men. However, deep water endurance training at high intensities provides increased cardiorespiratory responses compared to CT and results in similar muscular strength responses.

  15. Maximizing strength development in athletes: a meta-analysis to determine the dose-response relationship.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark D; Rhea, Matthew R; Alvar, Brent A

    2004-05-01

    The efficiency, safety, and effectiveness of strength training programs are paramount for sport conditioning. Therefore, identifying optimal doses of the training variables allows for maximal gains in muscular strength to be elicited per unit of time and also for the reduction in risk of overtraining and/or overuse injuries. A quantified dose-response relationship for the continuum of training intensities, frequencies, and volumes has been identified for recreationally trained populations but has yet to be identified for competitive athletes. The purpose of this analysis was to identify this relationship in collegiate, professional, and elite athletes. A meta-analysis of 37 studies with a total of 370 effect sizes was performed to identify the dose-response relationship among competitive athletes. Criteria for study inclusion were (a) participants must have been competitive athletes at the collegiate or professional level, (b) the study must have employed a strength training intervention, and (c) the study must have included necessary data to calculate effect sizes. Effect size data demonstrate that maximal strength gains are elicited among athletes who train at a mean training intensity of 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 2 days per week, and with a mean training volume of 8 sets per muscle group. The current data exhibit different dose-response trends than previous meta-analytical investigations with trained and untrained nonathletes. These results demonstrate explicit dose-response trends for maximal strength gains in athletes and may be directly used in strength and conditioning venues to optimize training efficiency and effectiveness.

  16. Ligand-induced protein responses and mechanical signal propagation described by linear response theories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lee-Wei; Kitao, Akio; Huang, Bang-Chieh; Gō, Nobuhiro

    2014-09-16

    In this study, a general linear response theory (LRT) is formulated to describe time-dependent and -independent protein conformational changes upon CO binding with myoglobin. Using the theory, we are able to monitor protein relaxation in two stages. The slower relaxation is found to occur from 4.4 to 81.2 picoseconds and the time constants characterized for a couple of aromatic residues agree with those observed by UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectrometry and time resolved x-ray crystallography. The faster "early responses", triggered as early as 400 femtoseconds, can be best described by the theory when impulse forces are used. The newly formulated theory describes the mechanical propagation following ligand-binding as a function of time, space and types of the perturbation forces. The "disseminators", defined as the residues that propagate signals throughout the molecule the fastest among all the residues in protein when perturbed, are found evolutionarily conserved and the mutations of which have been shown to largely change the CO rebinding kinetics in myoglobin. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Linear Response of OXYGEN-16 in a Relativistic Particle-Hole Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Michael William

    The nuclear structure of excited states in ('16)O is studied using the particle-hole (p-h) model in a Dirac -Hartree single-particle basis. The excited-states are assumed to be produced by an exter- nal perturbation which acts in first order and can be expressed as a sum of single -nucleon operators (linear response). In this thesis, the excited nuclear states are viewed as a linear combination of p-h states which are mixed by a Lorentz invariant finite -range p-h interaction. The particle- and hole-states are described by the self-consistently determined Dirac-Hartree spinor wave functions of Horowitz and Serot.* The linearized equations of motion are solved for the excited state energies and the corresponding p-h admixture amplitudes in the Tamm -Dancoff and random-phase approximations. In this model, the p-h basis is at first restricted to p-h states allowed from 1-(H/2PI)(omega) transitions (in the language of an oscillator model) and then extended to include particle states that lie at higher energies in the Dirac-Hartree continuum. The p-h interaction is writ- ten as a sum of five Lorentz invariant terms (scalar, vector, pseudo-scalar or pseudo-vector, axial-vector and tensor) and is allowed to assume various parameterizations (strengths and ranges) including (a) those suggested by relativistic mean field theories based on (sigma) and (omega), and (sigma), (omega), (rho) and (pi) meson exchange, and (b) those obtained by means of chi-squared RPA fits to selected experimental energy levels in ('16)O. Throughout this work, the validity of the predicted excited state energy levels arising from the various treatments of the p-h basis and interaction is tested by comparing with experimental energy levels in ('16)O. The calculated admixture amplitudes are used in conjunction with relativistic transition operators to predict transition rates for selected electro-weak processes. It is found that the agreement between these relativistic predictions and experimental

  18. Analysis of Reward Functions in Learning: Unconscious Information Processing: Noncognitive Determinants of Response Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Research Note 84-76 ANALYSIS OF REWARD FUNCTIONS IN LEARNING: UNCONSCIOUS INFORMATION PROCESSING : Lf NONCOGNITIVE DETERMINANTS OF RESPONSE STRENGTH...Melvin H. Marx University of Missouri, Columbia David W. Bessemer , Contracting Officer’s Representative0 Submitted by Robert M. Sasmor, Director BASIC...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ANALYSIS OF REWARD FUNCTIONS IN LEARNING: Final Report UNCONSCIOUS INFORMATION PROCESSING : NONCOGNITIVE Sept. 1978 - Sept. 15

  19. A Meta-Analysis To Determine the Dose Response for Strength Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Alvar, Brent A.; Burkett, Lee N.; Ball, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the quantitative dose-response relationship for strength development by calculating the magnitude of gains elicited by various levels of training intensity, frequency, and volume; thus clarifying the effort to benefit ratio. A meta-analysis of 140 studies with 1,433 effect sizes (ES) was conducted. ES demonstrated different responses…

  20. A Meta-Analysis To Determine the Dose Response for Strength Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Alvar, Brent A.; Burkett, Lee N.; Ball, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the quantitative dose-response relationship for strength development by calculating the magnitude of gains elicited by various levels of training intensity, frequency, and volume; thus clarifying the effort to benefit ratio. A meta-analysis of 140 studies with 1,433 effect sizes (ES) was conducted. ES demonstrated different responses…

  1. Linear and nonlinear density response functions for a simple atomic fluid.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Benjamin A; Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D; Snook, Ian K

    2013-07-28

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the linear and nonlinear density response functions for simple fluids under the influence of spatially periodic external fields. Using a direct Fourier space decomposition of the instantaneous microscopic density for the perturbed fluid we can clearly identify the distinct order of response. Using a single component sinusoidal longitudinal force for a set of wavelengths and amplitudes we show that in the linear response regime the proportionality between the external field amplitude and the density perturbation can be used to determine the linear density response function, and hence the pair correlation function, static liquid structure factor, and lowest order direct correlation function. We show also that for large external field amplitudes a single component external field can be used to determine the form for lowest order and second lowest order nonlinear response functions for restricted regions of the total response function spaces.

  2. Linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and the variation of constants method. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  3. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Borrat, Xavier; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Gambus, Pedro; Caminal, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to improve the prediction of nociceptive responses with linear and non-linear measures calculated from EEG signal filtered in frequency bands higher than the traditional bands. Power spectral density and auto-mutual information function was applied in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. The proposed measures exhibit better performances than the bispectral index (BIS). Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were achieved combining EEG measures from the traditional frequency bands and higher frequency bands.

  4. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Borrat, Xavier; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Gambus, Pedro; Caminal, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to improve the prediction of nociceptive responses with linear and non-linear measures calculated from EEG signal filtered in frequency bands higher than the traditional bands. Power spectral density and auto-mutual information function was applied in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. The proposed measures exhibit better performances than the bispectral index (BIS). Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were achieved combining EEG measures from the traditional frequency bands and higher frequency bands. PMID:25901571

  5. Normalization of neuronal responses in cortical area MT across signal strengths and motion directions

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianbo; Niu, Yu-Qiong; Wiesner, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multiple visual stimuli are common in natural scenes, yet it remains unclear how multiple stimuli interact to influence neuronal responses. We investigated this question by manipulating relative signal strengths of two stimuli moving simultaneously within the receptive fields (RFs) of neurons in the extrastriate middle temporal (MT) cortex. Visual stimuli were overlapping random-dot patterns moving in two directions separated by 90°. We first varied the motion coherence of each random-dot pattern and characterized, across the direction tuning curve, the relationship between neuronal responses elicited by bidirectional stimuli and by the constituent motion components. The tuning curve for bidirectional stimuli showed response normalization and can be accounted for by a weighted sum of the responses to the motion components. Allowing nonlinear, multiplicative interaction between the two component responses significantly improved the data fit for some neurons, and the interaction mainly had a suppressive effect on the neuronal response. The weighting of the component responses was not fixed but dependent on relative signal strengths. When two stimulus components moved at different coherence levels, the response weight for the higher-coherence component was significantly greater than that for the lower-coherence component. We also varied relative luminance levels of two coherently moving stimuli and found that MT response weight for the higher-luminance component was also greater. These results suggest that competition between multiple stimuli within a neuron's RF depends on relative signal strengths of the stimuli and that multiplicative nonlinearity may play an important role in shaping the response tuning for multiple stimuli. PMID:24899674

  6. Dependences of Q-branch integrated intensity of linear-molecule pendular spectra on electric-field strength and rotational temperature and its potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Min; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Qin; Yin, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the pendular-state spectra of cold linear molecules, and investigated the dependences of “Q-branch” integrated intensity of pendular spectra on both electric-field strength and molecular rotation-temperature. A new multi-peak structure in the “Q-branch” spectrum is appearing when the Stark interaction strength ω = μE/B equal to or larger than the critical value. Our study shows that the above results can be used not only to measure the electric-field vector and its spatial distribution in some electrostatic devices, such as the Stark decelerator, Stark velocity filter and electrostatic trap and so on, but also to survey the orientation degree of cold linear molecules in a strong electrostatic field. PMID:27231057

  7. Dependences of Q-branch integrated intensity of linear-molecule pendular spectra on electric-field strength and rotational temperature and its potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Min; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Qin; Yin, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the pendular-state spectra of cold linear molecules, and investigated the dependences of “Q-branch” integrated intensity of pendular spectra on both electric-field strength and molecular rotation-temperature. A new multi-peak structure in the “Q-branch” spectrum is appearing when the Stark interaction strength ω = μE/B equal to or larger than the critical value. Our study shows that the above results can be used not only to measure the electric-field vector and its spatial distribution in some electrostatic devices, such as the Stark decelerator, Stark velocity filter and electrostatic trap and so on, but also to survey the orientation degree of cold linear molecules in a strong electrostatic field.

  8. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  9. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  10. Ligand-Induced Protein Responses and Mechanical Signal Propagation Described by Linear Response Theories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lee-Wei; Kitao, Akio; Huang, Bang-Chieh; Gō, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general linear response theory (LRT) is formulated to describe time-dependent and -independent protein conformational changes upon CO binding with myoglobin. Using the theory, we are able to monitor protein relaxation in two stages. The slower relaxation is found to occur from 4.4 to 81.2 picoseconds and the time constants characterized for a couple of aromatic residues agree with those observed by UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectrometry and time resolved x-ray crystallography. The faster “early responses”, triggered as early as 400 femtoseconds, can be best described by the theory when impulse forces are used. The newly formulated theory describes the mechanical propagation following ligand-binding as a function of time, space and types of the perturbation forces. The “disseminators”, defined as the residues that propagate signals throughout the molecule the fastest among all the residues in protein when perturbed, are found evolutionarily conserved and the mutations of which have been shown to largely change the CO rebinding kinetics in myoglobin. PMID:25229149

  11. Cortico-subthalamic white matter tract strength predicts interindividual efficacy in stopping a motor response.

    PubMed

    Forstmann, Birte U; Keuken, Max C; Jahfari, Sara; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Neumann, Jane; Schäfer, Andreas; Anwander, Alfred; Turner, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small but vitally important structure in the basal ganglia. Because of its small volume, and its localization in the basal ganglia, the STN can best be visualized using ultra-high resolution 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, first we individually segmented 7 T MRI STN masks to generate atlas probability maps. Secondly, the individually segmented STN masks and the probability maps were used to derive cortico-subthalamic white matter tract strength. Tract strength measures were then taken to test two functional STN hypotheses which account for the efficiency in stopping a motor response: the right inferior fronto-subthalamic (rIFC-STN) hypothesis and the posterior medial frontal cortex-subthalamic (pMFC-STN) hypothesis. Results of two independent experiments show that increased white matter tract strength between the pMFC and STN results in better stopping behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cumulative Violence Exposures: Black Women’s Responses and Sources of Strength

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Holliday, Charvonne N.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Huerta, Julia; Cimino, Andrea; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2016-01-01

    Black women with cumulative violence exposures (CVE) may have unique needs for health care and safety. Qualitative data was analyzed from interviews with nine Black women with CVE to explore factors that motivated women to leave abusive relationships, women’s sources of strengths, and their responses to abuse. Quantitative data (N = 163) was analyzed to examine relationships between CVEs by intimate partner and health among Black women to further characterize the challenges these women face in making changes and finding their sources of strengths. Findings highlight the need to assess for CVE and identify multiple motivators for change, sources of strengths and coping strategies that could be potential points of intervention for women with CVE. PMID:26954765

  13. CNTF 1357 G → A polymorphism and the muscle strength response to resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sean; Kelsey, Bethany K.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Gordon, Paul M.; Moyna, Niall M.; Visich, Paul S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Seip, Richard L.; Bilbie, Steve; Thompson, Paul D.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Price, Thomas B.; Devaney, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined associations between the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) 1357 G → A polymorphism and the muscle strength response to a unilateral, upper arm resistance-training (RT) program among healthy, young adults. Subjects were 754 Caucasian men (40%) and women (60%) who were genotyped and performed a training program of the nondominant (trained) arm with the dominant (untrained) arm as a comparison. Peak elbow flexor strength was measured with one repetition maximum, isometric strength with maximum voluntary contraction, and bicep cross-sectional area with MRI in the trained and untrained arms before and after training. Women with the CNTF GG genotype gained more absolute isometric strength, as measured by MVC (6.5 ± 0.3 vs. 5.2 ± 0.5 kg), than carriers of the CNTF A1357 allele in the trained arm pre- to posttraining (P < 0.05). No significant associations were seen in men. Women with the CNTF GG genotype gained more absolute dynamic (1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 kg) and allometric (0.022 ± 0.0 vs. 0.015 ± 0.0 kg/kg−0.67) strength, as measured by 1 RM, than carriers of the CNTF A1357 allele in the untrained arm pre- to posttraining (P < 0.05). No significant associations were seen in men. No significant associations, as measured by cross-sectional area, were seen in men or women. The CNTF 1357 G → A polymorphism explains only a small portion of the variability in the muscle strength response to training in women. PMID:19628720

  14. Explicit solvent simulations of the aqueous oxidation potential and reorganization energy for neutral molecules: gas phase, linear solvent response, and non-linear response contributions.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Jennifer J; Tentscher, Peter R; Seijo, Marianne; Samuel Arey, J

    2015-06-14

    First principles simulations were used to predict aqueous one-electron oxidation potentials (Eox) and associated half-cell reorganization energies (λaq) for aniline, phenol, methoxybenzene, imidazole, and dimethylsulfide. We employed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the oxidized and reduced species in an explicit aqueous solvent, followed by EOM-IP-CCSD computations with effective fragment potentials for diabatic energy gaps of solvated clusters, and finally thermodynamic integration of the non-linear solvent response contribution using classical MD. A priori predicted Eox and λaq values exhibit mean absolute errors of 0.17 V and 0.06 eV, respectively, compared to experiment. We also disaggregate Eox into several well-defined free energy properties, including the gas phase adiabatic free energy of ionization (7.73 to 8.82 eV), the solvent-induced shift in the free energy of ionization due to linear solvent response (-2.01 to -2.73 eV), and the contribution from non-linear solvent response (-0.07 to -0.14 eV). The linear solvent response component is further apportioned into contributions from the solvent-induced shift in vertical ionization energy of the reduced species (ΔVIEaq) and the solvent-induced shift in negative vertical electron affinity of the ionized species (ΔNVEAaq). The simulated ΔVIEaq and ΔNVEAaq are found to contribute the principal sources of uncertainty in computational estimates of Eox and λaq. Trends in the magnitudes of disaggregated solvation properties are found to correlate with trends in structural and electronic features of the solute. Finally, conflicting approaches for evaluating the aqueous reorganization energy are contrasted and discussed, and concluding recommendations are given.

  15. Activation of Bone Remodeling after Fatigue: Differential Response to Linear Microcracks and Diffuse Damage

    PubMed Central

    Herman, B.C.; Cardoso, L.; Majeska, R.J.; Jepsen, K.J.; Schaffler, M.B

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments point to two predominant forms of fatigue microdamage in bone: linear microcracks (tens to a few hundreds microns in length) and “diffuse damage” (patches of diffuse stain uptake in fatigued bone comprised of clusters of sublamellar-sized cracks). The physiological relevance of diffuse damage in activating bone remodeling is not known. In this study microdamage amount and type were varied to assess whether linear or diffuse microdamage have similar effects on the activation of intracortical resorption. Activation of resorption was correlated to the number of linear microcracks (Cr.Dn) in the bone (R2=0.60, p<0.01). In contrast, there was no activation of resorption in response to diffuse microdamage alone. Furthermore, there was no significant change in osteocyte viability in response to diffuse microdamage, suggesting that osteocyte apoptosis, which is know to activate remodeling at typical linear microcracks in bone, does not result from sublamellar damage. These findings indicate that inability of diffuse microdamage to activate resorption may be due to lack of a focal injury response. Finally, we found that duration of loading does not affect the remodeling response. In conclusion, our data indicate that osteocytes activate resorption in response to linear microcracks but not diffuse microdamage, perhaps due to lack of a focal injury-induced apoptotic response. PMID:20633708

  16. A quantum-mechanical perspective on linear response theory within polarizable embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Norman, Patrick; Kongsted, Jacob; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2017-06-01

    We present a derivation of linear response theory within polarizable embedding starting from a rigorous quantum-mechanical treatment of a composite system. To this aim, two different subsystem decompositions (symmetric and nonsymmetric) of the linear response function are introduced and the pole structures as well as residues of the individual terms are discussed. In addition to providing a thorough justification for the descriptions used in polarizable embedding models, this theoretical analysis clarifies which form of the response function to use and highlights complications in separating out subsystem contributions to molecular properties. The basic features of the presented expressions and various approximate forms are illustrated by their application to a composite model system.

  17. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-12

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept-the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a 'dead' metal can be transformed into a 'smart' material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices.

  18. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept—the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a ‘dead’ metal can be transformed into a ‘smart’ material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices.

  19. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fias, Stijn Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  20. A review of linear response theory for general differentiable dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2009-04-01

    The classical theory of linear response applies to statistical mechanics close to equilibrium. Away from equilibrium, one may describe the microscopic time evolution by a general differentiable dynamical system, identify nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) and study how these vary under perturbations of the dynamics. Remarkably, it turns out that for uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems (those satisfying the 'chaotic hypothesis'), the linear response away from equilibrium is very similar to the linear response close to equilibrium: the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations hold, and the fluctuation-dispersion theorem survives in a modified form (which takes into account the oscillations around the 'attractor' corresponding to the NESS). If the chaotic hypothesis does not hold, two new phenomena may arise. The first is a violation of linear response in the sense that the NESS does not depend differentiably on parameters (but this nondifferentiability may be hard to see experimentally). The second phenomenon is a violation of the dispersion relations: the susceptibility has singularities in the upper half complex plane. These 'acausal' singularities are actually due to 'energy nonconservation': for a small periodic perturbation of the system, the amplitude of the linear response is arbitrarily large. This means that the NESS of the dynamical system under study is not 'inert' but can give energy to the outside world. An 'active' NESS of this sort is very different from an equilibrium state, and it would be interesting to see what happens for active states to the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.

  1. Response Latency as an Index of Response Strength during Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dependent variables in research on problem behavior typically are based on measures of response repetition, but these measures may be problematic when behavior poses high risk or when its occurrence terminates a session. We examined response latency as the index of behavior during assessment. In Experiment 1, we compared response rate and latency…

  2. Response Latency as an Index of Response Strength during Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dependent variables in research on problem behavior typically are based on measures of response repetition, but these measures may be problematic when behavior poses high risk or when its occurrence terminates a session. We examined response latency as the index of behavior during assessment. In Experiment 1, we compared response rate and latency…

  3. Quasilaminar regime in the linear response of a turbulent flow to wall waviness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Paolo; Charru, François

    2017-01-01

    The linear response of the wall-shear stress of a turbulent flow to wall waviness is analyzed in the context of a comparison between existing experiments, direct numerical simulations, and analytical approximations. The spectral region where the response is largest is found to be amenable to a simplified quasilaminar analysis. The end result is a parameterless description of this phenomenon that completely captures its physics in a single analytical formula, a Padé approximation of the response function.

  4. Linearization of the response of a 91-actuator magnetic liquid deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Denis; Borra, Ermanno F; Rochette, Maxime; Landry, Daniel Bouffard

    2010-04-12

    We present the experimental performance of a 91-actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid) using a new technique that linearizes the response of the mirror by superposing a uniform magnetic field to the one produced by the actuators. We demonstrate linear driving of the mirror using influence functions, measured with a Fizeau interferometer, by producing the first 36 Zernikes polynomials. Based on our measurements, we predict achievable mean PV wavefront amplitudes of up to 30 microm having RMS residuals of lambda/10 at 632.8 nm. Linear combination of Zernikes and over-time repeatability are also demonstrated.

  5. Frequency response of synthetic vocal fold models with linear and nonlinear material properties.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Stephanie M; Thomson, Scott L; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F0) during anterior-posterior stretching. Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1-mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and F0 at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1-mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than do linear models, especially with respect to F0 response.

  6. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  7. The responsiveness of sensibility and strength tests in patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several clinical measures of sensory and motor function are used alongside patient-rated questionnaires to assess outcomes of carpal tunnel decompression. However there is a lack of evidence regarding which clinical tests are most responsive to clinically important change over time. Methods In a prospective cohort study 63 patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression were assessed using standardised clinician-derived and patient reported outcomes before surgery, at 4 and 8 months follow up. Clinical sensory assessments included: touch threshold with monofilaments (WEST), shape-texture identification (STI™ test), static two-point discrimination (Mackinnon-Dellon Disk-Criminator) and the locognosia test. Motor assessments included: grip and tripod pinch strength using a digital grip analyser (MIE), manual muscle testing of abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis using the Rotterdam Intrinsic Handheld Myometer (RIHM). The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) was used as a patient rated outcome measure. Results Relative responsiveness at 4 months was highest for the BCTQ symptom severity scale with moderate to large effects sizes (ES = -1.43) followed by the BCTQ function scale (ES = -0.71). The WEST and STI™ were the most responsive sensory tests at 4 months showing moderate effect sizes (WEST ES = 0.55, STI ES = 0.52). Grip and pinch strength had a relatively higher responsiveness compared to thenar muscle strength but effect sizes for all motor tests were very small (ES ≤0.10) or negative indicating a decline compared to baseline in some patients. Conclusions For clinical assessment of sensibility touch threshold assessed by monofilaments (WEST) and tactile gnosis measured with the STI™ test are the most responsive tests and are recommended for future studies. The use of handheld myometry (RIHM) for manual muscle testing, despite more specifically targeting thenar muscles, was less responsive than grip or tripod pinch testing using

  8. Acute hormonal responses to heavy resistance exercise in strength athletes versus nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Juha P; Pakarinen, Arto; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery in strength athletes versus nonathletes during heavy resistance exercise performed with the forced and maximum repetitions training protocol. Eight male strength athletes (SA) with several years of continuous resistance training experience and 8 physically active but non-strength athletes (NA) volunteered as subjects. The experimental design comprised two loading sessions: maximum repetitions (MR) and forced repetitions (FR). MR included 12-RM squats for 4 sets with a 2-min recovery between sets. In FR the initial load was higher than in MR so that the subject could lift approximately 8 repetitions by himself and 4 additional repetitions with assistance. Before and after the loading protocols, blood samples were drawn to determine serum testosterone, free testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations, and blood lactate. Maximal voluntary isometric force and EMG activity of the leg extensors was measured before and after the loading as well as 24 and 48 hrs after the loading. The concentrations of the hormones measured increased significantly (p < .01-.001) after both loadings in both groups. The responses tended to be higher in FR than the MR loading and the increases of testosterone concentrations were significantly (p < .01) greater in both loadings in SA than in NA. Both loading protocols in both groups also led to neuromuscular fatigue observable with significant acute decreases in isometric strength by 32-52% (p < .001) and in maximal iEMG (p < .05-01) associated with large increases in blood lactate. These data suggest that, at least in experienced strength athletes, the forced-repetition protocol is a viable alternative to the more traditional maximum-repetition protocol and may even be a superior approach.

  9. Hormonal responses to concurrent strength and endurance training with different exercise orders.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; dos Santos, Mariah Gonçalves; Martins, Jocelito Bijoldo; Rodrigues Lhullier, Francisco L; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Silva, Rodrigo Ferrari; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the intrasession sequencing of concurrent strength and aerobic training on the acute testosterone (TT) and cortisol (COR) responses. Ten recreationally strength-trained young men (23.5 ± 0.9 years) performed 2 exercise interventions: aerobic-strength (AS) and strength-aerobic (SA), which consisted of 30 minutes of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at 75% of maximal heart rate and 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 75% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in 4 strength exercises. Maximal heart rate was determined using a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Blood samples were collected before, between exercise modalities, and immediately after the concurrent training sessions to determine basal and acute total TT and COR concentrations. There were significant increases in TT after the first modality in both exercise orders (p < 0.05). However, the TT level remained significantly higher than the resting levels after the second exercise modality only in the AS (p < 0.05) which resulted in a significant higher relative total change after the complete concurrent training session compared with SA (p < 0.05). Regarding COR, there were significant increases after the first modality in both AS and SA orders (p < 0.05), but the COR returned to resting levels after the second modality in both AS and SA interventions. During AS and SA, the change observed after the first modality performance was greater than that after the second in both hormones. The present results suggest that the TT response is optimized after the AS order, whereas both AS and SA produced similar hormonal levels at all time points. However, it is important to state that the present results should be applied only when short duration and moderate intensity aerobic training is performed.

  10. Linear and non-linear responses of vegetation and soils to glacial-interglacial climate change in a Mediterranean refuge.

    PubMed

    Holtvoeth, Jens; Vogel, Hendrik; Valsecchi, Verushka; Lindhorst, Katja; Schouten, Stefan; Wagner, Bernd; Wolff, George A

    2017-08-14

    The impact of past global climate change on local terrestrial ecosystems and their vegetation and soil organic matter (OM) pools is often non-linear and poorly constrained. To address this, we investigated the response of a temperate habitat influenced by global climate change in a key glacial refuge, Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia). We applied independent geochemical and palynological proxies to a sedimentary archive from the lake over the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5) and the following interglacial (MIS 5e-c), targeting lake surface temperature as an indicator of regional climatic development and the supply of pollen and biomarkers from the vegetation and soil OM pools to determine local habitat response. Climate fluctuations strongly influenced the ecosystem, however, lake level controls the extent of terrace surfaces between the shoreline and mountain slopes and hence local vegetation, soil development and OM export to the lake sediments. There were two phases of transgressional soil erosion from terrace surfaces during lake-level rise in the MIS 6-5 transition that led to habitat loss for the locally dominant pine vegetation as the terraces drowned. Our observations confirm that catchment morphology plays a key role in providing refuges with low groundwater depth and stable soils during variable climate.

  11. Linear response theory for symmetry improved two particle irreducible effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the linear response of an O (N ) scalar quantum field theory subject to external perturbations using the symmetry-improved two-particle irreducible effective action (SI-2PIEA) formalism [A. Pilaftsis and D. Teresi, Nucl. Phys. B874, 594 (2013)]. Despite satisfactory equilibrium behavior, we find a number of unphysical effects at the linear response level. Goldstone boson field fluctuations are overdetermined, with the only consistent solution being to set the fluctuations and their driving sources to zero, except for momentum modes where the Higgs and Goldstone self-energies obey a particular relationship. Also Higgs field fluctuations propagate masslessly, despite the Higgs propagator having the correct mass. These pathologies are independent of any truncation of the effective action and still exist even if we relax the overdetermining Ward identities, so long as the constraint is formulated O (N ) covariantly. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent incompatibility of the constraints and linear response approximation and possible ways forward.

  12. Dielectric function beyond the random-phase approximation: kinetic theory versus linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, H; Röpke, G

    2012-03-01

    Calculating the frequency-dependent dielectric function for strongly coupled plasmas, the relations within kinetic theory and linear response theory are derived and discussed in comparison. In this context, we give a proof that the Kohler variational principle can be extended to arbitrary frequencies. It is shown to be a special case of the Zubarev method for the construction of a nonequilibrium statistical operator from the principle of the extremum of entropy production. Within kinetic theory, the commonly used energy-dependent relaxation time approach is strictly valid only for the Lorentz plasma in the static case. It is compared with the result from linear response theory that includes electron-electron interactions and applies for arbitrary frequencies, including bremsstrahlung emission. It is shown how a general approach to linear response encompasses the different approximations and opens options for systematic improvements.

  13. Determining the continuous family of quantum Fisher information from linear-response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitara, Tomohiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-12-01

    The quantum Fisher information represents a continuous family of metrics on the space of quantum states and places the fundamental limit on the accuracy of quantum state estimation. We show that the entire family of quantum Fisher information can be determined from linear-response theory through generalized covariances. We derive the generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates linear-response functions to generalized covariances and hence allows us to determine the quantum Fisher information from linear-response functions, which are experimentally measurable quantities. As an application, we examine the skew information, which is a quantum Fisher information, of a harmonic oscillator in thermal equilibrium, and show that the equality of the skew-information-based uncertainty relation holds.

  14. Nonlinear system stochastic response determination via fractional equivalent linearization and Karhunen-Loève expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a novel fractional equivalent linearization (EL) approach is developed by incorporating a fractional derivative term into the classical linearization equation. Due to the introduction of the fractional derivative term, the accuracy of the new linearization is improved, illustrated by a Duffing oscillator that is subjected to a harmonic excitation. Furthermore, a new method for solving stochastic response of nonlinear SDOF system is developed by combining Karhunen-Loève (K-L) expansion and fractional EL. The method firstly decomposes the stochastic excitation in terms of a set of random variables and deterministic sub-excitations using K-L expansion, and then construct sub-fractional equivalent linear system according to each sub-excitation by fractional EL, the response of the original nonlinear system is finally approximated as the weighed summation of the deterministic response of each sub-system multiplied by the corresponding random variable. The random nature of the final response comes from the set of random variables that is obtained in K-L expansion. In this way, the stochastic response computation is converted to a set of deterministic response analysis problems. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated by a Duffing oscillator that is subjected to stochastic excitation modeled by Winner process. The results are compared with the numerical method and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS).

  15. Cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei mirror cortical force‐related‐BOLD responses: Beyond all (linear) expectations

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S.; Friston, Karl J.; Toosy, Ahmed T.; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler‐Kingshott, Claudia A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum‐optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non‐linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces. We showed extensive non‐linear activations (with a parametric design), covering the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum with a BOLD‐force relationship that is region‐dependent. Linear responses were mainly located in the anterior lobe, similarly to the cortex, where linear responses are localized in M1. Complex responses were localized in the posterior lobe, reflecting its key role in attention and executive processing, required during visually guided movement. Given the highly organized responses in the cerebellar cortex, a key question is whether deep cerebellar nuclei show similar parametric effects. We found positive correlations with force in the ipsilateral dentate nucleus and negative correlations on the contralateral side, suggesting a somatotopic organization of the dentate nucleus in line with cerebellar and cortical areas. Our results confirm that there is cerebellar organization involving all grey matter structures that reflect functional segregation in the cortex, where cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei contribute to complex motor tasks with different BOLD response profiles in relation to the forces. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2566–2579, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28240422

  16. Cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei mirror cortical force-related-BOLD responses: Beyond all (linear) expectations.

    PubMed

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S; Friston, Karl J; Toosy, Ahmed T; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2017-02-27

    The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum-optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non-linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces. We showed extensive non-linear activations (with a parametric design), covering the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum with a BOLD-force relationship that is region-dependent. Linear responses were mainly located in the anterior lobe, similarly to the cortex, where linear responses are localized in M1. Complex responses were localized in the posterior lobe, reflecting its key role in attention and executive processing, required during visually guided movement. Given the highly organized responses in the cerebellar cortex, a key question is whether deep cerebellar nuclei show similar parametric effects. We found positive correlations with force in the ipsilateral dentate nucleus and negative correlations on the contralateral side, suggesting a somatotopic organization of the dentate nucleus in line with cerebellar and cortical areas. Our results confirm that there is cerebellar organization involving all grey matter structures that reflect functional segregation in the cortex, where cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei contribute to complex motor tasks with different BOLD response profiles in relation to the forces. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of microstructure on the fracture response of advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The materials selected to observe microstructural effects on formability included four 780 MPa strength, and four 980 MPa strength AHSS grades produced with varying processing conditions. The grades were an uncoated DP780, a high yield DP780, a galvanized DP780, a TRIP780, a galvannealed DP980, a galvanized DP980, an uncoated DP980, and a fine grained DP980. All AHSS grades were tensile tested to obtain values for ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent uniform and total elongation. An analysis was performed to quantify the average grain size of the primary and second phase constituents, as well as the second phase volume fraction present in each AHSS grade. Nanoindentation was performed for each AHSS grade to determine the average hardness of the primary and second phase constituents present. Evolution of microstructural damage in response to deformation was analyzed using a plane strain tensile method developed to impose a localized through-thickness shear fracture. Samples of each AHSS grade were strained to progressively higher percentages of their failure displacement, and microstructural damage was observed using a scanning electron microscope on a metallographic section removed from the localized shear deformation region. Micrographs were analyzed using ImageJ®, and the resulting void percent and number of voids were determined for each test performed. A direct correlation was observed between the number of voids and hardness ratio. The strength of the microstructural constituents affected mechanical properties, suggesting that constituent strength values should be considered when predicting formability limits for higher strength AHSS grades. Since all AHSS grades experienced some critical number of voids before fracture, it was concluded that suppression of void formation can extend the formability limits to higher strains. After observing a percent failure displacement value of 95%, it was determined that the final stage of fracture (void

  18. Application of linear response theory to magnetotransport properties of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J. R.; Redmer, R.; Reinholz, H.

    2010-03-15

    Linear response theory, as developed within the Zubarev formalism, is a quantum statistical approach for describing systems out of but close to equilibrium, which has been successfully applied to a wide variety of plasmas in an external electric field and/or containing a temperature gradient. We present here an extension of linear response theory to include the effects of an external magnetic field. General expressions for the complete set of relevant transport properties are given. In particular, the Hall effect and the influence of a magnetic field on the dc electrical conductivity are discussed. Low-density limits including electron-electron scattering are presented as well as results for arbitrary degeneracy.

  19. Characteristics of identifying linear dynamic models from impulse response data using Prony analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the characteristics of fitting linear dynamic models to the impulse response of oscillatory dynamic systems using Prony analysis. Many dynamic systems exhibit oscillatory responses with multiple modes of oscillations. Although the underlying dynamics of such systems are often nonlinear, it is frequently possible and very useful to represent the system operating about some set point with a linear model. Derivation of such linear models can be done using two basic approaches: model the system using theoretical derivations and some linearization method such as a Taylor series expansion; or use a curve-fitting technique to optimally fit a linear model to specified system response data. Prony analysis belongs to the second class of system modeling because it is a method of fitting a linear model to the impulse response of a dynamic system. Its parallel formulation inherently makes it well suited for fitting models to oscillatory system data. Such oscillatory dynamic effects occur in large synchronous-generator-based power systems in the form of electromechanical oscillations. To study and characterize these oscillatory dynamics, BPA has developed computer codes to analyze system data using Prony analysis. The objective of this study was to develop a highly detailed understanding of the properties of using Prony analysis to fit models to systems with characteristics often encountered in power systems. This understanding was then extended to develop general rules-of-thumb'' for using Prony analysis. The general characteristics were investigated by performing fits to data from known linear models under controlled conditions. The conditions studied include various mathematical solution techniques; different parent system configurations; and a large variety of underlying noise characteristics.

  20. Characteristics of identifying linear dynamic models from impulse response data using Prony analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the characteristics of fitting linear dynamic models to the impulse response of oscillatory dynamic systems using Prony analysis. Many dynamic systems exhibit oscillatory responses with multiple modes of oscillations. Although the underlying dynamics of such systems are often nonlinear, it is frequently possible and very useful to represent the system operating about some set point with a linear model. Derivation of such linear models can be done using two basic approaches: model the system using theoretical derivations and some linearization method such as a Taylor series expansion; or use a curve-fitting technique to optimally fit a linear model to specified system response data. Prony analysis belongs to the second class of system modeling because it is a method of fitting a linear model to the impulse response of a dynamic system. Its parallel formulation inherently makes it well suited for fitting models to oscillatory system data. Such oscillatory dynamic effects occur in large synchronous-generator-based power systems in the form of electromechanical oscillations. To study and characterize these oscillatory dynamics, BPA has developed computer codes to analyze system data using Prony analysis. The objective of this study was to develop a highly detailed understanding of the properties of using Prony analysis to fit models to systems with characteristics often encountered in power systems. This understanding was then extended to develop general ``rules-of-thumb`` for using Prony analysis. The general characteristics were investigated by performing fits to data from known linear models under controlled conditions. The conditions studied include various mathematical solution techniques; different parent system configurations; and a large variety of underlying noise characteristics.

  1. Effect of display location on control-display stereotype strength for translational and rotational controls with linear displays.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of control type and display location, relative to the operator, on the strength of control/display stereotypes. The Worringham and Beringer Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann E.R., and Chan A.H.S. 2013). "The Worringham and Beringer 'Visual Field' Principle for Rotary Controls. Ergonomics." 56 (10): 1620-1624) indicated that, for a number of different control types (rotary and lever) on different planes, there should be no significant effect of the display location relative to the seated operator. Past data were surveyed and stereotype strengths listed. Experiments filled gaps where data are not available. Six different control types and seven display locations were used, as in the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (Wickens, C.D., Keller, J.W., and Small, R.L. (2010). "Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT)." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting September 2010, 54: 1022-1026). Control/display arrangements with high stereotype strengths were evaluated yielding data for designers of complex control/display arrangements where the control and display are in different planes and for where the operator is moving. It was found possible to predict display/control arrangements with high stereotype strength, based on past data. Practitioner Summary: Controls and displays in complex arrangements need to have high compatibility. These experiments provide arrangements for six different controls (rotary and translational) and seven different display locations relative to the operator.

  2. Effects of negative ageing on deformation and strength response of geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M.; Towhata, I.; Yamada, S.; Qureshi, M. U.; Kawano, K.

    2009-04-01

    Negative ageing or decay of grains with time is often ignored in conventional geotechnical investigations. Geology is always vital in such a scenario but the micro-scale geotechnical point of concern is the time-dependent loss of strength and deformation characteristics. This paper presents unique data from torsional shear tests on crushed soft rocks from Yokosuka, Japan and 2005-Kashmir earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. Material being sensitive to disintegrate by water-action allowed to simulate the long-term stress-strain and volume change response under saturated conditions whereas dry tests on similar soil represent initial intact response of the material. Negative ageing is manipulated by an enormous decrease in shear strength parameters, changes in grain size curve and increase in volumetric compression. It is concluded that for long-term hazard evaluation of various geotechnical structures, the effects of loss of strength due to decay of grains with time should be incorporated in conventional analysis and design models.

  3. Age and response bias: evidence from the strength-based mirror effect.

    PubMed

    Criss, Amy H; Aue, William; Kılıç, Aslı

    2014-10-01

    Performance in episodic memory is determined both by accurate retrieval from memory and by decision processes. A substantial body of literature suggests slightly poorer episodic memory accuracy for older than younger adults; however, age-related changes in the decision mechanisms in memory have received much less attention. Response bias, the willingness to endorse an item as remembered, is an important decision factor that contributes to episodic memory performance, and therefore understanding age-related changes in response bias is critical to theoretical development. We manipulate list strength in order to investigate two aspects of response bias. First, we evaluate whether criterion placement in episodic memory differs for older and younger adults. Second, we ask whether older adults have the same degree of flexibility to adjust the criterion in response to task demands as younger adults. Participants were tested on weakly and strongly encoded lists where word frequency (Experiment 1) or similarity between targets and foils (Experiment 2) was manipulated. Both older and younger adults had higher hit rates and lower false-alarm rates for strong lists than for weak lists (i.e., a strength-based mirror effect). Older adults were more conservative (less likely to endorse an item as studied) than younger adults, and we found no evidence that older and younger adults differ in their ability to flexibly adjust their criterion based on the demands of the task.

  4. A theoretical and experimental investigation of the linear and nonlinear impulse responses from a magnetoplasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grody, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear responses of a magnetoplasma resulting from inhomogeneity in the background plasma density are studied. The plasma response to an impulse electric field was measured and the results are compared with the theory of an inhomogeneous cold plasma. Impulse responses were recorded for the different plasma densities, static magnetic fields, and neutral pressures and generally appeared as modulated, damped oscillations. The frequency spectra of the waveforms consisted of two separated resonance peaks. For weak excitation, the results correlate with the linear theory of a cold, inhomogeneous, cylindrical magnetoplasma. The damping mechanism is identified with that of phase mixing due to inhomogeneity in plasma density. With increasing excitation voltage, the nonlinear impulse responses display stronger damping and a small increase in the frequency of oscillation.

  5. Non-Linear Concentration-Response Relationships between Ambient Ozone and Daily Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background Ambient ozone (O3) concentration has been reported to be significantly associated with mortality. However, linearity of the relationships and the presence of a threshold has been controversial. Objectives The aim of the present study was to examine the concentration-response relationship and threshold of the association between ambient O3 concentration and non-accidental mortality in 13 Japanese and Korean cities from 2000 to 2009. Methods We selected Japanese and Korean cities which have population of over 1 million. We constructed Poisson regression models adjusting daily mean temperature, daily mean PM10, humidity, time trend, season, year, day of the week, holidays and yearly population. The association between O3 concentration and mortality was examined using linear, spline and linear-threshold models. The thresholds were estimated for each city, by constructing linear-threshold models. We also examined the city-combined association using a generalized additive mixed model. Results The mean O3 concentration did not differ greatly between Korea and Japan, which were 26.2 ppb and 24.2 ppb, respectively. Seven out of 13 cities showed better fits for the spline model compared with the linear model, supporting a non-linear relationships between O3 concentration and mortality. All of the 7 cities showed J or U shaped associations suggesting the existence of thresholds. The range of city-specific thresholds was from 11 to 34 ppb. The city-combined analysis also showed a non-linear association with a threshold around 30-40 ppb. Conclusion We have observed non-linear concentration-response relationship with thresholds between daily mean ambient O3 concentration and daily number of non-accidental death in Japanese and Korean cities. PMID:26076447

  6. Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    Seated human subjects have been exposed to vertical whole-body vibration so as to investigate the non-linearity in their biodynamic responses and quantify the response in directions other than the direction of excitation. Twelve males were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25-25 Hz at four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 r.m.s.). The subjects sat in four sitting postures having varying foot heights so as to produce differing thigh contact with the seat (feet hanging, feet supported with maximum thigh contact, feet supported with average thigh contact, and feet supported with minimum thigh contact). Forces were measured in the vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral directions on the seat and in the vertical direction at the footrest. The characteristic non-linear response of the human body with reducing resonance frequency at increasing vibration magnitudes was seen in all postures, but to a lesser extent with minimum thigh contact. Appreciable forces in the fore-and-aft direction also showed non-linearity, while forces in the lateral direction were low and showed no consistent trend. Forces at the feet were non-linear with a multi-resonant behaviour and were affected by the position of the legs. The decreased non-linearity with the minimum thigh contact posture suggests the tissues of the buttocks affect the non-linearity of the body more than the tissues of the thighs. The forces in the fore-and-aft direction are consistent with the body moving in two directions when exposed to vertical vibration. The non-linear behaviour of the body, and the considerable forces in the fore-aft direction should be taken into account when optimizing vibration isolation devices.

  7. Flutter and Forced Response Analyses of Cascades using a Two-Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, O.

    1999-01-01

    Flutter and forced response analyses for a cascade of blades in subsonic and transonic flow is presented. The structural model for each blade is a typical section with bending and torsion degrees of freedom. The unsteady aerodynamic forces due to bending and torsion motions. and due to a vortical gust disturbance are obtained by solving unsteady linearized Euler equations. The unsteady linearized equations are obtained by linearizing the unsteady nonlinear equations about the steady flow. The predicted unsteady aerodynamic forces include the effect of steady aerodynamic loading due to airfoil shape, thickness and angle of attack. The aeroelastic equations are solved in the frequency domain by coupling the un- steady aerodynamic forces to the aeroelastic solver MISER. The present unsteady aerodynamic solver showed good correlation with published results for both flutter and forced response predictions. Further improvements are required to use the unsteady aerodynamic solver in a design cycle.

  8. Linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stone dried at room temperature and in a microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim da; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Consani, Simonides; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2012-01-01

    The type IV dental stone is widely used for the fabrication of dyes and master casts for fixed and removable partial prostheses. It is typically normal to wait at least 24 hours for the casts to dry prior to beginning the laboratory procedures. The waiting time has been shown to be greatly reduced by using microwave drying. This study evaluated the influence of drying techniques at room temperature and microwave oven on the linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stones. Three type IV dental stone brands were selected; elite Rock, Shera Premium and Durone IV. Two different drying protocols were tested in 4 groups (n=10); G-room temperature (25±4 ºC) dried for 2 hours; G2--room temperature dried for 24 hours; G3-room temperature dried for 7 days and G4--microwave oven dried at 800 W for 5 minutes and after 2 hours at room temperature. After drying, the samples were assayed for dimensional charges. The sample surface was submitted to the ImageTool 3.0 software for compressive strength in a universal testing machine with a cell load of 50 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minutes and the detail reproduction was analyzed with a stereomicroscope at 25x magnification. The statistical analysis of the linear dimensional change and compressive strength data were conducted by the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). Detailed reproduction values were reported in percentages. For the compressive strength test, Elite Rock and Durone IV did not present significant differences between G2 and G4, while Shera Premium did not present differences between G3 and G4. The best reproduction levels were observed for G3. Dental stone microwave oven drying showed a linear dimensional change similar to after room temperature drying for 24 hours and 7 days. The compressive strength of the stone dried in the microwave oven was similar to those dried at room temperature for 24 hours, with the exception of Shera Premium, which had

  9. Linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stone dried at room temperature and in a microwave oven

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; VITTI, Rafael Pino; CONSANI, Simonides; SINHORETI, Mário Alexandre Coelho; MESQUITA, Marcelo Ferraz; CONSANI, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2012-01-01

    The type IV dental stone is widely used for the fabrication of dyes and master casts for fixed and removable partial prostheses. It is typically normal to wait at least 24 hours for the casts to dry prior to beginning the laboratory procedures. The waiting time has been shown to be greatly reduced by using microwave drying. Objective This study evaluated the influence of drying techniques at room temperature and microwave oven on the linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stones. Material and Methods Three type IV dental stone brands were selected; Elite Rock, Shera Premium and Durone IV. Two different drying protocols were tested in 4 groups (n=10); G1 - room temperature (25±4ºC) dried for 2 hours; G2 - room temperature dried for 24 hours; G3 - room temperature dried for 7 days and G4 - microwave oven dried at 800 W for 5 minutes and after 2 hours at room temperature. After drying, the samples were assayed for dimensional charges. The sample surface was submitted to the ImageTool 3.0 software for compressive strength in a universal testing machine with a cell load of 50 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minutes and the detail reproduction was analyzed with a stereomicroscope at 25x magnification. The statistical analysis of the linear dimensional change and compressive strength data were conducted by the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). Detailed reproduction values were reported in percentages. Results For the compressive strength test, Elite Rock and Durone IV did not present significant differences between G2 and G4, while Shera Premium did not present differences between G3 and G4. The best reproduction levels were observed for G3. Conclusions Dental stone microwave oven drying showed a linear dimensional change similar to after room temperature drying for 24 hours and 7 days. The compressive strength of the stone dried in the microwave oven was similar to those dried at room temperature for 24

  10. VIBRA: An interactive computer program for steady-state vibration response analysis of linear damped structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive steady state frequency response computer program with graphics is documented. Single or multiple forces may be applied to the structure using a modal superposition approach to calculate response. The method can be reapplied to linear, proportionally damped structures in which the damping may be viscous or structural. The theoretical approach and program organization are described. Example problems, user instructions, and a sample interactive session are given to demonstate the program's capability in solving a variety of problems.

  11. IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?
    Preston, RJ. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    For considerations of cancer risk assessment from exposure to environmenta...

  12. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  13. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2016-06-01

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics' force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities.

  14. Enhancement of linear/nonlinear optical responses of molecular vibrations using metal nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morichika, Ikki; Kusa, Fumiya; Takegami, Akinobu; Ashihara, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Plasmonic enhancements of optical near-fields with metal nanostructures offer extensive potential for amplifying lightmatter interactions. We analytically formulate the enhancement of linear and nonlinear optical responses of molecular vibrations through resonant nanoantennas, based on a coupled-dipole model. We apply the formulae to evaluation of signal enhancement factors in the antenna-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy.

  15. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics’ force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities. PMID:27305996

  16. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  17. An Application of Linear Covariance Analysis to the Design of Responsive Near-Rendezvous Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    of-freedom simulation. The goal of this thesis is to demonstrate the utility of Linear Covariance analysis to responsive space mission planning. This...of the three degree-of-freedom simulation and Lincov Tools are employed to the space mission and the results are presented.

  18. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2016-06-14

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics' force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities.

  19. A pharmacological examination of the resistance-to-change hypothesis of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S L

    1986-01-01

    The effects of d-amphetamine sulfate, sodium pentobarbital, haloperidol, and cholecystokinin-octapeptide were examined within the context of Nevin's (1974, 1979) resistance-to-change hypothesis of response strength. In three experiments, rats' responding was reinforced by delivery of food under chained random-interval 30-s random-interval 30-s, multiple fixed-interval 30-s fixed-interval 120-s, or multiple random-interval 30-s random-interval 120-s schedules. Each rat received several doses of each drug and changes in response rate were measured. The resistance-to-change hypothesis predicts greater disruption of response rate relative to baseline in the initial component of the chained schedule and in the 120-s component of the multiple schedules. In the chained schedule cholecystokinin-octapeptide produced greater reductions in response rate relative to baseline in the initial component. However, no differences between components were observed with haloperidol or sodium pentobarbital, and high doses of d-amphetamine reduced response rate in the terminal component relatively more than in the initial component. In the multiple schedules either no differences were observed between components or response rate was reduced more relative to baseline in the 30-s component. The data fail to support the notion that drugs may be viewed within the same context as other response disruptors such as extinction, satiation, and the presentation of alternative reinforcement. PMID:3805976

  20. A pharmacological examination of the resistance-to-change hypothesis of response strength.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S L

    1986-11-01

    The effects of d-amphetamine sulfate, sodium pentobarbital, haloperidol, and cholecystokinin-octapeptide were examined within the context of Nevin's (1974, 1979) resistance-to-change hypothesis of response strength. In three experiments, rats' responding was reinforced by delivery of food under chained random-interval 30-s random-interval 30-s, multiple fixed-interval 30-s fixed-interval 120-s, or multiple random-interval 30-s random-interval 120-s schedules. Each rat received several doses of each drug and changes in response rate were measured. The resistance-to-change hypothesis predicts greater disruption of response rate relative to baseline in the initial component of the chained schedule and in the 120-s component of the multiple schedules. In the chained schedule cholecystokinin-octapeptide produced greater reductions in response rate relative to baseline in the initial component. However, no differences between components were observed with haloperidol or sodium pentobarbital, and high doses of d-amphetamine reduced response rate in the terminal component relatively more than in the initial component. In the multiple schedules either no differences were observed between components or response rate was reduced more relative to baseline in the 30-s component. The data fail to support the notion that drugs may be viewed within the same context as other response disruptors such as extinction, satiation, and the presentation of alternative reinforcement.

  1. Disentangling linear and nonlinear brain responses to evoked deep tissue pain

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Edwards, Robert R.; Kim, Jieun; Vangel, Mark G.; Wasan, Ajay; Gollub, Randy L.; Harris, Richard E.; Park, Kyungmo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Pain stimuli evoke widespread responses in the brain. However, our understanding of the physiological significance underlying heterogeneous response within different pain-activated and -deactivated regions is still limited. Using functional MRI, we evaluated brain responses to a wide range of stimulus intensity levels (1 innocuous, 7 painful) in order to estimate region-specific stimulus-response functions, which we hypothesized could illuminate that region’s functional relationship to pain. Linear and nonlinear brain responses to pain were estimated through independent Legendre polynomial transformations of pain ratings within a general linear model. This approach identified at least five different, regionally-specific activity profiles in the brain. Linearly increasing (e.g., primary somatosensory/motor cortex, insulae) and intensity-independent (e.g., secondary somatosensory cortex) activation was noted in traditional pain processing areas, potentially reflecting sensory encoding and all-or-none salience responses, respectively. Multiple activity profiles were seen in areas of the default mode network (DMN): intensity-independent deactivation (e.g., posterior cingulate cortex), linearly decreasing (e.g., contralateral inferior parietal lobule), and quadratic (U-shaped; e.g., medial prefrontal cortex). The latter observation suggests that: 1) different DMN subregions exhibit functional heterogeneity and 2) some DMN subregions respond in a percept-related manner to pain, suggesting closer linkage between the DMN and pain processing than previously thought. Future studies should apply a similar approach using innocuous stimuli of multiple intensities in order to evaluate whether the response profiles reported here can also be generalized to nonpainful somatosensory processing. PMID:22883925

  2. Responses to LBNP in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic capacity: Implications for flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mathes, Karen L.; Lasley, Mary L.; Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic stress is associated with strength and/or aerobic capacity. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and isokinetic dynamo meter tests to determine leg strength. Based on predetermined criteria, the subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each matched for age, height, and weight: (1) low strength/low aerobic fitness; (2) low strength/high aerobic fitness; (3) high strength/low aerobic fitness; and (4) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP through -50 mmHg or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences except for catecholamines. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. Subjects who showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP had greater elevations in vasopressin and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Peak VO2 nor leg strength were correlated with fall in MAP or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that neither aerobic nor strength fitness characteristics are good predictors of responses to LBNP stress.

  3. Effect of a Brazilian Jiu-jitsu-simulated tournament on strength parameters and perceptual responses.

    PubMed

    Detanico, Daniele; Dellagrana, Rodolfo André; Athayde, Marina Saldanha da Silva; Kons, Rafael Lima; Góes, Angel

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the effects of a simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) tournament on vertical jump performance, grip strength test and perceived effort responses. 22 male BJJ athletes participated in a simulated tournament consisting of three 7 min matches separated by 14 min of rest. Kimono grip strength test (KGST), counter movement jump (CMJ) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before and after each match, while RPE of specific areas was assessed after three matches. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare strength parameters after each match with the level of significance set at 5%. The key results showed a significant decrease of jump height (p = 0.001) and net vertical impulse in the CMJ (p = 0.031), as well as a reduction of the number of reps in the KGST (p < 0.001). A significant increase of RPE was found throughout the matches (p < 0.001). Considering the RPE in specific areas, no differences were observed between the upper and lower body (p = 0.743). We conclude that the BJJ simulated tournament generated a decrease of performance in both upper and lower limbs and provoked a progressive increase in the effort perception over the matches.

  4. Responsiveness of muscle size and strength to physical training in very elderly people: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, V H; Saunders, D H; Greig, C A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether very elderly muscle (>75 years) hypertrophies in response to physical training. The databases MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL Plus and SPORTDiscus were systematically literature searched with reference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews. Controlled trials (inactive elderly control group) involving healthy elderly participants over 75 years participating in an intervention complying with an established definition of physical training were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the PEDro scale. Data analysis was performed on muscle size and strength using RevMan (software version 5.1). Four studies were included of which four of four measured changes in gross muscle size. Training induced increases in muscle size from 1.5%-15.6% were reported in three of four studies, and one of four studies reported a decrease in muscle size (3%). The greatest gain in muscle mass was observed in a study of whole body vibration training. Meta-analysis of three studies found an increase of thigh muscle cross-sectional area (mean difference 2.31 cm(2) or 0.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62 to 4.00; P = 0.008) and muscle strength (standardized mean difference 1.04, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.43; P < 0.001). Physical training when delivered as resistance training has the ability to elicit hypertrophy and increase muscle strength in very elderly muscle.

  5. Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation in plasmas with various magnetic field strength

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2013-12-15

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z waves to electromagnetic radiation near the plasma and upper hybrid frequency in the presence of density gradients is potentially relevant to type II and III solar radio bursts, ionospheric radar experiments, pulsars, and continuum radiation for planetary magnetospheres. Here, we study mode conversion in warm, magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code when the density gradient has a wide range of angle, δ, to the ambient magnetic field, B{sub 0}, for a range of incident Langmuir/z wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Left-handed polarized ordinary (oL) and right-handed polarized extraordinary (xR) mode waves are produced in various ranges of δ for Ω{sub 0} = (ωL/c){sup 1/3}(ω{sub ce}/ω) < 1.5, where ω{sub ce} is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω is the angular wave frequency, L is the length scale of the (linear) density gradient, and c is the speed of light; (2) the xR mode is produced most strongly in the range, 40° < δ < 60°, for intermediately magnetized plasmas with Ω{sub 0} = 1.0 and 1.5, while it is produced over a wider range, 0° ≤ δ ≤ 90°, for weakly magnetized plasmas with Ω{sub 0} = 0.1 and 0.7; (3) the maximum total conversion efficiencies for wave power from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation are of order 50%–99% and the corresponding energy conversion efficiencies are 5%–14% (depending on the adiabatic index γ and β = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2}, where T{sub e} is the electron temperature and m{sub e} is the electron) for various Ω{sub 0}; (4) the mode conversion window becomes wider as Ω{sub 0} and δ increase. Hence, the results in this paper confirm that linear mode conversion under these conditions can explain the weak total circular polarization of interplanetary type II and III solar radio bursts because a strong xR mode can be generated via linear mode conversion near δ ∼ 45°.

  6. Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual Mode Sensing of Alcoholic Strength in Spirit Samples with Stimuli-Responsive Infinite Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingjing; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-07-07

    This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on stimuli-responsive infinite coordination polymers (ICPs). The ICP supramolecular network is prepared with 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (bix) as the ligand and Zn(2+) as the central metal ion in ethanol, in which rhodamine B (RhB) is encapsulated through self-adaptive chemistry. In pure ethanol solvent, the as-formed RhB/Zn(bix) is well dispersed and quite stable. However, the addition of water into the ethanol dispersion of RhB/Zn(bix) destroys Zn(bix) network structure, resulting in the release of RhB from ICP into the solvent. As a consequence, the solvent displays the color of released RhB and, at the meantime, turns on the fluorescence of RhB, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of AS in commercial spirit samples. With the method developed here, we could distinguish the AS of different commercial spirit samples by the naked eye within a wide linear range from 20 to 100% vol and by monitoring the increase of fluorescent intensity of the released RhB. This study not only offers a new method for on-spot visible detection of AS in commercial spirit samples, but also provides a strategy for designing dual mode sensing mechanisms for different analytical purposes based on novel stimuli-responsive materials.

  7. Linear response theory for annealing of radiation damage in semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, Vitaly

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of the radiation/annealing response of MOS ICs is described. Although many experiments have been performed in this field, no comprehensive theory dealing with radiation/annealing response has been proposed. Many attempts have been made to apply linear response theory, but no theoretical foundation has been presented. The linear response theory outlined here is capable of describing a broad area of radiation/annealing response phenomena in MOS ICs, in particular, both simultaneous irradiation and annealing, as well as short- and long-term annealing, including the case when annealing is nearing completion. For the first time, a simple procedure is devised to determine the response function from experimental radiation/annealing data. In addition, this procedure enables us to study the effect of variable temperature and dose rate, effects which are of interest in spaceflight. In the past, the shift in threshold potential due to radiation/annealing has usually been assumed to depend on one variable: the time lapse between an impulse dose and the time of observation. While such a suggestion of uniformity in time is certainly true for a broad range of radiation annealing phenomena, it may not hold for some ranges of the variables of interest (temperature, dose rate, etc.). A response function is projected which is dependent on two variables: the time of observation and the time of the impulse dose. This dependence on two variables allows us to extend the theory to the treatment of a variable dose rate. Finally, the linear theory is generalized to the case in which the response is nonlinear with impulse dose, but is proportional to some impulse function of dose. A method to determine both the impulse and response functions is presented.

  8. Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars - Linear and nonlinear response to a glitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpar, M. A.; Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of pinned superfluid in neutron stars is determined by the thermal 'creep' of vortices. Vortex creep can respond to changes in the rotation rate of the neutron star crust and provide the observed types of dynamical relaxation following pulsar glitches. It also gives rise to energy dissipation, which determines the thermal evolution of pulsars once the initial heat content has been radiated away. The different possible regimes of vortex creep are explored, and it is shown that the nature of the dynamical response of the pinned superfluid evolves with a pulsar's age. Younger pulsars display a linear regime, where the response is linear in the initial perturbation and is a simple exponential relaxation as a function of time. A nonliner response, with a characteristic nonlinear dependence on the initial perturbation, is responsible for energy dissipation and becomes the predominant mode of response as the pulsar ages. The transition from the linear to the nonlinear regime depends sensitively on the temperature of the neutron star interior. A preliminary review of existing postglitch observations is given within this general evolutionary framework.

  9. Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars - Linear and nonlinear response to a glitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpar, M. A.; Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of pinned superfluid in neutron stars is determined by the thermal 'creep' of vortices. Vortex creep can respond to changes in the rotation rate of the neutron star crust and provide the observed types of dynamical relaxation following pulsar glitches. It also gives rise to energy dissipation, which determines the thermal evolution of pulsars once the initial heat content has been radiated away. The different possible regimes of vortex creep are explored, and it is shown that the nature of the dynamical response of the pinned superfluid evolves with a pulsar's age. Younger pulsars display a linear regime, where the response is linear in the initial perturbation and is a simple exponential relaxation as a function of time. A nonliner response, with a characteristic nonlinear dependence on the initial perturbation, is responsible for energy dissipation and becomes the predominant mode of response as the pulsar ages. The transition from the linear to the nonlinear regime depends sensitively on the temperature of the neutron star interior. A preliminary review of existing postglitch observations is given within this general evolutionary framework.

  10. Vestibular afferent responses to linear accelerations in the alert squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Christopher J.; Schor, Robert H.; Tomko, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous activity of 40 otolith afferents and 44 canal afferents was recorded in 4 alert, intact squirrel monkeys. Polarization vectors and response properties of otolith afferents were determined during static re-orientations relative to gravity and during Earth-horizontal, sinusoidal, linear oscillations. Canal afferents were tested for sensitivity to linear accelerations. For regular otolith afferents, a significant correlation between upright discharge rate and sensitivity to dynamic acceleration in the horizontal plane was observed. This correlation was not present in irregular units. The sensitivity of otolith afferents to both static tilts and dynamic linear acceleration was much greater in irregularly discharging units than in regularly discharging units. The spontaneous activity and static and dynamic response properties of regularly discharging otolith afferents were similar to those reported in barbiturate-anesthetized squirrel monkeys. Irregular afferents also had similar dynamic response properties when compared to anesthetized monkeys. However, this sample of irregular afferents in alert animals had higher resting discharge rates and greater sensitivity to static tilts. The majority of otolith polarization vectors were oriented near the horizontal in the plane of the utricular maculae; however, directions of maximum sensitivity were different during dynamic and static testing. Canal afferents were not sensitive to static tilts or linear oscillations of the head.

  11. Calculation of static and dynamic linear magnetic response in approximate time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen

    2007-01-14

    We report implementations and results of time-dependent density functional calculations (i) of the frequency-dependent magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole polarizability, (ii) of the (observable) translationally invariant linear magnetic response, and (iii) of a linear intensity differential (LID) which includes the dynamic dipole magnetizability. The density functional calculations utilized density fitting. For achieving gauge-origin independence we have employed time-periodic magnetic-field-dependent basis functions as well as the dipole velocity gauge, and have included explicit density-fit related derivatives of the Coulomb potential. We present the results of calculations of static and dynamic magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole polarizabilities for a set of small molecules, the LID for the SF6 molecule, and dispersion curves for M-hexahelicene of the origin invariant linear magnetic response as well as of three dynamic polarizabilities: magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole, electric dipole-electric dipole, and electric dipole-magnetic dipole. We have also performed comparison of the linear magnetic response and magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole polarizability over a wide range of frequencies for H2O and SF6.

  12. Environmental enrichment improves response strength, threshold, selectivity, and latency of auditory cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Navzer D; Percaccio, Cherie R; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 50 yr, environmental enrichment has been shown to generate more than a dozen changes in brain anatomy. The consequences of these physical changes on information processing have not been well studied. In this study, rats were housed in enriched or standard conditions either prior to or after reaching sexual maturity. Evoked potentials from awake rats and extracellular recordings from anesthetized rats were used to document responses of auditory cortex neurons. This report details several significant, new findings about the influence of housing conditions on the responses of rat auditory cortex neurons. First, enrichment dramatically increases the strength of auditory cortex responses. Tone-evoked potentials of enriched rats, for example, were more than twice the amplitude of rats raised in standard laboratory conditions. Second, cortical responses of both young and adult animals benefit from exposure to an enriched environment and are degraded by exposure to an impoverished environment. Third, housing condition resulted in rapid remodeling of cortical responses in <2 wk. Fourth, recordings made under anesthesia indicate that enrichment increases the number of neurons activated by any sound. This finding shows that the evoked potential plasticity documented in awake rats was not due to differences in behavioral state. Finally, enrichment made primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons more sensitive to quiet sounds, more selective for tone frequency, and altered their response latencies. These experiments provide the first evidence of physiologic changes in auditory cortex processing resulting from generalized environmental enrichment.

  13. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Filled and Unfilled Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; Thadhani, Naresh

    2008-04-01

    We are investigating the mechanics of impact-induced stress transfer between a linear cellular alloy (LCA) and a reactive filler to determine the effect of cell geometry on deformation and fragmentation. LCAs are honeycomb structures made of maraging steel, and provide structural integrity for the reactive filler such as a powder mixture of Ta+Fe2O3. 3-D computations are used to determine stress and strain distributions in both filled and unfilled LCAs during impact. The strength and failure models used for maraging steel and the response of Ta+Fe2O3 are validated through experiment. The failure response of three different geometries: 9-cell, pie, and reinforced pie, are compared with the response of a hollow cylinder, for impact velocities of 100, 200, and 300 m/s. Unfilled, the cylindrical geometry provides the least resistance to deformation and fragmentation, while the reinforced pie LCA provides the most resistance. Understanding of the mechanics of deformation and failure is used to determine the most effective geometry for stress transfer to the filler.

  14. Linear and undulating periodized strength plus aerobic training promote similar benefits and lead to improvement of insulin resistance on obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daniela Sayuri; De Mello, Marco Túlio; Foschini, Denis; Lira, Fabio Santos; De Piano Ganen, Aline; Da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; De Lima Sanches, Priscila; Silva, Patrícia Leão; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-03-01

    The present study compares the effectiveness of three types of physical training for obesity control in adolescents submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Forty-five post-puberty obese adolescents (15-18yo) were randomly placed in three different groups of physical trainings: aerobic training (AT n=20), aerobic plus strength training with linear periodization (LP n=13) and aerobic plus strength training with daily undulating periodization (DUP n=12). The body composition was evaluated by air-displacement plethysmography; the rest metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry; serum analysis was collected after an overnight fasting. The most important finding of this study was that both LP and DUP groups improved lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin concentration (p<0.01). The linear regression showed a negative association between delta (%) adiponectin and delta (%) insulin (p<0.05). Each group presented a significant reduction in body mass, body mass index and fat mass (kg) after short and long-term intervention (p<0.01). However, the AT group reduced the fat-free mass after short-term intervention (p<0.01) and enhanced protein oxidation (p<0.01), whereas only LP group was able to increase the fat-free mass and maintain the rest metabolic rate (RMR). There was a negative correlation between percentage of protein oxidation and RMR (r=-0.75) in all groups. The interdisciplinary therapy models that included aerobic plus strength training were more effective than only aerobic training to improve lipid profile and insulin sensitivity, as well as the inflammatory state by increasing adiponectin. In all groups were observed an improvement on anthropometric profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of linear response theory to experimental data of simultaneous radiation and annealing response of a CMOS device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, V.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the application of linear response theory are compared to experimental data from simultaneous radiation and annealing response of a CMOS device. In particular, a method is applied which was developed earlier to determine the characteristic time, t(0), as well as the parameters A and C in the 1n(t) dependence of the linear response function R(t) = -C + A1n(1-t/t(0)). The method is based on a study of the linear response for t being much less than t(0), when R(t) can be expanded in a power series of t: R(t) = R(0) + R'(0)t + 1/2R''(0)t-squared + 1/3R'''(0)t-cubed + ..., where R'(0) and R''(0) are, respectively, the first and second derivatives of R with respect to t. To find the linear response, R(t-t') is substituted in the form of this power series equation into a general equation for the shift of the threshold potential. To test the method, irradiation experiments were conducted on RCA 10(6) rad-hard CMOS IC's. A dose rate of approximately 130 rads/min was used. An IC was irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays for several hours, taking measurements of the threshold potential for one n-channel and one p-channel transistor every ten minutes. For the p-channel transistor, t(0) was found to be approximately 110 min and for the n-channel, t(0) was approximately 70 min. For the p-channel, the theoretical curve deviates from the experimental points only after 70 min; for the n-channel, the deviation takes place after 45 min. Additional findings are discussed and the application of the method to pure annealing is described.

  16. Encoding of head acceleration in vestibular neurons. I. Spatiotemporal response properties to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, G. A.; Perachio, A. A.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were made in and around the medial vestibular nuclei in decerebrated rats. Neurons were functionally identified according to their semicircular canal input on the basis of their responses to angular head rotations around the yaw, pitch, and roll head axes. Those cells responding to angular acceleration were classified as either horizontal semicircular canal-related (HC) or vertical semicircular canal-related (VC) neurons. The HC neurons were further characterized as either type I or type II, depending on the direction of rotation producing excitation. Cells that lacked a response to angular head acceleration, but exhibited sensitivity to a change in head position, were classified as purely otolith organ-related (OTO) neurons. All vestibular neurons were then tested for their response to sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. 2. Convergence of macular and canal inputs onto central vestibular nuclei neurons occurred in 73% of the type I HC, 79% of the type II HC, and 86% of the VC neurons. Out of the 223 neurons identified as receiving macular input, 94 neurons were further studied, and their spatiotemporal response properties to sinusoidal stimulation with pure linear acceleration were quantified. Data were obtained from 33 type I HC, 22 type II HC, 22 VC, and 17 OTO neurons. 3. For each neuron the angle of the translational stimulus vector was varied by 15, 30, or 45 degrees increments in the horizontal head plane. In all tested neurons, a direction of maximum sensitivity was identified. An interesting difference among neurons was their response to translation along the direction perpendicular to that that produced the maximum response ("null" direction). For the majority of neurons tested, it was possible to evoke a nonzero response during stimulation along the null direction always had response phases that varied as a function of stimulus direction. 4. These spatiotemporal response properties were quantified in two

  17. Procedure for preventing response strain on random interval schedules with a linear feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil

    2016-03-01

    An experiment examined the impact of a procedure designed to prevent response or extinction strain occurring on random interval schedules with a linear feedback loop (i.e., an RI+ schedule). Rats lever-pressed for food reinforcement on either a RI+ or a random interval (RI) schedule that was matched to the RI+ schedule in terms of reinforcement rate. Two groups of rats responded on an RI+ and two on an RI schedule matched for rate of reinforcement. One group on each schedule also received response-independent food if there had been no response for 60 s, and response-independent food continued to be delivered on an RT-60 schedule until a response was made. Rats on the RI and RI+ obtained similar rates of reinforcement and had similar reinforced inter-response times to one another. On the schedules without response-independent food, rats had similar rates of response to one another. However, while the delivery of response-independent food reduced rates of response on an RI schedule, they enhanced response rates on an RI+ schedule. These results suggest that rats can display sensitivity to the molar aspects of the free-operant contingency, when procedures are implemented to reduce the impact of factors such as extinction-strain.

  18. GENERAL: A Study on Stochastic Resonance in Biased Subdiffusive Smoluchowski Systems within Linear Response Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Juan; Kang, Yan-Mei

    2010-08-01

    The method of matrix continued fraction is used to investigate stochastic resonance (SR) in the biased subdiffusive Smoluchowski system within linear response range. Numerical results of linear dynamic susceptibility and spectral amplification factor are presented and discussed in two-well potential and mono-well potential with different subdiffusion exponents. Following our observation, the introduction of a bias in the potential weakens the SR effect in the subdiffusive system just as in the normal diffusive case. Our observation also discloses that the subdiffusion inhibits the low-frequency SR, but it enhances the high-frequency SR in the biased Smoluchowski system, which should reflect a “flattening" influence of the subdiffusion on the linear susceptibility.

  19. Response linearity of alert monkey non-eye movement vestibular nucleus neurons during sinusoidal yaw rotation.

    PubMed

    Newlands, Shawn D; Lin, Nan; Wei, Min

    2009-09-01

    Vestibular afferents display linear responses over a range of amplitudes and frequencies, but comparable data for central vestibular neurons are lacking. To examine the effect of stimulus frequency and magnitude on the response sensitivity and linearity of non-eye movement central vestibular neurons, we recorded from the vestibular nuclei in awake rhesus macaques during sinusoidal yaw rotation at frequencies between 0.1 and 2 Hz and between 7.5 and 210 degrees/s peak velocity. The dynamics of the neurons' responses across frequencies, while holding peak velocity constant, was consistent with previous studies. However, as the peak velocity was varied, while holding the frequency constant, neurons demonstrated lower sensitivities with increasing peak velocity, even at the lowest peak velocities tested. With increasing peak velocity, the proportion of neurons that silenced during a portion of the response increased. However, the decrease in sensitivity of these neurons with higher peak velocities of rotation was not due to increased silencing during the inhibitory portion of the cycle. Rather the neurons displayed peak firing rates that did not increase in proportion to head velocity as the peak velocity of rotation increased. These data suggest that, unlike vestibular afferents, the central vestibular neurons without eye movement sensitivity examined in this study do not follow linear systems principles even at low velocities.

  20. Response Linearity of Alert Monkey Non-Eye Movement Vestibular Nucleus Neurons During Sinusoidal Yaw Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Newlands, Shawn D.; Lin, Nan; Wei, Min

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular afferents display linear responses over a range of amplitudes and frequencies, but comparable data for central vestibular neurons are lacking. To examine the effect of stimulus frequency and magnitude on the response sensitivity and linearity of non-eye movement central vestibular neurons, we recorded from the vestibular nuclei in awake rhesus macaques during sinusoidal yaw rotation at frequencies between 0.1 and 2 Hz and between 7.5 and 210°/s peak velocity. The dynamics of the neurons' responses across frequencies, while holding peak velocity constant, was consistent with previous studies. However, as the peak velocity was varied, while holding the frequency constant, neurons demonstrated lower sensitivities with increasing peak velocity, even at the lowest peak velocities tested. With increasing peak velocity, the proportion of neurons that silenced during a portion of the response increased. However, the decrease in sensitivity of these neurons with higher peak velocities of rotation was not due to increased silencing during the inhibitory portion of the cycle. Rather the neurons displayed peak firing rates that did not increase in proportion to head velocity as the peak velocity of rotation increased. These data suggest that, unlike vestibular afferents, the central vestibular neurons without eye movement sensitivity examined in this study do not follow linear systems principles even at low velocities. PMID:19553479

  1. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-08

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations.

  2. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real-time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-01

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations. PACS

  3. Breakdown of linear response theory under low-power excitation in NMR. I. The case of long-lived signals in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhaoyuan; Walls, Jamie D.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the application of linear response theory to the problem of low-power excitation in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems when the strength of the radiofrequency (RF) pulse, νRF, is smaller than the inhomogeneous linewidth. Even for small overall excitations [Θ = 2πνRFTp ≪ 1 where Tp is the RF pulse length], linear response theory is shown to break down for spins with resonance frequencies that are on the order of νRF, which is due to the fact that the RF interaction cannot be treated as a small perturbation in this case. This breakdown in linear response theory can be partially corrected for by enforcing unitarity in the linear response. Furthermore, the nature of the spin echo generated by a πX-pulse applied immediately after a low-power pulse is investigated. Numerical calculations and experiments performed in an inhomogeneously broadened H2O/D2O solution confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this work.

  4. Breakdown of linear response theory under low-power excitation in NMR. I. The case of long-lived signals in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhaoyuan; Walls, Jamie D

    2016-10-28

    In this work, we examine the application of linear response theory to the problem of low-power excitation in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems when the strength of the radiofrequency (RF) pulse, νRF, is smaller than the inhomogeneous linewidth. Even for small overall excitations [Θ = 2πνRFTp ≪ 1 where Tp is the RF pulse length], linear response theory is shown to break down for spins with resonance frequencies that are on the order of νRF, which is due to the fact that the RF interaction cannot be treated as a small perturbation in this case. This breakdown in linear response theory can be partially corrected for by enforcing unitarity in the linear response. Furthermore, the nature of the spin echo generated by a πX-pulse applied immediately after a low-power pulse is investigated. Numerical calculations and experiments performed in an inhomogeneously broadened H2O/D2O solution confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this work.

  5. Response statistics of rotating shaft with non-linear elastic restoring forces by path integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidai, Oleg; Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Extreme statistics of random vibrations is studied for a Jeffcott rotor under uniaxial white noise excitation. Restoring force is modelled as elastic non-linear; comparison is done with linearized restoring force to see the force non-linearity effect on the response statistics. While for the linear model analytical solutions and stability conditions are available, it is not generally the case for non-linear system except for some special cases. The statistics of non-linear case is studied by applying path integration (PI) method, which is based on the Markov property of the coupled dynamic system. The Jeffcott rotor response statistics can be obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of the 4D dynamic system. An efficient implementation of PI algorithm is applied, namely fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to simulate dynamic system additive noise. The latter allows significantly reduce computational time, compared to the classical PI. Excitation is modelled as Gaussian white noise, however any kind distributed white noise can be implemented with the same PI technique. Also multidirectional Markov noise can be modelled with PI in the same way as unidirectional. PI is accelerated by using Monte Carlo (MC) estimated joint probability density function (PDF) as initial input. Symmetry of dynamic system was utilized to afford higher mesh resolution. Both internal (rotating) and external damping are included in mechanical model of the rotor. The main advantage of using PI rather than MC is that PI offers high accuracy in the probability distribution tail. The latter is of critical importance for e.g. extreme value statistics, system reliability, and first passage probability.

  6. Linear Population Allocation by Bistable Switches in Response to Transient Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Neu, John; Tanouchi, Yu; Lee, Tae Jun; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Many cellular decision processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and phenotypic switching, are controlled by bistable signaling networks. In response to transient or intermediate input signals, these networks allocate a population fraction to each of two distinct states (e.g. OFF and ON). While extensive studies have been carried out to analyze various bistable networks, they are primarily focused on responses of bistable networks to sustained input signals. In this work, we investigate the response characteristics of bistable networks to transient signals, using both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. We find that bistable systems exhibit a common property: for input signals with short durations, the fraction of switching cells increases linearly with the signal duration, allowing the population to integrate transient signals to tune its response. We propose that this allocation algorithm can be an optimal response strategy for certain cellular decisions in which excessive switching results in lower population fitness. PMID:25141235

  7. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  8. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  9. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  10. Nonrigid, Resistive Linear Plasma Response Models Based on Perturbed Equilibria for Axisymmetric Tokamak Control Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D. A.; Ferron, J. R.; Leuer, J. A.; Walker, M. L.; Welander, A. S.

    2003-10-01

    Linear, perturbed equilibrium plasma response models can accurately represent the experimental response of tokamak plasmas to applied fields [A. Coutlis, et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 663 (1999)]. However, agreement between experiment and model is much better when average flux over the plasma, rather than at each fluid element, is conserved [P. Vyas, et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 1043 (1998)]. The close experimental agreement of average flux-conserving models is consistent with approximating field penetration effects produced by finite plasma resistivity, particularly in the edge region. We report on the development of nonrigid linear plasma response models which include finite local plasma resistivity in order to more accurately represent the dynamic response due to this field penetration. Such response models are expected to be important for designing profile control algorithms in advanced tokamaks. Accounting for finite plasma resistivity is also important in designing multivariable integrated controllers which must simultaneously regulate plasma shape and plasma current. Consequences of including resisitivity will be illustrated and comparisons with DIII-D experimental plasma responses will be made.

  11. Linear and nonlinear response of the Vlasov system with nonintegrable Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shun

    2017-07-01

    Linear and nonlinear response formulas taking into account all Casimir invariants are derived without use of angle-action variables of a single-particle (mean-field) Hamiltonian. This article deals mainly with the Vlasov system in a spatially inhomogeneous quasistationary state whose associating single-particle Hamiltonian is not integrable and has only one integral of the motion, the Hamiltonian itself. The basic strategy is to restrict the form of perturbation so that it keeps Casimir invariants within a linear order, and the single particle's probabilistic density function is smooth with respect to the single particle's Hamiltonian. The theory is applied for a spatially two-dimensional system and is confirmed by numerical simulations. A nonlinear response formula is also derived in a similar manner.

  12. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature, and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Giomi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence.

  13. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel; Giomi, Luca

    The Vicsek model is the prototypical system for studying collective behavior of interacting self propelled particles (SPPs). It has formed the basis for models explaining the collective behavior of many active systems including flocks of birds and swarms of insects. To the standard Vicsek model we introduce a small angular torque to a subset of the particles and observe how this effects the direction of polarisation of the entire swarm. This is analogous to a few informed birds trying to lead the rest of a large flock by initiating a turn. We find a linear response to this perturbation and fluctuations that are in agreement with fluctuation dissipation theorem. This allows the identification of an effective temperature for the Vicsek model that follows a power law with the noise amplitude. The linear response can also be extended to the process of decision-making, wherein flocks must decide between the behaviors of two competing subgroups of individuals.

  14. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mathes, K. L.; Lasley, M. L.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Frey, M. A.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic challenge is associated with interactions between strength and aerobic power. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) and isokinetic dynamometer tests to determine knee extensor strength. Based on predetermined criteria, subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each, matched for age, height, and body mass: (a) low strength/average aerobic fitness, (b) low strength/high aerobic fitness, (c) high strength/average aerobic fitness, and (d) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 0.11 rad (6 degrees) head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP to -6.7 kPa or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min, while hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses were measured. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences between high and low strength characteristics. Subjects with high aerobic power exhibited greater (P < 0.05) stroke volume and lower (P < 0.05) heart rate, vascular peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure during rest, HDT, and LBNP. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. These subjects showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure during LBNP, had greater elevations in vasopressin, and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Neither VO2max nor leg strength were associated with fall in arterial pressure or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that interactions between aerobic and strength fitness characteristics do not influence responses to LBNP challenge.

  15. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mathes, K. L.; Lasley, M. L.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Frey, M. A.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic challenge is associated with interactions between strength and aerobic power. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) and isokinetic dynamometer tests to determine knee extensor strength. Based on predetermined criteria, subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each, matched for age, height, and body mass: (a) low strength/average aerobic fitness, (b) low strength/high aerobic fitness, (c) high strength/average aerobic fitness, and (d) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 0.11 rad (6 degrees) head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP to -6.7 kPa or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min, while hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses were measured. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences between high and low strength characteristics. Subjects with high aerobic power exhibited greater (P < 0.05) stroke volume and lower (P < 0.05) heart rate, vascular peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure during rest, HDT, and LBNP. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. These subjects showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure during LBNP, had greater elevations in vasopressin, and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Neither VO2max nor leg strength were associated with fall in arterial pressure or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that interactions between aerobic and strength fitness characteristics do not influence responses to LBNP challenge.

  16. Nonadiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics using linear-response time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curchod, Basile; Penfold, Thomas; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2013-09-01

    We review our recent work on ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, based on linear-response timedependent density functional theory for the calculation of the nuclear forces, potential energy surfaces, and nonadiabatic couplings. Furthermore, we describe how nuclear quantum dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation can be performed using quantum trajectories. Finally, the coupling and control of an external electromagnetic field with mixed quantum/classical trajectory surface hopping is discussed.

  17. Challenges within the linear response approximation when studying enzyme catalysis and effects of mutations.

    PubMed

    Sharir-Ivry, Avital; Varatharaj, Rajapandian; Shurki, Avital

    2015-01-13

    Various aspects of the linear response approximation (LRA) approach were examined when calculating reaction barriers within an enzyme and its different mutants. Scaling the electrostatic interactions is shown to slightly affect the absolute values of the barriers but not the overall trend when comparing wild-type and mutants. Convergence of the overall energetics was shown to depend on the sampling. Finally, the contribution of particular residues was shown to be significant, despite its small value.

  18. Numerical calculations of the linear response of a gaseous disk to a protoplanet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korycansky, D. G.; Pollack, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the linear response of a 2D gaseous disk to the perturbations induced by a protoplanet and the corresponding torque are presented. When the pressure gradient is taken into account, torques are increased in disks with gradients in either surface density and sound speed, the effect of the latter being much greater for the same-sized gradient as measured by the power law index. The torques in turn may be used to calculate timescales for orbital migration of protoplanets.

  19. Excited states with internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the linear response (LR) theory for the variant of internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) theory described by Hanauer and Köhn [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204211 (2011)] has been formulated and implemented for the computation of the excitation energies relative to a ground state of pronounced multireference character. We find that straightforward application of the linear-response formalism to the time-averaged ic-MRCC Lagrangian leads to unphysical second-order poles. However, the coupling matrix elements that cause this behavior are shown to be negligible whenever the internally contracted approximation as such is justified. Hence, for the numerical implementation of the method, we adopt a Tamm-Dancoff-type approximation and neglect these couplings. This approximation is also consistent with an equation-of-motion based derivation, which neglects these couplings right from the start. We have implemented the linear-response approach in the ic-MRCC singles-and-doubles framework and applied our method to calculate excitation energies for a number of molecules ranging from CH2 to p-benzyne and conjugated polyenes (up to octatetraene). The computed excitation energies are found to be very accurate, even for the notoriously difficult case of doubly excited states. The ic-MRCC-LR theory is also applicable to systems with open-shell ground-state wavefunctions and is by construction not biased towards a particular reference determinant. We have also compared the linear-response approach to the computation of energy differences by direct state-specific ic-MRCC calculations. We finally compare to Mk-MRCC-LR theory for which spurious roots have been reported [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044116 (2012)], being due to the use of sufficiency conditions to solve the Mk-MRCC equations. No such problem is present in ic-MRCC-LR theory.

  20. Excited states with internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, the linear response (LR) theory for the variant of internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) theory described by Hanauer and Köhn [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204211 (2011)] has been formulated and implemented for the computation of the excitation energies relative to a ground state of pronounced multireference character. We find that straightforward application of the linear-response formalism to the time-averaged ic-MRCC Lagrangian leads to unphysical second-order poles. However, the coupling matrix elements that cause this behavior are shown to be negligible whenever the internally contracted approximation as such is justified. Hence, for the numerical implementation of the method, we adopt a Tamm-Dancoff-type approximation and neglect these couplings. This approximation is also consistent with an equation-of-motion based derivation, which neglects these couplings right from the start. We have implemented the linear-response approach in the ic-MRCC singles-and-doubles framework and applied our method to calculate excitation energies for a number of molecules ranging from CH2 to p-benzyne and conjugated polyenes (up to octatetraene). The computed excitation energies are found to be very accurate, even for the notoriously difficult case of doubly excited states. The ic-MRCC-LR theory is also applicable to systems with open-shell ground-state wavefunctions and is by construction not biased towards a particular reference determinant. We have also compared the linear-response approach to the computation of energy differences by direct state-specific ic-MRCC calculations. We finally compare to Mk-MRCC-LR theory for which spurious roots have been reported [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044116 (2012)], being due to the use of sufficiency conditions to solve the Mk-MRCC equations. No such problem is present in ic-MRCC-LR theory.

  1. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.230602]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  2. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011)]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  3. Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Morgan, S. H.; Henderson, D. O.; Park, S. Y.; Weeks, R. A.; Magruder, R. H.; Zuhr, R. A.

    1995-10-01

    We report the linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica with doses of 6 × 10 16 ions/cm 2. The nonlinear refractive index, n2, was measured using a Z-scan technique with a mode locked Ti:sapphire laser operating in 140 fs pulse duration at 770 nm wavelength. It is found that the nonlinear refractive index n2 of as-implanted samples is large, in the order of 10 -10 cm 2/W and the n2 value of Bi as-implanted sample is about 2.4 times lager than that of Sb as-implanted sample. The large n2 response is attributed to the presence of nanosized metal particles in the implanted layer observed by transmission electron microscopy. We also report the changes of linear and nonlinear optical response when implanted samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures from 500 to 1000 C in argon and oxygen atmospheres. The annealing effect on optical properties is found to be strongly dependent on the annealing atmospheres. Our results indicate that annealing treatment in O 2 affects the local environment of the implanted metal ions and hence the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the metal-dielectric composite. We suggest that a new phase of metal-oxygen-silicate was formed during annealing in O 2 atmosphere.

  4. The sense of balance in humans: Structural features of otoconia and their response to linear acceleration.

    PubMed

    Kniep, Rüdiger; Zahn, Dirk; Wulfes, Jana; Walther, Leif Erik

    2017-01-01

    We explored the functional role of individual otoconia within the otolith system of mammalians responsible for the detection of linear accelerations and head tilts in relation to the gravity vector. Details of the inner structure and the shape of intact human and artificial otoconia were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), including decalcification by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to discriminate local calcium carbonate density. Considerable differences between the rhombohedral faces of human and artificial otoconia already indicate that the inner architecture of otoconia is not consistent with the point group -3m. This is clearly confirmed by decalcified otoconia specimen which are characterized by a non-centrosymmetric volume distribution of the compact 3+3 branches. This structural evidence for asymmetric mass distribution was further supported by light microscopy in combination with a high speed camera showing the movement of single otoconia specimen (artificial specimen) under gravitational influence within a viscous medium (artificial endolymph). Moreover, the response of otoconia to linear acceleration forces was investigated by particle dynamics simulations. Both, time-resolved microscopy and computer simulations of otoconia acceleration show that the dislocation of otoconia include significant rotational movement stemming from density asymmetry. Based on these findings, we suggest an otolith membrane expansion/stiffening mechanism for enhanced response to linear acceleration transmitted to the vestibular hair cells.

  5. A NOVEL STATISTICAL BASED APPROACH TO NON-LINEAR MODEL UPDATING USING RESPONSE FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    J. SCHULTZ; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    This research presents a new method to improve analytical model fidelity for non-linear systems. The approach investigates several mechanisms to assist the analyst in updating an analytical model based on experimental data and statistical analysis of parameter effects. The first is a new approach at data reduction called feature extraction. This is an expansion of the ''classic'' update metrics to include specific phenomena or characters of the response that are critical to model application. This is an extension of the familiar linear updating paradigm of utilizing the eigen-parameters or frequency response functions (FRFs) to include such devices as peak acceleration, time of arrival or standard deviation of model error. The next expansion of the updating process is the inclusion of statistical based parameter analysis to quantify the effects of uncertain or significant effect parameters in the construction of a meta-model. This provides indicators of the statistical variation associated with parameters as well as confidence intervals on the coefficients of the resulting meta-model. Also included in this method is the investigation of linear parameter effect screening using a partial factorial variable array for simulation. This is intended to aid the analyst in eliminating from the investigation the parameters that do not have a significant variation effect on the feature metric. Finally an investigation of the model to replicate the measured response variation is examined.

  6. Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.

  7. Nonlinear Response and Residual Strength of Damaged Stiffened Shells Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Britt, Vicki O.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Rankin, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the nonlinear response of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks are presented. The shells are modeled with a hierarchical modeling strategy and analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that maintains the shell in a nonlinear equilibrium state while the crack is grown. The analysis accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Fuselage skins, frames stringers and failsafe straps are included in the models. Results are presented for various combinations of internal pressure and mechanical bending, vertical shear and torsion loads, and the effects of crack orientation and location on the shell response are described. These results indicate that the nonlinear interaction between the in-plane stress resultants and the out-of-plane displacements near a crack can significantly affect the structural response of the shell, and the stress-intensity factors associated with a crack that are used to predict residual strength. The effects of representative combined loading conditions on the stress-intensity factors associated with a crack are presented. The effects of varying structural parameters on the stress-intensity factors associated with a crack, and on self-similar and non-self-similar crack-growth are also presented.

  8. Effect of simulated microwave disinfection on the linear dimensional change, hardness and impact strength of acrylic resins processed by different polymerization cycles.

    PubMed

    Xediek Consani, R L; Chorwat, V; Ferraz Mesquita, M; Fernandes Santos, M B; Bortolazzo Correr, A; Consani, S

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of simulated microwave disinfection (SMD) on the linear dimensional changes, hardness and impact strength of acrylic resins under different polymerization cycles. Metal dies with referential points were embedded in flasks with dental stone. Samples of Classico and Vipi acrylic resins were made following the manufacturers' recommendations. The assessed polymerization cycles were: A) water bath at 74 ºC for 9 h; B) water bath at 74 ºC for 8 h and temperature increased to 100 ºC for 1 h; C) water bath at 74 ºC for 2 h and temperature increased to 100 ºC for 1 h; and D) water bath at 120 ºC and pressure of 60 pounds. Linear dimensional distances in length and width were measured after SMD and water storage at 37 ºC for 7 and 30 days using an optical microscope. SMD was carried out with the samples immersed in 150 mL of water in an oven (650 W for 3 min). A load of 25 gf for 10 s was used in the hardness test. Charpy impact test was performed with 40 kpcm. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The Classico resin was dimensionally steady in length in the A and D cycles for all periods, while the Vipi resin was steady in the A, B and C cycles for all periods. The Classico resin was dimensionally steady in width in the C and D cycles for all periods, and the Vipi resin was steady in all cycles and periods. The hardness values for Classico resin were steady in all cycles and periods, while the Vipi resin was steady only in the C cycle for all periods. Impact strength values for Classico resin were steady in the A, C and D cycles for all periods, while Vipi resin was steady in all cycles and periods. SMD promoted different effects on the linear dimensional changes, hardness and impact strength of acrylic resins submitted to different polymerization cycles when after SMD and water storage were considered.

  9. Linear Crop Response Functions to Soil Salinity With a Threshold Salinity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinerman, E.; Yaron, D.; Bielorai, H.

    1982-02-01

    The response function of a crop yield to soil salinity level is essential in decision-making in regard to irrigation with saline water. A switching regression approach to estimate the piecewise linear response function with critical threshold level is presented, and the asymptotical stochastic properties of the estimates are described. The empirical estimates, based on grapefruit yield data, are compared with those of a recent published study by Maas and Hoffman (1977) and the statistical significance of the differences is discussed. Finally, the threshold hypothesis is tested empirically against some alternative formulations. It turns out that the `threshold hypothesis' is confirmed.

  10. Computed Linear/Nonlinear Acoustic Response of a Cascade for Single/Multi Frequency Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Hixon, R.; Sawyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines mode generation and propagation characteristics of a 2-D cascade due to incident vortical disturbances using a time domain approach. Full nonlinear Euler equations are solved employing high order accurate spatial differencing and time marching techniques. The solutions show the generation and propagation of mode orders that are expected from theory. Single frequency excitations show linear response over a wide range of amplitudes. The response for multi-frequency excitations tend to become nonlinear due to interaction between frequencies and self interaction.

  11. Dynamic response analysis of linear stochastic truss structures under stationary random excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Jianjun; Cui, Mingtao; Cheng, Yi

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new method for the dynamic response analysis of linear stochastic truss structures under stationary random excitation. Considering the randomness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions, the computational expressions of the mean value, variance and variation coefficient of the mean square value of the structural displacement and stress response under the stationary random excitation are developed by means of the random variable's functional moment method and the algebra synthesis method from the expressions of structural stationary random response of the frequency domain. The influences of the randomness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions on the randomness of the mean square value of the structural displacement and stress response are inspected by the engineering examples.

  12. Divergence Between Nonlinear and Equivalent-Linear 1D Site Response Analyses for Different V S Realizations of Typical Clay Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandarinejad, Alireza; Jahanandish, Mojtaba; Zafarani, Hamid

    2017-06-01

    Surface ground motions can be obtained via various methods of analysis such as equivalent-linear (EL) and nonlinear (NL) one-dimensional numerical simulations. Selection of analysis method would be a challenging issue due to difficulty of input data preparation. The uncertainty inherent in soil parameters and shear wave velocity has significant impact on the soil surface hazard analysis through amplification function. In the present study, realizations of two clay sites in Shiraz city, southern Iran, along with three hypothetical sites are selected to examine the divergence between EL and NL ground response analyses. Two constitutive models, namely modified hyperbolic Kondner-Zelasko (MKZ) and general quadratic/hyperbolic (GQ/H), are implemented in site response analyses of synthetic profiles generated for reference profiles. The GQ/H model requires user-defined shear strength to simulate soil behavior. Two approaches of shear strength estimation are utilized in the current study. Several issues related to site response analysis are investigated such as effect of shear strength estimation method, input ground-motion intensity, and soil condition on the divergence between EL and NL spectral accelerations. The obtained EL/NL spectral response ratios are presented as a function of either shear strain index or oscillator period for the abovementioned issues. Moreover, 20% difference thresholds of the shear strain index are computed and compared with those from previous researches.

  13. A Generalized Linear Model for Estimating Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields from Responses to Natural Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Ana; Schumacher, Joseph W.; Schneider, David M.; Paninski, Liam; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2011-01-01

    In the auditory system, the stimulus-response properties of single neurons are often described in terms of the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF), a linear kernel relating the spectrogram of the sound stimulus to the instantaneous firing rate of the neuron. Several algorithms have been used to estimate STRFs from responses to natural stimuli; these algorithms differ in their functional models, cost functions, and regularization methods. Here, we characterize the stimulus-response function of auditory neurons using a generalized linear model (GLM). In this model, each cell's input is described by: 1) a stimulus filter (STRF); and 2) a post-spike filter, which captures dependencies on the neuron's spiking history. The output of the model is given by a series of spike trains rather than instantaneous firing rate, allowing the prediction of spike train responses to novel stimuli. We fit the model by maximum penalized likelihood to the spiking activity of zebra finch auditory midbrain neurons in response to conspecific vocalizations (songs) and modulation limited (ml) noise. We compare this model to normalized reverse correlation (NRC), the traditional method for STRF estimation, in terms of predictive power and the basic tuning properties of the estimated STRFs. We find that a GLM with a sparse prior predicts novel responses to both stimulus classes significantly better than NRC. Importantly, we find that STRFs from the two models derived from the same responses can differ substantially and that GLM STRFs are more consistent between stimulus classes than NRC STRFs. These results suggest that a GLM with a sparse prior provides a more accurate characterization of spectrotemporal tuning than does the NRC method when responses to complex sounds are studied in these neurons. PMID:21264310

  14. Magnetically responsive nanoparticles for drug delivery applications using low magnetic field strengths.

    PubMed

    McGill, Shayna L; Cuylear, Carla L; Adolphi, Natalie L; Osiński, Marek; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of magnetic nanoparticles for enhancing drug delivery using a low oscillating magnetic field (OMF) strength. We investigated the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to cause disruption of a viscous biopolymer barrier to drug delivery and the potential to induce triggered release of drug conjugated to the surfaces of these particles. Various magnetic nanoparticles were screened for thermal response under a 295-kHz OMF with an amplitude of 3.1 kA/m. Based on thermal activity of particles screened, we selected the nanoparticles that displayed desired characteristics for evaluation in a simplified model of an extracellular barrier to drug delivery, using lambda DNA/HindIII. Results indicate that nanoparticles could be used to induce DNA breakage to enhance local diffusion of drugs, despite low temperatures of heating. Additional studies showed increased diffusion of quantum dots in this model by single-particle tracking methods. Bimane was conjugated to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscope images of the conjugated nanoparticles indicated little change in the overall appearance of the nanoparticles. A release study showed greater drug release using OMF, while maintaining low bulk heating of the samples (T = 30 degrees C). This study indicates that lower magnetic field strengths may be successfully utilized for drug delivery applications as a method for drug delivery transport enhancement and drug release switches.

  15. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also

  16. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    PubMed

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications.

  17. Non-linear resonances in the forced responses of plates. I - Symmetric responses of circular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, S.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic analogue of the von Karman equations is used to study the symmetric response of a circular plate to a harmonic excitation when the frequency of the excitation is near one of the natural frequencies. It is shown that, in general, when there is no internal resonance (i.e., the natural frequencies are not commensurable), only the mode having a frequency near that of the excitation is strongly excited (i.e., is needed to represent the response in the first approximation). A clamped, circular plate is used as a numerical example to show that, when there is an internal resonance, more than one of the modes involved in this resonance can be strongly excited; moreover, when more than one mode is strongly excited, the lower modes can dominate the response, even when the frequency of the excitation is near that of the highest mode. This possibility was not revealed by any of the earlier studies which were based on the same governing equations.

  18. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    would encounter under hurricane strength winds. These flow fields can be used to estimate wind turbine loads and responses with AeroDyn (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/aerodyn/) and FAST (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/) codes also developed by NREL.

  19. [Physiological response of corn seedlings to changes of wind-sand flow strength].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ha-lin; Li, Jin; Zhou, Rui-lian; Qu, Hao; Yun, Jian-ying; Pan, Cheng-chen

    2015-01-01

    Corn seedlings are often harmed by strong wind-sand in the spring in semi-arid wind-sand area of west of Northeast China. In order to understand physiological response mechanisms of the corn seedlings to wind-sand damage, the changes in MDA content, membrane permeability, protective enzymes activities and osmotic regulation substances at 0 (CK) , 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 m . s-1 wind speed (wind-sand flow strength: 0, 1.00, 28.30, 63.28, 111.82 and 172.93 g . cm-1 . min-1, respectively) for 10 min duration were studied during the spring, 2013 in the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia. The results showed that effects of wind-sand flow blowing on the RWC of the corn seedling were lighter in the 6-12 m . s-1 treatments, but the RWC decreased by 19.0% and 18.7% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively. The MDA content tended to decline with increasing the wind-sand flow strength, and decreased by 35.0% and 39.0% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively. The membrane permeability increased significantly with increasing the wind-sand flow strength, and increased by 191.3% and 187.8% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively. With the increase of wind-sand flow strength, SOD activities decreased and changes of CAT activities were not significant, only POD activities increased significantly, which played an important role in the process of scavenging reactive oxygen species and protecting cell membrane against damage. For lighter water stress caused, by wind-sand flow blowing, proline and soluble sugar did not play any role in osmotic adjustment, but the proline content increased by 11.4% and 24.5% in the 15 m . s-1 and 18 m . s-1 treatments compared to the CK, respectively, which played an important role in osmotic adjustment.

  20. Delayed response of a fermion pair condensate to a modulation of the interaction strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    2009-09-01

    The effect of a sinusoidal modulation of the interaction strength on a fermion pair condensate is analytically studied. The system is described by a generalization of the coupled fermion-boson model that incorporates a time-dependent intermode coupling induced via a magnetic Feshbach resonance. Nontrivial effects are shown to emerge depending on the relative magnitude of the modulation period and the relaxation time of the condensate. Specifically, a nonadiabatic modulation drives the system out of thermal equilibrium: the external field induces a variation of the quasiparticle energies, and, in turn, a disequilibrium of the associated populations. The subsequent relaxation process is studied and an analytical description of the gap dynamics is obtained. Recent experimental findings are explained: the delay observed in the response to the applied field is understood as a temperature effect linked to the condensate relaxation time.

  1. Extinction in multiple contexts: Effects on the rate of extinction and the strength of response recovery.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Javier; Uengoer, Metin; Thorwart, Anna; Lachnit, Harald

    2016-09-01

    In two human predictive-learning experiments, we investigated the effects of extinction in multiple contexts on the rate of extinction and the strength of response recovery. In each experiment, participants initially received acquisition training with a target cue in one context, followed by extinction either in a different context (extinction in a single context) or in three different contexts (extinction in multiple contexts). The results of both experiments showed that conducting extinction in multiple contexts led to higher levels of responding during extinction than did extinction in a single context. Additionally, Experiment 2 showed that extinction in multiple contexts prevented ABC renewal but had no detectable impact on ABA renewal. Our results are discussed within the framework of contemporary learning theories of contextual control and extinction.

  2. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (linear velocity, in contrast to primary afferents that peaked in phase with linear acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements

  3. Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on Linear Shrinkage, Cohesion, Friction Angle and Compressive Strength of Expansive Black Clay of Gombe State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochepo, J.; Ogwola, O.; Masbeye, O.

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of water-cement ratio on linear shrinkage strain, cohesion, friction angle and unconfined compressive strength of expansive black clay of Gombe state in Nigeria. The soil was remolded with predetermined amount of water and then mixed with cement slurry which was design so as to obtain cement contents of 4, 8 and 12%. The remolding water content (w) and the water content of the cement slurry was design so as to obtain a clay-water-cement mixture with water content equal to the optimum mixing clay-water content. The specimen for linear shrinkage strain, cohesion, friction angle and unconfined compressive strength were then prepared and cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the various tests were conducted. The results obtained show that LSS increased with W/C ratio and decreased with curing periods. Cohesion increased with W/C ratio and decreased with curing periods and cement content while the soil friction angle decreased with W/C ratio and increased with curing period and cement content. UCS decreased with increase in W/C ratio for all cement content and increased with curing period and cement contents. Statistical analysis using ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the relative effect of W/C ratio, cement content and curing period on LSS, C, θ, and UCS. The results shows that the effect of both W/C ratio, cement content and curing period are statistically significant at 5% level with values of F calculated all greater than F critical for all the properties investigated. However from the calculated F values, the effect of W/C ratio was found to be more statistically significant than the effect of curing periods and cement content while the effect of curing period was found to be more statistically significant than the effect of cement content on LSS, C, θ, and UCS respectively.

  4. Strength and physiological response to exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, K.; White, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To measure strength, aerobic exercise capacity and efficiency, and functional incapacity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) who do not have a current psychiatric disorder.
METHODS—Sixty six patients with CFS without a current psychiatric disorder, 30 healthy but sedentary controls, and 15 patients with a current major depressive disorder were recruited into the study. Exercise capacity and efficiency were assessed by monitoring peak and submaximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, blood lactate, duration of exercise, and perceived exertion during a treadmill walking test. Strength was measured using twitch interpolated voluntary isometric quadriceps contractions. Symptomatic measures included physical and mental fatigue, mood, sleep, somatic amplification, and functional incapacity.
RESULTS—Compared with sedentary controls, patients with CFS were physically weaker, had a significantly reduced exercise capacity, and perceived greater effort during exercise, but were equally unfit. Compared with depressed controls, patients with CFS had significantly higher submaximal oxygen uptakes during exercise, were weaker, and perceived greater physical fatigue and incapacity. Multiple regression models suggested that exercise incapacity in CFS was related to quadriceps muscle weakness, increased cardiovascular response to exercise, and body mass index. The best model of the increased exercise capacity found after graded exercise therapy consisted of a reduction in submaximal heart rate response to exercise.
CONCLUSIONS—Patients with CFS were weaker than sedentary and depressed controls and as unfit as sedentary controls. Low exercise capacity in patients with CFS was related to quadriceps muscle weakness, low physical fitness, and a high body mass ratio. Improved physical fitness after treatment was associated with increased exercise capacity. These data imply that physical deconditioning helps to maintain physical disability in CFS and that a

  5. Damage of composite structures: Detection technique, dynamic response and residual strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Wahyu

    2001-10-01

    Reliable and accurate health monitoring techniques can prevent catastrophic failures of structures. Conventional damage detection methods are based on visual or localized experimental methods and very often require prior information concerning the vicinity of the damage or defect. The structure must also be readily accessible for inspections. The techniques are also labor intensive. In comparison to these methods, health-monitoring techniques that are based on the structural dynamic response offers unique information on failure of structures. However, systematic relations between the experimental data and the defect are not available and frequently, the number of vibration modes needed for an accurate identification of defects is much higher than the number of modes that can be readily identified in the experiment. These motivated us to develop an experimental data based detection method with systematic relationships between the experimentally identified information and the analytical or mathematical model representing the defective structures. The developed technique use changes in vibrational curvature modes and natural frequencies. To avoid misinterpretation of the identified information, we also need to understand the effects of defects on the structural dynamic response prior to developing health-monitoring techniques. In this thesis work we focus on two type of defects in composite structures, namely delamination and edge notch like defect. Effects of nonlinearity due to the presence of defect and due to the axial stretching are studied for beams with delamination. Once defects are detected in a structure, next concern is determining the effects of the defects on the strength of the structure and its residual stiffness under dynamic loading. In this thesis, energy release rate due to dynamic loading in a delaminated structure is studied, which will be a foundation toward determining the residual strength of the structure.

  6. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis - A case study of collapsed Margalla Tower in Islamabad during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Farooq, Khalid; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2016-07-01

    One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis was conducted in the Margalla Tower building in Islamabad, which collapsed during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The analyses were conducted in DEEPSOIL software, without considering the effect of ground water table. The input subsoil data were selected from laboratory and field tests conducted for the site with bedrock at a depth of 21 m as per site condition. The field and laboratory testing data showed that the subsoil beneath the Tower site was silty clay to lean clay according to the unified soil classification system. Four different accelerograms with PGA values of 0.17 g, 0.15 g, 0.22 g and 0.21 g, compatible with the earthquake in the target area were applied at the bedrock. The surface response spectra showed that, except the Accelerogram-1 all other three were amplified near the fundamental period of the site. The analyses showed that different PGA values (0.26 g, 0.21 g, 0.36 g and 0.21 g) were produced at the surface which can be explained due to the difference in the Fourier amplitude of input accelerograms. Furthermore, the different input accelerograms produced a different shear strain and thus mobilized different shear strengths along the soil profile depth. Finally, the calculated response spectra of accelerograms were compared with the response spectra of Islamabad. The calculated spectral acceleration values were found to be higher than reported by the Building Code of Pakistan (0.16 g to 0.24 g).

  7. Discrete-time linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses for efficient CFD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Walter Arturo

    This dissertation discusses the mathematical existence and the numerical identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This will establish the aerodynamic discrete-time impulse response function as the most fundamental and computationally efficient aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this dissertation help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. Nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses are identified using the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems. The theory is described and a discrete-time kernel identification technique is presented. The kernel identification technique is applied to a simple nonlinear circuit for illustrative purposes. The method is then applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example of an application to a simple CFD model. Finally, the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear

  8. Relevance of sampling schemes in light of Ruelle's linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Kuna, Tobias; Wouters, Jeroen; Faranda, Davide

    2012-05-01

    We reconsider the theory of the linear response of non-equilibrium steady states to perturbations. We first show that using a general functional decomposition for space-time dependent forcings, we can define elementary susceptibilities that allow us to construct the linear response of the system to general perturbations. Starting from the definition of SRB measure, we then study the consequence of taking different sampling schemes for analysing the response of the system. We show that only a specific choice of the time horizon for evaluating the response of the system to a general time-dependent perturbation allows us to obtain the formula first presented by Ruelle. We also discuss the special case of periodic perturbations, showing that when they are taken into consideration the sampling can be fine-tuned to make the definition of the correct time horizon immaterial. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results in terms of strategies for analysing the outputs of numerical experiments by providing a critical review of a formula proposed by Reick.

  9. Non-Markovian linear response theory for quantum open systems and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shen, H Z; Li, D X; Yi, X X

    2017-01-01

    The Kubo formula is an equation that expresses the linear response of an observable due to a time-dependent perturbation. It has been extended from closed systems to open systems in recent years under the Markovian approximation, but is barely explored for open systems in non-Markovian regimes. In this paper, we derive a formula for the linear response of an open system to a time-independent external field. This response formula is available for both Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics depending on parameters in the spectral density of the environment. As an illustration of the theory, the Hall conductance of a two-band system subjected to environments is derived and discussed. With the tight-binding model, we point out the Hall conductance changes from Markovian to non-Markovian dynamics by modulating the spectral density of the environment. Our results suggest a way to the controlling of the system response, which has potential applications for quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

  10. Non-Markovian linear response theory for quantum open systems and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. Z.; Li, D. X.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-01-01

    The Kubo formula is an equation that expresses the linear response of an observable due to a time-dependent perturbation. It has been extended from closed systems to open systems in recent years under the Markovian approximation, but is barely explored for open systems in non-Markovian regimes. In this paper, we derive a formula for the linear response of an open system to a time-independent external field. This response formula is available for both Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics depending on parameters in the spectral density of the environment. As an illustration of the theory, the Hall conductance of a two-band system subjected to environments is derived and discussed. With the tight-binding model, we point out the Hall conductance changes from Markovian to non-Markovian dynamics by modulating the spectral density of the environment. Our results suggest a way to the controlling of the system response, which has potential applications for quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle based optical fiber humidity sensor with linear response and enhanced sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, R; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2012-04-20

    An optical fiber humidity sensor employing an in-house scaled TiO2-nanoparticle doped nanostructured thin film as the fiber sensing cladding and evanescent wave absorption is reported. The main objective of the present work is to achieve a throughout-linear sensor response with high sensitivity, possibly over a wide dynamic range using the simplest possible sensor geometry. In order to realize this, first, the nanostructured sensing film is synthesized over a short length of a centrally decladded straight and uniform optical fiber and then a comprehensive experimental investigation is carried out to optimize the design configuration/parameters of the nanostructured sensing film and to achieve the best possible sensor response. Much improved sensitivity of 27.1 mV/%RH is observed for the optimized sensor along with a throughout-linear sensor response over a dynamic range as wide as 24% to 95%RH with an average response time of 0.01 s for humidification and 0.06 s for desiccation. In addition, the sensor exhibits a very good degree of reversibility and repeatability.

  12. The Response to and Recovery From Maximum-Strength and -Power Training in Elite Track and Field Athletes.

    PubMed

    Howatson, Glyn; Brandon, Raphael; Hunter, Angus M

    2016-04-01

    There is a great deal of research on the responses to resistance training; however, information on the responses to strength and power training conducted by elite strength and power athletes is sparse. To establish the acute and 24-h neuromuscular and kinematic responses to Olympic-style barbell strength and power exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite track and field athletes completed a series of 3 back-squat exercises each consisting of 4 × 5 repetitions. These were done as either strength or power sessions on separate days. Surface electromyography (sEMG), bar velocity, and knee angle were monitored throughout these exercises and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), jump height, central activation ratio (CAR), and lactate were measured pre, post, and 24 h thereafter. Repetition duration, impulse, and total work were greater (P < .01) during strength sessions, with mean power being greater (P < .01) after the power sessions. Lactate increased (P < .01) after strength but not power sessions. sEMG increased (P < .01) across sets for both sessions, with the strength session increasing at a faster rate (P < .01) and with greater activation (P < .01) by the end of the final set. MVC declined (P < .01) after the strength and not the power session, which remained suppressed (P < .05) 24 h later, whereas CAR and jump height remained unchanged. A greater neuromuscular and metabolic demand after the strength and not power session is evident in elite athletes, which impaired maximal-force production for up to 24 h. This is an important consideration for planning concurrent athlete training.

  13. On the subsystem formulation of linear-response time-dependent DFT.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Michele

    2013-05-28

    A new and thorough derivation of linear-response subsystem time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is presented and analyzed in detail. Two equivalent derivations are presented and naturally yield self-consistent subsystem TD-DFT equations. One reduces to the subsystem TD-DFT formalism of Neugebauer [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 134116 (2007)]. The other yields Dyson type equations involving three types of subsystem response functions: coupled, uncoupled, and Kohn-Sham. The Dyson type equations for subsystem TD-DFT are derived here for the first time. The response function formalism reveals previously hidden qualities and complications of subsystem TD-DFT compared with the regular TD-DFT of the supersystem. For example, analysis of the pole structure of the subsystem response functions shows that each function contains information about the electronic spectrum of the entire supersystem. In addition, comparison of the subsystem and supersystem response functions shows that, while the correlated response is subsystem additive, the Kohn-Sham response is not. Comparison with the non-subjective partition DFT theory shows that this non-additivity is largely an artifact introduced by the subjective nature of the density partitioning in subsystem DFT.

  14. On the subsystem formulation of linear-response time-dependent DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanello, Michele

    2013-05-01

    A new and thorough derivation of linear-response subsystem time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is presented and analyzed in detail. Two equivalent derivations are presented and naturally yield self-consistent subsystem TD-DFT equations. One reduces to the subsystem TD-DFT formalism of Neugebauer [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 134116 (2007), 10.1063/1.2713754]. The other yields Dyson type equations involving three types of subsystem response functions: coupled, uncoupled, and Kohn-Sham. The Dyson type equations for subsystem TD-DFT are derived here for the first time. The response function formalism reveals previously hidden qualities and complications of subsystem TD-DFT compared with the regular TD-DFT of the supersystem. For example, analysis of the pole structure of the subsystem response functions shows that each function contains information about the electronic spectrum of the entire supersystem. In addition, comparison of the subsystem and supersystem response functions shows that, while the correlated response is subsystem additive, the Kohn-Sham response is not. Comparison with the non-subjective partition DFT theory shows that this non-additivity is largely an artifact introduced by the subjective nature of the density partitioning in subsystem DFT.

  15. New differential equations governing the response cross-correlations of linear systems subjected to coloured loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsone, G.; Settineri, D.

    2011-06-01

    A procedure for evaluating the response cross-correlation of a linear structural system subjected to the action of stationary random multi-correlated processes is presented in this work. It is based on the definition of the fourth-order differential equation governing the modal response cross-correlation and of the corresponding solution. This is expressed in terms of the corresponding fundamental matrix, whose expression is related to the fundamental matrices of the differential equations governing the modal responses. The properties of this matrix allows to define a particular unconditionally stable numerical integration approach, which is composed of two independent step-by-step procedures, a progressive one and a regressive one. The applications have shown a level of accuracy comparable to that corresponding to the numerical solution of the double convolution integral, but the presented approach is characterised by a reduced computational effort.

  16. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  17. Transient response of multidegree-of-freedom linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to analyze the transient response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with unknown time dependence but having known bounds. Particular attention is given to forcing functions which include: (1) maximum displacement of any given mass element, (2) maximum relative displacement of any two adjacent masses, and (3) maximum acceleration of a given mass. Linear mechanical systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom and only one forcing function acting are considered. In the general case, the desired forcing function is found to be a function that switches from the upper-to-lower bound and vice-versa at certain moments of time. A general procedure for finding such switching times is set forth.

  18. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  19. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Tbeodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modem three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  20. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  1. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  2. Correlation spectroscopy based on non-linear response of silver colloids (including SEHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, G.; Sauer, G.; Fritz, N.; Schneider, S.; Zaitsev, S.

    2005-02-01

    The non-linear response (second harmonic generation, SHG, hyper-Rayleigh scattering, HRS, surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering, SEHRS, and continuum generation) of two different types of silver colloids is compared by stationary and correlation spectroscopy. Employing a poly-disperse colloid prepared after the protocol of Lee and Meisel we found that the efficiency of all types of non-linear response is greatly enhanced if the colloid is 'activated' by addition of chloride ions. This activation is also necessary to observe SEHRS with both the Lee-Meisel and the mono-disperse colloid prepared by hydrazine reduction. The correlation curves of both types of colloid show one step (τ1/2∼10 ms) which can be associated with lateral diffusion of the individual particles. Its τ1/2-value is larger for the poly-disperse colloid, which contains larger particles. In addition, we find a second step, its relative amplitude being dependent on experimental parameters, whose τ1/2-value is, however, essentially the same for all samples investigated (τ‧1/2∼50 μs). We assign this correlation time to processes that lead to a restructuring of the surface and the formation and destruction of so-called 'hot spots'. Under optimum condition, the efficiency for all non-linear processes connected with one such 'hot spot' is extremely high. 'Hot particles' contain at least one hot spot and can therefore dominate the non-linear signal without the need of aggregation (field enhancement in the gap between particles).

  3. Linear Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on Flow Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire flow response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-flows (7Q2) and annual seven day high-flows (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso linear regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate linear models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of linear regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate linear regression modeling.

  4. Measuring the Strength of Teachers' Unions: An Empirical Application of the Partial Independence Item Response Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on teachers' unions is relatively silent about the role of union strength in affecting important outcomes, due in large part to the difficulty in measuring union strength. In this article, we illustrate a method for obtaining valid, reliable, and replicable measures of union strength through the use of a Partial Independence Item…

  5. Measuring the Strength of Teachers' Unions: An Empirical Application of the Partial Independence Item Response Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on teachers' unions is relatively silent about the role of union strength in affecting important outcomes, due in large part to the difficulty in measuring union strength. In this article, we illustrate a method for obtaining valid, reliable, and replicable measures of union strength through the use of a Partial Independence Item…

  6. Do Processing Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Predict Differential Treatment Response?

    PubMed Central

    Miciak, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob L.; Taylor, W. Pat; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objective No previous empirical study has investigated whether the LD identification decisions of proposed methods to operationalize processing strengths and weaknesses (PSW) approaches for LD identification are associated with differential treatment response. We investigated whether the identification decisions of the concordance/discordance model (C/DM; Hale & Fiorello, 2004) and Cross Battery Assessment approach (XBA method; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2007) were consistent and whether they predicted intervention response beyond that accounted for by pretest performance on measures of reading. Method Psychoeducational assessments were administered at pretest to 203 4th graders with low reading comprehension and individual results were utilized to identify students who met LD criteria according to the C/DM and XBA methods and students who did not. Resulting group status permitted an investigation of agreement for identification methods and whether group status at pretest (LD or not LD) was associated with differential treatment response to an intensive reading intervention. Results The LD identification decisions of the XBA and C/DM demonstrated poor agreement with one another (κ = −.10). Comparisons of posttest performance for students who met LD criteria and those who did not meet were largely null, with small effect sizes across all measures. Conclusions LD status, as identified through the C/DM and XBA approaches, was not associated with differential treatment response and did not contribute educationally meaningful information about how students would respond to intensive reading intervention. These results do not support the value of cognitive assessment utilized in this way as part of the LD identification process. PMID:27616784

  7. Acute Physiological Responses to Strongman Training Compared to Traditional Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Woulfe, Colm J; Wood, Matthew R; Dulson, Deborah K; Gluchowski, Ashley K; Keogh, Justin B

    2016-05-01

    Strongman training (ST) has become an increasingly popular modality, but data on physiological responses are limited. This study sought to determine physiological responses to an ST session compared to a traditional strength exercise training (RST) session. Ten healthy men (23.6 ± 27.5 years, 85.8 ± 10.3 kg) volunteered in a crossover design, where all participants performed an ST session, an RST session, and a resting session within 7 days apart. The ST consisted of sled drag, farmer's walk, 1 arm dumbbell clean and press, and tire flip at loads eliciting approximately 30 seconds of near maximal effort per set. The RST consisted of squat, deadlift, bench press, and power clean, progressing to 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Sessions were equated for approximate total set duration. Blood lactate and salivary testosterone were recorded immediately before and after training sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were measured throughout the resting session, both training protocols and for 80 minutes after training sessions. Analyses were conducted to determine differences in physiological responses within and between protocols. No significant changes in testosterone occurred at any time point for either session. Lactate increased significantly immediately after both sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were all elevated significantly during ST and RST. Heart rate and fat expenditure were significantly elevated compared to resting in both sessions' recovery periods; calorie and carbohydrate expenditures were not. Compared to RST, ST represents an equivalent physiological stimulus on key parameters indicative of potential training-induced adaptive responses. Such adaptations could conceivably include cardiovascular conditioning.

  8. Linearity and nonlinearity of basin response as a function of scale: Discussion of alternative definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, M.; Jothityangkoon, C.; Menabde, M.

    2002-02-01

    Two uses of the terms ``linearity'' and ``nonlinearity'' appear in recent literature. The first definition of nonlinearity is with respect to the dynamical property such as the rainfall-runoff response of a catchment, and nonlinearity in this sense refers to a nonlinear dependence of the storm response on the magnitude of the rainfall inputs [Minshall, 1960; Wang et al., 1981]. The second definition of nonlinearity [Huang and Willgoose, 1993; Goodrich et al., 1997] is with respect to the dependence of a catchment statistical property, such as the mean annual flood, on the area of the catchment. They are both linked to important and interconnected hydrologic concepts, and furthermore, the change of nonlinearity with area (scale) has been an important motivation for hydrologic research. While both definitions are correct mathematically, they refer to hydrologically different concepts. In this paper we show that nonlinearity in the dynamical sense and that in the statistical sense can exist independently of each other (i.e., can be unrelated). If not carefully distinguished, the existence of these two definitions can lead to a catchment's response being described as being both linear and nonlinear at the same time. We therefore recommend separating these definitions by reserving the term ``nonlinearity'' for the classical, dynamical definition with respect to rainfall inputs, while adopting the term ``scaling relationship'' for the dependence of a catchment hydrological property on catchment area.

  9. Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-10-01

    We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches.

  10. Linear and fractional response for the SRB measure of smooth hyperbolic attractors and discontinuous observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Kuna, Tobias; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-03-01

    We consider a smooth one-parameter family t\\mapsto ≤ft( {{f}t}:M\\to M\\right) of diffeomorphisms with compact transitive Axiom A attractors {{ Λ }t} , denoting by \\text{d}{ρt} the SRB measure of {{f}t}{{|}{{ Λ t}}} . Our first result is that for any function θ in the Sobolev space Hpr(M) , with 1 and 0  <  r  <  1/p, the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is α-Hölder continuous for all α . This applies to θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) (for all α <1 ) for h and g smooth and \\Theta the Heaviside function, if a is not a critical value of g. Our second result says that for any such function θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) so that in addition the intersection of ≤ft\\{x|g(x)=a\\right\\} with the support of h is foliated by ‘admissible stable leaves’ of f t , the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is differentiable. (We provide distributional linear response and fluctuation-dissipation formulas for the derivative.) Obtaining linear response or fractional response for such observables θ is motivated by extreme-value theory.

  11. Skew-normal/independent linear mixed models for censored responses with applications to HIV viral loads

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lachos, Victor H.; Castro, Luis M.; Dey, Dipak K.

    2012-01-01

    Often in biomedical studies, the routine use of linear mixed-effects models (based on Gaussian assumptions) can be questionable when the longitudinal responses are skewed in nature. Skew-normal/elliptical models are widely used in those situations. Often, those skewed responses might also be subjected to some upper and lower quantification limits (viz. longitudinal viral load measures in HIV studies), beyond which they are not measurable. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian analysis of censored linear mixed models replacing the Gaussian assumptions with skew-normal/independent (SNI) distributions. The SNI is an attractive class of asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions that includes the skew-normal, the skew-t, skew-slash and the skew-contaminated normal distributions as special cases. The proposed model provides flexibility in capturing the effects of skewness and heavy tail for responses which are either left- or right-censored. For our analysis, we adopt a Bayesian framework and develop a MCMC algorithm to carry out the posterior analyses. The marginal likelihood is tractable, and utilized to compute not only some Bayesian model selection measures but also case-deletion influence diagnostics based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. The newly developed procedures are illustrated with a simulation study as well as a HIV case study involving analysis of longitudinal viral loads. PMID:22685005

  12. Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-10-01

    We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N ×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches.

  13. Nonlocal density functionals and the linear response of the homogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, I. I.; Singh, D. J.

    1998-03-01

    The known and usable truly nonlocal functionals for exchange-correlation energy of the inhomogeneous electron gas are the ADA (average density approximation) and the WDA (weighted density approximation). ADA, by design, yields the correct linear response function of the uniform electron gas. The WDA is constructed so that it is exact in the opposite limit of one-electron systems, and it was conjectured that the WDA is also accurate in the uniform gas limit. To test this conjecture, we derive an expression for the linear response of the uniform gas in the WDA, and calculate it for several flavors of the WDA. We then compare the results with the Monte Carlo data on the exchange-correlation local-field correction, and identify the weak points of conventional WDA in the homogeneous limit. We suggest how the WDA can be modified to improve the response function. The resulting approximation is a good one in both opposite limits. Future testing should show whether it will also be better than conventional WDA and ADA for practical nonlocal density-functional calculations.

  14. Nonlocal density functionals and the linear response of the homogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, I. I.; Singh, D. J.

    1998-03-01

    The known and usable truly nonlocal exchange-correlation density functionals are the ADA (average density approximation) and the WDA (weighted density approximation). The ADA, by design, yields the correct linear response of the uniform electron gas. WDA is constructed so that it is exact for one-electron systems, and was shown to yield good results for solids, too. While the WDA has correct one-electron behavior, it is important to access the accuracy of the method in the opposite limit of the nearly homogeneous electron gas. To do so, we derive an expression for the linear response of the uniform gas in the WDA, and calculate it for several flavors of WDA. We compare our results with Monte-Carlo data on the exchange-correlation local field correction, and identify the weak points of the conventional WDA in this limit. The WDA can be modified to improve the response function in the short wavelength regime. The exchange-correlation local field correction includes a term derived from the correlation part of the kinetic energy, which does not decay at qarrow ∞. This can be reproduced by adding a delta-function part to the WDA weight function. The resulting approximation is good in both limits, and may be useful for practical density functional calculations. (More at this URL.)

  15. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  16. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  17. Quasi-static and dynamic responses of advanced high strength steels: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Akhtar; Baig, Muneer; Choi, Shi Hoon; Yang, Hoe Seok; Sun, Xin

    2012-03-01

    Measured responses of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and their tailor welded blanks (TWBs), over a wide range of strain-rates (10*4 to 103 s*1) are presented. The steels investigated include transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), dual phase (DP), and drawing quality (DQ) steels. The TWBs include DQ-DQ and DP-DP laser welds. A tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was used for the dynamic experiments. AHSS and their TWB's were found to exhibit positive strain-rate sensitivity. The Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) constitutive model is shown to correlate and predict the observed responses reasonably well. Micro-texture characterization of DQ steels, DQ-DQ and DP-DP laser welds were performed to investigate the effect of strain-rate on texture evolution of these materials. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to analyze the micro-texture evolution and kernel average misorientation (KAM) map. Measurement of micro-hardness profile across the cross section of tensile samples was conducted to understand the effect of initial microstructure on ductility of laser weld samples.

  18. Mechanical Strength and Viscoelastic Response of the Periodontal Ligament in Relation to Structure

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Koichiro

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical strength of the periodontal ligament (PDL) was first measured as force required to extract a tooth from its socket using human specimens. Thereafter, tooth-PDL-bone preparations have extensively been used for measurement of the mechanical response of the PDL. In vitro treatments of such specimens with specific enzymes allowed one to investigate into the roles of the structural components in the mechanical support of the PDL. The viscoelastic responses of the PDL may be examined by analysis of the stress-relaxation. Video polarised microscopy suggested that the collagen molecules and fibrils in the stretched fibre bundles progressively align along the deformation direction during the relaxation. The stress-relaxation process of the PDL can be well expressed by a function with three exponential decay terms. Analysis after in vitro digestion of the collagen fibres by collagenase revealed that the collagen fibre components may play an important role in the long-term relaxation component of the stress-relaxation process of the PDL. The dynamic measurements of the viscoelastic properties of the PDL have recently suggested that the PDL can absorb more energy in compression than in shear and tension. These viscoelastic mechanisms of the PDL tissue could reduce the risk of injury to the PDL. PMID:20948569

  19. Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields.

    PubMed

    Peng, Degao; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    Recent development in particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) broadens the perspective on ground state correlation energies [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013), Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, S. N. Steinmann, D. Peng, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174110 (2013); D. Peng, S. N. Steinmann, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104112 (2013)] and N ± 2 excitation energies [Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 224105 (2013)]. So far Hartree-Fock and approximated density-functional orbitals have been utilized to evaluate the pp-RPA equation. In this paper, to further explore the fundamentals and the potential use of pairing matrix dependent functionals, we present the linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields with both adiabatic and frequency-dependent kernels. This theory is related to the density-functional theory and time-dependent density-functional theory for superconductors, but is applied to normal non-superconducting systems for our purpose. Due to the lack of the proof of the one-to-one mapping between the pairing matrix and the pairing field for time-dependent systems, the linear-response theory is established based on the representability assumption of the pairing matrix. The linear response theory justifies the use of approximated density-functionals in the pp-RPA equation. This work sets the fundamentals for future density-functional development to enhance the description of ground state correlation energies and N ± 2 excitation energies.

  20. Effect of acute intradialytic strength physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Esgalhado, Marta; Stockler-Pinto, Milena Barcza; de França Cardozo, Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros; Costa, Cinthia; Barboza, Jorge Eduardo; Mafra, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and inflammation are common findings in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and they are directly related to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which is the major cause of death in these patients, particularly for those undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Strength physical exercise is a new therapeutic approach to reduce these complications in CKD patients. Following this, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute intradialytic strength physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in HD patients. Methods Sixteen HD patients were studied (11 women; 44.4±14.6 years; body mass index 23.3±4.9 kg/m2; 61.6±43.1 months of dialysis) and served as their own controls. Acute (single session) intradialytic physical exercise were performed at 60% of the one-repetition maximum test for three sets of 10 repetitions for four exercise categories in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on two different days at exactly the same time (30 minutes and 60 minutes after initiating the dialysis—with and without exercise). Antioxidant enzymes activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase], lipid peroxidation marker levels (malondialdehyde), and inflammatory marker levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were determined. Results SOD plasma levels were significantly reduced after acute physical exercise from 244.8±40.7 U/mL to 222.4±28.9 U/mL (P=0.03) and, by contrast, increased on the day without exercise (218.2±26.5 U/mL to 239.4±38.6 U/mL, P=0.02). There was no alteration in plasma catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in on either day (with or without exercise). Additionally, there was no association between these markers and clinical, anthropometric, or biochemical parameters. Conclusion These data suggest that acute intradialytic strength physical exercise was unable to

  1. Inhomogeneous Quadriceps Femoris Hypertrophy in Response to Strength and Power Training.

    PubMed

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported inhomogeneous changes in quadriceps femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA) in response to strength training. It is assumed that these differential changes in muscle shape influence the muscle's functional capacity during high-force and high-power movements. The purpose of the current study was to compare intermuscular and intramuscular QF adaptations to high-load strength training and fast-speed power training. Thirty-six non-strength-trained men were randomly assigned to four groups and completed 8 wk of parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training (HS-P), parallel-depth jump squat training (JS-P), volitional-depth jump squat training (JS-V), or no training (C). Quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL), intermedius (VI), medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) CSA were measured in distal-, mid-, and proximal-thigh regions using extended field-of-view ultrasonography and compared using a 3 × 2 mixed-model MANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests (P < 0.05). Parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training and JS-P elicited similar changes in mid-CSA(QF) as well as summed CSA of the QF, VL, VI, and VM. Cross-sectional area of the VL (CSA(VL)) and CSA(VI) increased in both HS-P and JS-P at mid-thigh, but only JS-P significantly increased CSA proximally, and only HS-P significantly increased CSA distally. Cross-sectional area of the VM (CSA(VM)) increased in HS-P and JS-P distally, but only HS-P increased at mid-thigh. No hypertrophy was observed in RF at any location and no significant differences were observed between JS-P and JS-V. Parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training elicited greater proximal hypertrophy in each of the vasti muscles, whereas only JS-P elicited distal VL and VI hypertrophy. These observed inhomogeneous changes in CSA may alter the thigh's moment of inertia and moment arms of muscle "compartments," and the influence of elastic component force transmission on the muscular force expression. Such selective hypertrophy is

  2. Differences in muscle strength after ACL reconstruction do not influence cardiorespiratory responses to isometabolic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marília S.; Lira, Claudio A. B.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; Nakamoto, Fernanda P.; Cohen, Moisés; Silva, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the muscle strength decrease that follows anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction would lead to different cardiorespiratory adjustments during dynamic exercise. Method Eighteen active male subjects were submitted to isokinetic evaluation of knee flexor and extensor muscles four months after ACL surgery. Thigh circumference was also measured and an incremental unilateral cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed separately for both involved and uninvolved lower limbs in order to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, and ventilatory pattern (breath rate, tidal volume, inspiratory time, expiratory time, tidal volume/inspiratory time) at three different workloads (moderate, anaerobic threshold, and maximal). Results There was a significant difference between isokinetic extensor peak torque measured in the involved (116.5±29.1 Nm) and uninvolved (220.8±40.4 Nm) limbs, p=0.000. Isokinetic flexor peak torque was also lower in the involved limb than in the uninvolved limb (107.8±15.4 and 132.5±26.3 Nm, p=0.004, respectively). Lower values were also found in involved thigh circumference as compared with uninvolved limb (46.9±4.3 and 48.5±3.9 cm, p=0.005, respectively). No differences were found between the lower limbs in any of the variables of the incremental cardiopulmonary tests at all exercise intensities. Conclusions Our findings indicate that, four months after ACL surgery, there is a significant deficit in isokinetic strength in the involved limb, but these differences in muscle strength requirement do not produce differences in the cardiorespiratory adjustments to exercise. Based on the hypotheses from the literature which explain the differences in the physiological responses to exercise for different muscle masses, we can deduce that, after 4 months of a rehabilitation program after an ACL reconstruction, individuals probably do not present differences in muscle oxidative and peripheral

  3. Trajectory Surface Hopping within Linear Response Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapavicza, Enrico; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    A fewest switches trajectory surface hopping algorithm based on linear response time-dependent density-functional theory is developed and implemented into the plane wave ab initio molecular dynamics package CPMD. A scheme to calculate nonadiabatic couplings using a multi determinantal approximation of the excited state wave function is introduced. The method is applied to the study of the photorelaxation of protonated formaldimine, a minimal model of the rhodopsin chromophore retinal. A good agreement of the structural and dynamic behavior is found with respect to state averaged multiconfiguration self consistent field based trajectory surface hopping.

  4. Kovacs effect in the one-dimensional Ising model: A linear response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-García, M.; Prados, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the so-called Kovacs effect in the one-dimensional Ising model with Glauber dynamics. We consider small enough temperature jumps, for which a linear response theory has been recently derived. Within this theory, the Kovacs hump is directly related to the monotonic relaxation function of the energy. The analytical results are compared with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, and an excellent agreement is found. Remarkably, the position of the maximum in the Kovacs hump depends on the fact that the true asymptotic behavior of the relaxation function is different from the stretched exponential describing the relevant part of the relaxation at low temperatures.

  5. Reduced Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of an RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.

  6. A Revolute Joint With Linear Load-Displacement Response for Precision Deployable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Warren, Peter A.; Peterson, Lee D.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Langley Research center is developing key structures and mechanisms technologies for micron-accuracy, in-space deployment of future space instruments. Achieving micron-accuracy deployment requires significant advancements in deployment mechanism design such as the revolute joint presented herein. The joint presented herein exhibits a load-cycling response that is essentially linear with less than two percent hysteresis, and the joint rotates with less than one in.-oz. of resistance. A prototype reflector metering truss incorporating the joint exhibits only a few microns of kinematic error under repeated deployment and impulse loading. No other mechanically deployable structure found in literature has been demonstrated to be this kinematically accurate.

  7. Long-term prediction test procedure for most ICs, based on linear response theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, V.; Ivakhnenko, I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimentally, thermal annealing is known to be a factor which enables a number of different integrated circuits (IC's) to recover their operating characteristics after suffering radiation damage in the space radiation environment; thus, decreasing and limiting long term cumulative total-dose effects. This annealing is also known to be accelerated at elevated temperatures both during and after irradiation. Linear response theory (LRT) was applied, and a linear response function (LRF) to predict the radiation/annealing response of sensitive parameters of IC's for long term (several months or years) exposure to the space radiation environment were constructed. Compressing the annealing process from several years in orbit to just a few hours or days in the laboratory is achieved by subjecting the IC to elevated temperatures or by increasing the typical spaceflight dose rate by several orders of magnitude for simultaneous radiation/annealing only. The accomplishments are as follows: (1) the test procedure to make predictions of the radiation response was developed; (2) the calculation of the shift in the threshold potential due to the charge distribution in the oxide was written; (3) electron tunneling processes from the bulk Si to the oxide region in an MOS IC were estimated; (4) in order to connect the experimental annealing data to the theoretical model, constants of the model of the basic annealing process were established; (5) experimental data obtained at elevated temperatures were analyzed; (6) time compression and reliability of predictions for the long term region were shown; (7) a method to compress test time and to make predictions of response for the nonlinear region was proposed; and (8) nonlinearity of the LRF with respect to log(t) was calculated theoretically from a model.

  8. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J.; Izzo, V. A.; Lazarus, E. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Park, J.-K.; Lazerson, S.; Reiman, A.; Cooper, W. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Turco, F.

    2013-05-15

    With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10{sup −3} relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.

  9. Constructing quasi-linear V̇O2 responses from nonlinear parameters.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Samuel L; Broxterman, Ryan M; Barstow, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics have been shown to be governed by a nonlinear control system across a range of work rates. However, the linearity of the V̇O2 response to ramp incremental exercise would appear to be the result of a linear control system. This apparent contradiction could represent a balancing of changing V̇O2 kinetics parameter values across a range of work rates. To test this, six healthy men completed bouts of ramp incremental exercise at 15, 30, and 60 W/min (15R, 30R, 60R, respectively) and four bouts of an extended-step incremental exercise. V̇O2 parameter values were derived from the step exercise using two monoexponential models: one starting at time zero and encompassing the entire stage (MONO), and the other truncated to the first 5 min and allowing a time delay (5TD). The resulting parameter values were applied to an integrative model to estimate the ramp responses. As work rate increased, gain values increased (P < 0.001 for MONO and 5TD), as did mean response time (or time constant) values (MONO: P < 0.001; 5TD: P = 0.003). Up to maximal V̇O2 (V̇O(2 max)), the gains of the estimated ramp responses from both models were not different from the gains of the actual observed V̇O2 responses for 15R and 30R (15R: 11.3 ± 1.2, 11.7 ± 0.7, 10.9 ± 0.3; 30R: 10.5 ± 0.8, 11.0 ± 0.5, 10.7 ± 0.3 ml O2·min(-1)·W(-1), for actual, MONO, 5TD, respectively) but were significantly greater for 60R (8.7 ± 1.0, 9.9 ± 0.4, 10.3 ± 0.3 ml O2·min(-1)·W(-1) for actual, MONO, 5TD, respectively). Up to 80%V̇O(2 max) gain values were not significantly different for any ramp rate (P > 0.05 for all). We conclude that the apparent linearity of the V̇O2 response to ramp incremental exercise is consequent to a balancing of increasing time constant and gain parameter values.

  10. Linear Mixed Models for Skew-Normal Independent bivariate responses with an application to Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lachos, Victor H.; Abanto-Valle, Carlos A.; Ghosh, Pulak

    2010-01-01

    Bivariate clustered (correlated) data often encountered in epidemiological and clinical research are routinely analyzed under a linear mixed model framework with underlying normality assumptions of the random effects and within-subject errors. However, such normality assumptions might be questionable if the data-set particularly exhibit skewness and heavy tails. Using a Bayesian paradigm, we use the skew-normal/independent (SNI) distribution as a tool for modeling clustered data with bivariate non-normal responses in a linear mixed model framework. The SNI distribution is an attractive class of asymmetric thick-tailed parametric structure which includes the skew-normal distribution as a special case. We assume that the random effects follows multivariate skew-normal/independent distributions and the random errors follow symmetric normal/independent distributions which provides substantial robustness over the symmetric normal process in a linear mixed model framework. Specific distributions obtained as special cases, viz. the skew-t, the skew-slash and the skew-contaminated normal distributions are compared, along with the default skew-normal density. The methodology is illustrated through an application to a real data which records the periodontal health status of an interesting population using periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). PMID:20740568

  11. The neuronal response at extended timescales: a linearized spiking input–output relation

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Many biological systems are modulated by unknown slow processes. This can severely hinder analysis – especially in excitable neurons, which are highly non-linear and stochastic systems. We show the analysis simplifies considerably if the input matches the sparse “spiky” nature of the output. In this case, a linearized spiking Input–Output (I/O) relation can be derived semi-analytically, relating input spike trains to output spikes based on known biophysical properties. Using this I/O relation we obtain closed-form expressions for all second order statistics (input – internal state – output correlations and spectra), construct optimal linear estimators for the neuronal response and internal state and perform parameter identification. These results are guaranteed to hold, for a general stochastic biophysical neuron model, with only a few assumptions (mainly, timescale separation). We numerically test the resulting expressions for various models, and show that they hold well, even in cases where our assumptions fail to hold. In a companion paper we demonstrate how this approach enables us to fit a biophysical neuron model so it reproduces experimentally observed temporal firing statistics on days-long experiments. PMID:24765073

  12. Linearization of EBT3 film dose response and virtual film dosimetry for SBRT quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.; Archibald-Heeren, B.; Wang, Y.; Metcalfe, P.

    2017-01-01

    EBT3 film offers high spatial resolution and low energy dependence, making it a suitable choice for quality assurance where high dose gradients are present, such as the case for SBRT. This work presents a simple method to adjust scanner settings so that dose response becomes linear. This linearity eliminates the need to obtain a calibration curve and associated uncertainties in curve fitting. Relative dosimetry can be performed after dose normalization to a reference point. Linearity is also a more robust condition than calibration curve with respect to scanner warm-up conditions, resulting in reduced uncertainty in dose measurement. An in-house developed program reads the film scan and a 2D dose map then constructs both to virtual films using grayscale values. Film intensity value was normalized to dose at reference point. Relative dosimetry was performed by comparing the two resulting images. Patient specific quality assurance was conducted for two SBRT cases. In both plans more than 95% gamma function points passed the gamma criteria of 2%/3mm.

  13. Soft and wet actuator developed with responsible high-strength gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, S.; Hidema, R.; Furukawa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Novel high-strength gels, named double network gels (DN gels), show a smart response to altering external electric field. It was reported that a plate shape of the DN gel bends toward a positive electrode direction when a static (DC) electric field is applied. Based on this previous result, it has been tried to develop a novel soft and wet actuator, which will be used as an automatically bulging button for cellar phones, or similar small devices. First, a bending experiment of a hung plate-shape DN gel was done, and its electric field response was confirmed. Second, the response of a lying plate-shape DN gels was confirmed in order to check the bulging phenomena. The edge of three plate-shape gels that was arranged radially on a plane surface was lifted 2mm by applying DC 8V. This system is a first step to make a gels button. However the critical problem is that electrolysis occurs simultaneously under electric field. Then, the water sweep out from gels, and gels is shrinking; They cause the separation between aluminum foil working as electrode and gels. That is why, a flexible electrode should be made by gels completely attached to the gels. As a third step, a push button is tried to make by a shape memory gels (SMG). The Young's modulus of the SMG is dramatically changed by temperature. This change in the modulus is applied to control the input-acceptable state and input-not-acceptable states of the button. A novel push button is proposed as a trial, and its user-friendliness is checked by changing the size of the button. The button is deformed by pushing and is back to original shape due to the property of shape memory. We believe the mechanism of this button will be applied to develop new devices especially for visually impaired persons.

  14. Scaling the Non-linear Impact Response of Flat and Curved Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Feraboli, Paolo; Jackson, Wade C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of scaling laws to thin flat and curved composite panels exhibiting nonlinear response when subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Previous research has shown that the elastic impact response of structural configurations exhibiting geometrically linear response can be effectively scaled. In the present paper, a preliminary experimental study is presented to assess the applicability of the scaling laws to structural configurations exhibiting geometrically nonlinear deformations. The effect of damage on the scalability of the structural response characteristics, and the effect of scale on damage development are also investigated. Damage is evaluated using conventional methods including C-scan, specimen de-plying and visual inspection of the impacted panels. Coefficient of restitution and normalized contact duration are also used to assess the extent of damage. The results confirm the validity of the scaling parameters for elastic impacts. However, for the panels considered in the study, the extent and manifestation of damage do not scale according to the scaling laws. Furthermore, the results indicate that even though the damage does not scale, the overall panel response characteristics, as indicated by contact force profiles, do scale for some levels of damage.

  15. Multiple linear and principal component regressions for modelling ecotoxicity bioassay response.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana I; Pires, José C M; Figueiredo, Sónia A; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2014-01-01

    The ecotoxicological response of the living organisms in an aquatic system depends on the physical, chemical and bacteriological variables, as well as the interactions between them. An important challenge to scientists is to understand the interaction and behaviour of factors involved in a multidimensional process such as the ecotoxicological response. With this aim, multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression were applied to the ecotoxicity bioassay response of Chlorella vulgaris and Vibrio fischeri in water collected at seven sites of Leça river during five monitoring campaigns (February, May, June, August and September of 2006). The river water characterization included the analysis of 22 physicochemical and 3 microbiological parameters. The model that best fitted the data was MLR, which shows: (i) a negative correlation with dissolved organic carbon, zinc and manganese, and a positive one with turbidity and arsenic, regarding C. vulgaris toxic response; (ii) a negative correlation with conductivity and turbidity and a positive one with phosphorus, hardness, iron, mercury, arsenic and faecal coliforms, concerning V. fischeri toxic response. This integrated assessment may allow the evaluation of the effect of future pollution abatement measures over the water quality of Leça River.

  16. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  17. DNA microarray mediated transcriptional profiling of Nitrosomonas europaea in response to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Junpei; Inaba, Kazuho; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2008-05-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) constitute, quantitatively, the most important group of synthetic surfactants used today. We studied the gene expression of Nitrosomonas europaea in response to LAS using a DNA microarray because ammonia-oxidizers are thought to be more sensitive to LAS than other microorganisms. Our objective was to elucidate which genes are expressed for N. europaea in response to LAS exposure. Microarray analysis and real-time PCR assay revealed that c. 30 genes were significantly expressed after LAS exposure, in particular genes associated with energy production and conversion. Our findings demonstrate that physical disruption of membrane structures, which contain enzymes associated with energy production and conversion, might be an important explanation for the high sensitivity of N. europaea to LAS exposure.

  18. Non-linear modeling of the plasma response to RMPs in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, F.; Hölzl, M.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M.; Bécoulet, M.; Cahyna, P.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Morales, J.; Willensdorfer, M.; Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Pamela, S.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Strumberger, E.; Lessig, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    The plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in ASDEX Upgrade is modeled with the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, using input profiles that match those of the experiments as closely as possible. The RMP configuration for which edge localized modes are best mitigated in experiments is related to the largest edge kink response observed near the X-point in modeling. On the edge resonant surfaces q  =  m/n, the coupling between the kink component (m  >  nq) and the m resonant component is found to induce the amplification of the resonant magnetic perturbation. The ergodicity and the 3D-displacement near the X-point induced by the resonant amplification can only partly explain the density pumpout observed in experiments.

  19. Linear response of hydrodynamically-coupled particles under a nonequilibrium reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolcu, Cem; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    A recent experiment driving colloids electromagnetically, by Bérut et al 2014 Europhys. Lett. 107 60004, is an ideal paradigm for illustrating a linear response theory for nonequilibrium overdamped systems including hydrodynamic interactions and, unusually, a reservoir itself out of equilibrium. Indeed, in this setup one finds a nonequilibrium environment in which the mobility and diffusivity of free particles are not simply proportional to each other. We derive both the response to a mechanical forcing and to temperature variations in terms of correlations between an observable and a path-weight action. The time-antisymmetric component of the latter turns out not to be simply proportional to the heat flowing into the environment. These results are visualized with simulations resembling conditions and protocols easily realizable in the experiment, thereby tracing a path for experimental verifications of the theory.

  20. Non-linear intensification of Sahel rainfall as a possible dynamic response to future warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, Jacob; Levermann, Anders

    2017-07-01

    Projections of the response of Sahel rainfall to future global warming diverge significantly. Meanwhile, paleoclimatic records suggest that Sahel rainfall is capable of abrupt transitions in response to gradual forcing. Here we present climate modeling evidence for the possibility of an abrupt intensification of Sahel rainfall under future climate change. Analyzing 30 coupled global climate model simulations, we identify seven models where central Sahel rainfall increases by 40 to 300 % over the 21st century, owing to a northward expansion of the West African monsoon domain. Rainfall in these models is non-linearly related to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic and Mediterranean moisture source regions, intensifying abruptly beyond a certain SST warming level. We argue that this behavior is consistent with a self-amplifying dynamic-thermodynamical feedback, implying that the gradual increase in oceanic moisture availability under warming could trigger a sudden intensification of monsoon rainfall far inland of today's core monsoon region.

  1. Strength training-induced responses in older adults: attenuation of descending neural drive with age.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Runar; Lundestad, Raymond; Fimland, Marius Steiro; Mosti, Mats Peder; Wang, Eivind

    2015-06-01

    Although reductions in resting H-reflex responses and maximal firing frequency suggest that reduced efferent drive may limit muscle strength in elderly, there are currently no reports of V-wave measurements in elderly, reflecting the magnitude of efferent output to the muscle during maximal contraction. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether potential age-related neural deficiencies can be restored by resistance training. We assessed evoked reflex recordings in the triceps surae muscles during rest and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of force development (RFD), and muscle mass in seven elderly (74 ± 6 years) males before and after 8 weeks of heavy resistance training, contrasted by seven young (24 ± 4 years) male controls. At baseline, m. soleus (SOL) V/M ratio (0.124 ± 0.082 vs. 0.465 ± 0.197, p < 0.05) and H/M ratio (0.379 ± 0.044 vs. 0.486 ± 0.101 p = 0.07) were attenuated in elderly compared to young. Also, SOL H-reflex latency (33.29 ± 2.41 vs. 30.29 ± 0.67 ms, p < 0.05) was longer in elderly. The reduced neural drive was, despite similar leg muscle mass (10.7 ± 1.2 vs. 11.5 ± 1.4 kg), mirrored by lower MVC (158 ± 48 vs. 240 ± 54 Nm, p < 0.05) and RFD (294 ± 126 vs. 533 ± 123 Nm s(-1), p < 0.05) in elderly. In response to training SOL V/M ratio (0.184 ± 0.092, p < 0.05) increased in the elderly, yet only to a level ~40 % of the young. This was accompanied by increased MVC (190 ± 70 Nm, p < 0.05) and RFD (401 ± 147 Nm[Symbol: see text]s(-1), p < 0.05) to levels of ~80 % and ~75 % of the young. H/M ratio remained unchanged. These findings suggest that changes in supraspinal activation play a significant role in the age-related changes in muscle strength. Furthermore, this motor system impairment can to some extent be improved by heavy resistance training.

  2. Linear response approach to collective electronic excitations of solids and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhe; Gao, Shiwu

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a parallel computer program for the study of dynamic response of periodic systems. It computes the linear response of an interacting many-electron system from its ground-state electronic structures, which are obtained from ab initio band structure calculations in the plane-wave and pseudopotential scheme. As test examples, we applied this program to calculate the linear response of bulk aluminum and a beryllium monolayer. The excitation spectra show prominent plasmon resonances, which compare well with the available data and previous calculations. For surfaces or thin films, we found that removing periodicity perpendicular to the surface gives a more reliable description of the low-energy excitation spectra, especially in the long-wavelength limit. Program summaryProgram title: Dresponse Catalogue identifier: AECK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 836 088 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90/MPI Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Any Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 50 MB-2 GB per processor depending on system size Classification: 7.3 External routines: BLAS ( http://www.netlib.org/blas/), Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), MPI ( http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/mpi/), abinit (for ground-state calculations, http://www.abinit.org/) Nature of problem: The dynamic response of bulk and surface systems. It is usually dominated by collective electronic excitations (plasmons) at low-energy range. Solution method: The ground-state wavefunctions are obtained from ab initio density-functional calculation in the planewave and

  3. NDT response of spectral analysis of surface wave method to multi-layer thin high-strength concrete structures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young S

    2002-05-01

    This study presents the results of the non-destructive testing using spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) based on high-strength concrete materials. This SASW method was used to evaluate the compressive strength of single-layer high-strength concrete slabs through a correlation with the surface wave velocities. This paper also presents the relationship between the theoretical and experimental compact dispersion curves when the SASW test is applied to multi-layer thin high-strength concrete slab systems with a finite thickness. The test results show that the surface wave velocity profile obtained from the theoretical dispersion curve has lower values than the profile obtained from the experimental compact dispersion curve under the condition of a finite thickness due to different boundary conditions and reflections from the boundaries. Based on the measured response, an experimental study was conducted to examine if the dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh wave exist in the multi-layer high-strength concrete slab systems. This study can be utilized in examining structural elements of high-strength concrete structures and can also be applied in the integrity analysis of high-strength concrete structures with a finite thickness.

  4. Influence of Response Prepotency Strength, General Working Memory Resources, and Specific Working Memory Load on the Ability to Inhibit Predominant Responses: A Comparison of Young and Elderly Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean, Julien; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    One conception of inhibitory functioning suggests that the ability to successfully inhibit a predominant response depends mainly on the strength of that response, the general functioning of working memory processes, and the working memory demand of the task (Roberts, Hager, & Heron, 1994). The proposal that inhibition and functional working memory…

  5. Influence of Response Prepotency Strength, General Working Memory Resources, and Specific Working Memory Load on the Ability to Inhibit Predominant Responses: A Comparison of Young and Elderly Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean, Julien; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    One conception of inhibitory functioning suggests that the ability to successfully inhibit a predominant response depends mainly on the strength of that response, the general functioning of working memory processes, and the working memory demand of the task (Roberts, Hager, & Heron, 1994). The proposal that inhibition and functional working memory…

  6. General linear response formula for non integrable systems obeying the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patelli, Aurelio; Ruffo, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Long-range interacting N-particle systems get trapped into long-living out-of-equilibrium stationary states called quasi-stationary states (QSS). We study here the response to a small external perturbation when such systems are settled into a QSS. In the N → ∞ limit the system is described by the Vlasov equation and QSS are mapped into stable stationary solutions of such equation. We consider this problem in the context of a model that has recently attracted considerable attention, the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model. For such a model, stationary inhomogeneous and homogeneous states determine an integrable dynamics in the mean-field effective potential and an action-angle transformation allows one to derive an exact linear response formula. However, such a result would be of limited interest if restricted to the integrable case. In this paper, we show how to derive a general linear response formula which does not use integrability as a requirement. The presence of conservation laws (mass, energy, momentum, etc.) and of further Casimir invariants can be imposed a posteriori. We perform an analysis of the infinite time asymptotics of the response formula for a specific observable, the magnetization in the HMF model, as a result of the application of an external magnetic field, for two stationary stable distributions: the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium distribution and the Fermi-Dirac one. When compared with numerical simulations the predictions of the theory are very good away from the transition energy from inhomogeneous to homogeneous states. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  7. A computer tool for a minimax criterion in binary response and heteroscedastic simple linear regression models.

    PubMed

    Casero-Alonso, V; López-Fidalgo, J; Torsney, B

    2017-01-01

    Binary response models are used in many real applications. For these models the Fisher information matrix (FIM) is proportional to the FIM of a weighted simple linear regression model. The same is also true when the weight function has a finite integral. Thus, optimal designs for one binary model are also optimal for the corresponding weighted linear regression model. The main objective of this paper is to provide a tool for the construction of MV-optimal designs, minimizing the maximum of the variances of the estimates, for a general design space. MV-optimality is a potentially difficult criterion because of its nondifferentiability at equal variance designs. A methodology for obtaining MV-optimal designs where the design space is a compact interval [a, b] will be given for several standard weight functions. The methodology will allow us to build a user-friendly computer tool based on Mathematica to compute MV-optimal designs. Some illustrative examples will show a representation of MV-optimal designs in the Euclidean plane, taking a and b as the axes. The applet will be explained using two relevant models. In the first one the case of a weighted linear regression model is considered, where the weight function is directly chosen from a typical family. In the second example a binary response model is assumed, where the probability of the outcome is given by a typical probability distribution. Practitioners can use the provided applet to identify the solution and to know the exact support points and design weights. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin of the linearity no threshold (LNT) dose-response concept.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2013-09-01

    This paper identifies the origin of the linearity at low-dose concept [i.e., linear no threshold (LNT)] for ionizing radiation-induced mutation. After the discovery of X-ray-induced mutations, Olson and Lewis (Nature 121(3052):673-674, 1928) proposed that cosmic/terrestrial radiation-induced mutations provide the principal mechanism for the induction of heritable traits, providing the driving force for evolution. For this concept to be general, a LNT dose relationship was assumed, with genetic damage proportional to the energy absorbed. Subsequent studies suggested a linear dose response for ionizing radiation-induced mutations (Hanson and Heys in Am Nat 63(686):201-213, 1929; Oliver in Science 71:44-46, 1930), supporting the evolutionary hypothesis. Based on an evaluation of spontaneous and ionizing radiation-induced mutation with Drosophila, Muller argued that background radiation had a negligible impact on spontaneous mutation, discrediting the ionizing radiation-based evolutionary hypothesis. Nonetheless, an expanded set of mutation dose-response observations provided a basis for collaboration between theoretical physicists (Max Delbruck and Gunter Zimmer) and the radiation geneticist Nicolai Timoféeff-Ressovsky. They developed interrelated physical science-based genetics perspectives including a biophysical model of the gene, a radiation-induced gene mutation target theory and the single-hit hypothesis of radiation-induced mutation, which, when integrated, provided the theoretical mechanism and mathematical basis for the LNT model. The LNT concept became accepted by radiation geneticists and recommended by national/international advisory committees for risk assessment of ionizing radiation-induced mutational damage/cancer from the mid-1950s to the present. The LNT concept was later generalized to chemical carcinogen risk assessment and used by public health and regulatory agencies worldwide.

  9. Lead-lag relationships between stock and market risk within linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysov, Stanislav; Balatsky, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risks (standard deviation of daily stock returns) and market risk (standard deviation of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio) in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over stocks, using historical stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. The observed historical dynamics suggests that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when individual stock risks affect market risk and vice versa. This work was supported by VR 621-2012-2983.

  10. Exact linear response of reacting thermal defects driven by creation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, C. P.

    2007-04-01

    The exact, linear response at steady state is calculated for reacting, but otherwise noninteracting, thermal defects driven by defect creation processes. The theory applies to vacancies and interstitials in the bulk, or to adatoms and advacancies on surface terraces. A wide variety of possible driving forces includes nuclear reaction, particle irradiation, epitaxial growth, surface erosion, and sublimation. When the defect life cycle typically starts and ends with spontaneous pair creation and annihilation, both species respond to the difference of their separate driving terms (the ''Poisson'' regime), and the law of mass action holds everywhere with a position dependent chemical potential {mu}*(r). The value of {mu}*(r) in linear response is employed here to discuss the conditions under which thermal defects precipitate, particularly as islands on terraces and dislocation loops in the bulk. It is shown, for the Poisson regime, that an approximate symmetry exists between processes for the two antidefects. Specifically, if {mu}{sub c}* suffices to nucleate a precipitate of one antidefect, then -{mu}{sub c}* is required to nucleate the other.

  11. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: Efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-01

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  12. Nonadiabatic coupling vectors within linear response time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernelli, Ivano; Tapavicza, Enrico; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2009-03-01

    A method is developed to compute the nonadiabatic coupling vectors (NACVs) between electronic ground and excited states as well as between any possible pair of excited states within the framework of linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in the adiabatic approximation. The development is an extension to our previous work on surface hopping dynamics [E. Tapavicza et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023001 (2007)] for which we improve the description of the TDDFT approximation of the excited state wavefunctions by means of linear response orbitals. The method is first validated on the H +H2 system that has a region of strong coupling near the conical intersection at the equilateral geometry. These results confirm the quality and the numerical efficiency of the approach, which has an accuracy comparable to the one achieved with wavefunction-based methods. Finally, we apply the method to the calculation of the NACVs of protonated formaldimine (NH2CH2+) along a surface hopping trajectory initiated in the second excited state.

  13. Linear response, fluctuation-dissipation, and finite-system-size effects in superdiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-07-01

    Lévy walks (LWs) are a popular stochastic tool to model anomalous diffusion and have recently been used to describe a variety of phenomena. We study the linear response behavior of this generic model of superdiffusive LWs in finite systems to an external force field under both stationary and nonstationary conditions. These finite-size LWs are based on power-law waiting time distributions with a finite-time regularization at τc, such that the physical requirements are met to apply linear response theory and derive the power spectrum with the correct short frequency limit, without the introduction of artificial cutoffs. We obtain the generalized Einstein relation for both ensemble and time averages over the entire process time and determine the turnover to normal Brownian motion when the full system is explored. In particular, we obtain an exact expression for the long time diffusion constant as a function of the scaling exponent of the waiting time density and the characteristic time scale τc.

  14. Recent developments in time-dependent density-functional theory within and beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, E. K. U.

    2013-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a popular and rather successful method in the description of photo-absorption spectra of atoms and molecules in the linear response regime. In extended solids, however, a satisfactory description of excitonic effects has become possible only recently with the advent of advanced approximations for the exchange-correlation kernel fxc. One of these advanced approximations is the so-called bootstrap kernel [S. Sharma et al, PRL 107, 186401 (2011)]. We shall explore the performance of this kernel in the long-wavelength limit and for finite values of q, looking at electron-loss as well as photo-absorption spectra. We find, in particular, that excitonic effects in LiF and Ar are enhanced for values of q away from the Γ-point [S. Sharma et al, New J Phys 14, 053052 (2012)]. Then we present two recent developments in TDDFT beyond the linear-response regime: (i) By using a geometrical partitioning, we calculate the angle and energy resolved photo-electron spectra of finite systems including multi-photon effects [De Giovannini, et al, A. Rubio, PRA 86, 062515 (2012)]. (ii) Finally we show how the dynamics of many-electron systems can be controlled with lasers by marrying TDDFT with optimal control theory [A. Castro et al, PRL 109, 153603 (2012)].

  15. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method: Applications to solids, surfaces, and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens. J.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2011-06-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single-particle eigenstates can be expanded on a real space grid or in atomic-orbital basis for increased efficiency. The exchange-correlation kernel is treated at the level of the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) and crystal local field effects are included. The calculated static and dynamical dielectric functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001) surface with plasmon energies deviating by less than 0.2 eV. Finally, the method is applied to study the influence of substrates on the plasmon excitations in graphene.

  16. Functional imaging of kinetic parameters from the time dependent linear response function by dynamic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Stritzke, P.; Knop, J.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Schneider, C.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the locally differing time dependent linear response function h(r,t) of a radioactive tracer injected into a patients blood pool B(t) by mathematical analysis of a dynamic scintigraphic study A(r,t). Transit times, uptake rates and clearance rates of different tracers are calculated from the linear response function at every matrix point by one computer program. The parameters are presented in functional images on a standard computer display. Thus the whole information from a dynamic study can be condensed within a few images. The integral equation A=h+B +c(r)*B (+ means convolution, c(r)*B(t)=nontarget activity) derived from tracer theory is deconvoluted by mathematical methods, which are unsensitive against noise contamination of the input data. The numerical technique is successfully applied in Iodide-123-Hippuran and Tc-99m-DMSA kidney studies, in Tc-99m-MDP and -DPD bone studies, in Tl-201 myocardial studies and in Iodide-123 thyroid studies. Because the regional blood pool-or nontarget activity is calculated and subtracted, the kinetic parameters are considered to be free from nontarget contributions in all dynamic scintigraphic studies. Examples are demonstrated and the usefulness for clinical application is discussed.

  17. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-14

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  18. Practical methods for dealing with 'not applicable' item responses in the AMC Linear Disability Score project

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Rebecca; Glas, Cees AW; Lindeboom, Robert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; de Haan, Rob J

    2004-01-01

    Background Whenever questionnaires are used to collect data on constructs, such as functional status or health related quality of life, it is unlikely that all respondents will respond to all items. This paper examines ways of dealing with responses in a 'not applicable' category to items included in the AMC Linear Disability Score (ALDS) project item bank. Methods The data examined in this paper come from the responses of 392 respondents to 32 items and form part of the calibration sample for the ALDS item bank. The data are analysed using the one-parameter logistic item response theory model. The four practical strategies for dealing with this type of response are: cold deck imputation; hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. Results The item and respondent population parameter estimates were very similar for the strategies involving hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. The estimates obtained using the cold deck imputation method were substantially different. Conclusions The cold deck imputation method was not considered suitable for use in the ALDS item bank. The other three methods described can be usefully implemented in the ALDS item bank, depending on the purpose of the data analysis to be carried out. These three methods may be useful for other data sets examining similar constructs, when item response theory based methods are used. PMID:15200681

  19. Linear, Star, and Comb Oxidation-Responsive Polymers: Effect of Branching Degree and Topology on Aggregation and Responsiveness.

    PubMed

    d'Arcy, Richard; Gennari, Arianna; Donno, Roberto; Tirelli, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    Families of amphiphilic oxidation-responsive polymers (poly(ethylene glycol)-polysulfides) with different architectures (linear, 4, 6, and 8-armed stars and 10, 15, and 20-armed combs) and compositions (variable ethylene sulfide/propylene sulfide ratio) are prepared. In water, all the polymers assemble in spherical micelles, with critical micellar concentrations <0.01 mg mL(-1) for all the branched polymers. Triple-detection gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) with dynamic and static light scattering detection, respectively, show an increasing compaction of the polymeric coil and a strong reduction of the aggregation number with increasing degree of branching. The key finding of this study is that the kinetics of the oxidative response sharply depend on the branching; in particular, it is highlighted that the degree of branching influences the lag time before a response can be observed rather than the speed of the response itself, a phenomenon that is attributed to a branching-dependent solubility of the oxidant in the polysulfide matrix.

  20. Pupil Dilation Co-Varies with Memory Strength of Individual Traces in a Delayed Response Paired-Associate Task

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Hedderik; Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Borst, Jelmer P.; Sprenger, Simone A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on cognitive effort have shown that pupil dilation is a reliable indicator of memory load. However, it is conceivable that there are other sources of effort involved in memory that also affect pupil dilation. One of these is the ease with which an item can be retrieved from memory. Here, we present the results of an experiment in which we studied the way in which pupil dilation acts as an online marker for memory processing during the retrieval of paired associates while reducing confounds associated with motor responses. Paired associates were categorized into sets containing either 4 or 7 items. After learning the paired associates once, pupil dilation was measured during the presentation of the retrieval cue during four repetitions of each set. Memory strength was operationalized as the number of repetitions (frequency) and set-size, since having more items per set results in a lower average recency. Dilation decreased with increased memory strength, supporting the hypothesis that the amplitude of the evoked pupillary response correlates positively with retrieval effort. Thus, while many studies have shown that “memory load” influences pupil dilation, our results indicate that the task-evoked pupillary response is also sensitive to the experimentally manipulated memory strength of individual items. As these effects were observed well before the response had been given, this study also suggests that pupil dilation can be used to assess an item’s memory strength without requiring an overt response. PMID:23227244

  1. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    adverse response to exercise. Our research demonstrates that 3000 mg·d-1 omega-3 fatty acid supplementation minimizes the severe, delayed-onset muscle soreness that results from strenuous eccentric strength exercise. This information, along with a plethora of information showing that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has other health benefits, demonstrates that a readily available over the counter nutritional supplement (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids) reduces delayed-onset soreness caused by strenuous strength exercise. This information has obvious relevance to athletic populations but also to other groups such as physical therapy patients and newly admitted cardiac rehabilitation patients, as muscle soreness, if left unchecked, can slow the progress in adapting to a new exercise program. Furthermore, as inflammation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis if numerous diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, it is likely prudent for individuals to use inflammation-attenuating interventions, such as omega-3 supplementation, to keep inflammatory responses to physical activity at a minimum. PMID:24150614

  2. Neuromuscular response differences to power vs strength back squat exercise in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Brandon, R; Howatson, G; Strachan, F; Hunter, A M

    2015-10-01

    The study's aim was to establish the neuromuscular responses in elite athletes during and following maximal 'explosive' regular back squat exercise at heavy, moderate, and light loads. Ten elite track and field athletes completed 10 sets of five maximal squat repetitions on three separate days. Knee extension maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), rate of force development (RFD) and evoked peak twitch force (Pt) assessments were made pre- and post-session. Surface electromyography [root mean square (RMS)] and mechanical measurements were recorded during repetitions. The heavy session resulted in the greatest repetition impulse in comparison to moderate and light sessions (P < 0.001), while the latter showed highest repetition power (P < 0.001). MIVC, RFD, and Pt were significantly reduced post-session (P < 0.01), with greatest reduction observed after the heavy, followed by the moderate and light sessions accordingly. Power significantly reduced during the heavy session only (P < 0.001), and greater increases in RMS occurred during heavy session (P < 0.001), followed by moderate, with no change during light session. In conclusion, this study has shown in elite athletes that the moderate load is optimal for providing a neuromuscular stimulus but with limited fatigue. This type of intervention could be potentially used in the development of both strength and power in elite athletic populations.

  3. Differential viability response of prokaryotes and eukaryotes to high strength pulsed magnetic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boda, Sunil Kumar; Ravikumar, K; Saini, Deepak K; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-12-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a high strength pulsed magnetic field (PMF) towards bacterial inactivation in vitro, without compromising eukaryotic cell viability. The differential response of prokaryotes [Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli], and eukaryotes [C2C12 mouse myoblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells, hMSCs] upon exposure to varying PMF stimuli (1-4 T, 30 pulses, 40 ms pulse duration) is investigated. Among the prokaryotes, ~60% and ~70% reduction was recorded in the survival of staphylococcal species and E. coli, respectively at 4 T PMF as evaluated by colony forming unit (CFU) analysis and flow cytometry. A 2-5 fold increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels suggests oxidative stress as the key mediator in PMF induced bacterial death/injury. The 4 T PMF treated staphylococci also exhibited longer doubling times. Both TEM and fluorescence microscopy revealed compromised membranes of PMF exposed bacteria. Under similar PMF exposure conditions, no immediate cytotoxicity was recorded in C2C12 mouse myoblasts and hMSCs, which can be attributed to the robust resistance towards oxidative stress. The ion interference of iron containing bacterial proteins is invoked to analytically explain the PMF induced ROS accumulation in prokaryotes. Overall, this study establishes the potential of PMF as a bactericidal method without affecting eukaryotic viability. This non-invasive stimulation protocol coupled with antimicrobial agents can be integrated as a potential methodology for the localized treatment of prosthetic infections.

  4. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  5. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  6. Fully relativistic description of spin-orbit torques by means of linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, S.; Chadova, K.; Seemann, M.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.

    2016-08-01

    Symmetry and magnitude of spin-orbit torques (SOT), i.e., current-induced torques on the magnetization of systems lacking inversion symmetry, are investigated in a fully relativistic linear response framework based on the Kubo formalism. By applying all space-time symmetry operations contained in the magnetic point group of a solid to the relevant response coefficient, the torkance expressed as torque-current correlation function, restrictions to the shape of the direct and inverse response tensors are obtained. These are shown to apply to the corresponding thermal analogs as well, namely the direct and inverse thermal SOT in response to a temperature gradient or heat current. Using an implementation of the Kubo-Bastin formula for the torkance into a first-principles multiple-scattering Green function framework and accounting for disorder effects via the so-called coherent potential approximation, all contributions to the SOT in pure systems, dilute as well as concentrated alloys can be treated on equal footing. This way, material specific values for all torkance tensor elements in the fcc (111) trilayer alloy system Pt| FexCo1 -x|Cu are obtained over a wide concentration range and discussed in comparison to results for electrical and spin conductivity, as well as to previous work—in particular concerning symmetry with respect to magnetization reversal and the nature of the various contributions.

  7. Exchange Energy Density Functionals that reproduce the Linear Response Function of the Free Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aldea, David; Alvarellos, J. E.

    2009-03-01

    We present several nonlocal exchange energy density functionals that reproduce the linear response function of the free electron gas. These nonlocal functionals are constructed following a similar procedure used previously for nonlocal kinetic energy density functionals by Chac'on-Alvarellos-Tarazona, Garc'ia-Gonz'alez et al., Wang-Govind-Carter and Garc'ia-Aldea-Alvarellos. The exchange response function is not known but we have used the approximate response function developed by Utsumi and Ichimaru, even we must remark that the same ansatz can be used to reproduce any other response function with the same scaling properties. We have developed two families of new nonlocal functionals: one is constructed with a mathematical structure based on the LDA approximation -- the Dirac functional for the exchange - and for the second one the structure of the second order gradient expansion approximation is took as a model. The functionals are constructed is such a way that they can be used in localized systems (using real space calculations) and in extended systems (using the momentum space, and achieving a quasilinear scaling with the system size if a constant reference electron density is defined).

  8. Bones' Adaptive Response to Mechanical Loading Is Essentially Linear Between the Low Strains Associated With Disuse and the High Strains Associated With the Lamellar/Woven Bone Transition

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Meakin, Lee B; Browne, William J; Galea, Gabriel L; Price, Joanna S; Lanyon, Lance E

    2012-01-01

    There is a widely held view that the relationship between mechanical loading history and adult bone mass/strength includes an adapted state or “lazy zone” where the bone mass/strength remains constant over a wide range of strain magnitudes. Evidence to support this theory is circumstantial. We investigated the possibility that the “lazy zone” is an artifact and that, across the range of normal strain experience, features of bone architecture associated with strength are linearly related in size to their strain experience. Skeletally mature female C57BL/6 mice were right sciatic neurectomized to minimize natural loading in their right tibiae. From the fifth day, these tibiae were subjected to a single period of external axial loading (40, 10-second rest interrupted cycles) on alternate days for 2 weeks, with a peak dynamic load magnitude ranging from 0 to 14 N (peak strain magnitude: 0–5000 µε) and a constant loading rate of 500 N/s (maximum strain rate: 75,000 µε/s). The left tibiae were used as internal controls. Multilevel regression analyses suggest no evidence of any discontinuity in the progression of the relationships between peak dynamic load and three-dimensional measures of bone mass/strength in both cortical and cancellous regions. These are essentially linear between the low-peak locomotor strains associated with disuse (∼300 µε) and the high-peak strains derived from artificial loading and associated with the lamellar/woven bone transition (∼5000 µε). The strain:response relationship and minimum effective strain are site-specific, probably related to differences in the mismatch in strain distribution between normal and artificial loading at the locations investigated. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:22431329

  9. Bones' adaptive response to mechanical loading is essentially linear between the low strains associated with disuse and the high strains associated with the lamellar/woven bone transition.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Meakin, Lee B; Browne, William J; Galea, Gabriel L; Price, Joanna S; Lanyon, Lance E

    2012-08-01

    There is a widely held view that the relationship between mechanical loading history and adult bone mass/strength includes an adapted state or "lazy zone" where the bone mass/strength remains constant over a wide range of strain magnitudes. Evidence to support this theory is circumstantial. We investigated the possibility that the "lazy zone" is an artifact and that, across the range of normal strain experience, features of bone architecture associated with strength are linearly related in size to their strain experience. Skeletally mature female C57BL/6 mice were right sciatic neurectomized to minimize natural loading in their right tibiae. From the fifth day, these tibiae were subjected to a single period of external axial loading (40, 10-second rest interrupted cycles) on alternate days for 2 weeks, with a peak dynamic load magnitude ranging from 0 to 14 N (peak strain magnitude: 0-5000 µε) and a constant loading rate of 500 N/s (maximum strain rate: 75,000 µε/s). The left tibiae were used as internal controls. Multilevel regression analyses suggest no evidence of any discontinuity in the progression of the relationships between peak dynamic load and three-dimensional measures of bone mass/strength in both cortical and cancellous regions. These are essentially linear between the low-peak locomotor strains associated with disuse (∼300 µε) and the high-peak strains derived from artificial loading and associated with the lamellar/woven bone transition (∼5000 µε). The strain:response relationship and minimum effective strain are site-specific, probably related to differences in the mismatch in strain distribution between normal and artificial loading at the locations investigated.

  10. Calibration of the linear response range of x-ray imaging plates and their reader based on image grayscale values.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kuan; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Jianhua; Dong, Jianjun; Wei, Minxi; Li, Chaoguang; Cao, Zhurong; Du, Huabing; Yan, Ji; Yang, Guohong; Yi, Rongqing; Zhang, Jiyan; Huang, Tianxuan; Liu, Shenye; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Li, Jin; Chen, Yaohua; Lan, Ke; Ren, Guoli; Liu, Jie; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen

    2017-08-01

    X-ray imaging plates are one of the most important X-ray imaging detectors and are widely used in inertial-confinement fusion experiments. However, their linear response range, which is the foundation of their quantitative data analysis, has not been sufficiently deeply investigated. In this work, we develop an X-ray fluorescer calibration system and carefully explore the linear response range of X-ray imaging plates. For the first time, nearly the entire grayscale range of the X-ray imaging plate linear response-7819-64 879 in the range of 0-65 535-has been observed. Further, we discuss the uncertainties involved in the calibration process. This work demonstrates the excellent linear response qualities of X-ray imaging plates and provides a significant foundation for expanding their quantitative applied range.

  11. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D.

    PubMed

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2015-05-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals' budget set created by the famous "donut hole," where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from "filling" the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that "filling" the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects "anticipatory" behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows - in a highly stylized way - for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year.

  12. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals’ budget set created by the famous “donut hole,” where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from “filling” the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that “filling” the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects “anticipatory” behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows – in a highly stylized way – for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year. PMID:26769984

  13. MCP PMT with high time response and linear output current for neutron time-of-flight detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolotov, A. S.; Konovalov, P. I.; Nurtdinov, R. I.

    2016-09-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a subnanosecond time response and a high linear output current has been developed. PMT is designed for detection of weak pulses of radiation in UV-, visible and nearer-IR ranges and can be used in neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors in experiments on laser compression of thermonuclear fuel. The results of measurements of MCP PMT main parameters are presented: photocathode spectral sensitivity, gain, maximum linear output current, and time response.

  14. Responsiveness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a Sample of High-Risk Youth in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Chmelka, Mary B.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quality assessment of children's functioning is critical for both research and service delivery. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief, publicly-available instrument that provides such assessment. Although the SDQ has strong psychometric properties, less is known about its responsiveness or sensitivity to…

  15. Effect of microstructure on the fracture response of advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark David

    The effect of constituent hardness on formability performance for higher-strength dual phase (DP) steels was evaluated. A commercially-produced DP steel with 1080 MPa ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was processed to create eight additional constituent hardness conditions by tempering and cold-rolling, processes that primarily affected constituent hardness properties. Using nanoindentation, ferrite and martensite hardness values for the nine conditions of the DP steel (as-received, four as-tempered, four temper cold-rolled) provided a range of hardness values to evaluate formability performance. Formability performance for the nine steel conditions was evaluated using tensile and hole expansion testing. A decrease in martensite/ferrite hardness ratio corresponded to an increase in hole expansion ratio (HER), and an increase in yield strength (YS). A lower hardness ratio (increased similarity of ferrite and martensite hardness) was interpreted to increase strain-sharing between ferrite and martensite, which suppressed plastic strain localization to higher stresses for the case of YS, and to higher formability limits for the case of HER. A lower hardness ratio corresponded to a decrease in work-hardening, and was interpreted to be caused by the suppression of strain localization in ferrite. Multiple studies from literature correlated HER to tensile properties, and the nine steel conditions produced consistent trends with the data reported in each study, confirming the experimental HER and tensile properties obtained in the current study are consistent with literature. The microstructural response to plastic deformation was evaluated using two DP steels with equivalent UTS and different hardness ratios. Nanoindentation analyses on tensile specimens deformed to the UTS revealed a greater increase in ferrite hardness for the higher hardness ratio steel, interpreted to be caused by the greater amount of work hardening. EBSD crystallographic orientation maps for the two DP

  16. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  17. Invariance of evoked-potential echo-responses to target strength and distance in an echolocating false killer whale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supin, Alexander Ya.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Breese, Marlee

    2005-06-01

    Brain auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens trained to accept suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. AEP collection was triggered by echolocation pulses transmitted by the animal. The target strength varied from -22 to -40 dB the distance varied from 1.5 to 6 m. All the records contained two AEP sets: the first one of a constant latency (transmission-related AEP) and a second one with a delay proportional to the distance (echo-related AEP). The amplitude of echo-related AEPs was almost independent of both target strength and distance, though combined variation of these two parameters resulted in echo intensity variation within a range of 42 dB. The amplitude of transmission-related AEPs was independent of distance but dependent on target strength: the less the target strength, the higher the amplitude. Recording of transmitted pulses has not shown their intensity dependence on target strength. It is supposed that the constancy of echo-related AEP results from variation of hearing sensitivity depending on the target strength and release of echo-related responses from masking by transmitted pulses depending on the distance. .

  18. Invariance of evoked-potential echo-responses to target strength and distance in an echolocating false killer whale.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander Ya; Nachtigall, Paul E; Au, Whitlow W L; Breese, Marlee

    2005-06-01

    Brain auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens trained to accept suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. AEP collection was triggered by echolocation pulses transmitted by the animal. The target strength varied from -22 to -40 dB; the distance varied from 1.5 to 6 m. All the records contained two AEP sets: the first one of a constant latency (transmission-related AEP) and a second one with a delay proportional to the distance (echo-related AEP). The amplitude of echo-related AEPs was almost independent of both target strength and distance, though combined variation of these two parameters resulted in echo intensity variation within a range of 42 dB. The amplitude of transmission-related AEPs was independent of distance but dependent on target strength: the less the target strength, the higher the amplitude. Recording of transmitted pulses has not shown their intensity dependence on target strength. It is supposed that the constancy of echo-related AEP results from variation of hearing sensitivity depending on the target strength and release of echo-related responses from masking by transmitted pulses depending on the distance.

  19. Near-LTE linear response calculations with a collisional-radiative model for He-like Al ions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.; Kato, T.

    1998-04-06

    We investigate non-equilibrium atomic kinetics using a collisional- radiative model modified to include line absorption. Steady-state emission is calculated for He-like aluminum immersed in a specified radiation field having fixed deviations from a Planck spectrum. The calculated net emission is presented as a NLTE response matrix. In agreement with a rigorous general rule of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the linear response is symmetric. We compute the response matrix for 1% and {+-} 50% changes in the photon temperature and find linear response over a surprisingly large range.

  20. Reversible and repeatable linear local cell force response under large stretches

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Shengyuan; Saif, Taher . E-mail: saif@uiuc.edu

    2005-04-15

    Large stretching and un-stretching force response of adherent fibroblasts is measured by micromachined mechanical force sensors. The force sensors are composed of a probe and flexible beams. The probe, functionalized by fibronectin, is used to contact the cells. The flexible beams are the sensing element. The sensors are made of single crystal silicon and fabricated by the SCREAM process. The maximum cell stretch reached is {approx}50 {mu}m, which is about twice of the cell initial size, and the time delay between two consecutive stretching/un-stretching steps is 75 s unless otherwise stated. We find that the force response of the cells is strongly linear, reversible, and repeatable, with a small stiffening at the initial deformation stage. Force response of single cells measured before and after cytochalasin D treatment suggests that actin filaments take almost all the cell internal forces due to stretch. These findings may shed light on the increasing understanding on the mechanical behavior of cells and provide clues for making new classes of biological materials having uncommon properties.

  1. Cancer risk assessment: Optimizing human health through linear dose-response models.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Shamoun, Dima Yazji; Hanekamp, Jaap C

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes that generic cancer risk assessments be based on the integration of the Linear Non-Threshold (LNT) and hormetic dose-responses since optimal hormetic beneficial responses are estimated to occur at the dose associated with a 10(-4) risk level based on the use of a LNT model as applied to animal cancer studies. The adoption of the 10(-4) risk estimate provides a theoretical and practical integration of two competing risk assessment models whose predictions cannot be validated in human population studies or with standard chronic animal bioassay data. This model-integration reveals both substantial protection of the population from cancer effects (i.e. functional utility of the LNT model) while offering the possibility of significant reductions in cancer incidence should the hormetic dose-response model predictions be correct. The dose yielding the 10(-4) cancer risk therefore yields the optimized toxicologically based "regulatory sweet spot". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-Linear Dynamic Response of a Spur Gear Pair: Modelling and Experimental Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARKER, R. G.; VIJAYAKAR, S. M.; IMAJO, T.

    2000-10-01

    The dynamic response of a spur gear pair is investigated using a finite element/contact mechanics model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses. The gear pair is analyzed across a wide range of operating speeds and torques. Comparisons are made to other researchers' published experiments that reveal complex non-linear phenomena. The non-linearity source is contact loss of the meshing teeth, which, in contrast to the prevailing understanding, occurs even for large torques despite the use of high-precision gears. A primary feature of the modelling is that dynamic mesh forces are calculated using a detailed contact analysis at each time step as the gears roll through the mesh; there is no need to externally specify the excitation in the form of time-varying mesh stiffness, static transmission error input, or the like. A semi-analytical model near the tooth surface is matched to a finite element solution away from the tooth surface, and the computational efficiency that results permits dynamic analysis. Two-single-degree-of-freedom models are also studied. While one gives encouragingly good results, the other, which appears to have better mesh stiffness modelling, gives poor comparisons with experiments. The results indicate the sensitivity of such models to the Fourier spectrum of the changing mesh stiffness.

  3. Non-linear response of infinite periodic solids to homogenous electric fields and collective atomic displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosez, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    The non-linear response of infinite periodic solids to homogenous electric fields and cooperative atomic displacements will be discussed in the framework of density functional perturbation theory. The approach is based on the “2n + 1” theorem applied to an electric field dependent energy functional. We will focus on the non-linear optical susceptibilities, Raman scattering efficiencies and electrooptic coefficients. Different formulations of third-order energy derivatives will be examined and their convergence with respect to the k-point sampling will be discussed. The method will be applied to conventional semiconductors and to ferroelectric oxides. In the latter case, we will also describe how the first- principles results can be combined to an effective Hamiltonian approach in order to provide access to the temperature dependence of the optical properties. This work was done in collabration with M. Veithen and X. Gonze and was supported by the VolkwagenStiftung, FNRS-Belgium and the FAME-NoE.

  4. The influence of the density ratio on the linear frequency response of low-density jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, Wilfried; Sevilla, Alejandro; Lesshafft, Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Low-density jets support global self-sustained oscillations when the jet-to-ambient density ratio is sufficiently small, a phenomenon that has been linked to the presence of a region of local absolute instability in the underlying parallel base flow. However, the use of local stability analysis requires introducing ad-hoc criteria to match the experimental observations (see). In this work we therefore use a global approach, where the wavepacket structures are temporal eigenmodes of the linearized equations of motion in a 2D domain. The resulting eigenvalue spectra show that, when the density ratio is decreased, a discrete eigenmode becomes increasingly dominant, eventually reaching a positive growth rate for a certain critical density ratio. For the particular case of a He/air jet, this critical density ratio, as well as the corresponding oscillation frequency, is in good quantitative agreement with the experiments of. The influence of the density ratio on the linear frequency response of the jet under globally stable conditions is also investigated. Supported by Spanish MINECO under project DPI 2011-28356-C03-02.

  5. Thermal equation of state of bcc and hcp Fe: linear response quasi-harmonic lattice dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Xianwei

    2005-03-01

    Linear-response Linear-Muffin-Tin-Orbital calculations have been performed to understand and predict the thermal equation of state, elasticity, and phase stability of bcc and hcp Fe, for input into dynamic shock finite-element simulations. The phonon dispersion and phonon density of states have been calculated at different volumes and various c/a axial ratios for hcp structures, which show good agreements with available experimental data. The thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity at different pressure have been calculated. Free energy functional for bcc and hcp Fe has been derived, and has been further applied to establish the thermal equation of state, bulk modulus K0, dK0/dT, and thermal expansion coefficients under high pressures and temperatures. A detailed comparison with experiment has been made. For hcp Fe, the variations of c/a ratios with temperatures and pressures have been predicted. The influence of anharmonic effects has been examined using tight-binding calculations. This work was supported by US Department of Energy ASCI/ASAP subcontract to Caltech , Grant DOE W-7405-ENG-48 (to REC).

  6. Indoor calibration of Sky Quality Meters: Linearity, spectral responsivity and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravettoni, M.; Strepparava, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Klett, S.; Andretta, M.; Steiger, M.

    2016-09-01

    The indoor calibration of brightness sensors requires extremely low values of irradiance in the most accurate and reproducible way. In this work the testing equipment of an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for electrical testing, qualification and type approval of solar photovoltaic modules was modified in order to test the linearity of the instruments from few mW/cm2 down to fractions of nW/cm2, corresponding to levels of simulated brightness from 6 to 19 mag/arcsec2. Sixteen Sky Quality Meter (SQM) produced by Unihedron, a Canadian manufacturer, were tested, also assessing the impact of the ageing of their protective glasses on the calibration coefficients and the drift of the instruments. The instruments are in operation on measurement points and observatories at different sites and altitudes in Southern Switzerland, within the framework of OASI, the Environmental Observatory of Southern Switzerland. The authors present the results of the calibration campaign: linearity; brightness calibration, with and without protective glasses; transmittance measurement of the glasses; and spectral responsivity of the devices. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also provided, according to the ISO 17025 standard.

  7. Linear frequency response analysis of a high subsonic and a supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Oliver; Colonius, Tim; Brès, Guillaume

    2016-11-01

    A linear frequency response, or resolvent analysis of two turbulent jet mean flows is conducted. The mean flows are obtained from two high-fidelity large eddy simulations of a Mach 0.9 and a Mach 1.5 turbulent jet at Reynolds numbers of 1 ×106 and 3 ×105 , respectively. For both cases, curves of the optimal and sub-optimal output gains are calculated as a function of frequency for different azimuthal wavenumbers. The gain curves bring to light pseudo-resonances associated with different linear instability mechanisms. The same mechanisms are recovered in global stability analyses, and the results are compared. In the case of the Mach 0.9 jet, the resolvent analysis allows for a detailed study of trapped acoustic modes inside the potential core that were subject to previous stability studies. The structure of the resolvent and global modes are compared to POD mode estimates of the LES data. Additionally, the projection of the LES data onto the modes allows for quantitative assessment of how well the modal structures represent the coherent structures in the jet.

  8. Tests of the linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship for high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-05-01

    It is pointed out that induction of lung cancer by exposure to Rn daughters, applied at high doses to miners and at low doses to exposures in homes, provides a very stringent and sensitive test of the linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship for high-LET radiation, because this relationship predicts that a substantial fraction of lung cancer among non-smokers is due to average Rn levels. Therefore, it predicts an easily observable elevation of lung cancer rates in areas where Rn levels are many times greater than the average, especially at times before cigarette smoking began to have important effects on lung cancer statistics. While more data are needed (and will be forthcoming), some of the early indications of these studies are reviewed here. Several cases are now known where average Rn levels are very high, and in all of these cases lung cancer rates are well below average. Methods for analyzing these data are discussed, and it is concluded that, based on current evidence, they indicate at least a factor of 4 disagreement with linear, no-threshold predictions.

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response in Silver Nanoclusters: Insight from a Computational Investigation.

    PubMed

    Day, Paul N; Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A; Bigioni, Terry P

    2016-02-04

    We report a density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) investigation of the thiolated silver nanoclusters [Ag44(SR)30](4-), Ag14(SR)12(PR'3)8, Ag31(SG)19, Ag32(SG)19, and Ag15(SG)11, which were synthesized and for which one-photon absorption (OPA) characterization is available. Our computational investigation based on careful examination of the exchange-correlation functional used in DFT geometry optimization and for the linear optical properties predictions by TDDFT, demonstrated good agreement with the measured linear absorption spectra, however dependent on the applied functional. Following the benchmarking, we evaluated the two-photon absorption (TPA) response using TDDFT, noting that accurate prediction of OPA is important for suppositions on the spectral range for TPA enhancement because of the sensitivity to the excitation energies. Although the TPA cross-section results are complicated by resonance effects and quantifying TPA cross sections for these systems is difficult, our results indicate that the nanoclusters Ag15 and Ag31/32 are likely to have large TPA cross sections. The spherical symmetry of the Ag44 and Ag14 nanoclusters leads to applicability of superatom theory, while it is not as useful for the more oblate geometries of the Ag15 and Ag31/32 systems.

  10. Reflections on the nature of non-linear responses of the climate to forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditlevsen, Peter

    2017-04-01

    On centennial to multi-millennial time scales the paleoclimatic record shows that climate responds in a very non-linear way to the external forcing. Perhaps most puzzling is the change in glacial period duration at the Middle Pleistocene Transition. From a dynamical systems perspective, this could be a change in frequency locking between the orbital forcing and the climatic response or it could be a non-linear resonance phenomenon. In both cases the climate system shows a non-trivial oscillatory behaviour. From the records it seems that this behaviour can be described by an effective dynamics on a low-dimensional slow manifold. These different possible dynamical behaviours will be discussed. References: Arianna Marchionne, Peter Ditlevsen, and Sebastian Wieczorek, "Three types of nonlinear resonances", arXiv:1605.00858 Peter Ashwin and Peter Ditlevsen, "The middle Pleistocene transition as a generic bifurcation on a slow manifold", Climate Dynamics, 45, 2683, 2015. Peter D. Ditlevsen, "The bifurcation structure and noise assisted transitions in the Pleistocene glacial cycles", Paleoceanography, 24, PA3204, 2009

  11. Vigorimeter grip strength in CIDP: a responsive tool that rapidly measures the effect of IVIG--the ICE study.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, E K; Latov, N; Deng, C; Hanna, K; Hughes, R A C; Bril, V; Dalakas, M C; Donofrio, P; van Doorn, P A; Hartung, H-P; Merkies, I S J

    2013-05-01

    In a recent trial in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), the ICE study, grip strength measurement captured significantly more improvement in patients receiving immune globulin (IGIV-C) intravenously than in those receiving placebo. We conducted a systematic analysis to determine the sensitivity of grip strength as an indicator of meaningful clinical changes in CIDP. A randomized double-blind trial was undertaken in 117 CIDP patients who received IGIV-C or placebo every 3 weeks for up to 24 weeks. Grip strength and inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) disability scores were assessed at each visit, and the responsiveness of each scale was compared. A minimum clinically important difference cut-off value for grip strength (>8 kPa) and INCAT score (>1 point) was applied to assess the proportion of responders to IGIV-C versus placebo. This analysis showed that grip strength demonstrated significant improvement earlier (as early as day 16) than the INCAT disability scale in patients receiving IGIV-C compared with placebo. A significantly higher proportion of improvers were seen in the IGIV-C group (37.5%-50.9%) than in the placebo group (21.1%-25.9%) for grip strength at day 16, week 3, week 6 and the end of the first period. Also, grip strength showed within the first 6 weeks in the placebo group significantly more patients with a clinically meaningful deterioration (>8 kPa), compared with the INCAT (>1-point deterioration) findings. Grip strength can be considered a sensitive tool for assessing clinically relevant changes in patients with CIDP. Its use in daily practice is suggested. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  12. Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Eniseler, Niyazi; Şahan, Çağatay; Vurgun, Hikmet; Mavi, Hasan Fehmi

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough studies that describe the isokinetic strength of professional soccer players at high angular velocities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in isokinetic strength of Turkish professional soccer players (n=14) over the course of a 24-week soccer season. The isokinetic strength of players who underwent usual soccer training and weekly competition throughout the soccer season was assessed by means of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer with the knee attachment. The peak torque of knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at angular velocities of 60°/s, 300°/s and 500°/s. Players were tested at the beginning and end of the competitive season. While the first- and second-test measurements did not show significant changes at 60°/s and 300°/s angular velocities, at the end of the training period, players’ knee strength changed significantly at 500°/s angular velocities. In addition, the H/Q ratio improved significantly for the dominant as well as non-dominant leg at 500°/s. Significant bilateral strength improvements for knee flexors were also observed at 500°/s. The findings of this study suggest that usual daily soccer training (technical, tactical, power, strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) and weekly competition might produce changes in knee strength at high angular velocities. PMID:23487507

  13. Length-dependent Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions beyond linear response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, we theoretically study characteristics of the nonlinear Seebeck effect in a single-molecule junction with chain-like bridge of an arbitrary length. We have employed tight-binding models to compute the electron transmission through the system. We concentrate on the analysis of dependences of thermovoltage Vth and differential thermopower S on the bridge length. It is shown that Vth becomes stronger and S grows as the bridge lengthens. We discuss the effects of the bridge coupling to the electrodes and of specific characteristics of terminal sites on the bridge on the length-dependent Vth and S, which appear when the system operates beyond the linear response regime.

  14. Linearly enhanced response of thermopower in cascaded array of dual-stripe single-metal thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Han, Danhong; Yang, Fan; Wang, Zhenhai; Pi, Yudan; Wang, Wei; Xu, Shengyong

    2017-05-01

    Based on the width dependence of thermopower, cascaded single-metal thermocouples were demonstrated in this report. The cascaded thermocouples were made from 100 nm thick Ni films with a 100 μm wide stripe and a 5 μm narrow stripe. The experiment results showed a linearly enhanced response of thermopower. The 64-cascaded thermocouple achieved an equivalent Seebeck coefficient of up to 55.69 μV/K, which is higher than that of a commercial type-K thermocouple (39.6 μV/K). The single-metal thermocouples were also fabricated on flexible substrates. With the simple fabrication process and remarkable temperature sensing ability, the cascaded single-metal thermocouples may find promising applications in temperature measurement of modern flexible electronic products and wearable devices.

  15. Ab initio calculation of the Gilbert damping parameter via the linear response formalism.

    PubMed

    Ebert, H; Mankovsky, S; Ködderitzsch, D; Kelly, P J

    2011-08-05

    A Kubo-Greenwood-like equation for the Gilbert damping parameter α is presented that is based on the linear response formalism. Its implementation using the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker band structure method in combination with coherent potential approximation alloy theory allows it to be applied to a wide range of situations. This is demonstrated with results obtained for the bcc alloy system Fe(1-x)Co(x) as well as for a series of alloys of Permalloy with 5d transition metals. To account for the thermal displacements of atoms as a scattering mechanism, an alloy-analogy model is introduced. The corresponding calculations for Ni correctly describe the rapid change of α when small amounts of substitutional Cu are introduced.

  16. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  17. Sensitive linear response of an electron-hole superfluid in a periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Lozovik, Yurii E.; Ziegler, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    We consider excitons in a two-dimensional periodic potential and study the linear response of the excitonic superfluid to an electromagnetic wave at low and high densities. It turns out that the static structure factor for small wavevectors is very sensitive to a change of density and temperature. It is a consequence of the fact that thermal fluctuations play a crucial role at small wavevectors, since exchanging the order of the two limits, zero temperature and vanishing wavevector, leads to different results for the structure factor. This effect could be used for high accuracy measurements in the superfluid exciton phase, which might be realized by a gated electron-hole gas, for instance, in coupled quantum wells or double layer materials. The transition of the exciton system from the superfluid state to a non-superfluid state and its manifestation by light scattering are discussed.

  18. Computation of molecular parity violation using the coupled-cluster linear response approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horný, Ľuboš; Quack, Martin

    2015-07-01

    In memoriam, Nicholas C. Handy. We report the implementation of a coupled-cluster linear response approach for the computation of molecular parity violation (in the framework of the PSI3 code, in particular). The approach is applied first to molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), hydrogen disulfide (HSSH) and dichlorinedioxide (ClOOCl), which have been studied previously. The importance of including correlation is demonstrated for these examples, also including selected variations of geometry providing parity violation as a function of torsional angles. For the substituted allenes, 1,3 difluoroallene (CHF=C=CHF), 1,fluoro,3 chloroallene (CHF=C=CHCl) and 1,3 dichloroallene (CHCl=C=CHCl), we find that in particular the last molecule may be a suitable candidate for the experimental study of molecular parity violation.

  19. Constraining the general linear model for sensible hemodynamic response function waveforms.

    PubMed

    Ciftçi, Koray; Sankur, Bülent; Kahya, Yasemin P; Akin, Ata

    2008-08-01

    We propose a method to do constrained parameter estimation and inference from neuroimaging data using general linear model (GLM). Constrained approach precludes unrealistic hemodynamic response function (HRF) estimates to appear at the outcome of the GLM analysis. The permissible ranges of waveform parameters were determined from the study of a repertoire of plausible waveforms. These parameter intervals played the role of prior distributions in the subsequent Bayesian analysis of the GLM, and Gibbs sampling was used to derive posterior distributions. The method was applied to artificial null data and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data. The results show that constraining the GLM eliminates unrealistic HRF waveforms and decreases false activations, without affecting the inference for "realistic" activations, which satisfy the constraints.

  20. Response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Riley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of the maximum response of discrete, linear mechanical systems to arbitrary forcing functions which lie within specified bounds. Primary attention is focused on the complete determination of the forcing function which will engender maximum displacement to any particular mass element of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. In general, the desired forcing function is found to be a bang-bang type function, i.e., a function which switches from the maximum to the minimum bound and vice-versa at certain instants of time. Examples of two-degree-of-freedom systems, with and without damping, are presented in detail. Conclusions are drawn concerning the effect of damping on the switching times and the general procedure for finding these times is discussed.

  1. Linear-response theory for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method: excitation energies.

    PubMed

    Jagau, Thomas-C; Gauss, Jürgen

    2012-07-28

    The recently presented linear-response function for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method (Mk-MRCC) [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044115 (2012)] is employed to determine vertical excitation energies within the singles and doubles approximation (Mk-MRCCSD-LR) for ozone as well as for o-benzyne, m-benzyne, and p-benzyne, which display increasing multireference character in their ground states. In order to assess the impact of a multireference ground-state wavefunction on excitation energies, we compare all our results to those obtained at the single-reference coupled-cluster level of theory within the singles and doubles as well as within the singles, doubles, and triples approximation. Special attention is paid to the artificial splitting of certain excited states which arises from the redundancy intrinsic to Mk-MRCC theory and hinders the straightforward application of the Mk-MRCC-LR method.

  2. Derivation of spin-orbit couplings in collinear linear-response TDDFT: A rigorous formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Franco de Carvalho, Felipe; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Tavernelli, Ivano; Penfold, Thomas J.

    2014-04-14

    Using an approach based upon a set of auxiliary many-electron wavefunctions we present a rigorous derivation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the framework of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT). Our method is based on a perturbative correction of the non-relativistic collinear TDDFT equations using a Breit-Pauli spin-orbit Hamiltonian. The derivation, which is performed within both the Casida and Sternheimer formulations of LR-TDDFT, is valid for any basis set. The requirement of spin noncollinearity for the treatment of spin-flip transitions is also discussed and a possible alternative solution for the description of these transitions in the collinear case is also proposed. Our results are validated by computing the SOC matrix elements between singlet and triplet states of two molecules, formaldehyde and acetone. In both cases, we find excellent agreement with benchmark calculations performed with a high level correlated wavefunction method.

  3. A revolute joint with linear load-displacement response for a deployable lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Warren, Peter A.; Peterson, Lee D.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing concepts for an advanced spacecraft, called LidarTechSat, to demonstrate key structures and mechanisms technologies necessary to deploy a segmented telescope reflector. Achieving micron-accuracy deployment requires significant advancements in deployment mechanism design, such as the revolute joint presented herein. The joint exhibits load-cycling response that is essentially linear with less than 2% hysteresis, and the joint rotates with less than 7 mN-m (1 in-oz) of resistance. A prototype reflector metering truss incorporating the joint exhibits only a few microns of kinematic error under repected deployment and impulse loading. No other mechanically deployment structure found in the literature has been demonstrated to be this kinematically accurate.

  4. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  5. Linear β-1,3 Glucans Are Elicitors of Defense Responses in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Klarzynski, Olivier; Plesse, Bertrand; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Kopp, Marguerite; Kloareg, Bernard; Fritig, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Laminarin, a linear β-1,3 glucan (mean degree of polymerization of 33) was extracted and purified from the brown alga Laminaria digitata. Its elicitor activity on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was compared to that of oligogalacturonides with a mean degree of polymerization of 10. The two oligosaccharides were perceived by suspension-cultured cells as distinct chemical stimuli but triggered a similar and broad spectrum of defense responses. A dose of 200 μg mL−1 laminarin or oligogalacturonides induced within a few minutes a 1.9-pH-units alkalinization of the extracellular medium and a transient release of H2O2. After a few hours, a strong stimulation of Phe ammonia-lyase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, and lipoxygenase activities occurred, as well as accumulation of salicylic acid. Neither of the two oligosaccharides induced tissue damage or cell death nor did they induce accumulation of the typical tobacco phytoalexin capsidiol, in contrast with the effects of the proteinaceous elicitor β-megaspermin. Structure activity studies with laminarin, laminarin oligomers, high molecular weight β-1,3–1,6 glucans from fungal cell walls, and the β-1,6–1,3 heptaglucan showed that the elicitor effects observed in tobacco with β-glucans are specific to linear β-1,3 linkages, with laminaripentaose being the smallest elicitor-active structure. In accordance with its strong stimulating effect on defense responses in tobacco cells, infiltration of 200 μg mL−1 laminarin in tobacco leaves triggered accumulation within 48 h of the four families of antimicrobial pathogenesis-related proteins investigated. Challenge of the laminarin-infiltrated leaves 5 d after treatment with the soft rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora resulted in a strong reduction of the infection when compared with water-treated leaves. PMID:11080280

  6. Exciton Absorption Spectra by Linear Response Methods: Application to Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Martín A; Jackson, Nicholas E; Fauvell, Thomas J; Kelley, Matthew S; Chen, Lin X; Schatz, George C; Ratner, Mark A

    2017-03-15

    The theoretical description of the time-evolution of excitons requires, as an initial step, the calculation of their spectra, which has been inaccessible to most users due to the high computational scaling of conventional algorithms and accuracy issues caused by common density functionals. Previously (J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 204105), we developed a simple method that resolves these issues. Our scheme is based on a two-step calculation in which a linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to generate orbitals perturbed by the excitonic state, and then a second linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to determine the spectrum of excitations relative to the excitonic state. Herein, we apply this theory to study near-infrared absorption spectra of excitons in oligomers of the ubiquitous conjugated polymers poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), and poly(benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene) (PTB7). For P3HT and MEH-PPV oligomers, the calculated intense absorption bands converge at the longest wavelengths for 10 monomer units, and show strong consistency with experimental measurements. The calculations confirm that the exciton spectral features in MEH-PPV overlap with those of the bipolaron formation. In addition, our calculations identify the exciton absorption bands in transient absorption spectra measured by our group for oligomers (1, 2, and 3 units) of PTB7. For all of the cases studied, we report the dominant orbital excitations contributing to the optically active excited state-excited state transitions, and suggest a simple rule to identify absorption peaks at the longest wavelengths. We suggest our methodology could be considered for further developments in theoretical transient spectroscopy to include nonadiabatic effects, coherences, and to describe the formation of species such as charge-transfer states and polaron pairs.

  7. Linear response of the hydrogen atom in Stark states to a harmonic uniform electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, T.A.

    1989-04-15

    The influence of a weak harmonic uniform electric field, switched on adiabatically, on a nonrelativistic hydrogenlike atom is examined. Each of the phi- and A-gauge first-order corrections to the wave function of a stationary state chemically bondN> is determined by a vector function that we denote v/sub N/ and w/sub N/, respectively. The absolute starting point of our calculations is Schwinger's formula for the Coulomb Green's function in momentum space. In the case of a bound state with definite angular momentum, we report a compact integral representation and also an explicit expression of the phi-gauge vector v/sub n//sub l//sub m/, which are analogous to those of the corresponding A-gauge vector w/sub n//sub l//sub m/ studied previously. We have derived compact analytic expressions of the linear-response vectors v/sub n//sub >//sub xi/n/sub eta/m$ and w/sub n//sub >//sub xi/n/sub eta/m$ associated to an arbitrary Stark state. These are written first as contour integrals, and then explicitly in terms of a new generalized hypergeometric function with five variables, /sub 2/phi/sub H/, which is a finite sum of Humbert functions phi/sub 1/. We have calculated the static limit of the regular part of the vector v/sub n//sub >//sub xi/n/sub eta/m$. Also discussed are the Sturmian-function expansions of the linear-response vectors for angular momentum states.

  8. Effects of Initial Geometric Imperfections On the Non-Linear Response of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Young, Richard D.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the elastic buckling and nonlinear behavior of the liquid-oxygen tank for the new Space Shuttle superlightweight external fuel tank are presented. Selected results that illustrate three distinctly different types of non-linear response phenomena for thin-walled shells which are subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads are presented. These response phenomena consist of a bifurcation-type buckling response, a short-wavelength non-linear bending response and a non-linear collapse or "snap-through" response associated with a limit point. The effects of initial geometric imperfections on the response characteristics are emphasized. The results illustrate that the buckling and non-linear response of a geometrically imperfect shell structure subjected to complex loading conditions may not be adequately characterized by an elastic linear bifurcation buckling analysis, and that the traditional industry practice of applying a buckling-load knock-down factor can result in an ultraconservative design. Results are also presented that show that a fluid-filled shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections, and that the use a buckling-load knock-down factor is needed for this case.

  9. Effects of Initial Geometric Imperfections On the Non-Linear Response of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Young, Richard D.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the elastic buckling and nonlinear behavior of the liquid-oxygen tank for the new Space Shuttle superlightweight external fuel tank are presented. Selected results that illustrate three distinctly different types of non-linear response phenomena for thin-walled shells which are subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads are presented. These response phenomena consist of a bifurcation-type buckling response, a short-wavelength non-linear bending response and a non-linear collapse or "snap-through" response associated with a limit point. The effects of initial geometric imperfections on the response characteristics are emphasized. The results illustrate that the buckling and non-linear response of a geometrically imperfect shell structure subjected to complex loading conditions may not be adequately characterized by an elastic linear bifurcation buckling analysis, and that the traditional industry practice of applying a buckling-load knock-down factor can result in an ultraconservative design. Results are also presented that show that a fluid-filled shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections, and that the use a buckling-load knock-down factor is needed for this case.

  10. Calibration of the linear response range of x-ray imaging plates and their reader based on image grayscale values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kuan; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Jianhua; Dong, Jianjun; Wei, Minxi; Li, Chaoguang; Cao, Zhurong; Du, Huabing; Yan, Ji; Yang, Guohong; Yi, Rongqing; Zhang, Jiyan; Huang, Tianxuan; Liu, Shenye; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Li, Jin; Chen, Yaohua; Lan, Ke; Ren, Guoli; Liu, Jie; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen

    2017-08-01

    X-ray imaging plates are one of the most important X-ray imaging detectors and are widely used in inertial-confinement fusion experiments. However, their linear response range, which is the foundation of their quantitative data analysis, has not been sufficiently deeply investigated. In this work, we develop an X-ray fluorescer calibration system and carefully explore the linear response range of X-ray imaging plates. For the first time, nearly the entire grayscale range of the X-ray imaging plate linear response—7819-64 879 in the range of 0-65 535—has been observed. Further, we discuss the uncertainties involved in the calibration process. This work demonstrates the excellent linear response qualities of X-ray imaging plates and provides a significant foundation for expanding their quantitative applied range.

  11. Circumventing chronological uncertainty in attempts to detect and understand non-linear ecosystem responses in shallow lake paleorecords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow lakes can undergo rapid changes in key biotic components. These phenomena, which include loss of submerged macrophytes, fish kills and algal blooms, can occur at sub-seasonal timescales and are often reported to be non-linear, threshold responses to a gradual intensification of an external driver and reflective of a change in state. Although such threshold responses are widely reported, a recent meta-analysis found that most such changes cannot be unequivocally confirmed as true threshold responses. This is because clear records of system stability in the face of a gradual increase in external driver intensity followed by rapid system change are lacking, as are records of post threshold stability in the new state following release of external driver pressure. That threshold responses were not confirmed often reflects insufficient time series of before or after data to establish driver variability and ecosystem stability. In this context, paleo studies provide a means to clearly identify non-linear, threshold responses in shallow lake ecosystems. The challenge of detecting evidence of non-linear responses in shallow lake ecosystems is often seen as a chronological one. Highly resolved and accurate sediment chronologies coupled with historical records of external driver intensity do provide a means to detect non-linear, threshold responses, but such chronologies are rare in shallow lakes. Fortunately, the 'tight chronology-historical record of external driver' approach is not the only, or even the most direct, way to detect non-linear ecosystem responses in paleo records. An alternative, more direct approach is ecosystem response and external driver intensity to be preserved in the same sedimentary record. Theoretically, it is arguable whether any chronological control is needed at all to determine if a non-linear response has occurred, for the key is not how quickly an ecosystem response may occur or if it is linear with respect to time, it is whether it is

  12. Effect of -OH functionalization, C2 methylation, and high radiation fields on the non-linear optical response of imidazolium ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namboodiri, Vinu V.; Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.

    2017-04-01

    Considering the impending applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in various areas involving high optical and radiation fields, it is pertinent to probe the structure-property correlation of these solvents exposed to such conditions. Herein, femtosecond Z-scan technique (at high pulse repetition rate, 80 MHz) was employed to investigate the non-linear optical response of imidazolium RTILs in 3 scenarios: (1) -OH functionalization, (2) C2 methylation, and (3) influence of high radiation fields. Large negative non-linear refractive values ( n 2) were observed in all the RTIL samples and have been attributed predominantly due to the thermal effects. In order to isolate and determine the contribution of electronic Kerr effect, the Z-scan experiments were also carried out at low pulse repetition rate (i.e. 500 Hz) by means of a mechanical chopper. The closed aperture transmittance profile showed the valley-peak pattern, which signifies positive non-linearity. Nonetheless, the variation in the n2 values of the RTILs follows the same trend in low pulse repetition rate as was observed in case of high pulse repetition rate. The trend in the n 2 values clearly showed the decrease in the non-linearity in the first two cases and has been attributed to the weakening of the ion-pair formation, which adversely affects the charge transfer between the ionic moieties via C2 position. However, an increase in the n 2 values was observed in case of ILs irradiated to high radiation doses. This enhancement in the non-linearity has been assigned to the formation of double bond order radiolytic products. These results clearly indicate a strong correlation between the non-linearity and the strength of cation-anion interaction amongst them. Therefore, such information about these solvents may significantly contribute to the fundamental understanding of their structure-property relationships.

  13. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies – one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants – were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook. PMID:26877584

  14. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-11-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies - one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants - were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook.

  15. Is the Pain Visual Analogue Scale Linear and Responsive to Change? An Exploration Using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Paula; White, Peter J.; Tennant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pain visual analogue scales (VAS) are commonly used in clinical trials and are often treated as an interval level scale without evidence that this is appropriate. This paper examines the internal construct validity and responsiveness of the pain VAS using Rasch analysis. Methods Patients (n = 221, mean age 67, 58% female) with chronic stable joint pain (hip 40% or knee 60%) of mechanical origin waiting for joint replacement were included. Pain was scored on seven daily VASs. Rasch analysis was used to examine fit to the Rasch model. Responsiveness (Standardized Response Means, SRM) was examined on the raw ordinal data and the interval data generated from the Rasch analysis. Results Baseline pain VAS scores fitted the Rasch model, although 15 aberrant cases impacted on unidimensionality. There was some local dependency between items but this did not significantly affect the person estimates of pain. Daily pain (item difficulty) was stable, suggesting that single measures can be used. Overall, the SRMs derived from ordinal data overestimated the true responsiveness by 59%. Changes over time at the lower and higher end of the scale were represented by large jumps in interval equivalent data points; in the middle of the scale the reverse was seen. Conclusions The pain VAS is a valid tool for measuring pain at one point in time. However, the pain VAS does not behave linearly and SRMs vary along the trait of pain. Consequently, Minimum Clinically Important Differences using raw data, or change scores in general, are invalid as these will either under- or overestimate true change; raw pain VAS data should not be used as a primary outcome measure or to inform parametric-based Randomised Controlled Trial power calculations in research studies; and Rasch analysis should be used to convert ordinal data to interval data prior to data interpretation. PMID:24921952

  16. Steady-state linear optical properties and Kerr nonlinear optical response of a four-level quantum dot with phonon-assisted transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Chao, She; Ting-Ting, Luo; Wei-Xi, Zhang; Mao-Wu, Ran; Deng-Long, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The linear optical properties and Kerr nonlinear optical response in a four-level loop configuration GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum dot are analytically studied with the phonon-assisted transition (PAT). It is shown that the changes among a single electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window, a double EIT window and the amplification of the probe field in the absorption curves can be controlled by varying the strength of PAT κ. Meanwhile, double switching from the anomalous dispersion regime to the normal dispersion regime can likely be achieved by increasing the Rabi energy of the external optical control field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the group velocity of the probe field can be practically regulated by varying the PAT and the intensity of the optical control field. In the nonlinear case, it is shown that the large SPM and XPM can be achieved as linear absorption vanishes simultaneously, and the PAT can suppress both third-order self-Kerr and the cross-Kerr nonlinear effect of the QD. Our study is much more practical than its atomic counterpart due to its flexible design and the controllable interference strength, and may provide some new possibilities for technological applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61367003), the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 12A140), and the Scientific Research Fund of Guizhou Provincial Education Department, China (Grant Nos. KY[2015]384 and KY[2015]446).

  17. Heterogeneity in resistance training-induced muscle strength and mass responses in men and women of different ages.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Juha P; Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Holviala, Jarkko; Sillanpää, Elina; Karavirta, Laura; Sallinen, Janne; Mikkola, Jussi; Valkeinen, Heli; Mero, Antti; Hulmi, Juha J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity recommendations for public health include typically muscle-strengthening activities for a minimum of 2 days a week. The range of inter-individual variation in responses to resistance training (RT) aiming to improve health and well-being requires to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify high and low responders for RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength and to examine possible effects of age and sex on these responses. Previously collected data of untrained healthy men and women (age 19 to 78 years, n = 287 with 72 controls) were pooled for the present study. Muscle size and strength changed during RT are 4.8 ± 6.1 % (range from -11 to 30 %) and 21.1 ± 11.5 % (range from -8 to 60 %) compared to pre-RT, respectively. Age and sex did not affect to the RT responses. Fourteen percent and 12 % of the subjects were defined as high responders (>1 standard deviation (SD) from the group mean) for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. When taking into account the results of non-training controls (upper 95 % CI), 29 and 7 % of the subjects were defined as low responders for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. The muscle size and strength responses varied extensively between the subjects regardless of subject's age and sex. Whether these changes are associated with, e.g., functional capacity and metabolic health improvements due to RT requires further studies.

  18. Aging process, cognitive decline and Alzheimer`s disease: can strength training modulate these responses?

    PubMed

    Portugal, Eduardo Matta Mello; Vasconcelos, Poliane Gomes Torres; Souza, Renata; Lattari, Eduardo; Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Machado, Sergio; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence shows that aerobic training can attenuate the aging effects on the brain structures and functions. However, the strength exercise effects are poorly discussed. Thus, in the present study, the effects of strength training on the brain in elderly people and Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients were revised. Furthermore, it a biological explanation relating to strength training effects on the brain is proposed. Brain atrophy can be related to neurotransmission dysfunction, like oxidative stress, that generates mitochondrial damage and reduced brain metabolism. Another mechanism is related to amyloid deposition and amyloid tangles, that can be related to reductions on insulin-like growth factor I concentrations. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor also presents reduction during aging process and AD. These neuronal dysfunctions are also related to cerebral blood flow decline that influence brain metabolism. All of these alterations contribute to cognitive impairment and AD. After a long period of strength training, the oxidative stress can be reduced, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor I serum concentrations enhance, and the cognitive performance improves. Considering these results, we can infer that strength training can be related to increased neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and, consequently, counteracts aging effects on the brain. The effect of strength training as an additional treatment of AD needs further investigation.

  19. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  20. Retention prediction of low molecular weight anions in ion chromatography based on quantitative structure-retention relationships applied to the linear solvent strength model.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Hyun; Haddad, Paul R; Talebi, Mohammad; Tyteca, Eva; Amos, Ruth I J; Szucs, Roman; Dolan, John W; Pohl, Christopher A

    2017-02-24

    Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRRs) represent a popular technique to predict the retention times of analytes, based on molecular descriptors encoding the chemical structures of the analytes. The linear solvent strength (LSS) model relating the retention factor, k to the eluent concentration (log k=a-blog [eluent]), is a well-known and accurate retention model in ion chromatography (IC). In this work, QSRRs for inorganic and small organic anions were used to predict the regression parameters a and b in the LSS model (and hence retention times) for these analytes under a wide range of eluent conditions, based solely on their chemical structures. This approach was performed on retention data of inorganic and small organic anions from the "Virtual Column" software (Thermo Fisher Scientific). These retention data were recalibrated via a "porting" methodology on three columns (AS20, AS19, and AS11HC), prior to the QSRR modeling. This provided retention data more applicable on recently produced columns which may exhibit changes of column behavior due to batch-to-batch variability. Molecular descriptors for the analytes were calculated with Dragon software using the geometry-optimized molecular structures, employing the AM1 semi-empirical method. An optimal subset of molecular descriptors was then selected using an evolutionary algorithm (EA). Finally, the QSRR models were generated by multiple linear regression (MLR). As a result, six QSRR models with good predictive performance were successfully derived for a- and b-values on three columns (R(2)>0.98 and RMSE<0.11). External validation showed the possibility of using the developed QSRR models as predictive tools in IC (Qext(F3)(2)>0.7 and RMSEP<0.4). Moreover, it was demonstrated that the obtained QSRR models for the a- and b-values can predict the retention times for new analytes with good accuracy and predictability (R(2) of 0.98, RMSE of 0.89min, Qext(F3)(2) of 0.96 and RMSEP of 1.18min).

  1. On spurious detection of linear response and misuse of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in finite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Wormell, J. P.; Wouters, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Using a sensitive statistical test we determine whether or not one can detect the breakdown of linear response given observations of deterministic dynamical systems. A goodness-of-fit statistics is developed for a linear statistical model of the observations, based on results for central limit theorems for deterministic dynamical systems, and used to detect linear response breakdown. We apply the method to discrete maps which do not obey linear response and show that the successful detection of breakdown depends on the length of the time series, the magnitude of the perturbation and on the choice of the observable. We find that in order to reliably reject the assumption of linear response for typical observables sufficiently large data sets are needed. Even for simple systems such as the logistic map, one needs of the order of 106 observations to reliably detect the breakdown with a confidence level of 95 %; if less observations are available one may be falsely led to conclude that linear response theory is valid. The amount of data required is larger the smaller the applied perturbation. For judiciously chosen observables the necessary amount of data can be drastically reduced, but requires detailed a priori knowledge about the invariant measure which is typically not available for complex dynamical systems. Furthermore we explore the use of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in cases with limited data length or coarse-graining of observations. The FDT, if applied naively to a system without linear response, is shown to be very sensitive to the details of the sampling method, resulting in erroneous predictions of the response.

  2. Use of the linear-quadratic radiobiological model for quantifying kidney response in targeted radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dale, Roger

    2004-06-01

    This paper reviews the generalized application of the linear quadratic (LQ) model of radiobiological effect to targeted radiotherapy. Special attention is given to formulations for normal tissue responses and these are applied, in particular, to the kidney. Because it is derived from self-consistent bio-physical principles, the LQ model currently remains the standard formalism for assessing biological responses for the whole range of radiotherapy treatments. A central feature of the model is the derivation of biologically effective doses (BEDs), which may be used to quantify the impact of a treatment on both tumors and normal tissues. BEDs are routinely derived for conventional external-beam treatments. The likely limits of targeted radiotherapy may, thus, be assessed by comparing the expected normal-tissue BEDs for such treatments with those known to be just tolerable in conventional therapy. The main parameters required in the model are defined, and data are provided which demonstrate the tentative link between targeted radiotherapy doses and those used in conventional radiotherapy. The extension of the LQ method to targeted radiotherapy involves using parameters for which the numerical values may not be accurately known at present. This places a restriction on the overall predictive accuracy of the model and the necessary caveats are, therefore, outlined.

  3. Response of Non-Linear Shock Absorbers-Boundary Value Problem Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. A.; Ahmed, U.; Uddin, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    A nonlinear boundary value problem of two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) untuned vibration damper systems using nonlinear springs and dampers has been numerically studied. As far as untuned damper is concerned, sixteen different combinations of linear and nonlinear springs and dampers have been comprehensively analyzed taking into account transient terms. For different cases, a comparative study is made for response versus time for different spring and damper types at three important frequency ratios: one at r = 1, one at r > 1 and one at r <1. The response of the system is changed because of the spring and damper nonlinearities; the change is different for different cases. Accordingly, an initially stable absorber may become unstable with time and vice versa. The analysis also shows that higher nonlinearity terms make the system more unstable. Numerical simulation includes transient vibrations. Although problems are much more complicated compared to those for a tuned absorber, a comparison of the results generated by the present numerical scheme with the exact one shows quite a reasonable agreement

  4. A pseudorandom pink noise for the computer-based measurements of linear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tohru; Sakurai, Katsumi; Mitsui, Takahisa

    1998-07-01

    We propose a nonbinary pseudorandom sequence for the measurement of linear responses. Compared with a maximal length shift register sequence (m sequence), this sequence is more suitable for digital processing based on computers; with the use of discrete Fourier transforms, the response functions are reproduced without approximations from digitally sampled data because the input power spectrum is pink, i.e., completely flat in a given frequency range and 0 otherwise. In practice, the new sequence is simply the sum of harmonics with arbitrary phases and is produced readily with digital wave form generators. For reducing the peak power of this sequence, the amplitude distribution is better to be bimodal rather than Gaussian. For demonstrating its feasibility with common digital hardware, the magnetic resonance of Rb atoms in a sub-MHz region was measured successfully. With the use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm, our software task was only 0.4% of that for the cross-correlational calculation based on an m sequence.

  5. Linear minimum mean-square error filtering for evoked responses: application to fetal MEG.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingli; Van Veen, Barry D; Wakai, Ronald T

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) approach for designing spatial filters that improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of multiepoch evoked response data. This approach does not rely on availability of a forward solution and thus is applicable to problems in which a forward solution is not readily available, such as fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). The LMMSE criterion leads to a spatial filter that is a function of the autocorrelation matrix of the data and the autocorrelation matrix of the signal. The signal statistics are unknown, so we approximate the signal autocorrelation matrix using the average of the data across epochs. This approximation is reasonable provided the mean of the noise is zero across epochs and the signal mean is significant. An analysis of the error incurred using this approximation is presented. Calculations of SNR for the exact and approximate LMMSE filters and simple averaging for the rank-1 signal case are shown. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated with simulated evoked response data and fetal MEG data.

  6. The Effect of Training Structure on the Latency of Responses to a Five-Term Linear Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Thomas; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2005-01-01

    The current experiment investigated the effect of differential training histories on responses to a 5-term linear chain of nonsense syllables (described here with sequential, alphabetical characters; A [is less than] B [is less than] C [is less than] D [is less than] E) across unreinforced probe trials. Participants' responses to nonarbitrary…

  7. Backbone dynamics study of C12A-p8MTCP1 using the linear correlation approach at two magnetic field strengths. Effect of protein aggregation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, P.; Declerck, N.; Delsuc, M.-A.; Lefevre, J.-F.; Roumestand, C.

    1999-10-01

    We discussed here the effect of the presence of non-specific oligomerization states on the backbone dynamics of C12A-p8MTCP1. Dynamic parameters were obtained from the analysis of 15N spin relaxation measurements (T1, T2 and 15N{H}NOEs) at two magnetic field strengths and on two different protein samples (4 mM and 400 μM) using the linear correlation assumption between J(0) and J(ω). At high concentration, the presence of aggregation states leads to a significantly higher value for the overall tumbling as compared to the dilute sample, whereas the features of the internal motion are essentially preserved. Nous avons analysé les effets de l'association non spécifique en solution concentrée de la protéine C12A-p8MTCP1 sur la dynamique interne de son squelette peptidique. Les informations dynamiques ont été extraites de l'analyse des paramètres de relaxation hétéronucléaire 15N(T1, T2 et 15N{H}NOEs) obtenus à deux champs magnétiques et sur deux échantillons (4 mM et 400 μM) par la méthode dite des corrélations linéaires entre J(0) and J(ω). A haute concentration, la présence d'agrégation entraîne une augmentation significative du temps de réorientation global, par rapport à l'échantillon dilué, mais affecte peu la dynamique interne de la protéine.

  8. Optimized purification of a fusion protein by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography informed by the linear solvent strength model.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Isaac B; Mant, Colin T; McKnight, C James; Vugmeyster, Liliya; Hodges, Robert

    2017-10-27

    Fusion protein systems are commonly used for expression of small proteins and peptides. An important criterion for a fusion protein system to be useful is the ability to separate the protein of interest from the tag. Additionally, because no protease cleaves fusion proteins with 100% efficiency, the ability to separate the desired peptide from any remaining uncleaved protein is also necessary. This is likely to be the more difficult task as at least a portion of the sequence of the fusion protein is identical to that of the protein of interest. When a high level of purity is required, gradient elution reversed-phase HPLC is frequently used as a final purification step. Shallow gradients are often advantageous for maximizing both the purity and yield of the final product; however, the relationship between relative retention times at shallow gradients and those at steeper gradients typically used for analytical HPLC are not always straightforward. In this work, we report reversed-phase HPLC results for the fusion protein system consisting of the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9 (NTL9) and the 36-residue villin headpiece subdomain (HP36) linked by a recognition sequence for the protease factor Xa. This system represents an excellent example of the difficulties in purification that may arise from this unexpected elution behavior at shallow gradients. Additionally, we report on the sensitivity of this elution behavior to the concentration of the additive trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase and present optimized conditions for separating HP36 from the full fusion protein by reversed-phase HPLC using a shallow gradient. Finally, we suggest that these findings are relevant to the purification of other fusion protein systems, for which similar problems may arise, and support this suggestion using insights from the linear solvent strength model of gradient elution liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental rotation task specifically modulates functional connectivity strength of intrinsic brain activity in low frequency domains: A maximum uncertainty linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengxia; Zhang, Delong; Wang, Zengjian; Liang, Bishan; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Zhenni; Li, Junchao; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies have highlighted that intrinsic brain activity is modified to implement task demands. However, the relation between mental rotation and intrinsic brain activity remains unclear. To answer this question, we collected functional MRI (fMRI) data from 30 healthy participants in two mental rotation task periods (1st-task state, 2nd-task state) and two rest periods before (pre-task resting state) and after the task (post-task resting state) respectively. By combining the spatial independent component analysis (ICA) and voxel-wise functional connectivity strength (FCS), we identified FCS maps of 10 brain resting state networks (RSNs) within six different bands (i.e., 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, 0.1-0.15, 0.15-0.2, 0.2-0.25, and 0.01-0.08Hz) corresponding to the four states for each subject. The maximum uncertainty linear discriminant analysis (MLDA) method showed that the FCS within the low frequency bandwidth of 0.05-0.1Hz could effectively classify the mental rotation task state from pre-/post-task resting states but failed to discriminate the pre- and post-task resting states. Discriminative FCSs were observed in the cognitive executive-control network (central executive and attention) and the imagery-based internal mental manipulation network (default mode, primary sensorimotor, and primary visual). Imagery manipulation is a stable mental element of mental rotation, and the involvement of executive control is dependent on the degree of task familiarity. Together, the present study provides evidence that mental rotation task specifically modifies intrinsic brain activity to complement cognitive demands, which provides further insight into the neural basis of mental rotation manipulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Engelward, Bevin P.; Heinen, Christopher D.; Johnson, George E.; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  12. Second-order variational coupled-cluster linear-response method: A Hermitian time-dependent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, Daniel; Usvyat, Denis; Schuetz, Martin

    2011-06-15

    The formalism is presented for the linear response of a time-dependent (TD) variational coupled cluster (VCC), truncated according to Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory, i.e., a TD-VCC[n] linear response, where n denotes the order of the corresponding quasienergy with respect to the fluctuation potential. The resulting eigenvalue problem determining the excitation energies is Hermitian and of the simple Tamm-Dancoff form. The VCC excitation energies are equivalent to those of the configuration-interaction singles (CIS) model, while the Casida equation for the TD-Hartree-Fock approach is an approximation to it. The TD-VCC response, the lowest-order method including electron correlation, is discussed in detail and the relations to other second-order methods, such as the CC2 linear response and the algebraic diagrammatic construction at second order [ADC(2)] are explored.

  13. Time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of weakly disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, C. A.; Vignale, G.

    2002-05-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDFT) provides a way of calculating, in principle exactly, the linear response of interacting many-electron systems, and thus allows one to obtain their excitation energies. For extended systems, there exist excitations of a collective nature, such as bulk and surface plasmons in metals or intersubband plasmons in doped semiconductor quantum wells. This paper develops a quantitatively accurate first-principles description for the frequency and the linewidth of such excitations in inhomogeneous weakly disordered systems. A finite linewidth in general has intrinsic and extrinsic sources. At low temperatures and outside the region where electron-phonon interaction occurs, the only intrinsic damping mechanism is provided by electron-electron interaction. This kind of intrinsic damping can be described within TDFT, but one needs to go beyond the adiabatic approximation and include retardation effects. It has been shown [G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4878 (1997)] that a density-functional response theory that is local in space but nonlocal in time has to be constructed in terms of the currents, rather than the density. This theory will be reviewed in the first part of this paper. For quantitatively accurate linewidths, extrinsic dissipation mechanisms, such as impurities or disorder, have to be included in the response theory. In the second part of this paper, we discuss how extrinsic dissipation can be described within the so-called memory-function formalism. This formalism will first be introduced and reviewed for homogeneous systems. We will then present a synthesis of TDFT with the memory function formalism for inhomogeneous systems, which allows one to simultaneously account for intrinsic and extrinsic damping of collective excitations. As an example where both sources of dissipation are important and where high-quality experimental data are available for comparison, we discuss intersubband

  14. Influence of Cutting Time on Brush Response: Implications for Herbivory in Linear (Transportation) Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Roy V.; Child, Kenneth N.; Spata, David P.; MacDonald, Douglas

    2007-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence the time of brush-cutting can have on plant regrowth and attractiveness to herbivores that browse in linear corridors. The influence of cutting time on leaf flush and senescence, shoot morphometry, and biomass was measured for 3 consecutive years after initial brush-cutting. Results indicate that morphological and phenological attributes of three woody deciduous plants were influenced by the timing of brush-cutting for up to 3 years after initial cutting. Brush-cutting generally stimulated plants to produce larger than normal shoots and delay leaf senescence. The degree to which plants were affected, however, varied with the timing of initial cutting and the species in question. Generally, plants cut later in the year resprouted more vigorously and were taller in the third year after cutting but produced less overall biomass than when cut earlier. In the years following brush-cutting, plants cut earlier flushed leaves earlier in the spring but delayed leaf senescence in the fall when compared to uncut controls. Results of these trials suggest that brush-cutting time influences plant response and several plant attributes known to influence plant attractiveness to moose and other herbivores. We therefore recommend that roadside and railside vegetation management plans consider the influence of cutting time on plant regrowth. Such considerations can ensure that brush is cut to reduce the attractiveness of plant regrowth in these linear corridors, reduce the utilization of such brush by herbivores, and, as such, mitigate collision risk between motorists and herbivores such as moose.

  15. Influence of cutting time on brush response: implications for herbivory in linear (transportation) corridors.

    PubMed

    Rea, Roy V; Child, Kenneth N; Spata, David P; MacDonald, Douglas

    2007-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence the time of brush-cutting can have on plant regrowth and attractiveness to herbivores that browse in linear corridors. The influence of cutting time on leaf flush and senescence, shoot morphometry, and biomass was measured for 3 consecutive years after initial brush-cutting. Results indicate that morphological and phenological attributes of three woody deciduous plants were influenced by the timing of brush-cutting for up to 3 years after initial cutting. Brush-cutting generally stimulated plants to produce larger than normal shoots and delay leaf senescence. The degree to which plants were affected, however, varied with the timing of initial cutting and the species in question. Generally, plants cut later in the year resprouted more vigorously and were taller in the third year after cutting but produced less overall biomass than when cut earlier. In the years following brush-cutting, plants cut earlier flushed leaves earlier in the spring but delayed leaf senescence in the fall when compared to uncut controls. Results of these trials suggest that brush-cutting time influences plant response and several plant attributes known to influence plant attractiveness to moose and other herbivores. We therefore recommend that roadside and railside vegetation management plans consider the influence of cutting time on plant regrowth. Such considerations can ensure that brush is cut to reduce the attractiveness of plant regrowth in these linear corridors, reduce the utilization of such brush by herbivores, and, as such, mitigate collision risk between motorists and herbivores such as moose.

  16. The response of the vestibulosympathetic reflex to linear acceleration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yakushin, S B; Martinelli, G P; Raphan, T; Cohen, B

    2016-12-01

    The vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) increases blood pressure (BP) upon arising to maintain blood flow to the brain. The optimal directions of VSR activation and whether changes in heart rate (HR) are associated with changes in BP are still not clear. We used manually activated pulses and oscillatory linear accelerations of 0.2-2.5 g along the naso-occipital, interaural, and dorsoventral axes in isoflurane-anesthetized, male Long-Evans rats. BP and HR were recorded with an intra-aortic sensor and acceleration with a three-dimensional accelerometer. Linear regressions of BP changes in accelerations along the upward, downward, and forward axes had slopes of ≈3-6 mmHg · g(-1) (P < 0.05). Lateral and backward accelerations did not produce consistent changes in BP. Thus upward, downward, and forward translations were the directions that significantly altered BP. HR was unaffected by these translations. The VSR sensitivity to oscillatory forward-backward translations was ≈6-10 mmHg · g(-1) at frequencies of ≈0.1 Hz (0.2 g), decreasing to zero at frequencies above 2 Hz (1.8 g). Upward, 70° tilts of an alert rat increased BP by 9 mmHg · g(-1) without changes in HR, indicating that anesthesia had not reduced the VSR sensitivity. The similarity in BP induced in alert and anesthetized rats indicates that the VSR is relatively insensitive to levels of alertness and that the VSR is likely to cause changes in BP through modification of peripheral vascular resistance. Thus the VSR, which is directed toward the cardiovascular system, is in contrast to the responses in the alert state that can produce sweating, alterations in BP and HR, and motion sickness. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Recognition memory strength is predicted by pupillary responses at encoding while fixation patterns distinguish recollection from familiarity.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2011-10-01

    Thirty-five healthy participants incidentally encoded a set of man-made and natural object pictures, while their pupil response and eye movements were recorded. At retrieval, studied and new stimuli were rated as novel, familiar (strong, moderate, or weak), or recollected. We found that both pupil response and fixation patterns at encoding predict later recognition memory strength. The extent of pupillary response accompanying incidental encoding was found to be predictive of subsequent memory. In addition, the number of fixations was also predictive of later recognition memory strength, suggesting that the accumulation of greater visual detail, even for single objects, is critical for the creation of a strong memory. Moreover, fixation patterns at encoding distinguished between recollection and familiarity at retrieval, with more dispersed fixations predicting familiarity and more clustered fixations predicting recollection. These data reveal close links between the autonomic control of pupil responses and eye movement patterns on the one hand and memory encoding on the other. Moreover, the data illustrate quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the incidental visual processing of stimuli, which are differentially predictive of the strength and the kind of memory experienced at recognition.

  18. Acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses to combined strength and endurance loadings: the "order effect" in recreationally endurance trained runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Schumann, Moritz; Mikkola, Jussi; Nyman, Kai; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses and recovery (24 and 48 h) to combined strength and endurance sessions (SEs). Recreationally endurance trained men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed: endurance running followed immediately by a strength loading (combined endurance and strength session (ES)) and the reverse order (SE). Maximal strength (MVC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-, mid-, post-loading and at 24 and 48 h of recovery. MVC and CMJ were decreased (P < 0.05) at post-ES and SE sessions in men. Only MVC decreased in ES and SE women (P < 0.05). During recovery, no order differences in MVC were observed between sessions in men, but MVC and CMJ remained decreased. During recovery in women, a delayed decrease in CMJ was observed in ES but not in SE (P < 0.01), while MVC returned to baseline at 24 h. Creatine kinase increased (P < 0.05) during both ES and SE and peaked in all groups at 24 h. The present combined ES and SE sessions induced greater neuromuscular fatigue at post in men than in women. The delayed fatigue response in ES women may be an order effect related to muscle damage.

  19. Influence of response prepotency strength, general working memory resources, and specific working memory load on the ability to inhibit predominant responses: a comparison of young and elderly participants.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Julien; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-11-01

    One conception of inhibitory functioning suggests that the ability to successfully inhibit a predominant response depends mainly on the strength of that response, the general functioning of working memory processes, and the working memory demand of the task (Roberts, Hager, & Heron, 1994). The proposal that inhibition and functional working memory capacity interact was assessed in the present study using two motor inhibition tasks (Go/No-Go and response incompatibility) in young and older participants. The strength of prepotency was assessed with a short or long training phase for the response to be inhibited. The influence of working memory resources was evaluated by administering the tasks in full vs. divided attention conditions. The effect of working memory load was manipulated by increasing the number of target and distracter items in each task. Results showed no effect of prepotency strength, whereas dividing attentional resources and increasing working memory load were associated with greater inhibitory effects in both groups and for both tasks. This deleterious effect was higher for older participants, except in the working memory load condition of the Go/No-Go task. These results suggest an interactive link between working memory and response inhibition by showing that taxing working memory resources increases the difficulty of inhibiting prepotent responses in younger and older subjects. The additional detrimental effect of these factors on healthy elderly subjects was related to their decreased cognitive resources and to their shorter span size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors limiting the linearity of response of tissue equivalent proportional counters used in micro- and nano-dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, T. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Proportional counters filled with tissue equivalent gas mixtures are extremely useful instruments and are being used extensively as sensitive detectors for all types of radiations to measure the energy transferred to small tissue volumes. The linearity of their response is of primary importance. So the investigation and clarification of the physical phenomena taking place in the counter and of the limits within which useful results may be obtained would contribute to a more efficient use and a wider application of these counters. The linearity of response in the dose and in the gas gain has been determined. Linearity in the dose is limited by the total count rate effect, while linearity in the gas gain is limited by secondary processes occurring in the electron avalanche and by the self-induced space charge effect.

  1. Effects of processing induced defects on laminate response - Interlaminar tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurdal, Zafer; Tomasino, Alfred P.; Biggers, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Four different layup methods were used in the present study of the interlaminar tensile strength of AS4/3501-6 graphite-reinforced epoxy as a function of defects from manufacturing-induced porosity. The methods were: (1) baseline hand layup, (2) solvent wipe of prepreg for resin removal, (3) moisture-introduction between plies, and (4) a low-pressure cure cycle. Pore characterization was conducted according to ASTM D-2734. A significant reduction is noted in the out-of-plane tensile strength as a function of increasing void content; the porosity data were used in an empirical model to predict out-of-plane strength as a function of porosity.

  2. Energy Loss of a High Charge Bunched Electron Beam in Plasma: Nonlinear Plasma Response and Linear Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Barov, N.; Thompson, M. C.; Yoder, R.

    2002-12-01

    There has been much experimental and theoretical interest in blowout regime of plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), which features ultra-high accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion. Using an exact analysis, we examine here a fundamental limit of nonlinear PWFA excitation, by an infinitesimally short, relativistic electron beam. The beam energy loss in this case is shown to be linear in charge even for nonlinear plasma response, where a normalized, unitless charge exceeds unity, and relativistic plasma effects become important or dominant. The physical bases for this persistence of linear response are pointed out. As a byproduct of our analysis, we re-examine the issue of field divergence as the point-charge limit is approached, suggesting an important modification of commonly held views of evading unphysical energy loss. Deviations from linear behavior are investigated using simulations with finite length beams. The peak accelerating field in the plasma wave excited behind a finite-length beam is also examined, with the artifact of wave spiking adding to the apparent persistence of linear scaling of the peak field amplitude well into the nonlinear regime. On the other hand, at large enough normalized charge, linear scaling of fields collapses, with serious consequences for plasma wave excitation efficiency. The dramatic implications of these results for observing the collapse of linear scaling in planned experiments are discussed.

  3. Optimization of linear-logarithmic CMOS image sensor using a photogate and a cascode MOSFET for reducing pixel response variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jimin; Oh, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2017-02-01

    Recently, CMOS image sensors (CISs) have become more and more complex because they require high-performances such as wide dynamic range, low-noise, high-speed operation, high-resolution and so on. First of all, wide dynamic range (WDR) is the first requirement for high-performance CIS. Several techniques have been proposed to improve the dynamic range. Although logarithmic pixel can achieve wide dynamic range, it leads to a poor signal-to-noise ratio due to small output swings. Furthermore, the fixed pattern noise of logarithmic pixel is significantly greater compared with other CISs. In this paper, we propose an optimized linear-logarithmic pixel. Compared to a conventional 3-transistor active pixel sensor structure, the proposed linear-logarithmic pixel is using a photogate and a cascode MOSFET in addition. The photogate which is surrounding a photodiode carries out change of sensitivity in the linear response and thus increases the dynamic range. The logarithmic response is caused by a cascode MOSFET. Although the dynamic range of the pixel has been improved, output curves of each pixel were not uniform. In general, as the number of devices increases in the pixel, pixel response variation is more pronounced. Hence, we optimized the linear-logarithmic pixel structure to minimize the pixel response variation. We applied a hard reset method and an optimized cascode MOSFET to the proposed pixel for reducing pixel response variation. Unlike the conventional reset operation, a hard reset using a p-type MOSFET fixes the voltage of each pixel to the same voltage. This reduces non-uniformity of the response in the linear response. The optimized cascode MOSFET achieves less variation in the logarithmic response. We have verified that the optimized pixel shows more uniform response than the conventional pixel, by both simulation and experiment.

  4. Computation of linear and nonlinear site response for near field ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Luis Fabian

    The near-surface geological site conditions in the upper tens of meters are one of the dominant factors in controlling the amplitude and variation of strong ground motion during large earthquakes. The understanding of these site effects comes primarily from surface recordings. For instance, different methods to estimate site response and their variability are studied using aftershock data for the 17 January 1994 M6.7 Northridge, California earthquake. A second approach corresponds to borehole measurements. We use the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA), which consists of a set of seven downhole strong-motion instruments ranging from 0 to 500 meters depth, to study site response effects. The GVDA velocity structure is first studied, then the H/ V is evaluated, and finally some considerations of 2D and 3D basin effects are also shown. These previous studies considered small to moderate earthquakes, where strain levels are small enough, so that linear wave propagation is assumed. However, for strong motions produced during large earthquakes, the soils behave nonlinearly. In this study we present evidence that nonlinearity can be directly observed in acceleration time histories such as Wildlife Refuge, 1987 Superstition Hills, CA; Kushiro Port station, 1993 Kushiro-Oki, Japan; among others. To understand the nature of nonlinear soil dynamics, we developed a model that includes anelastic dissipation of energy due to hysteresis. The hysteresis is described by the generalized Masing rules. This new hysteresis formulation, based on the classical Masing rules, has a functional representation, and depends only on one parameter that can be related to damping ratio tests. The coupling with pore pressure generation shows the degradation of the shear modulus and the yield stress during the cyclic response of the material. The simulations show amplitude reduction as well as the shift of the fundamental frequency to lower frequencies as observed on vertical arrays. The synthetic

  5. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-01-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission–fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate. PMID:24455148

  6. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-12-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission-fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate.

  7. Gain in stochastic resonance: precise numerics versus linear response theory beyond the two-mode approximation.

    PubMed

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Denk, Claus; Gómez-Ordóñez, José; Morillo, Manuel; Hänggi, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In the context of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), we study the correlation function, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ratio of output over input SNR, i.e., the gain, which is associated to the nonlinear response of a bistable system driven by time-periodic forces and white Gaussian noise. These quantifiers for SR are evaluated using the techniques of linear response theory (LRT) beyond the usually employed two-mode approximation scheme. We analytically demonstrate within such an extended LRT description that the gain can indeed not exceed unity. We implement an efficient algorithm, based on work by Greenside and Helfand (detailed in the Appendix), to integrate the driven Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. The predictions of LRT are carefully tested against the results obtained from numerical solutions of the corresponding Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. We further present an accurate procedure to evaluate the distinct contributions of the coherent and incoherent parts of the correlation function to the SNR and the gain. As a main result we show for subthreshold driving that both the correlation function and the SNR can deviate substantially from the predictions of LRT and yet the gain can be either larger or smaller than unity. In particular, we find that the gain can exceed unity in the strongly nonlinear regime which is characterized by weak noise and very slow multifrequency subthreshold input signals with a small duty cycle. This latter result is in agreement with recent analog simulation results by Gingl et al. [ICNF 2001, edited by G. Bosman (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 545-548; Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L181 (2001)].

  8. Patterns of Response: A Case Study of Elementary Students with Spatial Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with spatial strengths have areas of remarkable talent but are often overlooked, underidentified, and underserved in American schools. Their preference for learning through imagistic reasoning conflicts with traditional verbal instructional techniques typically used in schools. To better serve these students who have the potential…

  9. Seismic Response Of Masonry Plane Walls: A Numerical Study On Spandrel Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, Michele; Galano, Luciano; Vignoli, Andrea

    2008-07-08

    The paper reports the results of a numerical investigation on masonry walls subjected to in-plane seismic loads. This research aims to verify the formulae of shear and flexural strength of masonry spandrels which are given in the recent Italian Standards. Seismic pushover analyses have been carried out using finite element models of unreinforced walls and strengthened walls introducing reinforced concrete (RC) beams at the floor levels. Two typologies of walls have been considered distinguished for the height to length ratio h/l of the spandrels: a) short beams (h/l = 1.33) and b) slender beams (h/l = 0.5). Results obtained for the unreinforced and the strengthened walls are compared with equations for shear and flexural strength provided in Standards [1]. The numerical analyses show that the reliability of these equations is at least questionable especially for the prediction of the flexural strength. In the cases in which the axial force has not been determined by the structural analysis, Standards seems to overestimate the flexural strength of short spandrels both for the unreinforced and the strengthened wall.

  10. Transcriptional response according to strength of calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yae-Lim; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2008-09-30

    To characterize gene expression that is dependent on the strength of calorie restriction (CR), we obtained transcriptome at different levels of glucose, which is a major energy and carbon source for budding yeast. To faithfully mimic mammalian CR in yeast culture, we reconstituted and grew seeding yeast cells in fresh 2% YPD media before inoculating into 2%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.25% YPD media to reflect different CR strengths. We collected and characterized 160 genes that responded to CR strength based on the rigorous statistical analyses of multiple test corrected ANOVA (adjusted p0.7). Based on the individual gene studies and the GO Term Finder analysis of 160 genes, we found that CR dose-dependently and gradually increased mitochondrial function at the transcriptional level. Therefore, we suggest these 160 genes are markers that respond to CR strength and that might be useful in elucidating CR mechanisms, especially how stronger CR extends life span more.

  11. Soil strength response of select soil disturbance classes on a wet pine flat in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Emily A. Carter; W. Michael Aust; James A. Burger

    2007-01-01

    Harvest operations conducted under conditions of high soil moisture on a et pine flat in South Carolina resulted in a high degree of soil surface disturbance. Less soil surface disturbance occurred when soil moisture content was lower. Soil strength varied by soil disturbance class in wet harvested locations and highly disturbed areas were associated with low soil...

  12. Divergent selection for fiber length and bundle strength and correlated responses in cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton breeders must develop cultivars to meet the demand for longer, stronger, and more uniform fibers. In the current study, two cycles of divergent selection for fiber upper-half mean length (UHML) and bundle strength (Str) were conducted within five diverse parental combinations selected based o...

  13. The non-linear response of a muscle in transverse compression: assessment of geometry influence using a finite element model.

    PubMed

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie; Laporte, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Most recent finite element models that represent muscles are generic or subject-specific models that use complex, constitutive laws. Identification of the parameters of such complex, constitutive laws could be an important limit for subject-specific approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of modelling muscle behaviour in compression with a parametric model and a simple, constitutive law. A quasi-static compression test was performed on the muscles of dogs. A parametric finite element model was designed using a linear, elastic, constitutive law. A multi-variate analysis was performed to assess the effects of geometry on muscle response. An inverse method was used to define Young's modulus. The non-linear response of the muscles was obtained using a subject-specific geometry and a linear elastic law. Thus, a simple muscle model can be used to have a bio-faithful, biomechanical response.

  14. Heart Rate Dynamics after Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Middle-Aged Women: Heterogeneity of Responses

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Tulppo, Mikko P.; Laaksonen, David E.; Nyman, Kai; Keskitalo, Marko; Häkkinen, Arja; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-01-01

    The loss of complexity in physiological systems may be a dynamical biomarker of aging and disease. In this study the effects of combined strength and endurance training compared with those of endurance training or strength training alone on heart rate (HR) complexity and traditional HR variability indices were examined in middle-aged women. 90 previously untrained female volunteers between the age of 40 and 65 years completed a 21 week progressive training period of either strength training, endurance training or their combination, or served as controls. Continuous HR time series were obtained during supine rest and submaximal steady state exercise. The complexity of HR dynamics was assessed using multiscale entropy analysis. In addition, standard time and frequency domain measures were also computed. Endurance training led to increases in HR complexity and selected time and frequency domain measures of HR variability (P<0.01) when measured during exercise. Combined strength and endurance training or strength training alone did not produce significant changes in HR dynamics. Inter-subject heterogeneity of responses was particularly noticeable in the combined training group. At supine rest, no training-induced changes in HR parameters were observed in any of the groups. The present findings emphasize the potential utility of endurance training in increasing the complex variability of HR in middle-aged women. Further studies are needed to explore the combined endurance and strength training adaptations and possible gender and age related factors, as well as other mechanisms, that may mediate the effects of different training regimens on HR dynamics. PMID:24013586

  15. The response of the polarized Fermi mixture to an artificial vector potential: The interaction strength and imbalance chemical potential effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, N.; Safiee, Z.

    2017-03-01

    We consider a polarized Fermi mixture (with normal-superfluid phase separation), subjected to artificial vector potential. We concentrate on the BCS regime with various interaction strengths and numerically obtain the polarisability of the system. We obtain the functional dependence of the polarisability of the system on frequency and the relevant physical parameters, namely the interaction strength, the mass ratio, the average and imbalance chemical potentials. Also, we find the special frequency (ωs), for which the rate of the response of system to the potential is changed and the cut-off frequency (ωcutoff), for which the response starts to become infinity. We investigate the behavior of the curves of polarisability versus proper physical parameters for ω <ωs and ωs < ω <ωcutoff at a nonzero temperature and interpret the existence of special and cut-off frequencies via the propagator concept (of particles or holes). Also, we offer the explanation of the minimum energy required for the occurrence of the pair-breaking process and the existence of the cut-off frequency, which is different with respect to the conventional superfluid Fermi gas, and is related to the relevant physical parameters. Finally, the system's response can be controlled by relevant physical parameters, such as interaction strength.

  16. Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin, Pablo; Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-03-14

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete bas