HAMMERAND,DANIEL C.; KAPANIA,RAKESH K.
2000-05-01
A triangular flat shell element for large deformation analysis of linear viscoelastic laminated composites is presented. Hygrothermorheologically simple materials are considered for which a change in the hygrothermal environment results in a horizontal shifting of the relaxation moduli curves on a log time scale, in addition to the usual hygrothermal loads. Recurrence relations are developed and implemented for the evaluation of the viscoelastic memory loads. The nonlinear deformation process is computed using an incremental/iterative approach with the Newton-Raphson Method used to find the incremental displacements in each step. The presented numerical examples consider the large deformation and stability of linear viscoelastic structures under deformation-independent mechanical loads, deformation-dependent pressure loads, and thermal loads. Unlike elastic structures that have a single critical load value associated with a given snapping of buckling instability phenomenon, viscoelastic structures will usually exhibit a particular instability for a range of applied loads over a range of critical times. Both creep buckling and snap-through examples are presented here. In some cases, viscoelastic results are also obtained using the quasielastic method in which load-history effects are ignored, and time-varying viscoelastic properties are simply used in a series of elastic problems. The presented numerical examples demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the formulation.
Physical aging effects on the compressive linear viscoelastic creep of IM7/K3B composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.
1995-01-01
An experimental study was undertaken to establish the viscoelastic behavior of 1M7/K3B composite in compression at elevated temperature. Creep compliance, strain recovery and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The IM7/K3B composite is a graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide with a T(g) of approximately 240 C. In a composite, the two matrix dominated compliance terms associated with time dependent behavior occur in the transverse and shear directions. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. Creep strain was converted to compliance and measured as a function of test time and aging time. Results included creep compliance master curves, physical aging shift factors and shift rates. The description of the unique experimental techniques required for compressive testing is also given.
Hickey, Robert J.; Gillard, Timothy M.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.
2015-08-28
Rheological evidence of composition fluctuations in disordered diblock copolymers near the order disorder transition (ODT) has been documented in the literature over the past three decades, characterized by a failure of time–temperature superposition (tTS) to reduce linear dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS) data in the terminal viscoelastic regime to a temperature-independent form. However, for some materials, most notably poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PS–PI), no signature of these rheological features has been found. We present small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results on symmetric poly(cyclohexylethylene-b-ethylene) (PCHE–PE) diblock copolymers that confirm the presence of fluctuations in the disordered state and DMS measurements that also show no sign of the features ascribed to composition fluctuations. Assessment of DMS results published on five different diblock copolymer systems leads us to conclude that the effects of composition fluctuations can be masked by highly asymmetric block dynamics, thereby resolving a long-standing disagreement in the literature and reinforcing the importance of mechanical contrast in understanding the dynamics of ordered and disordered block polymers.
Dynamics of gas bubbles in viscoelastic fluids. I. Linear viscoelasticity
Allen; Roy
2000-06-01
The nonlinear oscillations of spherical gas bubbles in linear viscoelastic fluids are studied. A novel approach is implemented to derive a governing system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The linear Maxwell and Jeffreys models are chosen as the fluid constitutive equations. An advantage of this new formulation is that, when compared with previous approaches, it facilitates perturbation methods and numerical investigations. Analytical solutions are obtained using a multiple scale perturbation method and compared with the Newtonian results for various Deborah numbers. Numerical analysis of the full equations supports the perturbation analysis, and further reveals significant differences between the viscoelastic and Newtonian cases. Differences in the oscillation phase and harmonic structure characterize some of the viscoelastic effects. Subharmonic excitations at particular fluid parameters lead to a discrete group modulation of the radial excursions; this appears to be a unique, previously undiscovered phenomenon. Implications for medical ultrasound applications are discussed in light of these current findings.
A Thermodynamic Theory Of Solid Viscoelasticity. Part 1: Linear Viscoelasticity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.
2002-01-01
The present series of three consecutive papers develops a general theory for linear and finite solid viscoelasticity. Because the most important object for nonlinear studies are rubber-like materials, the general approach is specified in a form convenient for solving problems important for many industries that involve rubber-like materials. General linear and nonlinear theories for non-isothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids are developed based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this, the first paper of the series, we analyze non-isothermal linear viscoelasticity, which is applicable in a range of small strains not only to all synthetic polymers and bio-polymers but also to some non-polymeric materials. Although the linear case seems to be well developed, there still are some reasons to implement a thermodynamic derivation of constitutive equations for solid-like, non-isothermal, linear viscoelasticity. The most important is the thermodynamic modeling of thermo-rheological complexity , i.e. different temperature dependences of relaxation parameters in various parts of relaxation spectrum. A special structure of interaction matrices is established for different physical mechanisms contributed to the normal relaxation modes. This structure seems to be in accord with observations, and creates a simple mathematical framework for both continuum and molecular theories of the thermo-rheological complex relaxation phenomena. Finally, a unified approach is briefly discussed that, in principle, allows combining both the long time (discrete) and short time (continuous) descriptions of relaxation behaviors for polymers in the rubbery and glassy regions.
Local linear viscoelasticity of confined fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, P. J.; Todd, B. D.
2007-04-01
In this paper the authors propose a novel method to study the local linear viscoelasticity of fluids confined between two walls. The method is based on the linear constitutive equation and provides details about the real and imaginary parts of the local complex viscosity. They apply the method to a simple atomic fluid undergoing zero mean oscillatory flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The method shows that the viscoelastic properties of the fluid exhibit dramatic spatial changes near the wall-fluid boundary due to the high density in this region. It is also shown that the real part of the viscosity converges to the frequency dependent local shear viscosity sufficiently far away from the wall. This also provides valuable information about the transport properties in the fluid, in general. The viscosity is compared with predictions from the local average density model. The two methods disagree in that the local average density model predicts larger viscosity variations near the wall-fluid boundary than what is observed through the method presented here.
Viscoelastic properties of 3-D braided PEEK/graphite composites
Hu, Jian-Ni.
1992-01-01
In this study, 3-D braided PEEK/AS4 graphite composites were performed and processed to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of this new system. These manufactured composites were characterized to determine their fiber volume fractions and matrix crystallinity indices using matrix digestion and wide angle x-ray diffraction. After physical characterization, the mechanical response of these composites were evaluated at various temperatures. Experimental results from tensile measurements were compared to an established fabric geometry model (FGM). This model predicts tensile modules based upon fiber and matrix properties, fiber volume fraction, and braiding angle. Model predictions and experimental results are given here, and are in good agreement with each other. In order to study the time-dependent mechanical properties of these 3-D braided composites, their stress relaxation, creep and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. These results were then compared to a new composite model. This model combined a Quasi/linear Viscoelastic Model (QVM) for the viscoelastic behavior of PEEK with the FGM approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of 3-D PEEK composites. The experimental stress relaxation and creep results are in good agreement with the QVM-FGM analysis. Thus, the QVM-FGM approach was used to accurately correlate these viscoelastic properties of 3-D braided PEEK/graphite composites. Through wider use and testing, this QVM/FGM approach may be used to increase our understanding and perhaps facilitate the design of composite structures.
Semi-analytical computation of displacement in linear viscoelastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinu, S.; Gradinaru, D.
2015-11-01
Prediction of mechanical contact performance based on elastic models is not accurate in case of viscoelastic materials; however, a closed-form description of the viscoelastic contact has yet to be found. This paper aims to advance a semi-analytical method for computation of displacement induced in viscoelastic materials by arbitrary surface tractions, as a prerequisite to a semi-analytical solution for the viscoelastic contact problem. The newly advanced model is expected to provide greater generality, allowing for arbitrary contact geometry and / or arbitrary loading history. While time-independent equations in the purely elastic model can be treated numerically by imposing a spatial discretization only, a viscoelastic constitutive law requires supplementary temporal discretization capable of simulating the memory effect specific to viscoelastic materials. By deriving new influence coefficients, computation of displacement induced in a viscoelastic material by a known but otherwise arbitrary history of surface tractions can be achieved via superposition authorized by the Boltzmann superposition theory applicable in the frame of linear viscoelasticity.
Viscoelastic damping in crystalline composites and alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranganathan, Raghavan; Ozisik, Rahmi; Keblinski, Pawel
We use molecular dynamics simulations to study viscoelastic behavior of model Lennard-Jones (LJ) crystalline composites subject to an oscillatory shear deformation. The two crystals, namely a soft and a stiff phase, individually show highly elastic behavior and a very small loss modulus. On the other hand, when the stiff phase is included within the soft matrix as a sphere, the composite exhibits significant viscoelastic damping and a large phase shift between stress and strain. In fact, the maximum loss modulus in these model composites was found to be about 20 times greater than that given by the theoretical Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound. We attribute this behavior to the fact that in composites shear strain is highly inhomogeneous and mostly accommodated by the soft phase, corroborated by frequency-dependent Grüneisen parameter analysis. Interestingly, the frequency at which the damping is greatest scales with the microstructural length scale of the composite. Finally, a critical comparison between damping properties of these composites with ordered and disordered alloys and superlattice structures is made.
Stephanou, Pavlos S; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G
2014-06-01
We present a hierarchical computational methodology which permits the accurate prediction of the linear viscoelastic properties of entangled polymer melts directly from the chemical structure, chemical composition, and molecular architecture of the constituent chains. The method entails three steps: execution of long molecular dynamics simulations with moderately entangled polymer melts, self-consistent mapping of the accumulated trajectories onto a tube model and parameterization or fine-tuning of the model on the basis of detailed simulation data, and use of the modified tube model to predict the linear viscoelastic properties of significantly higher molecular weight (MW) melts of the same polymer. Predictions are reported for the zero-shear-rate viscosity η0 and the spectra of storage G'(ω) and loss G″(ω) moduli for several mono and bidisperse cis- and trans-1,4 polybutadiene melts as well as for their MW dependence, and are found to be in remarkable agreement with experimentally measured rheological data. PMID:24908037
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanou, Pavlos S.; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G.
2014-06-01
We present a hierarchical computational methodology which permits the accurate prediction of the linear viscoelastic properties of entangled polymer melts directly from the chemical structure, chemical composition, and molecular architecture of the constituent chains. The method entails three steps: execution of long molecular dynamics simulations with moderately entangled polymer melts, self-consistent mapping of the accumulated trajectories onto a tube model and parameterization or fine-tuning of the model on the basis of detailed simulation data, and use of the modified tube model to predict the linear viscoelastic properties of significantly higher molecular weight (MW) melts of the same polymer. Predictions are reported for the zero-shear-rate viscosity η0 and the spectra of storage G'(ω) and loss G″(ω) moduli for several mono and bidisperse cis- and trans-1,4 polybutadiene melts as well as for their MW dependence, and are found to be in remarkable agreement with experimentally measured rheological data.
Quasi-linear viscoelastic characterization of human hip ligaments.
Kemper, Andrew R; McNally, Craig; Smith, Byron; Duma, Stefan M
2007-01-01
The object of this study was to develop a quasi-linear viscoelastic model for the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral hip ligaments. In order to accomplish this, a total of 56 axial tension tests were performed on 8 bone-ligament-bone specimens prepared from 4 fresh frozen male cadavers. Each specimen went through a battery of 7 tests including a series of step-and-hold tests and load-and-unload ramp tests. The bone-ligament-bone specimens were situated so that the load from a servo-hydraulic Material Testing System would be applied on the long axis of each ligament. The reduced relaxation data was fit to a two exponential damping function while the instantaneous elastic response was fit to a power-law function. These two constituents were then combined to create a single constitutive equation for each ligament. The quasi-linear viscoelastic model presented in this study can be used to improve the biofidelity of computational models of the human hip. PMID:17487102
Linear Viscoelasticity and Swelling of Polyelectrolyte Complex Coacervates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamad, Fawzi; Colby, Ralph
2012-02-01
The addition of near equimolar amounts of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to poly(isobutylene-alt-maleate sodium), results in formation of a polyelectrolyte complex coacervate. Zeta-potential titrations conclude that these PE-complexes are nearly charge-neutral. Swelling and rheological properties are studied at different salt concentrations in the surrounding solution. The enhanced swelling observed at high salt concentration suggests the system behaves like a polyampholyte gel, and weaker swelling at very low salt concentrations implies polyelectrolyte gel behavior. Linear viscoelastic oscillatory shear measurements indicate that the coacervates are viscoelastic liquids and that increasing ionic strength of the medium weakens the electrostatic interactions between charged units, lowering the relaxation time and viscosity. We use the time-salt superposition idea recently proposed by Spruijt, et al., allowing us to construct master curves for these soft materials. Similar swelling properties observed when varying molecular weights. Rheological measurements reveal that PE-complexes with increasing molecular weight polyelectrolytes form a network with higher crosslink density, suggesting time-molecular weight superposition idea.
Linear viscoelasticity of a polystyrene-polyisoprene bicontinuous microemulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brinker, Kristin; Burghardt, Wesley
2004-03-01
Polymer bicontinuous microemulsions are disordered phases in which two immiscible homopolymers are emulsified by a diblock copolymer which stabilizes the interface between A-rich and B-rich domains. Many examples have been found in symmetric ternary A, B, A-B blends, in which the microemulsion phase is found between regimes of an ordered lamellar phase at high copolymer concentration and macroscopic 2- or 3-phase coexistence at low copolymer concentration. The convoluted, interpenetrating morphology of these phases and high specific interfacial area leads to complex viscoelastic behavior, even when the constituent homopolymers are essentially Newtonian. To date, only one such system (based on polyethylethylene-PDMS) has been subjected to extensive rheological investigation. Many of the interesting qualitative and quantitiative phenomena in this system were attributed to large viscosity mismatch between the homopolymers due to their difference in glass transition temperature. Here we consider a microemulsion system based on polystyrene and polyisoprene. This system should similarly exhibit large viscosity contrast, and thus serves as a model to investigate the universality of the phenomena previously documented. Rheology, optical microscopy and x-ray scattering have been used to map out the phase behavior in this system. Here we will report on linear viscoelastic data collected as a function of temperature in the microemulsion regime.
Thermo-viscoelastic analysis of composite materials, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, K. Y.; Hwang, I. H.
1988-01-01
Advanced composite materials, especially graphite/epoxy, are being applied to aircraft structures in order to improve performance and save weight. An important consideration in composite design is the residual strength of a structure containing holes, delaminations, or interlaminar damage when subjected to compressive loads. Recent studies have revealed the importance of viscoelastic effects in polymer-based composites. The viscoelastic effect is particularly significant at elevated temperature/moisture conditions since the matrix material is strongly affected by the environment. The solution of viscoelastic problems in composites was limited to special cases which can be solved by classical lamination theory. A finite element procedure is presented for calculating time-dependent stresses and strains in composite structures with general configurations and complicated boundary conditions. Using this procedure the in-plane and interlaminar stress distributions and histories in notched and unnotched composites were obtained for mechanical and thermal loads. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional viscoelastic problems are analyzed. The effects of layup orientation and load spectrum on creep response and stress relaxation were also studied.
Interconversion of linearly viscoelastic material functions expressed as Prony series: a closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luk-Cyr, Jacques; Crochon, Thibaut; Li, Chun; Lévesque, Martin
2013-02-01
Interconversion of viscoelastic material functions is a longstanding problem that has received attention since the 1950s. There is currently no accepted methodology for interconverting viscoelastic material functions due to the lack of stability and accuracy of the existing methods. This paper presents a new exact, analytical interconversion method for linearly viscoelastic material functions expressed as Prony series. The new algorithm relies on the equations of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes used for defining linearly viscoelastic constitutive theories. As a result, interconversion is made possible for unidimensional and tridimensional materials for arbitrary material symmetry. The algorithm has been tested over a broad range of cases and was found to deliver accurate interconversion in all cases. Based on its accuracy and stability, the authors believe that their algorithm provides a closure to the interconversion of linearly viscoelastic constitutive theories expressed with Prony series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musa, A. B.
2015-05-01
The study is about impact of a short elastic rod (or slug) on a stationary semi-infinite viscoelastic rod. The viscoelastic materials are modeled as standard linear solid which involve three material parameters and the motion is treated as one-dimensional. We first establish the governing equations pertaining to the impact of viscoelastic materials subject to certain boundary conditions for the case when an elastic slug moving at a speed V impacts a semi-infinite stationary viscoelastic rod. The objective is to validate the numerical results of stresses and velocities at the interface following wave transmissions and reflections in the slug after the impact using viscoelastic discontinuity. If the stress at the interface becomes tensile and the velocity changes its sign, then the slug and the rod part company. If the stress at the interface is compressive after the impact, the slug and the rod remain in contact. After modelling the impact and solve the governing system of partial differential equations in the Laplace transform domain, we invert the Laplace transformed solution numerically to obtain the stresses and velocities at the interface for several viscosity time constants and ratios of acoustic impedances. In inverting the Laplace transformed equations, we used the complex inversion formula because there is a branch cut and infinitely many poles within the Bromwich contour. In the viscoelastic discontinuity analysis, we look at the moving discontinuities in stress and velocity using the impulse-momentum relation and kinematical condition of compatibility. Finally, we discussed the relationship of the stresses and velocities using numeric and the validated stresses and velocities using viscoelastic discontinuity analysis.
Anisotropy of bituminous mixture in the linear viscoelastic domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Benedetto, Hervé; Sauzéat, Cédric; Clec'h, Pauline
2016-08-01
Some anisotropic properties in the linear viscoelastic domain of bituminous mixtures compacted with a French LPC wheel compactor are highlighted in this paper. Bituminous mixture is generally considered as isotropic even if the compaction process on road or in laboratory induces anisotropic properties. Tension-compression complex modulus tests have been performed on parallelepipedic specimens in two directions: (i) direction of compactor wheel movement (direction I, which is horizontal) and (ii) direction of compaction (direction II, which is vertical). These tests consist in measuring sinusoidal axial and lateral strains as well as sinusoidal axial stress, when sinusoidal axial loading is applied on the specimen. Different loading frequencies and temperatures are applied. Two complex moduli, EI ^{*} and E_{II}^{*}, and four complex Poisson's ratios, ν_{{II-I}}^{*}, ν_{{III-I}}^{*}, ν_{{I-II}}^{*} and ν_{{III-II}}^{*}, were obtained. The vertical direction appears softer than the other ones for the highest frequencies. There are very few differences between the two directions I and II for parameters concerning viscous effects (phase angles φ(EI) and φ(E_{II}), and shift factors). The four Poisson's ratios reveal anisotropic properties but rheological tensor can be considered as symmetric when considering very similar values obtained for the two measured parameters (I-II and II-I)
Viscoelasticity of Epoxy nano-composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahuja, Suresh
2013-03-01
Nanocomposites have been modeled in a multiscale covering from molecular scale (e.g., molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo), microscale (e.g., Brownian dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, lattice Boltzmann, time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau method, dynamic density functional theory method) to mesoscale and macroscale (e.g., micromechanics, equivalent-continuum and self-similar approaches, finite element method) The presence of layered silicates in nonaqueous polymers changes the viscoelastic behavior of the unfilled matrix from liquid-like to solid-like because of the formation of a three-dimensional percolating network of exfoliated or intercalated stacks. This gel-like behavior is a direct consequence of the highly anisotropic nature of the nanoclays which prevents their free rotation and the dissipation of stress. Particle to particle interactions is the dominant mechanism in fumed silica nanocomposites whereas particle to polymer interaction is the dominant one in colloidal silica nanocomposites at identical filler concentrations. These interactions are balanced in each nanocomposite systems by the silica surface treatments (chain grafting, silane modification) and the molecular weight of the matrix. Two different types of nanocomposite structures exist namely, intercalated nanocomposites where the polymer chains are sandwiched between silicate layers and exfoliated nanocomposites where the layers can be considered individually but remain more or less dispersed in the polymer matrix. Yield stress from Carreau-Yasuda model has been correlated to exfoliation. Also, equilibrium modulus and zero shear rate viscosity has been used to analyze percolation threshold and sol-gel transition. Nano clays organically functionalized were mixed with Epoxy in a high shear mixer.
On the modal decoupling of linear mechanical systems with frequency-dependent viscoelastic behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastroddi, Franco; Calore, Paolo
2016-03-01
Linear Multi-Degree of Freedom (MDOF) mechanical systems having frequency-dependent viscoelastic behaviors are often studied and modelled in frequency or Laplace domains. Indeed, once this modelling process is carried out, it is not generally possible to reduce the obtained MDOF damped mechanical system to a set of uncoupled damped modal oscillators apart from some special cases. In this paper a general procedure has been proposed to transform a coupled linear mechanical system having frequency-dependent viscoelastic characteristics to a set of independent damped modal oscillators. The procedure is based on a linear co-ordinate transformation procedure using matrices in real field only. The approach is exact and based on the solution of one associated eigenproblem for the case of linearly viscous damping. In the general case of frequency-dependent viscoelastic materials, the approach includes an iterative procedure solving local eigenproblems.Some numerical results are reported to show the capabilities of the proposed approach.
The nonlinear viscoelastic response of resin matrix composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hiel, C.; Cardon, A. H.; Brinson, H. F.
1984-01-01
Possible treatments of the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of materials are reviewed. A thermodynamic based approach, developed by Schapery, is discussed and used to interpret the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a graphite epoxy laminate, T300/934. Test data to verify the analysis for Fiberite 934 neat resin as well as transverse and shear properties of the unidirectional T300/934 composited are presented. Long time creep characteristics as a function of stress level and temperature are generated. Favorable comparisons between the traditional, graphical, and the current analytical approaches are shown. A free energy based rupture criterion is proposed as a way to estimate the life that remains in a structure at any time.
Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond.
Jaglinski, T; Kochmann, D; Stone, D; Lakes, R S
2007-02-01
We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain bariumtitanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent. PMID:17272714
Accelerated viscoelastic characterization of E-Glass/Epoxy composite
Chen Min.
1991-01-01
In this study, an accelerated viscoelastic characterization was applied to E-Glass/Epoxy materials. The approach is based on the TTSP (Time Temperature Superposition Principle) and the widely used lamination theory for composite materials. The final goal is the life prediction for fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) piping systems used in oil industries. Creep tests at different temperatures were conducted with a servo-hydraulic test system to determine compliance master curves. The viscoelastic response of unidirectional specimens was modeled by a generalized Kelvin model. Direct iteration methods were developed to solve the differential equations. The viscoelastic response of E-Glass/Epoxy laminates at different temperatures to transverse normal and in-plane shear stresses is determined using 90{degree} and 10{degree} off-axis tensile specimens, respectively. Based on short-term creep tests, (2.5 hours), 40-year predictions were achieved. Creep-rupture tests at different temperatures were conducted. The rupture stresses were determined for 0{degree}, 90{degree}, 10{degree}, and ({plus minus}55{degrees})s specimens.
Fractional characteristic times and dissipated energy in fractional linear viscoelasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colinas-Armijo, Natalia; Di Paola, Mario; Pinnola, Francesco P.
2016-08-01
In fractional viscoelasticity the stress-strain relation is a differential equation with non-integer operators (derivative or integral). Such constitutive law is able to describe the mechanical behavior of several materials, but when fractional operators appear, the elastic and the viscous contribution are inseparable and the characteristic times (relaxation and retardation time) cannot be defined. This paper aims to provide an approach to separate the elastic and the viscous phase in the fractional stress-strain relation with the aid of an equivalent classical model (Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell). For such equivalent model the parameters are selected by an optimization procedure. Once the parameters of the equivalent model are defined, characteristic times of fractional viscoelasticity are readily defined as ratio between viscosity and stiffness. In the numerical applications, three kinds of different excitations are considered, that is, harmonic, periodic, and pseudo-stochastic. It is shown that, for any periodic excitation, the equivalent models have some important features: (i) the dissipated energy per cycle at steady-state coincides with the Staverman-Schwarzl formulation of the fractional model, (ii) the elastic and the viscous coefficients of the equivalent model are strictly related to the storage and the loss modulus, respectively.
Measurement of the linear viscoelastic behavior of antimisting kerosene
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferry, J. D.
1983-01-01
Measurements of dynamic viscoelastic properties in very small oscillating shear deformations was made on solutions of a jet fuel, Jet A, containing an antimisting polymeric additive, FM-9. A few measurements were also made on solutions of FM-9 in a mixed solvent of mineral oil, Tetralin, and 0-terphenyl. Two samples of FM-9 had approximate number-average molecular weights of 12,000,000 and 8,100,000 as deduced from analysis of the measurements. The ranges of variables were 2.42 to 4.03 g/1 in concentration (0.3 to 0.5% by weight), 1 to 35 in temperature, 1.3 to 9.4 cp in solvent viscosity, and 103 to 6100 Hz in frequency. Measurements in the Jet A solvent were made both with and without a modifying carrier. The results were compared with the Zimm theory and the viscoelastic behavior was found to resemble rather closely that of ordinary non-polar polymers in theta solvents. The relation of the results to the antithixotropic behavior of such solutions a high shear rates is discussed in terms of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions.
Relationships between tissue composition and viscoelastic properties in human trabecular bone.
Ojanen, X; Isaksson, H; Töyräs, J; Turunen, M J; Malo, M K H; Halvari, A; Jurvelin, J S
2015-01-21
Trabecular bone is a metabolically active tissue with a high surface to volume ratio. It exhibits viscoelastic properties that may change during aging. Changes in bone properties due to altered metabolism are sensitively revealed in trabecular bone. However, the relationships between material composition and viscoelastic properties of bone, and their changes during aging have not yet been elucidated. In this study, trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck of male cadavers (n=21) aged 17-82 years were collected and the tissue level composition and its associations with the tissue viscoelastic properties were evaluated by using Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. For composition, collagen content, mineralization, carbonate substitution and mineral crystallinity were evaluated. The calculated mechanical properties included reduced modulus (Er), hardness (H) and the creep parameters (E1, E2, η1and η2), as obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Burgers model. The results indicated that the creep parameters, E1, E2, η1and η2, were linearly correlated with mineral crystallinity (r=0.769-0.924, p<0.001). Creep time constant (η2/E2) tended to increase with crystallinity (r=0.422, p=0.057). With age, the mineralization decreased (r=-0.587, p=0.005) while the carbonate substitution increased (r=0.728, p<0.001). Age showed no significant associations with nanoindentation parameters. The present findings suggest that, at the tissue-level, the viscoelastic properties of trabecular bone are related to the changes in characteristics of bone mineral. This association may be independent of human age.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pottier, Basile; Talini, Laurence; Frétigny, Christian
2012-02-01
We present a new optical method to measure the linear viscoelastic properties of materials, ranging from complex fluids to soft solids, within a large frequency range (about 0.1--10^4 Hz). The surface fluctuation specular reflection technique is based on the measurement of the thermal fluctuations of the free surfaces of materials at which a laser beam is specularly reflected. The propagation of the thermal surface waves depends on the surface tension, density, and complex viscoelastic modulus of the material. For known surface tension and density, we show that the frequency dependent elastic and loss moduli can be deduced from the fluctuation spectrum. Using a viscoelastic solid (a cross-linked PDMS), which linear viscoelastic properties are known in a large frequency range from rheometric measurements and the time--temperature superposition principle, we show that there is a good agreement between the rheological characterization provided by rheometric and fluctuation measurements. We also present measurements conducted with complex fluids that are supramolecular polymer solutions. The agreement with other low frequency and high frequency rheological measurements is again very good, and we discuss the sensitivity of the technique to surface viscoelasticity.
Chan, Roger W; Rodriguez, Maritza L
2008-08-01
Previous studies reporting the linear viscoelastic shear properties of the human vocal fold cover or mucosa have been based on torsional rheometry, with measurements limited to low audio frequencies, up to around 80 Hz. This paper describes the design and validation of a custom-built, controlled-strain, linear, simple-shear rheometer system capable of direct empirical measurements of viscoelastic shear properties at phonatory frequencies. A tissue specimen was subjected to simple shear between two parallel, rigid acrylic plates, with a linear motor creating a translational sinusoidal displacement of the specimen via the upper plate, and the lower plate transmitting the harmonic shear force resulting from the viscoelastic response of the specimen. The displacement of the specimen was measured by a linear variable differential transformer whereas the shear force was detected by a piezoelectric transducer. The frequency response characteristics of these system components were assessed by vibration experiments with accelerometers. Measurements of the viscoelastic shear moduli (G' and G") of a standard ANSI S2.21 polyurethane material and those of human vocal fold cover specimens were made, along with estimation of the system signal and noise levels. Preliminary results showed that the rheometer can provide valid and reliable rheometric data of vocal fold lamina propria specimens at frequencies of up to around 250 Hz, well into the phonatory range. PMID:18681608
Linear viscoelastic behaviour of oil-in-water food emulsions stabilised by tuna-protein isolates.
Ruiz-Márquez, D; Partal, P; Franco, Jm; Gallegos, C
2013-02-01
This work deals with the manufacture of oil-in-water food emulsions stabilised by tuna proteins. The influence of protein and oil concentrations on the linear viscoelastic properties and microstructure of these emulsions was analysed. Stable emulsions with suitable linear viscoelastic response and microstructural characteristics were formulated with 70 wt.% oil and, at least, 0.25 wt.% tuna protein. Similarly, emulsions with oil concentrations between 45 and 70 wt.% were prepared using 0.50 wt.% protein. All these emulsions showed a predominantly elastic response in the linear viscoelastic region and a well-developed plateau region in its mechanical spectrum. Rheological and droplet size distribution results pointed out an extensive droplet flocculation, due to interactions among emulsifier molecules located at the oil-water interface of adjacent droplets. As a result, the linear viscoelastic behaviour was controlled by protein-protein interactions, allowing the use of the plateau modulus to successfully normalise both the storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency onto a master curve, irrespective of the selected emulsion formulation. PMID:23239763
Chan, Roger W.; Rodriguez, Maritza L.
2008-01-01
Previous studies reporting the linear viscoelastic shear properties of the human vocal fold cover or mucosa have been based on torsional rheometry, with measurements limited to low audio frequencies, up to around 80 Hz. This paper describes the design and validation of a custom-built, controlled-strain, linear, simple-shear rheometer system capable of direct empirical measurements of viscoelastic shear properties at phonatory frequencies. A tissue specimen was subjected to simple shear between two parallel, rigid acrylic plates, with a linear motor creating a translational sinusoidal displacement of the specimen via the upper plate, and the lower plate transmitting the harmonic shear force resulting from the viscoelastic response of the specimen. The displacement of the specimen was measured by a linear variable differential transformer whereas the shear force was detected by a piezoelectric transducer. The frequency response characteristics of these system components were assessed by vibration experiments with accelerometers. Measurements of the viscoelastic shear moduli (G′ and G″) of a standard ANSI S2.21 polyurethane material and those of human vocal fold cover specimens were made, along with estimation of the system signal and noise levels. Preliminary results showed that the rheometer can provide valid and reliable rheometric data of vocal fold lamina propria specimens at frequencies of up to around 250 Hz, well into the phonatory range. PMID:18681608
Vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate with linearly thickness variations in both directions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, A. K.; Khanna, A.
2007-04-01
The analysis presented here is to study the effect of linear thickness variations in both directions on vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate having clamped boundary conditions on all the four edges. Using the separation of variables method, the governing differential equation has been solved for vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate. An approximate but quite convenient frequency equation is derived by using Rayleigh-Ritz technique with a two-term deflection function. Logarithmic decrement, time period and deflection at different points for the first two modes of vibration are calculated for various values of taper constants and aspect ratio.
Dynamic linear viscoelastic properties and extensional failure of asphalt binders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruan, Yonghong
Billions of dollars are spent annually in USA to maintain old pavements that are badly cracked. In order to reduce this expenditure, it is desirable to have criteria for selecting asphalts with superior cracking resistance that will provide pavements with longer durability. Literature reports indicate that the ductility of binders recovered from asphalt pavements correlates with cracking failure. However, ductility measurement is a time and material consuming process, and subject to reproducibility difficulties, as are all failure tests. In addition, ductility measurement does not belong to the currently used Superpave(TM) specification. Correlations between ductility and dynamic viscoelastic properties (measured with the dynamic shear rheometer, DSR), which are much easier and faster to perform and may be included into the Superpave(TM) system, are studied for both straight and modified binders. Ductility correlates quite well with G'/(eta '/G') for conventional asphalt binders aged at different conditions, especially when ductility is below 10 cm. However, for modified asphalts, there is no universal correlation between ductility and G'/(eta'/G'), even in the low ductility region. As far as the asphalt binder in pavement is concerned, the loss due to oxidative aging of its ductility is an important reason for pavement cracking. Polymer modification modifies the rheological and oxidative hardening properties of asphalt binders. The effect of polymeric modifiers on various properties of asphalt binders was investigated. Modifiers studied were diblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene) rubber (SBR), triblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), and tire rubber. Polymer modified binders have a lower hardening and oxidation rate than their corresponding base asphalts. In addition, modified binders have lower hardening susceptibility compared with their base materials and in some cases the results can be dramatic. Polymer modification improves asphalt binders' shear
Miniature fiber optic viscoelasticity sensor for composite cure monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Russell G., Jr.
The most promising strategy for reducing the cost of manufacturing polymer matrix composites while improving their reliability is the use of sensors during processing to permit control of the cure cycle based on measurements of the material's internal state. While sensors have been demonstrated that infer the material state indirectly through measurements of acoustic impedance, electrical impedance, or refractive index, sensors that directly measure parameters critical to composite manufacturing, such as resin rheology and resin hydrostatic pressure, would improve characterization of thermoset resins during cure. Here we describe the development of a multifunctional fiber optic sensor that may be embedded in a composite part during lay-up to monitor the state of the polymer matrix during processing. This sensor will output quantitative data which will indicate the viscoelasticity of the thermoset matrix resin. The same sensor will additionally function as a strain sensor following fabrication, capable of monitoring residual strains due to manufacturing or in-service internal strains. Sponsorship. This research was sponsored by F&S, Inc., Blacksburg, VA, and the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD), U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, Ft. Eustis, VA, under Contract No. DAAJ02-96-C-0034.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Debadi; Sader, John E.
2015-05-01
Simple bulk liquids such as water are commonly assumed to be Newtonian. While this assumption holds widely, the fluid-structure interaction of mechanical devices at nanometer scales can probe the intrinsic molecular relaxation processes in a surrounding liquid. This was recently demonstrated through measurement of the high frequency (20 GHz) linear mechanical vibrations of bipyramidal nanoparticles in simple liquids [Pelton et al., "Viscoelastic flows in simple liquids generated by vibrating nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 244502 (2013)]. In this article, we review and critically assess the available constitutive equations for compressible viscoelastic flows in their linear limits—such models are required for analysis of the above-mentioned measurements. We show that previous models, with the exception of a very recent proposal, do not reproduce the required response at high frequency. We explain the physical origin of this recent model and show that it recovers all required features of a linear viscoelastic flow. This constitutive equation thus provides a rigorous foundation for the analysis of vibrating nanostructures in simple liquids. The utility of this model is demonstrated by solving the fluid-structure interaction of two common problems: (1) a sphere executing radial oscillations in liquid, which depends strongly on the liquid compressibility and (2) the extensional mode vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles in liquid, where the effects of liquid compressibility are negligible. This highlights the importance of shear and compressional relaxation processes, as a function of flow geometry, and the impact of the shear and bulk viscosities on nanometer scale flows.
Quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament.
Criscenti, G; De Maria, C; Sebastiani, E; Tei, M; Placella, G; Speziali, A; Vozzi, G; Cerulli, G
2015-12-16
The evaluation of viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament is fundamental to understand its physiological function and contribution as stabilizer for the selection of the methods of repair and reconstruction and for the development of scaffolds with adequate mechanical properties. In this work, 12 human specimens were tested to evaluate the time- and history-dependent non linear viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament using the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory formulated by Fung et al. (1972) and modified by Abramowitch and Woo (2004). The five constant of the QLV theory, used to describe the instantaneous elastic response and the reduced relaxation function on stress relaxation experiments, were successfully evaluated. It was found that the constant A was 1.21±0.96MPa and the dimensionless constant B was 26.03±4.16. The magnitude of viscous response, the constant C, was 0.11±0.02 and the initial and late relaxation time constants τ1 and τ2 were 6.32±1.76s and 903.47±504.73s respectively. The total stress relaxation was 32.7±4.7%. To validate our results, the obtained constants were used to evaluate peak stresses from a cyclic stress relaxation test on three different specimens. The theoretically predicted values fit the experimental ones demonstrating that the QLV theory could be used to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament.
Linear oscillation of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material under ultrasound irradiation
Hamaguchi, Fumiya; Ando, Keita
2015-11-15
Acoustically forced oscillation of spherical gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material is studied through comparisons between experiments and linear theory. An experimental setup has been designed to visualize bubble dynamics in gelatin gels using a high-speed camera. A spherical gas bubble is created by focusing an infrared laser pulse into (gas-supersaturated) gelatin gels. The bubble radius (up to 150 μm) under mechanical equilibrium is controlled by gradual mass transfer of gases across the bubble interface. The linearized bubble dynamics are studied from the observation of spherical bubble oscillation driven by low-intensity, planar ultrasound driven at 28 kHz. It follows from the experiment for an isolated bubble that the frequency response in its volumetric oscillation was shifted to the high frequency side and its peak was suppressed as the gelatin concentration increases. The measurement is fitted to the linearized Rayleigh–Plesset equation coupled with the Voigt constitutive equation that models the behavior of linear viscoelastic solids; the fitting yields good agreement by tuning unknown values of the viscosity and rigidity, indicating that more complex phenomena including shear thinning, stress relaxation, and retardation do not play an important role for the small-amplitude oscillations. Moreover, the cases for bubble-bubble and bubble-wall systems are studied. The observed interaction effect on the linearized dynamics can be explained as well by a set of the Rayleigh–Plesset equations coupled through acoustic radiation among these systems. This suggests that this experimental setup can be applied to validate the model of bubble dynamics with more complex configuration such as a cloud of bubbles in viscoelastic materials.
Linear oscillation of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material under ultrasound irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamaguchi, Fumiya; Ando, Keita
2015-11-01
Acoustically forced oscillation of spherical gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material is studied through comparisons between experiments and linear theory. An experimental setup has been designed to visualize bubble dynamics in gelatin gels using a high-speed camera. A spherical gas bubble is created by focusing an infrared laser pulse into (gas-supersaturated) gelatin gels. The bubble radius (up to 150 μm) under mechanical equilibrium is controlled by gradual mass transfer of gases across the bubble interface. The linearized bubble dynamics are studied from the observation of spherical bubble oscillation driven by low-intensity, planar ultrasound driven at 28 kHz. It follows from the experiment for an isolated bubble that the frequency response in its volumetric oscillation was shifted to the high frequency side and its peak was suppressed as the gelatin concentration increases. The measurement is fitted to the linearized Rayleigh-Plesset equation coupled with the Voigt constitutive equation that models the behavior of linear viscoelastic solids; the fitting yields good agreement by tuning unknown values of the viscosity and rigidity, indicating that more complex phenomena including shear thinning, stress relaxation, and retardation do not play an important role for the small-amplitude oscillations. Moreover, the cases for bubble-bubble and bubble-wall systems are studied. The observed interaction effect on the linearized dynamics can be explained as well by a set of the Rayleigh-Plesset equations coupled through acoustic radiation among these systems. This suggests that this experimental setup can be applied to validate the model of bubble dynamics with more complex configuration such as a cloud of bubbles in viscoelastic materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanyga, Andrzej
2014-09-01
Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.
Characterization and modeling of viscoelastic composite laminates with nonisothermal physical aging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradshaw, Roger Dean
Advanced fiber-reinforced composite materials are often used at temperatures that lead to time-dependent material behavior; such behavior must be understood and accounted for to ensure adequate design. This dissertation considers the time-dependence caused by physical aging, which is the evolution towards the equilibrium state in glassy solids, and its effect upon the mechanical response of a viscoelastic composite laminate. A predictive methodology is presented to determine the laminate stress-strain response to a general loading function during an arbitrary time-temperature history. This characterization assumes that the material is thermorheologically simple, that it remains linear viscoelastic, and that effective time theory can be used to incorporate the effects of physical aging. The first portion of the dissertation studies physical aging. A new method for recovering isothermal aging parameters that utilizes both load and unload test data is demonstrated; the results compare favorably to the traditional approach. The Kohlrausch compliance function, commonly used in physical aging studies, is shown to be an invalid material function at long times; a Prony series is a preferable representation. This method is then extended to characterize nonisothermal physical aging. It is demonstrated that a new parameter, called "effective aging time," adequately describes the nonisothermal aging state. A model to predict this parameter given the thermal history is presented and shown to adequately describe experimental results. Once the effective aging time is known, classical lamination theory (CLT) can be used with linear viscoelasticity to predict mechanical response. An approach is presented to calculate modulus behavior (convenient for CLT) from compliance behavior (typical result of testing). A prediction method is developed to incorporate the resulting modulus functions into CLT while maintaining the distinct aging behavior in the shear and transverse directions for
Linear viscoelastic limits of asphalt concrete at low and intermediate temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Yusuf A.
The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate the hypothesis that a region at which the behavior of asphalt concrete can be represented as a linear viscoelastic material can be determined at low and intermediate temperatures considering the stresses and strains typically developed in the pavements under traffic loading. Six mixtures containing different aggregate gradations and nominal maximum aggregate sizes varying from 12.5 to 37.5 mm were used in this study. The asphalt binder grade was the same for all mixtures. The mixtures were compacted to 7 +/- 1% air voids, using the Superpave Gyratory Compactor. Tests were conducted at low temperatures (-20°C and -10°C), using the indirect tensile test machine, and at intermediate temperatures (4°C and 20°C), using the Superpave shear machine. To determine the linear viscoelastic range of asphalt concrete, a relaxation test for 150 s, followed by a creep test for another 150 s, was conducted at 150 and 200 microstrains (1 microstrain = 1 x 10-6), at -20°C, and at 150 and 300 microstrains, at -10°C. A creep test for 200 s, followed by a recovery test for another 200 s, was conducted at stress levels up to 800 kPa at 4°C and up to 500 kPa at 20°C. At -20°C and -10°C, the behavior of the mixtures was linear viscoelastic at 200 and 300 microstrains, respectively. At intermediate temperatures (4°C and 20°C), an envelope defining the linear and nonlinear region in terms of stress as a function of shear creep compliance was constructed for all the mixtures. For creep tests conducted at 20°C, it was discovered that the commonly used protocol to verify the proportionality condition of linear viscoelastic behavior was unable to detect the appearance of nonlinear behavior at certain imposed shear stress levels. Said nonlinear behavior was easily detected, however, when checking the satisfaction of the superposition condition. The envelope constructed for determining when the material becomes nonlinear should be
Pre-Stressed Viscoelastic Composites: Effective Incremental Moduli and Band-Gap Tuning
Parnell, William J.
2010-09-30
We study viscoelastic wave propagation along pre-stressed nonlinear elastic composite bars. In the pre-stressed state we derive explicit forms for the effective incremental storage and loss moduli with dependence on the pre-stress. We also derive a dispersion relation for the effective wavenumber in the case of arbitrary frequency, hence permitting a study of viscoelastic band-gap tuning via pre-stress.
Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator
Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.
2009-11-10
A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.
Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.
Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may
Chen, J.S.; Tsai, C.J. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)
1999-08-01
This article evaluates the effects of linear viscoelastic properties of asphalt on pavement rutting and fatigue cracking. The parameters in the binder specification recently developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) were also compared for pavement performance. Two studies were conducted for asphalt-aggregate mixes. The first study was the wheel tracking test to evaluate the rutting of mixes containing three asphalts. The second study was a detailed field study of the effects of binder properties on the pavement performance of eight different sections. Results of both investigations indicated that SHRP parameters were not sufficient indicators for predicting the rutting and fatigue cracking of pavements. The discrepancies between performance data and existing parameters of the binder mainly resulted from the inherited assumptions made during the specification development, that is, stress- or strain-controlled mode and traffic loading frequency. In order to directly relate the linear viscoelastic properties of asphalt binders to pavement performance, calculating the dissipated energy per traffic cycle, W[sub d], became imperative. Fundamental derivation of W[sub d] was developed in this study. Results indicated that W[sub d] could predict the rutting and fatigue cracking of pavements reasonably well, This study, proposed the dissipated energy, W[sub d], as the single parameter for evaluating pavement rutting and fatigue cracking.
Micro-Macro Analysis of Viscoelastic Unidirectional Laminated Composite Plates Using DR Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falahatgar, Seyed Reza; Salehi, Manouchehr; Aghdam, Mohammad Mohammadi
2010-10-01
The Dynamic Relaxation (DR) technique together with finite difference discritization is used to study the bending behavior of Mindlin composite plate including geometric nonlinearity. The overall behavior of the unidirectional composite is obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical model, in any combination of normal and shear loading conditions, based on the assumptions of Simplified Unit Cell Method (SUCM). The composite system consists of nonlinear viscoelastic matrix reinforced by transversely isotropic elastic fibers. A recursive formulation for the hereditary integral of the Schapery viscoelastic constitutive equation in multiaxial stress state is used to model the nonlinear viscoelastic matrix material in the material level. The creep tests data is used for verification of the predicted response of the current approach. Under uniform lateral pressure, the laminated plate deformation with clamped and hinged edged constraints is predicted for various time steps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwaoka, Nobuyuki; Hagita, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroshi
2014-03-01
On the basis of relaxation mode analysis (RMA), we present an efficient method to estimate the linear viscoelasticity of polymer melts in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Slow relaxation phenomena appeared in polymer melts cause a problem that a calculation of the stress relaxation function in MD simulations, especially in the terminal time region, requires large computational efforts. Relaxation mode analysis is a method that systematically extracts slow relaxation modes and rates of the polymer chain from the time correlation of its conformations. We show the computational cost may be drastically reduced by combining a direct calculation of the stress relaxation function based on the Green-Kubo formula with the relaxation rates spectra estimated by RMA. N. I. acknowledges the Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program from Keio University.
Siviello, Ciro; Greco, Francesco; Larobina, Domenico
2015-08-14
The mechanical behaviour of ionically cross-linked alginate gels is investigated here in detail. To determine the range of linear response of the materials, uniaxial, unconfined compression and torsional deformation experiments are performed, obtaining both the stress-strain and the viscoelastic behaviour of the gels. On-line measurements of the radii of the cylindrical gel samples in these experiments are also reported. The linearity range in the gel mechanical response is found to be rather limited, up to 6% strain, at most, contrary to more optimistic conclusions usually reported in the literature. We confirm the presence of a stress-diffusion coupling phenomenon in our alginates, i.e., the migration of water from/into the gels in response to the applied deformation. A phenomenon of inner (constitutive) relaxation of the network component of the gels is also clearly identified, and observed to occur, in parallel with solvent diffusion, upon compression. At sufficiently longer times after a deformation step, syneresis is always observed, with concomitant nonstandard viscoelastic effects, such as the growth of a normal force in torsion, and a size dependent decay of the longitudinal force in compression. We applied a two-fluid model, recently developed by two of the present authors [D. Larobina and F. Greco, J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 136(13), 134904], to simulate the relaxation tests upon torsional and compressive deformations, and to fit our own experiments. The model is found to well describe the coupling between constitutive relaxation and diffusion, and to reproduce the available force and radii data before the advent of syneresis.
Skontorp, A.; Wang, S.S.; Shibuya, Y.
1994-12-31
In this paper, a homogenization theory is developed to determine high-temperature effective viscoelastic constitutive equations for fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The homogenization theory approximates the microstructure of a fiber composite, and determine simultaneously effective macroscopic constitutive properties of the composite and the associated microscopic strain and stress in the heterogeneous material. The time-temperature dependent homogenization theory requires that the viscoelastic constituent properties of the matrix phase at elevated temperatures, the governing equations for the composites, and the boundary conditions of the problem be Laplace transformed to a conjugate problem. The homogenized effective properties in the transformed domain are determined, using a two-scale asymptotic expansion of field variables and an averaging procedure. Field solutions in the unit cell are determined from basic and first-order governing equations with the aid of a boundary integral method (BIM). Effective viscoelastic constitutive properties of the composite at elevated temperatures are determined by an inverse transformation, as are the microscopic stress and deformation in the composite. Using this method, interactions among fibers and between the fibers and the matrix can be evaluated explicitly, resulting in accurate solutions for composites with high-volume fraction of reinforcing fibers. Examples are given for the case of a carbon-fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyamide composite in an elevated temperature environment. The homogenization predictions are in good agreement with experimental data available for the composite.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karim, Mir; Indei, Tsutomu; Schieber, Jay D.; Khare, Rajesh
2016-01-01
Particle rheology is used to extract the linear viscoelastic properties of an entangled polymer melt from molecular dynamics simulations. The motion of a stiff, approximately spherical particle is tracked in both passive and active modes. We demonstrate that the dynamic modulus of the melt can be extracted under certain limitations using this technique. As shown before for unentangled chains [Karim et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 051501 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.051501], the frequency range of applicability is substantially expanded when both particle and medium inertia are properly accounted for by using our inertial version of the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (IGSER). The system used here introduces an entanglement length dT, in addition to those length scales already relevant: monomer bead size d , probe size R , polymer radius of gyration Rg, simulation box size L , shear wave penetration length Δ , and wave period Λ . Previously, we demonstrated a number of restrictions necessary to obtain the relevant fluid properties: continuum approximation breaks down when d ≳Λ ; medium inertia is important and IGSER is required when R ≳Λ ; and the probe should not experience hydrodynamic interaction with its periodic images, L ≳Δ . These restrictions are also observed here. A simple scaling argument for entangled polymers shows that the simulation box size must scale with polymer molecular weight as Mw3. Continuum analysis requires the existence of an added mass to the probe particle from the entrained medium but was not observed in the earlier work for unentangled chains. We confirm here that this added mass is necessary only when the thickness LS of the shell around the particle that contains the added mass, LS>d . We also demonstrate that the IGSER can be used to predict particle displacement over a given timescale from knowledge of medium viscoelasticity; such ability will be of interest for designing nanoparticle-based drug delivery.
Non-linear dynamics of viscoelastic liquid trilayers subjected to an electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis
2014-11-01
The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear dynamics of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a trilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of a polymer film which is separated from the top electrode by two viscous fluids. We develop a computational model and carry out 2D numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. For the numerical solution of the governing equations we employ the mixed finite element method combined with a quasi-elliptic mesh generation scheme which is capable of following the large deformations of the liquid-liquid interface. We model the viscoelastic behavior using the Phan-Thien and Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation taking fully into account the non-linear elastic effects as well as a varying shear and extensional viscosity. We perform a thorough parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various rheological parameters. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falahatgar, S. R.; Salehi, Manouchehr
2011-12-01
Nonlinear bending analysis of polymeric laminated composite plate is examined considering material nonlinearity for viscoelastic matrix material through a Micro-macro approach. The micromechanical Simplified Unit Cell Method (SUCM) in three-dimensional closed-form solution is used for the overall behavior of the unidirectional composite in any combination of loading conditions. The elastic fibers are transversely isotropic where Schapery single integral equation in multiaxial stress state describes the matrix material by recursive-iterative formulation. The finite difference Dynamic Relaxation (DR) method is utilized to study the bending behavior of Mindlin annular sector plate including geometric nonlinearity under uniform lateral pressure with clamped and hinged edge constraints. The unsymmetrical laminated plate deflection is predicted for different thicknesses and also various pressures in different time steps and they are compared with elastic finite element results. As a main objective, the deflection results of viscoelastic laminated sector plate are obtained for various fiber volume fractions in the composite system.
Composite memory variable velocity-stress viscoelastic modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hestholm, Stig
2002-01-01
The full 3-D viscoelastic wave equations have been reformulated,using the velocity-stress formulation for a curved grid, to include a set of memory variables for each particle velocity component. The earlier standard formulation includes a set of memory variables for each stress component. In 3-D this reduces the number of memory variables by three for each extra relaxation parameter above 1. This reformulation requires transforming the usual first order differential equation for velocity-stress modelling to a second order differential equation which again requires storage of two consecutive time step values of the particle velocities. No memory saving therefore is achieved using just one relaxation mechanism. However, the memory saved by the new formulation increases with increasing number of included relaxation mechanisms, and is around 30 per cent for 5-7 relaxation mechanisms, which is often required for accurate Q modelling. Incidentally, for media of heterogeneous Q , the new formulation is two to three times slower in simulations than the old formulation, so the new formulation should be used in memory critical applications and/or for heterogeneous media with layers/blocks of homogeneous Q , for which also CPU will be saved.
Zheng, Y P; Mak, A F
1999-06-01
A manual indentation protocol was established to assess the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) properties of lower limb soft tissues. The QLV parameters were extracted using a curve-fitting procedure on the experimental indentation data. The load-indentation responses were obtained using an ultrasound indentation apparatus with a hand-held pen-sized probe. Limb soft tissues at four sites of eight normal young subjects were tested in three body postures. Four QLV model parameters were extracted from the experimental data. The initial modulus E0 ranged from 0.22 kPa to 58.4 kPa. The nonlinear factor E1 ranged from 21.7 kPa to 547 kPa. The time constant tau ranged from 0.05 s to 8.93 s. The time-dependent materials parameter alpha ranged from 0.029 to 0.277. Large variations of the parameters were noted among subjects, sites, and postures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamopoulos, John; Karapetsas, George
2013-11-01
It is well known that during extrusion of viscoelastic fluids various flow instabilities may arise resulting in a distorted free surface. In order to investigate the factors generating these instabilities we perform a linear stability analysis at zero Reynolds number around the steady solution of the cylindrical or planar stick-slip flow for a viscoelastic fluid following the PTT model. The stick-slip flow is an important special case of the extrudate swell problem, since the latter reduces to it in the limit of infinite surface tension. We will show that the flow becomes unstable as the Weissenberg number increases above a critical value, due to a Hopf bifurcation suggesting that the flow will become periodic in time. Both the critical value of the Weissenberg number and the frequency of the instability depend strongly on the rheological parameters of the viscoelastic model. The elasticity alone can be responsible for the appearance of instabilities in the extrusion process of viscoelastic fluids and the often used assumptions of wall slip or compressibility, although they might be present, are not required. Finally, the mechanisms that produce these instabilities are examined through energy analysis of the disturbance flow. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the Action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant No: PE8/906), and under the ``Excellence Program'' (Grant No: 1918)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arshad Bashir, M.; Shahid, M.; Ahmed, Riaz; Yahya, A. G.
2014-06-01
In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent δ, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites.The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix.
Valdez-Jasso, Daniela; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Armentano, Ricardo L.; Haider, Mansoor A.; Olufsen, Mette S.
2013-01-01
A better understanding of the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall provides important insight into arterial vascular biology under normal (healthy) and pathological conditions. This insight has potential to improve tracking of disease progression and to aid in vascular graft design and implementation. In this study, we use linear and nonlinear viscoelastic models to predict biomechanical properties of the thoracic descending aorta and the carotid artery under ex vivo and in vivo conditions in ovine and human arteries. Models analyzed include a four-parameter (linear) Kelvin viscoelastic model and two five-parameter nonlinear viscoelastic models (an arctangent and a sigmoid model) that relate changes in arterial blood pressure to the vessel cross-sectional area (via estimation of vessel strain). These models were developed using the framework of Quasilinear Viscoelasticity (QLV) theory and were validated using measurements from the thoracic descending aorta and the carotid artery obtained from human and ovine arteries. In vivo measurements were obtained from ten ovine aortas and ten human carotid arteries. Ex vivo measurements (from both locations) were made in eleven male Merino sheep. Biomechanical properties were obtained through constrained estimation of model parameters. To further investigate the parameter estimates we computed standard errors and confidence intervals and we used analysis of variance to compare results within and between groups. Overall, our results indicate that optimal model selection depends on the arterial type. Results showed that for the thoracic descending aorta (under both experimental conditions) the best predictions were obtained with the nonlinear sigmoid model, while under healthy physiological pressure loading the carotid arteries nonlinear stiffening with increasing pressure is negligible, and consequently, the linear (Kelvin) viscoelastic model better describes the pressure-area dynamics in this vessel. Results
Commisso, Maria S; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Mayo, Juana; Domínguez, Jaime
2013-02-01
The main objectives of this work are: (a) to introduce an algorithm for adjusting the quasi-linear viscoelastic model to fit a material using a stress relaxation test and (b) to validate a protocol for performing such tests in temporomandibular joint discs. This algorithm is intended for fitting the Prony series coefficients and the hyperelastic constants of the quasi-linear viscoelastic model by considering that the relaxation test is performed with an initial ramp loading at a certain rate. This algorithm was validated before being applied to achieve the second objective. Generally, the complete three-dimensional formulation of the quasi-linear viscoelastic model is very complex. Therefore, it is necessary to design an experimental test to ensure a simple stress state, such as uniaxial compression to facilitate obtaining the viscoelastic properties. This work provides some recommendations about the experimental setup, which are important to follow, as an inadequate setup could produce a stress state far from uniaxial, thus, distorting the material constants determined from the experiment. The test considered is a stress relaxation test using unconfined compression performed in cylindrical specimens extracted from temporomandibular joint discs. To validate the experimental protocol, the test was numerically simulated using finite-element modelling. The disc was arbitrarily assigned a set of quasi-linear viscoelastic constants (c1) in the finite-element model. Another set of constants (c2) was obtained by fitting the results of the simulated test with the proposed algorithm. The deviation of constants c2 from constants c1 measures how far the stresses are from the uniaxial state. The effects of the following features of the experimental setup on this deviation have been analysed: (a) the friction coefficient between the compression plates and the specimen (which should be as low as possible); (b) the portion of the specimen glued to the compression plates (smaller
Viscoelastic properties of kenaf reinforced unsaturated polyester composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osman, Ekhlas A.; Mutasher, Saad A.
2014-03-01
In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical and dynamic properties of kenaf fiber unsaturated polyester composites, formulations containing 10 wt.% to 40 wt.% kenaf fiber were produced and tested at two representative temperatures of 30°C and 50°C. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed, to obtain the strain and creep compliance for kenaf composites at various styrene concentrations. It is possible to obtain creep curves at different temperature levels which can be shifted along the time axis to generate a single curve known as a master curve. This technique is known as the time-temperature superposition principle. Shift factors conformed to a William-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. However, more long term creep data was needed in order to further validate the applicability of time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) to this material. The primary creep strain model was fitted to 60 min creep data. The resulting equation was then extrapolated to 5.5 days; the creep strain model of power-law was successfully used to predict the long-term creep behavior of natural fiber/thermoset composites.
Long-Term Viscoelastic Response of E-glass/Bismaleimide Composite in Seawater Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yian, Zhao; Zhiying, Wang; Keey, Seah Leong; Boay, Chai Gin
2015-12-01
The effect of seawater absorption on the long-term viscoelastic response of E-glass/BMI composite is presented in this paper. The diffusion of seawater into the composite shows a two-stage behavior, dominated by Fickian diffusion initially and followed by polymeric relaxation. The Glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composite with seawater absorption is considerably lowered due to the plasticization effect. However the effect of water absorption at 50 °C is found to be reversible after drying process. The time-temperature superposition (TTS) was performed based on the results of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis to construct the master curve of storage modulus. The shift factors exhibit Arrhenius behavior when temperature is well below Tg and Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) like behavior when temperature gets close to glass transition region. As a result, a semi-empirical formulation is proposed to account for the seawater absorption effect in predicting long-term viscoelastic response of BMI composites based on temperature dependent storage modulus and TTS. The predicted master curves show that the degradation of storage modulus accelerates with both seawater exposure and increasing temperature. The proposed formulation can be applied to predict the long-term durability of any thermorheologically simple composite materials in seawater environment.
The viscoelastic behavior of a composite in a thermal environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, D. H.; Brinson, H. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Yeow, Y. T.
1979-01-01
A proposed method for the accelerated predictions of modulus and life times for time dependent polymer matrix composite laminates is presented. The method, based on the time temperature superposition principle and lamination theory, is described in detail. Unidirectional reciprocal of compliance master curves and the shift functions needed are presented and discussed. Master curves for arbitrarily oriented unidirectional laminates are predicted and compared with experimantal results obtained from master curves generated from 15 minute tests and with 25 hour tests. Good agreement is shown. Predicted 30 deg and 60 deg unidirectional strength master curves are presented and compared to results of creep rupture tests. Reasonable agreement is demonstrated. In addition, creep rupture results for a (90 deg + or - 60 deg/90 deg) sub 2s laminate are presented.
Composite Linear Models | Division of Cancer Prevention
By Stuart G. Baker The composite linear models software is a matrix approach to compute maximum likelihood estimates and asymptotic standard errors for models for incomplete multinomial data. It implements the method described in Baker SG. Composite linear models for incomplete multinomial data. Statistics in Medicine 1994;13:609-622. The software includes a library of thirty examples from the literature. |
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Yuan, Shou-qi; Guan, Yi-jun; Ge, Yong
2016-07-01
The propagation characteristics of laser-generated Lamb waves in multilayered fiber-reinforced composite plates with different fiber orientations and number of layers have been investigated quantitatively. Considering the viscoelasticity of the composite materials, we have set up finite element models for simulating the laser-generated Lamb waves in two types of the multilayered composite plates. In the first type, different fiber orientations are adopted. In the second one, different number of layers are considered. The results illustrate the occurrence of attenuation and dispersion, which is induced by the viscoelasticity and multilayer structure, respectively.
Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun; Toprak, Tuncer; Islak, Civan
2013-01-01
This study is aimed at setting a method of experimental parameter estimation for large-deforming nonlinear viscoelastic continuous fibre-reinforced composite material model. Specifically, arterial tissue was investigated during experimental research and parameter estimation studies, due to medical, scientific and socio-economic importance of soft tissue research. Using analytical formulations for specimens under combined inflation/extension/torsion on thick-walled cylindrical tubes, in vitro experiments were carried out with fresh sheep arterial segments, and parameter estimation procedures were carried out on experimental data. Model restrictions were pointed out using outcomes from parameter estimation. Needs for further studies that can be developed are discussed.
Nonlinear Visco-Elastic Response of Composites via Micro-Mechanical Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gates, Thomas S.; Sridharan, Srinivasan
2005-01-01
Micro-mechanical models for a study of nonlinear visco-elastic response of composite laminae are developed and their performance compared. A single integral constitutive law proposed by Schapery and subsequently generalized to multi-axial states of stress is utilized in the study for the matrix material. This is used in conjunction with a computationally facile scheme in which hereditary strains are computed using a recursive relation suggested by Henriksen. Composite response is studied using two competing micro-models, viz. a simplified Square Cell Model (SSCM) and a Finite Element based self-consistent Cylindrical Model (FECM). The algorithm is developed assuming that the material response computations are carried out in a module attached to a general purpose finite element program used for composite structural analysis. It is shown that the SSCM as used in investigations of material nonlinearity can involve significant errors in the prediction of transverse Young's modulus and shear modulus. The errors in the elastic strains thus predicted are of the same order of magnitude as the creep strains accruing due to visco-elasticity. The FECM on the other hand does appear to perform better both in the prediction of elastic constants and the study of creep response.
Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lim, Sanghyuk; Kum, Kee Yeon; Chang, Seok Woo
2015-01-01
Preheating of dental composites improves their flowability, facilitating successful restorations. However, the flowability of dental composites is affected not only by temperature but also by the deformation conditions. In the present work, the effects of various deformation conditions upon the viscoelastic properties of a preheated dental composite were studied. The rheological properties of Z350 dental composites at 25, 45, and 60°C were measured by a strain-controlled rheometer. When a low strain (0.03%) was applied, the preheated composite exhibited greater shear storage modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) than a room-temperature composite. Oppositely, when a high strain (50%) was applied, G' and η* of a preheated composite were lower than those of a room-temperature composite. Preheating of dental composites might be helpful in clinical practice both to increase the slumping resistance when minimal manipulation is used (e.g., during the build-up of a missing cusp tip) and to increase flowability when manipulation entailing high shear strain is applied (e.g., when uncured composite resin is spread on a dentin surface).
Modeling and Testing of the Viscoelastic Properties of a Graphite Nanoplatelet/Epoxy Composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.
2005-01-01
In order to facilitate the interpretation of experimental data, a micromechanical modeling procedure is developed to predict the viscoelastic properties of a graphite nanoplatelet/epoxy composite as a function of volume fraction and nanoplatelet diameter. The predicted storage and loss moduli for the composite are compared to measured values from the same material using three test methods; Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, nanoindentation, and quasi-static tensile tests. In most cases, the model and experiments indicate that for increasing volume fractions of nanoplatelets, both the storage and loss moduli increase. Also, the results indicate that for nanoplatelet sizes above 15 microns, nanoindentation is capable of measuring properties of individual constituents of a composite system. Comparison of the predicted values to the measured data helps illustrate the relative similarities and differences between the bulk and local measurement techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozite, L.; Joffe, R.; Varna, J.; Nyström, B.
2012-02-01
The behaviour of highly non-linear cellulosic fibers and their composite is characterized. Micro-mechanisms occurring in these materials are identified. Mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers and composites are obtained using simple tensile test. Material visco-plastic and visco-elastic properties are analyzed using creep tests. Two bio-based resins are used in this study - Tribest and EpoBioX. The glass and flax fiber composites are used as reference materials to compare with Cordenka fiber laminates.
The accelerated characterization of viscoelastic composite materials. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffith, W. I.; Morris, D. H.; Brinson, H. F.
1980-01-01
Necessary fundamentals relative to composite materials and viscoelasticity are reviewed. The accelerated characterization techniques of time temperature superposition and time temperature stress superposition are described. An experimental procedure for applying the latter to composites is given along with results obtained on a particular T300/934 graphite/epoxy. The accelerated characterization predictions are found in good agreement with actual long term tests. A postcuring phenomenon is discussed that necessitates thermal conditioning of the specimen prior to testing. A closely related phenomenon of physical aging is described as well as the effect of each on the glass transition temperature and strength. Creep rupture results are provided for a variety of geometries and temperatures for T300/934 graphite/epoxy. The results are found to compare reasonably with a modified kinetic rate theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitsaz Yazdi, F.; Jalali, A.
2015-08-01
In this paper, the static and dynamic response of a clamped-clamped viscoelastic nanocomposite microbeam under combined electrostatic and piezoelectric actuations is analyzed. The equations of motion of the system are derived using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Kelvin-Voigt model and Hamilton principle. The nonlinear model for the system is studied by considering stretching of the mid-plane, a DC electrostatic force, an AC harmonic force and a DC piezoelectric actuation. The static deflection and natural frequency of the system is extracted, and the influence of system parameters on the primary resonance behavior of the system is studied. It is shown that, based on various electrostatic and piezoelectric excitations, hardening or softening behavior is expected. So, one can tune these voltages such that this highly nonlinear system behaves linearly close to resonance frequency. Also it is shown that damping characteristics of the system with viscoelastic material not only depends on the damping coefficient of the system, but also on its other parameters.
Menzel, Andreas M
2016-08-01
One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration. PMID:27627384
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, Andreas M.
2016-08-01
One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A method is developed to establish the J-resistance function for an isotropic linear viscoelastic solid of constant Poisson's ratio using the single-specimen technique with constant-rate test data. The method is based on the fact that, for a test specimen of fixed crack size under constant rate, the initiation J-integral may be established from the crack size itself, the actual external load and load-point displacement at growth initiation, and the relaxation modulus of the viscoelastic solid, without knowledge of the complete test record. Since crack size alone, of the required data, would be unknown at each point of the load-vs-load-point displacement curve of a single-specimen test, an expression is derived to estimate it. With it, the physical J-integral at each point of the test record may be established. Because of its basis on single-specimen testing, not only does the method not require the use of multiple specimens with differing initial crack sizes, but avoids the need for tracking crack growth as well.
Viscoelastic properties of collagen-adhesive composites under water-saturated and dry conditions.
Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette
2015-02-01
To investigate the time- and rate-dependent mechanical properties of collagen-adhesive composites, creep and monotonic experiments are performed under dry and wet conditions. The composites are prepared by infiltration of dentin adhesive into a demineralized bovine dentin. Experimental results show that for small stress level under dry conditions, both the composite and the neat adhesive have similar behavior. On the other hand, in wet conditions, the composites are significantly soft and weak compared to the neat adhesives. The behavior in the wet condition is found to be affected by the hydrophilicity of both the adhesive and the collagen. As the adhesive-collagen composites are a part of the complex construct that forms the adhesive-dentin interface, their presence will affect the overall performance of the restoration. We find that Kelvin-Voigt model with at least four elements is required to fit the creep compliance data, indicating that the adhesive-collagen composites are complex polymers with several characteristic time scales whose mechanical behavior will be significantly affected by loading rates and frequencies. Such mechanical properties have not been investigated widely for these types of materials. The derived model provides an additional advantage that it can be exploited to extract other viscoelastic properties which are, generally, time consuming to obtain experimentally. The calibrated model is utilized to obtain stress relaxation function, frequency-dependent storage and loss modulus, and rate-dependent elastic modulus.
Viscoelastic Properties of Collagen-Adhesive Composites under Water Saturated and Dry Conditions
Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette
2014-01-01
To investigate the time and rate dependent mechanical properties of collagen-adhesive composites, creep and monotonic experiments are performed under dry and wet conditions. The composites are prepared by infiltration of dentin adhesive into a demineralized bovine dentin. Experimental results show that for small stress level under dry conditions, both the composite and neat adhesive have similar behavior. On the other hand, in wet conditions, the composites are significantly soft and weak compared to the neat adhesives. The behavior in the wet condition is found to be affected by the hydrophilicity of both the adhesive and collagen. Since the adhesive-collagen composites area part of the complex construct that forms the adhesive-dentin interface, their presence will affect the overall performance of the restoration. We find that Kelvin-Voigt model with at least 4-elements is required to fit the creep compliance data, indicating that the adhesive-collagen composites are complex polymers with several characteristics time-scales whose mechanical behavior will be significantly affected by loading rates and frequencies. Such mechanical properties have not been investigated widely for these types of materials. The derived model provides an additional advantage that it can be exploited to extract other viscoelastic properties which are, generally, time consuming to obtain experimentally. The calibrated model is utilized to obtain stress relaxation function, frequency-dependent storage and loss modulus, and rate dependent elastic modulus. PMID:24753362
Bending and stretching finite element analysis of anisotropic viscoelastic composite plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilton, Harry H.; Yi, Sung
1990-01-01
Finite element algorithms have been developed to analyze linear anisotropic viscoelastic plates, with or without holes, subjected to mechanical (bending, tension), temperature, and hygrothermal loadings. The analysis is based on Laplace transforms rather than direct time integrations in order to improve the accuracy of the results and save on extensive computational time and storage. The time dependent displacement fields in the transverse direction for the cross ply and angle ply laminates are calculated and the stacking sequence effects of the laminates are discussed in detail. Creep responses for the plates with or without a circular hole are also studied. The numerical results compare favorably with analytical solutions, i.e. within 1.8 percent for bending and 10(exp -3) 3 percent for tension. The tension results of the present method are compared with those using the direct time integration scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musa, Abu Bakar
2013-09-01
The study is about impact of a short elastic rod(or slug) on a stationary semi-infinite viscoelastic rod. The viscoelastic materials are modeled as standard linear solid which involve three material parameters and the motion is treated as one-dimensional. We first establish the governing equations pertaining to the impact of viscoelastic materials subject to certain boundary conditions for the case when an elastic slug moving at a speed V impacts a semi-infinite stationary viscoelastic rod. The objective is to predict stresses and velocities at the interface following wave transmissions and reflections in the slug after the impact using viscoelastic discontinuity. If the stress at the interface becomes tensile and the velocity changes its sign, then the slug and the rod part company. If the stress at the interface is compressive after the impact, the slug and the rod remain in contact. In the process of predicting the stress and velocity of wave propagation using viscoelastic discontinuity, the Z-effective which is the effective ratio of acoustic impedance plays important role. It can be shown that effective ratio of acoustic impedance can help us to determine whether the slug and the rod move together or part company after the impact. After modeling the impact and solve the governing system of partial differential equations in the Laplace transform domain. We invert the Laplace transformed solution numerically to obtain the stresses and velocities at the interface for several viscosity time constants and ratios of acoustic impedances. In inverting the Laplace transformed equations, we used the complex inversion formula because there is a branch cut and infinitely many poles within the Bromwich contour. In the discontinuity analysis, we look at the moving discontinuities in stress and velocity using the impulse-momentum relation and kinematical condition of compatibility. Finally, we discussed the relationship of the stresses and velocities using numeric and the
Solares, Santiago D
2014-01-01
This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip-sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip-sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip-sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided.
Non-linear cord-rubber composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.
1989-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the stress-strain relations in a multi-layer composite made up of materials whose individual stress-strain characteristics are non-linear and possibly different. The method is applied to the case of asymmetric tubes in tension, and comparisons with experimentally measured data are given.
Viscoelastic cationic polymers containing the urethane linkage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rembaum, A. (Inventor)
1972-01-01
A method for the synthesis and manufacturing of elastomeric compositions and articles containing quaternary nitrogen centers and condensation residues along the polymeric backbone of the centers is presented. Linear and cross-linked straight chain and block polymers having a wide damping temperature range were synthesized. Formulae for the viscoelastic cationic polymers are presented.
Viscoelastic processing and characterization of high-performance polymeric composite systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buehler, Frederic Ulysse
2000-10-01
Fiber reinforced composites, a combination of reinforcing fiber and resin matrix, offer many advantages over traditional materials, and have therefore found wide application in the aerospace and sporting goods industry. Among the advantages that composite materials offer, the most often cited are weight saving, high modulus, high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and fatigue resistance. As much as their attributes are desirable, composites are difficult to process due to their heterogeneous, anisotropic, and viscoelastic nature. It is therefore not surprising that the interrelationship between structure, property, and process is not fully understood. Consequently, the major purpose of this research work was to investigate this interrelationship, and ways to scale it to utilization. First, four prepreg materials, which performed differently in the manufacturing of composite parts, but were supposedly identical, were characterized. The property variations that were found among these prepregs in terms of tack and frictional resistance assessed the need for improved understanding of the prepregging process. Therefore, the influence of the processing parameters on final prepreg quality were investigated, and led to the definition of more adequate process descriptors. Additionally, one of the characterization techniques used in this work, temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry, was examined in depth with the development of a mathematical model. This model, which enabled the exploration of the relationship between user parameters, sample thermophysical properties, and final results, was then compared to literature data. Collectively, this work explored and identified the key connectors between process, structure, and property as they relate to the manufacturing, design, and performance of composite materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakefield, David
Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures. Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite, these activities have broadened to encompass ‘lighter than air' structures such as aerostats, hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons. Since 2004 Tensys have acted as consultants to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. Early implementations of the super-pressure balloon design chosen for ULDB have shown problems of geometric instability, characterised by improper deployment and the potential for overall geometric instability once deployed. The latter has been reproduced numerically using inTENS, and the former are better understood following a series of large-scale hangar tests simulating launch and ascent. In both cases the solution lies in minimising the film lobing between the tendons. These tendons, which span between base and apex end fittings, cause the characteristic pumpkin shape of the balloons and also provide valuable constraint against excessive film deformation. There is also the requirement to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness. A consequence of reduced lobing between tendons is the development of higher stresses in the balloon film under pressure. The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film lead to further significant meridional stress under low temperature flight conditions. The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate excessive stress and local concentrations. However, creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations sufficient to compromise the geometric stability of the balloon. The design of a balloon requires an analysis approach that addresses the questions of stress and stability over the duration of a flight by time stepping analyses using an appropriate material model. This paper summarises the Dynamic Relaxation
A nonlinear viscoelastic approach to durability predictions for polymer based composite structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brinson, Hal F.; Hiel, C. C.
1990-01-01
Current industry approaches for the durability assessment of metallic structures are briefly reviewed. For polymer based composite structures, it is suggested that new approaches must be adopted to include memory or viscoelastic effects which could lead to delayed failures that might not be predicted using current techniques. A durability or accelerated life assessment plan for fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) developed and documented over the last decade or so is reviewed and discussed. Limitations to the plan are outlined and suggestions to remove the limitations are given. These include the development of a finite element code to replace the previously used lamination theory code and the development of new specimen geometries to evaluate delamination failures. The new DCB model is reviewed and results are presented. Finally, it is pointed out that new procedures are needed to determine interfacial properties and current efforts underway to determine such properties are reviewed. Suggestions for additional efforts to develop a consistent and accurate durability predictive approach for FRP structures is outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vu, Q. H.; Brenner, R.; Castelnau, O.; Moulinec, H.; Suquet, P.
2012-03-01
The correspondence principle is customarily used with the Laplace-Carson transform technique to tackle the homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media. The main drawback of this method lies in the fact that the whole stress and strain histories have to be considered to compute the mechanical response of the material during a given macroscopic loading. Following a remark of Mandel (1966 Mécanique des Milieux Continus(Paris, France: Gauthier-Villars)), Ricaud and Masson (2009 Int. J. Solids Struct. 46 1599-1606) have shown the equivalence between the collocation method used to invert Laplace-Carson transforms and an internal variables formulation. In this paper, this new method is developed for the case of polycrystalline materials with general anisotropic properties for local and macroscopic behavior. Applications are provided for the case of constitutive relations accounting for glide of dislocations on particular slip systems. It is shown that the method yields accurate results that perfectly match the standard collocation method and reference full-field results obtained with a FFT numerical scheme. The formulation is then extended to the case of time- and strain-dependent viscous properties, leading to the incremental collocation method (ICM) that can be solved efficiently by a step-by-step procedure. Specifically, the introduction of isotropic and kinematic hardening at the slip system scale is considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, K. K.; Akyuz, F. A.; Heer, E.
1972-01-01
This program, an extension of the linear equilibrium problem solver ELAS, is an updated and extended version of its earlier form (written in FORTRAN 2 for the IBM 7094 computer). A synchronized material property concept utilizing incremental time steps and the finite element matrix displacement approach has been adopted for the current analysis. A special option enables employment of constant time steps in the logarithmic scale, thereby reducing computational efforts resulting from accumulative material memory effects. A wide variety of structures with elastic or viscoelastic material properties can be analyzed by VISCEL. The program is written in FORTRAN 5 language for the Univac 1108 computer operating under the EXEC 8 system. Dynamic storage allocation is automatically effected by the program, and the user may request up to 195K core memory in a 260K Univac 1108/EXEC 8 machine. The physical program VISCEL, consisting of about 7200 instructions, has four distinct links (segments), and the compiled program occupies a maximum of about 11700 words decimal of core storage.
Nguyen, Nhung; Shao, Yue; Wineman, Alan; Fu, Jianping; Waas, Anthony
2016-07-01
Breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MCF-10A) are studied through indentation with spherical borosilicate glass particles in atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode in fluid. Their mechanical properties are obtained by analyzing the recorded reaction force-time response. The analysis is based on comparing experimental data with predictions from finite element (FE) simulation. Here, FE modeling is employed to simulate the AFM indentation experiment which is neither a displacement nor a force controlled test. This approach is expected to overcome many underlying problems of the widely used models such as Hertz contact model due to its capability to capture the contact behaviors between the spherical indentor and the cell, account for cell geometry, and incorporate with large strain theory. In this work, a non-linear viscoelastic (NLV) model in which the viscoelastic part is described by Prony series terms is used for the constitutive model of the cells. The time-dependent material parameters are extracted through an inverse analysis with the use of a surrogate model based on a Kriging estimator. The purpose is to automatically extract the NLV properties of the cells with a more efficient process compared to the iterative inverse technique that has been mostly applied in the literature. The method also allows the use of FE modeling in the analysis of a large amount of experimental data. The NLV parameters are compared between MCF-7 and MCF-10A and MCF-10A treated and untreated with the drug Cytochalasin D to examine the possibility of using relaxation properties as biomarkers for distinguishing these types of breast cancer cells. The comparisons indicate that malignant cells (MCF-7) are softer and exhibit more relaxation than benign cells (MCF-10A). Disrupting the cytoskeleton using the drug Cytochalasin D also results in a larger amount of relaxation in the cell's response. In addition, relaxation properties indicate larger differences as compared to the elastic moduli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Russell G.; Claus, Richard O.
1996-11-01
The curing of thermoset resins is a critical step in the manufacturing of thermoset polymer matrix composites, determining the ultimate mechanical properties of the material, and accounting for a significant fraction of the cost of manufacturing. The use of in-situ cure monitors will permit adaptive control of the cure process, thereby lowering energy costs, reducing scrap rate, and optimizing mechanical properties. We describe here the design and demonstration of an embeddable fiber optic sensor to measure the degree of cure of thermoset resins through characterization of the changing viscoelasticity of a curing resin. By coupling a miniature actuator to a fiber optic strain sensor, the assembly can be made to vibrate while immersed in a curing resin. Comparison of the phase of the electrical actuation to the phase of the resulting strain in the sensor permits a measure of the loss tangent of the resin, where the loss tangent is the ratio of the loss modulus to the storage modulus. As the crosslinking of the resin proceeds, the loss tangent also changes, reflecting the changing rheology of the resin. The loss tangent is found to attain a maximum at the gel point of the resin, when a polymer network is formed. Further crosslinking may be tracked as the loss tangent decreases following gelation. After complete cure of the epoxy, the fiber optic sensor functions as a conventional optical strain sensor, permitting in-service strains in the composite part to be measured. Preliminary experimental results are presented here, which demonstrate that by combining a magnetostrictive actuator with a fiber optic strain sensor, the rheology of a curing thermoset resin may be monitored by measuring the changing loss tangent of the resin.
Linear dependencies between composite fermion states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, M. L.; Liabøtrø, O.; Viefers, S.
2016-09-01
The formalism of composite fermions (CFs) has been one of the most prominent and successful approaches to describing the fractional quantum Hall effect, in terms of trial many-body wave functions. Testing the accuracy of the latter typically involves rather heavy numerical comparison to exact diagonalization results. Thus, optimizing computational efficiency has been an important technical issue in this field. One generic (and not yet fully understood) property of the CF approach is that it tends to overcount the number of linearly independent candidate states for fixed sets of quantum numbers. Technically speaking, CF Slater determinants that are orthogonal before projection to the lowest Landau level, may lead to wave functions that are identical, or possess linear dependencies, after projection. This leads to unnecessary computations, and has been pointed out in the literature both for fermionic and bosonic systems. We here present a systematic approach that enables us to reveal all linear dependencies between bosonic compact states in the lowest CF ‘cyclotron energy’ sub-band, and almost all dependencies in higher sub-bands, at the level of the CF Slater determinants, i.e. before projection, which implies a major computational simplification. Our approach is introduced for so-called simple states of two-species rotating bosons, and then generalized to generic compact bosonic states, both one- and two-species. Some perspectives also apply to fermionic systems. The identities and linear dependencies we find, are analytically exact for ‘brute force’ projection in the disk geometry.
Brands, Dave W A; Bovendeerd, Peter H M; Wismans, Jac S H M
2002-11-01
In current Finite Element (FE) head models, brain tissue is commonly assumed to display linear viscoelastic material behaviour. However, brain tissue behaves like a non-linear viscoelastic solid for shear strains above 1%. The main objective of this study was to study the effect of non-linear material behaviour on the predicted brain response. We used a non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model, developed on the basis of experimental shear data presented elsewere. First we tested the numerical implementation of the constitutive model by simulating the response of a silicone gel (Sylgard 572 A&B) filled cylindrical cup, subjected to a transient rotational acceleration. The experimental results could be reproduced within 9%. Subsequently, the effect of non-linear material modelling on computed brain response was investigated in an existing three-dimensional head model subjected to an eccentric rotation. At the applied external load strains in the brain were approximately ten times larger than was expected on the basis of published data. This is probably caused by the values of the shear moduli applied in the model. These are at least a factor of ten lower than the ones used in head models in literature but comparable to material data in recent literature. Non-linear material behaviour was found to influence the levels of predicted strains (+20%) and stresses (-11%) but not their temporal and spatial distribution. The pressure response was independent of non-linear material behaviour. In fact it could be predicted by the equilibrium of momentum, and thus it is independent of the choice of the brain constitutive model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phan, See-Eng; Li, Min; Russel, William B.; Zhu, Jixiang; Chaikin, Paul M.; Lant, Chris T.
1999-08-01
We present measurements of the high-frequency shear modulus and dynamic viscosity for nonaqueous hard sphere colloidal crystals both in normal and microgravity environments. All experiments were performed on a multipurpose PHaSE instrument. For the rheological measurements, we detect the resonant response to oscillatory forcing with a dynamic light scattering scheme. The resonant response for colloidal crystals formed in normal and microgravity environments was similar, indicating that the bulk rheological properties are unaffected by differing crystal structure and crystallite size within the experimental error. Our high-frequency shear modulus seems reasonable, lying close to Frenkel and Ladd's predictions [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1169 (1987)] for the static modulus of hard sphere crystals. Our high-frequency dynamic viscosity, on the other hand, seems high, exceeding Shikata and Pearson [J. Rheol. 38, 601 (1994)] and van der Werff et al.'s measurements [Phys. Rev. A 39, 795 (1989)] on the high-frequency dynamic viscosity for metastable fluids. The measurements are in the linear regime for the shear modulus but may not be for the dynamic viscosity as Frith et al. [Powder Technol. 51, 27 (1987)] report that the dynamic viscosity passes through a maximum with strain amplitude.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...
Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.
1988-01-01
Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.
Maazouz, A.; Sautereau, H.; Gerard, J.F. . Lab. des Materiaux Macromoleculaires)
1993-10-20
The deformation and fracture behaviors of hybrid-particulate epoxy composites have been examined. These materials were based on a DGEBA/DDA matrix with various volume fractions of glass beads and different rubber contents. Young's modulus, yield stress, dynamic mechanical spectra, and fracture energy have been determined at room temperature. The Kerner model fits well the Young's modulus for the hybrid complexes with various glass bead contents. The analysis of the relaxation peak recorded from viscoelastic measurements allow us to discuss the influence of the introduction of the glass beads on the mobility of macromolecular chains and the characteristics of the rubber-separated phase. The fracture energy displays a strong improvement and synergism effect due to the presence of both kinds of particles. The toughening mechanisms were discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Gary D; Malarik, Diane C.; Robaidek, Jerrold O.
1991-01-01
Viscoelastic properties of the addition cured polyimide, PMR-15, were studied using dynamic mechanical and stress relaxation tests. For temperatures below the glass transition temperature, T sub g, the dynamic mechanical properties measured using a temperature scan rate of 10 C/min were strongly affected by the presence of absorbed moisture in the resin. Dynamic mechanical properties measured as a function of time during an isothermal hold provided an indication of chemical changes occurring in the resin. For temperatures above (T sub g + 20 C), the storage modulus increased continuously as a function of time indicating that additional crosslinking is occurring in the resin. Because of these changes in chemical structures, the stress relaxation modulus could not be measured over any useful time interval for temperatures above T sub g. For temperatures below T sub g, dynamic mechanical properties appeared to be unaffected by chemical changes for times exceeding 1 hr. Since the duration of the stress relaxation tests was less than 1 hr, the stress relaxation modulus could be measured. As long as the moisture content of the resin was less than 2 pct, stress relaxation curves measured at different temperatures could be superimposed using horizontal shifts along the log(time) axis with only small shifts along the vertical axis.
Non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hashin, Z.; Bagchi, D.; Rosen, B. W.
1974-01-01
The non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates which results from lamina non-linear characteristics was examined. The analysis uses a Ramberg-Osgood representation of the lamina transverse and shear stress strain curves in conjunction with deformation theory to describe the resultant laminate non-linear behavior. A laminate having an arbitrary number of oriented layers and subjected to a general state of membrane stress was treated. Parametric results and comparison with experimental data and prior theoretical results are presented.
Abramowitch, Steven D; Woo, Savio L
2004-02-01
The quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory proposed by Fung (1972) has been frequently used to model the nonlinear time- and history-dependent viscoelastic behavior of many soft tissues. It is common to use five constants to describe the instantaneous elastic response (constants A and B) and reduced relaxation function (constants C, tau 1, and tau 2) on experiments with finite ramp times followed by stress relaxation to equilibrium. However, a limitation is that the theory is based on a step change in strain which is not possible to perform experimentally. Accounting for this limitation may result in regression algorithms that converge poorly and yield nonunique solutions with highly variable constants, especially for long ramp times (Kwan et al. 1993). The goal of the present study was to introduce an improved approach to obtain the constants for QLV theory that converges to a unique solution with minimal variability. Six goat femur-medial collateral ligament-tibia complexes were subjected to a uniaxial tension test (ramp time of 18.4 s) followed by one hour of stress relaxation. The convoluted QLV constitutive equation was simultaneously curve-fit to the ramping and relaxation portions of the data (r2 > 0.99). Confidence intervals of the constants were generated from a bootstrapping analysis and revealed that constants were distributed within 1% of their median values. For validation, the determined constants were used to predict peak stresses from a separate cyclic stress relaxation test with averaged errors across all specimens measuring less than 6.3 +/- 6.0% of the experimental values. For comparison, an analysis that assumed an instantaneous ramp time was also performed and the constants obtained for the two approaches were compared. Significant differences were observed for constants B, C, tau 1, and tau 2, with tau 1 differing by an order of magnitude. By taking into account the ramping phase of the experiment, the approach allows for viscoelastic
Farran, Alexandra J.E.; Teller, Sean S.; Jha, Amit K.; Jiao, Tong; Hule, Rohan A.; Clifton, Rodney J.; Pochan, Darrin P.; Duncan, Randall L.
2010-01-01
Vocal fold diseases and disorders are difficult to treat surgically or therapeutically. Tissue engineering offers an alternative strategy for the restoration of functional vocal folds. As a first step toward vocal fold tissue engineering, we investigated the responses of primary vocal fold fibroblasts (PVFFs) to two types of collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels that are compositionally similar, but structurally variable and mechanically different. Type A hydrogels were composed of mature collagen fibers reinforced by oxidized HA, whereas type B hydrogels contained immature collagen fibrils interpenetrated in an amorphous, covalently cross-linked HA matrix. PVFFs encapsulated in either matrix adopted a fibroblastic morphology and expressed genes related to important extracellular matrix proteins. DNA analysis indicated a linear growth profile for cells encapsulated in type B gels from day 0 to 21, in contrast to an initial dormant, nonproliferative period from day 0 to 3 experienced by cells in type A gels. At the end of the culture, similar DNA content was detected in both types of constructs. A reduction in collagen content was observed for both types of constructs after 28 days of culture, with type A constructs generally retaining higher amounts of collagen than type B constructs. The HA content in the constructs decreased steadily throughout the culture, with type A constructs consistently exhibiting less HA than type B constructs. Using the torsional wave analysis, we found that the elastic moduli for type A constructs decreased sharply during the first week of culture, followed by 2 weeks of matrix stabilization without significant changes in matrix stiffness. Conversely, the elastic modulus for type B constructs increased moderately over time. It is postulated that PVFFs residing in gels alter the matrix organization, chemical compositions, and viscoelasticity through cell-mediated remodeling processes. PMID:20064012
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupriyanov, N. A.; Simankin, F. A.; Manabaev, K. K.
2016-04-01
A new approximate algorithm for calculating a stress-strain state of viscoelastic bodies is used. The algorithm is based on the derivation of the expressions of time-effective modules. These modules are obtained by iterative changes, compressing the fork of Voigt-Reuss. As an example the analytic solution about the action of a concentrated force on the viscoelastic half-space is compared with the approximate solution. Numerical calculations are performed for a wide range of relaxation characteristics of a viscoelastic half-space. Results of the comparison of stresses and displacements with the analytic solution give coincidence within 3... 15%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Fu-Long; Bai, Xian-Xu; Qian, Li-Jun
2016-10-01
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), a smart composite, exhibit dual characteristics of both MR materials and particle reinforced composites, i.e., the viscoelasticity of MREs depends on external magnetic field as well as strain amplitude and excitation frequency. In this article, the principle of a frequency-, amplitude-, and magneto-dependent linear dynamic viscoelastic model for isotropic MREs is proposed and investigated. The viscoelasticity of MREs is divided into frequency- and amplitude-dependent mechanical viscoelasticity and frequency-, amplitude-, and magneto-dependent magnetic viscoelasticity. Based on the microstructures of ferrous particles and matrix, the relationships between mechanical shear modulus corresponding to the mechanical viscoelasticity and strain amplitude and excitation frequency are obtained. The relationships between magnetic shear modulus corresponding to the magnetic viscoelasticity with strain amplitude, excitation frequency, and further external magnetic field are derived using the magneto-elastic theory. The influence of magnetic saturation on the MR effect is also considered. The dynamic characteristics of a fabricated isotropic MRE sample under different strain amplitudes, excitation frequencies and external magnetic fields are tested. The parameters of the proposed model are identified with the experimental data and the theoretical expressions of shear storage modulus and shear loss modulus of the MRE sample are obtained. In the light of the theoretical expressions, the loss factors of the MRE sample under different loading conditions are analyzed and compared with the test results to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors
Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1995-01-01
The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.
Yang, Jun; Han, ChunRui
2016-09-28
With inspiration from the concept of natural dynamic materials, binary-component composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties and recovery capability were prepared from the cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) skeleton reinforced covalently cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAAm) networks. The hierarchical skeleton obtained by freeze-drying of CNC aqueous suspension was directly impregnated into acrylamide (AAm) monomer solution, and in situ polymerization occurred in the presence of hydrophilic cross-linker PEGDA575. Under stress, hydrogen bonds at the interface between CNC and PAAm as well as inside the CNC skeleton acted as sacrificial bonds to dissipate energy, while the covalently cross-linked PAAm chains bind the network together by providing adhesion to CNC and thereby suppress the catastrophic craze propagation. The above synergistic effects of the CNC skeleton and the elastic PAAm network enabled the composite hydrogels to withstand up to 181 kPa of tensile stress, 1.01 MPa of compressive strength, and 1392% elongation at break with the fracture energy as high as 2.82 kJ/m(2). Moreover, the hydrogels recovered more than 70% elasticity after eight loading-unloading cycles, revealing excellent fatigue resistance. The depth-sensing instrumentation by indentation test corroborated that the CNC skeleton contributed simultaneous improvements in hardness and elasticity by as much as 500% in comparison with the properties of the pristine PAAm hydrogels. This elegant strategy by using the CNC skeleton as a reinforcing template offers a new perspective for the fabrication of robust hydrogels with exceptional mechanical properties that may be important for biomedical applications where high strength is required, such as scaffolds for tissue engineering.
Yang, Jun; Han, ChunRui
2016-09-28
With inspiration from the concept of natural dynamic materials, binary-component composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties and recovery capability were prepared from the cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) skeleton reinforced covalently cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAAm) networks. The hierarchical skeleton obtained by freeze-drying of CNC aqueous suspension was directly impregnated into acrylamide (AAm) monomer solution, and in situ polymerization occurred in the presence of hydrophilic cross-linker PEGDA575. Under stress, hydrogen bonds at the interface between CNC and PAAm as well as inside the CNC skeleton acted as sacrificial bonds to dissipate energy, while the covalently cross-linked PAAm chains bind the network together by providing adhesion to CNC and thereby suppress the catastrophic craze propagation. The above synergistic effects of the CNC skeleton and the elastic PAAm network enabled the composite hydrogels to withstand up to 181 kPa of tensile stress, 1.01 MPa of compressive strength, and 1392% elongation at break with the fracture energy as high as 2.82 kJ/m(2). Moreover, the hydrogels recovered more than 70% elasticity after eight loading-unloading cycles, revealing excellent fatigue resistance. The depth-sensing instrumentation by indentation test corroborated that the CNC skeleton contributed simultaneous improvements in hardness and elasticity by as much as 500% in comparison with the properties of the pristine PAAm hydrogels. This elegant strategy by using the CNC skeleton as a reinforcing template offers a new perspective for the fabrication of robust hydrogels with exceptional mechanical properties that may be important for biomedical applications where high strength is required, such as scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:27606621
Viscoelastic properties and nanoscale structures of composite oligopeptide-polysaccharide hydrogels.
Hyland, Laura L; Taraban, Marc B; Feng, Yue; Hammouda, Boualem; Yu, Y Bruce
2012-03-01
Biocompatible and biodegradable peptide hydrogels are drawing increasing attention as prospective materials for human soft tissue repair and replacement. To improve the rather unfavorable mechanical properties of our pure peptide hydrogels, in this work we examined the possibility of creating a double hydrogel network. This network was created by means of the coassembly of mutually attractive, but self-repulsive oligopeptides within an already-existing fibrous network formed by the charged, biocompatible polysaccharides chitosan, alginate, and chondroitin. Using dynamic oscillatory rheology experiments, it was found that the coassembly of the peptides within the existing polysaccharide network resulted in a less stiff material as compared to the pure peptide networks (the elastic modulus G' decreased from 90 to 10 kPa). However, these composite oligopeptide-polysaccharide hydrogels were characterized by a greater resistance to deformation (the yield strain γ grew from 4 to 100%). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the 2D cross-sectional shapes of the fibers, their dimensional characteristics, and the mesh sizes of the fibrous networks. Differences in material structures found with SANS experiments confirmed rheology data, showing that incorporation of the peptides dramatically changed the morphology of the polysaccharide network. The resulting fibers were structurally very similar to those forming the pure peptide networks, but formed less stiff gels because of their markedly greater mesh sizes. Together, these findings suggest an approach for the development of highly deformation-resistant biomaterials. PMID:21994046
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taskonak, Burak
Bilayer dental ceramic composites used for fixed partial dentures are becoming more widely used in dental practices because of their biocompatibility, aesthetic properties, and chemical durability. However, large statistical variations in the strength of ceramics are associated with the structural flaws as a result of processing and complex stress states within the surfaces of the materials because of thermal properties of each layer. In addition, partial delaminations of the veneer layer and connector fractures of bilayer ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have been observed in a clinical study which is a part of this dissertation. Analysis of fracture surfaces of failed FPDs reveals that such fractures of the veneering ceramic are most likely caused by lateral crack growth. Global residual stresses associated with the coefficient of thermal expansion differences between core and veneering ceramics can cause lateral crack initiation. Also, rapid cooling of bilayer ceramics from the sintering temperature of the glass veneer may not allow the interfacial stresses in the viscoelastic glass to relax to equilibrium values. This can further contribute to the propagation of lateral cracks. Furthermore, local residual stresses that develop in the plastic deformation zone below sharp contact areas on the occlusal surface are another contributor to lateral crack growth. Superposition of global residual stresses and a Boussinesq stress field can incrementally increase the possibility of lateral crack growth. The long-range goals of this study are to critically analyze the lateral crack growth mechanisms associated with residual stresses, to modify residual tensile stress distributions by controlled heat treatment, and to minimize the probability of veneering ceramic fractures. Four approaches were used to accomplish these goals: (1) clinical evaluation of a bilayer ceramic fixed partial denture system; (2) fracture surface analysis of clinically failed FPDs; (3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek
2010-05-01
We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations
Anisotropic linear elastic properties of fractal-like composites.
Carpinteri, Alberto; Cornetti, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto
2010-11-01
In this work, the anisotropic linear elastic properties of two-phase composite materials, made up of square inclusions embedded in a matrix, are investigated. The inclusions present a fractal hierarchical distribution and are supposed to have the same Poisson's ratio as the matrix but a different Young's modulus. The effective elastic moduli of the medium are computed at each fractal iteration by coupling a position-space renormalization-group technique with a finite element analysis. The study allows to obtain and generalize some fundamental properties of fractal composite materials. PMID:21230552
Linear versus nonlinear theories for laminated composite plates and shells
Qatu, M.S.
1995-11-01
Linear and nonlinear shear-deformation theories for laminated composite plates and shells are discussed in this paper. The emphasis here is on the range of validity for each class of theories. The finite element method is used to determine the maximum stresses for a wide range of statically loaded plate and shell panels with various thickness ratios. This paper concludes that for the vast majority of composite materials and for moderately thick plates and shells, stresses normally reach the maximum allowable stress before nonlinear terms can become important. This has been demonstrated by showing that for the limiting case of shear deformation theories (in which the minimum span length (or radius) to thickness ratio is 20), the material usually fails before the maximum deflection reaches the magnitude of the thickness (where nonlinear terms start to become significant).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.; Becker, E. B.; Lin, T. L.; Hsieh, K. T.
1984-01-01
The formulation and numerical analysis of several problems related to the behavior of pneumatic tires are considered. These problems include the general rolling contact problem of a rubber-like viscoelastic cylinder undergoing finite deformations and the finite deformation of cord-reinforced rubber composites. New finite element models are developed for these problems. Numerical results obtained for several representative cases are presented.
Yamamoto, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masaru
2012-06-01
We investigated viscoelastic and photoresponsive properties of the microparticle/liquid-crystal (LC) composite gels. The mechanical strength of the colloidal gels can be widely tuned by varying particle concentrations. With increasing particle concentration, a storage modulus of the particle/LC composite gels increased and reached over 10(4) Pa, showing good self-supporting ability. We demonstrated for the first time that the particle/LC composite gels exhibited rapid and repetitive recovery of the mechanical strength after large-amplitude oscillatory breakdown. In addition, photoresponsive properties of the composite gels were investigated by the cis-trans photoisomerization of the azobenzene compound doped into the host LCs. The photochemical gel-sol transition could be repeatedly induced by changing the phase structure of the host LCs between nematic and isotropic, using the photoisomerization. The particle/LC composite gels can be applied to optically healable materials by the site-selective gel-sol transition based on the photochemical modulation of the phase structures of the host LCs.
Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soukup, J.; Valeš, F.; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.
2011-02-01
This article deals with solutions of transient vibration of a rectangular viscoelastic orthotropic thin 2D plate for particular deformation models according to Flügge and Timoshenko-Mindlin. The linear model, a general standard viscoelastic body, of the rheologic properties of a viscoelastic material was applied. The time and coordinate curves of the basic quantities displacement, rotation, velocity, stress and deformation are compared. The results obtained by an approximate analytic method are compared with numerical results for 3D plate generated by FEM application and with experimental investigation.
Viscoelastic properties of ferrofluids.
Chirikov, D N; Fedotov, S P; Iskakova, L Yu; Zubarev, A Yu
2010-11-01
The paper deals with theoretical study of non linear viscoelastic phenomena in ferrofluids placed in magnetic field. Our attention is focused on the study of nonstationary flow and Maxwell-like relaxation of the macroscopical viscous stress after alternation of the shear rate. We propose that these phenomena can be explained by finite rate of evolution of chainlike aggregates, consisting of the ferrofluid particles. Statistical model of the chains growth-disintegration is suggested. In this model the chain-single particle mechanism of the chains evolution is considered, the effects of the chain-chain interaction are ignored. The proposed model allows us to estimate the time-dependent function of distribution over number of particles in the chain. Having determined this function and using methods of hydromechanics of ferrofluids with chainlike aggregates, we have studied evolution of the ferrofluid viscosity after stepwise alternation of the fluid shear rate. The estimated time of relaxation is in a reasonable agreement with experimental results. Thus, our analysis shows that the observed macroscopical viscoelastic phenomena in ferrofluids can be provided by evolution of the chain ensemble. PMID:21230477
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-15
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Composite-step product methods for solving nonsymmetric linear systems
Chan, T.F.; Szeto, T.
1994-12-31
The Biconjugate Gradient (BCG) algorithm is the {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} generalization of the classical Conjugate Gradient method to nonsymmetric linear systems. It is an attractive method because of its simplicity and its good convergence properties. Unfortunately, BCG suffers from two kinds of breakdowns (divisions by 0): one due to the non-existence of the residual polynomial, and the other due to a breakdown in the recurrence relationship used. There are many look-ahead techniques in existence which are designed to handle these breakdowns. Although the step size needed to overcome an exact breakdown can be computed in principle, these methods can unfortunately be quite complicated for handling near breakdowns since the sizes of the look-ahead steps are variable (indeed, the breakdowns can be incurable). Recently, Bank and Chan introduced the Composite Step Biconjugate Gradient (CSBCG) algorithm, an alternative which cures only the first of the two breakdowns mentioned by skipping over steps for which the BCG iterate is not defined. This is done with a simple modification of BCG which needs only a maximum look-ahead step size of 2 to eliminate the (near) breakdown and to smooth the sometimes erratic convergence of BCG. Thus, instead of a more complicated (but less prone to breakdown) version, CSBCG cures only one kind of breakdown, but does so with a minimal modification to the usual implementation of BCG in the hope that its empirically observed stability will be inherited. The authors note, then, that the Composite Step idea can be incorporated anywhere the BCG polynomial is used; in particular, in product methods such as CGS, Bi-CGSTAB, and TFQMR. Doing this not only cures the breakdown mentioned above, but also takes on the advantages of these product methods, namely, no multiplications by the transpose matrix and a faster convergence rate than BCG.
Solares, Santiago D
2016-01-01
Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information. PMID:27335746
Solares, Santiago D.
2016-04-15
Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surfacemore » as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single-and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. As a result, a multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.« less
Solares, Santiago D
2016-01-01
Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.
2016-01-01
Summary Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip–sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young’s modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip–sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information. PMID:27335746
Viscoelastic analyses of launch vehicle components
Chi, J.K.; Lin, S.R.
1995-12-31
Current analysis techniques for solid rocket propellant, and insulation used in space launch vehicles, have several shortcomings. The simplest linear elastic analysis method ignores the inherent viscoelastic behavior of these materials entirely. The relaxation modulus method commonly used to simulate time-dependent effects ignores the past loading history, while the rigorous viscoelastic finite-element analysis is often expensive and impractical. The response of viscoelastic materials is often characterized by the time-dependent relaxation moduli obtained from uniaxial relaxation tests. Since the relaxation moduli are functions of elapsed time, the viscoelastic analysis is not only dependent on the current stress or strain state but also the full loading history. As a preliminary step towards developing a procedure which will yield reasonably conservative results for analyzing the structural response of solid rocket motors, an equivalent-modulus approach was developed. To demonstrate its application, a viscoelastic thick-walled cylindrical material, confined by a stiff steel case and under an internal pressure condition, was analyzed using (1) the equivalent-modulus elastic quasi-static method, (2) an exact viscoelastic closed-form solution, and (3) the viscoelastic finite-element program. A combination of two springs and one viscous damper is used to represent the viscoelastic material with parameters obtained from stress-relaxation tests. The equivalent modulus is derived based on an accumulated quasi-static stress/strain state. The exact closed-form solution is obtained by the Laplace Transform method. The ABAQUS program is then used for the viscoelastic finite-element solution, where the loading-rate dependent moduli is represented by a Prony series expansion of the relaxation modulus. Additional analyses were performed for two space launch solid rocket motors for the purpose of comparing results from the equivalent-modulus approach and the ABAQUS program.
Theory of reciprocating contact for viscoelastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Putignano, Carmine; Carbone, Giuseppe; Dini, Daniele
2016-04-01
A theory of reciprocating contacts for linear viscoelastic materials is presented. Results are discussed for the case of a rigid sphere sinusoidally driven in sliding contact with a viscoelastic half-space. Depending on the size of the contact, the frequency and amplitude of the reciprocating motion, and on the relaxation time of the viscoelastic body, we establish that the contact behavior may range from the steady-state viscoelastic solution, in which traction forces always oppose the direction of the sliding rigid punch, to a more elaborate trend, which is due to the strong interaction between different regions of the path covered during the reciprocating motion. Practical implications span a number of applications, ranging from seismic engineering to biotechnology.
A Thermodynamic Theory of Solid Viscoelasticity. Part II:; Nonlinear Thermo-viscoelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper, second in the series of three papers, develops a general, nonlinear, non-isothermal, compressible theory for finite rubber viscoelasticity and specifies it in a form convenient for solving problems important to the rubber, tire, automobile, and air-space industries, among others. Based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a general nonlinear theory of differential type has been developed for arbitrary non-isothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids. In this theory, the constitutive equations were presented as the sum of a rubber elastic (equilibrium) and a liquid type viscoelastic (non-equilibrium) terms. These equations have then been simplified using several modeling and simplicity arguments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Deepak
Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design through extensive experimental testing is not practical. Predictive tools are needed to perform virtual experiments of various options. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of linear elastic response, plasticity and material damage induced nonlinear behavior and mechanics of load flow in textile composites. Textile composites exhibit multiple scales of complexity. The various textile behaviors are analyzed using a two-scale finite element modeling. A framework to allow use of a wide variety of damage initiation and growth models is proposed. Plasticity induced non-linear behavior of 2x2 braided composites is investigated using a modeling approach based on Hill's yield function for orthotropic materials. The mechanics of load flow in textile composites is demonstrated using special non-standard postprocessing techniques that not only highlight the important details, but also transform the extensive amount of output data into comprehensible modes of behavior. The investigations show that the damage models differ from each other in terms of amount of degradation as well as the properties to be degraded under a particular failure mode. When compared with experimental data, predictions of some models match well for glass/epoxy composite whereas other's match well for carbon/epoxy composites. However, all the models predicted very similar response when damage factors were made similar, which shows that the magnitude of damage factors are very important. Full 3D as well as equivalent tape laminate predictions lie within the range of the experimental data for a wide variety of braided composites with different material systems, which validated the plasticity analysis. Conclusions about the effect of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimble, L. D.; Fakirov, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.
2015-05-01
Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) from petrochemical-derived polymers have been investigated for several years and the technique can result in significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared with the neat matrix material of the respective composite. The current work applies the technique to biodegradable, biocompatible polymers for potential applications in bioabsorbable medical devices. MFCs were prepared from melt blended poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) via cold drawing then compression molding of extruded yarn. These MFCs were shown to have higher Young's moduli than that of neat PLLA but for load-bearing applications the creep characteristics are of interest. The MFC sheets resulting from compression molding were subjected to tensile relaxation tests at 37°C in the fiber orientation direction. Specimens were also tested via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Neat PLLA specimens were subjected to the same tests for comparison. Results indicate that at 37°C PLLA/PGA MFCs exhibit lower creep resistance than that of neat PLLA due to the more rapid relaxation of stress observed. DMTA results elucidate the loss modulus changes in PLLA/PGA MFCs which occur as the material approaches the glass transition temperature of PGA (˜45°C).
Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.
2014-12-10
The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.
2014-12-01
The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds VREV<≧VREVE, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < tREV ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE
Ferrari, Marco; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Apicella, Davide; Aversa, Raffaella; Apicella, Antonio
2008-07-01
The study aimed at estimating the effect of insertion length of posts with composite restorations on stress and strain distributions in central incisors and surrounding bone. The typical, average geometries were generated in a FEA environment. Dentin was considered as an elastic orthotropic material, and periodontal ligament was coupled with nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties. The model was then validated with experimental data on displacement of incisors from published literature. Three post lengths were investigated in this study: root insertion of 5, 7, and 9 mm. For control, a sound incisor model was generated. Then, a tearing load of 50 N was applied to both sound tooth and simulation models. Post restorations did not seem to affect the strain distribution in bone when compared to the control. All simulated post restorations affected incisor biomechanics and reduced the root's deforming capability, while the composite crowns underwent a higher degree of deformation than the sound crown. No differences could be noticed in incisor stress and strain. As for the influence of post length, it was not shown to affect the biomechanics of restored teeth. PMID:18833761
Continuous, linearly intermixed fiber tows and composite molded article thereform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Ying, Lincoln (Inventor)
2000-01-01
The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a carbon fiber tow; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber tow; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.
Viscoelastic properties of the normal human bladder.
Andersson, S; Kronström, A; Bjerle, P
1989-01-01
Continuous and stepwise cystometry were performed through suprapubic catheters in 12 healthy young subjects in order to assess passive viscoelastic variables of the normal human bladder during the collection phase. Elastic contants increased non-linearly with bladder distension. Relative elastic modulus and relaxation time of the bladder wall increased or tended to increase with bladder distension and infusion rate. There was considerable interindividual variation in all variables suggesting that discrimination between normal and abnormal bladder wall viscoelasticity may be difficult in routine clinical practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joo, Sung-Jun; Park, Buhm; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kwak, Dong-Ok; Song, In-Sang; Park, Junhong; Kim, Hak-Sung
2015-03-01
Woven glass fabric/BT (bismaleimide triazine) composite laminate (BT core), copper (Cu), and photoimageable solder resist (PSR) are the most widely used materials for semiconductors in electronic devices. Among these materials, BT core and PSR contain polymeric materials that exhibit viscoelastic behavior. For this reason, these materials are considered to have time- and temperature-dependent moduli during warpage analysis. However, the thin geometry of multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) film makes it difficult to identify viscoelastic characteristics. In this work, a vibration test method was proposed for measuring the viscoelastic properties of a multilayer PCB film at different temperatures. The beam-shaped specimens, composed of a BT core, Cu laminated on a BT core, and PSR and Cu laminated on a BT core, were used in the vibration test. The frequency-dependent variation of the complex bending stiffness was determined using a transfer function method. The storage modulus (E‧) of the BT core, Cu, and PSR as a function of temperature and frequency were obtained, and their temperature-dependent variation was identified. The obtained properties were fitted using a viscoelastic model for the BT core and the PSR, and a linear elastic model for the Cu. Warpage of a line pattern specimen due to temperature variation was measured using a shadow Moiré analysis and compared to predictions using a finite element model. The results provide information on the mechanism of warpage, especially warpage due to temperature-dependent variation in viscoelastic properties.
Functional methods and effective potentials for non-linear composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellegrini, Yves-Patrick; Barthélémy, Marc; Perrin, Gilles
2000-03-01
A formulation of variational principles in terms of functional integrals is proposed for any type of local plastic potentials. The minimization problem is reduced to the computation of a path integral. This integral can be used as a starting point for different approximations. As a first application, it is shown how to compute to second order the weak-disorder perturbative expansion of the effective potentials in random composite. The three-dimensional results of Suquet and Ponte-Castañeda (Suquet, P., Ponte-Castañeda, P., 1993. Small-contrast perturbation expansions for the effective properties of nonlinear composites. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) Ser. II 317, 1515-1522) for the plastic dissipation potential with uniform applied tractions are retrieved and extended to any space dimension, taking correlations into account. In addition, the viscoplastic potential is also computed for uniform strain rates.
Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.
2014-07-01
In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.
String-merging of meso- viscoelastic droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yuanze; Xu, Jianmao
2007-03-01
Great challenge exists in the multi-scale rheological modeling of immiscible polyblends with non-linear morphology changes, including viscoelastic drop break-up and collapse. A new type mechanism of merging and coalescence, called string-merging of meso- viscoelastic droplets was described and analyzed. By iterative stretching and relaxation in a four-roll mill rheometer, one droplet containing high molar mass PIB (polyisobutene), was separated into two droplets connected by a string in a dumbbell shape suspending in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) medium. In quiescent state, the string pulled the two spheres merging closer and collapsed into one spherical drop finally. The process exhibits interesting features, different from capillary breakup mechanism. By adding the viscoelasticity of the systems to the force balance of Laplace force and viscous drag, the phenomenon may be well analyzed. The necessity to involve the microscopic consideration of the highly oriented entangled state are discussed.
Substructure synthesis methods for viscoelastic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Duan
1993-09-01
Viscoelastic damping models are necessary for accurate dynamic analysis of flexible aerospace structures. The method of substructure synthesis is extended to systems with general linear viscoelastic damping. The stationary variational principles for discrete symmetric and nonsymmetric viscoelastic systems are first developed in parallel for the time, Laplace, and frequency domain. The corresponding substructure synthesis methods are then formulated. On the basis of the Rayleigh-Ritz method, each substructure is represented by a set of admissible trial vectors. Real trial vectors, such as eigenvectors and Lanczos vectors of the corresponding undamped substructure as well as Ritz vectors obtained by spatial discretization of simple functions, are recommended. The geometric compatibility between substructures can be approximated by a weighted residual method, and the traditional state space formulation is avoided. The effort involved in the reduction process is almost independent of the complexity of viscoelastic models. Beam and plate examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the substructure synthesis method in terms of reducing the size of final equations to obtain accurate solutions of eigenvalues, frequency responses, and transient responses for viscoelastic symmetric systems.
Viscoelastic properties of cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaal, Mate; Bovtun, Viktor; Stark, Wolfgang; Erhard, Anton; Yakymenko, Yuriy; Kreutzbruck, Marc
2016-03-01
Viscoelastic properties of cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets (PP FEs) were studied at low frequencies (0.3-33 Hz) by dynamic mechanical analysis and at high frequencies (250 kHz) by laser Doppler vibrometry. Relaxation behavior of the in-plane Young's modulus ( Y11 ' ˜ 1500 MPa at room temperature) was observed and attributed to the viscoelastic response of polypropylene matrix. The out-of-plane Young's modulus is very small ( Y33 ' ≈ 0.1 MPa) at low frequencies, frequency- and stress-dependent, evidencing nonlinear viscoelastic response of PP FEs. The high-frequency mechanical response of PP FEs is shown to be linear viscoelastic with Y33 ' ≈ 0.8 MPa. It is described by thickness vibration mode and modeled as a damped harmonic oscillator with one degree of freedom. Frequency dependence of Y33 * in the large dynamic strain regime is described by the broad Cole-Cole relaxation with a mean frequency in kHz range attributed to the dynamics of the air flow between partially closed air-filled voids in PP FEs. Switching-off the relaxation contribution causes dynamic crossover from the nonlinear viscoelastic regime at low frequencies to the linear viscoelastic regime at high frequencies. In the small strain regime, contribution of the air flow seems to be insignificant and the power-law response, attributed to the mechanics of polypropylene cell walls and closed air voids, dominates in a broad frequency range. Mechanical relaxation caused by the air flow mechanism takes place in the sound and ultrasound frequency range (10 Hz-1 MHz) and, therefore, should be taken into account in ultrasonic applications of the PP FEs deal with strong exciting or receiving signals.
Optimal composite scores for longitudinal clinical trials under the linear mixed effects model.
Ard, M Colin; Raghavan, Nandini; Edland, Steven D
2015-01-01
Clinical trials of chronic, progressive conditions use rate of change on continuous measures as the primary outcome measure, with slowing of progression on the measure as evidence of clinical efficacy. For clinical trials with a single prespecified primary endpoint, it is important to choose an endpoint with the best signal-to-noise properties to optimize statistical power to detect a treatment effect. Composite endpoints composed of a linear weighted average of candidate outcome measures have also been proposed. Composites constructed as simple sums or averages of component tests, as well as composites constructed using weights derived from more sophisticated approaches, can be suboptimal, in some cases performing worse than individual outcome measures. We extend recent research on the construction of efficient linearly weighted composites by establishing the often overlooked connection between trial design and composite performance under linear mixed effects model assumptions and derive a formula for calculating composites that are optimal for longitudinal clinical trials of known, arbitrary design. Using data from a completed trial, we provide example calculations showing that the optimally weighted linear combination of scales can improve the efficiency of trials by almost 20% compared with the most efficient of the individual component scales. Additional simulations and analytical results demonstrate the potential losses in efficiency that can result from alternative published approaches to composite construction and explore the impact of weight estimation on composite performance.
Karimi, Samaneh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Tahir, Paridah Md; Dufresne, Alain
2016-10-01
Cellulosic nanofibers (NFs) from kenaf bast were used to reinforce glycerol plasticized thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrices with varying contents (0-10wt%). The composites were prepared by casting/evaporation method. Raw fibers (RFs) reinforced TPS films were prepared with the same contents and conditions. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of filler dimension and loading on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of fabricated materials. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the NF-reinforced composites had significantly greater mechanical performance than the RF-reinforced counterparts. This was attributed to the high aspect ratio and nano dimension of the reinforcing agents, as well as their compatibility with the TPS matrix, resulting in strong fiber/matrix interaction. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 313% and 343%, respectively, with increasing NF content from 0 to 10wt%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed an elevational trend in the glass transition temperature of amylopectin-rich domains in composites. The most eminent record was +18.5°C shift in temperature position of the film reinforced with 8% NF. This finding implied efficient dispersion of nanofibers in the matrix and their ability to form a network and restrict mobility of the system.
Karimi, Samaneh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Tahir, Paridah Md; Dufresne, Alain
2016-10-01
Cellulosic nanofibers (NFs) from kenaf bast were used to reinforce glycerol plasticized thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrices with varying contents (0-10wt%). The composites were prepared by casting/evaporation method. Raw fibers (RFs) reinforced TPS films were prepared with the same contents and conditions. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of filler dimension and loading on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of fabricated materials. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the NF-reinforced composites had significantly greater mechanical performance than the RF-reinforced counterparts. This was attributed to the high aspect ratio and nano dimension of the reinforcing agents, as well as their compatibility with the TPS matrix, resulting in strong fiber/matrix interaction. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 313% and 343%, respectively, with increasing NF content from 0 to 10wt%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed an elevational trend in the glass transition temperature of amylopectin-rich domains in composites. The most eminent record was +18.5°C shift in temperature position of the film reinforced with 8% NF. This finding implied efficient dispersion of nanofibers in the matrix and their ability to form a network and restrict mobility of the system. PMID:27339322
Viscoelastic properties of oat ß-glucan-rich aqueous dispersions
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
C-trim is a healthy food product containing the dietary of soluble fiber ß-glucan. The suspension of C-trim in water is a hydrocolloid biopolymer. The linear and non-linear rheological properties for suspensions of C-trim biopolymers were investigated. The linear viscoelastic behaviors for C-trim...
The fractional viscoelastic response of human breast tissue cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmichael, B.; Babahosseini, H.; Mahmoodi, S. N.; Agah, M.
2015-07-01
The mechanical response of a living cell is notoriously complicated. The complex, heterogeneous characteristics of cellular structure introduce difficulties that simple linear models of viscoelasticity cannot overcome, particularly at deep indentation depths. Herein, a nano-scale stress-relaxation analysis performed with an atomic force microscope reveals that isolated human breast cells do not exhibit simple exponential relaxation capable of being modeled by the standard linear solid (SLS) model. Therefore, this work proposes the application of the fractional Zener (FZ) model of viscoelasticity to extract mechanical parameters from the entire relaxation response, improving upon existing physical techniques to probe isolated cells. The FZ model introduces a new parameter that describes the fractional time-derivative dependence of the response. The results show an exceptional increase in conformance to the experimental data compared to that predicted by the SLS model, and the order of the fractional derivative (α) is remarkably homogeneous across the populations, with a median value of 0.48 ± 0.06 for the malignant population and 0.51 ± 0.07 for the benign. The cells’ responses exhibit power-law behavior and complexity not associated with simple relaxation (SLS, α = 1) that supports the application of a fractional model. The distributions of some of the FZ parameters also preserve the distinction between the malignant and benign sample populations seen from the linear model and previous results while including the contribution of fast-relaxation behavior. The resulting viscosity, measured by a composite relaxation time, exhibits considerably less dispersion due to residual error than the distribution generated by the linear model and therefore serves as a more powerful marker for cell differentiation.
Viscoelasticity of silica gels
Scherer, G.W.
1995-12-01
The response of silica gels to mechanical loads depends on the properties of the solid phase and the permeability of the network. Understanding this behavior is essential for modeling of stresses developed during drying or heating of gels. The permeability and the mechanical properties are readily determined from a simple beam-bending experiment, by measuring the load relaxation that occurs at constant deflection. Load decay results from movement of the liquid within the network; in addition, there may be viscoelastic relaxation of the network itself. Silica gel is viscoelastic in chemically aggressive media, but in inert liquids (such as ethanol or acetone) it is elastic. Experiments show that the viscoelastic relaxation time decreases as the concentration and pH of the water in the pore liquid increase. During drying, the permeability decreases and the viscosity increases, both exhibiting a power-law dependence on density of the gel network.
Inertial effects in the response of viscous and viscoelastic fluids.
Liverpool, T B; MacKintosh, F C
2005-11-11
We consider the effect of inertia on the high frequency response of a general linear viscoelastic material to local deformations. We calculate the displacement response and correlation functions for points separated by a distance r. The effects of inertia and incompressibility lead to anticorrelations in the correlation or response functions, which become more pronounced for more elastic materials. Furthermore, the stress propagation in viscoelastic media is no longer diffusive, as for simple liquids.
A robust algorithm for the contact of viscoelastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinu, S.; Cerlinca, D.
2016-08-01
Existing solutions for the contact problem involving viscoelastic materials often require numerical differentiation and integration, as well as resolution of transcendental equations, which can raise convergence issues. The algorithm advanced in this paper can tackle the contact behaviour of the viscoelastic materials without any convergence problems, for arbitrary contact geometry, arbitrary loading programs and complex constitutive models of linear viscoelasticity. An updated algorithm for the elastic frictionless contact, coupled with a semi-analytical method for the computation of viscoelastic displacement, is employed to solve the viscoelastic contact problem at a series of small time increments. The number of equations in the linear system resulting from the geometrical condition of deformation is set by the number of cells in the contact area, which is a priori unknown. A trial-and-error approach is implemented, resulting in a series of linear systems which are solved on evolving contact areas, until static equilibrium equations and complementarity conditions are fully satisfied for every cell in the computational domain. At any iteration, cells with negative pressure are excluded from the contact area, while cells with negative gap (i.e. cells where the contacting bodies are predicted to overlap) are reincluded. The solution is found when pressure is stabilized in relation to the imposed normal load. This robust algorithm is expected to solve a large variety of contact problems involving viscoelastic materials.
Effect of light intensity on linear shrinkage of photo-activated composite resins during setting.
Inoue, K; Howashi, G; Kanetou, T; Masumi, S; Ueno, O; Fujii, K
2005-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of light intensity on linear shrinkage of photo-activated composite resins during setting. The materials used were four commercially available photo-activated composite resins. Three light-irradiation instruments were selected and prepared so as to obtain four light intensities (200, 480, 800 and 1600 mW cm(-2)). The linear shrinkage during setting was examined 10 min after light irradiation using a trial balance plastometer, and the specimen thickness was 2.0 mm for all materials. The depth of cure was examined according to the test method described in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/FDIS 4049: 2000(E)). In measuring the linear shrinkage 60 s from the start of light irradiation for 10 s, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.89-0.94) between the amount of linear shrinkage and the light intensity: an increase in light intensity produced a greater linear shrinkage. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.92-1.0) between the linear shrinkage and the irradiation time: an increase in irradiation time resulted in a greater linear shrinkage. Values of the depth of cure ranged from 1.69 to 3.75 mm. PMID:15634297
Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of long-chain randomly branched polybutadiene
Kasehagen, L.J.; Macosko, C.W.
1996-12-31
The presence of long-chain random branching in polymer melts is known to have a large effect on a material`s viscoelastic properties. A hydrosilation reaction between near-monodisperse polybutadiene and a small difunctional crosslinker was used to produce polymer with well characterized random branching for rheological study. Although, previous work has characterized the branching, molecular weight distribution and linear viscoelastic properties of the system, non-linear properties are often of more importance in processing and will be reported on in this work. The shear behavior of a series of polybutadienes of varying branching content were investigated using start-up of steady shear and step shear measurements. Transient uniaxial extensional measurements were also made using a fiber-windup technique on a commercial shear rheometer. Results will be presented by comparison with the linear viscoelastic results and non-linear constitutive equations. Particular emphasis will be placed on changes in the damping function as branching content increases.
Organic composition of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR): a comet formed near Jupiter?
Mumma, M J; Dello Russo, N; DiSanti, M A; Magee-Sauer, K; Novak, R E; Brittain, S; Rettig, T; McLean, I S; Reuter, D C; Xu, L H
2001-05-18
In the current paradigm, Oort cloud comets formed in the giant planets' region of the solar nebula, where temperatures and other conditions varied greatly. The measured compositions of four such comets (Halley, Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, and Lee) are consistent with formation from interstellar ices in the cold nebular region beyond Uranus. The composition of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) differs greatly, which suggests that its ices condensed from processed nebular gas, probably in the Jupiter-Saturn region. Its unusual organic composition may require reevaluation of the prebiotic organic material delivered to the young Earth by comets.
Organic composition of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR): a comet formed near Jupiter?
Mumma, M J; Dello Russo, N; DiSanti, M A; Magee-Sauer, K; Novak, R E; Brittain, S; Rettig, T; McLean, I S; Reuter, D C; Xu, L H
2001-05-18
In the current paradigm, Oort cloud comets formed in the giant planets' region of the solar nebula, where temperatures and other conditions varied greatly. The measured compositions of four such comets (Halley, Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, and Lee) are consistent with formation from interstellar ices in the cold nebular region beyond Uranus. The composition of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) differs greatly, which suggests that its ices condensed from processed nebular gas, probably in the Jupiter-Saturn region. Its unusual organic composition may require reevaluation of the prebiotic organic material delivered to the young Earth by comets. PMID:11359002
On the Relationship between Maximal Reliability and Maximal Validity of Linear Composites
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Penev, Spiridon; Raykov, Tenko
2006-01-01
A linear combination of a set of measures is often sought as an overall score summarizing subject performance. The weights in this composite can be selected to maximize its reliability or to maximize its validity, and the optimal choice of weights is in general not the same for these two optimality criteria. We explore several relationships…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhadrakumari, S.; Predeep, P.
2006-08-01
A series of composite samples of YBa2Cu3O7-x and linear low density polyethylene (Y-123/LLDPE) with volume percentage ranging from 0 to 75% was prepared. The crystallinity of the composites was studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. It is found that the percentage of crystallinity in the composite samples increases with increasing volume of the LLDPE. A four-phase system for the composite materials may be inferred from a combination of XRD and density data. Repulsive force measurements showed that the diamagnetic properties were preserved in the composites and the samples exhibited appreciable magnetic levitation forces and this force increases with increasing volume fraction of the superconductor filler.
Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Roseno, Seto
2010-12-01
Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.
Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites
Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Roseno, Seto
2010-12-23
Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.
Evaluation of fatigue damage accumulation in composites via linear and nonlinear guided wave methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jinling; Chillara, Vamshi; Cho, Hwanjeong; Qiu, Jinhao; Lissenden, Cliff
2016-02-01
For non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fatigue damage accumulation in composites, this research proposed a combined linear and a nonlinear ultrasonic guided wave method. For the linear Lamb waves approach, a laser-generation based imaging system (LGBI) is utilized to measure the phase velocities of guided waves in composites. The elastic moduli of the specimen are then obtained by inverting the measured phase velocities using genetic algorithms (GAs). The variation of the above two parameters (phase velocity and elastic moduli), together with the guided wave amplitudes, are then observed during the fatigue process. Nonlinear second harmonics in composites are studied theoretically and numerically. A third-order strain energy function of transversely isotropic materials is expressed by five invariants of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. Results enable intelligent selection of primary modes for cumulative second harmonics generation. Meanwhile, finite element simulations are conducted to characterize second harmonics in light of the theory.
Teller, Sean S; Farran, Alexandra J E; Xiao, Longxi; Jiao, Tong; Duncan, Randall L; Clifton, Rodney J; Jia, Xinqiao
2012-10-01
The biomechanical function of the vocal folds (VFs) depends on their viscoelastic properties. Many conditions can lead to VF scarring that compromises voice function and quality. To identify candidate replacement materials, the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of native tissues need to be understood at phonation frequencies. Previously, the authors developed the torsional wave experiment (TWE), a stress-wave-based experiment to determine the linear viscoelastic shear properties of small, soft samples. Here, the viscoelastic properties of porcine and human VFs were measured over a frequency range of 10-200 Hz. The TWE utilizes resonance phenomena to determine viscoelastic properties; therefore, the specimen test frequency is determined by the sample size and material properties. Viscoelastic moduli are reported at resonance frequencies. Structure and composition of the tissues were determined by histology and immunochemistry. Porcine data from the TWE are separated into two groups: a young group, consisting of fetal and newborn pigs, and an adult group, consisting of 6-9-month olds and 2+-year olds. Adult tissues had an average storage modulus of 2309±1394 Pa and a loss tangent of 0.38±0.10 at frequencies of 36-200 Hz. The VFs of young pigs were significantly more compliant, with a storage modulus of 394±142 Pa and a loss tangent of 0.40±0.14 between 14 and 30 Hz. No gender dependence was observed. Histological staining showed that adult porcine tissues had a more organized, layered structure than the fetal tissues, with a thicker epithelium and a more structured lamina propria. Elastin fibers in fetal VF tissues were immature compared to those in adult tissues. Together, these structural changes in the tissues most likely contributed to the change in viscoelastic properties. Adult human VF tissues, recovered postmortem from adult patients with a history of smoking or disease, had an average storage modulus of 756±439 Pa and a loss tangent of 0
Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanics of Cross-linked Rubbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The paper develops a general theory for finite rubber viscoelasticity, and specifies it in the form, convenient for solving problems important for rubber, tire and space industries. Based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a general nonlinear theory has been developed for arbitrary nonisothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids. In this theory, the constitutive equations are presented as the sum of known equilibrium (rubber elastic) and non-equilibrium (liquid polymer viscoelastic) terms. These equations are then simplified using several modeling arguments. Stability constraints for the proposed constitutive equations are also discussed. It is shown that only strong ellipticity criteria are applicable for assessing stability of the equations governing viscoelastic solids.
NDT and SHM of Carbon Fiber Composites using Linear Drive MWM-Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Washabaugh, Andrew; Martin, Christopher; Lyons, Robert; Grundy, David; Goldfine, Neil; Russell, Richard; Wincheski, Russell
2012-01-01
Carbon fiber composites are used in a wide range of structural applications due to their excellent specific strength and stiffness. However, the anisotropic mechanical and electrical properties associated with the fibers within each composite layer present challenges, and opportunities, for Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods used to characterize and assess the structure condition. This includes composite condition after manufacture (such as fiber orientation and density, porosity, delamination, and bond strength) and during usage (such as damage from impact, fiber breakage, thermal exposure or applied stress). Ultrasonic and thermographic methods can address some of these challenges, but eddy current methods provide an alternative method for composite structures that contain a conducting material, such as carbon fibers or a metallic liner. This presentation reviews recent advances in the development of eddy current sensors and arrays for carbon fiber composite NDT and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. The focus is on eddy current sensor constructs with linear drive windings, such as MWM -Arrays, that induce currents primarily within the linear fibers of the composite. By combining this type of sensor construct with micromechanical models that relate composite constituent properties to measurable sensor responses, insight is obtained into the volumetric distribution of electrical properties within the composite and the associated manufacturing, damage, or strain conditions. With knowledge of the fiber layup, this MWM-Array technology is able to detect damage and strain/stress as a function of depth and fiber orientation. This work has been funded by NASA, NA V AIR and the Army for applications ranging from composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) to aircraft structures and rotorcraft blades. This presentation will specifically present background on the MWM-Array technology, results from the micromechanical modeling effort, and results from
Duan, Wangping; Wei, Lei; Zhang, Juntao; Hao, Yongzhuang; Li, Chunjiang; Li, Hao; Li, Qi; Zhang, Quanyou; Chen, Weiyi; Wei, Xiaochun
2011-12-01
The cytoskeleton network is believed to play an important role in the biomechanical properties of the chondrocyte. Ours and other laboratories have demonstrated that chondrocytes exhibit a viscoelastic solid creep behavior in vitro and that viscoelastic properties decrease in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. In this study, we aimed to understand whether the alteration of viscoelastic properties is associated with changes in cytoskeleton components of ageing chondrocytes from rabbit knee articular cartilage. Three age groups were used for this study: young (2-months-old, N=23), adult (8-months-old, N=23), and old (31-months-old, N=23) rabbit groups. Cartilage structure and proteoglycan and type II collagen content were determined by H&E and Toluidine Blue staining, and type II collagen antibody. The detailed structure of the chondrocytes in all groups was visualized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chondrocytes were isolated from full-thickness knee cartilage of rabbits from all groups and their viscoelastic properties were quantified within 2 hours of isolation using a micropipette aspiration technique combined with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model. The components and network of the cytoskeleton within the cells were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) with immunofluorescence staining as well as real time PCR and western blotting. With ageing, articular cartilage contained less chondrocytes and less proteoglycans and type II collagen. TEM observations showed that the cell membranes were not clearly defined, organelles were fewer and the nuclei were deformed or shrunk in the old cells compared with the young and adult cells. In suspension, chondrocytes from all three age groups showed significant viscoelastic creep behavior, but the deformation rate and amplitude of old chondrocytes were increased under the same negative pressure when compared to young and adult chondrocytes. Viscoelastic properties of the old cells, including
Viscoelastic Properties of Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gündüz, Güngör
A network was characterized by its viscoelastic properties. The viscoelastic property indicates the deformations or changes in the shape and in the internal structure during the evolution of a network. The change in the direction of motion was taken as elastic deformation and the change in the vertical direction as viscous deformation. These deformations were related to the change of geometry of internal structure and of shape. Thus it was possible to characterize a network by its storage and loss moduli. The change of the structure of a network during its evolution changes also its entropy. However entropy depends on the number of microstates of an already existing framework. As examples, two different systems (i) New York Stock Exchange and (ii) a melody were studied for their viscoelastic properties. The change of viscous property was compared with the change of different types of entropies such as configurational entropy, crossing entropy, and topological entropy. This last entropy was introduced and explained in the text. It was found out that there is no direct correspondence between the increase of entropy and the increase of viscous property of a network although they sometimes correlate with each other.
Viscoelasticity measurements inside liposomes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shu; Gibson, Lachlan; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina
2014-09-01
Microrheology, the study of the behavior of fluids on the microscopic scale, has been and continues to be one of the most important subjects that can be applied to characterize the behavior of biological fluids. It is extremely difficult to make rapid measurement of the viscoelastic properties of the interior of living cells. Liposomes are widely used as model system for studying different aspects of cell biology. We propose to develop a microrheometer, based on real-time control of optical tweezers, in order to investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fluid inside liposomes. This will give greater understanding of the viscoelastic properties of the fluids inside cells. In our experiment, the liposomes are prepared by different methods to find out both a better way to make GUVs and achieve efficient encapsulation of particle. By rotating the vaterite inside a liposome via spin angular momentum, the optical torque can be measured by measuring the change of polarization of the transmitted light, which allows the direct measurement of viscous drag torque since the optical torque is balanced by the viscous drag. We present an initial feasibility demonstration of trapping and manipulation of a microscopic vaterite inside the liposome. The applied method is simple and can be extended to sensing within the living cells.
Evaluating the Viscoelastic Properties of Tissue from Laser Speckle Fluctuations
Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.
2012-01-01
Most pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative, and orthopedic disorders are accompanied with alterations in tissue viscoelasticity. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) is a novel optical technology that provides the invaluable potential for mechanical assessment of tissue in situ. In LSR, the specimen is illuminated with coherent light and the time constant of speckle fluctuations, τ, is measured using a high speed camera. Prior work indicates that τ is closely correlated with tissue microstructure and composition. Here, we investigate the relationship between LSR measurements of τ and sample mechanical properties defined by the viscoelastic modulus, G*. Phantoms and tissue samples over a broad range of viscoelastic properties are evaluated using LSR and conventional mechanical testing. Results demonstrate a strong correlation between τ and |G*| for both phantom (r = 0.79, p <0.0001) and tissue (r = 0.88, p<0.0001) specimens, establishing the unique capability of LSR in characterizing tissue viscoelasticity. PMID:22428085
A Viscoelastic Constitutive Law For FRP Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ascione, Luigi; Berardi, Valentino Paolo; D'Aponte, Anna
2011-09-01
The present study deals with the long-term behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials in civil engineering. More specifically, the authors propose a mechanical model capable of predicting the viscoelastic behavior of FRP laminates in the field of linear viscoelasticity, starting from that of the matrix material and fiber. The model is closely connected with the low FRP stress levels in civil engineering applications. The model is based on a micromechanical approach which assumes that there is a perfect adhesion between the matrix and fiber. The long-term behavior of the phases is described through a four-parameter rheological law. A validation of the model has also been developed by matching the predicted behavior with an experimental one available in the literature.
Ferromagnetic viscoelastic liquid crystalline materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlesier, Cristina; Shibaev, Petr; McDonald, Scott
2012-02-01
Novel ferromagnetic liquid crystalline materials were designed by mixing ferromagnetic nanoparticles with glass forming oligomers and low molar mass liquid crystals. The matrix in which nanoparticles are embedded is highly viscous that reduces aggregation of nanoparticles and stabilizes the whole composition. Mechanical and optical properties of the composite material are studied in the broad range of nanoparticle concentrations. The mechanical properties of the viscoelastic composite material resemble those of chemically crosslinked elastomers (elasticity and reversibility of deformations). The optical properties of ferromagnetic cholesteric materials are discussed in detail. It is shown that application of magnetic field leads to the shift of the selective reflection band of the cholesteric material and dramatically change its color. Theoretical model is suggested to account for the observed effects; physical properties of the novel materials and liquid crystalline elastomers are compared and discussed. [1] P.V. Shibaev, C. Schlesier, R. Uhrlass, S. Woodward, E. Hanelt, Liquid Crystals, 37, 1601 (2010) [2] P.V. Shibaev, R. Uhrlass, S. Woodward, C. Schlesier, Md R. Ali, E. Hanelt, Liquid Crystals, 37, 587 (2010)
Balagurov, B. Ya.
2011-11-15
A general approach is proposed for calculating the conductivity of anisotropic composites with a low concentration of inclusions of an arbitrary shape. The contribution to effective conductivity {sigma}{sub e} , which is linear in concentration, is expressed in terms of the polarizability of the inclusion defined in a certain transformed system in which the inclusion is surrounded by an isotropic matrix. A transition to this system is performed using a symmetry transformation that does not change the equations for direct current.
Thermo-compression of pyrope-grossular garnet solid solutions: non-linear compositional dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, S. M.; Du, W.; Walker, D.
2014-12-01
Unit cell parameters of a series of synthetic garnets with the pyrope, grossular, and four intermediate compositions were measured up to about 900K and to 10 GPa using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Coefficients of thermal expansion of pyrope-grossular garnets are in the range 2.10~ 2.74 x 10-5 K-1 and uniformly increase with temperature. Values for the two end members pyrope and grossular are identical within experimental error 2.74±0.05 x 10-5 K-1 and 2.73±0.01 x 10-5 K-1 respectively. Coefficients of thermal expansion for intermediate compositions are smaller than those of end members, and are not linearly dependent on composition. Bulk modulus of grossular is Κ0=164.3(1) GPa (with Κ0' the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus fixed to 5.92) and bulk modulus of pyrope is Κ0=169.2(2) GPa (with Κ0' fixed to 4.4) using a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, which are consistent with previously reported values. The bulk moduli of garnets of intermediate composition are between ~155 and ~160 GPa, smaller than those of the end-members no matter which Κ0' is chosen. The compositional dependence of bulk modulus resembles the compositional dependence of thermal expansion. Intermediate garnets on this binary have large positive excess volume, which makes them more compressible. We find that excess volumes in the pyrope-grossular series remain relatively large even at high pressure (~6GPa) and temperature (~800K), supporting the observation of crystal exsolution on this garnet join. (Ref: Wei Du, Simon Martin Clark, and David Walker (2014) Thermo-compression of pyrope-grossular garnet solid solutions:non-linear compositional dependence. American Mineralogist, In Press).
Palomba, Simona; Cavella, Silvana; Torrieri, Elena; Piccolo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Ventorino, Valeria
2012-01-01
After isolation from different doughs and sourdoughs, 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria were screened at the phenotypic level for exopolysaccharide production on media containing different carbohydrate sources. Two exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A) were selected through quantitative analysis on solid media containing sucrose and yeast extract. The PCR detection of homopolysaccharide (gtf and lev) and heteropolysaccharide (epsA, epsB, epsD and epsE, and epsEFG) genes showed different distributions within species and strains of the lactic acid bacteria studied. Moreover, in some strains both homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide genes were detected. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra suggest that Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A produced the same exopolysaccharide, which was constituted by a single repeating glucopyranosyl unit linked by an α-(1→6) glycosidic bond in a dextran-type carbohydrate. Microbial growth, acidification, and viscoelastic properties of sourdoughs obtained by exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing lactic acid bacterial strains were evaluated. Sourdough obtained after 15 h at 30°C with exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria reached higher total titratable acidity as well as elastic and dissipative modulus curves with respect to the starter not producing exopolysaccharide, but they showed similar levels of pH and microbial growth. On increasing the fermentation time, no difference in the viscoelastic properties of exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing samples was observed. This study suggests that dextran-producing Leuconostoc lactis 95A and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 can be employed to prepare sourdough, and this would be particularly useful to improve the quality of baked goods while avoiding the use of commercially available hydrocolloids as texturizing additives. PMID:22307283
One-way absorber for linearly polarized electromagnetic wave utilizing composite metamaterial.
Zhao, Junming; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Feng, Yijun
2015-02-23
This paper presents the proposal and practical design of a one-way absorber for selective linearly polarized electromagnetic (EM) wave. The EM wave polarization rotation property has been combined with polarization selective absorption utilizing a composite metamaterial slab. The energy of certain linearly polarized EM wave can be absorbed along one particular incident direction, but will be fully transmitted through the opposite direction. For the cross polarized wave, the direction dependent propagation properties are totally reversed. A prototype designed with a total slab thickness of only one-sixth of the operating wavelength is verified through both full-wave simulation and experimental measurement in the microwave regime. It achieves absorption efficiency over 83% along one direction, while transmission efficiency over 83% along the opposite direction for one particular linearly polarized wave. The proposed one-way absorber can be applied in EM devices achieving asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized wave or polarization control. The composite metamaterial that combines different functionalities into one design may provide more potential in metamaterial designs for various applications.
Nonlinear Viscoelastic Characterization of the Porcine Spinal Cord
Shetye, Snehal; Troyer, Kevin; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H. T.; Kwon, Brian K.; Cripton, Peter; Puttlitz, Christian M.
2014-01-01
Although quasi-static and quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of the spinal cord have been reported previously, there are no published studies that have investigated the fully (strain-dependent) nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the spinal cord. In this study, stress relaxation experiments and dynamic cycling were performed on six fresh porcine lumbar cord specimens to examine their viscoelastic mechanical properties. The stress relaxation data were fitted to a modified superposition formulation and a novel finite ramp time correction technique was applied. The parameters obtained from this fitting methodology were used to predict the average dynamic cyclic viscoelastic behavior of the porcine cord. The data indicate that the porcine spinal cord exhibited fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. The average weighted RMSE for a Heaviside ramp fit was 2.8kPa, which was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that of the nonlinear (comprehensive viscoelastic characterization (CVC) method) fit (0.365kPa). Further, the nonlinear mechanical parameters obtained were able to accurately predict the dynamic behavior, thus exemplifying the reliability of the obtained nonlinear parameters. These parameters will be important for future studies investigating various damage mechanisms of the spinal cord and studies developing high resolution finite elements models of the spine. PMID:24211612
Viscoelastic Effects on Spraying and Fragmentation of Polymeric Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshavarz, Bavand; McKinley, Gareth; Houze, Eric; Moore, John; Koerner, Michael; MIT, Mech., Eng., Dept. Team; Axalta Coating Systems Team
2013-11-01
The addition of small amounts of polymer to Newtonian fluids can inhibit the spray process, but the physical reasons behind these effects are still unclear. To explore this phenomenon, model viscoelastic fluids composed of very dilute solutions of polyethylene oxide are tested in a variety of fragmentation processes including air-assisted atomization, jet impact fragmentation, drop impact, and rotary atomization. Spray image analysis shows that when the fluid viscoelasticity is increased the average particle diameter and Sauter Mean Diameter both show a systematic increase before reaching an asymptotic plateau value. As observed for Newtonian fluids, the droplet size distributions are still well described by a Gamma distribution but the addition of viscoelasticity shifts the distribution to smaller values of n, corresponding to a broader size distribution. A linear stability analysis indicates that the effects of fluid viscoelasticity are more pronounced in the final stage of ligament formation than in the initial stages of atomization. The linear analysis can predict the observed trends in the mean droplet sizes; however, the shift in the size distributions seems to rise from the nonlinear dynamics of the stretched viscoelastic ligaments close to break up.
Reusable antifouling viscoelastic adhesive with an elastic skin.
Patil, Sandip; Malasi, Abhinav; Majumder, Abhijit; Ghatak, Animangsu; Sharma, Ashutosh
2012-01-10
Although the viscoelasticity or tackiness of a pressure-sensitive adhesive gives it strength owing to energy dissipation during peeling, it also renders it nonreusable because of structural changes such as the formation of fibrils, cohesive failure, and fouling. However, an elastic layer has good structural integrity and cohesive strength but low adhesive energy. We demonstrate an effective composite adhesive in which a soft viscoelastic bulk layer is imbedded in a largely elastic thin skin layer. The composite layer is able to meet the conflicting demands of the high peel strength comparable to the viscoelastic core and the structural integrity, reusability, and antifouling properties of the elastic skin. Our model adhesive is made of poly(dimethylsiloxane), where its core and skin are created by varying the cross-linking percentage from 2 to 10%. PMID:22201420
Reusable antifouling viscoelastic adhesive with an elastic skin.
Patil, Sandip; Malasi, Abhinav; Majumder, Abhijit; Ghatak, Animangsu; Sharma, Ashutosh
2012-01-10
Although the viscoelasticity or tackiness of a pressure-sensitive adhesive gives it strength owing to energy dissipation during peeling, it also renders it nonreusable because of structural changes such as the formation of fibrils, cohesive failure, and fouling. However, an elastic layer has good structural integrity and cohesive strength but low adhesive energy. We demonstrate an effective composite adhesive in which a soft viscoelastic bulk layer is imbedded in a largely elastic thin skin layer. The composite layer is able to meet the conflicting demands of the high peel strength comparable to the viscoelastic core and the structural integrity, reusability, and antifouling properties of the elastic skin. Our model adhesive is made of poly(dimethylsiloxane), where its core and skin are created by varying the cross-linking percentage from 2 to 10%.
A composite step conjugate gradients squared algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Tony; Szeto, Tedd
1994-03-01
We propose a new and more stable variant of the CGS method [27] for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. The method is based on squaring the Composite Step BCG method, introduced recently by Bank and Chan [1,2], which itself is a stabilized variant of BCG in that it skips over steps for which the BCG iterate is not defined and causes one kind of breakdown in BCG. By doing this, we obtain a method (Composite Step CGS or CSCGS) which not only handles the breakdowns described above, but does so with the advantages of CGS, namely, no multiplications by the transpose matrix and a faster convergence rate than BCG. Our strategy for deciding whether to skip a step does not involve any machine dependent parameters and is designed to skip near breakdowns as well as produce smoother iterates. Numerical experiments show that the new method does produce improved performance over CGS on practical problems.
The linear shrinkage and microhardness of packable composites polymerized by QTH or PAC unit.
Park, Song-Ho; Noh, Byng-Duk; Cho, Yong-Sik; Kim, Su-Sun
2006-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a plasma arc curing (PAC) unit for packable resin composite curing. The amount and speed of polymerization shrinkage and the microhardness of packable composites were evaluated in order to compare the PAC unit's effectiveness with a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) unit. Sure Fil (Dentsply Caulk), Pyramid (BISCO Inc) and Synergy Compact (Colténe/Whaledent) were used as the packable composites. In the case of curing with the PAC unit, the composites were light cured with Apollo 95E (DMD System Inc) for 1 second (Group 1), 2 seconds (Group 2), 3 seconds (Group 3), 6 seconds (Group 4) and 12 seconds (Group 5). For light curing with the QTH unit, the composites were light cured for 60 seconds using XL3000 (Group 6). The linear polymerization shrinkage of each composite was measured using a custom made linometer, and the data was stored in a computer every 0.5 to 0.55 seconds for a total of 60 seconds. For each composite, the amount of polymerization was compared using one-way ANOVA with Tukey at the 95% confidence level. In order to compare the speed of polymerization, the peak time (PT), showing the highest speed of polymerization and maximum speed of polymerization (Smax), were determined from the data and compared using one-way ANOVA with Tukey at the 95% confidence level for each material. Based on the statistical analysis among the PAC-cure groups (Groups 1 through 5), the group that was not statistically different from the QTH-cure group (Group 6) in the amount of linear polymerization shrinkage was determined for each material, and the corresponding curing time of the group was defined as the tentative minimum PAC-curing time (TMPT). For microhardness measurements, the samples were placed in a 2-mm thick Teflon plate. Twenty specimens, randomly divided into the PAC-cure group (Group 1) or the QTH-cure group (Group 2), were prepared for each material. In Group 1, each composite was light cured for TMPT with the PAC unit. In
The linear shrinkage and microhardness of packable composites polymerized by QTH or PAC unit.
Park, Song-Ho; Noh, Byng-Duk; Cho, Yong-Sik; Kim, Su-Sun
2006-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a plasma arc curing (PAC) unit for packable resin composite curing. The amount and speed of polymerization shrinkage and the microhardness of packable composites were evaluated in order to compare the PAC unit's effectiveness with a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) unit. Sure Fil (Dentsply Caulk), Pyramid (BISCO Inc) and Synergy Compact (Colténe/Whaledent) were used as the packable composites. In the case of curing with the PAC unit, the composites were light cured with Apollo 95E (DMD System Inc) for 1 second (Group 1), 2 seconds (Group 2), 3 seconds (Group 3), 6 seconds (Group 4) and 12 seconds (Group 5). For light curing with the QTH unit, the composites were light cured for 60 seconds using XL3000 (Group 6). The linear polymerization shrinkage of each composite was measured using a custom made linometer, and the data was stored in a computer every 0.5 to 0.55 seconds for a total of 60 seconds. For each composite, the amount of polymerization was compared using one-way ANOVA with Tukey at the 95% confidence level. In order to compare the speed of polymerization, the peak time (PT), showing the highest speed of polymerization and maximum speed of polymerization (Smax), were determined from the data and compared using one-way ANOVA with Tukey at the 95% confidence level for each material. Based on the statistical analysis among the PAC-cure groups (Groups 1 through 5), the group that was not statistically different from the QTH-cure group (Group 6) in the amount of linear polymerization shrinkage was determined for each material, and the corresponding curing time of the group was defined as the tentative minimum PAC-curing time (TMPT). For microhardness measurements, the samples were placed in a 2-mm thick Teflon plate. Twenty specimens, randomly divided into the PAC-cure group (Group 1) or the QTH-cure group (Group 2), were prepared for each material. In Group 1, each composite was light cured for TMPT with the PAC unit. In
The viscoelasticity of curing thermosets
Adolf, D.; Martin, J.E.
1990-01-01
As a crosslinking polymer cures, dramatic changes in molecular architecture occur. These structural changes in turn affect the viscoelastic behavior of the material. At a critical extent of reaction (the gel point), the polymer undergoes a transition from a viscous liquid to an elastic solid. We have monitored the evolution of structure and viscoelasticity in an epoxy encapsulant used at Sandia, the diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A (BADGE) cured with diethanolamine (DEA). The structure evolves according to percolation theory, and the viscoelasticity evolves according to out dynamic scaling theory for branched polymers. 7 refs., 4 figs.
Viscoelasticity of mono- and polydisperse inverse ferrofluids.
Saldivar-Guerrero, Ruben; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo; Aksel, Nuri; Heymann, Lutz; Rodriguez-Fernández, Oliverio S
2006-08-28
We report on measurements of a magnetorheological model fluid created by dispersing nonmagnetic microparticles of polystyrene in a commercial ferrofluid. The linear viscoelastic properties as a function of magnetic field strength, particle size, and particle size distribution are studied by oscillatory measurements. We compare the results with a magnetostatic theory proposed by De Gans et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60, 4518 (1999)] for the case of gap spanning chains of particles. We observe these chain structures via a long distance microscope. For monodisperse particles we find good agreement of the measured storage modulus with theory, even for an extended range, where the linear magnetization law is no longer strictly valid. Moreover we compare for the first time results for mono- and polydisperse particles. For the latter, we observe an enhanced storage modulus in the linear regime of the magnetization. PMID:16965057
Weakly nonlinear instability of planar viscoelastic sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chen; Yang, Li-jun; Xie, Luo; Chen, Pi-min
2015-01-01
A second-order weakly nonlinear analysis has been made of the temporal instability for the linear sinuous mode of two-dimensional planar viscoelastic liquid sheets moving in an inviscid gas. The convected Jeffreys models including the corotational Jeffreys model, Oldroyd A model, and the Oldroyd B model are considered as the rheology model of the viscoelastic fluid of the sheet. The solution for the second-order gas-to-liquid interface displacement has been derived, and the temporal evolution leading to the breakup has been shown. The second-order interface displacement of the linear sinuous mode is varicose, which causes the sheet to fragment into ligaments. First-order constitutive relations of the three rheology models become identical after linearization, so the linear instability results are also the same. For the second-order weakly nonlinear instability, the second-order constitutive relation varies among the corotational Jeffreys model, Oldroyd A model, and the Oldroyd B model, but although they have different disturbance pressures, their disturbance velocities and interface displacements are the same, and therefore, the sheets of the corotational Jeffreys fluid, Oldroyd A fluid, and the Oldroyd B fluid have the same instability behavior characterized by the wave profile and breakup time. The reason for the identical instability behavior is that the effect of different codeformations of the corotational frame, covariant frame, and the contravariant frame is counteracted by the corresponding change in the second-order disturbance pressure, leaving no influence on the second-order velocity. At wavenumbers with maximum instabilities, an increase in the elasticity, or a reduction of the deformation retardation time, leads to a larger linear temporal growth rate, greater second-order disturbance amplitude, and shorter breakup time, thereby enhancing instability. The mechanism of linear instability has been examined using an energy approach, which shows that the
Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of polycarbonate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caplan, E. S.; Brinson, H. F.
1982-01-01
Uniaxial tensile creep and recovery data from polycarbonate at six temperatures and six stress levels are analyzed for nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive modeling. A theory to account for combined effects of two or more accelerating factors is presented.
Suspended particulate composition: evolution along a river linear and influence of regime flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Meur, Mathieu; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bauer, Allan; Gley, Renaud; Migot, Sylvie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Villièras, Frédéric
2015-04-01
Suspended Particulate Matters are recognized to play a crucial role in the transport and fate of chemicals like trace metal elements. The affinity of trace metals with natural SPM is influenced by (i) the nature of metal (ii) physical-chemical conditions of the water column (iii) SPM physical characteristics (grain size, surface area) (iiii) SPM chemical characteristics (elemental composition, mineralogy, organic composition). Some authors observed that the SPM composition was the predominant factor controlling the affinity of trace metals with natural SPM. One purpose of this work is to follow the physical and chemical characteristics of SPM along the river linear in order to better understand the affinity between SPM and heavy metals. One other purpose is to study the influence of regime flow on SPM physical and chemical composition in order to detect any variation of SPM composition with regime flow. SPM were sampled along Moselle river (North East of France) following an urbanization gradient. Two tributaries were also sampled, the Madon river which drains an agricultural catchment and the Fensch stream which flows through an ancient steel-making basin. SPM were sampled several times during high flow and low flow. Particulate matter was extracted on field using continuous flow field centrifuge. Frozen-dried samples were then characterized in terms of size distribution, elemental composition (ICP - AES, ICP - MS), mineralogy (XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM), surface properties (gas adsorption techniques) and organic composition (Py-GC-MS and GC-MS). Grain size distribution evidenced the presence of coarser particles during high flow but no difference in the grain size distribution could be evidenced between the different stations. The grain size distribution of collected SPM appeared globally identical, although the increase of conductivity due to the junction of Meurthe river . In terms of composition, major element contents in SPM are characterized by the predominance of
Instability of viscoelastic compound jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Han-Yu; Yang, Li-Jun; Fu, Qing-Fei
2016-04-01
This paper investigates the axisymmetric instability of a viscoelastic compound jet, for which the constitutive relation is described by the Oldroyd B model. It is found that a viscoelastic compound jet is more unstable than a Newtonian compound jet, regardless of whether the viscoelastic compound jet is inner-Newtonian-outer-viscoelastic, inner-viscoelastic-outer-Newtonian, or fully viscoelastic. It is also found that an increase in the stress relaxation time of the inner or outer fluid renders the jet more unstable, while an increase in the time constant ratio makes the jet less unstable. An analysis of the energy budget of the destabilization process is performed, in which a formulation using the relative rate of change of energy is adopted. The formulation is observed to provide a quantitative analysis of the contribution of each physical factor (e.g., release of surface energy and viscous dissipation) to the temporal growth rate. The energy analysis reveals the mechanisms of various trends in the temporal growth rate, including not only how the growth rate changes with the parameters, but also how the growth rate changes with the wavenumber. The phenomenon of the dispersion relation presenting two local maxima, which occurred in previous research, is explained by the present energy analysis.
Viscoelasticity of biofilms and their recalcitrance to mechanical and chemical challenges
Peterson, Brandon W.; He, Yan; Ren, Yijin; Zerdoum, Aidan; Libera, Matthew R.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Winkelhoff, Arie-Jan; Neut, Danielle; Stoodley, Paul; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.
2015-01-01
We summarize different studies describing mechanisms through which bacteria in a biofilm mode of growth resist mechanical and chemical challenges. Acknowledging previous microscopic work describing voids and channels in biofilms that govern a biofilms response to such challenges, we advocate a more quantitative approach that builds on the relation between structure and composition of materials with their viscoelastic properties. Biofilms possess features of both viscoelastic solids and liquids, like skin or blood, and stress relaxation of biofilms has been found to be a corollary of their structure and composition, including the EPS matrix and bacterial interactions. Review of the literature on viscoelastic properties of biofilms in ancient and modern environments as well as of infectious biofilms reveals that the viscoelastic properties of a biofilm relate with antimicrobial penetration in a biofilm. In addition, also the removal of biofilm from surfaces appears governed by the viscoelasticity of a biofilm. Herewith, it is established that the viscoelasticity of biofilms, as a corollary of structure and composition, performs a role in their protection against mechanical and chemical challenges. Pathways are discussed to make biofilms more susceptible to antimicrobials by intervening with their viscoelasticity, as a quantifiable expression of their structure and composition. PMID:25725015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Hong-Ling; Wang, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ning; Sui, Yun-Kang
2016-08-01
In this paper, a model of topology optimization with linear buckling constraints is established based on an independent and continuous mapping method to minimize the plate/shell structure weight. A composite exponential function (CEF) is selected as filtering functions for element weight, the element stiffness matrix and the element geometric stiffness matrix, which recognize the design variables, and to implement the changing process of design variables from "discrete" to "continuous" and back to "discrete". The buckling constraints are approximated as explicit formulations based on the Taylor expansion and the filtering function. The optimization model is transformed to dual programming and solved by the dual sequence quadratic programming algorithm. Finally, three numerical examples with power function and CEF as filter function are analyzed and discussed to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
Use a linear model to achieve stable composition control in a naphtha splitter
Karpe, P.
1997-01-01
The following two points using dual composition control in a naphtha splitter are emphasized: while literature provides general guidelines for design of control systems for distillation columns, each column is unique in terms of dynamic and steady state behavior. Multivariable control analytical tools, such as RGA and SVD, coupled with rigorous steady state simulations, can be effectively employed to achieve stable control in columns beset with severe loop interactions, and often in the absence of on-line analyzers, linear models representing the first order approximations of distillation columns can yield significant benefits. Such models are simple to understand, readily acceptable to operators, do not require special expertise to maintain, and therefore, offer high degree of reliability.
Viscoelastic properties of semiflexible filamentous bacteriophage fd.
Schmidt, F G; Hinner, B; Sackmann, E; Tang, J X
2000-10-01
The cytoskeletal protein filament F-actin has been treated in a number of recent studies as a model physical system for semiflexible filaments. In this work, we studied the viscoelastic properties of entangled solutions of the filamentous bacteriophage fd as an alternative to F-actin with similar physical parameters. We present both microrheometric and macrorheometric measurements of the viscoelastic storage and loss moduli, G'(f ) and G"(f ), respectively, in a frequency range 0.01
Stress Boundary layer Development in Planar flow of Viscoelastic Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashrafi, Nariman; Mohamadali, Meysam
2015-11-01
Two-dimensional steady planar creeping flow of the nonlinear viscoelastic Upper Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid along a flat plate is analyzed for high Weissenberg numbers, Wi. The viscoelastic boundary layer, formed in a thin region closer to the wall in which the relaxation terms are recovered. By means of similarity transformations the non-linear momentum and constitutive equations in each layer transform into a system of highly nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The proper similarity variable is found that asymptotically matches each two adjacent layers. The numerical simulation shows that at the outer layer, the velocity profile changes linearly with the similarity variable meaning that no velocity boundary layer is developed. In general, the boundary layer is formed in all three stress components in different fashions. The stress boundary layer divides the flow into two separate regions of viscoelastic and elastic flows, in addition to the top outer flow. The viscoelastic region is completely bounded in two directions (x and y) for horizontal normal stress, Txx, and shear stress, Txy. Finally it is observed that the stress boundary layer for vertical stress, Tyy, is formed only in x direction.
Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selzo, Mallory Renee
Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.
Swimming & Propulsion in Viscoelastic Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arratia, Paulo
2012-02-01
Many microorganisms have evolved within complex fluids, which include soil, intestinal fluid, and mucus. The material properties or rheology of such fluids can strongly affect an organism's swimming behavior. A major challenge is to understand the mechanism of propulsion in media that exhibit both solid- and fluid-like behavior, such as viscoelastic fluids. In this talk, we present experiments that explore the swimming behavior of biological organisms and artificial particles in viscoelastic media. The organism is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a roundworm widely used for biological research that swims by generating traveling waves along its body. Overall, we find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion compared to Newtonian fluids due to the enhanced resistance to flow near hyperbolic points for viscoelastic fluids. As fluid elasticity increases, the nematode's propulsion speed decreases. These results are consistent with recent theoretical models for undulating sheets and cylinders. In order to gain further understanding on propulsion in viscoelastic media, we perform experiments with simple reciprocal artificial `swimmers' (magnetic dumbbell particles) in polymeric and micellar solutions. We find that self-propulsion is possible in viscoelastic media even if the motion is reciprocal.
Viscoelastic mechanisms of aortic baroreceptor resetting to hypotension and to hypertension.
Xavier-Neto, J; Moreira, E D; Krieger, E M
1996-10-01
Viscoelastic and electrophysiological mechanisms have been implicated in the resetting of baroreceptors in hypertension, but resetting in response to hypotension has been less studied. To evaluate the temporal relationship between viscoelastic mechanisms and acute resetting, we examined the "in vivo" behavior of aortic caliber and aortic baroreceptor activity during step changes in pressure. Fifteen-minute hemorrhage in Wistar rats produced stable hypotension (30 mmHg) and viscoelastic contraction (111 +/- 14.2 microns systolic caliber; P < 0.01). Integrated aortic activity fell to 19.8 +/- 3.9% of control (P < 0.001) after 3 s of hypotension but recovered to 64 +/- 4.1% 15 min later (P < 0.01 from 3 s). Recovery of baroreceptor activity was linearly correlated to viscoelastic contraction (r = 0.963; P < 0.0001). Thirty-minute phenylephrine infusion (1.0-4.0 micrograms/min) produced stable hypertension (30 mmHg) and viscoelastic dilation (211 +/- 37.0 microns systolic caliber). Integrated aortic activity increased to 218.0 +/- 18% of control values (P < 0.001) 30 s after hypertension and was reduced to 164.0 +/- 12.0% (P < 0.001 from 3 s) within 30 min. Reduction of baroreceptor activity correlated linearly with viscoelastic relaxation (r = 0.963; P < 0.0001). The results indicate that in the in vivo rat aorta, viscoelastic mechanisms parallel and may contribute to the baroreceptor resetting during hypotension and hypertension.
Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as analog of the magnetorotational instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent
2015-09-01
A linear stability analysis and an experimental study of a viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow corotating in the Keplerian ratio allow us to elucidate the analogy between the viscoelastic instability and the magnetorotational instability (MRI). A generalized Rayleigh criterion allows us to determine the potentially unstable zone to pure-elasticity-driven perturbations. Experiments with a viscoelastic polymer solution yield four modes: one pure-elasticity mode and three elastorotational instability (ERI) modes that represent the MRI-analog modes. The destabilization by the polymer viscosity is evidenced for the ERI modes.
Stability analysis on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trainor, L. E. H.; Goodwin, B. C.
1986-05-01
In recent years some progress has been made in modelling pattern formation and morphogenesis in biological systems in terms of calcium ion regulation of the viscoelastic properties of the cellular cortex. In this paper, linear stability analysis is used on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations derived by Goodwin and Trainor [5] for the 3-dimensional medium appropriate to regeneration phenomena in the single celled alga Acetabularia mediterranea. The nature of the instabilities is discussed and it is shown how complex patterns arise naturally from the cross-terms linking viscoelastic strain to calcium concentration and concentration gradients.
Stability analysis on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trainor, L. E. H.; Goodwin, B. C.
1986-08-01
In recent years some progress has been made in modelling pattern formation and morphogenesis in biological systems in terms of calcium ion regulation of the viscoelastic properties of the cellular cortex. In this paper, linear stability analysis is used on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations derived by Goodwin and Trainor [5] for the 3-dimensional medium appropriate to regeneration phenomena in the single celled alga Acetabularia mediterranea. The nature of the instabilities is discussed and it is shown how complex patterns arise naturally from the cross-terms linking viscoelastic strain to calcium concentration and concentration gradients.
Squirming propulsion in viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Corato, Marco; Greco, Francesco; Maffettone, Pier Luca
2015-11-01
The locomotion of organisms in Newtonian fluids at low-Reynolds numbers displays very different features from that at large Reynolds numbers; indeed, in this regime the viscous forces are dominant over the inertial ones and propulsion is possible only with non-time-reversible swimming strokes. In many situations of biological interest, however, small organisms are propelling themselves through non-Newtonian fluids such as mucus or biofilms, which display highly viscoelastic properties. Fluid viscoelasticity affects in a complex way both the micro-organisms' swimming velocity and dissipated power, possibly affecting their collective behavior. In our work, we employ the so called ``squirmer'' model to study the motion of spherical ciliated organisms in a viscoelastic fluid. We derive analytical formulas for the squirmer swimming velocity and dissipated power that show a complex interplay between the fluid constitutive behavior and the propulsion mechanism.
Two-phase viscoelastic jetting
Yu, J-D; Sakai, S.; Sethian, J.A.
2008-12-10
A coupled finite difference algorithm on rectangular grids is developed for viscoelastic ink ejection simulations. The ink is modeled by the Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid model. The coupled algorithm seamlessly incorporates several things: (1) a coupled level set-projection method for incompressible immiscible two-phase fluid flows; (2) a higher-order Godunov type algorithm for the convection terms in the momentum and level set equations; (3) a simple first-order upwind algorithm for the convection term in the viscoelastic stress equations; (4) central difference approximations for viscosity, surface tension, and upper-convected derivative terms; and (5) an equivalent circuit model to calculate the inflow pressure (or flow rate) from dynamic voltage.
Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils.
Svensson, René B; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip; Peter Magnusson, S
2010-01-01
Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibrils. Fibrils were obtained from intact human fascicles, without any pre-treatment besides frozen storage. In the dry state a single isolated fibril was anchored to a substrate using epoxy glue, and the end of the fibril was glued on to an AFM cantilever for tensile testing. In phosphate buffered saline, cyclic testing was performed in the pre-yield region at different strain rates, and the elastic response was determined by a stepwise stress relaxation test. The elastic stress-strain response corresponded to a second-order polynomial fit, while the viscous response showed a linear dependence on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has not been previously measured. PMID:19878908
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takenaka, Mikihito; Takeno, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Saito, Shin; Hashimoto, Takeji; Nagao, Michihiro
2002-02-01
Relaxation processes of the concentration fluctuations induced by a rapid pressure change were investigated for a dynamically asymmetric polymer blend [deuterated polybutadiene (DPB)/polyisoprene (PI)] with a composition of 50-50 by weight by using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering. The pressure change was carried out inside the single-phase of the blend with the cell designed for polymeric systems under high pressure and temperature. Time change in the scattered intensity distribution with wave number (q) during the relaxation processes was found to be approximated by Cahn-Hilliard-Cook linearized theory. The theoretical analysis yielded the q dependence of Onsager kinetic coefficient that is characterized by the q-2 dependence at qξve>1 with the characteristic length ξve (with ξve being the viscoelastic length) being much larger than radius of gyration of DPB or PI. The estimated ξve agrees well with that calculated using the Doi and Onuki theory that takes into account the viscoelastic effects arising from the dynamical asymmetry between the component polymers in the relaxation of concentration fluctuations.
Peterson, Brandon W; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant K; van der Mei, Henny C
2012-01-01
Centrifugal compaction causes changes in the surface properties of bacterial cells. It has been shown previously that the surface properties of planktonic cells change with increasing centrifugal compaction. This study aimed to analyze the influences of centrifugal compaction and environmental conditions on the visco-elastic properties of oral biofilms. Biofilms were grown out of a layer of initially adhering streptococci, actinomyces or a combination of these. Different uni-axial deformations were induced on the biofilms and the load relaxations were measured over time. Linear-Regression-Analysis demonstrated that both the centrifugation coefficient for streptococci and induced deformation influenced the percentage relaxation. Centrifugal compaction significantly influenced relaxation only upon compression of the outermost 20% of the biofilm (p < 0.05), whereas biofilm composition became influential when 50% deformation was induced, invoking re-arrangement of the bacteria in deeper biofilm structures. In summary, the effects of centrifugal compaction of initially adhering, centrifuged bacteria extend to the visco-elastic properties of biofilms, indicating that the initial bacterial layer influences the structure of the entire biofilm.
Viscoelastic properties of actin-coated membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; Mackintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.
2001-02-01
In living cells, cytoskeletal filaments interact with the plasma membrane to form structures that play a key role in cell shape and mechanical properties. To study the interaction between these basic components, we designed an in vitro self-assembled network of actin filaments attached to the outer surface of giant unilamellar vesicles. Optical tweezers and single-particle tracking experiments are used to study the rich dynamics of these actin-coated membranes (ACM). We show that microrheology studies can be carried out on such an individual microscopic object. The principle of the experiment consists in measuring the thermally excited position fluctuations of a probe bead attached biochemically to the membrane. We propose a model that relates the power spectrum of these thermal fluctuations to the viscoelastic properties of the membrane. The presence of the actin network modifies strongly the membrane dynamics with respect to a fluid, lipid bilayer one. It induces first a finite (ω=0) two-dimensional (2D) shear modulus G02D~0.5 to 5 μN/m in the membrane plane. Moreover, the frequency dependence at high frequency of the shear modulus [G'2D(f )~f0.85+/-0.07] and of the bending modulus (κACM(f)~f0.55+/-0.21) demonstrate the viscoelastic behavior of the composite membrane. These results are consistent with a common exponent of 0.75 for both moduli as expected from our model and from prior measurements on actin solutions.
End invasion of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) with mixed-base composition into linear DNA duplexes.
Smolina, Irina V; Demidov, Vadim V; Soldatenkov, Viatcheslav A; Chasovskikh, Sergey G; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D
2005-01-01
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic DNA mimic with valuable properties and a rapidly growing scope of applications. With the exception of recently introduced pseudocomplementary PNAs, binding of common PNA oligomers to target sites located inside linear double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs) is essentially restricted to homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence motifs, which significantly hampers some of the PNA applications. Here, we suggest an approach to bypass this limitation of common PNAs. We demonstrate that PNA with mixed composition of ordinary nucleobases is capable of sequence-specific targeting of complementary dsDNA sites if they are located at the very termini of DNA duplex. We then show that such targeting makes it possible to perform capturing of designated dsDNA fragments via the DNA-bound biotinylated PNA as well as to signal the presence of a specific dsDNA sequence, in the case a PNA beacon is employed. We also examine the PNA-DNA conjugate and prove that it can initiate the primer-extension reaction starting from the duplex DNA termini when a DNA polymerase with the strand-displacement ability is used. We thus conclude that recognition of duplex DNA by mixed-base PNAs via the end invasion has a promising potential for site-specific and sequence-unrestricted DNA manipulation and detection.
Scaling the Non-linear Impact Response of Flat and Curved Composite Panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ambur, Damodar R.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Feraboli, Paolo; Jackson, Wade C.
2005-01-01
The application of scaling laws to thin flat and curved composite panels exhibiting nonlinear response when subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Previous research has shown that the elastic impact response of structural configurations exhibiting geometrically linear response can be effectively scaled. In the present paper, a preliminary experimental study is presented to assess the applicability of the scaling laws to structural configurations exhibiting geometrically nonlinear deformations. The effect of damage on the scalability of the structural response characteristics, and the effect of scale on damage development are also investigated. Damage is evaluated using conventional methods including C-scan, specimen de-plying and visual inspection of the impacted panels. Coefficient of restitution and normalized contact duration are also used to assess the extent of damage. The results confirm the validity of the scaling parameters for elastic impacts. However, for the panels considered in the study, the extent and manifestation of damage do not scale according to the scaling laws. Furthermore, the results indicate that even though the damage does not scale, the overall panel response characteristics, as indicated by contact force profiles, do scale for some levels of damage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yaojin; Finkel, P.; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.
2014-04-01
Both the linear (αV) and nonlinear (αV,n) magnetoelectric coefficients were systemically studied in laminated composites of Metglas and [001]-orientated piezoelectric single crystals of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) and Mn-doped PMN-PT. The coefficients were close in value in both cases at quasistatic mode (i.e., 3.8 V/Oe relative to 3.5 V/Oe) and were enhanced by factors of ×18 (Metglas/PMN-PT) and ×32 (Metglas/Mn-doped PMN-PT) at the electromechanical resonance (EMR). The use of Mn-doped PMN-PT crystals results in a higher gain factor due to a larger mechanical quality factor (i.e., 20.9 relative to 40.6). Accordingly, both types of laminates had similar values of αV,n when modulated at 1 kHz, but Mn-doped PMN-PT ones had a higher value when modulated at the EMR.
Prediction of the Viscoelastic Bulk Modulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Jiaxi; Simon, Sindee
2010-03-01
The bulk and shear viscoelastic responses for several materials appear to arise from the same molecular mechanisms at short times, i.e., Andrade creep where the KWW beta parameter is approximately 0.3. If this is indeed the case, prediction and placement of the bulk viscoelastic response can be made simply by knowing the limiting elastic and rubbery bulk moduli and the viscoelastic shear response. The proposed methodology, which uses only easily measured functions, is considerably less time- and labor-intensive than direct measurement of the viscoelastic bulk modulus. Here we investigate this hypothesis and compare the calculated viscoelastic bulk responses for several materials to existing data in the literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.
2008-01-01
This paper develops results and procedures for obtaining linear composites of factor scores that maximize: (a) test information, and (b) validity with respect to external variables in the multiple factor analysis (FA) model. I treat FA as a multidimensional item response theory model, and use Ackerman's multidimensional information approach based…
Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Transfer As a Possible Aftershock Triggering Mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X.; Shcherbakov, R.
2014-12-01
The earthquake dynamics can be modelled by employing the spring-block system [Burridge and Knopoff, 1967]. In this approach the earthquake fault is modelled by an array of blocks coupling the loading plate and the lower plate. The dynamics of the system is governed by the system of equations of motion for each block. It is possible to map this system into a cellular automata model, where the stress acting on each block is increased in each time step, and the failing process (frictional slip) is described by stress transfer rules [Olami et al, 1992]. The OFC model produces a power-law distribution for avalanche statistics but it is not capable of producing robust aftershock sequences which follow Omori's law.We propose a nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer mechanism in the aftershock triggering. In a basic spring-block model setting, we introduce the nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer between neighbouring blocks, as well as between blocks and the top loading plate. The shear stress of the viscous component is a power-law function of the velocity gradient with an exponent smaller or greater than 1 for the nonlinear viscoelasticity, or 1 for the linear case. The stress transfer function of this nonlinear viscoelastic model has a power-law time-dependent form. It features an instantaneous stress transmission triggering an instantaneous avalanche, which is the same as the original spring-block model; and a power-law relaxation term, which could trigger further aftershocks. We incorporate this nonlinear viscoelasticity mechanism in a lattice cellular automata model. The model could exhibit both the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for the frequency-magnitude distribution and a power-law time decay of aftershocks, which is in accordance with Omori's law. Our study suggests that the stress transfer function may play an important role in the aftershock triggering. We have found that the time decay curve of aftershocks is affected by the shape of the stress transfer function
Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.
2008-11-01
The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.
Dynamic viscoelastic models of human skin using optical elastography
Kearney, Steven P.; Khan, Altaf; Dai, Zoujun; Royston, Thomas J.
2015-01-01
A novel technique for measuring in vivo human skin viscoelastic properties using optical elastography has been developed. The technique uses geometrically focused surface (GFS) waves that allow for wide bandwidth measurements of the wave field. An analytical solution for the case of a radiating annular disk surface source was fit to experimentally measured GFS waves, enabling an estimate of the frequency-dependent surface wavenumber, which can then be related to the dynamic shear modulus. Several viscoelastic models were then fit to the dynamic shear modulus dispersion curve. Viscoelastic models were evaluated based on their overall quality of fit and variability amongst healthy volunteers. An Ecoflex phantom was used to validate the procedure and results by comparison to similar studies using the same type of phantom. For skin results, it was found that the “α” parameters from the fractional models had the least variability, with coefficients of variability of 0.15, and 0.16. The best fitting models were the standard linear solid, and the fractional Voigt, with a mean fit correlation coefficient, R2, of 0.93, 0.89, respectively. This study has demonstrated the efficacy of this new method, and with larger studies the viscoelastic skin models could be used to identify various skin diseases and their response to treatment. PMID:26305137
Viscoelasticity of brain corpus callosum in biaxial tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labus, Kevin M.; Puttlitz, Christian M.
2016-11-01
Computational models of the brain rely on accurate constitutive relationships to model the viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. Current viscoelastic models have been derived from experiments conducted in a single direction at a time and therefore lack information on the effects of multiaxial loading. It is also unclear if the time-dependent behavior of brain tissue is dependent on either strain magnitude or the direction of loading when subjected to tensile stresses. Therefore, biaxial stress relaxation and cyclic experiments were conducted on corpus callosum tissue isolated from fresh ovine brains. Results demonstrated the relaxation behavior to be independent of strain magnitude, and a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model was able to accurately fit the experimental data. Also, an isotropic reduced relaxation tensor was sufficient to model the stress-relaxation in both the axonal and transverse directions. The QLV model was fitted to the averaged stress relaxation tests at five strain magnitudes while using the measured strain history from the experiments. The resulting model was able to accurately predict the stresses from cyclic tests at two strain magnitudes. In addition to deriving a constitutive model from the averaged experimental data, each specimen was fitted separately and the resulting distributions of the model parameters were reported and used in a probabilistic analysis to determine the probability distribution of model predictions and the sensitivity of the model to the variance of the parameters. These results can be used to improve the viscoelastic constitutive models used in computational studies of the brain.
Dynamic viscoelastic models of human skin using optical elastography.
Kearney, Steven P; Khan, Altaf; Dai, Zoujun; Royston, Thomas J
2015-09-01
A novel technique for measuring in vivo human skin viscoelastic properties using optical elastography has been developed. The technique uses geometrically focused surface (GFS) waves that allow for wide bandwidth measurements of the wave field. An analytical solution for the case of a radiating annular disk surface source was fit to experimentally measured GFS waves, enabling an estimate of the frequency-dependent surface wavenumber, which can then be related to the dynamic shear modulus. Several viscoelastic models were then fit to the dynamic shear modulus dispersion curve. Viscoelastic models were evaluated based on their overall quality of fit and variability amongst healthy volunteers. An Ecoflex phantom was used to validate the procedure and results by comparison to similar studies using the same type of phantom. For skin results, it was found that the 'α' parameters from the fractional models had the least variability, with coefficients of variability of 0.15, and 0.16. The best fitting models were the standard linear solid, and the fractional Voigt, with a mean fit correlation coefficient, R(2), of 0.93, 0.89, respectively. This study has demonstrated the efficacy of this new method, and with larger studies the viscoelastic skin models could be used to identify various skin diseases and their response to treatment. PMID:26305137
Post-seismic relaxation theory on laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic model
Pollitz, F.F.
2003-01-01
Investigation was carried out into the problem of relaxation of a laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The formal solution utilizes a semi-analytic solution for post-seismic deformation on a laterally homogeneous Earth constructed from viscoelastic normal modes, followed by application of mode coupling theory to derive the response on the aspherical Earth. The solution is constructed in the Laplace transform domain using the correspondence principle and is valid for any linear constitutive relationship between stress and strain. The specific implementation described in this paper is a semi-analytic discretization method which assumes isotropic elastic structure and a Maxwell constitutive relation. It accounts for viscoelastic-gravitational coupling under lateral variations in elastic parameters and viscosity. For a given viscoelastic structure and minimum wavelength scale, the computational effort involved with the numerical algorithm is proportional to the volume of the laterally heterogeneous region. Examples are presented of the calculation of post-seismic relaxation with a shallow, laterally heterogeneous volume following synthetic impulsive seismic events, and they illustrate the potentially large effect of regional 3-D heterogeneities on regional deformation patterns.
Viscoelastic properties of vis-breaking polypropylenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nobile, Maria Rossella; Moad, Graeme; Habsuda, Jana; Li, Guoxin; Nichols, Lance; Dagley, Ian; Simon, George P.
2015-12-01
In this work hydrogen peroxide is used as a green initiator to cause scissioning of polypropylene (PP) with water as the only by-product replacing the organic peroxides that are usually used. The rheological properties of a commercial polypropylene and of the scissioned samples are determined by dynamic rheology and an inversion procedure for converting the linear viscoelastic data into molar mass distribution has been adopted. The results presented show that the molar mass distribution of the PP polymer is narrowed on scissioning. The process is found to produce polymers similar in molecular architecture and behavior to organic peroxide cleaved materials, the results of which are given as a comparison in this work.
Viscoelasticity of colloidal polycrystals doped with impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louhichi, Ameur; Tamborini, Elisa; Oberdisse, Julian; Cipelletti, Luca; Ramos, Laurence
2015-09-01
We investigate how the microstructure of a colloidal polycrystal influences its linear visco-elasticity. We use thermosensitive copolymer micelles that arrange in water in a cubic crystalline lattice, yielding a colloidal polycrystal. The polycrystal is doped with a small amount of nanoparticles, of size comparable to that of the micelles, which behave as impurities and thus partially segregate in the grain boundaries. We show that the shear elastic modulus only depends on the packing of the micelles and varies neither with the presence of nanoparticles nor with the crystal microstructure. By contrast, we find that the loss modulus is strongly affected by the presence of nanoparticles. A comparison between rheology data and small-angle neutron-scattering data suggests that the loss modulus is dictated by the total amount of nanoparticles in the grain boundaries, which in turn depends on the sample microstructure.
Viscoelasticity of colloidal polycrystals doped with impurities.
Louhichi, Ameur; Tamborini, Elisa; Oberdisse, Julian; Cipelletti, Luca; Ramos, Laurence
2015-09-01
We investigate how the microstructure of a colloidal polycrystal influences its linear visco-elasticity. We use thermosensitive copolymer micelles that arrange in water in a cubic crystalline lattice, yielding a colloidal polycrystal. The polycrystal is doped with a small amount of nanoparticles, of size comparable to that of the micelles, which behave as impurities and thus partially segregate in the grain boundaries. We show that the shear elastic modulus only depends on the packing of the micelles and varies neither with the presence of nanoparticles nor with the crystal microstructure. By contrast, we find that the loss modulus is strongly affected by the presence of nanoparticles. A comparison between rheology data and small-angle neutron-scattering data suggests that the loss modulus is dictated by the total amount of nanoparticles in the grain boundaries, which in turn depends on the sample microstructure. PMID:26465473
Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O; Eckhardt, Lori G
2016-01-01
As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest
Acquah, Gifty E.; Via, Brian K.; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O.; Eckhardt, Lori G.
2016-01-01
As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lhuissier, Henri; Néel, Baptiste; Limat, Laurent
2014-11-01
A jet of a Newtonian liquid impacting onto a wall at right angle spreads as a thin liquid sheet which preserves the radial symmetry of the jet. We observe that for a viscoelastic jet (solution of polyethylene glycol in water) this symmetry can break: close to the wall, the jet cross-section is faceted and radial steady liquid films (membranes) form, which connect the cross-section vertices to the sheet. The number of membranes increases with increasing viscoelastic relaxation time of the solution, but also with increasing jet velocity and decreasing distance from the jet nozzle to the wall. A mechanism for this surprising destabilization of the jet, which develops perpendicularly to the direction expected for a buckling mechanism, is presented that explains these dependences. The large-scale consequences of the jet destabilization on the sheet spreading and fragmentation, which show through the faceting of hydraulic jumps and suspended (Savart) sheets, will also be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.; Nayebhashemi, H.
1979-01-01
A model is developed relating composite constituents properties with ultrasonic energy loss factors for longitudinal waves propagating in the principal directions of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy fiber composite. All the constituents are assumed to behave as linear viscoelastic materials with energy dissipation properties defined by loss factors. It is found that by introducing a new constituent called the interface material, the composite and constituent properties can be brought into consistency with simple series and parallel models. An expression relating the composite loss factors to the loss factors of the constituents is derived and its coefficients are evaluated.
Dynamics of contracting viscoelastic filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Michael; Appathurai, Santosh; Bhat, Pradeep; Basaran, Osman
2009-11-01
Satellite drops are detrimental to many industrial applications involving the formation of viscoelastic drops including inkjet printing, DNA microarraying, and printing of flexible solar cells. The precursor to these satellite drops is a slender liquid filament that connects an about-to-form drop to the rest of the liquid in the nozzle. Once a filament is formed, it contracts due to surface tension. A filament may undergo further breakup during recoil. Whereas the contraction of Newtonian filaments in a passive ambient fluid is well understood (Schulkes 1996 and Notz and Basaran 2004), the contraction dynamics of viscoelastic filaments remains largely unexplored and is addressed in this presentation. Here the filament shape is idealized as an axisymmetric fluid cylinder terminated by hemispherical end-caps, and the conformation tensor formalism (Pasquali & Scriven 2002) is used to model the viscoelasticity. The dynamics of contracting filaments are then analyzed by means of both a well-benchmarked two-dimensional finite element algorithm (Notz et al. 2001, Chen et al. 2002) and a one-dimensional slender-jet algorithm (Padgett et al. 1996). Regions of the parameter space are identified where recoiling filaments give rise to either a single satellite drop or multiple satellites.
Self-gravitational instability in magnetized finitely conducting viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.
2013-04-01
The linear self-gravitational instability of finitely conducting, magnetized viscoelastic fluid is investigated using the modified generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. A general dispersion relation is obtained with the help of linearized perturbation equations using the normal mode analysis and it is discussed for longitudinal and transverse modes of propagation. In longitudinal propagation, we find that Alfven mode is uncoupled with the gravitating mode. The Jeans criterion of instability is determined which depends upon shear viscosity and bulk viscosity while it is independent of magnetic field. The viscoelastic effects modify the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability. In transverse mode of propagation, the Alfven mode couples with the acoustic mode, compressional viscoelastic mode and gravitating mode. The growth rate of Jeans instability is compared in weakly coupled plasma (WCP) and strongly coupled plasma (SCP) which is larger for SCP in both the modes of propagations. The presence of finite electrical resistivity removes the effect of magnetic field in the condition of Jeans instability and expression of critical Jeans wavenumber. It is found that Mach number and shear viscosity has stabilizing while finite electrical resistivity has destabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
Viscoelasticity of reversibly crosslinked networks of semiflexible polymers.
Plagge, Jan; Fischer, Andreas; Heussinger, Claus
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical framework for the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties of reversibly crosslinked networks of semiflexible polymers. In contrast to affine models where network strain couples to the polymer end-to-end distance, in our model strain rather serves to locally distort the network structure. This induces bending modes in the polymer filaments, the properties of which are slaved to the surrounding network structure. Specifically, we investigate the frequency-dependent linear rheology, in particular in combination with crosslink binding-unbinding processes. We also develop schematic extensions to describe the nonlinear response during creep measurements as well as during constant strain-rate ramps. PMID:27415312
Viscoelasticity of reversibly crosslinked networks of semiflexible polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plagge, Jan; Fischer, Andreas; Heussinger, Claus
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical framework for the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties of reversibly crosslinked networks of semiflexible polymers. In contrast to affine models where network strain couples to the polymer end-to-end distance, in our model strain rather serves to locally distort the network structure. This induces bending modes in the polymer filaments, the properties of which are slaved to the surrounding network structure. Specifically, we investigate the frequency-dependent linear rheology, in particular in combination with crosslink binding-unbinding processes. We also develop schematic extensions to describe the nonlinear response during creep measurements as well as during constant strain-rate ramps.
A Numerical Model of Viscoelastic Flow in Microchannels
Trebotich, D; Colella, P; Miller, G; Liepmann, D
2002-11-14
The authors present a numerical method to model non-Newtonian, viscoelastic flow at the microscale. The equations of motion are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. This constitutive equation is chosen to model a Boger fluid which is representative of complex biological solutions exhibiting elastic behavior due to macromolecules in the solution (e.g., DNA solution). The numerical approach is a projection method to impose the incompressibility constraint and a Lax-Wendroff method to predict velocities and stresses while recovering both viscous and elastic limits. The method is second-order accurate in space and time, free-stream preserving, has a time step constraint determined by the advective CFL condition, and requires the solution of only well-behaved linear systems amenable to the use of fast iterative methods. They demonstrate the method for viscoelastic incompressible flow in simple microchannels (2D) and microducts (3D).
Viscoelasticity of Human Blood
Thurston, G. B.
1972-01-01
Measurements made for oscillatory flow of blood in circular tubes show that blood possesses elastic properties which make consideration of its viscous properties alone inadequate. Results are for a frequency of 10 Hz while varying the amplitude of the velocity gradient for red blood cells in plasma at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100% apparent hematocrit. For velocity gradients less than 1-2 sec-1 both the viscous and elastic components of the shearing stress are linearly related to the gradient. For hematocrits above 20% the elastic component of the complex coefficient of viscosity increases with hematocrit approximately to the third power while the viscous component increases exponentially. Oscillatory flow measurements at very low hematocrits, when extrapolated to zero cell concentration, give the intrinsic viscosity of the average individual isolated red cell. The viscous part of this is found to be 1.7 which is compared with theoretical values from the rigid ellipsoid model for which the minimum possible value is 2.5. This difference is attributed to cell deformability. With increasing velocity gradient nonlinear properties develop. The viscous component of the complex viscosity becomes of the order of the steady flow viscosity at high gradients while the elastic component tends to decrease in inverse proportion to the gradient. Thus, the elastic component of the oscillatory stress tends to saturate, this tendency appearing at the approximate level of the yield stress. PMID:5056964
Two Computer Programs for the Statistical Evaluation of a Weighted Linear Composite.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sands, William A.
1978-01-01
Two computer programs (one batch, one interactive) are designed to provide statistics for a weighted linear combination of several component variables. Both programs provide mean, variance, standard deviation, and a validity coefficient. (Author/JKS)
Investigation of mechanisms of viscoelastic behavior of collagen molecule.
Ghodsi, Hossein; Darvish, Kurosh
2015-11-01
Unique mechanical properties of collagen molecule make it one of the most important and abundant proteins in animals. Many tissues such as connective tissues rely on these properties to function properly. In the past decade, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used extensively to study the mechanical behavior of molecules. For collagen, MD simulations were primarily used to determine its elastic properties. In this study, constant force steered MD simulations were used to perform creep tests on collagen molecule segments. The mechanical behavior of the segments, with lengths of approximately 20 (1X), 38 (2X), 74 (4X), and 290 nm (16X), was characterized using a quasi-linear model to describe the observed viscoelastic responses. To investigate the mechanisms of the viscoelastic behavior, hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) rupture/formation time history of the segments were analyzed and it was shown that the formation growth rate of H-bonds in the system is correlated with the creep growth rate of the segment (β=2.41βH). In addition, a linear relationship between H-bonds formation growth rate and the length of the segment was quantified. Based on these findings, a general viscoelastic model was developed and verified here, using the smallest segment as a building block, the viscoelastic properties of larger segments could be predicted. In addition, the effect of temperature control methods on the mechanical properties were studied, and it was shown that application of Langevin Dynamics had adverse effect on these properties while the Lowe-Anderson method was shown to be more appropriate for this application. This study provides information that is essential for multi-scale modeling of collagen fibrils using a bottom-up approach.
Viscoelastic properties of mineralized alginate hydrogel beads.
Olderøy, Magnus O; Xie, Minli; Andreassen, Jens-Petter; Strand, Berit L; Zhang, Zhibing; Sikorski, Pawel
2012-07-01
Alginate hydrogels have applications in biomedicine, ranging from delivery of cells and growth factors to wound management aids. However, they are mechanically soft and have shown little potential for the use in bone tissue engineering. Here, the viscoelastic properties of alginate hydrogel beads mineralized with calcium phosphate, both by a counter-diffusion (CD) and an enzymatic approach, are characterized by a micro-manipulation technique and mathematical modeling. Fabricated hydrogel materials have low mineral content (below 3 % of the total hydrogel mass, which corresponds to mineral content of up to 60 % of the dry mass) and low dry mass content (<5 %). For all samples compression and hold (relaxation after compression) data was collected and analyzed. The apparent Young's modulus of the mineralized beads was estimated by the Hertz model (compression data) and was shown to increase up to threefold upon mineralization. The enzymatically mineralized beads showed higher apparent Young's modulus compared to the ones mineralized by CD, even though the mineral content of the former was lower. Full compression-relaxation force-time profiles were analyzed using viscoelastic model. From this analysis, infinite and instantaneous Young's moduli were determined. Similarly, enzymatic mineralized beads, showed higher instantaneous and infinite Young's modulus, even if the degree of mineralization is lower then that achieved for CD method. This leads to the conclusion that both the degree of mineralization and the spatial distribution of mineral are important for the mechanical performance of the composite beads, which is in analogy to highly structured mineralized tissues found in many organisms.
Viscoelastic properties of actin-coated membranes.
Helfer, E; Harlepp, S; Bourdieu, L; Robert, J; MacKintosh, F C; Chatenay, D
2001-02-01
In living cells, cytoskeletal filaments interact with the plasma membrane to form structures that play a key role in cell shape and mechanical properties. To study the interaction between these basic components, we designed an in vitro self-assembled network of actin filaments attached to the outer surface of giant unilamellar vesicles. Optical tweezers and single-particle tracking experiments are used to study the rich dynamics of these actin-coated membranes (ACM). We show that microrheology studies can be carried out on such an individual microscopic object. The principle of the experiment consists in measuring the thermally excited position fluctuations of a probe bead attached biochemically to the membrane. We propose a model that relates the power spectrum of these thermal fluctuations to the viscoelastic properties of the membrane. The presence of the actin network modifies strongly the membrane dynamics with respect to a fluid, lipid bilayer one. It induces first a finite (omega=0) two-dimensional (2D) shear modulus G(0)(2D) approximately 0.5 to 5 microN/m in the membrane plane. Moreover, the frequency dependence at high frequency of the shear modulus [G(')(2D)(f ) approximately f(0.85+/-0.07)] and of the bending modulus (kappa(ACM)(f) approximately f(0.55+/-0.21)) demonstrate the viscoelastic behavior of the composite membrane. These results are consistent with a common exponent of 0.75 for both moduli as expected from our model and from prior measurements on actin solutions.
Age dependent changes of arterial wall viscoelasticity.
Antonov, P; Antonova, M; Nikolova, N; Antonova, N; Vlaskovska, M; Kasakov, L
2008-01-01
Viscoelastic characteristics (VEC) of old rat aorta (Wistar, 10 months) were obtained by sinusoidal excitation of intraluminal pressure (p) in cylindrical arterial preparations. The pressure excitation frequency (f(exc)) was swept in the range 3-30 Hz up and down at several mean-pressure levels while response volume oscillations were recorded and resonance curves were plotted. Natural frequency (f(0)), dynamic modulus of elasticity (E') and coefficient of viscosity (beta) were estimated from resonance curves and the dependences of VEC on p were drawn. The results showed that f(0) decreased linearly with p whereas our previous data for young rat aorta (Wistar, 4 months) showed independence of f(0) on p. E' increased nonlinearly with p with the values being higher in comparison to young rat aorta. This means stiffening of rat aorta with age in accordance with the known literature data. beta-values increased linearly with p being higher in comparison to young rat aorta, demonstrative of raised intrinsic friction in the wall. VEC values were higher at decreasing f(exc) suggesting that the direction of excitation sweeping also determines the arterial wall biomechanical behaviour. It could be concluded that blood vessels VEC worsen with age, which endangers the arterial wall integrity, especially at higher intraluminal pressure.
Characterization of metal matrix composites by linear ultrasonics and finite element modeling.
Chen, Xuesheng; Sharples, Steve D; Clark, Matt; Wright, David
2013-02-01
Titanium metal matrix composites (TiMMCs) offer advantages over traditional materials for aerospace applications due to the increased mechanical strength of the materials. But the non-destructive inspection of these materials, especially with ultrasound, is in an infancy stage. If the manufacturing process of TiMMC is not correctly controlled, then disbonds and voids between the fibers can result. The effective microstructure of the composite makes difficulty to interpret results from traditional ultrasound techniques because of the scattering caused by fibers; the scattering prevents the ultrasound from penetrating far into the composite region and produces a background signal masking any reflections from voids. In this paper, relatively low frequency ultrasound is used to probe the composite region, and the state of the composite (porosity) is inferred from the velocity of the ultrasound traversing the composite. The relationship between the velocity and porosity is complex in this regime, so finite element (FE) analysis is used to model the composite regions and relate the velocity to the porosity. The FE simulated results are validated by ultrasound velocity measurements. PMID:23363095
Characterization of metal matrix composites by linear ultrasonics and finite element modeling.
Chen, Xuesheng; Sharples, Steve D; Clark, Matt; Wright, David
2013-02-01
Titanium metal matrix composites (TiMMCs) offer advantages over traditional materials for aerospace applications due to the increased mechanical strength of the materials. But the non-destructive inspection of these materials, especially with ultrasound, is in an infancy stage. If the manufacturing process of TiMMC is not correctly controlled, then disbonds and voids between the fibers can result. The effective microstructure of the composite makes difficulty to interpret results from traditional ultrasound techniques because of the scattering caused by fibers; the scattering prevents the ultrasound from penetrating far into the composite region and produces a background signal masking any reflections from voids. In this paper, relatively low frequency ultrasound is used to probe the composite region, and the state of the composite (porosity) is inferred from the velocity of the ultrasound traversing the composite. The relationship between the velocity and porosity is complex in this regime, so finite element (FE) analysis is used to model the composite regions and relate the velocity to the porosity. The FE simulated results are validated by ultrasound velocity measurements.
Viscoelastic characterization of soft biological materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayar, Vinod Timothy
Progressive and irreversible retinal diseases are among the primary causes of blindness in the United States, attacking the cells in the eye that transform environmental light into neural signals for the optic pathway. Medical implants designed to restore visual function to afflicted patients can cause mechanical stress and ultimately damage to the host tissues. Research shows that an accurate understanding of the mechanical properties of the biological tissues can reduce damage and lead to designs with improved safety and efficacy. Prior studies on the mechanical properties of biological tissues show characterization of these materials can be affected by environmental, length-scale, time, mounting, stiffness, size, viscoelastic, and methodological conditions. Using porcine sclera tissue, the effects of environmental, time, and mounting conditions are evaluated when using nanoindentation. Quasi-static tests are used to measure reduced modulus during extended exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as well as the chemical and mechanical analysis of mounting the sample to a solid substrate using cyanoacrylate. The less destructive nature of nanoindentation tests allows for variance of tests within a single sample to be compared to the variance between samples. The results indicate that the environmental, time, and mounting conditions can be controlled for using modified nanoindentation procedures for biological samples and are in line with averages modulus values from previous studies but with increased precision. By using the quasi-static and dynamic characterization capabilities of the nanoindentation setup, the additional stiffness and viscoelastic variables are measured. Different quasi-static control methods were evaluated along with maximum load parameters and produced no significant difference in reported reduced modulus values. Dynamic characterization tests varied frequency and quasi-static load, showing that the agar could be modeled as a linearly
Viscoelasticity of hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogels for vocal fold tissue engineering.
Kazemirad, Siavash; Heris, Hossein K; Mongeau, Luc
2016-02-01
Crosslinked injectable hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin (Ge) hydrogels have remarkable viscoelastic and biological properties for vocal fold tissue engineering. Patient-specific tuning of the viscoelastic properties of this injectable biomaterial could improve tissue regeneration. The frequency-dependent viscoelasticity of crosslinked HA-Ge hydrogels was measured as a function of the concentration of HA, Ge, and crosslinker. Synthetic extracellular matrix hydrogels were fabricated using thiol-modified HA and Ge, and crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate. A recently developed characterization method based on Rayleigh wave propagation was used to quantify the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of these hydrogels, including shear storage and loss moduli, over a broad frequency range; that is, from 40 to 4000 Hz. The viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels increased with frequency. The storage and loss moduli values and the rate of increase with frequency varied with the concentrations of the constituents. The range of the viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels was within that of human vocal fold tissue obtained from in vivo and ex vivo measurements. Frequency-dependent parametric relations were obtained using a linear least-squares regression. The results are useful to better fine-tune the storage and loss moduli of HA-Ge hydrogels by varying the concentrations of the constituents for use in patient-specific treatments.
Constitutive modeling of the aging viscoelastic properties of portland cement paste
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasley, Zachary C.; Lange, David A.
2007-12-01
Analytical approaches for modeling aging viscoelastic behavior of concrete include the time-shift approach (analogous to time-temperature superposition), the solidification theory, and the dissolution-precipitation approach. The aging viscoelastic properties of concrete are generally attributed solely to the cement paste phase since the aggregates are typically linear elastic. In this study, the aging viscoelastic behavior of four different cement pastes has been measured and modeled according to both the time-shift approach and the solidification theory. The inability of each individual model to fully characterize the aging viscoelastic response of the materials provides insight into the mechanisms for aging of the viscoelastic properties of cement paste and concrete. A model that considers aging due to solidification in combination with inherent aging of the cement paste gel (modeled using the time-shift approach) more accurately predicted the aging viscoelastic behavior of portland cement paste than either the solidification or time-shift approaches independently. The results provide evidence that solidification and other intrinsic gel aging mechanisms are concurrently active in the aging process of cementitious materials.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in non-uniform magnetized rotating strongly coupled viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prajapati, R. P.
2016-02-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in an incompressible strongly coupled viscoelastic fluid is investigated considering the effects of inhomogeneous magnetic field, density gradient, and uniform rotation. The generalized hydrodynamic equations have been formulated, and linear dispersion relation is derived taking appropriate density and magnetic field profiles for the considered system. The gravity induced stable and unstable configurations of RTI are analyzed in hydrodynamic and kinetic limits. In the kinetic limit, shear wave modified dispersion relation and the condition of RTI are derived in terms of magnetic-viscoelastic Mach number and viscoelastic Froude number. The criteria of RTI and critical wavenumber for the growth of RTI to be unstable are estimated numerically for white dwarf and inertial confinement fusion target. It is observed that magnetic field, rotation, and viscoelastic effects play a significant role in the suppression of RTI in these systems. The stabilizing influence of magnetic field, rotation, and magnetic-viscoelastic Mach number while the destabilizing influence of viscoelastic Froude on the growth rate of RTI number is observed graphically. The growth rate of RTI decreases faster in kinetic limit as compared to the hydrodynamic limit.
Two-dimensional time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing
2016-09-01
Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a trade-off between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2-D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second order in time and fourth order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.
2D time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing
2016-07-01
Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a tradeoff between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second-order in time and fourth-order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Pengliang; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Virieux, Jean
2016-07-01
In this paper we study 3D multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) in viscoelastic media based on the generalized Maxwell/Zener body (GMB/GZB) including arbitrary number of attenuation mechanisms. We present a frequency-domain energy analysis to establish the stability condition of a full anisotropic viscoelastic system, according to zero-valued boundary condition and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle: the real-valued stiffness matrix becomes a complex-valued one in Fourier domain when seismic attenuation is taken into account. We develop a least-squares optimization approach to linearly relate the quality factor with the anelastic coefficients by estimating a set of constants which are independent of the spatial coordinates, which supplies an explicit incorporation of the parameter Q in the general viscoelastic wave equation. By introducing the Lagrangian multipliers into the matrix expression of the wave equation with implicit time integration, we build a systematic formulation of multiparameter full waveform inversion for full anisotropic viscoelastic wave equation, while the equivalent form of the state and adjoint equation with explicit time integration is available to be resolved efficiently. In particular, this formulation lays the foundation for the inversion of the parameter Q in the time domain with full anisotropic viscoelastic properties. In the 3D isotropic viscoelastic settings, the anelastic coefficients and the quality factors using bulk and shear moduli parameterization can be related to the counterparts using P- and S- velocity. Gradients with respect to any other parameter of interest can be found by chain rule. Pioneering numerical validations as well as the real applications of this most generic framework will be carried out to disclose the potential of viscoelastic FWI when adequate high performance computing resources and the field data are available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Pengliang; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Virieux, Jean
2016-10-01
In this paper, we study 3-D multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) in viscoelastic media based on the generalized Maxwell/Zener body including arbitrary number of attenuation mechanisms. We present a frequency-domain energy analysis to establish the stability condition of a full anisotropic viscoelastic system, according to zero-valued boundary condition and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle: the real-valued stiffness matrix becomes a complex-valued one in Fourier domain when seismic attenuation is taken into account. We develop a least-squares optimization approach to linearly relate the quality factor with the anelastic coefficients by estimating a set of constants which are independent of the spatial coordinates, which supplies an explicit incorporation of the parameter Q in the general viscoelastic wave equation. By introducing the Lagrangian multipliers into the matrix expression of the wave equation with implicit time integration, we build a systematic formulation of multiparameter FWI for full anisotropic viscoelastic wave equation, while the equivalent form of the state and adjoint equation with explicit time integration is available to be resolved efficiently. In particular, this formulation lays the foundation for the inversion of the parameter Q in the time domain with full anisotropic viscoelastic properties. In the 3-D isotropic viscoelastic settings, the anelastic coefficients and the quality factors using bulk and shear moduli parametrization can be related to the counterparts using P and S velocity. Gradients with respect to any other parameter of interest can be found by chain rule. Pioneering numerical validations as well as the real applications of this most generic framework will be carried out to disclose the potential of viscoelastic FWI when adequate high-performance computing resources and the field data are available.
Multiscale characterization and representation of composite materials during processing.
Zobeiry, Navid; Forghani, Alireza; Li, Chao; Gordnian, Kamyar; Thorpe, Ryan; Vaziri, Reza; Fernlund, Goran; Poursartip, Anoush
2016-07-13
Given the importance of residual stresses and dimensional changes in composites manufacturing, process simulation has been the focus of many studies in recent years. Consequently, various constitutive models and simulation approaches have been developed and implemented for composites process simulation. In this paper, various constitutive models, ranging from elastic to nonlinear viscoelastic; and simulation approaches ranging from separated flow/solid phases to multiscale integrated phases are presented and their applicability for process simulation is discussed. Attention has been paid to practical aspects of the problem where the complexity of the model coupled with the complexity and size scaling of the structure increases the characterization and simulation costs. Two specific approaches and their application are presented in detail: the pseudo-viscoelastic cure hardening instantaneously linear elastic (CHILE) and linear viscoelastic (VE). It is shown that CHILE can predict the residual stress formation in simple cure cycles such as the one-hold cycle for HEXCEL AS4/8552 where the material does not devitrify during processing. It is also shown that using this simple approach, the cure cycle can be modified to lower the residual stress level and therefore increase the mechanical performance of the composite laminate. For a more complex cure cycle where the material is devitrified during a post-cure, it is shown that a more complex model such as VE is required. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242297
Spring-bead animation of viscoelastic materials.
Tamura, Nobuhiko; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi
2007-01-01
An interactive animation method for viscoelastic materials builds on Rouse's spring-bead model. Particles are connected one-dimensionally by spring forces to represent single polymer chains. The method approximates the collision's force between particles through the particle density's gradient. This model lets the viscoelasticity be changed dynamically by severing the interconnection of polymer chains. PMID:18027801
Viscoelasticity Studies for Chrome-Free Leather
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Chrome-free leather such as glutaraldehyde-tanned leather behaves very differently from chrome-tanned leather. Information regarding its viscoelasticity has not been reported. Hysteresis and stress relaxation are two essential properties associated with viscoelasticity. We have designed a cyclic ...
Measuring Viscoelastic Deformation with an Optical Mouse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, T. W.
2004-01-01
The feasibility of using an optical mouse to track the viscoelastic deformation of low-density polyethylene films that have a fixed attached load is presented. It is seen that using an optical mouse and with rudimentary experiment paraphernalia and arrangement, it is possible to get good measurements of viscoelastic deformation.
Droplet Size Distributions in Atomization of Dilute Viscoelastic Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshavarz, Bavand; McKinley, Gareth; Houze, Eric; Moore, John; Pottiger, Michael; Cotts, Patricia; M. I. T. Collaboration; DuPont Collaboration
2012-11-01
The droplet size probability distribution functions (PDF) for atomization/fragmentation processes in Newtonian fluids are now generally accepted to be close to Gamma distributions. Despite the great practical importance, little is known about the nature of corresponding distributions for viscoelastic liquids, e.g. polymeric solutions such as pesticide sprays and paints. We present data from air-assisted atomization experiments for model viscoelastic solutions composed of very dilute solutions of polyethylene oxide. Although the addition of small amounts of high molecular weight polymer keeps the fluid shear viscosity and surface tension close to the solvent values, the size distributions are skewed towards higher values of the Sauter mean diameter. We show that the PDF curves for these weakly-elastic fluids are well described by Gamma distributions, but the exponent n is systematically decreased by fluid elasticity. Flow visualization images show that this behavior arises from the non-linear dynamics close to the break-up point which are dominated by an elasto-capillary force balance within the thinning ligaments and the magnitude of the extensional viscosity in the viscoelastic fluid. Mechanical Engineering Department, Cambridge, MA.
Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.
2015-06-01
Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.
A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Model for Ceramics at High Temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powers, Lynn M.; Panoskaltsis, Vassilis P.; Gasparini, Dario A.; Choi, Sung R.
2002-01-01
High-temperature creep behavior of ceramics is characterized by nonlinear time-dependent responses, asymmetric behavior in tension and compression, and nucleation and coalescence of voids leading to creep rupture. Moreover, creep rupture experiments show considerable scatter or randomness in fatigue lives of nominally equal specimens. To capture the nonlinear, asymmetric time-dependent behavior, the standard linear viscoelastic solid model is modified. Nonlinearity and asymmetry are introduced in the volumetric components by using a nonlinear function similar to a hyperbolic sine function but modified to model asymmetry. The nonlinear viscoelastic model is implemented in an ABAQUS user material subroutine. To model the random formation and coalescence of voids, each element is assigned a failure strain sampled from a lognormal distribution. An element is deleted when its volumetric strain exceeds its failure strain. Element deletion has been implemented within ABAQUS. Temporal increases in strains produce a sequential loss of elements (a model for void nucleation and growth), which in turn leads to failure. Nonlinear viscoelastic model parameters are determined from uniaxial tensile and compressive creep experiments on silicon nitride. The model is then used to predict the deformation of four-point bending and ball-on-ring specimens. Simulation is used to predict statistical moments of creep rupture lives. Numerical simulation results compare well with results of experiments of four-point bending specimens. The analytical model is intended to be used to predict the creep rupture lives of ceramic parts in arbitrary stress conditions.
Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation
Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.
2015-01-01
Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller–Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin–Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time. PMID:26130967
Saravanan, Vijayakumar; Gautham, Namasivayam
2015-10-01
Proteins embody epitopes that serve as their antigenic determinants. Epitopes occupy a central place in integrative biology, not to mention as targets for novel vaccine, pharmaceutical, and systems diagnostics development. The presence of T-cell and B-cell epitopes has been extensively studied due to their potential in synthetic vaccine design. However, reliable prediction of linear B-cell epitope remains a formidable challenge. Earlier studies have reported discrepancy in amino acid composition between the epitopes and non-epitopes. Hence, this study proposed and developed a novel amino acid composition-based feature descriptor, Dipeptide Deviation from Expected Mean (DDE), to distinguish the linear B-cell epitopes from non-epitopes effectively. In this study, for the first time, only exact linear B-cell epitopes and non-epitopes have been utilized for developing the prediction method, unlike the use of epitope-containing regions in earlier reports. To evaluate the performance of the DDE feature vector, models have been developed with two widely used machine-learning techniques Support Vector Machine and AdaBoost-Random Forest. Five-fold cross-validation performance of the proposed method with error-free dataset and dataset from other studies achieved an overall accuracy between nearly 61% and 73%, with balance between sensitivity and specificity metrics. Performance of the DDE feature vector was better (with accuracy difference of about 2% to 12%), in comparison to other amino acid-derived features on different datasets. This study reflects the efficiency of the DDE feature vector in enhancing the linear B-cell epitope prediction performance, compared to other feature representations. The proposed method is made as a stand-alone tool available freely for researchers, particularly for those interested in vaccine design and novel molecular target development for systems therapeutics and diagnostics: https://github.com/brsaran/LBEEP.
Linear and nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticle-Eu oxide composite thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henari, F. Z.; Dakhel, A. A.
2008-08-01
In this work, nanogold particles incorporated onto europium oxide films at levels of 4% and 7% were fabricated by a vacuum evaporation technique on glass and silicon substrates held at 200 °C. Samples were investigated by x-ray diffraction and linear and nonlinear optical absorption. The linear optical absorption data were measured in the UV-visible-near infrared spectral regions and from these data the energy gap and the surface plasmon resonance were determined. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the nanogold particles incorporated onto europium oxide films were measured using the Z-scan technique. Nonlinear absorption and refraction were performed using a continuous wave laser at 633 nm. A large value of third order nonlinearities was obtained with the samples.
Langdon, Jonathan H; Elegbe, Etana; McAleavey, Stephen A
2015-01-01
Single Tracking Location (STL) Shear wave Elasticity Imaging (SWEI) is a method for detecting elastic differences between tissues. It has the advantage of intrinsic speckle bias suppression compared to Multiple Tracking Location (MTL) variants of SWEI. However, the assumption of a linear model leads to an overestimation of the shear modulus in viscoelastic media. A new reconstruction technique denoted Single Tracking Location Viscosity Estimation (STL-VE) is introduced to correct for this overestimation. This technique utilizes the same raw data generated in STL-SWEI imaging. Here, the STL-VE technique is developed by way of a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) for general viscoelastic materials. The method is then implemented for the particular case of the Kelvin-Voigt Model. Using simulation data, the STL-VE technique is demonstrated and the performance of the estimator is characterized. Finally, the STL-VE method is used to estimate the viscoelastic parameters of ex-vivo bovine liver. We find good agreement between the STL-VE results and the simulation parameters as well as between the liver shear wave data and the modeled data fit. PMID:26168170
Langdon, Jonathan H; Elegbe, Etana; McAleavey, Stephen A
2015-07-01
Single tracking location (STL) shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) is a method for detecting elastic differences between tissues. It has the advantage of intrinsic speckle bias suppression compared with multiple tracking location variants of SWEI. However, the assumption of a linear model leads to an overestimation of the shear modulus in viscoelastic media. A new reconstruction technique denoted single tracking location viscosity estimation (STL-VE) is introduced to correct for this overestimation. This technique utilizes the same raw data generated in STL-SWEI imaging. Here, the STL-VE technique is developed by way of a maximum likelihood estimation for general viscoelastic materials. The method is then implemented for the particular case of the Kelvin-Voigt Model. Using simulation data, the STL-VE technique is demonstrated and the performance of the estimator is characterized. Finally, the STL-VE method is used to estimate the viscoelastic parameters of ex vivo bovine liver. We find good agreement between the STL-VE results and the simulation parameters as well as between the liver shear wave data and the modeled data fit. PMID:26168170
The effects of physical aging at elevated temperatures on the viscoelastic creep on IM7/K3B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark
1994-01-01
Physical aging at elevated temperature of the advanced composite IM7/K3B was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short term isothermal, creep/recovery with the creep segments performed at constant load. The matrix dominated transverse tensile and in-plane shear behavior were measured at temperatures ranging from 200 to 230 C. Through the use of time based shifting procedures, the aging shift factors, shift rates and momentary master curve parameters were found at each temperature. These material parameters were used as input to a predictive methodology, which was based upon effective time theory and linear viscoelasticity combined with classical lamination theory. Long term creep compliance test data was compared to predictions to verify the method. The model was then used to predict the long term creep behavior for several general laminates.
Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilbrink, M. W. L.; Michels, M. A. J.; Vellinga, W. P.; Meijer, H. E. H.
2005-03-01
This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle surface-to-surface distance was controlled, changing particle volume fraction φ and particle number density independently. This was achieved by mixing two sets of monodisperse particles with widely differing radii ( 0.35μm and 17.5μm ) with the matrix. A scaling exponent of 3.9±0.6 for the storage modulus G' vs φ-φc was observed above a threshold φc , in good agreement with theoretical values for rigidity percolation. It is found that at the rigidity-percolation threshold the pore structure, as characterized by the mean surface-to-surface distance for the filler, rather than the filler volume fraction, is similar for different types of composites. This behavior is explained from the internal structure of the viscoelastic matrix, which consists of fractal solid aggregates dissolved in a viscous medium; the effective radius of these aggregates and the mean surface-to-surface distance together determine whether or not the aggregates are capable of providing rigidity to the composite. The explanation is further supported by a qualitative comparison with effective-medium calculations. These indicate that the observed breakdown of time-temperature superposition near φc is due to the appearance of a time scale characteristic for the mechanical interplay between the viscous binder phase and the purely elastic solid particles.
Creep of posterior dental composites.
Papadogianis, Y; Boyer, D B; Lakes, R S
1985-01-01
The creep of microspecimens of posterior dental composites was studied using a torsional creep apparatus. Shear stresses were maintained for 3 h and recovery was followed for 50 h. Creep curves were obtained at 21, 37, and 50 degrees C and four torque levels. The effect of conditioning the specimens in water up to 8 weeks was studied. The posterior composites exhibited linear viscoelastic behavior at low deformations. They had higher shear moduli and greater resistance to creep than conventional and microfilled composites. In aging experiments, maximum shear moduli occurred when specimens were 48 h to 1 week old. Subsequent softening was attributed to water absorption. Residual strain was highest when the composites were stressed within 24 h of initiating polymerization. Residual strain was very low in specimens 48 h to 8 weeks of age.
Non-linear numerical analysis of the Iosipescu specimen for composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, Henjen; Morton, John; Farley, Gary L.
1994-01-01
A nonlinear elastic finite element analysis is presented of the Iosipescu shear specimen tested in the modified Wyoming fixture for unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites. It is shown that the nonlinear effects due to specimen-to-fixture contact interactions and specimen geometry on the overall shear response are negligible. It is proposed that the tangential shear modulus should be used to characterize the shear resistance of composite materials with highly nonlinear shear response. The correction factors, which are needed to compensate for the nonuniformity of the shear stress or strain distribution in the specimen test section for shear modulus measurement, have to be defined carefully. Strain contours in the nonlinear response ranges are presented and the initiation of failure in the notch regions is investigated.
Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.
Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III
2005-11-01
Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.
Parametric vibrations and stability of viscoelastic shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyasov, M. H.
2010-05-01
The problem of dynamic stability of viscoelastic extremely shallow and circular cylindrical shells with any hereditary properties, including time-dependence of Poisson’s ratio, are reduced to the investigation of stability of the zero solution of an ordinary integro-differential equation with variable coefficients. Using the Laplace integral transform, an integro-differential equation is reduced to the new integro-differential one of which the main part coincides with the damped Hill equation and the integral part is proportional to the product of two small parameters. Changing this equation for the system of two linear equations of the first order and using the averaging method, the monodromy matrix of the obtained system is constructed. Considering the absolute value of the eigen-values of monodromy matrix is greater than unit, the condition for instability of zero solution is obtained in the three-dimensional space of parameters corresponding to the frequency, viscosity and amplitude of external action. Analysis of form and size of instability domains is carried out.
Viscoelasticity of Solutions of Semiflexible Rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morse, David
2001-03-01
I will discuss theoretical studies and Brownian dynamics simulationsof the linear viscoelasticity of solutions of wormlike chains. The relaxation modulus G(t) in dilute solutions of relatively short chains, with lengths L less than the persistence length L_p, is found to exhibit three time regimes: At very early times, before an initially affine longitudinal deformation has begun to relax, G(t) ∝ t-3/4. Over a broad range of intermediate times, during which the end-to-end length relaxes, G(t) ∝ t-5/4. In these first two regimes, the stress is dominated by longitudinal forces (i.e., tension) induced by the deformation. At long times, G(t) mimics the exponential decay found for solutions of rods, due to the rotational diffusion of the overall chain orientation. An analytically solvable model of the mechanically inextensible semiflexible chain as an effectively extensible rod, with an effective modulus B(ω) ∝ ω^3/4, is shown to quantitatively describe G(t) for all L <= Lp throughout the first two time regimes. In tightly-entangled solutions, a additional plateau in G(t) appears, in which the stress is dominated by transverse forces, due to stress arising from the disturbance of the equilibrium distribution of transverse fluctuations, which, in this regime, can relax only by reptation. Predictions are compared to experiments with dilute solutions of poly(benzyl glutamate) and tightly-entangled solutions of F-actin.
Viscoelastic modelling of tennis ball properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sissler, L.; Jones, R.; Leaney, P. G.; Harland, A.
2010-06-01
An explicit finite element (FE) tennis ball model which illustrates the effects of the viscoelastic materials of a tennis ball on ball deformation and bounce during normal impacts is presented. A tennis ball is composed of a rubber core and a fabric cover comprised of a wool-nylon mix which exhibit non-linear strain rate properties during high velocity impacts. The rubber core model was developed and validated using low strain rate tensile tests on rubber samples as well as high velocity normal impacts of pressurised cores at velocities ranging from 15 m/s to 50 m/s. The impacts were recorded using a high speed video (HSV) camera to determine deformation, impact time and coefficient of restitution (COR). The material properties of the core model were tuned to match the HSV results. A two component anisotropic fabric model was created which included artificial Rayleigh damping to account for hysteresis effects, and the core model 'tuning' process was used to refine the cloth layer. The ball model's parameters were in good agreement with experimental data at all velocities for both cores and complete balls, and a time sequenced comparison of HSV ball motion and FE model confirmed the validity of the model.
Fractional calculus in viscoelasticity: An experimental study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meral, F. C.; Royston, T. J.; Magin, R.
2010-04-01
Viscoelastic properties of soft biological tissues provide information that may be useful in medical diagnosis. Noninvasive elasticity imaging techniques, such as Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE), reconstruct viscoelastic material properties from dynamic displacement images. The reconstruction algorithms employed in these techniques assume a certain viscoelastic material model and the results are sensitive to the model chosen. Developing a better model for the viscoelasticity of soft tissue-like materials could improve the diagnostic capability of MRE. The well known "integer derivative" viscoelastic models of Voigt and Kelvin, and variations of them, cannot represent the more complicated rate dependency of material behavior of biological tissues over a broad spectral range. Recently the "fractional derivative" models have been investigated by a number of researchers. Fractional order models approximate the viscoelastic material behavior of materials through the corresponding fractional differential equations. This paper focuses on the tissue mimicking materials CF-11 and gelatin, and compares fractional and integer order models to describe their behavior under harmonic mechanical loading. Specifically, Rayleigh (surface) waves on CF-11 and gelatin phantoms are studied, experimentally and theoretically, in order to develop an independent test bed for assessing viscoelastic material models that will ultimately be used in MRE reconstruction algorithms.
Viscoelastic Behavior of PDMS Filled with Boron Nitrides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, J. F.; Weinkauf, D. H.; Jeon, H. S.
2004-03-01
The addition of high thermal conductive filler particles such as boron nitride, aluminum nitride, or carbon fiber is an effective way to increase the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials for the industrial applications such as electronic packaging materials, encapsulants, and thermal fluids among others. The effects of particle dispersions, concentrations, and the interactions between BN and polymer matrix on the viscoelastic properties of the boron nitride (BN)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites prepared by mechanical mixing are investigated using oscillatory shear rheology. Both untreated and plasma treated boron nitride (BNP) particles with hexafluoropropylene oxide monomers have been used in this study. The addition of the plasma treated BN particles to the PDMS matrix decrease significantly the complex viscosity as well as storage and loss modulus of the composites due to the reduced interfacial energy between the surface of BNP and PDMS chains. For the PDMS/BN and PDMS/BNP composites, the maximum volume packing fraction ( ˜0.4) of the particles has been determined from the complex viscosity as a function of the frequency. Additionally, the shear-induced alignment of the BN particles dispersed in the PDMS matrix decreases the viscoelastic properties of the composites with the irregular oscillations which is related to the network formation of dispersed BN particles at the higher volume fractions (> ˜0.2).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drugan, W. J.; Willis, J. R.
2016-06-01
A variational formulation employing the minimum potential and complementary energy principles is used to derive a micromechanics-based nonlocal constitutive equation for random linear elastic composite materials, relating ensemble averages of stress and strain in the most general situation when mean fields vary spatially. All information contained in the energy principles is retained; we employ stress polarization trial fields utilizing one-point statistics so that the resulting nonlocal constitutive equation incorporates up through three-point statistics. The variational structure is developed first for arbitrary heterogeneous linear elastic materials, then for randomly inhomogeneous materials, then for general n-phase composite materials, and finally for two-phase composite materials, in which case explicit variational upper and lower bounds on the nonlocal effective modulus tensor operator are derived. For statistically uniform infinite-body composites, these bounds are determined even more explicitly in Fourier transform space. We evaluate these in detail in an example case: longitudinal shear of an aligned fiber or void composite. We determine the full permissible ranges of the terms involving two- and three-point statistics in these bounds, and thereby exhibit explicit results that encompass arbitrary isotropic in-plane phase distributions; we also develop a nonlocal "Milton parameter", the variation of whose eigenvalues throughout the interval [0, 1] describes the full permissible range of the three-point term. Example plots of the new bounds show them to provide substantial improvement over the (two-point) Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the nonlocal operator tensor, for all permissible values of the two- and three-point parameters. We next discuss further applications of the general nonlocal operator bounds: to any three-dimensional scalar transport problem e.g. conductivity, for which explicit results are given encompassing the full permissible ranges of the
Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan
2009-07-01
In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.
Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of thin polyethylene film
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilbeck, J. S.
1981-01-01
In order to understand the state of stress and strain in a typical balloon fabricated from thin polyethylene film, experiment data in the literature reviewed. It was determined that the film behaves as a nonlinear viscoelasticity material and should be characterized accordingly. A simple uniaxial, nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed for predicting stress given a certain strain history. The simple model showed good qualitative agreement with results of constant rate, uniaxial accurately predicting stresses for cyclic strain histories typical of balloon flights. A program was outlined which will result in the development of a more complex nonlinear viscoelastic model.
Dynamic wetting of viscoelastic droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yuli; Minh, Do-Quang; Amberg, Gustav
2015-10-01
We conduct numerical experiments on spreading of viscoelastic droplets on a flat surface. Our work considers a Giesekus fluid characterized by a shear-thinning viscosity and an Oldroyd-B fluid, which is close to a Boger fluid with constant viscosity. Our results qualitatively agree with experimental observations in that both shear thinning and elasticity enhances contact line motion, and that the contact line motion of the Boger fluid obeys the Tanner-Voinov-Hoffman relation. Excluding inertia, the spreading speed shows strong dependence on rheological properties, such as the viscosity ratio between the solvent and the polymer suspension, and the polymeric relaxation time. We also discuss how elasticity can affect contact line motion. The molecular migration theory proposed in the literature is not able to explain the agreement between our simulations and experimental results.
Dynamic wetting of viscoelastic droplets.
Wang, Yuli; Minh, Do-Quang; Amberg, Gustav
2015-10-01
We conduct numerical experiments on spreading of viscoelastic droplets on a flat surface. Our work considers a Giesekus fluid characterized by a shear-thinning viscosity and an Oldroyd-B fluid, which is close to a Boger fluid with constant viscosity. Our results qualitatively agree with experimental observations in that both shear thinning and elasticity enhances contact line motion, and that the contact line motion of the Boger fluid obeys the Tanner-Voinov-Hoffman relation. Excluding inertia, the spreading speed shows strong dependence on rheological properties, such as the viscosity ratio between the solvent and the polymer suspension, and the polymeric relaxation time. We also discuss how elasticity can affect contact line motion. The molecular migration theory proposed in the literature is not able to explain the agreement between our simulations and experimental results. PMID:26565327
Viscoelastic coupling of nanoelectromechanical resonators.
Simonson, Robert Joseph; Staton, Alan W.
2009-09-01
This report summarizes work to date on a new collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to utilize nanoelectromechanical resonators designed at Caltech as platforms to measure the mechanical properties of polymeric materials at length scales on the order of 10-50 nm. Caltech has succeeded in reproducibly building cantilever resonators having major dimensions on the order of 2-5 microns. These devices are fabricated in pairs, with free ends separated by reproducible gaps having dimensions on the order of 10-50 nm. By controlled placement of materials that bridge the very small gap between resonators, the mechanical devices become coupled through the test material, and the transmission of energy between the devices can be monitored. This should allow for measurements of viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials at high frequency over short distances. Our work to date has been directed toward establishing this measurement capability at Sandia.
The Organic Composition Of The Comet C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) Revealed At Infrared Wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radeva, Yana L.; Bonev, B. P.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; DiSanti, M. A.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E. L.; Dello Russo, N.; Weaver, H. A.
2006-09-01
We report quantitative measurements of organic volatiles and water in Comet C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) obtained with NIRSPEC at Keck-2 on Mauna Kea on Nov. 25, 2001 (UT date). Emission from multiple parent species (including H2O, HCN, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, H2CO, CH3OH) and from OH prompt emission was detected. We will present spectra, rotational temperatures, production rates, relative abundances of organic molecules with respect to H2O, and the ortho-para ratio for H2O. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA Planetary Astronomy Program to M.J.M, M.A.D., and N.D.R., and from NSF-RUI to K.M.S.
Outgassing behavior and composition of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) during its disruption.
Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Moreno, R; Colom, P; Crovisier, J; Gérard, E; Henry, F; Lis, D C; Matthews, H; Weaver, H A; Womack, M; Festou, M C
2001-05-18
The gas activity of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) was monitored at radio wavelengths during its disruption. A runaway fragmentation of the nucleus may have begun around 18 July 2000 and proceeded until 23 July. The mass in small icy debris (
Viscoelastic response of a model endothelial glycocalyx
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nijenhuis, Nadja; Mizuno, Daisuke; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Schmidt, Christoph F.
2009-06-01
Many cells cover themselves with a multifunctional polymer coat, the pericellular matrix (PCM), to mediate mechanical interactions with the environment. A particular PCM, the endothelial glycocalyx (EG), is formed by vascular endothelial cells at their luminal side, forming a mechanical interface between the flowing blood and the endothelial cell layer. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronan (HA) is involved in the main functions of the EG, mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress and molecular sieving. HA, due to its length, is the only GAG in the EG or any other PCM able to form an entangled network. The mechanical functions of the EG are, however, impaired when any one of its components is removed. We here used microrheology to measure the effect of the EG constituents heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, whole blood plasma and albumin on the high-bandwidth mechanical properties of a HA solution. Furthermore, we probed the effect of the hyaldherin aggrecan, a constituent of the PCM of chondrocytes, and very similar to versican (present in the PCM of various cells, and possibly in the EG). We show that components directly interacting with HA (chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan) can increase the viscoelastic shear modulus of the polymer composite.
McComas, D J; Nordholt, J E; Bame, S J; Barraclough, B L; Gosling, J T
1990-08-01
A revolutionary type of three-dimensional space plasma composition analyzer has been developed that combines very high-resolution mass composition measurements on a fraction of the incident ions simultaneously with lower mass resolution but high sensitivity measurements of the remaining population in a single compact and robust sensor design. Whereas the lower mass resolution measurements are achieved using conventional energy/charge (E/q) and linear time-of-flight analysis, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing reflected E/q analyzed ions in a linear electric field (LEF). In a LEF the restoring (reflecting) force that an ion experiences in the direction parallel to the field is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region, and its equation of motion in that direction is that of a simple harmonic oscillator. Consequently, an ion's travel time is independent of its initial angle and energy and is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). The measured m/q resolution, (m/q)/Delta(m/q), for a small LEF-based prototype that we have developed and tested is approximately 20. In addition, our laboratory measurements with the prototype instrument show that characteristic time-of-flight spectra allow the resolution of atomic and molecular species with nearly identical m/q values. The measured response of the prototype is in excellent agreement with computer simulations of the device. Advanced design work using this computer simulation indicates that three-dimensional plasma composition analyzers with m/q resolutions of at least 50 are readily achievable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirley, James H.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Dalton, J. Bradley
2016-08-01
Quantitative estimates of the abundance of surface materials and of water ice particle grain sizes at five widely separated locations on the surface of Europa have been obtained by two independent methods in order to search for possible discrepancies that may be attributed to differences in the methods employed. Results of radiative transfer (RT) compositional modeling (also known as intimate mixture modeling) from two prior studies are here employed without modification. Areal (or "checkerboard") mixture modeling, also known as linear mixture (LM) modeling, was performed to allow direct comparisons. The failure to model scattering processes (whose effects may be strongly nonlinear) in the LM approach is recognized as a potential source of errors. RT modeling accounts for nonlinear spectral responses due to scattering but is subject to other uncertainties. By comparing abundance estimates for H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice, obtained through both methods as applied to identical spectra, we may gain some insight into the importance of "volume scattering" effects for investigations of Europa's surface composition. We find that both methods return similar abundances for each location analyzed; linear correlation coefficients of ≥ 0.98 are found between the derived H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice abundances returned by both methods. We thus find no evidence of a significant influence of volume scattering on the compositional solutions obtained by LM modeling for these locations. Some differences in the results obtained for water ice grain sizes are attributed to the limited selection of candidate materials allowed in the RT investigations.
Modeling Electrically Active Viscoelastic Membranes
Roy, Sitikantha; Brownell, William E.; Spector, Alexander A.
2012-01-01
The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric) force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism. PMID:22701528
Lundkvist, A.; Lilleodden, E.; Sickhaus, W.; Kinney, J.; Pruitt, L.; Balooch, M.
1998-02-09
Using an Atomic Force Microscope with an attachment for indentation, we have measured local, in vitro mechanical properties of healthy femoral artery tissue held in saline solution. The elastic modulus (34. 3 kPa) and viscoelastic response ({tau}sub{epsilon} {equals} 16.9 s and {tau}sub{sigma} {equals} 29.3 s) of the unstretched,intimal vessel wall have been determined using Sneddon theory and a three element model(standard linear solid) for viscoelastic materials. The procedures necessary to employ the indenting attachment to detect elastic moduli in the kPa range in liquid are described.
Quantitative nondestructive characterization of visco-elastic materials at high pressure
Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Kihara, Junji; Ohno, Jun
1995-11-01
New anvil apparatus was developed to realize high pressure atmosphere suitable to investigation of viscoelastic behaviors of such soft materials as polymers, lubricants, proteins and so forth. In addition, ultrasonic spectroscopy system was also newly constructed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation of elasticity and viscosity of soft materials at high pressure. In order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the developed system and methodology for quantitative nondestructive visco-elastic characterization, various silicone oils are employed, and measured spectra are compared to the theoretical results calculated by the three linear element model.
Crustal deformation, the earthquake cycle, and models of viscoelastic flow in the asthenosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, S. C.; Kramer, M. J.
1983-01-01
The crustal deformation patterns associated with the earthquake cycle can depend strongly on the rheological properties of subcrustal material. Substantial deviations from the simple patterns for a uniformly elastic earth are expected when viscoelastic flow of subcrustal material is considered. The detailed description of the deformation pattern and in particular the surface displacements, displacement rates, strains, and strain rates depend on the structure and geometry of the material near the seismogenic zone. The origin of some of these differences are resolved by analyzing several different linear viscoelastic models with a common finite element computational technique. The models involve strike-slip faulting and include a thin channel asthenosphere model, a model with a varying thickness lithosphere, and a model with a viscoelastic inclusion below the brittle slip plane. The calculations reveal that the surface deformation pattern is most sensitive to the rheology of the material that lies below the slip plane in a volume whose extent is a few times the fault depth. If this material is viscoelastic, the surface deformation pattern resembles that of an elastic layer lying over a viscoelastic half-space. When the thickness or breath of the viscoelastic material is less than a few times the fault depth, then the surface deformation pattern is altered and geodetic measurements are potentially useful for studying the details of subsurface geometry and structure. Distinguishing among the various models is best accomplished by making geodetic measurements not only near the fault but out to distances equal to several times the fault depth. This is where the model differences are greatest; these differences will be most readily detected shortly after an earthquake when viscoelastic effects are most pronounced.
Effect of Matrix on Cardiomyocyte Viscoelastic Properties in 2D Culture
Deitch, Sandra; Gao, Bruce Z.; Dean, Delphine
2012-01-01
Cardiomyocyte phenotype changes significantly in 2D culture systems depending on the substrate composition and organization. Given the variety of substrates that are used both for basic cardiac cell culture studies and for regenerative medicine applications, there is a critical need to understand how the different matrices influence cardiac cell mechanics. In the current study, the mechanical properties of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured in a subconfluent layer upon aligned and unaligned collagen and fibronectin matrices were assessed over a two week period using atomic force microscopy. The elastic modulus was estimated by fitting the Hertz model to force curve data and the percent relaxation was determined from stress relaxation curves. The Quasilinear Viscoelastic (QLV) and Standard Linear Solid (SLS) models were fit to the stress relaxation data. Cardiomyocyte cellular mechanical properties were found to be highly dependent on matrix composition and organization as well as time in culture. It was observed that the cells stiffened and relaxed less over the first 3 to 5 days in culture before reaching a plateau in their mechanical properties. After day 5, cells on aligned matrices were stiffer than cells on unaligned matrices and cells on fibronectin matrices were stiffer than cells on collagen matrices. No such significant trends in percent relaxation measurements were observed but the QLV model fit the data very well. These results were correlated with observed changes in cellular structure associated with culture on the different substrates and analyzed for cell-to-cell variability. PMID:23285736
Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires
Potter, Trevor
2013-04-30
Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.
Viscoelastic and aging characteristics of polymers
Feng, W W
1984-04-01
This paper concerns the time dependent mechanical properties for incompressible polymer-like materials subjected to finite deformations. There are two parts: the viscoelastic effects and the aging characteristics. A method for determining these mechanical properties is presented in detail.
Numerical implementation of viscoelastic blood flow in a simplified arterial geometry.
Rojas, Hernán A González
2007-05-01
The influence of the non-Newtonian stress-strain relation of blood on the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and mean wall shear stress (WSS) are described. The unsteady linear 1D momentum equation is solved for a viscoelastic fluid, with six elements of the Maxwell type and one dashpot element connected in parallel. A novel numerical algorithm is described which uses the upwind finite difference method to solve the equation of momentum. Results obtained by using a finite difference approach show significantly higher values of OSI when blood is assumed to be a viscoelastic fluid compared with those of simplified Newtonian fluid model. The calculation of OSI in human normal conditions for the Newtonian fluid differs in 12% (if alpha=0.02) from the results obtained from using the viscoelastic model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
The bibliography contains citations concerning analytical techniques using constitutive equations, applied to materials under stress. The properties explored with these techniques include viscoelasticity, thermoelasticity, and plasticity. While many of the references are general as to material type, most refer to specific metals or composites, or to specific shapes, such as flat plate or spherical vessels.
Thin film dynamics of viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebon, Luc; Limat, Laurent
2012-11-01
We present here viscoelastic fluids in thin film flows, such as liquid bells or liquid curtains. The viscoelastic property of the liquids exhibits specific dynamics in such flows. In the case of bells, the elastic strength tends to extend the bell size for example. In the case of curtain flows, original behaviour of holes are observed with specific growth mechanism for bubbles trapped in the flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadooka, Kevin; Imamura, Hiroya; Taya, Minoru
2016-10-01
This work presents a linear viscoelastic model to describe the time-dependent actuation behavior of multilayer unimorph dielectric elastomer actuators (MUDEA), with experimental validation by actuators produced by a robotic dispenser system. MUDEA are a type of soft actuator which can produce large bending deformation without prestretch typically required by dielectric elastomer actuators. Current analytical and finite element models of MUDEA do not consider material viscoelasticity and cannot predict the change over time of performance metrics such as tip displacement and blocking force. The linear viscoelastic model presented in this work is based on a linear elastic model for the MUDEA extended to account for viscous effects by the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. The model is easily implemented because it is based on explicit expressions which can be evaluated numerically by any computer algebra system. The model was used to predict the tip displacement and blocking force of MUDEAs consisting of two, four, six, eight, and ten layers of dielectric elastomer material. The model predictions agreed well with experimental data obtained from MUDEA produced by a robotic dispenser system, which was capable of producing multilayered structures of thin layers of dielectric elastomer and carbon nanotube based electrode material.
Numerical solution of an elastic and viscoelastic gravitational models by the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arjona Almodóvar, A.; Chacón Rebollo, T.; Gómez Marmol, M.
2014-12-01
Volcanic areas present a lower effective viscosity than usually in the Earth's crust. Both the elastic-gravitational and the viscoelastic-gravitational models allow the computation of gravity, deformation, and gravitational potential changes in order to investigate crustal deformations of Earth (see for instance Battaglia & Segall, 2004; Fernández et al. 1999, 2001; Rundle 1980 and 1983). These models can be represented by a coupled system of linear parabolic (for the elastic deformations), hyperbolic (for the viscoelastic deformations) and elliptic partial differential equations (for gravitational potential changes) (see for instance Arjona et al. 2008 and 2010). The existence and uniqueness of weak solutions for both the elastic-gravitational and viscoelastic-gravitational problem was demonstrated in Arjona et al. (2008 and 2014). The stabilization to solutions of the associated stationary system was proved in Arjona and Díaz (2007). Here we consider the internal source as response to the effect of a pressurized magma reservoir into a multilayered, elastic-gravitational and viscoelastic-gravitational earth model. We introduce the numerical analysis of a simplified steady elastic-gravitational model, solved by means of the finite element method. We also present some numerical tests in realistic situations that confirm the predictions of theoretical order of convergence. Finally, we describe the methodology for both the elastic-gravitational and the viscoelastic-gravitational models using 2D and 3D test examples performed with FreeFEM++.
Ligament Mediated Fragmentation of Viscoelastic Liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshavarz, Bavand; Houze, Eric C.; Moore, John R.; Koerner, Michael R.; McKinley, Gareth H.
2016-10-01
The breakup and atomization of complex fluids can be markedly different than the analogous processes in a simple Newtonian fluid. Atomization of paint, combustion of fuels containing antimisting agents, as well as physiological processes such as sneezing are common examples in which the atomized liquid contains synthetic or biological macromolecules that result in viscoelastic fluid characteristics. Here, we investigate the ligament-mediated fragmentation dynamics of viscoelastic fluids in three different canonical flows. The size distributions measured in each viscoelastic fragmentation process show a systematic broadening from the Newtonian solvent. In each case, the droplet sizes are well described by Gamma distributions which correspond to a fragmentation-coalescence scenario. We use a prototypical axial step strain experiment together with high-speed video imaging to show that this broadening results from the pronounced change in the corrugated shape of viscoelastic ligaments as they separate from the liquid core. These corrugations saturate in amplitude and the measured distributions for viscoelastic liquids in each process are given by a universal probability density function, corresponding to a Gamma distribution with nmin=4 . The breadth of this size distribution for viscoelastic filaments is shown to be constrained by a geometrical limit which can not be exceeded in ligament-mediated fragmentation phenomena.
Visco-elastic effects on wave dispersion in three-phase acoustic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krushynska, A. O.; Kouznetsova, V. G.; Geers, M. G. D.
2016-11-01
This paper studies the wave attenuation performance of dissipative solid acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) with local resonators possessing subwavelength band gaps. The metamaterial is composed of dense rubber-coated inclusions of a circular shape embedded periodically in a matrix medium. Visco-elastic material losses present in a matrix and/or resonator coating are introduced by either the Kelvin-Voigt or generalized Maxwell models. Numerical solutions are obtained in the frequency domain by means of k(ω)-approach combined with the finite element method. Spatially attenuating waves are described by real frequencies ω and complex-valued wave vectors k. Complete 3D band structure diagrams including complex-valued pass bands are evaluated for the undamped linear elastic and several visco-elastic AMM cases. The changes in the band diagrams due to the visco-elasticity are discussed in detail; the comparison between the two visco-elastic models representing artificial (Kelvin-Voigt model) and experimentally characterized (generalized Maxwell model) damping is performed. The interpretation of the results is facilitated by using attenuation and transmission spectra. Two mechanisms of the energy absorption, i.e. due to the resonance of the inclusions and dissipative effects in the materials, are discussed separately. It is found that the visco-elastic damping of the matrix material decreases the attenuation performance of AMMs within band gaps; however, if the matrix material is slightly damped, it can be modeled as linear elastic without the loss of accuracy given the resonator coating is dissipative. This study also demonstrates that visco-elastic losses properly introduced in the resonator coating improve the attenuation bandwidth of AMMs although the attenuation on the resonance peaks is reduced.
Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media
Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.
2011-01-01
Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Bin; Shen, ZhiBin; Duan, JingBo; Tang, GuoJin
2014-05-01
This paper studies the damage-viscoelastic behavior of composite solid propellants of solid rocket motors (SRM). Based on viscoelastic theories and strain equivalent hypothesis in damage mechanics, a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model incorporating with damage is developed. The resulting viscoelastic constitutive equations are numerically discretized by integration algorithm, and a stress-updating method is presented by solving nonlinear equations according to the Newton-Raphson method. A material subroutine of stress-updating is made up and embedded into commercial code of Abaqus. The material subroutine is validated through typical examples. Our results indicate that the finite element results are in good agreement with the analytical ones and have high accuracy, and the suggested method and designed subroutine are efficient and can be further applied to damage-coupling structural analysis of practical SRM grain.
Chen, Conggui; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da
2015-12-01
We developed a phase-sensitive side-scanning photoacoustic viscoelasticity endoscopy (PAVEE) for mechanical characterization of intraluminal tissues. In PAVEE, the PA phase can be extracted from the optical absorption induced ultrasonic waves and provides an index of viscoelasticity that is closely linked to tissue compositions. The transverse resolution of the PAVEE measured by carbon fiber was about 32 μm. The imaging capability of the PAVEE was verified using a vessel-mimicking phantom with different agar density. Moreover, PAVEE was investigated in processed lumen-shaped vascular tissues to evaluate the biomechanical features, which was highly consistent with the histology. The results demonstrated that the PAVEE can obtain viscoelastic properties of intraluminal tissues, which puts a new insight into the intravascular disease and holds great promise for plaque vulnerability detection. PMID:26713209
Viscoelastic response of the periodontal ligament: an experimental-numerical analysis.
Natali, A; Pavan, P; Carniel, E; Dorow, C
2004-01-01
A viscoelastic constitutive model for the periodontal ligament (PDL) capable of accounting for large strains, anisotropy, and inelastic time-dependent effects was developed. Anisotropy characteristics are determined by the composite nature of the tissue and, in particular, by the distribution of collagen fibres. Time-dependent viscous phenomena are due to microstructural modifications during loading, such as fluid fluxes moving through the solid matrix and the internal rearrangement of fibers and constitutive adaptation. The viscoelastic model presented here was implemented in a general purpose finite element code. In vitro experimental tests were carried out on the PDL specimens of adult pigs to obtain stress-relaxation and cyclic stress-strain curves. The comparison of experimental and numerical results revealed good correspondence and confirmed the capability of the formulation assumed to properly interpret the viscoelastic behavior of the PDL. PMID:15763931
Accelerated viscoelastic characterization of T300-5208 graphite-epoxy laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.
1985-01-01
A viscoelastic response scheme for the accelerated characterization of polymer-based composite laminates in applied to T300/5208 graphite/epoxy. The response of uni-directional specimens is modeled. The transient component of the viscoelastic creep compliance is assumed to follow a power law approximation. A recursive relationship is developed, based upon the Schapery single-integral equation, which allows approximation of a continuous time-varying uniaxial load using discrete steps in stress. The viscoelastic response of T300/5208 to transverse normal and shear stresses is determined unsing 90 deg and 10 deg off-axis tensile specimens. In each case the seven viscoelastic material parameters required in the analysis are determined experimentally using short-term creep and creep recovery tests. It is shown that an accurate measure of the power law exponent is crucial for accurate long-term prediction. A short term test cycle selection procedure is proposed, which should provide useful guidelines for the evaluation of other viscoelastic materials.
Optically operated linear electrooptical effect in δ-Bi1-xNdxB3O6/polymer composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrunik, M.; Ebothé, J.; Majchrowski, A.; Michel, J.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Kityk, I. V.
2016-04-01
A novel type of laser operated polymer composites based on orthorhombic δ-Bi1-xNdxB3O6 powders (where x=0.025÷0.100) was prepared. The powders were synthesized by means of polymeric precursor method through the citrate way. They were analyzed using XRD, and HRTEM methods, then embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) photopolymer. During solidification the additional DC-electric field alignment was carried out. The composite films with thickness up to 0.4 mm were studied using the Senarmont method at wavelength of CW He-Ne laser 633 nm with simultaneous application of the DC-electric field at 50 kHz frequency possessing rectangular symmetrical form. As a source of photoinducing beam we used polarized 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation and its power density was varied using a Glan prism polarizer. The linear electrooptical (EO) effect measurements were carried out during and after Nd:YAG laser treatment at different temperatures. The laser stimulated EO effect was explored versus the Nd3+ content and temperature. It was shown that the Nd3+ ion content plays the crucial role in the observed EO effect efficiency. The contribution of the piezo-electrical and piezo-optical phenomena as well as phonons in the observed effects is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Eduardo Afonso; Pereira, Jucélio Tomás; Alberto Bavastri, Carlos
2015-09-01
One of the major reasons for inserting damping into bearings is that rotating machines are often requested in critical functioning conditions having sometimes to function under dynamic instability or close to critical speeds. Hydrodynamic and magnetic bearings have usually been used for this purpose, but they present limitations regarding costs and operation, rendering the use of viscoelastic supports a feasible solution for vibration control in rotating machines. Most papers in the area use simple analytic or single degree of freedom models for the rotor as well as classic mechanical models of linear viscoelasticity for the support - like Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Zenner, four-element, GHM models and even frequency independent models - but they lack the accuracy of fractional models in a large range of frequency and temperature regarding the same number of coefficients. Even in those works, the need to consider the addition of degrees of freedom to the support is evident. However, so far no paper has been published focusing on a methodology to determine the optimal constructive form for any viscoelastic support in which the rotor is discretized by finite elements associated to an accurate model for characterizing the viscoelastic material. In general, the support is meant to be a simple isolation system, and the fact the stiffness matrix is complex and frequency-temperature dependent - due to its viscoelastic properties - forces the traditional methods to require an extremely long computing time, thus rendering them too time consuming in an optimization environment. The present work presents a robust methodology based mainly on generalized equivalent parameters (GEP) - for an optimal design of viscoelastic supports for rotating machinery - aiming at minimizing the unbalance frequency response of the system using a hybrid optimization technique (genetic algorithms and Nelder-Mead method). The rotor is modeled based on the finite element method using Timoshenko's thick
Viscoelastic properties of levan polysaccharides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noll, Kenneth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru
2014-03-01
Levan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is composed of β-D-fructofuranose units with β(2-6) linkages between fructose rings. It is synthesized by the action of a secreted levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) that converts sucrose into the levan externally (exopolysaccharide). Levan is a homopolysaccharide that is non-toxic, water soluble,, and has anti-tumor activity and low immunological response. Therefore, levan presents great potential to be used as a novel functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Despite these favorable properties, levan has a moderately low mechanical properties and poor film forming capability. In the current study, the agglomeration behavior of levan in water and in saline solutions was investigated at 298 and 310 K by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic properties of neat and oxidized levan films were studied via nanoindentation experiments in the quasi-static and dynamic modes The material is partially based upon work supported by NSF under Grant Nos. 1200270 and 1003574, and TUBITAK 111M232.
Nonlinear Dynamics in Viscoelastic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majmudar, Trushant; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth
2008-11-01
Instabilities in free surface continuous jets of non-Newtonian fluids, although relevant for many industrial processes, remain poorly understood in terms of fundamental fluid dynamics. Inviscid, and viscous Newtonian jets have been studied in considerable detail, both theoretically and experimentally. Instability in viscous jets leads to regular periodic coiling of the jet, which exhibits a non-trivial frequency dependence with the height of the fall. Here we present a systematic study of the effect of viscoelasticity on the dynamics of continuous jets of worm-like micellar surfactant solutions of varying viscosities and elasticities. We observe complex nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics of the jet, and uncover a transition from periodic to quasi-periodic to a multi-frequency, broad-spectrum dynamics. Beyond this regime, the jet dynamics smoothly crosses over to exhibit the ``leaping shampoo'' or the Kaye effect. We examine different dynamical regimes in terms of scaling variables, which depend on the geometry (dimensionless height), kinematics (dimensionless flow rate), and the fluid properties (elasto-gravity number) and present a regime map of the dynamics of the jet in terms of these dimensionless variables.
Nonlinear Dynamics in Viscoelastic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majmudar, Trushant; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth
2009-03-01
Instabilities in free surface continuous jets of non-Newtonian fluids, although relevant for many industrial processes, remain poorly understood in terms of fundamental fluid dynamics. Inviscid, and viscous Newtonian jets have been studied in considerable detail, both theoretically and experimentally. Instability in viscous jets leads to regular periodic coiling of the jet, which exhibits a non-trivial frequency dependence with the height of the fall. Here we present a systematic study of the effect of viscoelasticity on the dynamics of continuous jets of worm-like micellar surfactant solutions of varying viscosities and elasticities. We observe complex nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics of the jet, and uncover a transition from periodic to quasi-periodic to a multi-frequency, broad-spectrum dynamics. Beyond this regime, the jet dynamics smoothly crosses over to exhibit the ``leaping shampoo'' or the Kaye effect. We examine different dynamical regimes in terms of scaling variables, which depend on the geometry (dimensionless height), kinematics (dimensionless flow rate), and the fluid properties (elasto-gravity number) and present a regime map of the dynamics of the jet in terms of these dimensionless variables.
Analysis of viscoelasticity of POF gratings in the stress sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yanhua; Wang, Xin; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Tongxin; Wu, Wenxuan; Peng, Gang-Ding; Zhang, Qijin
2013-11-01
The time-dependent behavior of polymer optical fiber (POF) grating under constant tensile stresses has been studied. We show that the evident time-dependence is due to the viscoelastic nature of POF grating materials that can be described with the Kelvin Model. Based on the Kelvin Model, the time-dependent relationship between the Bragg wavelength shift and stress has been analyzed in detail. The results show that the viscoelasticity has a great impact upon the stress response of POF gratings. With the increment of stress level, the visco response part increases faster than that of elastic response part. Especially, the response and recovery with and without stress can be fitted with dual exponential decay and the time constant of fast response and relaxation is ˜102 s and that of the slow is ˜103 s, which corresponds to the fast and slow movements of polymer segments, respectively. Experiments and regressions also show that the stress sensitivity is observed to be 369 pm/MPa for the immediate response and 598 pm/MPa for response balance, showing high stress sensitivity. All the spring stiffness and dashpot viscosity of Kelvin elements are larger than 1010 Pa and 1013 Pa s. The dashpot viscosity of slow Kelvin element (1014 Pa s) is around one order larger than that of fast Kelvin element (1013 Pa s) with stress. Further analysis demonstrate the response and recovery of POF gratings with and without the stress displays an evident non-linear viscoelasticity, which will bring more complexity for POF gratings in the mechanical sensing applications.
Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.
2008-01-01
The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Faraji Oskouie, M.; Gholami, R.
2016-01-01
In recent decades, mathematical modeling and engineering applications of fractional-order calculus have been extensively utilized to provide efficient simulation tools in the field of solid mechanics. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model is established using the concept of fractional derivative and nonlocal elasticity theory to investigate the size-dependent geometrically nonlinear free vibration of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams. The non-classical fractional integro-differential Euler-Bernoulli beam model contains the nonlocal parameter, viscoelasticity coefficient and order of the fractional derivative to interpret the size effect, viscoelastic material and fractional behavior in the nanoscale fractional viscoelastic structures, respectively. In the solution procedure, the Galerkin method is employed to reduce the fractional integro-partial differential governing equation to a fractional ordinary differential equation in the time domain. Afterwards, the predictor-corrector method is used to solve the nonlinear fractional time-dependent equation. Finally, the influences of nonlocal parameter, order of fractional derivative and viscoelasticity coefficient on the nonlinear time response of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams are discussed in detail. Moreover, comparisons are made between the time responses of linear and nonlinear models.
Machado, João Carlos; Valente, Jefferson Silva
2003-11-01
The oscillations of gas bubbles, without shell, immersed in viscoelastic liquids and driven by an acoustic wave have been the subject of several investigations. They demonstrate that the viscosity coefficient and the spring constant of the liquid have significant influence on the scattering cross section of the gas bubble. For shell-encapsulated gas bubbles, the investigations have been concentrated to bubbles immersed in a pure viscous liquid. This present work computes the ultrasonic scattering cross section, first and second harmonics, of shell-encapsulated gas bubbles immersed in a viscoelastic liquid. The theoretical model of the bubble oscillation is based on the generalized Rayleigh-Plesset equation of motion of a spherical cavity immersed in a viscoelastic liquid represented by a three-parameter linear Oldroyd model. The scattering cross section is computed for Albunex type of bubble (shell thickness=15 nm, shell shear viscosity=1.77 Pas, shell modulus of rigidity=88.8 MPa) irradiated by a 3.5 MHz ultrasonic pressure wave with an amplitude of 30 kPa. The results demonstrate that encapsulated bubbles respond independently of the surrounding liquid being pure viscous or viscoelastic as long as the surrounding liquid shear viscosity is as low as 10(-3) Pas. Nevertheless, for higher shear viscosities, the bubble responds differently if the surrounding liquid is pure viscous or viscoelastic. In general, the scattering cross sections of first and second harmonics are larger for the viscoelastic liquid.
Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography.
Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A; Sampson, David D; Kennedy, Brendan F
2015-03-21
We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izbassarov, Daulet; Muradoglu, Metin
2016-01-01
Two-phase viscoelastic systems are computationally studied in a pressure-driven flow with a sudden contraction and expansion using a finite-difference/front-tracking method. The effects of viscoelasticity in drop and bulk fluids are investigated including high Weissenberg and Reynolds number cases up to Wi = 100 and Re = 100. The Finitely Extensible Non-linear Elastic-Chilcott and Rallison (FENE-CR) model is used to account for the fluid viscoelasticity. Extensive computations are performed to examine drop dynamics for a wide range of parameters. It is found that viscoelasticity interacts with drop interface in a non-monotonic and complicated way, and the two-phase viscoelastic systems exhibit very rich dynamics especially in the expansion region. At high Re, the drop undergoes large deformation in the contraction region followed by strong shape oscillations in the downstream of the expansion. For a highly viscous drop, a re-entrant cavity develops in the contraction region at the trailing edge which, in certain cases, grows and eventually causes encapsulation of ambient fluid. The re-entrant cavity formation is initiated at the entrance of the contraction and is highly influenced by the viscoelasticity. Compared to the corresponding straight channel case, the effects of viscoelasticity are reversed in the constricted channel: Viscoelasticity in drop/continuous phase hinders/enhances formation of the re-entrant cavity and entrainment of ambient fluid into main drop. Encapsulation of ambient fluid into main droplet may be another route to produce a compound droplet in microfluidic applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Fang
With the extensive application of fiber-reinforced composite laminates in industry, research on the fracture mechanisms of this type of materials have drawn more and more attentions. A variety of fracture theories and models have been developed. Among them, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and cohesive-zone model (CZM) are two widely-accepted fracture models, which have already shown applicability in the fracture analysis of fiber-reinforced composite laminates. However, there remain challenges which prevent further applications of the two fracture models, such as the experimental measurement of fracture resistance. This dissertation primarily focused on the study of the applicability of LEFM and CZM for the fracture analysis of translaminar fracture in fibre-reinforced composite laminates. The research for each fracture model consisted of two sections: the analytical characterization of crack-tip fields and the experimental measurement of fracture resistance parameters. In the study of LEFM, an experimental investigation based on full-field crack-tip displacement measurements was carried out as a way to characterize the subcritical and steady-state crack advances in translaminar fracture of fiber-reinforced composite laminates. Here, the fiber-reinforced composite laminates were approximated as anisotropic solids. The experimental investigation relied on the LEFM theory with a modification with respect to the material anisotropy. Firstly, the full-field crack-tip displacement fields were measured by Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Then two methods, separately based on the stress intensity approach and the energy approach, were developed to measure the crack-tip field parameters from crack-tip displacement fields. The studied crack-tip field parameters included the stress intensity factor, energy release rate and effective crack length. Moreover, the crack-growth resistance curves (R-curves) were constructed with the measured crack-tip field parameters
Viscoelastic love-type surface waves
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2008-01-01
The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.
Collective motion of microswimmers in viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo
2015-11-01
The dynamics of suspension of self-propelled microorganisms show fascinating hydrodynamic phenomena, such as, large scale swarming motion, locally correlated motion, enhanced particle diffusion, and enhanced fluid mixing. Even though many studies have been conducted in a Newtonian fluid, the collective motion of microorganisms in non-Newtonian fluids is less understood. The non-Newtonian fluid rheological properties, such as viscoelasticity and shear-dependent viscosity in saliva, mucus and biofilm, significantly affect the swimming properties and hydrodynamic interaction of microorganisms. In this work, we use direct numerical simulation to investigate the collective motion of rod-like swimmers in viscoelastic fluids. Two swimming types, pusher and puller, are investigated. The background viscoelastic fluid is modeled using an Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1445955 and Indiana CTSI TR001108.
Aftershock production rate of driven viscoelastic interfaces.
Jagla, E A
2014-10-01
We study analytically and by numerical simulations the statistics of the aftershocks generated after large avalanches in models of interface depinning that include viscoelastic relaxation effects. We find in all the analyzed cases that the decay law of aftershocks with time can be understood by considering the typical roughness of the interface and its evolution due to relaxation. In models where there is a single viscoelastic relaxation time there is an exponential decay of the number of aftershocks with time. In models in which viscoelastic relaxation is wave-vector dependent we typically find a power-law dependence of the decay rate that is compatible with the Omori law. The factors that determine the value of the decay exponent are analyzed.
Nonlinear vibrations of viscoelastic rectangular plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, Marco
2016-02-01
Nonlinear vibrations of viscoelastic thin rectangular plates subjected to normal harmonic excitation in the spectral neighborhood of the lowest resonances are investigated. The von Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are used and geometric imperfections are taken into account. The material is modeled as a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic solid by retaining all the nonlinear terms. The discretized nonlinear equations of motion are studied by using the arclength continuation and collocation method. Numerical results are obtained for the fundamental mode of a simply supported square plate with immovable edges by using models with 16 and 22 degrees of freedom and investigating solution convergence. Comparison to viscous damping and the effect of neglecting nonlinear viscoelastic damping terms are shown. The change of the frequency-response with the retardation time parameter is also investigated as well as the effect of geometric imperfections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermiş, Merve; Eratlı, Nihal; Omurtag, Mehmet H.
2015-12-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the rotary inertia on the dynamic behavior of linear viscoelastic non-cylindrical helicoidal bars due to variation of the active turns. Dynamic analysis is performed in the Laplace space by using the mixed finite element method. The standard model is used for defining the viscoelastic material behavior and by using the correspondence principle, the material constants are replaced with their complex counterparts in the Laplace space. The solution under the rectangular impulsive type loading is carried out in the Laplace space and then the results are transformed back to time domain numerically by the Modified Durbin's transformation algorithm. Some original numerical results for the dynamic behavior of linear viscoelastic non-cylindrical helices with rectangular cross-section are presented.
Viscoelasticity imaging using ultrasound: parameters and error analysis
Sridhar, M; Liu, J
2009-01-01
Techniques are being developed to image viscoelastic features of soft tissues from time-varying strain. A compress-hold-release stress stimulus commonly used in creep-recovery measurements is applied to samples to form images of elastic strain and strain retardance times. While the intended application is diagnostic breast imaging, results in gelatin hydrogels are presented to demonstrate the techniques. The spatiotemporal behaviour of gelatin is described by linear viscoelastic theory formulated for polymeric solids. Measured creep responses of polymers are frequently modelled as sums of exponentials whose time constants describe the delay or retardation of the full strain response. We found the spectrum of retardation times τ to be continuous and bimodal, where the amplitude at each τ represents the relative number of molecular bonds with a given strength and conformation. Such spectra indicate that the molecular weight of the polymer fibres between bonding points is large. Imaging parameters are found by summarizing these complex spectral distributions at each location in the medium with a second-order Voigt rheological model. This simplification reduces the dimensionality of the data for selecting imaging parameters while preserving essential information on how the creeping deformation describes fluid flow and collagen matrix restructuring in the medium. The focus of this paper is on imaging parameter estimation from ultrasonic echo data, and how jitter from hand-held force applicators used for clinical applications propagate through the imaging chain to generate image noise. PMID:17440244
Viscoelastic instability and detachment folds in soft elastomer interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viswanathan, Koushik; Mahato, Anirban; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan
2014-03-01
Physical contacts between a soft elastomer surface and a hard glassy polymer are largely governed by adhesion at the interface. Under application of sufficiently large tangential stress, relative motion occurs at the interface and compressive and tensile stresses develop at the leading and trailing edges of the contact respectively. This kinematic condition leads to a viscoelastic instability at the leading edge causing the elastomer surface to buckle and readhere -- a process governed both by the viscoelastic relaxation time of the elastomer and the sliding velocity v. Above a critical velocity vc, detachment folds form ahead of the indenter and propagate through the contact region at velocities much greater than v. These are commonly referred to as Schallamach waves, after their discoverer, and are considered to be precursors to failure in soft materials. While their onset can be justified using linear elasticity, not much is known about their subsequent propagation. We present high-speed images of a glass-PDMS contact, and use front-tracking to estimate surface strains and the variation of wave velocity and generation frequency with v. A model for the dynamics of the wavefronts is also discussed, showing the onset and propagation of the instability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan; Leonov, Arkady I.
2002-01-01
This paper, the last in the series, continues developing the nonlinear constitutive relations for non-isothermal, compressible, solid viscoelasticity. We initially discuss a single integral approach, more suitable for the glassy state of rubber-like materials, with basic functionals involved in the thermodynamic description for this type of viscoelasticity. Then we switch our attention to analyzing stability constraints, imposed on the general formulation of the nonlinear theory of solid viscoelasticity. Finally, we discuss specific (known from the literature or new) expressions for material functions that are involved in the constitutive formulations of both the rubber-like and glassy-like, complementary parts of the theory.
Molecular and structural analysis of viscoelastic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yapp, Rebecca D.; Kalyanam, Sureshkumar; Insana, Michael F.
2007-03-01
Elasticity imaging is emerging as an important tool for breast cancer detection and monitoring of treatment. Viscoelastic image contrast in breast lesions is generated by disease specific processes that modify the molecular structure of connective tissues. We showed previously that gelatin hydrogels exhibit mechanical behavior similar to native collagen found in breast tissue and therefore are suitable as phantoms for elasticity imaging. This paper summarizes our study of the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels designed to discover molecular-scale sources of elasticity image contrast.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, R.; Davies, P.; Bajaj, A. K.
2003-05-01
A hereditary model and a fractional derivative model for the dynamic properties of flexible polyurethane foams used in automotive seat cushions are presented. Non-linear elastic and linear viscoelastic properties are incorporated into these two models. A polynomial function of compression is used to represent the non-linear elastic behavior. The viscoelastic property is modelled by a hereditary integral with a relaxation kernel consisting of two exponential terms in the hereditary model and by a fractional derivative term in the fractional derivative model. The foam is used as the only viscoelastic component in a foam-mass system undergoing uniaxial compression. One-term harmonic balance solutions are developed to approximate the steady state response of the foam-mass system to the harmonic base excitation. System identification procedures based on the direct non-linear optimization and a sub-optimal method are formulated to estimate the material parameters. The effects of the choice of the cost function, frequency resolution of data and imperfections in experiments are discussed. The system identification procedures are also applied to experimental data from a foam-mass system. The performances of the two models for data at different compression and input excitation levels are compared, and modifications to the structure of the fractional derivative model are briefly explored. The role of the viscous damping term in both types of model is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Favart, Monik; Passerault, Jean-Michel
2009-01-01
The present study looked at how children establish a relationship between the conceptual and linguistic dimensions of linearization in descriptive text composition. Written productions were compared with oral ones. French-speaking participants, drawn from the fifth, seventh, and ninth grades, produced both a written and an oral description of a…
Viscoelastic changes measured in partially suspended single bilayer membranes.
Hasan, Imad Younus; Mechler, Adam
2015-07-21
For studies involving biomimetic phospholipid membrane systems, such as membrane-protein interactions, it is crucial that the supported membrane is biomimetic in its physical properties as well as in its composition. Two often overlooked aspects of biomimicry are the need for unrestrained lipid mobility, reflected in the viscoelastic properties of the membrane, and sufficient space between the membrane and the support for the insertion of transmembrane proteins. Here we show for a series of DMPC-based membranes that a partially suspended single bilayer membrane can be formed on functionalized gold surface without tethering. These membranes exhibit sufficient freedom of motion to represent the viscoelastic properties of a free lamellar bilayer membrane as demonstrated by determining the phase transition temperatures of these single bilayer membranes from the viscosity change upon chain melting using the dissipation signal of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D). Atomic force microscopy imaging confirmed confluent, smooth membrane coverage of the QCM-D sensor that completely obscured the roughness of the sputtered gold surface. High-force AFM imaging was able to push membrane patches into the valleys of the gold morphology, confirming the inherently suspended nature of the MPA supported membrane. We show that the correlation between frequency and dissipation changes in the QCM-D sensograms is a sensitive indicator of the morphology of the membrane. PMID:26073288
Hohne, Danial N; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J
2009-07-01
We introduce a flexible microfluidic device to characterize the mechanical properties of soft viscoelastic solids such as bacterial biofilms. In the device, stress is imposed on a test specimen by the application of a fixed pressure to a thin, flexible poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) membrane that is in contact with the specimen. The stress is applied by pressurizing a microfabricated air channel located above the test area. The strain resulting from the applied stress is quantified by measuring the membrane deflection with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The deflection is governed by the viscoelastic properties of the PDMS membrane and of the test specimen. The relative contributions of the membrane and test material to the measured deformation are quantified by comparing a finite element analysis with an independent (control) measurement of the PDMS membrane mechanical properties. The flexible microfluidic rheometer was used to characterize both the steady-state elastic modulus and the transient strain recoil of two soft materials: gellan gums and bacterial biofilms. The measured linear elastic moduli and viscoelastic relaxation times of gellan gum solutions were in good agreement with the results of conventional mechanical rheometry. The linear Young's moduli of biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which could not be measured using conventional methods, were found to be 3.2 and 1.1 kPa, respectively, and the relaxation time of the S. epidermidis biofilm was 13.8 s. Additionally, strain hardening was observed in all the biofilms studied. Finally, design parameters and detection limits of the method show that the device is capable of characterizing soft viscoelastic solids with elastic moduli in the range of 102-105 Pa. The flexible microfluidic rheometer addresses the need for mechanical property characterization of soft viscoelastic solids common in fields such as biomaterials, food, and consumer products. It requires only 200 p
Hohne, Danial N.; Younger, John G.; Solomon, Michael J.
2009-01-01
We introduce a flexible microfluidic device to characterize the mechanical properties of soft viscoelastic solids such as bacterial biofilms. In the device, stress is imposed on a test specimen by application of a fixed pressure to a thin, flexible poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) membrane that is in contact with the specimen. The stress is applied by pressurizing a microfabricated air channel located above the test area. The strain resulting from the applied stress is quantified by measuring the membrane deflection with a confocal laser-scanning microscope. The deflection is governed by the viscoelastic properties of the PDMS membrane and of the test specimen. The relative contributions of the membrane and test material to the measured deformation are quantified by comparing a finite element analysis and an independent (control) measurement of the PDMS membrane mechanical properties. The flexible microfluidic rheometer was used to characterize both the steady-state elastic modulus and transient strain recoil of two soft materials: gellan gums and bacterial biofilms. The measured linear elastic moduli and viscoelastic relaxation times of gellan gum solutions were in good agreement with the results of conventional mechanical rheometry. The linear Young’s moduli of biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which could not be measured using conventional methods, were found to be 3.2 kPa and 1.1 kPa, respectively, and the relaxation time of the S. epidermidis biofilm was 13.8 s. Additionally, strain hardening was observed in all the biofilms studied. Finally, design parameters and detection limits of the method show that the device is capable of characterizing soft viscoelastic solids with elastic moduli in the range of 102 – 105 Pa. The flexible microfluidic rheometer addresses a need for mechanical property characterization of soft viscoelastic solids common in fields such as biomaterials, food and consumer products. It requires only ~ 200 p
Hohne, Danial N; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J
2009-07-01
We introduce a flexible microfluidic device to characterize the mechanical properties of soft viscoelastic solids such as bacterial biofilms. In the device, stress is imposed on a test specimen by the application of a fixed pressure to a thin, flexible poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) membrane that is in contact with the specimen. The stress is applied by pressurizing a microfabricated air channel located above the test area. The strain resulting from the applied stress is quantified by measuring the membrane deflection with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The deflection is governed by the viscoelastic properties of the PDMS membrane and of the test specimen. The relative contributions of the membrane and test material to the measured deformation are quantified by comparing a finite element analysis with an independent (control) measurement of the PDMS membrane mechanical properties. The flexible microfluidic rheometer was used to characterize both the steady-state elastic modulus and the transient strain recoil of two soft materials: gellan gums and bacterial biofilms. The measured linear elastic moduli and viscoelastic relaxation times of gellan gum solutions were in good agreement with the results of conventional mechanical rheometry. The linear Young's moduli of biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which could not be measured using conventional methods, were found to be 3.2 and 1.1 kPa, respectively, and the relaxation time of the S. epidermidis biofilm was 13.8 s. Additionally, strain hardening was observed in all the biofilms studied. Finally, design parameters and detection limits of the method show that the device is capable of characterizing soft viscoelastic solids with elastic moduli in the range of 102-105 Pa. The flexible microfluidic rheometer addresses the need for mechanical property characterization of soft viscoelastic solids common in fields such as biomaterials, food, and consumer products. It requires only 200 p
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yugang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Dong
2016-10-01
In this paper, the viscoelastic wave propagation in an embedded viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is studied based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory. The characteristic equation for the viscoelastic wave in SWCNTs is derived. The emphasis is placed on the influence of the tube diameter on the viscoelastic wave dispersion. A blocking diameter is observed, above which the wave could not propagate in SWCNTs. The results show that the blocking diameter is greatly dependent on the damping coefficient, the nonlocal and the strain gradient length scale parameters, as well as the Winkler modulus of the surrounding elastic medium. These findings may provide a prospective application of SWCNTs in nanodevices and nanocomposites.
Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc
2015-01-01
This paper presents a methodology for the inverse identification of linearly viscoelastic material parameters in the context of steady-state dynamics using interior data. The inverse problem of viscoelasticity imaging is solved by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional, subject to the conservation of linear momentum. The treatment is applicable to configurations where boundary conditions may be partially or completely underspecified. The MECE functional measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, and also incorporates the measurement data in a quadratic penalty term. Regularization of the problem is achieved through a penalty parameter in combination with the discrepancy principle due to Morozov. Numerical results demonstrate the robust performance of the method in situations where the available measurement data is incomplete and corrupted by noise of varying levels. PMID:26388656
Analytical and numerical study of the electro-osmotic annular flow of viscoelastic fluids.
Ferrás, L L; Afonso, A M; Alves, M A; Nóbrega, J M; Pinho, F T
2014-04-15
In this work we present semi-analytical solutions for the electro-osmotic annular flow of viscoelastic fluids modeled by the Linear and Exponential PTT models. The viscoelastic fluid flows in the axial direction between two concentric cylinders under the combined influences of electrokinetic and pressure forcings. The analysis invokes the Debye-Hückel approximation and includes the limit case of pure electro-osmotic flow. The solution is valid for both no slip and slip velocity at the walls and the chosen slip boundary condition is the linear Navier slip velocity model. The combined effects of fluid rheology, electro-osmotic and pressure gradient forcings on the fluid velocity distribution are also discussed.
Synergistic Effects of Physical Aging and Damage on Long-Term Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brinson, L. Cate
1999-01-01
The research consisted of two major parts, first modeling and simulation of the combined effects of aging and damage on polymer composites and secondly an experimental phase examining composite response at elevated temperatures, again activating both aging and damage. For the simulation, a damage model for polymeric composite laminates operating at elevated temperatures was developed. Viscoelastic behavior of the material is accounted for via the correspondence principle and a variational approach is adopted to compute the temporal stresses within the laminate. Also, the effect of physical aging on ply level stress and on overall laminate behavior is included. An important feature of the model is that damage evolution predictions for viscoelastic laminates can be made. This allows us to track the mechanical response of the laminate up to large load levels though within the confines of linear viscoelastic constitutive behavior. An experimental investigation of microcracking and physical aging effects in polymer matrix composites was also pursued. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of aging on damage accumulation, in ten-ns of microcracking, and the impact of damage on aging and viscoelastic behavior. The testing was performed both at room and elevated temperatures on [+/- 45/903](sub s) and [02/903](sub s) laminates, both containing a set of 90 deg plies centrally located to facilitate investigation of microcracking. Edge replication and X-ray-radiography were utilized to quantify damage. Sequenced creep tests were performed to characterize viscoelastic and aging parameters. Results indicate that while the aging times studied have limited ]Influence on damage evolution, elevated temperature and viscoelastic effects have a profound effect on the damage mode seen. Some results are counterintuitive, including the lower strain to failure for elevated temperature tests and the catastrophic failure mode observed for the [+/- 45/9O3](sub s), specimens. The
Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.
McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A
2011-06-01
Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use.
Viscoelastic properties of laryngeal posturing muscles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alipour, Fariborz; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo
2003-10-01
Viscoelastic properties of canine laryngeal muscles were measured in a series of in vitro experiments. Laryngeal posturing that controls vocal fold length and adduction/abduction is an essential component of the voice production. The dynamics of posturing depends on the viscoelastic and physiological properties of the laryngeal muscles. The time-dependent and nonlinear behaviors of these tissues are also crucial in the voice production and pitch control theories. The lack of information on some of these muscles such as posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA), and intraarytenoid muscle (IA) was the major incentive for this study. Samples of PCA and LCA muscles were made from canine larynges and mounted on a dual-servo system (Ergometer) as described in our previous works. Two sets of experiments were conducted on each muscle, a 1-Hz stretch and release experiment that provides stress-strain data and a stress relaxation test. Data from these muscles were fitted to viscoelastic models and Young's modulus and viscoelastic constants are obtained for each muscle. Preliminary data indicates that elastics properties of these muscles are similar to those of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. The relaxation response of these muscles also shows some similarity to other laryngeal muscles in terms of time constants.
Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.
McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A
2011-06-01
Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use. PMID:21446994
Ghosh, Abir; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sharma, Ashutosh
2016-09-01
Detachment of a surface from a viscoelastic layer, such as a film of glue, engenders bridges between the surfaces until separation. Such surface instabilities arising during contact and detachment of viscoelastic films with rigid contactors have been theoretically explored by linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulations. The contact instabilities of viscoelastic materials are found to manifest in either a 'critical' or a 'dominant' mode in which the former is preferred when the contactor is slowly brought near the film while the latter manifests when the film is 'hard-pressed' against it. The nonlinear analysis considers the movement of contactor during adhesion-debonding cycle, which uncovers that the kinetic parameters can overshadow the thermodynamically predicted area of contact, average force for pull-off, energy of contactor-film separation, and pathways of debonding. Three distinct pathways of debonding - peeling, catastrophic column collapse, and column coalescence, are found to manifest with the variation in the ratio of the elastic to viscous compliances of the viscoelastic film. The study also reveals that in the dominant mode of instability, a smaller length scale with a larger area contact between the contactor and film can develop patterns having aspect ratio ∼10 times larger than the same obtained from elastic film. PMID:27254253
Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a viscoelastic shear-thinning fluid.
Papenkort, S; Voigtmann, Th
2015-07-28
We present a hybrid lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of flow glass-forming fluids, characterized by slow structural relaxation, at the level of the Navier-Stokes equation. The fluid is described in terms of a nonlinear integral constitutive equation, relating the stress tensor locally to the history of flow. As an application, we present results for an integral nonlinear Maxwell model that combines the effects of (linear) viscoelasticity and (nonlinear) shear thinning. We discuss the transient dynamics of velocities, shear stresses, and normal stress differences in planar pressure-driven channel flow, after switching on (startup) and off (cessation) of the driving pressure. This transient dynamics depends nontrivially on the channel width due to an interplay between hydrodynamic momentum diffusion and slow structural relaxation. PMID:26233150
Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Hendrik
We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found, also for alkanes with a force field optimized from neutron scattering. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are not screened: they are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time. The VHI are generally active in melts of any topology. They are most important at early times well before the terminal relaxation time and thus affect the nanosecond time range typically observable in dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We illustrate the effects with recent molecular dynamics simulations of linear, ring and star polymers. Work performed with A.N. Semenov and J. Farago.
On exponential stability of gravity driven viscoelastic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Fei; Wu, Guochun; Zhong, Xin
2016-05-01
We investigate stability of an equilibrium state to a nonhomogeneous incompressible viscoelastic fluid driven by gravity in a bounded domain Ω ⊂R3 of class C3. First, we establish a critical number κC, which depends on the equilibrium density and the gravitational constant, and is a threshold of the elasticity coefficient κ for instability and stability of the linearized perturbation problem around the equilibrium state. Then we prove that the equilibrium state is exponential stability provided that κ >κC and the initial disturbance quantities around the equilibrium state satisfy some relations. In particular, if the equilibrium density ρ bar is a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) type and ρbar‧ is a constant, our result strictly shows that the sufficiently large elasticity coefficient can prevent the RT instability from occurrence.
Viscoelastic Vibration Dampers for Turbomachine Blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan
2003-01-01
Simple viscoelastic dampers have been invented for use on the root attachments of turbomachine blades. These dampers suppress bending- and torsion-mode blade vibrations, which are excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces during operation. In suppressing vibrations, these dampers reduce fatigue (thereby prolonging blade lifetimes) while reducing noise. These dampers can be installed in new turbomachines or in previously constructed turbomachines, without need for structural modifications. Moreover, because these dampers are not exposed to flows, they do not affect the aerodynamic performances of turbomachines. Figure 1 depicts a basic turbomachine rotor, which includes multiple blades affixed to a hub by means of dovetail root attachments. Prior to mounting of the blades, thin layers of a viscoelastic material are applied to selected areas of the blade roots. Once the blades have been installed in the hub and the rotor is set into rotation, centrifugal force compresses these layers between the mating load-bearing surfaces of the hub and the blade root. The layers of viscoelastic material provide load paths through which the vibration energy of the blade can be dissipated. The viscoelasticity of the material converts mechanical vibration energy into shear strain energy and then from shear strain energy to heat. Of the viscoelastic materials that have been considered thus far for this application, the one of choice is a commercial polyurethane that is available in tape form, coated on one side with an adhesive that facilitates bonding to blade roots. The thickness of the tape can be chosen to suit the specific application. The typical thickness of 0.012 in. (.0.3 mm) is small enough that the tape can fit in the clearance between the mating blade-root and hub surfaces in a typical turbomachine. In an experiment, a blade was mounted in a test fixture designed to simulate the blade-end conditions that prevail in a turbocompressor. Vibrations were excited in the blade by
A nonlinear viscoelastic - plastic model for electrorheological fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamath, Gopalakrishna M.; Wereley, Norman M.
1997-06-01
A nonlinear dynamic model is presented that characterizes electrorheological material behavior in terms of its shear stress versus shear strain behavior. The ER fluid model is essentially a nonlinear combination of linear shear flow mechanisms. These linear shear flow mechanisms, a three-parameter viscoelastic fluid element and a viscous fluid element, are used to describe shear flow behavior in the pre-yield and the post-yield regimes, respectively. In order to capture the material behavior in the transition through the yield point, a nonlinear combination of these linear shear flow mechanisms is used. The model, which relates the shear strain input to the shear stress output, is represented by a simple network that consists of two parallel linear mechanisms whose outputs are combined using nonlinear weighting functions. The weighting functions are dependent on the strain rate in the material. A system identification technique is developed to estimate the model parameters from experimental data, which consists of shear stress versus shear strain hysteresis loops at different levels of electric field. The results of this system identification approach indicate that the model parameters are smooth monotonic functions of the electric field. The experimental hysteresis loops are reconstructed using the estimated model parameters and the results show that the model accurately predicts material response. It is shown that the Coulomb friction-like behavior at high field strengths, which is characteristic of ER fluids, can be captured by this nonlinear mechanism-based model.
Observational evidences of viscoelastic behaviour at low strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daminelli, Rosastella; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto
2014-05-01
Theoretical formulations of inhomogeneous waves in low-loss media have been suggested by a number of researchers due to the important role played by anelasticity in changing the characteristics of seismic waves. The Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Model (HILV) introduced by Borcherdt (2009) is particularly promising because of its mathematical simplicity and the handiness to test the model in real seismograms. We showed that the seismograms of the explosion of a 2nd World War bomb found in Milan recorded by a seismic station at 2 km epicentral distance, exhibit a clear elliptical prograde P wave particle motion (Marcellini and Tento, 2011) as predicted by HILV. We observed a similar P wave prograde elliptical motion analysing a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred on July 17, 2011 in the Po Valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te, Mantova (Daminelli et al., 2013). In both cases the stations were situated on the deep quaternary sediments of the Po Valley. Based on measured Vp and Vs and the amplitude of the recorded motion, the strain at the station sites was estimated to be 10-6, 10-7. In this paper we extend the analysis of the previously mentioned seismograms to check the feasibility of HILV application to other types of waves that are particularly relevant in fields such as the engineering seismology. We focus on the S waves (as it is well known HILV predicts the split of S in S type I and S type II) of the seismograms of the earthquake recorded in Mantova and on the Rayleigh waves of the explosion recorded in Milan. The results show that observational evidences of HILV are not as clear as for P waves, probably because of noise or superposition of converted waves. However, once established the validity of HILV by P waves (that is very simple), the whole seismograms can be interpreted following HILV, confirming the relevancy of anelasticity also at low strain. Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media
Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.
2004-12-01
The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Vikas
The purpose of this research is to develop an analytical tool which, when coupled with accelerated material characterization, is capable of predicting long-term durability of polymers and their composites. Conducting creep test on each composite laminate with different fibers, fiber volume fractions, and weave architectures is impractical. Moreover, in case of thin laminates, accurately characterizing the out-of-plane matrix dominated viscoelastic response is not easily achievable. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to present a multi-scale modeling methodology to simulate the long-term interlaminar properties in polymer matrix woven composites and then predict the critical regions where failure is most likely to occur. A micromechanics approach towards modeling the out-of-plane viscoelastic behavior of a five-harness satin woven-fiber cross-ply composite laminate is presented, taking into consideration the weave architecture and time-dependent effects. Short-term creep tests were performed on neat resin at different test temperatures and stress levels to characterize physical aging of the resin matrix. In addition, creep and recovery experiments were conducted on un-aged resin specimens in order to characterize the pronounced stress-dependent nonlinear viscoelastic response of the PR500 resin. Two-dimensional micromechanics analysis was carried out using a test-bed finite element code, NOVA-3D, including interactions between non-linear material constitutive behavior, geometric nonlinearity, aging and environmental effects.
Homogenization of a thermo-chemo-viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amosov, Andrey; Kostin, Ilya; Panasenko, Grigory; Smyshlyaev, Valery P.
2013-08-01
The paper is devoted to a model for the procedure of formation of a composite material constituted of solid fibers and of a solidifying matrix. The solidification process for the matrix depends on the temperature and on the degree of cure, which are used for the modeling of the mechanical properties of the matrix. Namely, the mechanical properties are described by Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic equation with rapidly oscillating periodic coefficients depending on the temperature and the degree of cure. The latter are in turn solutions of a thermo-chemical problem with rapidly varying coefficients. We prove an error estimate for approximation of the viscoelastic problem by the same equation but with the coefficients depending on solution to the homogenized thermo-chemical problem. This estimate, in combination with our recent estimates for the viscoelastic (with time-dependent coefficients) and thermo-chemical homogenization problems, generates the overall error bound for the asymptotic solution to the full coupled thermo-chemo-viscoelastic model.
Thermoviscoelastic finite element modeling of laser-generated ultrasound in viscoelastic plates
Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi
2010-12-15
Laser-generated ultrasound in a thin composite plate with thermoviscoelastic property has been studied quantitatively. According to thermoviscoelastic theory, considering the viscoelastic and thermophysical properties of materials, a numerical model for the laser-generated Lamb waves is established in the frequency domain by using a finite element method. It is confirmed that the temperature and displacement fields calculated in the frequency domain coincide well with those obtained in the time domain. In the numerical simulations of thermoviscoelastically generated Lamb waves, the effects of viscoelastic and elastic stiffness moduli, and the thickness of the materials have been taken into account in details. The characteristics of the Lamb waves in the numerical results agree well with the features of the disperse curves. The results show that the finite element method in this paper provides a useful technique to characterize mechanical properties of composite materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Ping
Highly compliant, biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillar (micro-cantilever) arrays have been used as a force transducer to measure the cellular contraction forces. The basic sensing principle of these devices relies on converting lateral deflections to corresponding reaction forces using appropriate beam bending models. While these micropillar-based force transducers have many benefits over previous methods, the time/frequency dependent modulus of PDMS materials and the low aspect ratio of micropillars greatly compromise accuracy in calculation of cellular forces and understanding of cellular response mechanism. In addition, recently there is an increasing demand to explore the multifunctionality of PDMS materials, such as electrical properties, besides the role of pure mechanical structural material. Adding conducting fillers into the PDMS matrix will enable the unique tenability in both mechanical and electrical properties for the composites. However, the phase separation and high volume fraction are two major issues that limit the practical applications. This dissertation addresses three critical technical issues for next-generation, high accuracy and tunable polymeric bio-transducers: 1) viscoelastic properties of PDMS, 2) force conversion models for micro-cantilever beams, and 3) mechanical and electrical properties characterization of PDMS and conducting polymer nanowire composites. This research provides a comprehensive characterization of the viscoelastic properties of PDMS, in the time domain (relaxation modulus) and frequency domain (complex modulus), using advanced nanoindentation techniques. Both theoretical models and experimental methodologies are presented to improve the extraction accuracy of viscoelastic properties. The viscoelastic moduli of PDMS are incorporated into analytical and numerical models to convert the micropillar deflections into corresponding forces. The models are ultimately utilized to calculate the loading rate and
Ionic and viscoelastic mechanisms of a bucky-gel actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruusamäe, Karl; Sugino, Takushi; Asaka, Kinji
2015-07-01
Ionic electromechanically active polymers (IEAPs) are considered attractive candidates for soft, miniature, and lightweight actuators. The bucky-gel actuator is a carbonaceous subtype of IEAP that due to its structure (i.e. two highly porous electrodes sandwiching a thin ion-permeable electrolyte layer) and composition (i.e. being composed of soft porous polymer, carbon nanotubes, and ionic liquid) is very similar to an electric double-layer capacitor. In response to the voltage applied between the electrodes of a bucky-gel actuator, the laminar structure bends. The time domain behavior exhibits, however, a phenomenon called the back-relaxation, i.e., after some time the direction of bending is reversed even though voltage remains constant. In spite of the working mechanism of IEAP actuators being generally attributed to the transport of ions within the soft multilayer system, the specific details remain unclear. A so-called two-carrier model proposes that the bending and subsequent back-relaxation are caused by the relocation of two ionic species having different mobilities as they enter and exit the electrode layers. By adopting the two-carrier model for bucky-gel actuators, we see very good agreement between the mathematical representation and the experimental data of the electromechanical behavior. Furthermore, since the bucky-gel actuator is viscoelastic, we propose to use the time domain response of a blocking force as the key parameter related to the inner ionic mechanism. We also introduce a method to estimate the viscoelastic creep compliance function from the time domain responses for curvature and blocking force. This analysis includes four types of bucky-gel actuators of varying composition and structure.
On the effective behavior of nonlinear inelastic composites: II. A second-order procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahellec, Noël; Suquet, Pierre
2007-09-01
A new method for determining the overall behavior of composite materials comprising nonlinear viscoelastic and elasto-viscoplastic constituents is presented. Part I of this work showed that upon use of an implicit time-discretization scheme, the evolution equations describing the constitutive behavior of the phases can be reduced to the minimization of an incremental energy function. This minimization problem is rigorously equivalent to a nonlinear thermoelastic problem with a transformation strain which is a nonuniform field (not even uniform within the phases). In part I of this paper the nonlinearity was handled using a variational (or secant) technique. In this second part of the study, a proper modification of the second-order procedure of Ponte Castañeda is proposed and leads to replacing, at each time-step, the actual nonlinear viscoelastic composite by a linear viscoelastic one. The linearized problem is even further simplified by using an "effective internal variable" in each individual phase. The resulting predictions are in good agreement with exact results and improve on the predictions of the secant model proposed in part I of this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
The bibliography contains citations concerning analytical techniques using constitutive equations, applied to materials under stress. The properties explored with these techniques include viscoelasticity, thermoelasticity, and plasticity. While many of the references are general as to material type, most refer to specific metals or composites, or to specific shapes, such as flat plate or spherical vessels. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
Scattering of homogeneous and inhomogeneous seismic waves in low-loss viscoelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Shahpoor; Innanen, Kristopher A.
2015-09-01
Motivated by the need to derive and characterize increasingly sophisticated seismic data analysis and inversion methods incorporating wave dissipation, we consider the problem of scattering of homogeneous and inhomogeneous waves from perturbations in five viscoelastic parameters (density, P- and S-wave velocities, and P- and S-wave quality factors), as formulated in the context of the Born approximation. Within this approximation the total wave field is the superposition of an incident plane wave and a scattered wave, the latter being a spherical wave weighted by a function of solid angle called the scattering potential. In elastic media the scattering potential is real, but if dissipation is included through a viscoelastic model, the potential becomes complex and thus impacts the amplitude and phase of the outgoing wave. The isotropic-elastic scattering framework of Stolt and Weglein, extended to admit viscoelastic media, exposes these amplitude and phase phenomena to study, and in particular allows certain well-known layered-medium viscoelastic results due to Borcherdt to be re-considered in an arbitrary heterogeneous Earth. The main theoretical challenge in doing this involves the choice of coordinate system over which to evaluate and analyse the waves, which in the viscoelastic case must be based on complex vector analysis. We present a candidate system within which several of Borcherdt's key results carry over; for instance, we show that elliptically polarized P and SI waves cannot be scattered into linearly polarized SII waves. Furthermore, the elastic formulation is straightforwardly recovered in the limit as P- and S-wave quality factors tend to infinity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tagantsev, D. K.; Ivanenko, D. V.
2016-04-01
It is shown that, in general case, the diffusion equation (or the second Fick's law) does not provide an adequate description of ion-exchange transport phenomena in viscoelastic media, including glassy or any other non-crystalline media. In this connection the general phenomenological model of ion-exchange diffusion in viscoelastic media has been developed. A theoretical analysis of the model shows that, in the case of a linear dependence of medium density on the concentration of diffusing ions, the necessary and sufficient condition of the absolute validity of the diffusion equation in viscoelastic media is Φ ≫ 1, where Φ = τD/τR is the dimensionless value (or criterion of similarity), with τD = L2/D being the characteristic time of diffusion and τR = η/G being the characteristic time of stress relaxation, where L, D, η, and G are the characteristic length of diffusion, the diffusivity, the viscosity, and the shear modulus, respectively. The value of 1/Φ characterizes the accuracy which is provided if the second Fick's law is used in the simulation of ion-exchange diffusion in viscoelastic media. We have demonstrated the applicability of this criterion experimentally. Our experimental studies on ion-exchange diffusion in an oxide glass (typical viscoelastic media) have shown that under the condition the Φ > 105 the experimental concentration profiles are close to those predicted by the second Fick's law to within an accuracy of 1%.
Lu, Xiaowei; Tsukune, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Nozomu; Isobe, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Fujie, Masakatsu G
2012-01-01
Recently radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become increasingly important in treating liver cancers. RF ablation is ordinarily conducted using elastographic imaging to monitor the ablation procedure and the temperature of the electrode needle is displayed on the RF generator. However, the coagulation boundary of liver tissue in RF ablation is unclear and unconfident. This can lead to both excessive and insufficient RF ablation thereby diminishing the advantages of the procedure. In the present study, we developed a method for determining the coagulation boundary of liver tissue in RF ablation. To investigate this boundary we used the mechanical characteristics of biochemical components as an indicator of coagulation to produce a relational model for viscoelasticity and temperature. This paper presents the data acquisition procedures for the viscoelasticity characteristics and the analytical method used for the coagulation model. We employed a rheometer to measure the viscoelastic characteristics of liver tissue. To determine the model functional relationship between viscoelasticity and temperature, we used a least-square method and the minimum root mean square error was calculated to optimize the model functional relations. The functional relation between temperature and viscoelasticity was linear and non-linear in different temperature regions. The boundary between linear and non-linear functional relation was 58.0°C. PMID:23365863
Composite passive damping struts for large precision structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolgin, Benjamin P. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
In the field of viscoelastic dampers, a new strut design comprises a viscoelastic material sandwiched between multiple layers, some of which layers bear and dampen load force. In one embodiment, the layers are composite plies of opposing orientation. In another embodiment, the strut utilizes a viscoelastic layer sandwiched between V-shaped composite plies. In a third embodiment, a viscoelastic layer is sandwiched between sine-shaped plies. Strut strength is equal to or greater than conventional aluminum struts due to the unique high interlaminar shear ply design.
Viscoelastic Mapping of Living Cell Interiors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinrich, Doris; Sackmann, Erich; Koehler, Jana; Gerisch, Guenther
2004-03-01
We performed spatially resolved mapping of the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm of living cell interiors. A magnetic tweezer was applied as a local probe for the investigation of active and passive transport inside the slime mold cells Dictyostelium discoideum. Fluorescence labeled components, i.e. the microtubulins, the endoplasmatic reticulum or the core, allow for the determination of the interaction of the magnetic probes with the cytoplasm. By comparing the trajectories of the magnetic beads in the presence of an external magnetic force and in the absence of an external force, we can measure the viscosity at any given position within the cell. These experiments show that the cytoplasm consists of soft pathways (yield stress less or equal 10 Pa) and hard pathways (yield stress less or equal 500 Pa). Selective actin, myosin II or microtubulin network removal in the living cells allows for the determination of the influence of these cell parts on the viscoelastic properties.
Capillary filling dynamics of viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman
2014-05-01
We consider the filling of a capillary by a viscoelastic fluid described by the Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive behavior. By considering both vertical capillary filling and horizontal capillary filling, we demarcate the role played by gravity and fluid rheology towards long-time oscillations in the capillary penetration depth. We also consider the isothermal filling of the capillary for a closed channel and thus bring out the fundamental differences in the nature of capillary filling for PTT and Newtonian fluids for closed channels in comparison to open channels. Through a scaling analysis, we highlight a distinct viscoelastic regime in the horizontal capillary filling which is in contrast to the Washburn scaling seen in the case of Newtonian fluids. Such an analysis with a very general constitutive behavior is therefore expected to shed light on many areas of microfluidics which focus on biofluids that are often well described by the PTT constitutive behavior.
Viscoelasticity Breaks the Symmetry of Impacting Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lhuissier, H.; Néel, B.; Limat, L.
2014-11-01
A jet of a Newtonian liquid impacting on a wall at right angle spreads as a thin liquid sheet which preserves the radial symmetry of the jet. We report that for a viscoelastic jet (solution of polyethylene glycol in water) this symmetry can break; close to the wall, the jet cross section becomes faceted and radial steady liquid films (wings) form, which connect the cross-section vertices to the sheet. The number of wings increases with increasing the viscoelastic relaxation time of the solution, but also with increasing jet velocity and decreasing distance from the jet nozzle to the wall. We propose a mechanism for this surprising destabilization of the jet shape, which develops perpendicularly to the direction expected for a buckling mechanism, and explain these dependencies. We also discuss the large-scale consequences of the jet destabilization on the sheet spreading and fragmentation, which show through the faceting of hydraulic jumps and of suspended (Savart) sheets.
Ciliary fluid transport enhanced by viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva
2015-11-01
Motile cilia encounter complex, non-Newtonian fluids as they beat to gain self-propulsion of cells, transport fluids, and mix particles. Recently there have been many studies on swimming in complex fluids, both experimentally and theoretically. However the role of the non-Newtonian fluid in the ciliary transport system remains largely unknown. Here we use a one-way-coupled immersed boundary method to evaluate the impacts of viscoelastic fluid (Oldroyd-B fluid) on the fluid transport generated by an array of rabbit tracheal cilia beating in a channel at low Reynolds number. Our results show that the viscoelasticity could enhance the fluid transport generated by the rabbit tracheal cilia beating pattern and the flow is sensitive to the Deborah number in the range we investigate.
Hayot, Céline M; Forouzesh, Elham; Goel, Ashwani; Avramova, Zoya; Turner, Joseph A
2012-04-01
Plant development results from controlled cell divisions, structural modifications, and reorganizations of the cell wall. Thereby, regulation of cell wall behaviour takes place at multiple length scales involving compositional and architectural aspects in addition to various developmental and/or environmental factors. The physical properties of the primary wall are largely determined by the nature of the complex polymer network, which exhibits time-dependent behaviour representative of viscoelastic materials. Here, a dynamic nanoindentation technique is used to measure the time-dependent response and the viscoelastic behaviour of the cell wall in single living cells at a micron or sub-micron scale. With this approach, significant changes in storage (stiffness) and loss (loss of energy) moduli are captured among the tested cells. The results reveal hitherto unknown differences in the viscoelastic parameters of the walls of same-age similarly positioned cells of the Arabidopsis ecotypes (Col 0 and Ws 2). The technique is also shown to be sensitive enough to detect changes in cell wall properties in cells deficient in the activity of the chromatin modifier ATX1. Extensive computational modelling of the experimental measurements (i.e. modelling the cell as a viscoelastic pressure vessel) is used to analyse the influence of the wall thickness, as well as the turgor pressure, at the positions of our measurements. By combining the nanoDMA technique with finite element simulations quantifiable measurements of the viscoelastic properties of plant cell walls are achieved. Such techniques are expected to find broader applications in quantifying the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on the nanoscale mechanical properties of the cell wall.
Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of structural adhesives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rochefort, M. A.; Brinson, H. F.
1983-01-01
Measurements of the nonliner viscoelastic behavior of two adhesives, FM-73 and FM-300, are presented and discussed. Analytical methods to quantify the measurements are given and fitted into a framework of an accelerated testing and analysis procedure. The single integral model used is shown to function well and is analogous to a time-temperature stress-superposition procedure (TTSSP). Advantages and disadvantages of the creep power law method used in this study are given.
Complex order fractional derivatives in viscoelasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanacković, Teodor M.; Konjik, Sanja; Pilipović, Stevan; Zorica, Dušan
2016-06-01
We introduce complex order fractional derivatives in models that describe viscoelastic materials. This cannot be carried out unrestrictedly, and therefore we derive, for the first time, real valued compatibility constraints, as well as physical constraints that lead to acceptable models. As a result, we introduce a new form of complex order fractional derivative. Also, we consider a fractional differential equation with complex derivatives, and study its solvability. Results obtained for stress relaxation and creep are illustrated by several numerical examples.
Viscoelastic Characterization of Extraocular Z-Myotomy
Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Demer, Joseph L.
2015-01-01
Purpose. Z-myotomy is an extraocular muscle (EOM) weakening procedure in which two incisions are made from longitudinally-separated, opposite EOM margins for treatment of strabismus. We examined the in vitro biomechanics of Z-myotomy using tensile loading. Methods. Fresh bovine rectus EOMs were reduced to 20 × 10 × 2–mm dimensions, and clamped in a microtensile load cell under physiological conditions. Extraocular muscles were elongated until failure following scissors incisions made from opposite sides, spaced 8 mm apart and each encompassing 0%, 40%, 50%, 60%, or 80% EOM width. Initial strain to 30% elongation was imposed at 100 mm/s, after which elongation was maintained for greater than 100 seconds during force recording at maintained deformation. Stress relaxation tests with nonincised specimens having widths ranging from 1 to 9 mm were conducted for viscoelastic characterization of corresponding equivalence to 20% to 80% Z-myotomy. Data were modeled using the Wiechert viscoelastic formulation. Results. There was progressively reduced EOM failure force to an asymptotic minimum at 60% or greater Z-myotomy. Each Z-myotomy specimen could be matched for equivalent failure force to a non–Z-myotomy specimen with a different width. Both tensile and stress relaxation data could be modeled accurately using the Wiechert viscoelastic formulation. Conclusions. The parallel fiber structure results in low shear force transfer across EOM width, explaining the biomechanics of Z-myotomy. Z-myotomy progressively reduces force transmission to an asymptotic minimum for less than 60% surgical dose, with no further reduction for greater amounts of surgery. Equivalence to EOM specimens having regular cross-sections permits viscoelastic biomechanical characterization of Z-myotomy specimens with irregular cross-sections. PMID:25477318
Environmental and viscoelastic effects on stresses in adhesive joints
Palazotto, A.N.; Birman, V.
1995-04-01
This paper considers the state of the art in several important areas of research on adhesively bonded joints. The paper reviews the studies dealing with environmental and viscoelastic effects on stresses in adhesive joints. Environmental factors that affect stresses include temperature and moisture. These factors are analyzed and practical examples that illustrate their impact on adhesives are given for the solid-rocket motor, which is a structural component paramount to the U.S. space program. The paper deals with viscoelastic effects on adhesive joints, and a number of viscoelastic models used in the analysis of viscoelastic materials, including adhesives, are reviewed. The use of the solid-rocket motor as an example characterizes the circumstances where viscoelastic properties of adhesive layers are essential. Close attention is paid to the fractional derivative model of Bagley and Torvik, which may be a good candidate for an analytical study of adhesive joints. Finally, existing studies on viscoelastic adhesive joints are considered. 54 refs.
Li, Yan; Deng, Jianxin; Zhou, Jun; Li, Xueen
2016-11-01
Corresponding to pre-puncture and post-puncture insertion, elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation are investigated, respectively. Elastic mechanical properties in pre-puncture are investigated through pre-puncture needle insertion experiments using whole porcine brains. A linear polynomial and a second order polynomial are fitted to the average insertion force in pre-puncture. The Young's modulus in pre-puncture is calculated from the slope of the two fittings. Viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues in post-puncture insertion are investigated through indentation stress relaxation tests for six interested regions along a planned trajectory. A linear viscoelastic model with a Prony series approximation is fitted to the average load trace of each region using Boltzmann hereditary integral. Shear relaxation moduli of each region are calculated using the parameters of the Prony series approximation. The results show that, in pre-puncture insertion, needle force almost increases linearly with needle displacement. Both fitting lines can perfectly fit the average insertion force. The Young's moduli calculated from the slope of the two fittings are worthy of trust to model linearly or nonlinearly instantaneous elastic responses of brain tissues, respectively. In post-puncture insertion, both region and time significantly affect the viscoelastic behaviors. Six tested regions can be classified into three categories in stiffness. Shear relaxation moduli decay dramatically in short time scales but equilibrium is never truly achieved. The regional and temporal viscoelastic mechanical properties in post-puncture insertion are valuable for guiding probe insertion into each region on the implanting trajectory. PMID:27646405
Li, Yan; Deng, Jianxin; Zhou, Jun; Li, Xueen
2016-11-01
Corresponding to pre-puncture and post-puncture insertion, elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation are investigated, respectively. Elastic mechanical properties in pre-puncture are investigated through pre-puncture needle insertion experiments using whole porcine brains. A linear polynomial and a second order polynomial are fitted to the average insertion force in pre-puncture. The Young's modulus in pre-puncture is calculated from the slope of the two fittings. Viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues in post-puncture insertion are investigated through indentation stress relaxation tests for six interested regions along a planned trajectory. A linear viscoelastic model with a Prony series approximation is fitted to the average load trace of each region using Boltzmann hereditary integral. Shear relaxation moduli of each region are calculated using the parameters of the Prony series approximation. The results show that, in pre-puncture insertion, needle force almost increases linearly with needle displacement. Both fitting lines can perfectly fit the average insertion force. The Young's moduli calculated from the slope of the two fittings are worthy of trust to model linearly or nonlinearly instantaneous elastic responses of brain tissues, respectively. In post-puncture insertion, both region and time significantly affect the viscoelastic behaviors. Six tested regions can be classified into three categories in stiffness. Shear relaxation moduli decay dramatically in short time scales but equilibrium is never truly achieved. The regional and temporal viscoelastic mechanical properties in post-puncture insertion are valuable for guiding probe insertion into each region on the implanting trajectory.
Helical swimming in viscoelastic and porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin
2012-02-01
Many bacteria swim by rotating helical flagella. These cells often live in polymer suspensions, which are viscoelastic. Recently there have been several theoretical and experimental studies showing that viscoelasticity can either enhance or suppress propulsion, depending on the details of the microswimmer. To help clarify this situation, we study experimentally the motility of the flagellum using a scaled-up model system - a motorized helical coil that rotates along its axial direction. A free-swimming speed is obtained when the net force on the helix is zero. When the helix is immersed in a viscoelastic (Boger) fluid, we find an increase in the force-free swimming speed as compared with the Newtonian case. The enhancement is maximized at a Deborah number of approximately one, and the magnitude depends not only on the elasticity of the fluid but also on the geometry of the helix. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss how spatial confinements, such as a porous medium, affect the flagellated swimming. For clarity, the porous media are modeled as cylindrical cavities with solid walls. A modified boundary element method allows us to investigate a situation that the helical flagella are very close to the wall, with high spatial resolution and relatively low computational cost. To our surprise, at fixed power consumption, a highly coiled flagellum swims faster in narrower confinements, while an elongated flagellum swims faster in a cavity with a wider opening. We try understanding these effects with simple physical pictures.
VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS
Dobos, Vera; Turner, Edwin L.
2015-05-01
Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.
Viscoelastic Models of Tidally Heated Exomoons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobos, Vera; Turner, Edwin L.
2015-05-01
Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.
A new device for measuring the viscoelastic properties of hydrated matrix gels.
Parsons, Jeffrey W; Coger, Robin N
2002-04-01
Determinations of the viscoelastic properties of extracellular matrices (ECMs) are becoming increasingly important for accurate predictive modeling of biological systems. Since the interactions of the cells with the ECM and surrounding fluid (e.g., blood, media) each affect cell behavior; it is advantageous to evaluate the ECM's material properties in the presence of the hydrating fluid. Conventional rheometry methods evaluate the bulk material properties of gel materials while displacing the hydrating liquid film. Such systems are therefore nonideal for testing materials such as ECMs, whose properties change with dehydration. The new patent pending, piezoelectrically actuated linear rheometer is designed to eliminate this problem. It uses a single cantilever to apply an oscillating load to the gel and to sense the gel's deflection. Composed of two thin film piezopolymer layers, the cantilever uses one layer as the actuator, and the second piezopolymer layer to measure the lateral movement of its attached probe. The viscoelastic nature of the ECM adds stiffness and damping to the system, resulting in the attenuation and phase shift of the sensor's output voltage. From these parameters, the ECM's shear storage and loss moduli are then determined. Initial tests on the BioMatrix I and type I collagen ECMs reveal that the first prototype of the piezoelectrically actuated linear rheometer is capable of accurately determining the trend and order of magnitude of an ECM's viscoelastic properties. In this paper, details of the rheometer's design and operating principles are described. PMID:12002123
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merrett, Craig G.
Modern flight vehicles are fabricated from composite materials resulting in flexible structures that behave differently from the more traditional elastic metal structures. Composite materials offer a number of advantages compared to metals, such as improved strength to mass ratio, and intentional material property anisotropy. Flexible aircraft structures date from the Wright brothers' first aircraft with fabric covered wooden frames. The flexibility of the structure was used to warp the lifting surface for flight control, a concept that has reappeared as aircraft morphing. These early structures occasionally exhibited undesirable characteristics during flight such as interactions between the empennage and the aft fuselage, or control problems with the elevators. The research to discover the cause and correction of these undesirable characteristics formed the first foray into the field of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity is the intersection and interaction between aerodynamics, elasticity, and inertia or dynamics. Aeroelasticity is well suited for metal aircraft, but requires expansion to improve its applicability to composite vehicles. The first is a change from elasticity to viscoelasticity to more accurately capture the solid mechanics of the composite material. The second change is to include control systems. While the inclusion of control systems in aeroelasticity lead to aero-servo-elasticity, more control possibilities exist for a viscoelastic composite material. As an example, during the lay-up of carbon-epoxy plies, piezoelectric control patches are inserted between different plies to give a variety of control options. The expanded field is called aero-servo-viscoelasticity. The phenomena of interest in aero-servo-viscoelasticity are best classified according to the type of structure considered, either a lifting surface or a panel, and the type of dynamic stability present. For both types of structures, the governing equations are integral
Suydam, Stephen M; Soulas, Elizabeth M; Elliott, Dawn M; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare; Buchanan, Thomas S; Cortes, Daniel H
2015-06-01
Changes in tendon viscoelastic properties are observed after injuries and during healing as a product of altered composition and structure. Continuous Shear Wave Elastography is a new technique measuring viscoelastic properties of soft tissues using external shear waves. Tendon has not been studied with this technique, therefore, the aims of this study were to establish the range of shear and viscosity moduli in healthy Achilles tendons, determine bilateral differences of these parameters and explore correlations of viscoelasticity to plantar flexion strength and tendon area. Continuous Shear Wave Elastography was performed over the free portion of both Achilles tendons from 29 subjects. Isometric plantar flexion strength and cross sectional area were measured. The average shear and viscous moduli was 83.2 kPa and 141.0 Pa-s, respectively. No correlations existed between the shear or viscous modulus and area or strength. This indicates that viscoelastic properties can be considered novel, independent biomarkers. The shear and viscosity moduli were bilaterally equivalent (p = 0.013, 0.017) which allows determining pathologies through side-to-side deviations. The average bilateral coefficient of variation was 7.2% and 9.4% for shear and viscosity modulus, respectively. The viscoelastic properties of the Achilles tendon may provide an unbiased, non-subjective rating system of tendon recovery and optimizing treatment strategies.
Suydam, Stephen M.; Soulas, Elizabeth M.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Cortes, Daniel H.
2015-01-01
Changes in tendon viscoelastic properties are observed after injuries and during healing as a product of altered composition and structure. Continuous Shear Wave Elastography is a new technique measuring viscoelastic properties of soft tissues using external shear waves. Tendon has not been studied with this technique, therefore, the aims of this study were to establish the range of shear and viscosity moduli in healthy Achilles tendons, determine bilateral differences of these parameters and explore correlations of viscoelasticity to plantar flexion strength and tendon area. Continuous Shear Wave Elastography was performed over the free portion of both Achilles tendons from 29 subjects. Isometric plantar flexion strength and cross sectional area were measured. The average shear and viscous moduli was 83.2kPa and 141.0Pa-s, respectively. No correlations existed between the shear or viscous modulus and area or strength. This indicates that viscoelastic properties can be considered novel, independent biomarkers. The shear and viscosity moduli were bilaterally equivalent (p=0.013,0.017) which allows determining pathologies through side-to-side deviations. The average bilateral coefficient of variation was 7.2% and 9.4% for shear and viscosity modulus, respectively. The viscoelastic properties of the Achilles tendon may provide an unbiased, non-subjective rating system of tendon recovery and optimizing treatment strategies. PMID:25882209
Viscoelastic response of fibroblasts to tension transmitted through adherens junctions.
Ragsdale, G K; Phelps, J; Luby-Phelps, K
1997-01-01
Cytoplasmic deformation was monitored by observing the displacements of 200-nm green fluorescent beads microinjected into the cytoplasm of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. We noted a novel protrusion of nonruffling cell margins that was accompanied by axial flow of beads and cytoplasmic vesicles as far as 50 microm behind the protruding plasma membrane. Fluorescent analog cytochemistry and immunofluorescence localization of F-actin, alpha-actinin, N-cadherin, and beta-catenin showed that the protruding margins of deforming cells were mechanically coupled to neighboring cells by adherens junctions. Observations suggested that protrusion resulted from passive linear deformation in response to tensile stress exerted by centripetal contraction of the neighboring cell. The time dependence of cytoplasmic strain calculated from the displacements of beads and vesicles was fit quantitatively by a Kelvin-Voight model for a viscoelastic solid with a mean limiting strain of 0.58 and a mean strain rate of 4.3 x 10(-3) s(-1). In rare instances, the deforming cell and its neighbor spontaneously became uncoupled, and recoil of the protruding margin was observed. The time dependence of strain during recoil also fit a Kelvin-Voight model with similar parameters, suggesting that the kinetics of deformation primarily reflect the mechanical properties of the deformed cell rather than the contractile properties of its neighbor. The existence of mechanical coupling between adjacent fibroblasts through adherens junctions and the viscoelastic responses of cells to tension transmitted directly from cell to cell are factors that must be taken into account to fully understand the role of fibroblasts in such biological processes as wound closure and extracellular matrix remodeling during tissue development. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9370474
Dynamic testing of regional viscoelastic behavior of canine sclera
Palko, Joel R.; Pan, Xueliang; Liu, Jun
2011-01-01
Intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations have gained recent clinical interest and thus warrant an understanding of how the sclera responds to dynamic mechanical insults. The objective of this study was to characterize the regional dynamic viscoelastic properties of canine sclera under physiological cyclic loadings. Scleral strips were excised from the anterior, equatorial, and posterior sclera in ten canine eyes. The dimensions of each strip were measured using a high resolution ultrasound imaging system. The strips were tested in a humidity chamber at approximately 37°C using a Rheometrics Systems Analyzer. A cyclic strain input (0.25%, 1 Hz) was applied to the strips, superimposed upon pre-stresses corresponding to an IOP of 15, 25, and 45 mmHg. The cyclic stress output was recorded and the dynamic properties were calculated based on linear viscoelasticity. Uniaxial tensile tests were also performed on the same samples and the results were compared to those reported for human eyes. The results showed that the sclera’s resistance to dynamic loading increased significantly while the damping capability decreased significantly with increasing pre-stresses for all regions of sclera (P<0.001). Anterior sclera appeared to have a significantly higher damping capability than equatorial and posterior sclera (P=0.003 and 0.018, respectively). The secant modulus from uniaxial tensile tests showed a decreasing trend from anterior to posterior sclera, displaying a similar pattern as in the human eye. In conclusion, all scleral regions in the canine eyes exhibited an increased ability to resist and a decreased ability to dampen cyclic stress insults at increasing prestress (i.e., increasing steady-state IOP). The regional variation of the dynamic properties differed from those of uniaxial tensile tests. Dynamic testing may provide useful information to better understand the mechanical behavior of the sclera in response to dynamic IOP. PMID:21983041
Probing of polymer surfaces in the viscoelastic regime.
Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Young, Seth L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V
2014-09-01
In this Feature Article, we discussed the experimental and modeling methods and analyzed the limitations of the surface probing of nanomechanical properties of polymeric and biological materials in static and dynamic regimes with atomic force microscopy (AFM), which are widely utilized currently. To facilitate such measurements with minimized ambiguities, in this study we present a combined method to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of compliant polymeric materials. We collected force-distance data in the static regime for a benchmark polymer material (poly(n-butyl methacrylate)) with an easily accessible glass-transition temperature (about 25 °C) at different loading rates and different temperatures across the glassy state, glass-transition region, and rubbery state. For this analysis, we exploited a Johnson-modified Sneddon's approach in a combination with the standard linear solid model. Critical experimental steps suggested for robust probing are (i) the use of a tip with a well-characterized parabolic shape, (ii) probing in a liquid environment in order to reduce jump-in phenomenon, and (iii) minute indentations to ensure the absence of plastic deformation. Whereas the standard Sneddon's model generates quantitatively adequate elastic modulus values below and above the glass transition, this traditional approach can significantly underestimate actual modulus values in the vicinity of the glass-transition region (15 °C above or below Tg), with major deviations occurring at the loss tangent peak. The analysis of the experimental data with Sneddon's model for the elastic region (glassy and rubbery states) and Johnson's model for the viscoelastic region allowed for the restoration of the universal master curve and the evaluation of the storage modulus, loss modulus, loss tangent, relaxation times, and activation energies of the polymer surface across the glass-transition region and at relevant loading rates.
Highly flexible flight vehicle aeroelastic and aero-viscoelastic flutter issues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.
2012-11-01
Aeroelastic and aero-viscoelastic phenomena arising from the high flexibility of modern flight vehicles are examined, and governing relations are formulated and solved. In particular, the time dependent flight velocities associated with maneuvers and with in-plane bending are considered, which necessitate new derivations of the Theodorsen function, unsteady aerodynamic relations and equations of motion. Under these conditions, simple harmonic motion (SHM) is no longer achievable and different flutter criteria based directly on motion stability are presented. The viscoelastic problem is formulated in terms of integral partial differential equations with variable nonlinear coefficients. Their solutions and evaluations are discussed in detail. One interesting departure from linear responses emerged, which indicates flutter in one bending while the other bending mode and the torsional are both stable. A detailed and extended treatment of these subjects may be found in [1].
Analysis of a delayed fracture criterion for lifetime prediction of viscoelastic polymer materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guedes, Rui Miranda
2012-08-01
In this work a multi-axial yield/failure model for viscoelastic/plastic materials is applied, which was developed by Naghdi and Murch (in J. Appl. Mech. 30:321-328, 1963) and later extended and refined by Crochet (in J. Appl. Mech. 33:327-334, 1966), to predict long-term creep rupture of polymers. The criterion defines a function, which depends on time, the viscoelastic properties and applied stress, to establish an empirical law with creep yield (fracture). In this work a linear relationship is proposed, defined as a time-dependent failure criterion, which can be applied for extrapolation purposes. A comparative analysis using energy-based failure criteria is performed. It is proved, for the polymers considered in this study, that the proposed time-dependent failure criterion holds for long times. Experimental data are used to illustrate the applicability of this time-dependent failure criterion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenkour, Ashraf M.
2016-05-01
The transient thermal analysis of a single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) embedded in viscoelastic medium is presented by using the nonlocal elasticity theory. The elastic medium, which characterized by the linear Winkler's modulus and Pasternak's (shear) foundation modulus, is changed to a viscoelastic one by including the viscous damping term. The governing dynamical equation is obtained and solved for simply-supported SLGSs. Firstly; the effect of the nonlocal parameter is discussed carefully for the vibration and bending problems. Secondly, the effects of other parameter like aspect ratio, thickness-to-length ratio, Winkler-Pasternak's foundation, viscous damping coefficient on bending field quantities of the SLGSs are investigated in detail. The present results are compared with the corresponding available in the literature. Additional results for thermal local and nonlocal deflections and stresses are presented to investigate the thermal visco-Pasternak's parameters for future comparisons.
Transient dynamics of a colloidal particle driven through a viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruben Gomez-Solano, Juan; Bechinger, Clemens
2015-10-01
We study the transient motion of a colloidal particle actively dragged by an optical trap through different viscoelastic fluids (wormlike micelles, polymer solutions, and entangled λ-phage DNA). We observe that, after sudden removal of the moving trap, the particle recoils due to the recovery of the deformed fluid microstructure. We find that the transient dynamics of the particle proceeds via a double-exponential relaxation, whose relaxation times remain independent of the initial particle velocity whereas their amplitudes strongly depend on it. While the fastest relaxation mirrors the viscous damping of the particle by the solvent, the slow relaxation results from the recovery of the strained viscoelastic matrix. We show that this transient information, which has no counterpart in Newtonian fluids, can be exploited to investigate linear and nonlinear rheological properties of the embedding fluid, thus providing a novel method to perform transient rheology at the micron-scale.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jansson, S.
1991-01-01
The nonlinear anisotropic mechanical behavior of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced with continuous alumina fibers was determined experimentally. The mechanical behavior of the composite were modeled by assuming that the composite has a periodical microstructure. The resulting unit cell problem was solved with the finite element method. Excellent agreement was found between theoretically predicted and measured stress-strain responses for various tensile and shear loadings. The stress-strain responses for transverse and inplane shear were found to be identical and this will provide a simplification of the constitutive equations for the composite. The composite has a very low ductility in transverse tension and a limited ductility in transverse shear that was correlated to high hydrostatic stresses that develop in the matrix. The shape of the initial yield surface was calculated and good agreement was found between the calculated shape and the experimentally determined shape.
Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano
2016-05-01
This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.
Viscoelastic material inversion using Sierra-SD and ROL
Walsh, Timothy; Aquino, Wilkins; Ridzal, Denis; Kouri, Drew Philip; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Urbina, Angel
2014-11-01
In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.
The viscoelastic effect in bending bucky-gel actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruusamäe, Karl; Mukai, Ken; Sugino, Takushi; Asaka, Kinji
2014-03-01
Electromechanically active polymers (EAP) are considered a good actuator candidate for a variety of reasons, e.g. they are soft, easy to miniaturize and operate without audible noise. The main structural component in EAPs is, as the name states, a type of deformable polymer. As polymers are known to exhibit a distinct mechanical response, the nature of polymer materials should never be neglected when characterizing and modeling the performance of EAP actuators. Bucky-gel actuators are a subtype of EAPs where ion-containing polymer membrane acts as an electronically insulating separator between two electrodes of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid. In many occasions, the electrodes also contain polymer for the purpose of binding it together. Therefore, mechanically speaking, bucky-gel actuators are composite structures with layers of different mechanical nature. The viscoelastic response and the shape change property are perhaps the most characteristic effects in polymers. These effects are known to have high dependence on factors such as the type of polymer, the concentration of additives and the structural ratio of different layers. At the same time, most reports about optimization of EAP actuators describe the alteration of electromechanical performance dependent on the same factors. In this paper, the performance of bucky-gel actuators is measured as a function between the output force and bending deflection. It is observed that effective stiffness of these actuators depends on the input voltage. This finding is also supported by dynamic mechanical analysis which demonstrates that the viscoelastic response of bucky-gel laminate depends on both frequency and temperature. Moreover, the dynamic mechanical analysis reveals that in the range of standard operation temperatures, tested samples were in their glass transition region, which made it possible to alter their shape by using mechanical fixing. The mechanical fixity above 90% was obtained when high
Kawakami, Masaru; Byrne, Katherine; Khatri, Bhavin S; Mcleish, Tom C B; Radford, Sheena E; Smith, D Alastair
2005-05-10
The dynamical nature of biomolecular systems means that knowledge of their viscoelastic behavior is important in fully understanding function. The linear viscoelastic response can be derived from an analysis of Brownian motion. However, this is a slow measurement and technically demanding for many molecular systems of interest. To address this issue, we have developed a simple method for measuring the full linear viscoelastic response of single molecules based on magnetically driven oscillations of an atomic force microscope cantilever. The cantilever oscillation frequency is periodically swept through the system resonance in less than 200 ms allowing the power spectrum to be obtained rapidly and analyzed with a suitable model. The technique has been evaluated using dextran, a polysaccharide commonly used as a test system for single molecule mechanical manipulation experiments. The monomer stiffness and friction constants were compared with those derived from other methods. Excellent agreement is obtained indicating that the new method accurately and, most importantly, rapidly provides the viscoelastic response of a single molecule between the tip and substrate. The method will be a useful tool for studying systems that change their structure and dynamic response on a time scale of 100-200 ms, such as protein folding and unfolding under applied force. PMID:16032901
A rheometer dedicated for the investigation of viscoelastic effects in commercial magnetic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odenbach, Stefan; Rylewicz, Thomas; Heyen, Michael
1999-07-01
The investigation of viscoelastic properties of commercial ferrofluids based on nanosized magnetite particles in various carrier liquids requires a dedicated rheometer allowing the detection of extremely small changes in viscous and viscoelastic properties. The observation of magnetoviscoelastic behavior in commercial ferrofluids may become particularly important since they exhibit long-term stability allowing reproducibility of the experiments. In addition, they are of relatively simple composition reducing the problems in theoretical description of the observed effects. We will present here the design and main performance data of a rheometer developed for the kind of investigations mentioned above. The quality of the performance will be demonstrated with some new data on rheological properties of a commercial ferrofluid.
Characterization of viscoelastic properties of molybdenum disulphide filled polyamide by indentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stan, Felicia; Fetecau, Catalin
2013-05-01
In this paper, the creep behavior of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) filled polyamide 66 composite was investigated through sharp indentation at room temperature. Two types of indentation creep test, the 3-step indentation test, and the 5-step indentation test were considered in order to explore whether the measured creep response is mainly viscoelastic or includes a significant contribution from the plastic deformation developed during the loading phase. The experimental indentation creep data were analyzed within an analytical framework based on the hereditary integral operator for the ramp creep and a viscoelastic-plastic (VEP) model in order to determine the indentation creep compliance function including the short- and long-time modulus. The equivalent shear modulus calculated from the creep compliance function was compared to the indentation plane strain modulus derived from the initial slope of the unloading curve in order to investigate the validity of the Oliver and Pharr method.
Gupta, Anupam; Sbragaglia, Mauro
2016-01-01
The effects of viscoelasticity on the dynamics and break-up of fluid threads in microfluidic T-junctions are investigated using numerical simulations of dilute polymer solutions at changing the Capillary number (Ca), i.e. at changing the balance between the viscous forces and the surface tension at the interface, up to Ca ≈ 3×10(-2). A Navier-Stokes (NS) description of the solvent based on the lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) is here coupled to constitutive equations for finite extensible non-linear elastic dumbbells with the closure proposed by Peterlin (FENE-P model). We present the results of three-dimensional simulations in a range of Ca which is broad enough to characterize all the three characteristic mechanisms of break-up in the confined T-junction, i.e. squeezing, dripping and jetting regimes. The various model parameters of the FENE-P constitutive equations, including the polymer relaxation time τP and the finite extensibility parameter L2, are changed to provide quantitative details on how the dynamics and break-up properties are affected by viscoelasticity. We will analyze cases with Droplet Viscoelasticity (DV), where viscoelastic properties are confined in the dispersed (d) phase, as well as cases with Matrix Viscoelasticity (MV), where viscoelastic properties are confined in the continuous (c) phase. Moderate flow-rate ratios Q ≈ O(1) of the two phases are considered in the present study. Overall, we find that the effects are more pronounced in the case with MV, as the flow driving the break-up process upstream of the emerging thread can be sensibly perturbed by the polymer stresses. PMID:26810396
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Ping; Lin, I.-Kuan; Lu, Hongbing; Zhang, Xin
2010-09-01
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based micropillars (or microcantilevers) have been used as bio-transducers for measuring cellular forces on the order of pN to µN. The measurement accuracy of these sensitive devices depends on appropriate modeling to convert the micropillar deformations into the corresponding reaction forces. The traditional approach to calculating the reaction force is based on the Euler beam theory with consideration of a linear elastic slender beam for the micropillar. However, the low aspect ratio in geometry of PDMS micropillars does not satisfy the slender beam requirement. Consequently, the Timoshenko beam theory, appropriate for a beam with a low aspect ratio, should be used. In addition, the inherently time-dependent behavior in PDMS has to be considered for accurate force conversion. In this paper, the Timoshenko beam theory, along with the consideration of viscoelastic behavior of PDMS, was used to model the mechanical response of micropillars. The viscoelastic behavior of PDMS was characterized by stress relaxation nanoindentation using a circular flat punch. A correction procedure was developed to determine the load-displacement relationship with consideration of ramp loading. The relaxation function was extracted and described by a generalized Maxwell model. The bending of rectangular micropillars was performed by a wedge indenter tip. The viscoelastic Timoshenko beam formula was used to calculate the mechanical response of the micropillar, and the results were compared with measurement data. The calculated reaction forces agreed well with the experimental data at three different loading rates. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the viscoelastic Timoshenko beam model by comparing the reaction forces calculated from the elastic Euler beam, elastic Timoshenko beam and viscoelastic Euler beam models at various aspect ratios and loading rates. The extension of modeling from the elastic Euler beam theory to the
Role of viscoelasticity in mantle convection models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patocka, Vojtech; Cadek, Ondrej; Tackley, Paul
2015-04-01
A present limitation of global thermo-chemical convection models is that they assume a purely viscous or visco-plastic flow law for solid rock, i.e. elasticity is ignored. This may not be a good assumption in the cold, outer boundary layer known as the lithosphere, where elastic deformation may be important. Elasticity in the lithosphere plays at least two roles: It changes surface topography, which changes the relationship between topography and gravity, and it alters the stress distribution in the lithosphere, which may affect dynamical behaviour such as the formation of plate boundaries and other tectonics features. A method for adding elasticity to a viscous flow solver to make a visco-elastic flow solver, which involves adding advected elastic stress to the momentum equation and introducing an "effective" viscosity has been proposed (e.g. Moresi, 2002). The proposed method is designed primarily for a regional-scale numerical model which employs tracers for advection and co-rotation of the stress field. In this study we test a grid-based version of the method in context of thermal convection in the Boussinesq approximation. A simple finite difference/volume model with staggered grid is used, with the aim to later use the same method to implement viscoelasticity into StagYY (Tackley, 2008). The main obstacle is that Maxwell viscoelastic rheology produces instantaneous deformation if instantaneous change of the driving forces occurs. It is not possible to model such deformation in a velocity formulated convection model, as velocity undergoes a singularity for an instantaneous deformation. For a given Rayleigh number there exists a certain critical value of the Deborah number above which it is necessary to use a thermal time step different from the one used in viscoelastic constitutive equation to avoid this numerical instability from happening. Critical Deborah numbers for various Rayleigh numbers are computed. We then propose a method to decouple the thermal and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itaoka, Kanae; Kim, In-Tae; Yamabuki, Kazuhiro; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Tsutsumi, Hiromori
2015-11-01
Room temperature rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries are constructed from Mg as a negative material, sulfur (S)-containing composite prepared from elemental sulfur and the bis(alkenyl) compound having a crown ether unit (BUMB18C6) or linear ether unit (UOEE) as a positive material and the simple electrolyte (0.7 mol dm-3 Mg[N(SO2CF3)2]2-triglyme (G3) solution). The reaction between molten S and the bis(alkenyl) compound (BUMB18C6 or UOEE) provides the sulfur-containing composite, S-BUMB18C6 or S-UOEE. Both of the sulfur-containing composites are electrochemically active in the Mg salt-based electrolyte, acetonitrile- or G3- Mg[N(SO2CF3)2]2 electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the test cells with the sulfur-containing composite is 460 Ah kg-1 (per the weight of sulfur in the composite) with the S-BUMB18C6 electrode and 495 Ah kg-1 with the S-UOEE electrode. According to the continuous charge-discharge cycle tests (at 10th cycle), the discharge capacity of the test cell with the S-BUMB18C6 electrode (68.1 Ah kg-1) is higher than that with the S-UOEE electrode (0.18 Ah kg-1). The crown ether units in the S-BUMB18C6 composite may create ion-conducting paths in the cathode, prevent rise in the internal resistance of the cathode, and provide better cycle performance of the test cells with the S-BUMB18C6 composite electrode than that with the S-UOEE electrode.
How to approximate viscoelastic dynamic topographies of stagnant lid planetary bodies?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumoulin, Caroline; Čadek, Ondřej; Choblet, Gaël
2013-04-01
Planetary mantles are viscoelastic media. However, since numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging, most of the studies concerning dynamic topography of planetary surfaces generated by mantle convection use one of the following simplified rheological set-up: i) IVF (instantaneous viscous flow), ii) viscous body with a free surface, or iii) hybrid methods combining viscous deformation and elastic filtering of the topography. Justifications for the use of such approximations instead of a fully viscoelastic rheology have been made on the basis of simple tests with step-like viscosity structures, with small to moderate viscosity contrasts. However, because the rheology of planetary materials is thermally activated, the radial stratification of viscosity is more likely to be a continuous function of depth, and global viscosity contrasts might be very large. In our study, we systematically compare viscoelastic dynamic topography induced by an internal load to topographies generated by the three different simplified approaches listed above using a realistic viscosity profile for a stagnant lid associated to the lithosphere of a one plate planete. To this purpose, we compute response functions of surface topography and geoid using three different semi-spectral models that all include self-gravitation: a) a linear Maxwell body with a pseudo free upper surface, b) a viscous body with a pseudo free upper surface, and c) a viscous body with a free-slip condition at the surface. Results obtained with this last model (IVF) can then be filtered using the elastic thin shell approximation: the effective elastic thickness then corresponds to the elastic thickness that is needed to fit the viscoelastic topography with an elastic filtering of the IVF topography. We show that the effective elastic thickness varies strongly with the degree of the load, with the depth of the load, and with the duration of the loading. These
Viscoelastic behavior of polymers undergoing crosslinking reactions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moacanin, J.; Aklonis, J. J.
1971-01-01
Previously a method was developed for predicting the viscoelastic response of polymers undergoing scission reactions. These results are now extended to include crosslinking reactions. As for scission, at any given time the character of the network chains is determined by the instantaneous crosslink density. For scission all chains were assumed to carry the same stress; for crosslinking, however, the stress is distributed between the 'new' and 'old' chains. Equations for calculating the creep response of a system which experiences a step increase in crosslink density are derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, Steven Earl
Polymer matrix composites are seeing increasing use in structural systems (e.g. ships, bridges) and require a quantitative basis for describing their performance under combined mechanical load and fire. Although much work has been performed to characterize the flammability, fire resistance and toxicity of these composite systems, an understanding of the structural response of sandwich type structures and laminate panels under combined mechanical and thermal loads (simulating fire conditions) is still largely unavailable. Therefore a research effort to develop a model to describe the structural response of these glass/vinyl esters systems under fire loading conditions is relevant to the continuing and future application of polymer matrix composites aboard naval ships. The main goal of the effort presented here is to develop analytical models and finite element analysis methods and tools to predict limit states such as local compression failures due to micro-buckling, residual strength and times to failure for composite laminates at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition where failure is controlled by viscoelastic effects. Given the importance of compression loading to a structure subject to fire exposure, the goals of this work are succinctly stated as the: (a) Characterization of the non-linear viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of the E-glass/vinyl ester composite above Tg. (b) Description of the laminate compression mechanics as a function of stress and temperature including viscoelasticity. (c) Viscoelastic stress analysis of a laminated panel ([0/+45/90/-45/0] S) using classical lamination theory (CLT). Three manuscripts constitute this dissertation which is representative of the three steps listed above. First, a detailed characterization of the nonlinear thermoviscoelastic response of Vetrotex 324/Derakane 510A--40 through Tg was conducted using the Time--Temperature--Stress--Superposition Principle (TTSSP) and Zapas--Crissman model. Second
Jia, Qingying; Liang, Wentao; Bates, Michael K; Mani, Prasanna; Lee, Wendy; Mukerjee, Sanjeev
2015-01-27
Despite recent progress in developing active and durable oxygen reduction catalysts with reduced Pt content, lack of elegant bottom-up synthesis procedures with knowledge over the control of atomic arrangement and morphology of the Pt-alloy catalysts still hinders fuel cell commercialization. To follow a less empirical synthesis path for improved Pt-based catalysts, it is essential to correlate catalytic performance to properties that can be easily controlled and measured experimentally. Herein, using Pt-Co alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with varying atomic composition as an example, we show that the atomic distribution of Pt-based bimetallic NPs under operating conditions is strongly dependent on the initial atomic ratio by employing microscopic and in situ spectroscopic techniques. The PtxCo/C NPs with high Co content possess a Co concentration gradient such that Co is concentrated in the core and gradually depletes in the near-surface region, whereas the PtxCo/C NPs with low Co content possess a relatively uniform distribution of Co with low Co population in the near-surface region. Despite their different atomic structure, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of PtxCo/C and Pt/C NPs is linearly related to the bulk average Pt-Pt bond length (RPt-Pt). The RPt-Pt is further shown to contract linearly with the increase in Co/Pt composition. These linear correlations together demonstrate that (i) the improved ORR activity of PtxCo/C NPs over pure Pt NPs originates predominantly from the compressive strain and (ii) the RPt-Pt is a valid strain descriptor that bridges the activity and atomic composition of Pt-based bimetallic NPs.
An equivalent viscoelastic model for rock mass with parallel joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianchun; Ma, Guowei; Zhao, Jian
2010-03-01
An equivalent viscoelastic medium model is proposed for rock mass with parallel joints. A concept of "virtual wave source (VWS)" is proposed to take into account the wave reflections between the joints. The equivalent model can be effectively applied to analyze longitudinal wave propagation through discontinuous media with parallel joints. Parameters in the equivalent viscoelastic model are derived analytically based on longitudinal wave propagation across a single rock joint. The proposed model is then verified by applying identical incident waves to the discontinuous and equivalent viscoelastic media at one end to compare the output waves at the other end. When the wavelength of the incident wave is sufficiently long compared to the joint spacing, the effect of the VWS on wave propagation in rock mass is prominent. The results from the equivalent viscoelastic medium model are very similar to those determined from the displacement discontinuity method. Frequency dependence and joint spacing effect on the equivalent viscoelastic model and the VWS method are discussed.
Is viscoelastic coagulation monitoring with ROTEM or TEG validated?
Solomon, Cristina; Asmis, Lars M; Spahn, Donat R
2016-10-01
Recent years have seen increasing worldwide interest in the use of viscoelastic coagulation monitoring tests, performed using devices such as ROTEM and TEG. The use of such tests to guide haemostatic therapy may help reduce transfusion of allogeneic blood products in bleeding patients and is supported in European guidelines for managing trauma and severe perioperative bleeding. In addition, viscoelastic tests form the basis of numerous published treatment algorithms. However, some publications have stated that viscoelastic tests are not validated. A specific definition of the term validation is lacking and regulatory requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have been fulfilled by ROTEM and TEG assays. Viscoelastic tests have been used in pivotal clinical trials, and they are approved for use in most of the world's countries. Provided that locally approved indications are adhered to, the regulatory framework for clinicians to use viscoelastic tests in routine clinical practice is in place. PMID:27354213
Is viscoelastic coagulation monitoring with ROTEM or TEG validated?
Solomon, Cristina; Asmis, Lars M; Spahn, Donat R
2016-10-01
Recent years have seen increasing worldwide interest in the use of viscoelastic coagulation monitoring tests, performed using devices such as ROTEM and TEG. The use of such tests to guide haemostatic therapy may help reduce transfusion of allogeneic blood products in bleeding patients and is supported in European guidelines for managing trauma and severe perioperative bleeding. In addition, viscoelastic tests form the basis of numerous published treatment algorithms. However, some publications have stated that viscoelastic tests are not validated. A specific definition of the term validation is lacking and regulatory requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have been fulfilled by ROTEM and TEG assays. Viscoelastic tests have been used in pivotal clinical trials, and they are approved for use in most of the world's countries. Provided that locally approved indications are adhered to, the regulatory framework for clinicians to use viscoelastic tests in routine clinical practice is in place.
Rheology of human blood plasma: viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior.
Brust, M; Schaefer, C; Doerr, R; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C
2013-02-15
We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary breakup rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haldar, Samadyuti
2016-04-01
The stability of thin electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid film flowing down on a non-conducting inclined plane in the presence of electromagnetic field is investigated under induction-free approximation. Surface evolution equation is derived by long-wave expansion method. The stabilizing role of Hartman number M (magnetic field) and the destabilizing role of the viscoelastic property {\\varGamma} and the electric parameter E on such fluid film are established through the linear stability analysis of the surface evolution equation. Investigation shows that at small values of Hartman number ( M), the influence of electric parameter ( E) on the viscoelastic parameter {(\\varGamma)} is insignificant, while for large values of M, E introduces more destabilizing effect at low values of {\\varGamma} than that at high values of {\\varGamma }. An interesting result also perceived from our analysis is that the stabilizing effect of Hartman number ( M) is decreasing with the increase of the values of {\\varGamma} and E, even it gives destabilizing effect after a certain high value of the electric field depending on the high value of {\\varGamma}. The weakly nonlinear study reveals that the increase of {\\varGamma} decreases the explosive and subcritical unstable zones but increases the supercritical stable zone keeping the unconditional zone almost constant.
Correlating Viscoelasticity with Metabolism in Single Cells using Atomic Force Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caporizzo, Matthew; Roco, Charles; Coll-Ferrer, Carme; Eckmann, David; Composto, Russell
2015-03-01
Variable indentation-rate rheometric analysis by Laplace transform (VIRRAL), is developed to evaluate Dex-Gel drug carriers as biocompatible delivery agents. VIRRAL provides a general platform for the rapid characterization of the health of single cells by viscoelasticity to promote the self-consistent comparison between cells paramount to the development of early diagnosis and treatment of disease. By modelling the frequency dependence of elastic modulus, VIRRAL provides three metrics of cytoplasmic viscoelasticity: low frequency stiffness, high frequency stiffness, and a relaxation time. THP-1 cells are found to exhibit a frequency dependent elastic modulus consistent with the standard linear solid model of viscoelasticity. VIRRAL indicates that dextran-lysozyme drug carriers are biocompatible and deliver concentrated toxic material (rhodamine or silver nanoparticles) to the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells. The signature of cytotoxicity by rhodamine or silver exposure is a frequency independent 2-fold increase in elastic modulus and cytoplasmic viscosity while the cytoskeletal relaxation time remains unchanged independent of cytoplasmic stiffness. This is consistent with the known toxic mechanism of silver nanoparticles, where mitochondrial injury leads to ATP depletion and metabolic stress causes a decrease of mobility within cytoplasm. NSF DMR08-32802, NIH T32-HL007954, and ONR N000141410538.
A numerical solution to the cattaneo-mindlin problem for viscoelastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinu, S.; Cerlinca, D.
2016-08-01
The problem of the frictional mechanical contact with slip and stick, also referred to as the Cattaneo-Mindlin problem, is an important topic in engineering, with applications in the modeling of particle-flow simulations or in the study of contact between rough surfaces. In the frame of Linear Theory of Elasticity, accurate description of the slip-stick contact can only be achieved numerically, due to mutual interaction between normal and shear contact tractions. Additional difficulties arise when considering a viscoelastic constitutive law, as the mechanical response of the contacting materials depends explicitly on time. To overcome this obstacle, an existing algorithm for the purely elastic slip-stick contact is coupled with a semi-analytical method for viscoelastic displacement computation. The main advantage of this approach is that the contact model can be divided in subunits having the same structure as that of the purely elastic frictionless contact model, for which a well-established solution is readily available. In each time step, the contact solver assesses the contact area, the pressure distribution, the stick area and the shear tractions that satisfy the contact compatibility conditions and the static force equilibrium in both normal and tangential directions. A temporal discretization of the simulation windows assures that the memory effect, specific to both viscoelasticity and friction as a path-dependent processes, is properly replicated.
Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as an anolog of Magnetorotational instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutabazi, Innocent; Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier
2014-11-01
Our investigation of the viscoelastic instability (VEI) in the corotating Couette-Taylor system is motivated by the prediction of Ogilvie et. al that such an instability is analogous to the MRI (magneto-rotational instability) which is believed to play a key role in the angular momentum transport in accretion disks. This analogy is supported by stretched spring argument developed by Balbus and Hawley which is similar to that of the polymer stretching model in viscoelastic solutions. To our best knowledge, only one experiment by Boldyrev et al. has been reported for the search of the analogy VEI-MRI. We present both theoretical and experimental results obtained in the viscoelastic Couette-Taylor system when both the cylinders are constrained to rotate along the Keplerian and anti-Keplerian lines. The polymer solutions have a constant solution with respect to shear rate and can be described by the Odlroyd-B model. The control parameters are the aspect ratio Γ, the radius ratio η, the Reynolds number Re , the elastic number E = Wi / Re and the viscosity ratio S =μp / μ . After linear stability analysis, critical modes are oscillatory and non-axisymmetric. The observed modes are either stationary or oscillatory modes. A state diagram allows for a comparison to MRI Partial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the program Investissements d'Avenir (ANR-10 LABX-09-01), LABEX EMC3.
Accurate Determination of Torsion and Pure Bending Moment for Viscoelastic Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yun-Che; Ko, Chih-Chin; Shiau, Li-Ming
Measurements of time-dependent material properties in the context of linear viscoelasticity, at a given frequency and temperature, require accurate determination of both loading and deformation that are subjected to the testing materials. A pendulum-type viscoelastic spectroscopy is developed to experimentally measure loss tangent and the magnitude of dynamic modulus of solid materials. The mechanical system of the device is based on the behavior of the cantilever beam, and torsion and pure bending moment are generated from the interaction between a permanent magnet and the Helmholtz coils. The strength of the magnetic interactions may be determined with a material with known mechanical properties, such as aluminum 6061T4 alloy. The sensitivity of the torque measurement is on the order of one micro N-m level. With the high accurate torque measurement and deformation detection from a laser-based displacement measurement system, viscoelastic properties of materials can be experimentally measured in different frequency regimes. Sinusoidal driving signals are adopted for measuring complex modulus in the sub-resonant regime, and dc bias driving for creep tests in the low frequency limit. At structural resonant frequencies, the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) method or Lorentzian curve fitting method is adopted to extract material properties. The completion of determining material properties in the wide frequency spectrum may help to identify the deformation mechanisms of the material and to create better models for simulation work.
Effect of rotation on the onset of thermal convection in a viscoelastic fluid layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swamy, Mahantesh S.; Sidram, W.
2013-02-01
A rotating viscoelastic fluid layer heated from below is studied analytically using both linear and nonlinear stability analyses. The Oldroyd-B fluid model is employed to describe the rheological behaviour of the fluid. The Coriolis term is included in the momentum equation and the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is invoked. The onset criterion for both stationary and oscillatory convection is derived as a function of Taylor number, Prandtl number and viscoelastic parameters. There is competition between the processes of rotation, viscous relaxation and thermal diffusion that causes the convection to set in through oscillatory rather than stationary modes. The rotation inhibits the onset of convection in both stationary and oscillatory modes. The stress relaxation parameter destabilizes the system towards the oscillatory mode, while the strain retardation parameter enhances the stability and this stabilization is reinforced by the rotation effect. The nonlinear theory is based on a truncated representation of the Fourier series method. The effect of rotation, viscoelastic parameters and also the Prandtl number on the transient heat transfer is presented graphically.
Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu
2013-01-01
To understand the mechanism of neural motor control, it is important to clarify how the central nervous system organizes the coordination of redundant muscles. Previous studies suggested that muscle activity for step-tracking wrist movements are optimized so as to reduce total effort or end-point variance under neural noise. However, since the muscle dynamics were assumed as a simple linear system, some characteristic patterns of experimental EMG were not seen in the simulated muscle activity of the previous studies. The biological muscle is known to have dynamic properties in which its elasticity and viscosity depend on activation level. The motor control system is supposed to consider the viscoelasticity of the muscles when generating motor command signals. In this study, we present a computational motor control model that can control a musculoskeletal system with nonlinear dynamics. We applied the model to step-tracking wrist movements actuated by five muscles with dynamic viscoelastic properties. To solve the motor redundancy, we designed the control model to generate motor commands that maximize end-point accuracy under signal-dependent noise, while minimizing the squared sum of them. Here, we demonstrate that the muscle activity simulated by our model exhibits spatiotemporal features of experimentally observed muscle activity of human and nonhuman primates. In addition, we show that the movement trajectories resulting from the simulated muscle activity resemble experimentally observed trajectories. These results suggest that, by utilizing inherent viscoelastic properties of the muscles, the neural system may optimize muscle activity to improve motor performance. PMID:23324321
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushima, Satoru; Takano, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Matsushita, Yushu
Viscoelasticity and glass transition temperatures for linear polymers of many species have been investigated so far, and it is well-known that the melt viscosity for the linear polymers varies with molecular weight in essentially the same manner such as packing length theory. It is important to understand the relationship between the viscosity and the molecular structure of various kinds of linear polymers. To investigate the relationship deeply, viscoelastic measurements using linear polymer analogues which the molecular structure is systematically varied should be useful. For example, poly(n-alkyl-substituted polymers) such as poly(n-alkyl methacrylate)s are one of the good candidate. In this study, a series of poly(n-alkyl styrene)s with the different number of carbon atoms(n) in the side alkyl groups (n =1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12) were carefully synthesized by an anionic polymerization technique, and the viscoelasticity and the glass transition temperatures of the poly(n-alkyl styrene)s with high molecular weight (Mw >=4Me) and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn <=1.1) were discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Jiazhuo; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Qinghua; Wang, Qingguo; Xu, Jing
2016-11-01
Novel LDH intercalated with organic aliphatic long-chain anion was large-scale synthesized innovatively by high-energy ball milling in one pot. The linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/layered double hydroxides (LDH) composite films with enhanced heat retention, thermal, mechanical, optical and water vapor barrier properties were fabricated by melt blending and blowing process. FT IR, XRD, SEM results show that LDH particles were dispersed uniformly in the LLDPE composite films. Particularly, LLDPE composite film with 1% LDH exhibited the optimal performance among all the composite films with a 60.36% enhancement in the water vapor barrier property and a 45.73 °C increase in the temperature of maximum mass loss rate compared with pure LLDPE film. Furthermore, the improved infrared absorbance (1180-914 cm-1) of LLDPE/LDH films revealed the significant enhancement of heat retention. Therefore, this study prompts the application of LLDPE/LDH films as agricultural films with superior heat retention.
TIDALLY HEATED TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS: VISCOELASTIC RESPONSE MODELS
Henning, Wade G.; O'Connell, Richard J.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.
2009-12-20
Tidal friction in exoplanet systems, driven by orbits that allow for durable nonzero eccentricities at short heliocentric periods, can generate internal heating far in excess of the conditions observed in our own solar system. Secular perturbations or a notional 2:1 resonance between a hot Earth and hot Jupiter can be used as a baseline to consider the thermal evolution of convecting bodies subject to strong viscoelastic tidal heating. We compare results first from simple models using a fixed Quality factor and Love number, and then for three different viscoelastic rheologies: the Maxwell body, the Standard Anelastic Solid (SAS), and the Burgers body. The SAS and Burgers models are shown to alter the potential for extreme tidal heating by introducing the possibility of new equilibria and multiple response peaks. We find that tidal heating tends to exceed radionuclide heating at periods below 10-30 days, and exceed insolation only below 1-2 days. Extreme cases produce enough tidal heat to initiate global-scale partial melting, and an analysis of tidal limiting mechanisms such as advective cooling for earthlike planets is discussed. To explore long-term behaviors, we map equilibria points between convective heat loss and tidal heat input as functions of eccentricity. For the periods and magnitudes discussed, we show that tidal heating, if significant, is generally detrimental to the width of habitable zones.
Viscoelasticity and shear thinning of nanoconfined water.
Kapoor, Karan; Amandeep; Patil, Shivprasad
2014-01-01
Understanding flow properties and phase behavior of water confined to nanometer-sized pores and slits is central to a wide range of problems in science, such as percolation in geology, lubrication of future nano-machines, self-assembly and interactions of biomolecules, and transport through porous media in filtration processes. Experiments with different techniques in the past have reported that viscosity of nanoconfined water increases, decreases, or remains close to bulk water. Here we show that water confined to less than 20-nm-thick films exhibits both viscoelasticity and shear thinning. Typically viscoelasticity and shear thinning appear due to shearing of complex non-Newtonian mixtures possessing a slowly relaxing microstructure. The shear response of nanoconfined water in a range of shear frequencies (5 to 25 KHz) reveals that relaxation time diverges with reducing film thickness. It suggests that slow relaxation under confinement possibly arises due to existence of a critical point with respect to slit width. This criticality is similar to the capillary condensation in porous media.
Viscoelastic struts for vibration mitigation of FORTE
Maly, J.R.; Butler, T.A.
1996-05-01
FORTE is a small satellite being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA). It will be placed into orbit via a Pegasus launch in 1996. Testing a full-scale engineering model of the structure using the proto-qualification, system-level vibration spectrum indicated that acceleration levels caused by structural resonances exceed component levels to which certain sensitive components had previously been qualified. Viscoelastic struts were designed to reduce response levels associated with these resonances by increasing the level of damping in key structural modes of the spacecraft. Four identical shear-lap struts were fabricated ad installed between the two primary equipment decks. The struts were designed using a system finite element model (FEM) of the spacecraft, a component FEM of the strut, and measured viscoelastic properties. Direct complex stiffness testing was performed to characterize the frequency-dependent behavior of the struts, and these measured properties (shear modulus and loss factor) were used to represent the struts in the spacecraft model. System-level tests were repeated with the struts installed and the response power spectral densities at critical component locations were reduced by as much as 10 dB in the frequency range of interest.
Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.
Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah
2015-10-01
Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.
Viscoelasticity of Tendons Under Transverse Compression.
Paul Buckley, C; Samuel Salisbury, S T; Zavatsky, Amy B
2016-10-01
Tendons are highly anisotropic and also viscoelastic. For understanding and modeling their 3D deformation, information is needed on their viscoelastic response under off-axis loading. A study was made, therefore, of creep and recovery of bovine digital extensor tendons when subjected to transverse compressive stress of up to ca. 100 kPa. Preconditioned tendons were compression tested between glass plates at increasing creep loads. The creep response was anomalous: the relative rate of creep reduced with the increasing stress. Over each ca. 100 s creep period, the transverse creep deformation of each tendon obeyed a power law dependence on time, with the power law exponent falling from ca. 0.18 to an asymptote of ca. 0.058 with the increasing stress. A possible explanation is stress-driven dehydration, as suggested previously for the similar anomalous behavior of ligaments. Recovery after removal of each creep load was also anomalous. Relative residual strain reduced with the increasing creep stress, but this is explicable in terms of the reducing relative rate of creep. When allowance was made for some adhesion occurring naturally between tendon and the glass plates, the results for a given load were consistent with creep and recovery being related through the Boltzmann superposition principle (BSP). The tendon tissue acted as a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) in contact with the glass plates: explicable in terms of the low transverse shear modulus of the tendons. PMID:27496279
Coiling and Folding of Viscoelastic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majmudar, Trushant; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth
2007-11-01
The study of fluid jets impacting on a flat surface has industrial applications in many areas, including processing of foods and consumer goods, bottle filling, and polymer melt processing. Previous studies have focused primarily on purely viscous, Newtonian fluids, which exhibit a number of different dynamical regimes including dripping, steady jetting, folding, and steady coiling. Here we add another dimension to the problem by focusing on mobile (low viscosity) viscoelastic fluids, with the study of two wormlike-micellar fluids, a cetylpyridinum-salicylic acid salt (CPyCl/NaSal) solution, and an industrially relevant shampoo base. We investigate the effects of viscosity and elasticity on the dynamics of axi-symmetric jets. The viscoelasticity of the fluids is systematically controlled by varying the concentration of salt counterions. Experimental methods include shear and extensional rheology measurements to characterize the fluids, and high-speed digital video imaging. In addition to the regimes observed in purely viscous systems, we also find a novel regime in which the elastic jet buckles and folds on itself, and alternates between coiling and folding behavior. We suggest phase diagrams and scaling laws for the coiling and folding frequencies through a systematic exploration of the experimental parameter space (height of fall, imposed flow rate, elasticity of the solution).
Viscoelastic properties of isolated collagen fibrils.
Shen, Zhilei Liu; Kahn, Harold; Ballarini, Roberto; Eppell, Steven J
2011-06-22
Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with complex hierarchical structures requires knowledge of the properties at each structural level. Whole tissues have been studied extensively, but less is known about the mechanical behavior at the submicron, fibrillar level. Using a microelectromechanical systems platform, in vitro coupled creep and stress relaxation tests were performed on collagen fibrils isolated from the sea cucumber dermis. Stress-strain-time data indicate that isolated fibrils exhibit viscoelastic behavior that could be fitted using the Maxwell-Weichert model. The fibrils showed an elastic modulus of 123 ± 46 MPa. The time-dependent behavior was well fit using the two-time-constant Maxwell-Weichert model with a fast time response of 7 ± 2 s and a slow time response of 102 ± 5 s. The fibrillar relaxation time was smaller than literature values for tissue-level relaxation time, suggesting that tissue relaxation is dominated by noncollagenous components (e.g., proteoglycans). Each specimen was tested three times, and the only statistically significant difference found was that the elastic modulus is larger in the first test than in the subsequent two tests, indicating that viscous properties of collagen fibrils are not sensitive to the history of previous tests.
Viscoelastic Properties of Isolated Collagen Fibrils
Shen, Zhilei Liu; Kahn, Harold; Ballarini, Roberto; Eppell, Steven J.
2011-01-01
Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with complex hierarchical structures requires knowledge of the properties at each structural level. Whole tissues have been studied extensively, but less is known about the mechanical behavior at the submicron, fibrillar level. Using a microelectromechanical systems platform, in vitro coupled creep and stress relaxation tests were performed on collagen fibrils isolated from the sea cucumber dermis. Stress-strain-time data indicate that isolated fibrils exhibit viscoelastic behavior that could be fitted using the Maxwell-Weichert model. The fibrils showed an elastic modulus of 123 ± 46 MPa. The time-dependent behavior was well fit using the two-time-constant Maxwell-Weichert model with a fast time response of 7 ± 2 s and a slow time response of 102 ± 5 s. The fibrillar relaxation time was smaller than literature values for tissue-level relaxation time, suggesting that tissue relaxation is dominated by noncollagenous components (e.g., proteoglycans). Each specimen was tested three times, and the only statistically significant difference found was that the elastic modulus is larger in the first test than in the subsequent two tests, indicating that viscous properties of collagen fibrils are not sensitive to the history of previous tests. PMID:21689535
Viscoelastic Flow Modelling for Polymer Flooding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de, Shauvik; Padding, Johan; Peters, Frank; Kuipers, Hans; Multi-scale Modelling of Multi-phase Flows Team
2015-11-01
Polymer liquids are used in the oil industry to improve the volumetric sweep and displacement efficiency of oil from a reservoir. Surprisingly, it is not only the viscosity but also the elasticity of the displacing fluid that determine the displacement efficiency. The main aim of our work is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the effect of fluid elasticity, by developing an advanced computer simulation methodology for the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media. We simulate a 3D unsteady viscoelastic flow through a converging diverging geometry of realistic pore dimension using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).The primitive variables velocity, pressure and extra stresses are used in the formulation of models. The viscoelastic stress part is formulated using a FENE-P type of constitutive equation, which can predict both shear and elongational stress properties during this flow. A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach using Finite volume method (FVM) with staggered grid has been applied. A novel second order Immersed boundary method (IBM) has been incorporated to mimic porous media. The effect of rheological parameters on flow characteristics has also been studied. The simulations provide an insight into 3D flow asymmetry at higher Deborah numbers. Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry experiments are carried out to obtain further insights. These simulations present, for the first time, a detailed computational study of the effects of fluid elasticity on the imbibition of an oil phase.
Viscoelastic struts for vibration mitigation of FORTE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maly, Joseph R.; Butler, Thomas A.
1996-05-01
FORTE is a small satellite being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA). It will be placed into orbit via a Pegasus launch in 1996. Testing a full-scale engineering model of the structure using the proto- qualification, system-level vibration spectrum indicated that acceleration levels caused by structural resonances exceed component levels to which certain sensitive components had previously been qualified. Viscoelastic struts were designed to reduce response levels associated with these resonances by increasing the level of damping in key structural modes of the spacecraft. Four identical shear-lap struts were fabricated and installed between the two primary equipment decks. The struts were designed using a system finite element model (FEM) of the spacecraft, a component FEM of the strut, and measured viscoelastic properties. Direct complex stiffness testing was performed to characterize the frequency-dependent behavior of the struts, and these measured properties (shear modulus and loss factor) were used to represent the struts in the spacecraft model. System-level tests were repeated with the struts installed and the response power spectral densities at critical component locations were reduced by as much as 10 dB in the frequency range of interest.
Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Gerling, Gregory J
2015-01-01
Although the skin's mechanical properties are well characterized in tension, little work has been done in compression. Here, the viscoelastic properties of a population of mouse skin specimens (139 samples from 36 mice, aged 5 to 34 weeks) were characterized upon varying specimen thickness, as well as strain level and rate. Over the population, we observed the skin's viscoelasticity to be quite variable, yet found systematic correlation of residual stress ratio with skin thickness and strain, and of relaxation time constants with strain rates. In particular, as specimen thickness ranged from 211 to 671 μm, we observed significant variation in both quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) parameters, the relaxation time constant (τ1 = 0.19 ± 0.10 s) and steady-state residual stress ratio (G∞ = 0.28 ± 0.13). Moreover, when τ1 was decoupled and fixed, we observed that G∞ positively correlated with skin thickness. Second, as steady-state stretch was increased (λ∞ from 0.22 to 0.81), we observed significant variation in both QLV parameters (τ1 = 0.26 ± 0.14 s, G∞ = 0.47 ± 0.17), and when τ1 was fixed, G∞ positively correlated with stretch level. Third, as strain rate was increased from 0.06 to 22.88 s-1, the median time constant τ1 varied from 1.90 to 0.31 s, and thereby negatively correlated with strain rate. These findings indicate that the natural range of specimen thickness, as well as experimental controls of compression level and rate, significantly influence measurements of skin viscoelasticity.
A detailed viscoelastic characterization of the P17 and adult rat brain.
Elkin, Benjamin S; Ilankovan, Ashok I; Morrison, Barclay
2011-11-01
Brain is a morphologically and mechanically heterogeneous organ. Although rat brain is commonly used as an experimental neurophysiological model for various in vivo biomechanical studies, little is known about its regional viscoelastic properties. To address this issue, we have generated viscoelastic mechanical property data for specific anatomical regions of the P17 and adult rat brain. These ages are commonly used in rat experimental models. We measured mechanical properties of both white and gray matter regions in coronal slices with a custom-designed microindentation device performing stress-relaxation indentations to 10% effective strain. Shear moduli calculated for short (100?ms), intermediate (1?sec), and long (20?sec) time points, ranged from ?1?kPa for short term moduli to ?0.4?kPa for long term moduli. Both age and anatomic region were significant factors affecting the time-dependent shear modulus. White matter regions and regions of the cerebellum were much more compliant than those of the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus. Linear viscoelastic models (Prony series, continuous phase lag, and a power law model) were fit to the time-dependent shear modulus data. All models fit the data equally with no significant differences between them (F-test; p>0.05). The F-test was also used to statistically determine that a Prony series with three time-dependent parameters accurately fit the data with no added benefit from additional terms. The age- and region-dependent rat brain viscoelastic properties presented here will help inform future biomechanical models of the rat brain with specific and accurate regional mechanical property data. PMID:21341982
Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L.; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Gerling, Gregory J.
2015-01-01
Although the skin’s mechanical properties are well characterized in tension, little work has been done in compression. Here, the viscoelastic properties of a population of mouse skin specimens (139 samples from 36 mice, aged 5 to 34 weeks) were characterized upon varying specimen thickness, as well as strain level and rate. Over the population, we observed the skin’s viscoelasticity to be quite variable, yet found systematic correlation of residual stress ratio with skin thickness and strain, and of relaxation time constants with strain rates. In particular, as specimen thickness ranged from 211 to 671 μm, we observed significant variation in both quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) parameters, the relaxation time constant (τ1 = 0.19 ± 0.10 s) and steady-state residual stress ratio (G∞ = 0.28 ± 0.13). Moreover, when τ1 was decoupled and fixed, we observed that G∞ positively correlated with skin thickness. Second, as steady-state stretch was increased (λ∞ from 0.22 to 0.81), we observed significant variation in both QLV parameters (τ1 = 0.26 ± 0.14 s, G∞ = 0.47 ± 0.17), and when τ1 was fixed, G∞ positively correlated with stretch level. Third, as strain rate was increased from 0.06 to 22.88 s−1, the median time constant τ1 varied from 1.90 to 0.31 s, and thereby negatively correlated with strain rate. These findings indicate that the natural range of specimen thickness, as well as experimental controls of compression level and rate, significantly influence measurements of skin viscoelasticity. PMID:25803703
Jain, Aashish; Shankar, V
2007-10-01
The linear stability of viscoelastic (Oldroyd-B) film flow down an inclined plane lined with a deformable (neo-Hookean) solid layer is analyzed using low-wave-number asymptotic analysis and the Chebyshev-Tau spectral numerical method. The free surface of film flows of viscoelastic liquids, unlike that of their Newtonian counterparts, becomes unstable in flow down a rigid inclined surface even in the absence of fluid inertia, due to the elastic nature of the liquids. For film flow past a deformable solid, our low-wave-number asymptotic analysis reveals that the solid deformability has a stabilizing effect on the free-surface instability, and, remarkably, this prediction is insensitive to rheology of the liquid film, be it viscoelastic or Newtonian. Using the spectral numerical method, we demonstrate that the free-surface instability can be completely suppressed at all wave numbers when the solid becomes sufficiently deformable. For the case of pure polymeric liquids without any solvent, when the solid layer is made further deformable, both the free surface and the liquid-solid interface are destabilized at finite wave numbers. We also demonstrate a type of mode exchange phenomenon between the modes corresponding to the two interfaces. Importantly, our numerical results show that there is a sufficient range of shear modulus of the solid where both the modes are stable at all wave numbers. For polymer solutions described by the Oldroyd-B model, while the free-surface instability is suppressed by the deformable solid, a host of new unstable modes appear at finite Reynolds number and wave number because of the coupling between liquid flow and free shear waves in the solid. Our study thus demonstrates that the elastohydrodynamic coupling between liquid flow and solid deformation can be exploited either to suppress the free-surface instability (present otherwise in rigid inclines) in viscoelastic film flows, or to induce new instabilities that are absent in flow adjacent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondali, Mehdi; Monfared, Vahid; Abedian, Ali
2013-07-01
A novel analytical model is presented for analyzing the steady-state creep in short-fiber composites under axial load utilizing the previous shear-lag theory, the imaginary fiber technique and also new approaches of Hermite polynomials, hyperbolic trigonometric functions and power series. The steady-state creep behavior of the matrix is described by an exponential law, while the fibers behave elastically. In this model, in spite of the previous researches, some unknowns such as shear stress, displacement rates, and creep strain rates are correctly determined in all regions of the unit cell without using any further assumptions. In comparison with previous analytical approaches, the results of the present work are closer to the FEM simulations. This strong method can be used in various problems in applied physics and mechanics such as elastic and plastic analysis of nano-composites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanan, P.; Schnepp, S. M.; May, D.; Schenk, O.
2014-12-01
Geophysical applications require efficient forward models for non-linear Stokes flow on high resolution spatio-temporal domains. The bottleneck in applying the forward model is solving the linearized, discretized Stokes problem which takes the form of a large, indefinite (saddle point) linear system. Due to the heterogeniety of the effective viscosity in the elliptic operator, devising effective preconditioners for saddle point problems has proven challenging and highly problem-dependent. Nevertheless, at least three approaches show promise for preconditioning these difficult systems in an algorithmically scalable way using multigrid and/or domain decomposition techniques. The first is to work with a hierarchy of coarser or smaller saddle point problems. The second is to use the Schur complement method to decouple and sequentially solve for the pressure and velocity. The third is to use the Schur decomposition to devise preconditioners for the full operator. These involve sub-solves resembling inexact versions of the sequential solve. The choice of approach and sub-methods depends crucially on the motivating physics, the discretization, and available computational resources. Here we examine the performance trade-offs for preconditioning strategies applied to idealized models of mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics, characterized by large viscosity gradients. Due to the arbitrary topological structure of the viscosity field in geodynamical simulations, we utilize low order, inf-sup stable mixed finite element spatial discretizations which are suitable when sharp viscosity variations occur in element interiors. Particular attention is paid to possibilities within the decoupled and approximate Schur complement factorization-based monolithic approaches to leverage recently-developed flexible, communication-avoiding, and communication-hiding Krylov subspace methods in combination with `heavy' smoothers, which require solutions of large per-node sub-problems, well
Favart, Monik; Coirier, Pierre
2006-07-01
Two complementary experiments analyzed the acquisition of text content linearization in writing, in French-speaking participants from third to ninth grades. In both experiments, a scrambled text paradigm was used: eleven ideas presented in random order had to be rearranged coherently so as to compose a text. Linearization was analyzed on the basis of the conceptual ordering of ideas and writing fluency. The first experiment focused on the effect of superstructural facilitation (in decreasing order: 1--instructional, 2--narrative, 3--argumentative), while the second experiment studied the effect of prewriting conditions: 1-scrambled presentation, 2--macrostructural facilitation, 3--ideas given in optimal order (control condition). As expected, scores in conceptual ordering and writing fluency improved through the grade levels. Students were most successful with respect to conceptual ordering in the instructional superstructure, followed by the narrative and finally the argumentative superstructures. The prewriting assignment also had the expected effect (control better than macrostructural presentation which, in turn, was better than the random order) but only with the argumentative superstructure. Contrary to conceptual ordering, writing fluency was not affected by the type of superstructure, although we did record an effect of the prewriting condition. The results are discussed in light of Bereiter and Scardamalia's knowledge transforming strategy (1987) taking into account cognitive development and French language curriculum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grizzuti, Nino; Pasquino, Rossana
2008-07-01
The rheology of non-Brownian, inertialess rigid spheres suspended in viscoelastic fluids was investigated in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes (volume fractions up to 10%), where interparticle interactions become increasingly relevant. PMMA spherical particles were suspended in viscoelastic Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS). A Newtonian fluid (Polyisobutilene, PIB) was also used as a reference system. As expected, both the viscosity and the viscoelastic moduli increased with increasing solid volume fraction. The rheological parameters showed a simple scaling behaviour when their normalized values (with respect to the pure fluid) were considered. Viscosity and moduli were found to be independent upon shear rate and frequency, respectively. Following Batchelor's approach for non-dilute Newtonian suspensions, a second order polynomial dependency for the rheological properties was assumed. While the Newtonian reference fluid was found to obey well Batchelor's theoretical predictions, the viscoelastic suspensions showed more pronounced deviations from the linear dilute behavior, resulting in a second order polynomial coefficient substantially larger than that predicted by Batchelor for Newtonian systems. It was also found that the same concentration dependence was followed by both elastic and loss modulus.
Yang, Yingjie; Kurokawa, Toru; Takahama, Yoshifumi; Nindita, Yosi; Mochizuki, Susumu; Arakawa, Kenji; Endo, Satoru; Kinashi, Haruyasu
2011-01-01
The 113,463-bp nucleotide sequence of the linear plasmid pSLA2-M of Streptomyces rochei 7434AN4 was determined. pSLA2-M had a 69.7% overall GC content, 352-bp terminal inverted repeats with 91% (321/352) identity at both ends, and 121 open reading frames. The rightmost 14.6-kb sequence was almost (14,550/14,555) identical to that of the coexisting 211-kb linear plasmid pSLA2-L. Adjacent to this homologous region an 11.8-kb CRISPR cluster was identified, which is known to function against phage infection in prokaryotes. This cluster region as well as another one containing two large membrane protein genes (orf78 and orf79) were flanked by direct repeats of 194 and 566 bp respectively. Hence the insertion of circular DNAs containing each cluster by homologous recombination was suggested. In addition, the orf71 encoded a Ku70/Ku80-like protein, known to function in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks in eukaryotes, but disruption of it did not affect the radiation sensitivity of the mutant. A pair of replication initiation genes (orf1-orf2) were identified at the extreme left end. Thus, pSLA2-M proved to be a composite linear plasmid characterized by self-defense genes and homology with pSLA2-L that might have been generated by multiple recombination events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
kyeong Jang, Jae; Ryul Lee, Jung
2015-07-01
Separation mechanism of Space launch vehicles are used in various separation systems and pyrotechnic devices. The operation of these pyrotechnic devices generates Pyroshock that can cause failures in electronic components. The prediction of high frequency structural response, especially the shock response spectrum (SRS), is important. This paper presents a non-destructive visualization and simulation of linear explosive-induced Pyroshock using phase arrayed Laser-induced shock. The proposed method includes a laser shock test based on laser beam and filtering zone conditioning to predict the SRS of Pyroshock. A ballistic test based on linear explosive and non-contact Laser Doppler Vibrometers and a nondestructive Laser shock measurement using laser excitation and several PZT sensors, are performed using a carbon composite sandwich panel. The similarity of the SRS of the conditioned laser shock to that of the real explosive Pyroshock is evaluated with the Mean Acceleration Difference. The average of MADs over the two training points was 33.64%. And, MAD at verification point was improved to 31.99%. After that, experimentally found optimal conditions are applied to any arbitrary points in laser scanning area. Finally, it is shown that linear explosive-induced real Pyroshock wave propagation can be visualized with high similarity based on the proposed laser technology.
The analytical representation of viscoelastic material properties using optimization techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, S. A.
1993-02-01
This report presents a technique to model viscoelastic material properties with a function of the form of the Prony series. Generally, the method employed to determine the function constants requires assuming values for the exponential constants of the function and then resolving the remaining constants through linear least-squares techniques. The technique presented here allows all the constants to be analytically determined through optimization techniques. This technique is employed in a computer program named PRONY and makes use of commercially available optimization tool developed by VMA Engineering, Inc. The PRONY program was utilized to compare the technique against previously determined models for solid rocket motor TP-H1148 propellant and V747-75 Viton fluoroelastomer. In both cases, the optimization technique generated functions that modeled the test data with at least an order of magnitude better correlation. This technique has demonstrated the capability to use small or large data sets and to use data sets that have uniformly or nonuniformly spaced data pairs. The reduction of experimental data to accurate mathematical models is a vital part of most scientific and engineering research. This technique of regression through optimization can be applied to other mathematical models that are difficult to fit to experimental data through traditional regression techniques.
Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of tissue assessed by ultrasound.
Sinkus, Ralph; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; El-Khoury, Carl; Servois, Vincent; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias
2006-11-01
A technique to assess qualitatively the presence of higher-order viscoelastic parameters is presented. Low-frequency, monochromatic elastic waves are emitted into the material via an external vibrator. The resulting steady-state motion is detected in real time via an ultra fast ultrasound system using classical, one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasound speckle correlation for motion estimation. Total data acquisition lasts only for about 250 ms. The spectrum of the temporal displacement data at each image point is used for analysis. The presence of nonlinear effects is detected by inspection of the ratio of the second harmonics amplitude with respect to the total amplitude summed up to the second harmonic. Results from a polyacrylamide-based phantom indicate a linear response (i.e., the absence of higher harmonics) for this type of material at 65 Hz mechanical vibration frequency and about 100 microm amplitude. A lesion, artificially created by injection of glutaraldehyde into a beef specimen, shows the development of higher harmonics at the location of injection as a function of time. The presence of upper harmonics is clearly evident at the location of a malignant lesion within a mastectomy.
Oil drainage in model porous media by viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaumont, Julien; Bodiguel, Hugues; Colin, Annie
2012-11-01
Crude oil recovery efficiency has been shown to depend directly on the capillary number (Ca). If the capillary phenomenon is well described for Newtonian fluids, the consequences of non linear rheology and viscoelasticity require more experimental work at the pore scale. In this work we take advantage of microfluidic to revisit this field. We carried out oil drainage experiments through a micromodel made up with photoresist resin. The wetting phase trapped is a model oil. The invading phases used are aqueous solutions of high molecular weight hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and surfactant. Qualitatively, we observed a transition between a capillary fingering at low flow rates and a stable front at high flow rates for the drainage experiments with HPAM and surfactant solutions as it happened for drainage with Newtonian fluids. From movies of the filling of the device, we determine the local velocity of all menisci in the porous media. Thus, we quantify the capillary fingering. Surprisingly, local velocities are not significantly different from those measured using water, whereas the HPAM solutions are much more viscous. With betaine solutions, we observed an emulsification of the oil clusters trapped during the invasion leading to a very high oil recovery after percolation.
Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of tissue assessed by ultrasound.
Sinkus, Ralph; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; El-Khoury, Carl; Servois, Vincent; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias
2006-11-01
A technique to assess qualitatively the presence of higher-order viscoelastic parameters is presented. Low-frequency, monochromatic elastic waves are emitted into the material via an external vibrator. The resulting steady-state motion is detected in real time via an ultra fast ultrasound system using classical, one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasound speckle correlation for motion estimation. Total data acquisition lasts only for about 250 ms. The spectrum of the temporal displacement data at each image point is used for analysis. The presence of nonlinear effects is detected by inspection of the ratio of the second harmonics amplitude with respect to the total amplitude summed up to the second harmonic. Results from a polyacrylamide-based phantom indicate a linear response (i.e., the absence of higher harmonics) for this type of material at 65 Hz mechanical vibration frequency and about 100 microm amplitude. A lesion, artificially created by injection of glutaraldehyde into a beef specimen, shows the development of higher harmonics at the location of injection as a function of time. The presence of upper harmonics is clearly evident at the location of a malignant lesion within a mastectomy. PMID:17091837
Origins of viscoelastic dissipation in self-assembled organic monolayers
Shinn, N.D.; Michalske, T.A.
1998-04-01
Although self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are promising candidates for interfacial lubricants in micro-electromechanical systems, the relationship between the monolayer structure and its viscoelastic properties is not understood. Using Acoustic Wave Damping (AWD), the authors have measured the complex shear modulus of linear alkane thiol monolayers, HS(CH{sub 2}){sub n{minus}1}CH{sub 3} denoted as C{sub n}, on Au(111)-textured substrates. The AWD technique measures the elastic energy storage and dissipative loss within a SAM adsorbed onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance. For C{sub 12}, C{sub 14} and C{sub 18} SAMs, the storage modulus increases with alkane chain length, but the loss modulus exhibits no systematic correlation. To investigate the origins of energy dissipation, the authors used a new, high-sensitivity oscillator circuit to simultaneously monitor the adsorption kinetics and acoustic damping during monolayer growth from the gas phase. For both C{sub 9} and C{sub 12} thiols, the dissipation in the growing monolayer can be correlated with distinct two-dimensional fluid phases and the nucleation and growth of condensed-phase islands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Mita; Dhua, Sudarshan; Chattopadhyay, Amares
2015-12-01
The present paper is concerned with the propagation of shear waves in an isotropic, viscoelastic, heterogeneous layer lying over a homogeneous half space under initial stress. For the layer the inhomogeneity associated to rigidity, internal friction and density is assumed to be linear function of depth. The dispersion equation of shear waves has been obtained in closed form. The dimensionless phase velocity and damping velocity have been plotted against dimensionless wave number for different values of inhomogeneity parameter and initial stress. The effects of inhomogeneity and initial stress have been shown in the dispersion curves.
Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.
Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing
2006-12-22
The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.
The jetting behavior of viscoelastic Boger fluids during centrifugal spinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhmayev, Yevgen; Divvela, Mounica Jyothi; Ruo, An-Cheng; Huang, Tao; Joo, Yong Lak
2015-12-01
We present an experimental visualization study of centrifugal spinning, which is a novel method of producing nanofibers. The investigation was conducted using Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids to study the effect of viscoelasticity, driving force, and the flow rate on the initial thinning behavior, jet contour shapes, and radii. Boger fluids based on Newtonian polybutene and viscoelastic polyisobutylene were utilized as test fluids in the current study. Our results reveal that increasing the viscoelasticity leads to a faster initial thinning of the polymer jet. However, the effect is strongly coupled with the rotation speed, and due to a faster increase in extensional viscosity for highly viscoelastic fluids, the thinning slows down with the increase in the angular velocity. Initial thinning is shown to be faster for the lower flow rates. Viscoelasticity and centrifugal force have a significant influence on the jet contour radii. The maximum radius will decrease for more viscoelastic fluids, and with the increase in angular velocity due to the development of the elastic hoop stress. The comparison of experiments with the discretized element modeling with the FENE-P model confirms the model predictive potential for the thinning behavior. Finally, the centrifugal spinning experiments are compared to electrospinning in order to observe a qualitative similarity.
Viscoelastic-coupling model for the earthquake cycle driven from below
Savage, J.C.
2000-01-01
In a linear system the earthquake cycle can be represented as the sum of a solution which reproduces the earthquake cycle itself (viscoelastic-coupling model) and a solution that provides the driving force. We consider two cases, one in which the earthquake cycle is driven by stresses transmitted along the schizosphere and a second in which the cycle is driven from below by stresses transmitted along the upper mantle (i.e., the schizosphere and upper mantle, respectively, act as stress guides in the lithosphere). In both cases the driving stress is attributed to steady motion of the stress guide, and the upper crust is assumed to be elastic. The surface deformation that accumulates during the interseismic interval depends solely upon the earthquake-cycle solution (viscoelastic-coupling model) not upon the driving source solution. Thus geodetic observations of interseismic deformation are insensitive to the source of the driving forces in a linear system. In particular, the suggestion of Bourne et al. [1998] that the deformation that accumulates across a transform fault system in the interseismic interval is a replica of the deformation that accumulates in the upper mantle during the same interval does not appear to be correct for linear systems.
Microstructure development in viscoelastic fluid systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huaping
This thesis deals with the mechanisms of microstructure development in polymer blends. Much work has been performed on the breakup process of immiscible systems where the dispersed phase is suspended inside another matrix. The fluids used were polymer melts or model viscoelastic fluids, and the processing flows were model shear flow or processing flows seen in industry. It is found that in industrial extruders or batch mixers, the morphology of the dispersed polymer evolves from pellets to films, and subsequently to fibers and particles. In this thesis, it is demonstrated based on force analysis that the in-situ graft reactive compatibilization facilitates breakup of the dispersed phase by suppressing slip at the interface of the dispersed phase and matrix phase. The morphology development of polymer blends in industrial mixers was simulated by performing experiments of model viscoelastic drop deformation and breakup under shear flow. Two distinct modes of drop deformation and breakup were observed. Namely, viscoelastic drops can elongate and breakup either in (1) the flow direction or (2) the vorticity direction. The first normal stress difference N1 plays a decisive role in the conditions and modes of drop breakup. Drop size is an important factor which determines to a great extent the mode of drop breakup and the critical point when the drop breakup mechanism changes. Small drops break along the vorticity direction, whereas large drops break in the flow direction. A dramatic change in the critical shear rate was found when going from one breakup mode to another. Polymer melts processed under shear flow present different morphology development mechanisms: films, fibers, vorticity elongation and surface instability. The mechanisms depend greatly on the rheological properties of both the dispersed and matrix phases, namely the viscosity ratio and elasticity ratio. High viscosity ratio and high elasticity ratio result elongation of the dispersed phase in the
Afterslip Distribution of Large Earthquakes Using Viscoelastic Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, T.; Higuchi, H.
2009-12-01
One of important parameters in simulations of earthquake generation is frictional properties of faults. To investigate the frictional properties, many authors studied coseismic slip and afterslip distribution of large plate interface earthquakes using coseismic and post seismic surface deformation by GPS data. Most of these studies used elastic media to get afterslip distribution. However, the effect of viscoelastic relaxation at the asthenosphere is important on post seismic surface deformation (Matsu’ura and Sato, GJI, 1989; Sato and Matsu’ura, GJI, 1992). Therefore, the studies using elastic media did not estimate correct afterslip distribution because they forced the cause of surface deformation on only afterslips at plate interface. We estimate afterslip distribution of large interplate earthquakes using viscoelastic media. We consider not only viscoelastic responses of coseismic slip but also viscoelastic responses of afterslips. Because many studies suggested that the magnitude of afterslips was comparable to that of coseismic slip, viscoelastic responses of afterslips can not be negligible. Therefore, surface displacement data include viscoelastic response of coseismic slip, viscoelastic response of afterslips which occurred just after coseismic period to just before the present, and elastic response of the present afterslip. We estimate afterslip distribution for the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, Hokkaido, Japan using GPS data by GSI, Japan. We use CAMP model (Hashimoto et al, PAGEOPH, 2004) as a plate interface between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The viscoelastic results show clearer that afterslips distribute on areaes where the coseismic slip does not occur. The viscoelastic results also show that the afterslips concentrate deeper parts of the plate interface at the eastern adjoining area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake.
Viscoelastic mechanical behavior of soft microcantilever-based force sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, I.-Kuan; Liao, Yen-Ming; Liu, Yan; Ou, Kuang-Shun; Chen, Kuo-Shen; Zhang, Xin
2008-12-01
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microcantilevers have been used as force sensors for studying cellular mechanics by converting their displacements to cellular mechanical forces. However, PDMS is an inherently viscoelastic material and its elastic modulus changes with loading rates and elapsed time. Therefore, the traditional approach to calculating cellular mechanical forces based on elastic mechanics can result in errors. This letter reports a more in-depth method for viscoelastic characterization, modeling, and analysis associated with the bending behavior of the PDMS microcantilevers. A viscoelastic force conversion model was developed and validated by proof-of-principle bending tests.
Interpretation of postseismic deformation with a viscoelastic relaxation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahr, J.; Wyss, M.
1980-01-01
A viscoelastic relaxation model is used to interpret postseismic surface deformation for the large-magnitude Aleutian earthquakes of 1957 and 1965. The lithosphere and asthenosphere are modeled as elastic solids with an anomalous viscoelastic inclusion below the island arc volcanoes. It is found that the observed postseismic surface deformation is a corollary of the known island arc structure. A satisfactory fit to the uplift following the 1957 earthquake is found for a viscoelastic volume with 80-km width extending from a depth of 50 to 200 km.
Evolution of structure and viscoelasticity in diethanolamine-cured epoxy
Adolf, D.; Martin, J.E.
1990-06-01
As a crosslinking polymer cures, dramatic changes in molecular architecture occur. These structural changes in turn affect the viscoelastic behavior of the material. At a critical extent of reaction (the gel point), the polymer undergoes a transition from a viscous liquid to an elastic solid. We have monitored the evolution of structure and viscoelasticity in the most common epoxy encapsulant used at Sandia, diethanolamine-cured Epon 828. The structure evolves according to percolation theory, and the viscoelasticity evolves according to our dynamic scaling theory for branched polymers. 9 refs., 12 figs.
Collective dynamics of sperm in viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tung, Chih-Kuan; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming
2015-03-01
Collective dynamics of artificial swimmers has gathered a lot of attention from physicists, in part because of its close relations to emergent behaviors in condensed matter, such as phase transitions. However, the emergence of order tends to be less drastic in the systems composed of real living cells, sometimes due to the natural variability in individual organisms. Here, using bull sperm as a model system, we demonstrate that the local orientation order of sperm spontaneously emerges in viscoelastic fluids, migrating collectively in clusters in high cell concentrations, or pairs in low cell concentrations. This collectiveness is similar to a liquid-gas phase transition, as both phases coexist simultaneously in our system. Unlike bacterial swarming, this collectiveness does not require the cells to be in a different phenotype than the regular swimming one, providing further simplicity to the physicists. We will discuss the underlying interaction mechanism, and the potential influence in biology. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.
Collective dynamics of sperm in viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming
Collective dynamics in biology is an interesting subject for physicists, in part because of its close relations to emergent behaviors in condensed matter, such as phase separation and criticality. However, the emergence of order is often less drastic in systems composed of the living cells, sometimes due to the natural variability among individual organisms. Here, using bull sperm as a model system, we demonstrate that the cells migrate collectively in viscoelastic fluids, exhibiting behavior similar to ``flocking''. This collectiveness is greatly reduced in similarly viscous Newtonian fluids, suggesting that the cell-cell interaction is primarily a result of the elastic property or the memory effect of the fluids, instead of pure hydrodynamic interactions. Unlike bacterial swarming, this collectiveness does not require a change in phenotype of the cells; therefore, it is a better model system for physicists. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.
Viscoelasticity of nano-alumina dispersions
Rand, B.; Fries, R.
1996-06-01
The flow and viscoelastic properties of electrostatically stabilized nano-alumina dispersions have been studied as a function of ionic strength and volume fraction of solids. At low ionic strength the suspensions were deflocculated and showed a transition from viscous to elastic behavior as the solid content increased associated with the onset of double layer interpenetration. The phase transition was progressively shifted to higher solids fractions with increasing ionic strength. At higher ionic strength, above the critical coagulation concentration, the suspensions formed attractive networks characterized by high elasticity. Two independent methods of estimating the effective radius of electrostatically stabilized {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} particles, a{sub eff}, are presented based on phase angle data and a modified Dougherty-Krieger equation. The results suggest that a{sub eff} is not constant for a given system but changes with both solids fraction and ionic strength.
Standing shear waves in anisotropic viscoelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krit, T.; Golubkova, I.; Andreev, V.
2015-10-01
We studied standing shear waves in anisotropic resonator represented by a rectangular parallelepiped (layer) fixed without slipping between two wooden plates of finite mass. The viscoelastic layer with edges of 70 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm was made of a rubber-like polymer plastisol with rubber bands inside. The bands were placed vertical between the top and the bottom plate. Mechanical properties of the plastisol itself were carefully measured previously. It was found that plastisol shows a cubic nonlinear behavior, i.e. the stress-strain curve could be represented as: σ = μɛ + βμɛ3, where ɛ stands for shear strain and σ is an applied shear stress. The value of shear modulus μ depends on frequency and was found to be several kilopascals which is common for such soft solids. Nonlinear parameter β is frequency dependent too and varies in range from tenths to unity at 1-100 Hz frequency range, decreasing with frequency growth. Stretching the rubber bands inside the layer leads to change of elastic properties in resonator. Such effect could be noticed due to frequency response of the resonator. The numerical model of the resonator was based on finite elements method (FEM) and performed in MatLab. The resonator was cut in hundreds of right triangular prisms. Each prism was provided with viscoelastic properties of the layer except for the top prisms provided with the wooden plate properties and the prisms at the site of the rubber bands provided with the rubber properties. The boundary conditions on each prism satisfied the requirements that resonator is inseparable and all its boundaries but bottom are free. The bottom boundary was set to move horizontally with constant acceleration amplitude. It was shown numerically that the resonator shows anisotropic behavior expressed in different frequency response to oscillations applied to a bottom boundary in different directions.
Nutation damping in viscoelastic tumbling rotators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frouard, Julien; Efroimsky, Michael
2015-11-01
Presently, 138 asteroids show signs of being in non-principal spin states (Warner et al. 2009, updated September 2015). Such spin is often called `tumble' or `wobble'. The instantaneous rotation axis of a wobbling body performs nutation about the direction of the (conserved) angular-momentum vector. Incited by collisions and YORP, wobble is mitigated by internal dissipation due to the nutation-caused alternating stresses inside the asteroid.The knowledge of the timescale related to the damping of the nutation angle is complementary to the knowledge of the timescales associated with collisions and YORP. Previous evaluations of the nutation relaxation rate were based on an inherently inconsistent approach that may be called "Q-model". First, the elastic energy in a periodically deforming rotator was calculated in assumption of the deformation being elastic. Therefrom, the energy dissipation rate was determined by introducing an ad hoc quality factor Q. This ignored the fact that friction (and the ensuing existence of Q) is due to deviation from elasticity.We use the viscoelastic Maxwell model which naturally implies dissipation (as any other viscoelastic model would). In this approach, we compute the power and damping time for an oblate ellipsoid and a prism. Now, the viscosity assumes the role of the product μQ in the empirical Q-model, with μ being the rigidity. Contrarily to the Q-model, our model naturally gives a null dissipation for a shape tending to a sphere. We also explore when the constant part of the stress can be ignored in the derivation of the damping time. The neglect of prestressing turns out to be legitimate for the mean viscosity exceeding a certain threshold value.
Instability of a train of oscillators moving along a beam on a viscoelastic foundation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazilu, Traian
2013-09-01
The paper focuses on the theory of the vibration instability in the train of oscillators uniformly moving along an Euler-Bernoulli beam on a viscoelastic foundation, caused by the anomalous Doppler waves excited in the beam. This theory may be applied to the high-speed trains when the speed exceeds the minimum phase velocity of the elastic waves that they induce in the track. Each oscillator has two masses connected to a system Kelvin-Voigt representing a single wheel of the train and the corresponding suspended mass. The Euler-Bernoulli beam on viscoelastic foundation models the track, including the rail bending stiffness, the inertia of the track and the subgrade viscoelasticity. The wheel/rail Hertzian contact and the possibility of the contact loss are accounted for. The analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the train of oscillators has two distinct sections. For the former one, the linear critical velocity is calculated starting from the roots of the characteristic equation by applying either the D-decomposition method or an iterative one. For the latter one, the nonlinear stability based on the bifurcation theory is analysed. To this end, the nonlinear equations of motion are solved via a new form of the Green's functions method. The above theory has been applied to the particular case of two oscillators moving along a beam on viscoelastic foundation, to point out the instability behaviour of a bogie. The result of the bifurcation analysis is that the oscillators/beam system exhibits a sub-critical bifurcation. The critical velocity of the system is given by the value of the nonlinear critical velocity. As long as the velocity is within the range between the nonlinear and linear critical velocities, the system motion can have two stable behaviours depending on the initial perturbation: the equilibrium points when the perturbation is sufficiently low or, alternatively, an asymmetric limit cycle as periodic attractor. When the velocity of the two oscillators is
Biswas, Arnab; Dubey, Mrigendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sujay; Kumar, Ashish; Pandey, Daya Shankar
2016-03-28
Progelator complex Zn-TRPA-2 undergoes Cl(-) triggered gelation to afford ZTP2G, while Zn-TRPA-2 capped Au-NPs under similar conditions gave another gel GNZTP2G which also represents a rare nano-composite metallogel. When Zn-TRPA-2 was triggered by Cl(-) and NO3(-) simultaneously, crystals of demetalated species NA-TRPA-2 grew inside the ZTP2G matrix. Interestingly, GNZTP2G exhibits superior viscoelastic properties over ZTP2G.
Nonlinear visco-elastic relaxation of non-lithostatic pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podladchikov, Yury; Dabrowski, Marcin
2014-05-01
We investigate the rate of viscoelastic relaxation of non-lithostatic pressure as a function of a number of model parameters. Nonlinearity and anisotropy of viscosity are under investigation. We also study to what limit the pressure is relaxing.
Finite-length swimmer in a nonlinearly viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Henry
2010-11-01
Many swimming microorganisms naturally encounter non-Newtonian, viscoelastic fluids, including mucus in airways, the stomach, and the reproductive tract. Most of the analytical work on swimming in such complex media has involved swimmers of infinite length, in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometries. I present an analytic calculation of a finite-length three-dimensional swimmer, the Golestanian 3-sphere swimmer, in the limit of small sphere radius relative to sphere separation and small displacement relative to sphere radius. I discuss the effect of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the swimming speeed and on the internal forces exerted by the spheres on one another. Finite-length corrections occur at second order in displacements, the same order as the Newtonian swimming speed and the viscoelastic corrections observed for infinite swimmers. For this finite-length swimmer, viscoelastic corrections to the swimming speed rely on spatial asymmetry in the swimming stroke amplitude.
Modelling of spring roll actuators based on viscoelastic dielectric elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Tang, Liling; Li, Bo; Sheng, Junjie; Liu, Lei
2015-06-01
In this article, the effect of viscoelastic deformation is analyzed theoretically to evaluate the performance of spring roll dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators. By patterning the electrodes on the rolls, respectively, two functions are studied: axial elongation and bending. The thermodynamic model of viscoelastic DE spring roll is established, and the governing equation is deduced by the free energy method. It is found that when the applied voltage is static and relatively small, both the axial elongated and bending deformed spring rolls can reach equilibrium after viscoelastic relaxation. The evolutions in different timescales and the final profile are presented. The dynamic response is studied as well, by applying a sinusoidal voltage. For the axial elongated spring roll, viscoelasticity can reduce amplitude and increase mean stretch of the actuator. For the bending deformed spring rolls, the results indicate that the spring stiffness has a more significant impact on dynamic performance compared to the effect of voltage.
Peristaltic pumping of solid particles immersed in a viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrispell, John; Fauci, Lisa
2010-11-01
Peristaltic pumping of fluid is a fundamental method of transport in many biological processes. In some instances, particles of appreciable size are transported along with the fluid, such as ovum transport in the oviduct or kidney stones in the ureter. In some of these biological settings, the fluid may be viscoelastic. In such a case, a nonlinear constitutive equation to describe the evolution of the viscoelastic contribution to the stress tensor must be included in the governing equations. Here we use an immersed boundary framework to study peristaltic transport of a macroscopic solid particle in a viscoelastic fluid governed by a Navier-Stokes/Oldroyd-B model. Numerical simulations of peristaltic pumping as a function of Weissenberg number are presented. We examine the spatial and temporal evolution of the polymer stress field, and also find that the viscoelasticity of the fluid does hamper the overall transport of the particle in the direction of the wave.
A K-BKZ Formulation for Soft-Tissue Viscoelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Diethelm, Kai
2005-01-01
A viscoelastic model of the K-BKZ (Kaye 1962; Bernstein et al. 1963) type is developed for isotropic biological tissues, and applied to the fat pad of the human heel. To facilitate this pursuit, a class of elastic solids is introduced through a novel strain-energy function whose elements possess strong ellipticity, and therefore lead to stable material models. The standard fractional-order viscoelastic (FOV) solid is used to arrive at the overall elastic/viscoelastic structure of the model, while the elastic potential via the K-BKZ hypothesis is used to arrive at the tensorial structure of the model. Candidate sets of functions are proposed for the elastic and viscoelastic material functions present in the model, including a regularized fractional derivative that was determined to be the best. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) is advocated for performing multi-model inference, enabling an objective selection of the best material function from within a candidate set.
Multiplex Particle Focusing via Hydrodynamic Force in Viscoelastic Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Doo Jin; Brenner, Howard; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok
2013-11-01
We introduce a multiplex particle focusing phenomenon that arises from the hydrodynamic interaction between the viscoelastic force and the Dean drag force in a microfluidic device. In a confined microchannel, the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic fluids results in a lateral migration of suspended particles. Such a viscoelastic force was harnessed to focus different sized particles in the middle of a microchannel, and spiral channel geometry was also considered in order to take advantage of the counteracting force, Dean drag force that induces particle migration in the outward direction. For theoretical understanding, we performed a numerical analysis of viscoelastic fluids in the spiral microfluidic channel. From these results, a concept of the `Dean-coupled Elasto-inertial Focusing band (DEF)' was proposed. This study provides in-depth physical insight into the multiplex focusing of particles that can open a new venue for microfluidic particle dynamics for a concrete high throughput platform at microscale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Muhammad Khairul Anuar; Salleh, Mohdi Zuki; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan
2015-08-01
In this study, the mathematical modeling for the stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking surface in a viscoelastic fluid (Walter's liquid-B model) with partial slip velocity is considered. The non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation before being solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the surface temperature, temperature gradient at the surface and the skin friction coefficient. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of Prandtl number, the dimensionless viscoelastic parameter, stretching parameter, constant velocity slip parameter and conjugate parameter are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the heat transfer rate is higher for Walter's fluid compared to the classical viscous fluid and the presence of the velocity slip reduces the effects of the viscoelastic parameter on the skin friction coefficient.
Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.
1997-01-01
Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jung-Ryul; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Choi, Mijin; Kong, Cheol-Won
2015-04-01
During space flights, pyrotechnic devices are used for various purposes such as separation of boosters, satellites, fairings, and stages. In particular, the prediction of high shock structural response induced by linear explosives is important for safe operation of pyrotechnic devices. In general, repetitive explosive testing using distributed accelerometers is widely used, but multiple test structures are usually necessary because they are easily damaged and not reusable. This paper pertains to a nondestructive technology to replace the damage-causing, time-consuming, expensive, dangerous, and low-repeatability explosive test with a laser-induced shock test. The method proposed in this paper predicts nondestructively the linear explosive-induced pyroshock wave, visualizes its propagation, and allows the simulation of some detonation conditions. A ballistic test based on a linear explosive and noncontact laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) as well as a nondestructive pyroshock test using laser-induced shock and PZT array sensors is performed in a 12.68-mm thick composite sandwich panel. The optimal laser-induced shock experimental conditions to predict real pyroshock response spectra (SRSs) are investigated by controlling the optical characteristics of the laser beam and adjusting the frequency bands in signal acquisition. The similarity of the SRS of the conditioned laser-induced shock to that of the real explosive pyroshock is evaluated with the mean acceleration difference. Next, the experimentally-determined optimal conditions are applied to arbitrary points in the laser-induced shock scanning area. Finally, it is shown that the proposed method will allow nondestructive and quantitative pyroshock testing, pyroshock wave propagation visualization showing the direction and magnitude of principal wave propagation, and detonation speed simulation depending on explosive type and detonation initiation point and direction.
Swimming speed of an oscillating sheet in Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Moumita; Berhanu, Michael; Kudrolli, Arshad; Liu, Bin; Breuer, Kenneth; Powers, Thomas
2011-11-01
We discuss a mechanical experimental model of a flexible sheet swimming with a prescribed wave pattern through a fluid. We are motivated by a need for a fundamental understanding of microorganism locomotion through non-Newtonian fluids. To simplify the problem, we suspend a tall flexible cylindrical sheet concentric within a cylindrical tank filled with the fluid. Torque free boundary conditions are imposed by supporting the flexible sheet and the tank with friction-free ball-bearings. A traveling wave is imposed on the sheet with a pair of rollers in the azimuthal direction. We first show that the swimming speed is linear with respect to the phase velocity of the traveling wave for a viscous Newtonian fluid. Then we show that the system is essentially two dimensional as the results do not depend on the height of fluid in the tank. We measure swimming speed in Polyox-water mixtures and Sodium CMC solutions as a function of wave speed. We again demonstrate linear response in the swimming speeds, which also decrease in these viscoelastic fluids relative to the Newtonian case as wave speed increases. Decrease in swimming speed is observed with increase in viscoelasticity of the fluids. We then discuss the dependence of swimming speed on the Deborah number of the fluids.
Rossikhin, Yury A; Shitikova, Marina V; Meza, Maria Guadalupe Estrada
2016-01-01
In the present paper, the problem of low-velocity impact of an elastic sphere against a viscoelastic Timoshenko-type beam is studied considering the extension of its middle surface. The viscoelastic features of the beam out of the contact domain are governed by the standard linear solid model with derivatives of integer order, while within the contact domain the fractional derivative standard linear solid model is utilized, in so doing rheological constants of the material in both models are the same. However the presence of the additional parameter, i.e. fractional parameter which could vary from zero to unit, allows one to vary beam's viscosity, since the structure of the beam's material within this zone may be damaged, resulting in the decrease of the beam material viscosity in the contact zone. Consideration for transient waves (surfaces of strong discontinuity) propagating in the target out of the contact zone via the theory of discontinuities and determination of the desired values behind the surfaces of discontinuities upto the contact domain with the help of ray series, as well as the utilization of the Hertz theory in the contact zone allow one to obtain a set of two integro-differential equations, which govern the desired values, namely: the local bearing of the target and impactor's materials and the displacement of the beam within the contact domain. PMID:27026902
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Ivan I.; Rossikhin, Yury A.; Shitikova, Marina V.; Ta-Peng, Chang
2015-11-01
The problem on low-velocity impact of a long thin elastic rod with a flat end upon an infinite viscoelastic Timoshenko-type beam, the dynamic behaviour of which is described by a set of equations taking the rotary inertia, transverse shear deformation and extension of the beam's middle surface into account, is considered. The viscoelastic features of the beam are governed by the standard linear solid model with derivatives of integer order. At the moment of impact, shock waves (surfaces of strong discontinuity) are generated both in the impactor and target, the influence of which on the contact domain is considered via the theory of discontinuities. The contact zone moves like a rigid whole under the action of the contact force and longitudinal and transverse forces applied to the boundary of the contact region, which are obtained on the basis of one-term ray expansions. During the impact process, decrosslinking within the domain of the contact of the beam with the rod occurs, resulting in more free displacements of molecules with respect to each other, and finally in the decrease of the beam material viscosity in the contact zone. This circumstance allows one to describe the behaviour of the beam material within the contact domain by the standard linear solid model involving fractional derivatives, since variation in the fractional parameter (the order of the fractional derivative) enables one to control the viscosity of the beam material. The contact force has been determined analytically via the Laplace transform technique.
Rossikhin, Yury A; Shitikova, Marina V; Meza, Maria Guadalupe Estrada
2016-01-01
In the present paper, the problem of low-velocity impact of an elastic sphere against a viscoelastic Timoshenko-type beam is studied considering the extension of its middle surface. The viscoelastic features of the beam out of the contact domain are governed by the standard linear solid model with derivatives of integer order, while within the contact domain the fractional derivative standard linear solid model is utilized, in so doing rheological constants of the material in both models are the same. However the presence of the additional parameter, i.e. fractional parameter which could vary from zero to unit, allows one to vary beam's viscosity, since the structure of the beam's material within this zone may be damaged, resulting in the decrease of the beam material viscosity in the contact zone. Consideration for transient waves (surfaces of strong discontinuity) propagating in the target out of the contact zone via the theory of discontinuities and determination of the desired values behind the surfaces of discontinuities upto the contact domain with the help of ray series, as well as the utilization of the Hertz theory in the contact zone allow one to obtain a set of two integro-differential equations, which govern the desired values, namely: the local bearing of the target and impactor's materials and the displacement of the beam within the contact domain.
Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of polymer materials using a dynamic-mechanical methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strganac, Thomas W.; Payne, Debbie Flowers; Biskup, Bruce A.; Letton, Alan
1995-01-01
Polymer materials retrieved from LDEF exhibit nonlinear constitutive behavior; thus the authors present a method to characterize nonlinear viscoelastic behavior using measurements from dynamic (oscillatory) mechanical tests. Frequency-derived measurements are transformed into time-domain properties providing the capability to predict long term material performance without a lengthy experimentation program. Results are presented for thin-film high-performance polymer materials used in the fabrication of high-altitude scientific balloons. Predictions based upon a linear test and analysis approach are shown to deteriorate for moderate to high stress levels expected for extended applications. Tests verify that nonlinear viscoelastic response is induced by large stresses. Hence, an approach is developed in which the stress-dependent behavior is examined in a manner analogous to modeling temperature-dependent behavior with time-temperature correspondence and superposition principles. The development leads to time-stress correspondence and superposition of measurements obtained through dynamic mechanical tests. Predictions of material behavior using measurements based upon linear and nonlinear approaches are compared with experimental results obtained from traditional creep tests. Excellent agreement is shown for the nonlinear model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mace, M.
1994-05-01
In this paper, a new one-dimensional theory of beams damped by means of a thin viscoelastic film is presented. Based upon a prescribed piecewise linear longitudinal displacement field, and a shear stress field satisfying continuity conditions at the interfaces, the beam formulation of the proposed theory is derived. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of this beam model, numerical tests were carried out by using the finite element method. The present results are compared with well-known analytical, finite element (with the MSC/NASTRAN computer program), and experimental solutions under various (material, temperature and boundary) conditions. It is found that the proposed theory is very simple and efficient in predicting the dynamic response of beams that are damped by means of a thin viscoelastic film.
Viscoelastic Transient of Confined Red Blood Cells
Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel
2015-01-01
The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, ηmem2D ∼ 10−7 N⋅s⋅m−1. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of ηmem2D, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871
Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2015-11-01
Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.
Sliding viscoelastic drops on slippery surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, H.; Clarke, A.; Rothstein, J. P.; Poole, R. J.
2016-06-01
We study the sliding of drops of constant-viscosity dilute elastic liquids (Boger fluids) on various surfaces caused by sudden surface inclination. For smooth or roughened hydrophilic surfaces, such as glass or acrylic, there is essentially no difference between these elastic liquids and a Newtonian comparator fluid (with identical shear viscosity, surface tension, and static contact angle). In contrast for embossed polytetrafluoroethylene superhydrophobic surfaces, profound differences are observed: the elastic drops slide at a significantly reduced rate and complex branch-like patterns are left on the surface by the drop's wake including, on various scales, beads-on-a-string like phenomena. Microscopy images indicate that the strong viscoelastic effect is caused by stretching filaments of fluid from isolated islands, residing at pinning sites on the surface pillars, of the order ˜30 μm in size. On this scale, the local strain rates are sufficient to extend the polymer chains, locally increasing the extensional viscosity of the solution, retarding the drop and leaving behind striking branch-like structures on much larger scales.
On the rotation of viscoelastic satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noyelles, Benoit
2016-05-01
Most of the natural satellites are thought to be synchronous. For some of them, the presence of a thin, outer crust coating a global ocean motivates the consideration of their elasticity for modeling their rotation. Some attempts have been made to include it as an additional effect in the rotational theories.Actually, the shapes of these bodies are partly fossil, partly due to internal processes, and partly due to the tidal and rotational distortions, driving them to the hydrostatic equilibrium.I here present a fully consistent model of viscoelastic rotation of these bodies, in which the tensor of inertia is time-dependent and ruled by these distorting effects. The influence of the different frequencies affecting the motion of the satellite and the tidal parameters is considered. For that, I use an iterative numerical algorithm, in which the tensor of inertia and the rotational variables are decomposed under a quasi-periodic form. The motion of the satellite is modeled with planetary ephemerides, and the frequency-dependency of the tides is based on the Maxwell model. This results in an improved theory of the librations and the obliquity, which I validate by analytical calculations. I show that not only the amplitudes of these quantities are affected, but also their phases. I finally apply this theory on Mimas and Epimetheus, for which librations have been measured. This implies an updated interpretation of their interiors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licht, Christian; Orankitjaroen, Somsak; Ould Khaoua, Ahmed; Weller, Thibaut
2016-10-01
We extend the study [1] devoted to the dynamic response of a structure made up of two linearly elastic bodies connected by a thin soft adhesive layer made of a Kelvin-Voigt-type nonlinear viscoelastic material to the cases of stiff and very stiff adhesives whose mass vanishes. We use a nonlinear extension of Trotter's theory of convergence of semi-groups of operators acting on variable spaces to identify the asymptotic behavior of the mechanical state of the system, when some geometrical and mechanical parameters tend to their natural limits. The models we obtain describe the behavior of a structure consisting of two linearly elastic adherents perfectly bonded to a material deformable flat surface whose behavior is of the same kind as that of the genuine adhesive. xml:lang="fr"
Parrales, Miguel A; Fernandez, Juan M; Perez-Saborid, Miguel; Kopechek, Jonathan A; Porter, Tyrone M
2014-09-01
The acoustic attenuation spectrum of lipid-coated microbubble suspensions was measured in order to characterize the linear acoustic behavior of ultrasound contrast agents. For that purpose, microbubbles samples were generated with a very narrow size distribution by using microfluidics techniques. A performance as good as optical characterization techniques of single microbubbles was achieved using this method. Compared to polydispersions (i.e., contrast agents used clinically), monodisperse contrast agents have a narrower attenuation spectrum, which presents a maximum peak at a frequency value corresponding to the average single bubble resonance frequency. The low polydispersity index of the samples made the estimation of the lipid viscoelastic properties more accurate since, as previously reported, the shell linear parameters may change with the equilibrium bubble radius. The results showed the great advantage of dealing with monodisperse populations rather than polydisperse populations for the acoustic characterization of ultrasound contrast agents. PMID:25190383
Exact finite element method analysis of viscoelastic tapered structures to transient loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spyrakos, Constantine Chris
1987-01-01
A general method is presented for determining the dynamic torsional/axial response of linear structures composed of either tapered bars or shafts to transient excitations. The method consists of formulating and solving the dynamic problem in the Laplace transform domain by the finite element method and obtaining the response by a numerical inversion of the transformed solution. The derivation of the torsional and axial stiffness matrices is based on the exact solution of the transformed governing equation of motion, and it consequently leads to the exact solution of the problem. The solution permits treatment of the most practical cases of linear tapered bars and shafts, and employs modeling of structures with only one element per member which reduces the number of degrees of freedom involved. The effects of external viscous or internal viscoelastic damping are also taken into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutelier, D.; Cruden, A.; Saumur, B.
2016-05-01
Analogue models often require that materials with specific physical properties be engineered to satisfy scaling conditions. To achieve this goal we investigate the rheology of aqueous solutions of Natrosol 250 HH, a rheology modifier employed in various industries to thicken viscous solutions. We report the rheological properties as functions of the concentration and temperature and discuss the advantages and limitations of these materials in view of their use in analogue modelling experiments. The solutions are linear visco-elastic for low stresses (or strain-rates), becoming shear-thinning for larger stresses. For the typically slow analogue experiments of tectonics, the solutions can be considered linear visco-elastic with a Maxwell relaxation time much smaller than the characteristic observation time. This simplification is even more appropriate when the solutions are employed at temperatures higher than 20 °C, since the solutions then display a behaviour that is more viscous, less elastic at the same shear-rate, while the Newtonian viscosity reduces and the shear-rate limit between Newtonian and shear-thinning behaviours increases. The Newtonian viscosity is shown to increase non-linearly with concentration and decrease non-linearly with temperature. With concentrations between 0 and 3% and temperature between 20 and 40 °C, the viscosity varied between 10-1 and 4000 Pa s, while the density remained close to the density of water. Natrosol 250 HH thus offers the possibility to control the viscosity of a solution without significantly affecting the density, thereby facilitating the design and setup of analogue experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.
2001-01-01
Durability and long-term performance are among the primary concerns for the use of advanced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) in modern aerospace structural applications. For a PMC subJected to long-term exposure at elevated temperatures. the viscoelastic nature of the polymer matrix will contribute to macroscopic changes in composite stiffness, strength and fatigue life. Over time. changes in the polymer due to physical aging will have profound effects on tile viscoelastic compliance of the material, hence affecting its long-term durability. Thus, the ability to predict material performance using intrinsic properties, such as crosslink density and molecular weight, would greatly enhance the efficiency of design and development of PMCs. The objective of this paper is to discuss and present the results of an experimental study that considers the effects of crosslink density, molecular weight and temperature on the viscoelastic behavior including physical aging of an advanced polymer. Five distinct variations in crosslink density were used to evaluate the differences in mechanical performance of an advanced polyimide. The physical aging behavior was isolated by conducting sequenced, short-term isothermal creep compliance tests in tension. These tests were performed over a range of sub-glass transition temperatures. The material constants, material master curves and physical aging-related parameters were evaluated as a function of temperature crosslink density and molecular weight using time-temperature and time-aging time superposition techniques.
Irani, Maryam; Ismail, Hanafi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Fan, Maohong
2015-01-01
The purpose of this work is to remove Pb(II) from the aqueous solution using a type of hydrogel composite. A hydrogel composite consisting of waste linear low density polyethylene, acrylic acid, starch, and organo-montmorillonite was prepared through emulsion polymerization method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Solid carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CNMR)), silicon(-29) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Si NMR)), and X-ray diffraction spectroscope ((XRD) were applied to characterize the hydrogel composite. The hydrogel composite was then employed as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from the aqueous solution. The Pb(II)-loaded hydrogel composite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ((XPS)). From XPS results, it was found that the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of the hydrogel composite participated in the removal of Pb(II). Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) followed the pseudo-second-order equation. It was also found that the Langmuir model described the adsorption isotherm better than the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum removal capacity of the hydrogel composite for Pb(II) ions was 430mg/g. Thus, the waste linear low-density polyethylene-g-poly (acrylic acid)-co-starch/organo-montmorillonite hydrogel composite could be a promising Pb(II) adsorbent.
Aerobreakup of Newtonian and Viscoelastic Liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theofanous, T. G.
2011-01-01
In this review, we consider and unify all aspects of the dynamics of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquid drops in high-speed gas flows, including shock waves. The path to understanding is opened by novel, laser-induced fluorescence visualizations at spatial resolutions of up to 200 pixels for millimeter and exposure times as low as 5 ns. The central role of the competition between Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities is assessed in the frame of rich aerodynamics, from low subsonic to supersonic, and the multitude of characteristic length scales and timescales at play with varying liquid properties. Acceleration and liquid redistribution (drop deformation) early in the evolution set the stage for this competition, and we insist on an interpretation of the drag coefficient that is physically meaningful. Two principal breakup regimes (patterns of bodily loss of coherence) are identified depending on whether the gas finds its way through the liquid mass, causing gross disintegration, or goes around to induce, through shear, a surface-layer peeling-and-ejection action. Corresponding criticalities are quantified in terms of key physics, consistent with experiments. This covers in a unified fashion all liquids, independent of viscosity and elasticity, and the potential role of direct numerical simulations in supporting further advances is forecast. The resulting particle-size distributions (in a final equilibrium cloud) depend crucially on the pattern of breakup, although in this respect the role of elasticity obtains a special significance in terms of the underlying entangled-polymer-chain dynamics. From a more general perspective, we explain the canonical significance of this fundamental problem and summarize the wide range of its practical relevance, including the recently renewed interest in predicting shock-induced fluidization (or high-speed, atmospheric dissemination) of large masses of liquid agents (so-called weapons of mass destruction).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arzoumanidis, Alexis Gerasimos
A four point bend, mixed-mode, reinforced, cracked lap shear specimen experimentally simulated adhesive joints between load bearing composite parts in automotive components. The experiments accounted for fatigue, solvent and temperature effects on a swirled glass fiber composite adherend/urethane adhesive system. Crack length measurements based on compliance facilitated determination of da/dN curves. A digital image processing technique was also utilized to monitor crack growth from in situ images of the side of the specimen. Linear elastic fracture mechanics and finite elements were used to determine energy release rate and mode-mix as a function of crack length for this specimen. Experiments were conducted in air and in a salt water bath at 10, 26 and 90°C. Joints tested in the solvent were fully saturated. In air, both increasing and decreasing temperature relative to 26°C accelerated crack growth rates. In salt water, crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature. Threshold energy release rate is shown to be the most appropriate design criteria for joints of this system. In addition, path of the crack is discussed and fracture surfaces are examined on three length scales. Three linear viscoelastic properties were measured for the neat urethane adhesive. Dynamic tensile compliance (D*) was found using a novel extensometer and results were considerably more accurate and precise than standard DMTA testing. Dynamic shear compliance (J*) was determined using an Arcan specimen. Dynamic Poisson's ratio (nu*) was extracted from strain gage data analyzed to include gage reinforcement. Experiments spanned three frequency decades and isothermal data was shifted by time-temperature superposition to create master curves spanning thirty decades. Master curves were fit to time domain Prony series. Shear compliance inferred from D* and nu* compared well with measured J*, forming a basis for finding the complete time dependent material property matrix for this
González-Benito, J; Castillo, E; Cruz-Caldito, J F
2015-07-28
Nanothermal-expansion of poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), EVA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, in the form of films was measured to finally obtain linear coefficients of thermal expansion, CTEs. The simple deflection of a cantilever in an atomic force microscope, AFM, was used to monitor thermal expansions at the nanoscale. The influences of: (a) the structure of EVA in terms of its composition (vinylacetate content) and (b) the size of PMMA chains in terms of the molecular weight were studied. To carry out this, several polymer samples were used, EVA copolymers with different weight percents of the vinylacetate comonomer (12, 18, 25 and 40%) and PMMA polymers with different weight average molecular weights (33.9, 64.8, 75.600 and 360.0 kg mol(-1)). The dependencies of the vinyl acetate weight fraction of EVA and the molecular weight of PMMA on their corresponding CTEs were analyzed to finally explain them using new, intuitive and very simple models based on the rule of mixtures. In the case of EVA copolymers a simple equation considering the weighted contributions of each comonomer was enough to estimate the final CTE above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, when the molecular weight dependence is considered the free volume concept was used as novelty. The expansion of PMMA, at least at the nanoscale, was well and easily described by the sum of the weighted contributions of the occupied and free volumes, respectively.
González-Benito, J; Castillo, E; Cruz-Caldito, J F
2015-07-28
Nanothermal-expansion of poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), EVA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, in the form of films was measured to finally obtain linear coefficients of thermal expansion, CTEs. The simple deflection of a cantilever in an atomic force microscope, AFM, was used to monitor thermal expansions at the nanoscale. The influences of: (a) the structure of EVA in terms of its composition (vinylacetate content) and (b) the size of PMMA chains in terms of the molecular weight were studied. To carry out this, several polymer samples were used, EVA copolymers with different weight percents of the vinylacetate comonomer (12, 18, 25 and 40%) and PMMA polymers with different weight average molecular weights (33.9, 64.8, 75.600 and 360.0 kg mol(-1)). The dependencies of the vinyl acetate weight fraction of EVA and the molecular weight of PMMA on their corresponding CTEs were analyzed to finally explain them using new, intuitive and very simple models based on the rule of mixtures. In the case of EVA copolymers a simple equation considering the weighted contributions of each comonomer was enough to estimate the final CTE above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, when the molecular weight dependence is considered the free volume concept was used as novelty. The expansion of PMMA, at least at the nanoscale, was well and easily described by the sum of the weighted contributions of the occupied and free volumes, respectively. PMID:26108706
Constitutive modelling of creep in a long fiber random glass mat thermoplastic composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasappa, Prasad
The primary objective of this proposed research is to characterize and model the creep behaviour of Glass Mat Thermoplastic (GMT) composites under thermo-mechanical loads. In addition, tensile testing has been performed to study the variability in mechanical properties. The thermo-physical properties of the polypropylene matrix including crystallinity level, transitions and the variation of the stiffness with temperature have also been determined. In this work, the creep of a long fibre GMT composite has been investigated for a relatively wide range of stresses from 5 to 80 MPa and temperatures from 25 to 90°C. The higher limit for stress is approximately 90% of the nominal tensile strength of the material. A Design of Experiments (ANOVA) statistical method was applied to determine the effects of stress and temperature in the random mat material which is known for wild experimental scatter. Two sets of creep tests were conducted. First, preliminary short-term creep tests consisting of 30 minutes creep followed by recovery were carried out over a wide range of stresses and temperatures. These tests were carried out to determine the linear viscoelastic region of the material. From these tests, the material was found to be linear viscoelastic up-to 20 MPa at room temperature and considerable non-linearities were observed with both stress and temperature. Using Time-Temperature superposition (TTS) a long term master curve for creep compliance for up-to 185 years at room temperature has been obtained. Further, viscoplastic strains were developed in these tests indicating the need for a non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. The second set of creep tests was performed to develop a general non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. Long term creep-recovery tests consisting of 1 day creep followed by recovery has been conducted over the stress range between 20 and 70 MPa at four temperatures: 25°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. Findley's model
Local viscoelasticity of living cells measured by rotational magnetic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berret, J.-F.
2016-01-01
When submitted to a magnetic field, micron-size wires with superparamagnetic properties behave as embedded rheometers and represent interesting sensors for microrheology. Here we use rotational magnetic spectroscopy to measure the shear viscosity of the cytoplasm of living cells. We address the question of whether the cytoplasm is a viscoelastic liquid or an elastic gel. The main result of the study is the observation of a rotational instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime of rotation, found for murine fibroblasts and human cancer cells. For wires of susceptibility 3.6, the transition occurs in the range 0.01-1 rad s-1. The determination of the shear viscosity (10-100 Pa s) and elastic modulus (5-20 Pa) confirms the viscoelastic character of the cytoplasm. In contrast to earlier studies, it is concluded that the interior of living cells can be described as a viscoelastic liquid, and not as an elastic gel.
Fractional modeling of Pasternak-type viscoelastic foundation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Wei; Chen, Wen; Xu, Wenxiang
2016-06-01
In this paper, we propose a fractional Pasternak-type foundation model to characterize the time-dependent properties of the viscoelastic foundation. With varying fractional orders, the proposed model can govern the traditional Winkler model, Pasternak model, and viscoelastic model. We take the four-edge simply supported rectangular thin plate as an example to analyze the viscoelastic foundation reaction, and obtain the solution of the new governing equation. Theoretical results show that the fractional order has a dramatic influence on the deflection and bending moment. It can be further concluded that the softer foundation will become more time-dependent. Subsequently, the difference between fractional Pasternak-type and Winkler foundation model is presented in this work. The existence of constrained boundary is found to definitely affect deflection and bending moment. Such phenomenon, known as the wall effect, is deeply discussed.
Viscoelastic suppression of gravity-driven counterflow instability.
Beiersdorfer, P; Layne, D; Magee, E W; Katz, J I
2011-02-01
Attempts to achieve "top kill" of flowing oil wells by pumping dense drilling "muds," i.e., slurries of dense minerals, from above will fail if the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity-driven counterflow produces turbulence that breaks up the denser fluid into small droplets. Here we estimate the droplet size to be submillimeter for fast flows and suggest the addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to suppress turbulence. We find in laboratory experiments a variety of new physical effects for a viscoelastic shear-thickening liquid in a gravity-driven counterstreaming flow. There is a progression from droplet formation to complete turbulence suppression at the relevant high velocities. Thick descending columns show a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. Thinner streams form structures resembling globules on a looping filament. PMID:21405442
Adeyeye, Moji Christianah; Jain, Ashwinkumar C; Ghorab, Mohamed K M; Reilly, William J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the viscoelastic properties of topical creams containing various concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Avicel(R) CL-611) as a stabilizer. Avicel CL-611 was used at 4 different levels (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6% dispersion) to prepare topical creams, and hydrocortisone acetate was used as a model drug. The viscoelastic properties such as loss modulus (G"), storage modulus (G'), and loss tangent (tan delta) of these creams were measured using a TA Instruments AR 1000 Rheometer and compared to a commercially available formulation. Continuous flow test to determine the yield stress and thixotropic behavior, and dynamic mechanical tests for determining the linear viscosity time sweep data, were performed. Drug release from the various formulations was studied using an Enhancer TM Cell assembly. Formulations containing 1% and 2% Avicel CL-611 had relative viscosity, yield stress, and thixotropic values that were similar to those of the commercial formulation. The elastic modulus (G') of the 1% and 2% formulation was relatively high and did not cross the loss modulus (G"), indicating that the gels were strong. In the commercial formulation, G' increased after preshearing and broke down after 600 seconds. The strain sweep tests showed that for all formulations containing Avicel CL-611, the G' was above G" with a good distance between them. The gel strength and the predominance of G' can be ranked 6% > 4% > 2%. The strain profiles for the 1% and 2% formulations were similar to those of the commercial formulation. The delta values for the 1% and 2% formulations were similar, and the formulations containing 4% Avicel CL-611 had lower delta values, indicating greater elasticity. Drug release from the commercial preparation was fastest compared to the formulations prepared using Avicel CL-611, a correlation with the viscoelastic properties. It was found that viscoelastic data, especially the strain
Uniqueness of the interior plane strain time-harmonic viscoelastic inverse problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yixiao; Barbone, Paul E.; Harari, Isaac; Oberai, Assad A.
2016-07-01
Elasticity imaging has emerged as a promising medical imaging technique with applications in the detection, diagnosis and treatment monitoring of several types of disease. In elasticity imaging measured displacement fields are used to generate images of elastic parameters of tissue by solving an inverse problem. When the tissue excitation, and the resulting tissue motion is time-harmonic, elasticity imaging can be extended to image the viscoelastic properties of the tissue. This leads to an inverse problem for the complex-valued shear modulus at a given frequency. In this manuscript we have considered the uniqueness of this inverse problem for an incompressible, isotropic linear viscoelastic solid in a state of plane strain. For a single measured displacement field we conclude that the solution is infinite dimensional, and the data required to render it unique is determined by the measured strain field. In contrast, for two independent displacement fields such that the principal directions of the resulting strain fields are different, the space of possible solutions is eight dimensional, and given additional data, like the value of the shear modulus at four locations, or over a calibration region, we may determine the shear modulus everywhere. We have also considered simple analytical examples that verify these results and offer additional insights. The results derived in this paper may be used as guidelines by the practitioners of elasticity imaging in designing more robust and accurate imaging protocols.
Postseismic deformation due to subcrustal viscoelastic relaxation following dip-slip earthquakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, S. C.
1982-01-01
The deformation of the Earth following a dip-slip earthquake is calculated using a three layer rheological model and finite element techniques. The three layers are an elastic upper lithosphere, a standard linear solid lower lithosphere, and a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenosphere-a model previously analyzed in the strike-clip case (Cohen, 1981, 1982). Attention is focused on the magnitude of the postseismic subsidence and the width of the subsidence zone that can develop due to the viscoelastic response to coseismic reverse slip. Detailed analysis for a fault extending from the surface to 15 km with a 45 deg dip reveals that postseismic subsidence is sensitive to the depth to the asthenosphere but is only weakly dependent on lower lithosphere depth. The greatest subsidence occurs when the elastic lithosphere is about 30 km thick and the asthenosphere lies just below this layer (asthenosphere depth = 2 times the fault depth). The extremum in the subsidence pattern occurs at about 5 km from the surface trace of the fault and lies over the slip plane. In a typical case after a time t = 30 tau (tau = Maxwell time) following the earthquake the subsidence at this point is 60% of the coseismic uplift. Unlike the horizontal deformation following a strike slip earthquake, significant vertical deformation due to asthenosphere flow persists for many times tau and the magnitude of the vertical deformation is not necessarily enhanced by having a partially relaxing lower lithosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigand, William; Messmore, Ashley; Anderson, Rae
The sea annelid, Chaetopterus Variopedatus, secretes a bioluminescent mucus that also exhibits complex viscoelastic properties. The constituents of the mucus are relatively unknown but it does play an important role in the development of the worms' parchment-like housing tubes. In order to determine how and why this mucus can exhibit material properties ranging from fluidity to rigidity we perform microrheology experiments. We determine the microscale viscoelastic properties by using optical tweezers to produce small oscillations in the mucus which allow us to determine both the linear storage and loss moduli (G',G'') along with the viscosity of the fluid. By varying the size of the microspheres (2-10 µm) and oscillation amplitude (.5-10 µm) we are able to determine the dominant intrinsic length scales of the molecular mesh comprising the mucus. By varying the oscillation frequency (1-15Hz) we determine the crossover frequency at which G' surpasses G'', to quantify the longest relaxation time of the mesh network. Initial results show a strong dependence on bead size which indicate that the dominant entanglement lengthscale of the mucus mesh is ~5 um. Microspheres of this size exhibit a wide variety of stress responses in different regions of the mucus demonstrating the substantial microscale heterogeneity of the mucus. We carry out measurements on a population of worms of varying size and age to determine mucus variability between worms.
López-Guerra, Enrique A; Solares, Santiago D
2014-01-01
We examine different approaches to model viscoelasticity within atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulation. Our study ranges from very simple linear spring-dashpot models to more sophisticated nonlinear systems that are able to reproduce fundamental properties of viscoelastic surfaces, including creep, stress relaxation and the presence of multiple relaxation times. Some of the models examined have been previously used in AFM simulation, but their applicability to different situations has not yet been examined in detail. The behavior of each model is analyzed here in terms of force-distance curves, dissipated energy and any inherent unphysical artifacts. We focus in this paper on single-eigenmode tip-sample impacts, but the models and results can also be useful in the context of multifrequency AFM, in which the tip trajectories are very complex and there is a wider range of sample deformation frequencies (descriptions of tip-sample model behaviors in the context of multifrequency AFM require detailed studies and are beyond the scope of this work).
Acoustic radiation force and torque exerted on a small viscoelastic particle in an ideal fluid.
Leão-Neto, J P; Silva, G T
2016-09-01
We provide a detailed analysis on the acoustic radiation force and torque exerted on a homogeneous viscoelastic particle in the long-wave limit (i.e. the particle radius is much smaller than the incident wavelength) by an arbitrary wave. We assume that the particle behaves as a linear viscoelastic solid, which obeys the fractional Kelvin-Voigt model. Simple analytical expressions for the radiation force and torque are obtained. The developed theory is used to describe the interaction of acoustic waves (traveling and standing plane waves, and zero- and first-order Bessel beams) in the MHz-range with polymeric particles, namely lexan, low-density (LDPE) and high-density (HDPE) polyethylene. We found that particle absorption is chiefly the cause of the radiation force due to a traveling plane wave and zero-order Bessel beam when the frequency is smaller than 5MHz (HDPE), 3.9MHz (LDPE), and 0.9MHz (lexan). Whereas in a standing wave field, the radiation force is mildly changed due to dispersion inside the particle. We also show that the radiation torque caused by a first-order Bessel beam varies nearly quadratic with frequency. These findings may enable new possibilities of particle handling in acoustophoretic techniques. PMID:27254398
Free vibrations of a taut cable with a general viscoelastic damper modeled by fractional derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Limin; Chen, Lin
2015-01-01
This study extends dynamic understanding of a taut cable with a viscous damper at arbitrary location to that with a general linear viscoelastic (VE) damper portrayed by a five-parameter fractional derivative model (FDM). The FDM is able to describe a generalized relationship between force and deformation of viscoelastic dampers (material) in a wide frequency range, which can simulate a practical damper including its support condition or a secondary tie between neighboring cables. Free vibrations of the passively controlled cable system have then been formulated analytically through complex modal analysis. For the restricted case that the FDM is installed close to one cable anchorage, asymptotic solutions for the system complex frequency and modal damping are presented; explicit formulas have also been derived to determine the maximal attainable damping and corresponding optimum FDM parameters, based on which effects of frequency-dependent damper properties are appreciated. Considering the FDM located at arbitrary location, the three distinct regimes of frequency evolutions observed for a cable with a viscous damper have been generalized to that with a VE damper; also, new characteristics of the regime diagram and the frequency evolution in each regime are observed.
High Frequency Measurements of Viscoelastic Properties of Hydrogels for Vocal Fold Regeneration.
Jiao, T; Farran, A; Jia, X; Clifton, R J
2009-01-01
This report describes a torsional wave experiment used to measure the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues and soft materials over the range of phonation frequencies. A thin cylindrical sample is mounted between two hexagonal plates. The assembly is enclosed in an environmental chamber to maintain the temperature and relative humidity at in vivo conditions. The bottom plate is subjected to small oscillations by means of a galvanometer driven by a frequency generator that steps through a sequence of frequencies. At each frequency, measured rotations of the top and bottom plates are used to determine the ratio of the amplitudes of the rotations of the two plates. Comparisons of the frequency dependence of this ratio with that predicted for torsional waves in a linear viscoelastic material allows the storage modulus and the loss angle, in shear, to be calculated by a best-fit procedure. Experimental results are presented for hydrogels that are being examined as potential materials for vocal fold regeneration. PMID:20300451
Solares, Santiago D.
2015-11-26
This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretationmore » of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.« less
Solares, Santiago D.
2015-11-26
This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LEMERLE, P.
2002-02-01
Wave propagation methods allow the deduction of the viscoelastic damping properties of materials from the waveform pattern of a transitory wave: the wave profile is recorded at two travel distances in a thin bar made of the medium studied. In the case of linear viscoelasticity, the characteristics of the material are deduced directly from the transfer function of the two pulses measured. From a theoretical point of view, these methods are of great interest as they bridge a gap between vibratory methods and ultrasonic methods, allowing results to be obtained in a frequency range covering one and a half to two decades in the audiometric range (20 Hz-20 kHz). However, they have not been used much in industrial applications due to the difficulty and cost involved in producing samples in the form of bars. This study shows how this type of method can be adapted to measuring the viscoelastic properties of damping materials using reduced size and common shaped samples such as end-stop buffers.
Bowen, James; Cheneler, David; Andrews, James W; Avery, Andrew R; Zhang, Zhibing; Ward, Michael C L; Adams, Michael J
2011-09-20
The adhesive characteristics of thin films (0.2-2 μm) of linear poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) liquids with a wide range of molecular weights have been measured using an atomic force microscope with a colloid probe (diameters 5 and 12 μm) for different separation velocities. The data were consistent with a residual film in the contact region having a thickness of ∼6 nm following an extended dwell time before separation of the probe. It was possible to estimate the maximum adhesive force as a function of the capillary number, Ca, by applying existing theoretical models based on capillary interactions and viscous flow except at large values of Ca in the case of viscoelastic fluids, for which it was necessary to develop a nonlinear viscoelastic model. The compliance of the atomic force microscope colloid beam was an important factor in governing the retraction velocity of the probe and therefore the value of the adhesive force, but the inertia of the beam and viscoelastic stress overshoot effects were not significant in the range of separation velocities investigated.
Solares, Santiago D
2015-01-01
This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, D. R.; Wang, Z.; Wang, F.; Wang, R.
2015-12-01
Currently the moduli and velocities of rocks at seismic frequencies are usually measured by the strain-stress method in lab. However, such measurements require well-designed equipment and skilled technicians, which greatly hinders the experimental investigation on the elastic and visco-elastic properties of rocks at seismic frequencies. We attempt to model the dynamic moduli of porous rocks saturated with viscous fluid at seismic frequencies on core scale using the strain-stress method, aiming to provide a complement to real core measurements in lab. First, we build 2D geometrical models containing the pore structure information of porous rocks based on the digital images (such as thin section, SEM, CT, etc.) of real rocks. Then we assume the rock frames are linearly elastic, and use the standard Maxwell spring-dash pot model to describe the visco-elastic properties of pore fluids. Boundary conditions are set according to the strain-stress method; and the displacement field is calculated using the finite element method (FEM). We numerically test the effects of fluid viscosity, frequency, and pore structure on the visco-elastic properties based on the calculation results. In our modeling, the viscosity of the pore fluid ranges from 103mPas to 109mPas; and the frequency varies from 5Hz to 500Hz. The preliminary results indicate that the saturated rock behaves stiffer and shows larger phase lag between stress and strain when the viscosity of the pore fluid and (or) the frequency increase.
2015-01-01
Summary This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments. PMID:26734515
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fang; Yin, Xie-Yuan; Yin, Xie-Zhen
2016-05-01
A one-dimensional electrified viscoelastic model is built to study the nonlinear behavior of a slightly viscoelastic, perfectly conducting liquid jet under a radial electric field. The equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme together with a boundary element method. The electrified viscoelastic jet is found to evolve into a beads-on-string structure in the presence of the radial electric field. Although the radial electric field greatly enhances the linear instability of the jet, its influence on the decay of the filament thickness is limited during the nonlinear evolution of the jet. On the other hand, the radial electric field induces axial non-uniformity of the first normal stress difference within the filament. The first normal stress difference in the center region of the filament may be greatly decreased by the radial electric field. The regions with/without satellite droplets are illuminated on the χ (the electrical Bond number)-k (the dimensionless wave number) plane. Satellite droplets may be formed for larger wave numbers at larger radial electric fields.
On steady motion of viscoelastic fluid of Oldroyd type
Baranovskii, E. S.
2014-06-01
We consider a mathematical model describing the steady motion of a viscoelastic medium of Oldroyd type under the Navier slip condition at the boundary. In the rheological relation, we use the objective regularized Jaumann derivative. We prove the solubility of the corresponding boundary-value problem in the weak setting. We obtain an estimate for the norm of a solution in terms of the data of the problem. We show that the solution set is sequentially weakly closed. Furthermore, we give an analytic solution of the boundary-value problem describing the flow of a viscoelastic fluid in a flat channel under a slip condition at the walls. Bibliography: 13 titles. (paper)
Collective Motion of Microorganisms in a Viscoelastic Fluid.
Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo M
2016-09-01
We study the collective motion of a suspension of rodlike microswimmers in a two-dimensional film of viscoelastic fluids. We find that the fluid elasticity has a small effect on a suspension of pullers, while it significantly affects the pushers. The attraction and orientational ordering of the pushers are enhanced in viscoelastic fluids. The induced polymer stresses break down the large-scale flow structures and suppress velocity fluctuations. In addition, the energy spectra and induced mixing in the suspension of pushers are greatly modified by fluid elasticity. PMID:27661719
Dynamics of a polymer in an active and viscoelastic bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandebroek, Hans; Vanderzande, Carlo
2015-12-01
We study the dynamics of an ideal polymer chain in a viscoelastic medium and in the presence of active forces. The motion of the center of mass and of individual monomers is calculated. On time scales that are comparable to the persistence time of the active forces, monomers can move superdiffusively, while on larger time scales subdiffusive behavior occurs. The difference between this subdiffusion and that in the absence of active forces is quantified. We show that the polymer swells in response to active processes and determine how this swelling depends on the viscoelastic properties of the environment. Our results are compared to recent experiments on the motion of chromosomal loci in bacteria.
Collective Motion of Microorganisms in a Viscoelastic Fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo M.
2016-09-01
We study the collective motion of a suspension of rodlike microswimmers in a two-dimensional film of viscoelastic fluids. We find that the fluid elasticity has a small effect on a suspension of pullers, while it significantly affects the pushers. The attraction and orientational ordering of the pushers are enhanced in viscoelastic fluids. The induced polymer stresses break down the large-scale flow structures and suppress velocity fluctuations. In addition, the energy spectra and induced mixing in the suspension of pushers are greatly modified by fluid elasticity.
Wall-mode instability in plane shear flow of viscoelastic fluid over a deformable solid.
Chokshi, Paresh; Bhade, Piyush; Kumaran, V
2015-02-01
The linear stability analysis of a plane Couette flow of an Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid past a flexible solid medium is carried out to investigate the role of polymer addition in the stability behavior. The system consists of a viscoelastic fluid layer of thickness R, density ρ, viscosity η, relaxation time λ, and retardation time βλ flowing past a linear elastic solid medium of thickness HR, density ρ, and shear modulus G. The emphasis is on the high-Reynolds-number wall-mode instability, which has recently been shown in experiments to destabilize the laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in soft-walled tubes and channels at a significantly lower Reynolds number than that for flows in rigid conduits. For Newtonian fluids, the linear stability studies have shown that the wall modes become unstable when flow Reynolds number exceeds a certain critical value Re(c) which scales as Σ(3/4), where Reynolds number Re=ρVR/η,V is the top-plate velocity, and dimensionless parameter Σ=ρGR(2)/η(2) characterizes the fluid-solid system. For high-Reynolds-number flow, the addition of polymer tends to decrease the critical Reynolds number in comparison to that for the Newtonian fluid, indicating a destabilizing role for fluid viscoelasticity. Numerical calculations show that the critical Reynolds number could be decreased by up to a factor of 10 by the addition of small amount of polymer. The critical Reynolds number follows the same scaling Re(c)∼Σ(3/4) as the wall modes for a Newtonian fluid for very high Reynolds number. However, for moderate Reynolds number, there exists a narrow region in β-H parametric space, corresponding to very dilute polymer solution (0.9≲β<1) and thin solids (H≲1.1), in which the addition of polymer tends to increase the critical Reynolds number in comparison to the Newtonian fluid. Thus, Reynolds number and polymer properties can be tailored to either increase or decrease the critical Reynolds number for unstable modes, thus providing
Wall-mode instability in plane shear flow of viscoelastic fluid over a deformable solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chokshi, Paresh; Bhade, Piyush; Kumaran, V.
2015-02-01
The linear stability analysis of a plane Couette flow of an Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid past a flexible solid medium is carried out to investigate the role of polymer addition in the stability behavior. The system consists of a viscoelastic fluid layer of thickness R , density ρ , viscosity η , relaxation time λ , and retardation time β λ flowing past a linear elastic solid medium of thickness H R , density ρ , and shear modulus G . The emphasis is on the high-Reynolds-number wall-mode instability, which has recently been shown in experiments to destabilize the laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in soft-walled tubes and channels at a significantly lower Reynolds number than that for flows in rigid conduits. For Newtonian fluids, the linear stability studies have shown that the wall modes become unstable when flow Reynolds number exceeds a certain critical value Rec which scales as Σ3 /4, where Reynolds number Re =ρ V R /η ,V is the top-plate velocity, and dimensionless parameter Σ =ρ G R2/η2 characterizes the fluid-solid system. For high-Reynolds-number flow, the addition of polymer tends to decrease the critical Reynolds number in comparison to that for the Newtonian fluid, indicating a destabilizing role for fluid viscoelasticity. Numerical calculations show that the critical Reynolds number could be decreased by up to a factor of 10 by the addition of small amount of polymer. The critical Reynolds number follows the same scaling Rec˜Σ3 /4 as the wall modes for a Newtonian fluid for very high Reynolds number. However, for moderate Reynolds number, there exists a narrow region in β -H parametric space, corresponding to very dilute polymer solution (0.9 ≲β <1 ) and thin solids (H ≲1.1 ) , in which the addition of polymer tends to increase the critical Reynolds number in comparison to the Newtonian fluid. Thus, Reynolds number and polymer properties can be tailored to either increase or decrease the critical Reynolds number for unstable modes
Wall-mode instability in plane shear flow of viscoelastic fluid over a deformable solid.
Chokshi, Paresh; Bhade, Piyush; Kumaran, V
2015-02-01
The linear stability analysis of a plane Couette flow of an Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid past a flexible solid medium is carried out to investigate the role of polymer addition in the stability behavior. The system consists of a viscoelastic fluid layer of thickness R, density ρ, viscosity η, relaxation time λ, and retardation time βλ flowing past a linear elastic solid medium of thickness HR, density ρ, and shear modulus G. The emphasis is on the high-Reynolds-number wall-mode instability, which has recently been shown in experiments to destabilize the laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in soft-walled tubes and channels at a significantly lower Reynolds number than that for flows in rigid conduits. For Newtonian fluids, the linear stability studies have shown that the wall modes become unstable when flow Reynolds number exceeds a certain critical value Re(c) which scales as Σ(3/4), where Reynolds number Re=ρVR/η,V is the top-plate velocity, and dimensionless parameter Σ=ρGR(2)/η(2) characterizes the fluid-solid system. For high-Reynolds-number flow, the addition of polymer tends to decrease the critical Reynolds number in comparison to that for the Newtonian fluid, indicating a destabilizing role for fluid viscoelasticity. Numerical calculations show that the critical Reynolds number could be decreased by up to a factor of 10 by the addition of small amount of polymer. The critical Reynolds number follows the same scaling Re(c)∼Σ(3/4) as the wall modes for a Newtonian fluid for very high Reynolds number. However, for moderate Reynolds number, there exists a narrow region in β-H parametric space, corresponding to very dilute polymer solution (0.9≲β<1) and thin solids (H≲1.1), in which the addition of polymer tends to increase the critical Reynolds number in comparison to the Newtonian fluid. Thus, Reynolds number and polymer properties can be tailored to either increase or decrease the critical Reynolds number for unstable modes, thus providing
Viscoelastic Response (VisR) Imaging for Assessment of Viscoelasticity in Voigt Materials
Selzo, Mallory R.; Gallippi, Caterina M.
2014-01-01
Viscoelastic response (VisR) imaging is presented as a new acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based elastographic imaging method. Exploiting the Voigt model, VisR imaging estimates displacement in only the ARF region of excitation from one or two successive ARF impulses to estimate τσ, the relaxation time for constant stress. Double-push VisR τσ estimates were not statistically significantly different (p < 0.02) from those of shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) or monitored steady-state excitation recovery (MSSER) ultrasound in six homogeneous viscoelastic tissue mimicking phantoms with elastic moduli ranging from 3.92 to 15.34 kPa and coefficients of viscosity ranging from 0.87 to 14.06 Pa·s. In two-dimensional imaging, double-push VisR τσ images discriminated a viscous spherical inclusion in a structured phantom with higher CNR over a larger axial range than single-push VisR or conventional acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound. Finally, 2-D in vivo double-push VisR images in normal canine semitendinosus muscle were compared with spatially matched histochemistry to corroborate lower double-push VisR τσ values in highly collagenated connective tissue than in muscle, suggesting double-push VisR’s in vivo relevance to diagnostic imaging, particularly in muscle. The key advantages and disadvantages to VisR, including lack of compensation for inertial terms, are discussed. PMID:24297015
Viscoelastic response (VisR) imaging for assessment of viscoelasticity in Voigt materials.
Selzo, Mallory R; Gallippi, Caterina M
2013-12-01
Viscoelastic response (VisR) imaging is presented as a new acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based elastographic imaging method. Exploiting the Voigt model, VisR imaging estimates displacement in only the ARF region of excitation from one or two successive ARF impulses to estimate τσ, the relaxation time for constant stress. Double-push VisR τσ estimates were not statistically significantly different (p < 0.02) from those of shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) or monitored steady-state excitation recovery (MSSER) ultrasound in six homogeneous viscoelastic tissue mimicking phantoms with elastic moduli ranging from 3.92 to 15.34 kPa and coefficients of viscosity ranging from 0.87 to 14.06 Pa·s. In two-dimensional imaging, double-push VisR τσ images discriminated a viscous spherical inclusion in a structured phantom with higher CNR over a larger axial range than single-push VisR or conventional acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound. Finally, 2-D in vivo double-push VisR images in normal canine semitendinosus muscle were compared with spatially matched histochemistry to corroborate lower double-push VisR τσ values in highly collagenated connective tissue than in muscle, suggesting double-push VisR's in vivo relevance to diagnostic imaging, particularly in muscle. The key advantages and disadvantages to VisR, including lack of compensation for inertial terms, are discussed. PMID:24297015
High temperature properties of HFPE-II-52 polyimide resin and composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhargava, Peeyush
shear strength of the polyimide matrix composite was determined as a function of temperature and moisture conditioning. A full finite element analysis including the test fixtures was performed to determine the relation between load-point displacement and average shear strain in the gauge section and an estimate of modulus was obtained. To study the limiting behavior of polyimide at high temperatures, a study was performed to characterize the nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of polyimide as a function of temperature. The nonlinear viscoelastic model is based on Schapery's theory of nonlinear viscoelasticity and the viscoplastic model is based on the state variable model proposed by Boyce et al. Three different types of experiments were performed at four different temperatures. The experiments included (i) constant displacement rate tests, (ii) creep recovery tests and (iii) multistep relaxation tests. Nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic model parameters were fit to the creep recovery tests with emphasis on capturing the overall material behavior in all three type of tests. A comparison of linear viscoelastic viscoplastic and nonlinear viscoelastic viscoplastic model was also performed.
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-05
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.
Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan
2016-01-01
Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.
Joshi, Nidhi; Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B
2016-01-20
In order to customize the viscoelastic properties of pectin gels, it is necessary to work on a composite platform. Herein, the gelation kinetics, and viscoelastic characterization of anionic polysaccharide pectin dispersion prepared in presence of nanoclay laponite are reported using dynamic light scattering and rheology measurements. The ratio Rg/Rh (Rg and Rh are radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius respectively) determined from light scattering data revealed the presence of random coils of pectin chains inside the gel matrix. When nanoclay laponite was added to the pectin chains solution, two-phase separation was noticed instantaneously. Therefore, the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB] was added to exfoliate the clay platelets in the dispersion, and also in its gel phase. The exfoliating agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ([CTAB]≈ cmc/10) helped to enhance the homogeneity and stability of the pectin-clay sols and gels. The storage and loss moduli (G' and G") of the composite gel changed significantly as function of nanoclay laponite content for concentration up to 0.03% (w/v) causing the softening of the gels (gel strength reduced by close to 50%) compared to pectin-calcium gel. However, as the concentration of nanoclay laponite was maintained between 0.01% and 0.03% (w/v), the gel rigidity (G') recovered by 30% (35-45 Pa). The transition from ergodic to non-ergodic state occurred during sol-gel transition owing to the presence of the nanoclay laponite. The gelation time was not too different from the ergodicity breaking time. Thus, the presence of nanoclay laponite in such minute concentration is shown to cause considerable change in the thermo-physical property of the composite gels. This material property modulation will facilitate designing of soft gels having storage modulus continuously varying in the wide range of 10-70 Pa while keeping the gelation temperature mostly unaltered. PMID:26572352
Joshi, Nidhi; Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B
2016-01-20
In order to customize the viscoelastic properties of pectin gels, it is necessary to work on a composite platform. Herein, the gelation kinetics, and viscoelastic characterization of anionic polysaccharide pectin dispersion prepared in presence of nanoclay laponite are reported using dynamic light scattering and rheology measurements. The ratio Rg/Rh (Rg and Rh are radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius respectively) determined from light scattering data revealed the presence of random coils of pectin chains inside the gel matrix. When nanoclay laponite was added to the pectin chains solution, two-phase separation was noticed instantaneously. Therefore, the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB] was added to exfoliate the clay platelets in the dispersion, and also in its gel phase. The exfoliating agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ([CTAB]≈ cmc/10) helped to enhance the homogeneity and stability of the pectin-clay sols and gels. The storage and loss moduli (G' and G") of the composite gel changed significantly as function of nanoclay laponite content for concentration up to 0.03% (w/v) causing the softening of the gels (gel strength reduced by close to 50%) compared to pectin-calcium gel. However, as the concentration of nanoclay laponite was maintained between 0.01% and 0.03% (w/v), the gel rigidity (G') recovered by 30% (35-45 Pa). The transition from ergodic to non-ergodic state occurred during sol-gel transition owing to the presence of the nanoclay laponite. The gelation time was not too different from the ergodicity breaking time. Thus, the presence of nanoclay laponite in such minute concentration is shown to cause considerable change in the thermo-physical property of the composite gels. This material property modulation will facilitate designing of soft gels having storage modulus continuously varying in the wide range of 10-70 Pa while keeping the gelation temperature mostly unaltered.
The forward undulatory locomotion of Ceanorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Amy; Ulrich, Xialing
2013-11-01
Caenorhabditis elegans is a soil dwelling roundworm that has served as model organisms for studying a multitude of biological and engineering phenomena. We study the undulatory locomotion of nematode in viscoelastic fluids with zero-shear viscosity varying from 0.03-75 Pa .s and relaxation times ranging from 0-350 s. We observe that the averaged normalized wavelength of swimming worm is essentially the same as that in Newtonian fluids. The undulatory frequency f shows the same reduction rate with respect to zero-shear viscosity in viscoelastic fluids as that found in the Newtonian fluids, meaning that the undulatory frequency is mainly controlled by the fluid viscosity. However, the moving speed Vm of the worm shows more distinct dependence on the elasticity of the fluid and exhibits a 4% drop with each 10-fold increase of the Deborah number De, a dimensionless number characterizing the elasticity of a fluid. To estimate the swimming efficiency coefficient and the ratio K =CN /CL of resistive coefficients of the worm in various viscoelastic fluids, we show that whereas it would take the worm around 7 periods to move a body length in a Newtonian fluid, it would take 27 periods to move a body length in a highly viscoelastic fluid.
Encapsulation of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Using Viscoelastic Polymer
Lin, Der-Song; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Wong, Serena H.; Kupnik, Mario; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus Thomas
2010-01-01
The packaging of a medical imaging or therapeutic ultrasound transducer should provide protective insulation while maintaining high performance. For a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT), an ideal encapsulation coating would therefore require a limited and predictable change on the static operation point and the dynamic performance, while insulating the high dc and dc actuation voltages from the environment. To fulfill these requirements, viscoelastic materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), were investigated for an encapsulation material. In addition, PDMS, with a glass-transition temperature below room temperature, provides a low Young's modulus that preserves the static behavior; at higher frequencies for ultrasonic operation, this material becomes stiffer and acoustically matches to water. In this paper, we demonstrate the modeling and implementation of the viscoelastic polymer as the encapsulation material. We introduce a finite element model (FEM) that addresses viscoelasticity. This enables us to correctly calculate both the static operation point and the dynamic behavior of the CMUT. CMUTs designed for medical imaging and therapeutic ultrasound were fabricated and encapsulated. Static and dynamic measurements were used to verify the FEM and show excellent agreement. This paper will help in the design process for optimizing the static and the dynamic behavior of viscoelastic-polymer-coated CMUTs. PMID:21170294
Viscoelastic Timoshenko Beams with Occasionally Constant Relaxation Functions
Tatar, Nasser-eddine
2012-08-15
For a prescribed desirable arbitrary decay suitable viscoelastic materials are determined through their relaxation functions. It is shown that if we wish to have a decay of order {gamma}(t) then the kernels should be of the same order. That is their product with this function should be summable.
Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.
Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei
2014-06-01
Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. PMID:24607758
Analyzing and improving viscoelastic properties of high density polyethylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Reaj Uddin
2011-12-01
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is closely packed, less branched polyethylene having higher mechanical properties, chemical resistance, and heat resistance than Low Density Polyentylene (LDPE). Better properties and cost effectiveness make it an important raw material over LDPE in packaging industries. Stacked containers made of HDPE experience static loading and deformation strain during their storage period in a warehouse. As HDPE is a viscoelastic material, dimensional stability of stacked HDPE containers depends on time dependent properties such as creep and stress relaxation. Now, light weighting is a driving force in packaging industries, which results in lower production costs but performance of the product becomes a challenge. Proper understanding of the viscoelastic properties of HDPE, with relevant FE simulation can facilitate improved designs. This research involves understanding and improving viscoelastic properties, creep behavior, and stress relaxation of HDPE. Different approaches were carried out to meet the objectives. Organic filler CaCO3 was added to HDPE at increasing weight fractions and corresponding property changes were investigated. Annealing heat treatments were also carried out for potential property improvements. The effect of ageing was also investigated on both annealed and non annealed HDPE. The related performance of different water bottles against squeeze pressure was also characterized. Both approaches, incorporation of CaCO3 and annealing, showed improvements in the properties of HDPE over neat HDPE. This research aids finding the optimum solution for improving viscoelastic properties, stress relaxation, and creep behavior of HDPE in manufacturing.
Visco-elastic effects in strongly coupled dusty plasmas
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2008-09-07
We report on experimental evidence of visco-elastic effects in a strongly coupled dusty plasma through investigations of the propagation characteristics of low frequency dust acoustic waves and by excitations of transverse shear waves in a DC discharge Argon plasma.