Particle trajectories in linear periodic capillary and capillary-gravity water waves.
Henry, David
2007-09-15
Surface tension plays a significant role as a restoration force in the setting of small-amplitude waves, leading to pure capillary and gravity-capillary waves. We show that within the framework of linear theory, the particle paths in a periodic gravity-capillary or pure capillary wave propagating at the surface of water over a flat bed are not closed.
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2013-04-19
article title: Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, David
1987-01-01
Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Oers, Alexander M.; Maas, Leo R. M.; Bokhove, Onno
2017-02-01
The linear equations governing internal gravity waves in a stratified ideal fluid possess a Hamiltonian structure. A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method has been developed in which this Hamiltonian structure is discretized, resulting in conservation of discrete analogs of phase space and energy. This required (i) the discretization of the Hamiltonian structure using alternating flux functions and symplectic time integration, (ii) the discretization of a divergence-free velocity field using Dirac's theory of constraints and (iii) the handling of large-scale computational demands due to the 3-dimensional nature of internal gravity waves and, in confined, symmetry-breaking fluid domains, possibly its narrow zones of attraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhmet'eva, N. V.; Grigor'ev, G. I.; Tolmacheva, A. V.; Kalinina, E. E.; Egerev, M. N.
2017-07-01
The problem of internal gravity waves in a medium with linear altitude profile of equilibrium temperature as applied to the experiments related to the creation of artificial periodic irregularities and diagnostics of the neutral atmosphere at the altitudes of the E region is considered. A solution to the initial linearized system of equations for weak disturbances of the thermospheric parameters, such as pressure, density, temperature, and velocity of the medium, is obtained. Among a large array of experimental data on the temperature profiles of the neutral component, the sessions in which the altitude dependence of the equilibrium temperature was well approximated by a linear function were selected. The characteristics of internal gravity waves obtained for such a temperature profile are compared with the results of measuring the atmospheric parameters. Satisfactory agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of the quantities being determined is established, which confirms the validity of the chosen model.
Gravity Waves and Linear Inflation From Axion Monodromy
McAllister, Liam; Silverstein, Eva; Westphal, Alexander; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-08-26
Wrapped branes in string compactifications introduce a monodromy that extends the field range of individual closed-string axions to beyond the Planck scale. Furthermore, approximate shift symmetries of the system naturally control corrections to the axion potential. This suggests a general mechanism for chaotic inflation driven by monodromy-extended closed-string axions. We systematically analyze this possibility and show that the mechanism is compatible with moduli stabilization and can be realized in many types of compactifications, including warped Calabi-Yau manifolds and more general Ricci-curved spaces. In this broad class of models, the potential is linear in the canonical inflaton field, predicting a tensor to scalar ratio r {approx} 0.07 accessible to upcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations.
2D instabilities of surface gravity waves on a linear shear current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francius, Marc; Kharif, Christian
2016-04-01
instabilities due to resonant four-wave interactions, as well as to study the influence of vorticity and nonlinearity on the characteristics of linear instabilities due to resonant five-wave and six-wave interactions. Depending on the dimensionless depth, superharmonic instabilities due to five-wave interactions can become dominant with increasing positive vorticiy. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Direction Générale de l'Armement and funded by the ANR project n°. ANR-13-ASTR-0007. References [1] A. Constantin, Two-dimensionality of gravity water flows of constant non-zero vorticity beneath a surface wave train, Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 2011, 30, 12-16. [2] R. S. Johnson, On the modulation of water waves on shear flows, Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. A., 1976, 347, 537-546. [3] M. Oikawa, K. Chow, D. J. Benney, The propagation of nonlinear wave packets in a shear flow with a free surface, Stud. Appl. Math., 1987, 76, 69-92. [4] A. I Baumstein, Modulation of gravity waves with shear in water, Stud. Appl. Math., 1998, 100, 365-90. [5] R. Thomas, C. Kharif, M. Manna, A nonlinear Schrödinger equation for water waves on finite depth with constant vorticity, Phys. Fluids, 2012, 24, 127102. [6] M. M Rienecker, J. D Fenton, A Fourier approximation method for steady water waves , J. Fluid Mech., 1981, 104, 119-137 [7] M. Francius, C. Kharif, Three-dimensional instabilities of periodic gravity waves in shallow water, J. Fluid Mech., 2006, 561, 417-437
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanzandt, T. E.
1985-07-01
Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanzandt, T. E.
1985-01-01
Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanzandt, T. E.
1985-01-01
Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.
On the linear approximation of gravity wave saturation in the mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, W. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.
1984-01-01
Lindzen's model of gravity wave breaking is shown to be inconsistent with the process of convective adjustment and associated turbulent outbreak. The K-theory turbulent diffusion model used by Lindzen implies a spatially uniform turbulent field which is not in agreement with the fact that gravity wave saturation and the associated convection produce turbulence only in restricted zones. The Lindzen model may be corrected to some extent by taking the turbulent Prandtl number for a diffusion acting on the wave itself to be very large. The eddy diffusion coefficients computed by Lindzen then become a factor of 2 larger and eddy transports of heat and constituents by wave fields vanish to first order.
Monoid spaces and linearized gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras, E.; Di Bartolo, C.; Leal, L.
2017-03-01
We propose an alternative representation for linear quantum gravity. It is based on the use of a structure that bears some resemblance to the Abelian loop representation used in electromagnetism but with the difference that the space of extended object on which waves functions take values has a structure of commutative monoide instead of Abelian group. The generator of duality of the theory is realized in this representation and a geometrical interpretation is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribstein, B.; Achatz, U.
2016-09-01
Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role in atmospheric dynamics. Due to their short wavelengths, they must be parameterized in current weather and forecast models, which cannot resolve them explicitly. We are here the first to report the possibility and the implication of having an online GW parameterization in a linear but global model that incorporates their horizontal propagation, the effects of transients and of horizontal background gradients on GW dynamics. The GW parameterization is based on a ray-tracer model with a spectral formulation that is safe against numerical instabilities due to caustics. The global model integrates the linearized primitive equations to obtain solar tides (STs), with a seasonally dependent reference climatology, forced by a climatological daily cycle of the tropospheric and stratospheric heating, and the (instantaneous) GW momentum and buoyancy flux convergences resulting from the ray tracer. Under a more conventional "single-column" approximation, where GWs only propagate vertically and do not respond to horizontal gradients of the resolved flow, GW impacts are shown to be significantly changed in comparison with "full" experiments, leading to significant differences in ST amplitudes and phases, pointing at a sensitive issue of GW parameterizations in general. In the full experiment, significant semidiurnal STs arise even if the tidal model is only forced by diurnal heating rates. This indicates that an important part of the tidal signal is forced directly by GWs via their momentum and buoyancy deposition. In general, the effect of horizontal GW propagation and the GW response to horizontal large-scale flow gradients is rather observed in nonmigrating than in migrating tidal components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmessane, Andrea; Laboratory of matter out equilibrium Team
2012-11-01
Wave localization explains how a perturbation is trapped by the randomness present in a propagation medium. As it propagates, the localized wave amplitude decreases strongly by multiple internal reflections with randomly positioned scatterers, effectively trapping the perturbation inside the random region. The characteristic length where a localized wave is propagated before being extinguish by randomness is called localization length. We carried experiments in a quasi-onedimensional channel with random bottom in a shallow water regime for surface gravity water waves, using a Perfilometry Fourier Transform method, which enables us to obtain global surface measurements. We discuss keys aspects of the control of variables, the experimental setup and the implementation of the measurement method. Thus, we can control, measure and evaluate fundamental variables present in the localization phenomenon such as the type of randomness, scattering intensity and sample length, which allows us to characterize wave localization. We use the scattering matrix method to compare the experimental measurements with theoretical and numerical predictions, using the Lyapunov exponent of the scattering matrix, and discuss their agreement. Conicyt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.
2012-11-01
The non-linear response of a water free surface to a localized pressure distribution moving at constant speed just below the minimum phase speed (Cmin ~ 23 cm/s) of gravity-capillary waves is studied experimentally in a long tank. The pressure distribution is generated by blowing air onto the water surface via a vertically oriented 2-mm-ID tube that is mounted on an instrument carriage that is in turn set to move along the tank at constant speeds between 20 and 23 cm/s. A cinematic light refraction method is used to obtain quantitative measurements of the surface deformation pattern behind the air jet. At towing speeds just below Cmin, an unsteady V-shaped wave pattern appears behind the pressure source. From observations of the wave pattern evolution, it is found that localized depressions are generated near the pressure source and propagate in pairs along the two arms of the V-shaped pattern. These are eventually shed from the tips of the pattern and rapidly decay. Measurements of the evolution of the speed of these localized depression patterns are compared to existing measurements of the speeds of steady three-dimensional solitary gravity-capillary waves (lumps) that appear behind the pressure source at even lower towing speeds. Supported by the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences.
2009-10-09
function with modulus ??),()• In fact, it is the well-known cnoidal wave solution of the peri- odic KdV equation [1]. For the hyperelliptic... KdV ) equation , which describes the dynamics of weakly- nonlinear dispersive waves, for the internal-waves problem. Under the assumption that the...for solving the periodic KdV equation by the scattering trans- form can be split into two distinct steps: the direct problem and the inverse problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grishchuk, Leonid Petrovich
The article concerns astronomical phenomena , related with discovery of gravitational waves of various nature: 1) primordial (relic) gravitational waves, analogous to MWBR 2) gravitational waves due to giant collisions in the Universe between 2a) Macroscopic black Holes in the centers of Galaxies 2b) Tidal disruption of neutron stars by Black holes 2c) deformations of the space-time by stellar mass Black Holes moving near giant Black Holes in the centers of Galaxies 2d) Supernovae phenomena 2e) accretion phenomena on Black Holes and Neutron stars. The Earth based interferometric technics (LIGO Project) to detect gravitational waves is described as well as the perspectiva for a space Laser Interferometric Antena (LISA)is discussed. The article represents a modified text of the Plenary talk "Gravity-Wave astronomy" given at the XI International gravitational Conference (July 1986, Stockholm, Sweden).
Gravity waves in severe weather
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowhill, S. A.; Gnanalingam, S.
1986-01-01
With a view to determining the role of severe weather in producing gravity waves, two tests were made. In the first, the wind speed measured at two nearby radiosonde stations, Peoria and Salem, was correlated with the stratosphere gravity-wave intensity at Urbana. Although the gravity-wave intensity fluctuated greatly from day to day, these is little if any correlation with the stratospheric wind speed. This suggests that orographic forcing is not a factor in generating gravity waves in Urbana. On the other hand, a clear correlation is found between cloud to heights exceeding 20,000 ft and an increased gravity-wave amplitude in the stratosphere.
Gravity wave initiated convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.
1990-01-01
The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.
Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alam, Reza
2016-11-01
Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain for a linearly-stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance discussed here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing. Yong Liang (yong.liang@berkeley.edu).
Gravity Forcing Of Surface Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenyon, K. E.
2005-12-01
Surface waves in deep water are forced entirely by gravity at the air-sea interface when no other forces act tangent to the surface. Then according to Newton's second law, the fluid acceleration parallel to the surface must equal the component of gravity parallel to the surface. Between crest and trough the fluid accelerates; between trough and crest the fluid decelerates. By replacing Bernoulli's law, gravity forcing becomes the dynamic boundary condition needed to solve the mathematical problem of these waves. Irrotational waves with a sinusoidal profile satisfy the gravity forcing condition, with the usual dispersion relation, provided the slope is small compared to one, as is true also of the Stokes development. However, the exact wave shape can be calculated using the gravity forcing method in a way that is less complex and less time consuming than that of the Stokes perturbation expansion. To the second order the surface elevation is the same as the Stokes result; the third order calculation has not been made yet. Extensions of the gravity forcing method can easily be carried out for multiple wave trains, solitary waves and bores, waves in finite constant mean depths, and internal waves in a two-layer system. For shoaling surface waves gravity forcing provides a physical understanding of the progressive steepening often observed near shore.
Acoustic-gravity waves, theory and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadri, Usama; Farrell, William E.; Munk, Walter
2015-04-01
Acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) propagate in the ocean under the influence of both the compressibility of sea water and the restoring force of gravity. The gravity dependence vanishes if the wave vector is normal to the ocean surface, but becomes increasingly important as the wave vector acquires a horizontal tilt. They are excited by many sources, including non-linear surface wave interactions, disturbances of the ocean bottom (submarine earthquakes and landslides) and underwater explosions. In this introductory lecture on acoustic-gravity waves, we describe their properties, and their relation to organ pipe modes, to microseisms, and to deep ocean signatures by short surface waves. We discuss the generation of AGW by underwater earthquakes; knowledge of their behaviour with water depth can be applied for the early detection of tsunamis. We also discuss their generation by the non-linear interaction of surface gravity waves, which explains the major role they play in transforming energy from the ocean surface to the crust, as part of the microseisms phenomenon. Finally, they contribute to horizontal water transport at depth, which might affect benthic life.
High Latitude Gravity Wave Forcing by the Disturbed Polar Vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, D.; Gerrard, A. J.; Ebihara, Y.; Weatherwax, A. T.
2015-12-01
We present mesopause gravity wave observations from 589-nm Na all-sky data taken by a multiwavelength all-sky imager located at South Pole, Antarctica. Focusing on gravity waves observed during the 2003 and 2004 austral winter seasons, we investigate possible sources of observed waves using linear gravity wave ray-tracing. By comparing wave ray paths with the structure of the polar vortex obtained from the ECMWF operational model, we show that a unique generator of gravity waves that then propagate into the high latitude mesospause is the disturbance of the polar vortex near 40-km altitude due to the formation of baroclinic instabilities.
Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2014-02-01
Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water.
Localizing the angular momentum of linear gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butcher, Luke M.; Lasenby, Anthony; Hobson, Michael
2012-10-01
In a previous article [L. M. Butcher, , Phys. Rev. D 82, 104040 (2010).], we derived an energy-momentum tensor for linear gravity that exhibited positive energy density and causal energy flux. Here we extend this framework by localizing the angular momentum of the linearized gravitational field, deriving a gravitational spin tensor which possesses similarly desirable properties. By examining the local exchange of angular momentum (between matter and gravity) we find that gravitational intrinsic spin is localized, separately from “orbital” angular momentum, in terms of a gravitational spin tensor. This spin tensor is then uniquely determined by requiring that it obey two simple physically motivated algebraic conditions. Firstly, the spin of an arbitrary (harmonic-gauge) gravitational plane wave is required to flow in the direction of propagation of the wave. Secondly, the spin tensor of any transverse-traceless gravitational field is required to be traceless. (The second condition ensures that local field redefinitions suffice to cast our gravitational energy-momentum tensor and spin tensor as sources of gravity in a quadratic approximation to general relativity.) Additionally, the following properties arise in the spin tensor spontaneously: all transverse-traceless fields have purely spatial spin, and any field generated by a static distribution of matter will carry no spin at all. Following the structure of our previous paper, we then examine the (spatial) angular momentum exchanged between the gravitational field and an infinitesimal detector, and develop a microaveraging procedure that renders the process gauge-invariant. The exchange of nonspatial angular momentum (i.e., moment of energy) is also analyzed, leading us to conclude that a gravitational wave can displace the center of mass of the detector; this conclusion is also confirmed by a “first principles” treatment of the system. Finally, we discuss the spin carried by a gravitational plane wave.
Random coupling of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois; Haynes, Christophe
2016-11-01
In numerical modeling of long-range acoustic propagation in the atmosphere, the effect of gravity waves on low-frequency acoustic waves is often ignored. As the sound speed far exceeds the gravity wave phase speed, these two types of waves present different spatial scales and their linear coupling is weak. It is possible, however, to obtain relatively strong couplings via sound speed profile changes with altitude. In the present study, this scenario is analyzed for realistic gravity wave fields and the incident acoustic wave is modeled as a narrow-banded acoustic pulse. The gravity waves are represented as a random field using a stochastic multiwave parameterization of non-orographic gravity waves. The parameterization provides independent monochromatic gravity waves, and the gravity wave field is obtained as the linear superposition of the waves produced. When the random terms are retained, a more generalized wave equation is obtained that both qualitatively and quantitatively agrees with the observations of several highly dispersed stratospheric wavetrains. Here, we show that the cumulative effect of gravity wave breakings makes the sensitivity of ground-based acoustic signals large, in that small changes in the parameterization can create or destroy an acoustic wavetrain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miles, John
2001-09-01
The eigenvalue problem for gravity waves on a shear flow of depth h and non-inflected velocity profile U(y) (typically parabolic) is revisited, following Burns (1953) and Yih (1972). Complementary variational formulations that provide upper and lower bounds to the Froude number F as a function of the wave speed c and wavenumber k are constructed. These formulations are used to improve Burns's long-wave approximation and to determine Yih's critical wavenumber k[low asterisk], for which the wave is stationary (c = 0) and to which k must be inferior for the existence of an upstream running wave.
Local effects of gravity wave propagation and saturation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, D. C.
1985-01-01
In recent years, gravity waves were recognized to play a major role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Perhaps the major effect of such motions are the reversal of the vertical shear of the mean zonal wind and the occurrence of a large turbulent diffusivity in the mesosphere due to gravity wave saturation. Yet, despite the importance of these gravity wave effects, the processes and the consequences of gravity wave propagation and saturation are only beginning to be understood in detail. The linear saturation theory predicts drag and turbulent diffusion due to saturating wave motion. This theory, however, fails to address a number of issues that are certain to be important for gravity wave propagation and saturation in the middle atmosphere. These issues, including wave transience, wave superposition, local convective adjustment, and nonlinearity, are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revenough, Justin
Elastic waves propagating in simple media manifest a surprisingly rich collection of phenomena. Although some can't withstand the complexities of Earth's structure, the majority only grow more interesting and more important as remote sensing probes for seismologists studying the planet's interior. To fully mine the information carried to the surface by seismic waves, seismologists must produce accurate models of the waves. Great strides have been made in this regard. Problems that were entirely intractable a decade ago are now routinely solved on inexpensive workstations. The mathematical representations of waves coded into algorithms have grown vastly more sophisticated and are troubled by many fewer approximations, enforced symmetries, and limitations. They are far from straightforward, and seismologists using them need a firm grasp on wave propagation in simple media. Linear Elastic Waves, by applied mathematician John G. Harris, responds to this need.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, C. Y. T.; Deng, Y.; Sheng, C.; Drob, D. P.
2015-12-01
Waves of various spatial and temporal scales, including acoustic waves, gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves, modify the dynamics of the terrestrial atmosphere at all altitudes. Perturbations caused by the natural and mankind activities on the ground, such as volcano eruptions, earthquakes, explosions, propagate upward and impact the upper atmosphere. Among these waves, propagation of the atmospheric acoustic waves is particularly sensitive to the fine structure of the background atmosphere. However, the fine-structured gravity waves (smaller than 1° x 1°) are currently poorly measured especially at the altitudes above 100 km and are computationally too expensive for most models to incorporate properly. The Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) allows for non-hydrostatic solutions and has a flexible resolution. Thus, it is ideal for the study of vertical propagating waves. In this study, the ionospheric and thermospheric response to acoustic-gravity waves is first presented with an artificial source of various frequencies, followed by a case study of the 2014 Tohoku tsunami. Additionally a time-varying spectral gravity wavefield propagated from the ground is implemented into GITM to capture the statistical background structures that is crucial to the upper atmospheric models. Our results show the importance of consideration of background small-scale structures to interpretation of the observed ionospheric and thermospheric perturbations, such as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs).
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.
The wave of the future - Searching for gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldsmith, Donald
1991-04-01
Research on gravity waves conducted by such scientists as Gamov, Wheeler, Weber and Zel'dovich is discussed. Particular attention is given to current trends in the theoretical analysis of gravity waves carried out by theorists Kip Thorne and Leonid Grishchuk. The problems discussed include the search for gravity waves; calculation of the types of gravity waves; the possibility of detecting gravity waves from localized sources, e.g., from the collision of two black holes in a distant galaxy or the collapse of a star, through the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory; and detection primordial gravity waves from the big bang.
Gravity related waves in plants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Claudia; Wagner, Orvin
2007-04-01
Calculations using sets of plant internodal spacings and actual measurements give wave velocity ratios and actual velocities. Plant shapes seem to derive from these gravity related waves. The velocities of the waves increase in jumps as their direction of travel changes from vertical to horizontal. The calculated ratios of the vertical velocity to the horizontal velocity are ratios of small integers. Short chunky trees like apple have a small velocity ratio (calculated ratio for apple 4/3) while tall spindly trees like ponderosa pine (3/1) have a large ratio. Measured wave velocities for Ponderosa pine are: 1207±60 cm/s for horizontal and 3469±170cm/s for vertical. The plant internal structure seems to determine the velocity ratio. e.g. see Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. NMR (1996) 28: 173-196 and later papers by O.E. Wagner. The results might indicate that gravity is a wave phenomenon since plants respond to gravity in a wavelike fashion. Plants waves seem to have a limited set of frequencies and a recent observation is that they are the same in every direction. The latter permits one to write some very enlightening equations.
AdS waves as exact solutions to quadratic gravity
Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram; Guerses, Metin
2011-04-15
We give an exact solution of the quadratic gravity in D dimensions. The solution is a plane-fronted wave metric with a cosmological constant. This metric solves not only the full quadratic gravity field equations but also the linearized ones which include the linearized equations of the recently found critical gravity. A subset of the solutions change the asymptotic structure of the anti-de Sitter space due to their logarithmic behavior.
Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.
1996-01-01
The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.
Resonant triad interactions of acoustc-gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadri, Usama; Akylas, T. R.
2015-11-01
Surface-acoustic wave disturbances in water of constant depth over a rigid bottom, due to the combined action of gravity and compressibility, are studied. In the linear theory, apart from free-surface (gravity) waves, there is also a countable infinity of acoustic (compression) modes. As the sound speed in water, typically, far exceeds the maximum gravity wave phase speed, these two types of modes feature vastly different spatial and/or temporal scales, and their linear coupling is weak. It is possible, however, to realize significant energy exchange between gravity and acoustic waves via nonlinear interactions. This scenario is analyzed for resonant wave triads that comprise two counter-propagating gravity waves and a long-crested acoustic mode. Owing to this disparity in length scales, the interaction time scale as well as the form of the amplitude evolution equations differ from those of a standard resonant triad. In the case of a perfectly tuned triad of uniform monochromatic wave trains, nearly all the energy initially in the gravity waves can be transferred to the acoustic wave. This mechanism, however, is less efficient when the interacting waves are modulated wavepackets.
Ionospheric disturbances and gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eun, H.; Gross, S. H.
1976-01-01
The response of ionization to a gravity wave moving through the ionosphere is studied. Hydrodynamic equations are used, and local thermodynamic equilibrium is imposed for simplicity. The treatment involves a perturbation analysis, and the background medium is assumed to be time stationary, horizontally stratified, and known. It is shown that ionization may be locally resonant at each level for certain frequencies and directions, for which condition neutral and ionized particles are considered closely or critically coupled. The phase direction for this critical coupling is always downward in the absence of a magnetic field. A magnetic field results in two resonant directions for the same frequency, and these directions are mostly downward. Observed TID's associated with gravity waves may be indicative of such resonances. It is also noted that strong coupling may occur to neutral acoustic waves at high altitudes. Previous investigations restrict their use of momentum equations to the diffusion equation. The analysis also shows that such restrictions result in the neglect of terms arising from momentum transport due to any background ambipolar diffusion velocity and wave motion. These terms are mostly relevant at higher altitudes.
Impact of gravity waves on long-range infrasound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro
2016-04-01
In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic signals contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using
Asymptotic Linear Stability of Solitary Water Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pego, Robert L.; Sun, Shu-Ming
2016-12-01
We prove an asymptotic stability result for the water wave equations linearized around small solitary waves. The equations we consider govern irrotational flow of a fluid with constant density bounded below by a rigid horizontal bottom and above by a free surface under the influence of gravity neglecting surface tension. For sufficiently small amplitude waves, with waveform well-approximated by the well-known sech-squared shape of the KdV soliton, solutions of the linearized equations decay at an exponential rate in an energy norm with exponential weight translated with the wave profile. This holds for all solutions with no component in (that is, symplectically orthogonal to) the two-dimensional neutral-mode space arising from infinitesimal translational and wave-speed variation of solitary waves. We also obtain spectral stability in an unweighted energy norm.
Gravity waves catalysed by ageostrophic baroclinic instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chouksey, Manita; Eden, Carsten; Brüggemann, Nils
2017-04-01
Internal gravity waves are ubiquitous in the ocean interior and are significantly important for the ocean's energy budget. Most ocean models do not resolve gravity waves explicitly and thus they need to be parametrized. For parameterization of gravity waves the specification and understanding of their sources is important. This includes the energy pathway(s) from balanced flows down to scales where energy is finally dissipated. We discuss if the balanced motions, for instance mesoscale flows, can generate unbalanced motions, i.e. gravity waves, during baroclinic instability in ageostrophic to quasi-geostrophic regimes. Previous results (Brüggemann and Eden, JPO, 2015) show a dominant forward energy cascade for a large Rossby number (Ro) in an idealized channel model, while for Ro<<1 the inverse energy cascade dominates. We discuss the role of gravity waves for the forward cascade of energy. A spectral analysis of energy in frequency-wavenumber space for different regimes characterized by a range of Ro, shows that energy contained in the super-inertial frequencies corresponding to gravity waves is much higher for an ageostrophic regime than for a quasi-geostrophic regime. A modal decomposition into geostrophic and gravity wave modes indicates that the energy associated with the super-inertial frequencies is indeed related to gravity waves. Hence, gravity wave emission could be catalysed by ageostrophic baroclinic instability. A modal decomposition of the spectral fluxes of energy in wavenumber space provides more insight about how much energy is contained in which mode.
Wave propagation in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindroos, Jan Ø.; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.
2016-02-01
We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the nonlinear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within general relativity this approximation is valid and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and nonlinearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated with the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that the group velocity is smaller than the speed of light. It is therefore important, within such a framework, to take into account the fact that different parts of a galaxy will see changes in the environment at different times. A full nonstatic analysis may be necessary under those conditions.
Transversally periodic solitary gravity-capillary waves.
Milewski, Paul A; Wang, Zhan
2014-01-08
When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity-capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity-capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles.
Techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, M. A.
1983-01-01
Gravity waves and their associated breaking into turbulence are very important in producing the overall picture of middle atmosphere global dynamics and associated transport. It is shown in this research that MST radars represent a most powerful technique for obtaining the needed parameters for gravity-wave-induced drag and diffusion effects as well as measuring wave accelerations and diffusion directly. A mathematical solution to this problem is that of radiative equilibrium with a balanced thermal wind.
Gravity wave turbulence revealed by horizontal vibrations of the container.
Issenmann, B; Falcon, E
2013-01-01
We experimentally study the role of forcing on gravity-capillary wave turbulence. Previous laboratory experiments using spatially localized forcing (vibrating blades) have shown that the frequency power-law exponent of the gravity wave spectrum depends on the forcing parameters. By horizontally vibrating the whole container, we observe a spectrum exponent that does not depend on the forcing parameters for both gravity and capillary regimes. This spatially extended forcing leads to a gravity spectrum exponent in better agreement with the theory than by using a spatially localized forcing. The role of the vessel shape has been also studied. Finally, the wave spectrum is found to scale linearly with the injected power for both regimes whatever the forcing type used.
Plants respond to gravity with gravity related waves.
Wagner, Orvin E
2007-07-01
Gravity related waves in plants control plant shapes by their velocity, vertical to horizontal velocity ratios, and the stepwise change in velocity from horizontal to vertical. Velocities are measured directly while velocity ratios can be derived from internodal spacings or measurements of velocities. Plant wave frequencies are the same in every direction. The wave proofs are overwhelming with plant communication and ac field interaction as added proof.
Effect of nonlinear instability on gravity-wave momentum transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunkerton, Timothy J.
1987-01-01
This paper investigates the nonlinear instability of internal gravity waves and the effects of their nonlinear interaction on momentum flux, using simple theoretical and numerical models. From the result of an analysis of parametric instability of a two-dimensional internal gravity wave as discussed by Yeh and Liu (1981) and Klostermeyer (1982), a group trajectory length scale for a gravity wave packet was determined, expressed in terms of the dominant vertical wavelenght and the degree of convective saturation. It is shown that this analysis justifies the Eikonal saturation method for relatively transient packets, that are well below the saturation amplitude, propagating in a slowly varying mean flow. Conversely, linear theory fails for persistent disturbances and trasient wave packets near convective saturation.
PROPAGATION OF GRAVITY WAVES IN A CONVECTIVE LAYER
Onofri, M.; Vecchio, A.; Veltri, P.; De Masi, G.
2012-02-10
We perform numerical simulations of gravity mode propagation in a convective layer to investigate the observed association between small spatial scales and low frequencies in the photospheric velocity fields. According to the linear theory, when the fluid layer is convectively unstable, gravity modes are evanescent waves. However, in simple two-dimensional numerical settings, we find that when the equilibrium structure is modified by coherent large-scale convective motions, the waves injected at the bottom of the layer are no longer evanescent. In this situation, gravity waves can be detected at the surface of the layer. In our simplified model the injected wave's frequency remains unchanged, but its amplitude has a spatial modulation determined by the convective structure. This result may explain some analyses done with the proper orthogonal decomposition method of the solar surface velocity field even though solar convection is far more complex than the convection model considered here.
Interactions between intermittent gravity waves and infrasounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribstein, Bruno; Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois; de La Camara, Alvaro
2016-11-01
Even though the accuracy of atmospheric specifications is constantly improving, it is well known that the main part of gravity waves is still yet not resolved in the available data. In most infrasound modeling studies, the unresolved gravity wave field is often represented as a deterministic field that is superimposed on a given average background state. Direct observations in the lower stratosphere show, however, that the gravity wave field is very intermittent, and is often dominated by rather well defined wave packets. In this study we sample the gravity wave spectrum by launching few monochromatic waves and choose their properties stochastically to mimic the intermittency. The statistics of acoustic signals are computed by decomposing the original signal into a sum of modal pulses. Owing to the disparity of the gravity and acoustic lengthscales, the interaction can be described using a multiplescale analysis and the appropriate amplitude evolution equation involves certain random terms that are related to the gravity wave sources. More specifically, it is shown how the unpredictable low level small-scale dynamics triggers multiple random stratospheric waveguides in which high frequency infrasound components can propagate efficiently.
Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.
2013-04-01
In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and
Mesosphere Dynamics with Gravity Wave Forcing. 2; Planetary Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We present results from a non-linear, 3D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NSM) which extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). Our focal point is the mesosphere where wave interactions are playing a dominant role. We discuss planetary waves in the present paper and diurnal and semi-diurnal tides in the companion paper. Without external time dependent energy or momentum sources, planetary waves (PWs) are generated in the model for zonal wavenumbers 1 to 4, which have amplitudes in the mesosphere above 50 km as large as 30 m/s and periods between 2 and 50 days. The waves are generated primarily during solstice conditions, which indicates that the baroclinic instability (associated with the GW driven reversal in the latitudinal temperature gradient) is playing an important role. Results from a numerical experiment show that GWs are also involved directly in generating the PWs. For the zonal wavenumber m = 1, the predominant wave periods in summer are around 4 days and in winter between 6 and 10 days. For m = 2, the periods are in summer and close to 2.5 and 3.5 days respectively For m = 3, 4 the predominant wave periods are in both seasons close to two days. The latter waves have the characteristics of Rossby gravity waves with meridional winds at equatorial latitudes. A common feature of the PWs (m = 1 to 4) generated in summer and winter is that their vertical wavelengths throughout the mesosphere are large which indicates that the waves are not propagating freely but are generated throughout the region. Another common feature is that the PWs propagate preferentially westward in summer and eastward in winter, being launched from the westward and eastward zonal winds that prevail respectively in summer and winter altitudes below 80 km. During spring and fall, for m = 1 and 2 eastward propagating long period PWs are generated that are launched from the smaller
Wavelet analysis of internal gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawkins, J.; Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Smolarkiewicsz, P.
2005-05-01
A series of model studies of internal gravity waves (igw) have been conducted for several regions of interest. Dispersion relations from the results have been computed using wavelet analysis as described by Meyers (1993). The wavelet transform is repeatedly applied over time and the components are evaluated with respect to their amplitude and peak position (Torrence and Compo, 1998). In this sense we have been able to compute dispersion relations from model results and from measured data. Qualitative agreement has been obtained in some cases. The results from wavelet analysis must be carefully interpreted because the igw models are fully nonlinear and wavelet analysis is fundamentally a linear technique. Nevertheless, a great deal of information describing igw propagation can be obtained from the wavelet transform. We address the domains over which wavelet analysis techniques can be applied and discuss the limits of their applicability.
Gravity waves from cosmic bubble collisions
Salem, Michael P.; Saraswat, Prashant; Shaghoulian, Edgar E-mail: ps88@stanford.edu
2013-02-01
Our local Hubble volume might be contained within a bubble that nucleated in a false vacuum with only two large spatial dimensions. We study bubble collisions in this scenario and find that they generate gravity waves, which are made possible in this context by the reduced symmetry of the global geometry. These gravity waves would produce B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which could in principle dominate over the inflationary background.
Waves in Radial Gravity Using Magnetic Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohlsen, Daniel R.; Hart, John E.; Weidman, Patrick D.
1996-01-01
We are beginning laboratory experiments using magnetically active ferrofluids to study surface waves in novel geometries. Terrestrial gravity is eliminated from the dynamics, and the magnetic body force felt by ferrofluid in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is used to create a geopotential field which is a section of or an entire sphere or cylinder. New optical, electromagnetic and ultrasonic diagnostic techniques are under development to initially study capillary-gravity wave propagation and interaction in such geometries.
Gravity Wave Predictability and Dynamics in Deepwave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R. B.; Eckermann, S. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Dörnbrack, A.; Uddstrom, M.; Reynolds, C. A.; Reinecke, A.; Jiang, Q.
2015-12-01
The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE program (DEEPWAVE) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program centered on New Zealand and focused on providing a new understanding of gravity wave dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program employed the NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. During the field phase, the NGV was equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments, as well as dropwindsondes and a full suite of flight level instruments including the microwave temperature profiler (MTP), providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. The region near New Zealand was chosen since all the relevant GW sources (e.g., mountains, cyclones, jet streams) occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit gravity waves to propagate to very high altitudes. The COAMPS adjoint modeling system provided forecast sensitivity in real time during the six-week DEEPWAVE field phase. Five missions were conducted using the NGV to observe regions of high forecast sensitivity, as diagnosed using the COAMPS adjoint model. In this presentation, we provide a summary of the sensitivity characteristics and explore the implications for predictability of low-level winds crucial for gravity wave launching, as well as predictability of gravity wave characteristics in the stratosphere. In general, the sensitive regions were characterized by localized strong dynamics, often involving intense baroclinic systems with deep convection. The results of the adjoint modeling system suggest that gravity wave launching and the characteristics of the gravity waves can be linked to these sensitive regions near frontal zones within baroclinic systems. The predictability links between the tropospheric fronts, cyclones, jet regions, and gravity
Supersaturation of vertically propagating internal gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindzen, Richard S.
1988-01-01
The usual assumption that vertically propagating internal gravity waves will cease growing with height once their amplitudes are such as to permit convective instability anywhere within the wave is reexamined. Two factors lead to amplitude limitation: (1) wave clipping associated with convective mixing, and (2) energetic constraints associated with the rate at which the wave can supply energy to the convection. It is found that these two factors limit supersaturation to about 50 percent for waves with short horizontal wavelengths and high relative phase speeds. Usually the degree of supersaturation will be much less. These factors also lead to a gradual, rather than sudden, cessation of wave growth with height.
A Simple Theory of Capillary-Gravity Wave Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1993-01-01
Employing a recently proposed 'multi-wave interaction' theory [JFM, 243, 623-625], spectra of capillary-gravity waves are derived. This case is characterized by a rather high degree of nonlinearity and a complicated dispersion law. The resultant absence of scale invariance makes this and some other problems of wave turbulence (e.g., nonlinear Rossby waves) intractable by small-perturbation techniques, even in the weak turbulence limit. The analytical solution obtained in the present work is shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. Its low- and high-frequency limits yield power-laws characterizing spectra of purely gravity and capillary waves, respectively. In the limits of weak and strong linearity, these reduce of the Zakharov-Filonenko and Phillips spectra, respectively.
Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew
2017-09-01
Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.
Helicity-rotation-gravity coupling for gravitational waves
Ramos, Jairzinho; Mashhoon, Bahram
2006-04-15
The consequences of spin-rotation-gravity coupling are worked out for linear gravitational waves. The coupling of helicity of the wave with the rotation of a gravitational-wave antenna is investigated and the resulting modifications in the Doppler effect and aberration are pointed out for incident high-frequency gravitational radiation. Extending these results to the case of a gravitomagnetic field via the gravitational Larmor theorem, the rotation of linear polarization of gravitational radiation propagating in the field of a rotating mass is studied. It is shown that in this case the linear polarization state rotates by twice the Skrotskii angle as a consequence of the spin-2 character of linear gravitational waves.
Observation of gravity-capillary wave turbulence.
Falcon, Eric; Laroche, Claude; Fauve, Stéphan
2007-03-02
We report the observation of the crossover between gravity and capillary wave turbulence on the surface of mercury. The probability density functions of the turbulent wave height are found to be asymmetric and thus non-Gaussian. The surface wave height displays power-law spectra in both regimes. In the capillary region, the exponent is in fair agreement with weak turbulence theory. In the gravity region, it depends on the forcing parameters. This can be related to the finite size of the container. In addition, the scaling of those spectra with the mean energy flux is found in disagreement with weak turbulence theory for both regimes.
Brane-induced-gravity shock waves.
Kaloper, Nemanja
2005-05-13
We construct exact gravitational field solutions for a relativistic particle localized on a tensional brane in brane-induced gravity. They are a generalization of gravitational shock waves in 4D de Sitter space. We provide the metrics for both the normal branch and the self-inflating branch Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati brane worlds, and compare them to the 4D Einstein gravity solution and to the case when gravity resides only in the 5D bulk, without any brane-localized curvature terms. At short distances the wave profile looks the same as in four dimensions. The corrections appear only far from the source, where they differ from the long distance corrections in 4D de Sitter space. We also discover a new nonperturbative channel for energy emission into the bulk from the self-inflating [corrected] branch, when gravity is modified at the de Sitter radius.
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
Primordial gravity waves and weak lensing.
Dodelson, Scott; Rozo, Eduardo; Stebbins, Albert
2003-07-11
Inflation produces a primordial spectrum of gravity waves in addition to the density perturbations which seed structure formation. We compute the signature of these gravity waves in the large scale shear field. The shear can be divided into a gradient mode (G or E) and a curl mode (C or B). The latter is produced only by gravity waves, so the observations of a nonzero curl mode could be seen as evidence for inflation. We find that the expected signal from inflation is small, peaking on the largest scales at l(l+1)C(l)/2pi<10(-11) at l=2 and falling rapidly thereafter. Even for an all-sky deep survey, this signal would be below noise at all multipoles.
Inherently unstable internal gravity waves due to resonant harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yong; Zareei, Ahmad; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2017-01-01
Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain for a linearly-stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing.
Altimeter Observations of Baroclinic Oceanic Inertia-Gravity Wave Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, R. E.; Cheng, B.
1996-01-01
For a wide range of nonlinear wave processes - from capillary to planetary waves - theory predicts the existence of Kolmogorov-type spectral cascades of energy and other conserved quantities occuring via nonlinear resonant wave-wave interactions. So far, observations of wave turbulence (WT) have been limited to small-scale processes such as surface gravity and capillary-gravity waves.
From Topographic Internal Gravity Waves to Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, S.; Scotti, A.
2017-01-01
Internal gravity waves are a key process linking the large-scale mechanical forcing of the oceans to small-scale turbulence and mixing. In this review, we focus on internal waves generated by barotropic tidal flow over topography. We review progress made in the past decade toward understanding the different processes that can lead to turbulence during the generation, propagation, and reflection of internal waves and how these processes affect mixing. We consider different modeling strategies and new tools that have been developed. Simulation results, the wealth of observational material collected during large-scale experiments, and new laboratory data reveal how the cascade of energy from tidal flow to turbulence occurs through a host of nonlinear processes, including intensified boundary flows, wave breaking, wave-wave interactions, and the instability of high-mode internal wave beams. The roles of various nondimensional parameters involving the ocean state, roughness geometry, and tidal forcing are described.
Forced Gravity Waves and the Tropospheric Response to Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halliday, Oliver; Parker, Doug; Griffiths, Stephen; Stirling, Alison
2017-04-01
It has been known for some time that gravity waves facilitate atmospheric adjustment to convective heating. Further, convectively forced gravity waves condition the neighbouring atmosphere for the initiation and / or suppression of convection. Despite this, the radiation of gravity waves in macro-scale models (which are typically forced at the grid-scale, by existing parameterization schemes) is not well understood. We present here theoretical and numerical work directed toward improving our understanding of convectively forced gravity wave effects at the mesoscale. Using the linear hydrostatic equations of motion for an incompressible (but non-Boussinesq) fluid with vertically varying buoyancy frequency, we find a radiating solution to prescribed sensible heating. We then interrogate the spatial and temporal sensitivity of the vertical velocity and potential temperature response to different heating functions, considering the remote and near-field forced response both to steady and pulsed heating. We find that the meso-scale tropospheric response to convection is significantly dependent on the upward radiation characteristics of the gravity waves, which are in turn dependent upon the temporal and spatial structure of the source, and stratification of the domain. Moving from a trapped to upwardly-radiating solution there is a 50% reduction in tropospherically averaged vertical velocity, but significant perturbations persist for up to 4 hours in the far-field. Furthermore, we find the tropospheric adjustment to be sensitive to the horizontal length scale of the heating, observing a 20% reduction in vertical velocity when comparing the response from a 10 km to a 100 km heat source. We assess the implications for parameterization of convection in coarse-grained models in the light of these findings and argue that an idealized 'full-physics' nonlinear simulation of deep convection in the MetUM is qualitatively described by the linear solution: departures are quantified
Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubillos, D. J.
2017-07-01
General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.
An experimental study of wave coupling in gravity surface wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas
2016-11-01
Weak turbulence is a theoretical framework aimed at describing wave turbulence (in the weakly nonlinear limit) i.e. a statistical state involving a large number of nonlinearly coupled waves. For gravity waves at the surface of water, it provides a phenomenology that may describe the formation of the spectrum of the ocean surface. Analytical predictions of the spectra are made based on the fact that energy transfer occurs through 4-wave coupling. By using an advanced stereoscopic imaging technique, we measure in time the deformation of the water surface. We obtain a state of wave turbulence by using two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wavetank. We then use high order correlator (bi- and tri-coherence) in order to get evidence of the active wave coupling present in our system as used successfully for gravity-capillary wave turbulence. At odds with the weak turbulence theory we observe 3-wave interaction involving 2 quasi linear wave and a bound wave whose frequency lies on the first harmonics of the linear dispersion relation. We do not observe 4-wave coupling within the accuracy of our measurement. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 647018-WATU).
Spiral gravity waves radiating from tropical cyclones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolan, David S.; Zhang, Jun A.
2017-04-01
Internal gravity waves are continuously generated by deep moist convection around the globe. Satellite images suggest that tropical cyclones produce short-wavelength, high-frequency waves that radiate outward, with the wave fronts wrapped into tight spirals by the large differential advection of the sheared tangential flow. This letter presents new in situ observations of such waves from two sources: flight level data from research aircraft that show radial wavelengths of 2-10 km and vertical velocity magnitudes from 0.1 to 1.0 ms-1 and surface observations from a research buoy in the Pacific that indicate the passage of gravity waves overhead as tropical cyclones pass by at distances of 100 to 300 km. Numerical simulations are used to interpret these observations and to understand the broader horizontal and vertical structures of the radiating waves. The simulations suggest a correlation between wave amplitude and cyclone intensity, which could be used to make remote estimates of peak wind speeds.
Inertio Gravity Waves in the Upper Mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. L.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.
2003-01-01
In the polar region of the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10 hours (Hernandez et al., 1992). Such waves are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) and appear to be inertio gravity waves (IGW). Like the planetary waves (PW) in the model, the IGWs are generated by instabilities that arise in the mean zonal circulation. In addition to stationary waves for m = 0, eastward and westward propagating waves for m = 1 to 4 appear above 70 km that grow in magnitude up to about 110 km, having periods between 9 and 11 hours. The m = 1 westward propagating IGWs have the largest amplitudes, which can reach at the poles 30 m/s. Like PWs, the IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in winter and spring. The IGWs propagate upward with a vertical wavelength of about 20 km.
Mesospheric gravity-wave climatology at Adelaide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, R. A.
1986-01-01
The MF Adelaide partial-reflection radar has been operating continuously since November 1983. This has enabled a climatology of gravity-wave activity to be constructed for the mesosphere. The data have been analyzed for a medium-period range of 1 to 8 hr. and a longer period range between 8 and 24 hr. covering the inertio-period waves. The tidal motions have been filtered out prior to analysis. For the data analyses so far (Nov. 1983 to Dec. 1984), a number of interesting features emerged. Firstly, the wave activity at heights above 80 km shows a small seimannual variation with season with the activity being strongest in summer and winter. At heights below 80 km however, there is a similar but more marked variation with the weakest amplitudes occurring at the time of the changeovers in the prevailing circulation. If breaking gravity waves are responsible for much of the turbulence in the mesosphere, then the periods March to April and September to October might also be expected to be periods of weak turbulence. The wave field appears to be partially polarized. The meridional amplitudes are larger than the zonal amplitudes, especially in water. It is found that the degree of polarization is about 15% in summer and 30% in winter. The polarized component is found to propagate in the opposite direction to the background flow in the stratosphere, which suggests that the polarization arises through directional filtering of the waves as they propagate up from below.
Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity
Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic
2009-06-18
Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.
Stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvo, David C.; Akylas, T. R.
2002-02-01
The stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water is numerically investigated using the full nonlinear water-wave equations with surface tension. Out of the two solution branches that bifurcate at the minimum gravity capillary phase speed, solitary waves of depression are found to be stable both in the small-amplitude limit when they are in the form of wavepackets and at finite steepness when they consist of a single trough, consistent with observations. The elevation-wave solution branch, on the other hand, is unstable close to the bifurcation point but becomes stable at finite steepness as a limit point is passed and the wave profile features two well-separated troughs. Motivated by the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), we also consider the forced problem of a localized pressure distribution applied to the free surface of a stream with speed below the minimum gravity capillary phase speed. We find that the finite-amplitude forced solitary-wave solution branch computed by Vanden-Broeck & Dias (1992) is unstable but the branch corresponding to Rayleigh’s linearized solution is stable, in agreement also with a weakly nonlinear analysis based on a forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The significance of viscous effects is assessed using the approach proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1997): while for free elevation waves the instability predicted on the basis of potential-flow theory is relatively weak compared with viscous damping, the opposite turns out to be the case in the forced problem when the forcing is strong. In this régime, which is relevant to the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), the effects of instability can easily dominate viscous effects, and the results of the stability analysis are used to propose a theoretical explanation for the persistent unsteadiness of the forced wave profiles observed in the experiments.
Traveling Gravity Water Waves with Critical Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasen, Ailo; Varholm, Kristoffer
2017-02-01
We establish the existence of small-amplitude uni- and bimodal steady periodic gravity waves with an affine vorticity distribution, using a bifurcation argument that differs slightly from earlier theory. The solutions describe waves with critical layers and an arbitrary number of crests and troughs in each minimal period. An important part of the analysis is a fairly complete description of the local geometry of the so-called kernel equation, and of the small-amplitude solutions. Finally, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the bifurcating solutions.
Gravitational waves in ghost free bimetric gravity
Mohseni, Morteza
2012-11-01
We obtain a set of exact gravitational wave solutions for the ghost free bimetric theory of gravity. With a flat reference metric, the theory admits the vacuum Brinkmann plane wave solution for suitable choices of the coefficients of different terms in the interaction potential. An exact gravitational wave solution corresponding to a massive scalar mode is also admitted for arbitrary choice of the coefficients with the reference metric being proportional to the spacetime metric. The proportionality factor and the speed of the wave are calculated in terms of the parameters of the theory. We also show that a F(R) extension of the theory admits similar solutions but in general is plagued with ghost instabilities.
Slow EIT waves as gravity modes
Vranjes, J.
2011-06-15
The EIT waves [named after the extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) onboard the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO)] are in the literature usually described as fast magneto-acoustic (FMA) modes. However, observations show that a large percentage of these events propagate with very slow speeds that may be as low as 20 km/s. This is far below the FMA wave speed which cannot be below the sound speed, the latter being typically larger than 10{sup 2} km/s in the corona. In the present study, it is shown that, to account for such low propagation speed, a different wave model should be used, based on the theory of gravity waves, both internal (IG) and surface (SG) ones. The gravity modes are physically completely different from the FMA mode, as they are essentially dispersive and in addition the IG wave is a transverse mode. Both the IG and the SG mode separately can provide proper propagation velocities in the whole low speed range.
Seeding and layering of equatorial spread F by gravity waves
Hysell, D.L.; Kelley, M.C.; Swartz, W.E. ); Woodman, R.F. )
1990-10-01
Studies dating back more than 15 years have presented evidence that atmospheric gravity waves play a role in initiating nighttime equatorial F region instabilities. This paper analyzes a spectabular spread F event that for the first time demonstrates a layering which, the authors argue, is controlled by a gravity wave effect. The 50-km vertical wavelength of a gravity wave which they have found is related theoretically to a plasma layering irregularity that originated at low altitudes and then was convected, intact, to higher altitudes. Gravity waves also seem to have determined bottomside intermediate scale undulations, although this fact is not as clear in the data. The neutral wind dynamo effect yields wave number conditions on the gravity wave's ability to modulate the Rayleigh-Taylor instaiblity process. Finally, after evaluating the gravity wave dispersion relation and spatial resonance conditions, we estimate the properties of the seeding wave.
Gravity-jitters and excitation of slosh waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.; Wu, J. L.
1990-01-01
The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh waves with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.
Testing relativistic theories of gravity with spacecraft-Doppler gravity-wave detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hellings, R. W.
1978-01-01
The response of a spacecraft Doppler-tracking system to the passage of a weak plane gravity wave of the most general polarization is calculated. Results show that the simultaneous tracking of several spacecraft could provide an unambiguous determination of the gravity-wave polarization, a much needed result in the continuing experimental testing of relativistic theories of gravity.
Gravity wave signatures at mesopause heights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüster, R.; Czechowsky, P.; Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.
1996-11-01
The ALOMAR SOUSY Radar operated at 53.5 MHz has been used in a five-beam configuration to study dynamical processes at gravity wave periods in the summer polar mesosphere. A case study of a gravity wave with a period of about 9 min is presented and analysed in some detail. The three-dimensional wave number vector is determined from the phase information of the 9-min velocity oscillations obtained in all beam directions and all range gates. The horizontal wavelengths in the north and east direction are estimated to be about 60 and 50 km, respectively. The echo power variations, simultaneously observed at different beam pointing positions, are investigated using cross-correlation analysis. The results show that these wave-associated variations lead to horizontal and vertical deformation of the echoing layers. The horizontal wavelength in the north-south direction, derived from the echo power modification, is in good agreement with the one obtained from the velocity analysis. Acknowledgements. The work done by P. Henelius and E. Vilenius in programme development is gratefully acknowledged. Topical Editor D. Alcayde thanks I. Pryse and A. Vallance-Jones for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: T. Nygrén-->
Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Sardul; Johnson, F. S.; Power, R. A.
1997-01-01
Some examples from the Atmosphere Explorer E data showing plasma bubble development from wavy ion density structures in the bottomside F layer are described. The wavy structures mostly had east-west wavelengths of 150-800 km, in one example it was about 3000 km. The ionization troughs in the wavy structures later broke up into either a multiple-bubble patch or a single bubble, depending upon whether, in the precursor wavy structure, shorter wavelengths were superimposed on the larger scale wavelengths. In the multiple bubble patches, intrabubble spacings vaned from 55 km to 140 km. In a fully developed equatorial spread F case, east-west wavelengths from 690 km down to about 0.5 km were present simultaneously. The spacings between bubble patches or between bubbles in a patch appear to be determined by the wavelengths present in the precursor wave structure. In some cases, deeper bubbles developed on the western edge of a bubble patch, suggesting an east-west asymmetry. Simultaneous horizontal neutral wind measurements showed wavelike perturbations that were closely associated with perturbations in the plasma horizontal drift velocity. We argue that the wave structures observed here that served as the initial seed ion density perturbations were caused by gravity waves, strengthening the view that gravity waves seed equatorial spread F irregularities.
Acoustic-Gravity Waves from Bolide Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revelle, Douglas O.
2008-06-01
We have developed a new approach to modeling the acoustic-gravity wave (AGW) radiation from bolide sources. This first effort involves entry modeling of bolide sources that have available satellite data through procedures developed in ReVelle (Earth Moon Planets 95, 441-476, 2004a; in: A. Milani, G. Valsecchi, D. Vokrouhlicky (eds) NEO Fireball Diversity: Energetics-based Entry Modeling and Analysis Techniques, Near-earth Objects: Our Celestial Neighbors (IAU S236), 2007b). Results from the entry modeling are directly coupled to AGW production through line source blast wave theory for the initial wave amplitude and period at x=10 (at 10 blast wave radii and perpendicular to the trajectory). The second effort involves the prediction of the formation and or dominance of the propagation of the atmospheric Lamb, edge-wave composite mode in a viscous fluid (Pierce, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 35, 1798-1807, 1963) as a function of the source energy, horizontal range and source altitude using the Lamb wave frequency that was deduced directly during the entry modeling and that is used as a surrogate for the source energy. We have also determined that Lamb wave production by bolides at close range decreases dramatically as either the source energy decreases or the source altitude increases. Finally using procedures in Gill ( Atmospheric-Ocean Dynamics, 1982) and in Tolstoy ( Wave Propagation, 1973), we have analyzed two simple dispersion relationships and have calculated the expected dispersion for the Lamb edge-wave mode and for the excited, propagating internal acoustic waves. Finally, we have used the above formalism to fully evaluate these techniques for four large bolides, namely: the Tunguska bolide of June 30, 1908; the Revelstoke bolide of March 31, 1965; the Crete bolide of June 6, 2002 and the Antarctic bolide of September 3, 2004. Due to page limitations, we will only present results in detail for the Revelstoke bolide.
f( R) gravity constraints from gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vainio, Jaakko; Vilja, Iiro
2017-08-01
The recent LIGO observation sparked interest in the field of gravitational wave signals. Besides the gravitational wave observation the LIGO collaboration used the inspiraling black hole pair to constrain the graviton mass. Unlike general relativity, f( R) theories have a characteristic non-zero mass graviton. We apply this constraint on the graviton mass to viable f( R) models in order to find the effects on model parameters. We find it possible to constrain the parameter space with these gravity wave based observations. We consider the popular Hu-Sawicki model as a case study and find an appropriate parameter bracket. The result generalizes to other f( R) theories and can be used to constrain the parameter space.
Propagation of gravity waves across the tropopause
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bense, Vera; Spichtinger, Peter
2015-04-01
The tropopause region is characterised by strong gradients in various atmospheric quantities that exhibit different properties in the troposphere compared to the stratosphere. The temperature lapse rate typically changes from negative to near-zero values resulting in a strong increase in stability. Accordingly, the buoyancy frequency often undergoes a jump at the tropopause. Analysis of radiosounding data also shows the existence of a strong inversion layer (tropopause inversion layer, TIL) characterised by a strong maximum in buoyancy frequency just above the tropopause, see e.g. Birner et al. (2002). Additionally, the magnitude of the vertical wind shear of the horizontal wind maximizes at the tropopause and the region also exhibits characteristical gradients of trace gases. Vertically propagating gravity waves can be excited in the troposphere by several mechanisms, e.g. by flow over topography (e.g. Durran, 1990), by jets and fronts (for a recent review: Plougonven and Zhang, 1990) or by convection (e.g. Clark et al., 1986). When these waves enter the tropopause region, their properties can be changed drastically by the changing stratification and strong wind shear. Within this work, the EULAG (Eulerian/semi-Lagrangian fluid solver, see e.g. Smolarkiewicz and Margolin, 1997) model is used to investigate the impact of the tropopause on vertically propagating gravity waves excited by flows over topography. The choice of topography (sine-shaped mountains, bell-shaped mountain) along with horizontal wind speed and tropospheric value of buoyancy frequency determine the spectrum of waves (horizontal and vertical wavelengths) that is excited in the tropsphere. In order to analyse how these spectra change for several topographies when a tropopause is present, we investigate different idealized cases in a two-dimensional domain. By varying the vertical profiles of buoyancy frequency (step-wise vs. continuos change, including TIL) and wind shear, the tropopause
Density response of the mesospheric sodium layer to gravity wave perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.
1980-01-01
Lidar observations of the mesospheric sodium layer often reveal wavelike features moving through the layer. It is often assumed that these features are a layer density response to gravity waves. Chiu and Ching (1978) described the approximate form of the linear response of atmospheric layers to gravity waves. In this paper, their results are used to predict the response of the sodium layer to gravity waves. These simulations are compared with experimental observations and a good correlation is found between the two. Because of the thickness of the sodium layer and the density gradients found in it, a linear model of the layer response is not always adequate to describe gravity wave-sodium layer interactions. Inclusion of nonlinearities in the layer response is briefly discussed. Experimental data is seen to contain features consistent with the predicted nonlinearities.
Waves in Radial Gravity Using Magnetic Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohlsen, D. R.; Hart, J. E.; Weidman, P. D.
1999-01-01
Terrestrial laboratory experiments studying various fluid dynamical processes are constrained, by being in an Earth laboratory, to have a gravitational body force which is uniform and unidirectional. Therefore fluid free-surfaces are horizontal and flat. Such free surfaces must have a vertical solid boundary to keep the fluid from spreading horizontally along a gravitational potential surface. In atmospheric, oceanic, or stellar fluid flows that have a horizontal scale of about one-tenth the body radius or larger, sphericity is important in the dynamics. Further, fluids in spherical geometry can cover an entire domain without any sidewall effects, i.e. have truly periodic boundary conditions. We describe spherical body-force laboratory experiments using ferrofluid. Ferrofluids are dilute suspensions of magnetic dipoles, for example magnetite particles of order 10 nm diameter, suspended in a carrier fluid. Ferrofluids are subject to an additional body force in the presence of an applied magnetic field gradient. We use this body force to conduct laboratory experiments in spherical geometry. The present study is a laboratory technique improvement. The apparatus is cylindrically axisymmetric. A cylindrical ceramic magnet is embedded in a smooth, solid, spherical PVC ball. The geopotential field and its gradient, the body force, were made nearly spherical by careful choice of magnet height-to-diameter ratio and magnet size relative to the PVC ball size. Terrestrial gravity is eliminated from the dynamics by immersing the "planet" and its ferrofluid "ocean" in an immiscible silicone oil/freon mixture of the same density. Thus the earth gravity is removed from the dynamics of the ferrofluid/oil interface and the only dynamically active force there is the radial magnetic gravity. The entire apparatus can rotate, and waves are forced on the ferrofluid surface by exterior magnets. The biggest improvement in technique is in the wave visualization. Fluorescing dye is added to
Diagnosis of the forcing of inertial-gravity waves in a severe convection system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ran, Lingkun; Chen, Changsheng
2016-11-01
The non-hydrostatic wave equation set in Cartesian coordinates is rearranged to gain insight into wave generation in a mesoscale severe convection system. The wave equation is characterized by a wave operator on the lhs, and forcing involving three terms—linear and nonlinear terms, and diabatic heating—on the rhs. The equation was applied to a case of severe convection that occurred in East China. The calculation with simulation data showed that the diabatic forcing and linear and nonlinear forcing presented large magnitude at different altitudes in the severe convection region. Further analysis revealed the diabatic forcing due to condensational latent heating had an important influence on the generation of gravity waves in the middle and lower levels. The linear forcing resulting from the Laplacian of potential-temperature linear forcing was dominant in the middle and upper levels. The nonlinear forcing was determined by the Laplacian of potential-temperature nonlinear forcing. Therefore, the forcing of gravity waves was closely associated with the thermodynamic processes in the severe convection case. The reason may be that, besides the vertical component of pressure gradient force, the vertical oscillation of atmospheric particles was dominated by the buoyancy for inertial gravity waves. The latent heating and potential-temperature linear and nonlinear forcing played an important role in the buoyancy tendency. Consequently, these thermodynamic elements influenced the evolution of inertial-gravity waves.
Toward an internal gravity wave spectrum in global ocean models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Malte; Arbic, Brian K.; Richman, James G.; Shriver, Jay F.; Kunze, Eric L.; Scott, Robert B.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Zamudio, Luis
2015-05-01
High-resolution global ocean models forced by atmospheric fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as model resolution increases. This paper examines internal waves in global simulations with 0.08° and 0.04° (~8 and 4 km) horizontal resolutions, respectively. Frequency spectra of internal wave horizontal kinetic energy in the North Pacific lie closer to observations in the 0.04° simulation than in the 0.08° simulation. The horizontal wave number and frequency (K-ω) kinetic energy spectra contain peaks in the semidiurnal tidal band and near-inertial band, along with a broadband frequency continuum aligned along the linear dispersion relations of low-vertical-mode internal waves. Spectral kinetic energy transfers describe the rate at which nonlinear mechanisms remove or supply kinetic energy in specific K-ω ranges. Energy is transferred out of low-mode inertial and semidiurnal internal waves into a broad continuum of higher-frequency and higher-wave number internal waves.
Conversion of internal gravity waves into magnetic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lecoanet, D.; Vasil, G. M.; Fuller, J.; Cantiello, M.; Burns, K. J.
2017-04-01
Asteroseismology probes the interiors of stars by studying oscillation modes at a star's surface. Although pulsation spectra are well understood for solar-like oscillators, a substantial fraction of red giant stars observed by Kepler exhibit abnormally low-amplitude dipole oscillation modes. Fuller et al. (2015) suggest this effect is produced by strong core magnetic fields that scatter dipole internal gravity waves (IGWs) into higher multipole IGWs or magnetic waves. In this paper, we study the interaction of IGWs with a magnetic field to test this mechanism. We consider two background stellar structures: one with a uniform magnetic field, and another with a magnetic field that varies both horizontally and vertically. We derive analytic solutions to the wave propagation problem and validate them with numerical simulations. In both cases, we find perfect conversion from IGWs into magnetic waves when the IGWs propagate into a region exceeding a critical magnetic field strength. Downward propagating IGWs cannot reflect into upward propagating IGWs because their vertical wavenumber never approaches zero. Instead, they are converted into upward propagating slow (Alfvénic) waves, and we show they will likely dissipate as they propagate back into weakly magnetized regions. Therefore, strong internal magnetic fields can produce dipole mode suppression in red giants, and gravity modes will likely be totally absent from the pulsation spectra of sufficiently magnetized stars.
Characteristic of gravity waves resolved in ECMWF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen; Ern, Manfred; Riese, Martin
Gravity waves (GWs) influence the circulation of the atmosphere on global scale. Because of insufficient measurements and the difficulty to involve all relevant scales in a single model run, they are one of the chief uncertainties in climate and weather prediction. More information, in particular on global scale, is required. Can we employ global models such as the ECMWF high-resolution GCM to infer quantities of resolved GWs? Does this give us insight for the characteristics and relative importance of real GW sources? And can we use such data safely for, e.g., planning measurement campaigns on GWs? Also trajectory studies of cloud formation (cirrus in the UTLS, PSCs) and related dehydration and denitrification rely heavily on realistic temperature structures due to GWs. We here apply techniques developed for an ESA study proving the scientifc break-through which could be reached by a novel infrared limb imager. The 3D temperature structure of mesoscale GWs is exploited to determine amplitudes and 3D wave vectors of GWs at different levels (25km, 35km and 45km altitude) in the stratosphere. Similar to real observations, GW momentum flux is largest in the winter polar vortex and exhibits a second maximum in the summer subtropics. Based on the 3D wavevectors backward ray-tracing is employed to characterize specific sources. For instance, we find for the northern winter strong GW momentum flux (GWMF) associated with mountain waves from Norway and Greenland as well as waves emitted in the lower troposphere from a storm approaching Norway. Waves from these sources spread up to several thousand km in the stratosphere. Together these three events form a burst in the total hemispheric GWMF of a factor of 3. Strong mountain wave events are also found e.g. at Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, regions which are in the focus of observational and modeling studies for a decade. Gravity waves in the tropical region are associated with deep convection in the upper
Electro-gravity spin density waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syromyatnikov, A. G.
It is known that some string models predict that strong bursts of gravitational radiation which should be detectable by LIGO, VIRGO and LISA detectors are accompanied by cosmologic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs of low-energy gamma ray are associated with core-collapse supernovae (SN). However, measurements of the X-ray afterglow of very intense GRBs (allow a critical test of GRB theories) disagree with that predicted by widely accepted fireball internal-external shocks models of GRBs. It is also known that in a system of a large number of fermions, pairs of gravitational interaction occur on spontaneous breaking of the vacuum spatial symmetry, accompanied by gravitational mass defect. In another side, the space rays generation mechanism on a method of direct transformation of intergalactic gamma-rays to the proton current on spin shock-waves ensures precise agreement between generated proton currents (spin shock waves theory) with the angular distribution data of Galactic gamma-rays as well as for the individual pulses of gamma-/X-ray bursts. There is a precise confirmation of the generated currents (theory) with the burst radiation data characterized by the standard deviation of ± 1% in intensity in relative units within the sensitivity of the equipment. Thus, it was found that the spin angular momentum conservation law (equation of dynamics of spin shock waves) in the X-ray/gamma ranges is fulfilled exactly in real time. The nature of gamma bursts is largely determined by the influence of powerful external sources. The angular distributions anisotropy of Galactic gamma rays and pulsars are determined by the paradoxes way, so this can only take place under conditions of the isotropy of space-time. In this regard, promising gravity in a Finsler space can have the selected direction in flat Minkowski space metric with torsion as in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Considering the induction of torsion in conformal transformations of tetrades (N-ades in arbitrary
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.
2015-07-01
Acoustic waves with periods of 2-4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6-16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (250-350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May-July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.
2015-07-30
Acoustic waves with periods of 2 - 4 minutes and gravity waves with periods of 6 - 16 minutes have been detected at ionospheric heights (250-350 km) using GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing NEXRAD radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the mid-latitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May - July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e. individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; ...
2015-07-30
Acoustic waves with periods of 2 - 4 minutes and gravity waves with periods of 6 - 16 minutes have been detected at ionospheric heights (250-350 km) using GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing NEXRAD radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the mid-latitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May - July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscalemore » convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e. individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.« less
Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
In this natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar to the ripples that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such 'gravity waves' sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air masses associated with stratocumulus cloud layers are disturbed by a vertical trigger from the underlying terrain, or by a thunderstorm updraft or some other vertical wind shear. The stratocumulus cellular clouds that underlie the wave feature are associated with sinking air that is strongly cooled at the level of the cloud-tops -- such clouds are common over mid-latitude oceans when the air is unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. This image is centered over the Indian Ocean (at about 38.9o South, 80.6o East), and was acquired on October 29, 2003.
The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 20545. The image covers an area of 245 kilometers x 378 kilometers, and uses data from blocks 121 to 122 within World Reference System-2 path 134.
MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
In this natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar to the ripples that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such 'gravity waves' sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air masses associated with stratocumulus cloud layers are disturbed by a vertical trigger from the underlying terrain, or by a thunderstorm updraft or some other vertical wind shear. The stratocumulus cellular clouds that underlie the wave feature are associated with sinking air that is strongly cooled at the level of the cloud-tops -- such clouds are common over mid-latitude oceans when the air is unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. This image is centered over the Indian Ocean (at about 38.9o South, 80.6o East), and was acquired on October 29, 2003.
The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 20545. The image covers an area of 245 kilometers x 378 kilometers, and uses data from blocks 121 to 122 within World Reference System-2 path 134.
MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
On modeling internal gravity wave dynamics from infrasound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribstein, Bruno; Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois
2017-04-01
Low frequency acoustic waves (infrasounds) are generally used to remotely detect strong explosions, using their possibility of long-distance and coherent propagation. Numerical prediction of infrasounds is a complex issue due to constantly changing atmospheric conditions and to the random nature of small-scale flows. Although it is well-known that part of the upward propagating wave is refracted at stratospheric levels, where gravity waves significantly affect both the temperature and the wind, yet the process by which the gravity wave field changes some infrasound arrivals remains not well understood. In the present work, we use a stochastic parameterization to model the subgrid scale gravity wave field from atmospheric states provided by ECMWF. Numerical evidence are presented showing that regardless of whether the superimposed gravity wave field possesses relatively small or large features the sensitivity of ground-based infrasound signals can be significantly different. A version of the gravity wave parameterization previously tuned by co-authors for climate modeling purpose is shown to not retrieve the duration of recorded acoustic signals. A new version of the wave-parameterization is here proposed which more accurately predict the small scale content of gravity wave fields, especially in the middle atmosphere. Compare to other semi-empirical approaches one value of this new parameterization is that the gravity wave drag obtained is in agreement with observations.
Linearized gravity in terms of differential forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baykal, Ahmet; Dereli, Tekin
2017-01-01
A technique to linearize gravitational field equations is developed in which the perturbation metric coefficients are treated as second rank, symmetric, 1-form fields belonging to the Minkowski background spacetime by using the exterior algebra of differential forms.
Propagation of acoustic pulses in random gravity wave fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millet, Christophe; de La Camara, Alvaro; Lott, François
2015-11-01
A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the normal mode method. The wave mode structure is determined by a sound speed profile that is confining. The environmental uncertainty is described by a stochastic field obtained with a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves (GW). Using the propagating modes of the unperturbed atmosphere, the wave propagation problem is reduced to solving a system of ordinary differential equations. We focus on the asymptotic behavior of the transmitted waves in the weakly heterogeneous regime. In this regime, the coupling between the acoustic pulse and the randomly perturbed waveguides is weak and the propagation distance must be large enough for the wave to experience significant scattering. A general expression for the pressure far-field is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. We present preliminary results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to some eigenvalues and how an ``optimal'' GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. The present model is used to explain the variability of infrasound signals.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2010-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, we introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and non-orographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. We show comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parametrization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and non-orographic gravity wave parameterizations to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. We also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We then show results where the non-orographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, we suggest a strategy to include these effects in a climate dependent manner.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2011-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.
Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global Ocean Models
2015-05-14
14 MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global...resolution global ocean models forced by atmospheric fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as
Deterministic forward scatter from surface gravity waves.
Deane, Grant B; Preisig, James C; Tindle, Chris T; Lavery, Andone; Stokes, M Dale
2012-12-01
Deterministic structures in sound reflected by gravity waves, such as focused arrivals and Doppler shifts, have implications for underwater acoustics and sonar, and the performance of underwater acoustic communications systems. A stationary phase analysis of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff scattering integral yields the trajectory of focused arrivals and their relationship to the curvature of the surface wave field. Deterministic effects along paths up to 70 water depths long are observed in shallow water measurements of surface-scattered sound at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory. The arrival time and amplitude of surface-scattered pulses are reconciled with model calculations using measurements of surface waves made with an upward-looking sonar mounted mid-way along the propagation path. The root mean square difference between the modeled and observed pulse arrival amplitude and delay, respectively, normalized by the maximum range of amplitudes and delays, is found to be 0.2 or less for the observation periods analyzed. Cross-correlation coefficients for modeled and observed pulse arrival delays varied from 0.83 to 0.16 depending on surface conditions. Cross-correlation coefficients for normalized pulse energy for the same conditions were small and varied from 0.16 to 0.06. In contrast, the modeled and observed pulse arrival delay and amplitude statistics were in good agreement.
Gravitational wave memory: A new approach to study modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Song Ming; Nishizawa, Atsushi
2016-11-01
It is well known that two types of gravitational wave memory exist in general relativity (GR): the linear memory and the nonlinear, or Christodoulou, memory. These effects, especially the latter, depend on the specific form of the Einstein equation. It can then be speculated that, in modified theories of gravity, the memory can differ from the GR prediction and provides novel phenomena to study these theories. We support this speculation by considering scalar-tensor theories, for which we find two new types of memory: the T memory and the S memory, which contribute to the tensor and scalar components of a gravitational wave, respectively. Specifically, the former is caused by the burst of energy carried away by scalar radiation, while the latter is intimately related to the no scalar hair property of black holes in scalar-tensor gravity. We estimate the size of these two types of memory in gravitational collapses and formulate a detection strategy for the S memory, which can be singled out from tensor gravitational waves. We show that (i) the S memory exists even in spherical symmetry and is observable under current model constraints, and (ii) while the T memory is usually much weaker than the S memory, it can become comparable in the case of spontaneous scalarization.
Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.
1985-12-01
A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.
Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.
1985-01-01
A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.
Gravity Wave Generation by Largescale Bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, A.
The response of an isothermal atmosphere to small disturbances in entropy is studied taking compressible effects fully into account. The method of Green's functions is applied to solve the linearized hydrodynamic equations by Fourier transformation. A bubble may be created by perturbing the entropy within a finite volume. At first Lamb waves will be then emitted radially and the bubble undergoes a series of Brunt-Väisälä oscillations.
Realistic inflation models and primordial gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Mansoor Ur
We investigate both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric realistic models of inflation. In non-supersymmetric models, inflation is successfully realized by employing both Coleman Weinberg and Higgs potentials in GUTs such as SU(5) and SO(10). The quantum smearing of tree level predictions is discussed in the Higgs inflation. These quantum corrections can arise from the inflaton couplings to other particles such as GUT scalars. As a result of including these corrections, a reduction in the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, a canonical measure of gravity waves produced during inflation, is observed. In a simple phi4 chaotic model, we reconsider a non-minimal (xi > 0) gravitationalcoupling of inflaton φ arising from the interaction xi R phi2, where R is the Ricci scalar. In estimating bounds on various inflationaryparameters we also include quantum corrections. We emphasize that while working with high precision observations such as the current Planck satellite experiment we cannot ignore these radiative and gravitational corrections in analyzing the predictions of various inflationary models. In supersymmetric hybrid inflation with minimal Kahler potential, the soft SUSY breaking terms are shown to play an important role in realizing inflation consistent with the latest WMAP data. The SUSY hybrid models which we consider here predict exceedingly small values of r. However, to obtain observable gravity waves the non-minimal Kahler potential turns out to be a necessary ingredient. A realistic model of flipped SU(5) model, which benefits from the absence of topological defects, is considered in the standard SUSY hybrid inflation. We also present a discussion of shifted hybrid inflation in a realistic model of SUSY SU(5) GUT.
Self-consistent theory of capillary-gravity-wave generation by small moving objects.
Chepelianskii, A D; Schindler, M; Chevy, F; Raphaël, E
2010-01-01
We investigate theoretically the onset of capillary-gravity waves created by a small object moving at the water-air interface. It is well established that, for straight uniform motion, no steady waves appear at velocities below the minimum phase velocity c(min)=23 cm/s. At higher velocities, the emission of capillary-gravity waves creates an additional drag force. The behavior of this force near the critical velocity is still poorly understood. A linear-response theory where the object is replaced by an effective pressure source predicts a singular behavior for the wave drag. However, experimental data tend to indicate a more continuous transition. In this paper, we show that a proper treatment of the flow equations around the obstacle can regularize wave emission, even in the linear wave approximation, thereby ensuring a continuous behavior of the drag force.
Experimental observation of negative effective gravity in water waves.
Hu, Xinhua; Yang, Jiong; Zi, Jian; Chan, C T; Ho, Kai-Ming
2013-01-01
The gravity of Earth is responsible for the formation of water waves and usually difficult to change. Although negative effective gravity was recently predicted theoretically in water waves, it has not yet been observed in experiments and remains a mathematical curiosity which is difficult to understand. Here we experimentally demonstrate that close to the resonant frequency of purposely-designed resonating units, negative effective gravity can occur for water waves passing through an array of resonators composing of bottom-mounted split tubes, resulting in the prohibition of water wave propagation. It is found that when negative gravity occurs, the averaged displacement of water surface in a unit cell of the array has a phase difference of π to that along the boundary of the unit cell, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide a mechanism to block water waves and may find applications in wave energy conversion and coastal protection.
Experimental Observation of Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves
Hu, Xinhua; Yang, Jiong; Zi, Jian; Chan, C. T.; Ho, Kai-Ming
2013-01-01
The gravity of Earth is responsible for the formation of water waves and usually difficult to change. Although negative effective gravity was recently predicted theoretically in water waves, it has not yet been observed in experiments and remains a mathematical curiosity which is difficult to understand. Here we experimentally demonstrate that close to the resonant frequency of purposely-designed resonating units, negative effective gravity can occur for water waves passing through an array of resonators composing of bottom-mounted split tubes, resulting in the prohibition of water wave propagation. It is found that when negative gravity occurs, the averaged displacement of water surface in a unit cell of the array has a phase difference of π to that along the boundary of the unit cell, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide a mechanism to block water waves and may find applications in wave energy conversion and coastal protection. PMID:23715132
Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide
2014-05-01
We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.
The Role of Gravity Waves in Modulating Atmospheric Tides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.
1999-01-01
We discuss results for the diurnal and semidiurnal tides obtained from our 3-D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NMS), extending from the ground up into the thermosphere, which incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization of small scale gravity waves (GW). In the DSP, GW momentum (and energy) are conserved as the waves modulate the background flow and are filtered by the flow.As a consequence, the GW interaction tightly couples the dynamic components of the middle atmosphere with strong non-linear interactions between mean zonal circulation, tides and planetary waves to produce complicated patterns of variability much like those observed. The major conclusions are: (1) Since GW momentum is deposited in the altitude regime of increasing winds, the amplitude of the diurnal tide is amplified and its vertical wavelength is reduced at altitudes between 80 and 120 km. Wave filtering by the mean zonal circulation (with peak velocities during solstice) causes the GW flux to peak during equinox, and this produces a large semi-annual variation in the tide that has been observed on UARS. (2) Without the diurnal tide, the semidiurnal tide would also be modulated in this way. But the diurnal tide filters out the GW preferentially during equinox, so that the semidiurnal tide, at higher altitudes, tends to peak during solstice. (3) Under the influence of GW, the tides are modulated also significantly by planetary waves, with periods between 2 and 30 days, which are generated preferentially during solstice in part due to baroclinic instability.
Searching for gravity waves in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1993-03-01
Such gravity waves have never been directly detected, although their existence was predicted in Einstein's theory of relativity and there is indirect evidence that they exists. The waves are believed to be produced by supernova explosions, collapsing black holes and other events of this kind. Past searches with ground-based equipment and single spacecraft have failed to discover them. This joint ESA/NASA experiment will run from the 21st of March to April the 11th and for the first time three spacecraft will make observations simultaneously, greatly increasing the reliability of any detection. Astrophysicists are hoping to make this major discovery by spending the next few weeks "listening" for passing gravitational waves with the three "borrowed" space probes at the same time in the most sensitive detection system yet assembled to search for very low frequency gravitational waves. "For Ulysses it will be the second chance to search for these rare events. Last March, Ulysses "listened" for a period of about four weeks." said Dr. Richard G. Marsden, Deputy Ulysses Project Scientist at ESA's Research and Technology Centre, ESTEC, in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. "Although no gravitational waves were found on that occasion, the experiment set new upper limits to their intensity, thereby excluding a number of possible sources." said Prof. Bruno Bertotti, Principal Investigator of the Ulysses Gravitational Wave Experiment at the University of Pavia, Italy. ESA's Ulysses spaceprobe was launched by Space Shuttle Discovery on October 6, 1990 to become the first probe ever to explore and circumnavigate the poles of the Sun. In February 1992 the spacecraft approached Jupiter and made use of the gravitational pull of the giant planet to "swing" itself out of the ecliptic plane, the imaginary "disc" in which all the planets of the Solar System orbit around the Sun. "Ulysses is now 4,9 astronomical units -735 million km- from the Sun and 20 degrees South of the ecliptic plane on
Characteristics of Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves in opposite QBO phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaman Fathullah, Nur; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni
2017-01-01
A 35-year ERA-Interim dataset from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was used to study the characteristics of Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-gravity waves based on a Space-Time Spectral Analysis (STSA). The results show that Kelvin wave activity is stronger during easterly QBO phases, while Mixed Rossby-gravity waves are stronger during westerly QBO phases. Analysis on seasonal variations indicates that the Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-Gravity wave activities increase in JJA and SON, respectively. This is associated with a variation of basic mean flow in the lower stratosphere. In addition, the variations of Kelvin and Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves in the troposphere are not significantly affected by the QBO phases. In the troposphere, both Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves propagate with a lower phase speed compared to those observed in the stratosphere. This behavior is to be likely due to large.
GRAVITY WAVES ON HOT EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. I. PROPAGATION AND INTERACTION WITH THE BACKGROUND
Watkins, Chris; Cho, J. Y-K. E-mail: J.Cho@qmul.ac.u
2010-05-01
We study the effects of gravity waves, or g-modes, on hot extrasolar planets. These planets are expected to possess stably stratified atmospheres, which support gravity waves. In this paper, we review the derivation of the equation that governs the linear dynamics of gravity waves and describe its application to a hot extrasolar planet, using HD 209458 b as a generic example. We find that gravity waves can exhibit a wide range of behaviors, even for a single atmospheric profile. The waves can significantly accelerate or decelerate the background mean flow, depending on the difference between the wave phase and mean flow speeds. In addition, the waves can provide significant heating ({approx}10{sup 2} to {approx}10{sup 3} K per planetary rotation), especially to the region of the atmosphere above about 10 scale heights from the excitation region. Furthermore, by propagating horizontally, gravity waves provide a mechanism for transporting momentum and heat from the dayside of a tidally locked planet to its nightside. We discuss work that needs to be undertaken to incorporate these effects in current atmosphere models of extrasolar planets.
On the energetics of mean-flow interactions with thermally dissipating gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akmaev, R. A.
2007-06-01
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of downgradient transport by dissipating waves and particularly of downward heat fluxes by gravity waves undergoing thermal dissipation. With a few exceptions, however, this effect has not been represented in gravity-wave parameterizations commonly employed in global numerical models. A general expression relating the heat flux to the wave energy deposition rate caused by thermal dissipation is obtained within the standard linear-theory approach. Although the flux is directed down the gradient of potential temperature, it is not proportional to its magnitude, i.e., is not formally diffusive as commonly represented. With necessary assumptions regarding the partitioning of the total wave energy deposition rate between the thermal and frictional channels, the heat flux may be calculated within any suitable parameterization of gravity-wave drag. The general relation may also be used to estimate net heating rates from observations of wave heat transport. In a more general thermodynamical context, it is noted that gravity-wave dissipation results in atmospheric entropy production as expected for a dissipative process. Without friction, entropy is produced under the conservation of the column potential enthalpy. Thermally dissipating waves thus represent an example of an entropy-generating process hypothesized in the literature but not identified before. Although the downward heat transport results in a local cooling of upper levels, the integrated net effect of the wave energy deposition and heat transport combined is always heating of the whole atmospheric layer in which the dissipation occurs.
Internal gravity waves in the equatorial Pacific
Skyllingstad, E.D.; Denbo, D.W. )
1992-09-01
Mixing in the ocean surface layer is an important process in the transport of heat, momentum, and CO[sub 2] into the deep ocean, For example, the flux of heat into the cold, upwelling water in equatorial regions provides one of the major heat sources driving the ocean circulation. Direct measurements of the ocean mixed layer have provided good estimates of the bulk layer properties. However, estimates of the small-scale effects of intenial waves and related turbulence have remained ambiguous because of the difficulty in observing these processes. Until more detailed measurements become available, numerical models can provide a convenient and cost-effective way to analyze the details of the surface mixed layer. Modeling the surface layer of the equatorial Pacific Ocean is challenging because of the strong vertical current shear and density stratification common to the region. The primary zonal current is the eastward flowing Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) centered at roughly 120 m depth, with a speed of about 1.5 ms[sup [minus]1] as shown in Figure 1. The EUC is forced by a zonal pressure gradient resulting from the westward directed surface wind stress. Above the EUC, the wind stress directly forces thee South Equatorial Current (SEC), which flows westward with a speed of about 0.5 ms[sup [minus]1]. The shear zone generated by these currents is marginally stable and exhibits a diurnal cycle of turbulence dependent on convection forced by surface cooling. In addition, surface convection forces internal gravity waves, which can transport momentum away from the surface current to deeper waters. In this report, we discuss recent modeling results for the equatorial Pacific showing the generation of convection, turbulence, and internal waves.
Internal gravity waves in the equatorial Pacific
Skyllingstad, E.D.; Denbo, D.W.
1992-09-01
Mixing in the ocean surface layer is an important process in the transport of heat, momentum, and CO{sub 2} into the deep ocean, For example, the flux of heat into the cold, upwelling water in equatorial regions provides one of the major heat sources driving the ocean circulation. Direct measurements of the ocean mixed layer have provided good estimates of the bulk layer properties. However, estimates of the small-scale effects of intenial waves and related turbulence have remained ambiguous because of the difficulty in observing these processes. Until more detailed measurements become available, numerical models can provide a convenient and cost-effective way to analyze the details of the surface mixed layer. Modeling the surface layer of the equatorial Pacific Ocean is challenging because of the strong vertical current shear and density stratification common to the region. The primary zonal current is the eastward flowing Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) centered at roughly 120 m depth, with a speed of about 1.5 ms{sup {minus}1} as shown in Figure 1. The EUC is forced by a zonal pressure gradient resulting from the westward directed surface wind stress. Above the EUC, the wind stress directly forces thee South Equatorial Current (SEC), which flows westward with a speed of about 0.5 ms{sup {minus}1}. The shear zone generated by these currents is marginally stable and exhibits a diurnal cycle of turbulence dependent on convection forced by surface cooling. In addition, surface convection forces internal gravity waves, which can transport momentum away from the surface current to deeper waters. In this report, we discuss recent modeling results for the equatorial Pacific showing the generation of convection, turbulence, and internal waves.
Stratospheric gravity wave observations of AIRS and HIRDLS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Catrin I.; Hoffmann, Lars; Ern, Manfred; Trinh, Thai
2016-04-01
The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provides stratospheric temperature observations for a variety of scientific analyses. However, the horizontal resolution of the operational temperature retrievals is generally not sufficient for studies of gravity waves. The AIRS high-resolution retrieval discussed here provides stratospheric temperature profiles for each individual satellite footprint and therefore has nine times better horizontal sampling than the operational data. The retrieval configuration is optimized so that the results provide a trade-off between spatial resolution and retrieval noise that is considered optimal for gravity wave analysis. To validate the AIRS data we performed an intercomparison with stratospheric temperature measurements of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Selected case studies of gravity wave events are analyzed. AIRS and HIRDLS utilize rather different measurement geometries (nadir and limb) and have different sensitivities to gravity wave horizontal and vertical wavelengths, as indicated by their observational filters. Nevertheless, the wave structures found in the stratosphere in AIRS and HIRDLS data are often in remarkably good agreement. The three-dimensional temperature fields from AIRS allow us to derive the horizontal orientation of the phase fronts, which is a limiting factor for gravity wave analyses based on limb measurements today. In addition, a statistical comparison focuses on temperature variances due to stratospheric gravity wave activity at 20-60 km altitude. The analysis covers monthly zonal averages and time series for the HIRDLS measurement time period (January 2005-March 2008). We found good agreement in the seasonal and latitudinal patterns of gravity wave activity. Time series of gravity wave variances show a strong annual cycle at high latitudes with maxima during wintertime and minima during summertime. Largest variability is found at 60°S during austral
A Simple Theory of Capillary-Gravity Wave Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1995-01-01
Employing a recently proposed 'multi-wave interaction' theory, inertial spectra of capillary gravity waves are derived. This case is characterized by a rather high degree of nonlinearity and a complicated dispersion law. The absence of scale invariance makes this and some other problems of wave turbulence (e.g., nonlinear inertia gravity waves) intractable by small-perturbation techniques, even in the weak-turbulence limit. The analytical solution obtained in the present work for an arbitrary degree of nonlinearity is shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The theory explains the dependence of the wave spectrum on wind input and describes the accelerated roll-off of the spectral density function in the narrow sub-range separating scale-invariant regimes of purely gravity and capillary waves, while the appropriate (long- and short-wave) limits yield power laws corresponding to the Zakharov-Filonenko and Phillips spectra.
Nonlocal resonances in weak turbulence of gravity-capillary waves.
Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas
2015-04-10
We report a laboratory investigation of weak turbulence of water surface waves in the gravity-capillary crossover. By using time-space-resolved profilometry and a bicoherence analysis, we observe that the nonlinear processes involve three-wave resonant interactions. By studying the solutions of the resonance conditions, we show that the nonlinear interaction is dominantly one dimensional and involves collinear wave vectors. Furthermore, taking into account the spectral widening due to weak nonlinearity explains why nonlocal interactions are possible between a gravity wave and high-frequency capillary ones. We observe also that nonlinear three-wave coupling is possible among gravity waves, and we raise the question of the relevance of this mechanism for oceanic waves.
Plane wave holonomies in quantum gravity. II. A sine wave solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neville, Donald E.
2015-08-01
This paper constructs an approximate sinusoidal wave packet solution to the equations of canonical gravity. The theory uses holonomy-flux variables with support on a lattice (LHF =lattice-holonomy flux ). There is an SU(2) holonomy on each edge of the LHF simplex, and the goal is to study the behavior of these holonomies under the influence of a passing gravitational wave. The equations are solved in a small sine approximation: holonomies are expanded in powers of sines and terms beyond sin2 are dropped; also, fields vary slowly from vertex to vertex. The wave is unidirectional and linearly polarized. The Hilbert space is spanned by a set of coherent states tailored to the symmetry of the plane wave case. Fixing the spatial diffeomorphisms is equivalent to fixing the spatial interval between vertices of the loop quantum gravity lattice. This spacing can be chosen such that the eigenvalues of the triad operators are large, as required in the small sine limit, even though the holonomies are not large. Appendices compute the energy of the wave, estimate the lifetime of the coherent state packet, discuss circular polarization and coarse-graining, and determine the behavior of the spinors used in the U(N) SHO realization of LQG.
Colliding plane waves in F(R)=RN gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahamtan, T.; Halilsoy, M.; Habib Mazharimousavi, S.
2016-10-01
We identify a region of a specific F( R)= R N gravity solution without external sources which is isometric to the spacetime of colliding plane waves (CPW). The analogy renders construction and collision of plane waves in F( R)= R N gravity possible. The geometry of the interaction region is equivalent to the Reissner-Nordström (RN) one, however there is no Einstein-Maxwell (EM) source --this is made possible by using the model of RN gravity and the parameter N>1 creates the source. For N=1, we naturally recover the plane waves (and their collision) in Einstein's theory.
Acoustic Gravity Wave Chemistry Model for the RAYTRACE Code.
2014-09-26
AU)-AI56 850 ACOlUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE CHEMISTRY MODEL FOR THE IAYTRACE I/~ CODE(U) MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBIARA CA T E OLD Of MAN 84 MC-N-SlS...DNA-TN-S4-127 ONAOOI-BO-C-0022 UNLSSIFIlED F/O 20/14 NL 1-0 2-8 1111 po 312.2 1--I 11111* i •. AD-A 156 850 DNA-TR-84-127 ACOUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE...Hicih Frequency Radio Propaoation Acoustic Gravity Waves 20. ABSTRACT (Continue en reveree mide if tteceeemr and Identify by block number) This
Studies of Gravity Wave Propagation in the Middle Atmosphere.
2014-09-26
34 . . . . . • * * . , . • :’ . . . , ",.,,- -. ’’’ " . ’-- o p - %"""" * " AFOSR.TR. 85-0505 physical dynamics,inc. PD-NW-85-330R L n STUDIES OF GRAVITY WAVE PROPAGATION IN...8217.. , .,- - -. ( %’. , .;: :..............,....... .-... . ~.b .. .. - ..... ,......... ..-. ....-.. PD-NW-85-330R STUDIES OF GRAVITY WAVE PROPAGATION...Include SewftY CsuiclUon STUDIES OF GRAVITY WAVE PROPAGATION IN THE MIDD E 12. PERSONAL AUTHORE) TMOPHU. r Timothy J. Dunkerton a13a. TYPE OF REPORT I3k
On the existence of convectively produced gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palm, Stephen P.; Melfi, S. H.
1992-01-01
The Boundary Layer Lidar System (BLLS), together with the gustprobe system onboard the NASA Electra has acquired a unique data set which, for the first time, clearly depicts a gravity wave above a convectively driven planetary boundary layer (PBL). In addition, we believe that the data show the development of a trapped gravity wave over a period of about an hour. If this is the case, it would certainly be the first time that such a process has been seen in the atmosphere. We also conclude that the gravity wave, while being initiated by the convection in the PBL, ultimately acts to organize and control scales in the PBL.
Gravity waves and instabilities in the lower and middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klostermeyer, Juergen
1989-01-01
Some basic aspects of mesoscale and small-scale gravity waves and instability mechanisms are discussed. Internal gravity waves with wavelengths between ten and less than one kilometer and periods between several hours and several minutes appear to play a central role in atmospheric wavenumber and frequency spectra. Therefore, the author discusses the propagation of gravity waves in simplified atmospheric models. Their interaction with the wind as well as their mutual interaction and stability mechanisms based on these processes are discussed. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere radar observations showing the relevant hydrodynamic processes are stressed.
Acoustic gravity waves: A computational approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Dutt, P. K.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses numerical solutions of a hyperbolic initial boundary value problem that arises from acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere. Field equations are derived from the atmospheric fluid flow governed by the Euler equations. The resulting original problem is nonlinear. A first order linearized version of the problem is used for computational purposes. The main difficulty in the problem as with any open boundary problem is in obtaining stable boundary conditions. Approximate boundary conditions are derived and shown to be stable. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of these boundary conditions.
Earth-Atmosphere system modeling for acoustic and gravity wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.
2016-12-01
Acoustic and gravity waves generated, for example, by seismic surface waves or explosions in the atmosphere could lead to a significant step into the understanding of the atmosphere dynamics but also of the interior structure of planets. Thus an accurate numerical modeling of the solid-fluid coupling and the atmosphere dynamics is thus important to properly understand the coupled solid-fluid system. We therefore introduce a numerical modeling tool that takes into account the propagation of both acoustic and gravity waves in a non-linear atmosphere (Navier-stokes equations) coupled to a linear viscoelastic solid Earth. The implementation is performed based on both discontinuous and continuous Galerkin methods and implemented in the SPECFEM 2D software package. Validation cases are presented by comparison with analytical solutions and with linear wave propagation simulated based on a finite difference technique in time domain. Simulations are presented to illustrate the ability of the tool to infer wave conversions between acoustic and gravity waves in a windy atmosphere, and non linear effects induced by large-amplitude waves.
Experimental observation of gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by a moving air-suction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Beomchan; Cho, Yeunwoo
2016-11-01
Gravity-capillary solitary waves are generated by a moving "air-suction" forcing instead of a moving "air-blowing" forcing. The air-suction forcing moves horizontally over the surface of deep water with speeds close to the minimum linear phase speed cmin = 23 cm/s. Three different states are observed according to forcing speed below cmin. At relatively low speeds below cmin, small-amplitude linear circular depressions are observed, and they move steadily ahead of and along with the moving forcing. As the forcing speed increases close to cmin, however, nonlinear 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed, and they move steadily ahead of and along with the moving forcing. Finally, when the forcing speed is very close to cmin, oblique shedding phenomena of 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed ahead of the moving forcing. We found that all the linear and nonlinear wave patterns generated by the air-suction forcing correspond to those generated by the air-blowing forcing. The main difference is that 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed "ahead of" the air-suction forcing, whereas the same waves are observed "behind" the air-blowing forcing. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A1002441).
Classifying linearly shielded modified gravity models in effective field theory.
Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy
2015-01-23
We study the model space generated by the time-dependent operator coefficients in the effective field theory of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations of modified gravity and dark energy models. We identify three classes of modified gravity models that reduce to Newtonian gravity on the small scales of linear theory. These general classes contain enough freedom to simultaneously admit a matching of the concordance model background expansion history. In particular, there exists a large model space that mimics the concordance model on all linear quasistatic subhorizon scales as well as in the background evolution. Such models also exist when restricting the theory space to operators introduced in Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity. We emphasize that whereas the partially shielded scenarios might be of interest to study in connection with tensions between large and small scale data, with conventional cosmological probes, the ability to distinguish the fully shielded scenarios from the concordance model on near-horizon scales will remain limited by cosmic variance. Novel tests of the large-scale structure remedying this deficiency and accounting for the full covariant nature of the alternative gravitational theories, however, might yield further insights on gravity in this regime.
Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday
2016-11-01
The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.
Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data
Burkhard, N.R.
1991-09-01
Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.
Massive gravitational waves in Chern-Simons modified gravity
Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon E-mail: tymoon@inje.ac.kr
2014-10-01
We consider the nondynamical Chern-Simons (nCS) modified gravity, which is regarded as a parity-odd theory of massive gravity in four dimensions. We first find polarization modes of gravitational waves for θ=x/μ in nCS modified gravity by using the Newman-Penrose formalism where the null complex tetrad is necessary to specify gravitational waves. We show that in the Newman–Penrose formalism, the number of polarization modes is one in addition to an unspecified Ψ{sub 4}, implying three degrees of freedom for θ=x/μ. This compares with two for a canonical embedding of θ=t/μ. Also, if one introduces the Ricci tensor formalism to describe a massive graviton arising from the nCS modified gravity, one finds one massive mode after making second-order wave equations, which is compared to five found from the parity-even Einstein–Weyl gravity.
Mesospheric gravity waves and ionospheric plasma bubbles observed during the COPEX campaign
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paulino, I.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Buriti, R. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Gobbi, D.
2011-07-01
During the Conjugate Point Experiment (COPEX) campaign performed at Boa Vista (2.80∘N;60.70∘W, dip angle21.7∘N) from October to December 2002, 15 medium-scale gravity waves in the OHNIR airglow images were observed. Using a Keogram image analysis, we estimate their parameters. Most of the waves propagate to Northwest, indicating that their main sources are Southeast of Boa Vista. Quasi-simultaneous plasma bubble activities in the OI 630 nm images were observed in seven cases. The distances between the bubble depletions have a linear relationship with the wavelengths of the gravity waves observed in the mesosphere, which suggests a direct contribution of the mesospheric medium-scale gravity waves in seeding the equatorial plasma bubbles.
Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong
2008-01-01
Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).
Gravity wave detection by GPS radio occultations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Torsten; Arras, Christina; De la Torre, Alejandro; Alexander, Peter; Llamedo, Pablo
2016-07-01
Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role for the general atmospheric circulation due to the related transport of energy and momentum between different regions of the atmosphere. The momentum mostly generated in the troposphere is transported to upper atmospheric levels where GWs break or dissipate and transfer their momentum to the background wind (GW drag). The deposit of GW momentum can occur in the complete altitude range from the upper troposphere-stratosphere, the mesosphere, and even in the thermosphere. A global observation of GW parameters (e.g. potential energy and vertical flux of absolute horizontal momentum) is only possible with satellite data. The radio occultation (RO) technique uses GPS signals received aboard low Earth orbiting satellites for atmospheric limb sounding. Atmospheric temperature profiles in the troposphere/stratosphere and ionospheric electron densities are derived with high vertical resolution. The GPS RO technique is sensitive to GWs with small ratios of vertical to horizontal wavelengths. In this presentation we give an overview about the derivation of GW parameters from RO temperature profiles, review some results of GW detection with RO data, and discuss the limitations of the RO technique. The focus of the presented results is (1) global GW activity in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for different seasons, (2) influence of the topography on GW activity from the troposphere to the ionosphere in the Andean region of South America, and (3) the variation of ionospheric sporadic E layers.
2015-09-30
being centimeter scale, surface mixed layer processes arising from the combined actions of tides, winds and mesoscale currents. Issues related to...the internal wave field and how it impacts the surface waves. APPROACH We are focusing on the problem of modification of the wind -wave field...does the wind -wave field evolve in the presence of surface currents driven by ISWs? 3) How does the surface gravity wave field above ISWs modify the
Observations of gravity wave scales, fluxes, and saturation during MAP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, I. M.
1989-01-01
During the MAP/MAC period, considerable improvements in instrumentation and experimental technique have occurred, and many hitherto unavailable parameters relating to gravity waves have become available. Studies of individual wave events and simultaneous observations made with a variety of techniques have provided insight into wave saturation mechanisms. In addition, long data sets of upper middle atmosphere winds were collected at a number of widely spaced sites, allowing climatological investigations of gravity wave amplitudes, wave number spectra, polarization, mean flow acceleration, and other saturation effects to be undertaken. Observations of gravity wave scales, momentum fluxes, saturation and saturation effects obtained during MAP/MAC, made on both a statistical and case study basis are reviewed.
Modulation of Internal Gravity Waves by Deep Convective Towers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruprecht, D.; Klein, R.; Majda, A. J.
2010-09-01
Results are presented from the analysis of a reduced model for propagation of internal waves in an atmosphere containing deep convective towers. The model is an extension of the linearized anelastic equations and includes a representation of net effects from tower-scale moist dynamics. Saturated area fraction over the tower-scale in horizontal slices turns out to be the essential cloud-related parameter in the model. Important results of the analysis include the introduction of a lower cut-off horizontal wave number in addition to the well-known upper wave number cut-off arising in the dry dynamics, a reduction of the modulus of group velocity and thus inhibition of wave propagation, reduced vertical flux of horizontal momentum. As the latter quantity is closely related to gravity wave-drag (GWD), i.e. the force exerted by breaking internal waves on mid-atmospheric flow, the results are potentially interesting for improving parameterization of GWD in global circulation models. Analytically obtained results as well as numerical simulations are shown to demonstrate the findings, including examples of how orographic wave-patterns change compared to the dry, anelastic model. A compressible code featuring a full bulk micro-physics scheme is employed to confirm some results of the analysis of the reduced model. The derivation adopts the ansatz from [1]. The ansatz employs as governing equations the conservation laws for mass, momentum and energy for compressible flows together with a bulk micro-physics model. It relies on multi-scale asymptotic techniques to derive a reduced model, capturing only the essential effects for the dynamics of flows on the selected scales. The used time- and spatial scales of 100 s, 10 km correspond to the regime of non-hydrostatic internal waves, while an additional horizontal scale of 1 km resolves variations on the lengthscale of the convective towers. Applying conditional averages to the resulting leading order system yields a closed model
Gravity effects of polyhedral bodies with linearly varying density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Urso, M. G.
2014-12-01
We extend a recent approach for computing the gravity effects of polyhedral bodies with uniform density by the case of bodies with linearly varying density and by consistently taking into account the relevant singularities. We show in particular that the potential and the gravity vector can be given an expression in which singularities are ruled out, thus avoiding the introduction of small positive numbers advocated by some authors in order to circumvent undefined operations. We also prove that the entries of the second derivative exhibit a singularity if and only if the observation point is aligned with an edge of a face of the polyhedron. The formulas presented in the paper have been numerically checked with alternative ones derived on the basis of different approaches, already established in the literature, and intensively tested by computing the gravity effects induced by real asteroids with arbitrarily assigned density variations.
Characteristics of two gravity wave sources in the US high vertical-resolution radiosonde data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Jie
Understanding gravity wave sources is essential to gravity wave research, and has profound effect on improving general circulation models (GCMs). My Ph.D. work is to analyze, diagnose and simulate the source behaviors of gravity waves that are observed in the US high vertical-resolution radiosonde data. Two sources---convection and jet imbalance---are of the major interest. I used a ray-tracing gravity wave model GROGRAT to characterize the "mean" source spectrum of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere that are observed from US high vertical-resolution radiosonde profiles on a monthly scale. With a fixed source spectral function, one can get "best-fits" for most of the stations. A universal source function is found to be most powerful in capturing the major features of the variations, while another, which represents the convection source, works better for tropical stations. "Fits" are generally better for winter than for summer, indicating possible jet-related sources. I furthermore examined the perturbation field of the ascent rate that is likely to be representative of higher-frequency gravity waves that are generated from the convection sources. The newly defined variable, VE, as well as the apparent dominant vertical wavelength analyzed from the ascent rate fluctuations turned out to be collocated very well with moist convection in the troposphere, especially during warm seasons. The waves tend to have higher frequencies, and this seems consistent with theory. Forcing terms associated with the jet imbalance source are analyzed on a climatological basis. The derived forcings reveal some characteristics of the jet imbalance source, which we can sometimes see in the radiosonde profiles. GROGRAT and a linear forcing-response model are used to study a specific case, which sheds some light on parameterizations of gravity wave drag associated with the jet imbalance.
Exploring Gravity Wave Predictability and Dynamics in Deepwave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R. B.; Eckermann, S. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Dörnbrack, A.; Uddstrom, M.; Reynolds, C. A.; Reinecke, A.; Jiang, Q.
2014-12-01
The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE program (DEEPWAVE) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program centered on New Zealand and focused on providing a new understanding of gravity wave dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program employed the NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. During the field phase, the NGV was equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments, as well as dropwindsondes and a full suite of flight level instruments including the microwave temperature profiler (MTP), providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. The region near New Zealand was chosen since all the relevant GW sources (e.g., mountains, cyclones, jet streams) occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit gravity waves to propagate to very high altitudes. The COAMPS adjoint modeling system provided forecast sensitivity in real time during the six-week DEEPWAVE field phase. Five missions were conducted using the NGV to observe regions of high forecast sensitivity, as diagnosed using the COAMPS adjoint model. In this presentation, we provide a summary of the sensitivity characteristics and explore the implications for predictability of low-level winds crucial for gravity wave launching, as well as predictability of gravity wave characteristics in the stratosphere. In general, the sensitive regions were characterized by localized strong dynamics, often involving intense baroclinic systems with deep convection. The results of the adjoint modeling system suggest that gravity wave launching and the characteristics of the gravity waves can be linked to these sensitive regions near frontal zones within baroclinic systems. The predictability links between the tropospheric fronts, cyclones, jet regions, and gravity
Internal gravity waves from atmospheric jets and fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plougonven, Riwal; Zhang, Fuqing
2014-03-01
For several decades, jets and fronts have been known from observations to be significant sources of internal gravity waves in the atmosphere. Motivations to investigate these waves have included their impact on tropospheric convection, their contribution to local mixing and turbulence in the upper troposphere, their vertical propagation into the middle atmosphere, and the forcing of its global circulation. While many different studies have consistently highlighted jet exit regions as a favored locus for intense gravity waves, the mechanisms responsible for their emission had long remained elusive: one reason is the complexity of the environment in which the waves appear; another reason is that the waves constitute small deviations from the balanced dynamics of the flow generating them; i.e., they arise beyond our fundamental understanding of jets and fronts based on approximations that filter out gravity waves. Over the past two decades, the pressing need for improving parameterizations of nonorographic gravity waves in climate models that include a stratosphere has stimulated renewed investigations. The purpose of this review is to present current knowledge and understanding on gravity waves near jets and fronts from observations, theory, and modeling, and to discuss challenges for progress in coming years.
Gravity wave observations using an all-sky imager network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Almeida, Lazaro M.; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria; Alves Bolzan, Maurício José; Guarnieri, Fernando; Messias Almeida, Lazaro
Gravity waves in the mesosphere were observed by airglow all-sky imager network of the UNI- VAP at São José dos Campos (23o S, 45o W), Braśpolis (22o S, 45o W) and Palmas (10o S, 48o W), a e o Brazil. Gravity wave characteristics like morphology, horizontal wavelength, period, phase speed and propagation direction will be analysed and discussed. The results will be compared with other observation sites in Brazil. Wave directionality will also be discussed in terms of wave sources and wind filtering.
Inertio-Gravity Waves in the Middle Atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xun
In this dissertation a variety of aspects of inertio -gravity waves in the middle atmosphere is investigated with simple theoretical and/or numerical methods. Using the models derived from theoretical developments, two distinct numerical simulations are performed to study gravity wave -mean flow interactions in the middle atmosphere. Further, the damping effects of radiative and photochemical processes on inertio-gravity waves are refreshed by some simple mechanistic models. Coy's one-dimensional coupled model proposed in 1983 for gravity wave propagation and wave-mean flow interaction is extended theoretically to three dimension for inertio -gravity wave-mean flow interaction using multi-scale analysis. Two sets of equations for global and local mean flow evolutions are proposed. The effect of waves on global mean flow is characterized by the evolution of the meridional gradient of potential vorticity. The change of the local mean flow is described by a geostrophic adjustment process under external local wave forcing. Lindzen's parameterization for the drag and eddy diffusion produced by breaking internal gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is applied to a global mean flow model in which an isotropic source of waves is specified similar to that given in 1982 by Matsuno. The local mean flow model is used to investigate wave generation by geostrophic processes under local forcing. Fels' results in 1982 on scale-dependent radiative damping rate are extended in several aspects by removing extra assumptions used in his theoretical derivations. It is found that Fels' damping rate coefficients can be used for all waves in the middle atmosphere no matter what their periods are. A simple model is developed for the coupled effects of radiative heating and ozone photochemistry on inertio-gravity waves in the region 16-70 km. A model similar to ozone photochemistry is also used to study the amplification of gravity waves by recombination of atomic oxygen in
Analysis of gravity-waves produced by intense tropical cyclones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chane Ming, F.; Chen, Z.; Roux, F.
2010-02-01
Conventional and wavelet methods are combined to characterize gravity-waves (GWs) produced by two intense tropical cyclones (TCs) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) from GPS winsonde data. Analyses reveal large contribution of GWs induced by TCs to wave energy densities in the UT/LS. An increase in total energy density of about 30% of the climatological energy density in austral summer was estimated in the LS above Tromelin during TC Dina. Four distinct periods in GW activity in relation with TC Faxai stages is observed in the UT. Globally, GWs have periods of 6 h-2.5 days, vertical wavelenghts of 1-3 km and horizontal wavelengths <1000 km in the UT during the evolution of TCs. Horizontal wavelengths are longer in the LS and about 2200 km during TCs. Convective activity over the basin and GW energy density were modulated by mixed equatorial waves of 3-4 days, 6-8 days and 10-13 days confirmed by Hövmöller diagram, Fourier and wavelet analyses of OLR data. Moreover, location of GW sources is below the tropopause height when TCs are intense otherwise varies at lower tropospheric heights depending on the strength of convection. Finally, the maximum surface wind speeds of TCs Dina and Faxai can be linearly estimated with total energy densities.
Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth
Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael
2013-08-15
A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.
Gravity Waves in the Presence of Shear during DEEPWAVE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, J. D.; Jiang, Q.; Reinecke, P. A.; Reynolds, C. A.; Eckermann, S. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R. B.; Taylor, M. J.; Dörnbrack, A.
2016-12-01
The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE program (DEEPWAVE) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program centered on New Zealand and focused on providing a new understanding of gravity wave dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. This program employed the NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. During the field phase, the NGV was equipped with new Rayleigh and sodium resonance lidars and an advanced mesospheric temperature mapper (AMTM), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), as well as dropwindsondes and flight level instruments providing measurements spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude ( 13 km) to 100 km. In this study, we utilize the DEEPWAVE observations and the nonhydrostatic COAMPS configured at high resolution (2 km) with a deep domain (60-80 km) to explore the effects of horizontal wind shear on gravity wave propagation and wave characteristics. Real-data simulations have been conducted for several DEEPWAVE cases. The results suggest that horizontal shear associated with the stratospheric polar night jet refracts the gravity waves and leads to propagation of waves significantly downwind of the South Island. These waves have been referred to as "trailing gravity waves", since they are found predominantly downwind of the orography of the South Island and the wave crests rotate nearly normal to the mountain crest. Observations from the G-V, remote sensing instruments, and the AIRS satellite confirm the presence of gravity waves downwind of the orography in numerous events. The horizontal propagation in the stratosphere can be explained by group velocity arguments for gravity waves in which the wave energy is advected downwind by the component of the flow normal to the horizontal wavevector. We explore the impact of the shear on gravity wave propagation in COAMPS configured in
Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie
2016-03-01
Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.
Intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations with AIRS and IASI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, Lars; Alexander, M. Joan; Clerbaux, Cathy; Grimsdell, Alison W.; Meyer, Catrin I.; Rößler, Thomas; Tournier, Bernard
2015-04-01
Gravity waves are an important driver for the atmospheric circulation and have substantial impact on weather and climate. Satellite instruments offer excellent opportunities to study gravity waves on a global scale. This study focuses on observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aqua satellite and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the European MetOp satellites. The main aim of this study is an intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations of both instruments. In particular, we analyzed AIRS and IASI 4.3 μm brightness temperature measurements, which directly relate to stratospheric temperature. Three case studies showed that AIRS and IASI provide a clear and consistent picture of the temporal development of individual gravity wave events. Statistical comparisons based on a five-year period of measurements (2008 - 2012) showed similar spatial and temporal patterns of gravity wave activity. However, the statistical comparisons also revealed systematic differences of variances between AIRS and IASI that we attribute to the different spatial measurement characteristics of both instruments. We also found differences between day- and nighttime data that are partly due to the local time variations of the gravity wave sources. While AIRS has been used successfully in many previous gravity wave studies, IASI data are applied here for the first time for that purpose. Our study shows that gravity wave observations from different hyperspectral infrared sounders such as AIRS and IASI can be directly related to each other, if instrument-specific characteristics such as different noise levels and spatial resolution and sampling are carefully considered. The ability to combine observations from different satellites provides an opportunity to create a long-term record, which is an exciting prospect for future climatological studies of stratospheric gravity wave
Nonlinear dynamics of short traveling capillary-gravity waves.
Borzi, C H; Kraenkel, R A; Manna, M A; Pereira, A
2005-02-01
We establish a Green-Nagdhi model equation for capillary-gravity waves in (2+1) dimensions. Through the derivation of an asymptotic equation governing short-wave dynamics, we show that this system possesses (1+1) traveling-wave solutions for almost all the values of the Bond number theta (the special case theta=1/3 is not studied). These waves become singular when their amplitude is larger than a threshold value, related to the velocity of the wave. The limit angle at the crest is then calculated. The stability of a wave train is also studied via a Benjamin-Feir modulational analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Vanzandt, T. E.
1986-01-01
The results of a comparison of mesospheric wind fluctuation spectra computed from radial wind velocity estimates made by the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar are compared with a gravity-wave model developed by VanZandt (1982, 1985). The principal conclusion of this comparison is that gravity waves can account for 80% of the mesospheric power spectral density.
Non-linear structure in modified action theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, Marcos V.
We study the effects and carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the non-linear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. We also investigate the effects of the modified dynamics on halo properties such as their abundance and clustering. We find that the f(R) effects on the halo mass- function and bias depend mostly on the linear power spectrum modifications, but that the chameleon mechanism suppresses the modifications at high-mass halos with deep potential wells. The f(R) modifications also affect the threshold density for collapse, or similarly the overdensity for virialization and therefore can change halo definitions from those of ACDM. As a result, simple scaling relations that take the linear matter power spectrum into a non-linear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications. A quantification of these effects, including modifications on halo profiles, is necessary to accurately describe halo properties and potentially construct a halo model of the non-linear power spectrum.
Gravity Wave Propagation into the Thermosphere from Deep Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vadas, Sharon
In this talk, we discuss the excitation and propagation of primary gravity waves from deep convective overshoot. We show that many of these fast waves can escape filtering in the lower atmosphere and propagate into the thermosphere. There, gravity waves dissipate, creating thermospheric body forces which rapidly accelerate the local fluid over spatial scales of 100-500 km. This acceleration process creates local "mean" winds which eventually dissipate, and excites upward and downward propagating gravity waves dubbed "secondary waves". Using our new compressible body force model, we calculate the secondary gravity wave spectrum excited by a typical thermospheric body force. We also show the spectrum of secondary waves near the bottomside of the F layer determined from a recent study involving convective overshoot from tropical storm Noel. We find that this secondary wave spectrum agrees well with a spectrum of scales from repeating equatorial plasma bubbles. Additionally, we show that these secondary waves can propagate 20-40 degrees (up to globally), depending on their periods, thereby creating ionospheric variability far from their sources. These secondary gravity waves are the fingerprints of this important but little-understood dynamical process in the thermosphere. Finally, we show that when deep convection occurs over many hours in a localized area, the induced mean winds are coherent because of the coherency of the tidal and planetary wave filtering over these times scales. These mean winds are large, up to 150 m/s in a study over Brazil. Because deep convection tends to have a daily cycle, these mean wind perturbations may manifest themselves as global-scale, migrating or non-migrating tides.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
Steep gravity-capillary waves within the internal resonance regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perlin, Marc; Ting, Chao-lung
1992-11-01
Steep gravity-capillary waves are studied experimentally in a channel. The range of cyclic frequencies investigated is 6.94-9.80 Hz; namely, the high-frequency portion of the regime of internal resonances according to the weakly nonlinear theory (Wilton's ripples). These wave trains are stable according to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The experimental wave trains are generated by large, sinusoidal oscillations of the wavemaker. A comparison is made between the measured wave fields and the (symmetric) numerical solutions of Schwartz and Vanden-Broeck [J. Fluid Mech. 95, 119 (1979)], Chen and Saffman [Stud. Appl. Math. 60, 183 (1979); 62, 95 (1980)], and Huh (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1991). The waves are shown to be of slightly varying asymmetry as they propagate downstream. Their symmetric parts, isolated by determining the phase which provides the smallest mean-square antisymmetric part, compare favorably with the ``gravity-type'' wave solutions determined by numerical computations. The antisymmetric part of the wave profile is always less than 30% of the peak-to-peak height of the symmetric part. As nonlinearity is increased, the amplitudes of the short-wave undulations in the trough of the primary wave increase; however, there are no significant changes in these short-wave frequencies. The lowest frequency primary-wave experiments, which generate the highest frequency short-wave undulations, exhibit more rapid viscous decay of these high-frequency waves than do the higher-frequency primary wave experiments.
Angular momentum transport via internal gravity waves in evolving stars
Fuller, Jim; Lecoanet, Daniel; Cantiello, Matteo; Brown, Ben
2014-11-20
Recent asteroseismic advances have allowed for direct measurements of the internal rotation rates of many subgiant and red giant stars. Unlike the nearly rigidly rotating Sun, these evolved stars contain radiative cores that spin faster than their overlying convective envelopes, but slower than they would in the absence of internal angular momentum transport. We investigate the role of internal gravity waves in angular momentum transport in evolving low-mass stars. In agreement with previous results, we find that convectively excited gravity waves can prevent the development of strong differential rotation in the radiative cores of Sun-like stars. As stars evolve into subgiants, however, low-frequency gravity waves become strongly attenuated and cannot propagate below the hydrogen-burning shell, allowing the spin of the core to decouple from the convective envelope. This decoupling occurs at the base of the subgiant branch when stars have surface temperatures of T ≈ 5500 K. However, gravity waves can still spin down the upper radiative region, implying that the observed differential rotation is likely confined to the deep core near the hydrogen-burning shell. The torque on the upper radiative region may also prevent the core from accreting high angular momentum material and slow the rate of core spin-up. The observed spin-down of cores on the red giant branch cannot be totally attributed to gravity waves, but the waves may enhance shear within the radiative region and thus increase the efficacy of viscous/magnetic torques.
Observed and Modeled Stratospheric Gravity Waves above Hurricane Humberto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuester, M.; Alexander, J.; Ray, E.
2004-05-01
A three-dimensional model can be a very powerful tool to the study of various properties of hurricanes including areas of deep convection as possible sources of internal gravity waves. Data collected by aircraft, although extremely useful, does not give a full picture of the dynamics of the system because only a few slices through the storm can be sampled within the limitations of the campaign. A validated model can help to fill in the gaps where the sampled data cannot. In this study, a three-dimensional MM5 model is used to study the characteristics of Hurricane Humberto, a category 2 hurricane observed in September 2001 during the the fourth field campaign in the Convection and Moisture Experiment series (CAMEX4). Of particular interest to this study are internal gravity waves induced by the convective activity within the rain bands of the hurricane. Further understanding of the sources for these waves and their effects on the large-scale circulation is an ongoing topic of research. Vertical velocity perturbations and potential temperature contours are used to pinpoint vertically propagating gravity waves in the stratosphere. Possible correlations between areas of deep convection as gravity wave sources within the storm and observed vertically propagating gravity waves are presented. Comparison of model results to data collected during the CAMEX4 on board the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft with the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) will also be presented.
Observation of star-shaped surface gravity waves.
Rajchenbach, Jean; Clamond, Didier; Leroux, Alphonse
2013-03-01
We report a new type of standing gravity wave of large amplitude, having alternatively the shape of a star and of a polygon. This wave is observed by means of a laboratory experiment by vertically vibrating a tank. The symmetry of the star (i.e., the number of branches) is independent of the container form and size, and can be changed according to the amplitude and frequency of the vibration. We show that a nonlinear resonant coupling between three gravity waves can be envisaged to trigger the observed symmetry breaking, although more complex interactions certainly take place in the final periodic state.
Turbulence and stress owing to gravity wave and tidal breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindzen, R. S.
1981-01-01
For some years it has been accepted that tides and gravity waves propagating into the upper mesosphere from below are the major source of turbulence in the upper mesosphere. The considered investigation has the objective to examine the implications of such a situation in some detail. The main propagating diurnal mode seems to be the primary contributor at tropical latitudes. Because of the high phase speed of this mode, it is only slightly affected by the mean zonal flow of the atmosphere. Wavebreaking appears to occur around 85 km, leading to a layer of enhanced eddy diffusion and wave induced acceleration extending between 85 km and about 108 km. Above 108 km molecular transport dominates. Gravity waves appear to be dominant at middle and high latitudes. The flow distribution will effectively determine which gravity waves (depending on phase speed) can reach the mesosphere.
Quantum modifications to gravity waves in de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Ford, L. H.; Lee, Da-Shin; Yu, Hoi-Lai
2011-04-01
We treat a model in which tensor perturbations of de Sitter spacetime, represented as a spatially flat model, are modified by the effects of the vacuum fluctuations of a massless conformally invariant field, such as the electromagnetic field. We use the semiclassical theory of gravity with the expectation value of the conformal field stress tensor as a source. We first study the stability of de Sitter spacetime by searching for growing, spatially homogeneous modes, and conclude that it is stable within the limits of validity of the semiclassical theory. We next examine the modification of linearized plane gravity waves by the effects of the quantum stress tensor. We find a correction term which is of the same form as the original wave, but displaced in phase by π/2, and with an amplitude which depends upon an initial time. The magnitude of this effect is proportional to the change in scale factor after this time. We discuss alternative interpretations of this time, but pay particular attention to the view that this is the beginning of inflation. So long as the energy scale of inflation and the proper frequency of the mode at the beginning of inflation are well below the Planck scale, the fractional correction is small. However, modes which are trans-Planckian at the onset of inflation can undergo a significant correction. The increase in amplitude can potentially have observable consequences through a modification of the power spectrum of tensor perturbations in inflationary cosmology. This enhancement of the power spectrum depends upon the initial time, and is greater for shorter wavelengths.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, Steven E.; Einaudi, F.; Dorian, Paul B.; Lang, Stephen; Heymsfield, Gerald M.
1993-01-01
A summary of the results of a detailed study of the vertical structure of mesoscale gravity waves conducted during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) is presented. Pressure perturbation fields derived from the Doppler wind fields are compared with the vertical structure of eigenfunctions resulting from a solution to the Taylor-Goldstein linear wave equation for an atmosphere whose mean state is described by vertical profiles obtained from a representative CCOPE sounding. An analysis of the potential for shear instability is also performed on all of the soundings taken on this day to assess the representativeness of the one chosen for the linear theoretical analysis.
On Wave Propagation in Linear Viscoelasticity.
1984-07-01
solutions to equations which model motions of viscoelastic media has received a lot of attention. In this paper , we study linear initial value problems...this paper , we study linear wave propagation in a one-dimensional viscoelastic medium. That is, we study the equation (1.1) utt(x,t) - bux,(x,t) + ft m...singularities. Throughout this paper , the operations of differentiation, convolution, and Laplace transformation should be interpreted in the sense
Ionospheric effects of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves: Dispersion relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, R. Michael; Ostrovsky, Lev A.; Bedard, Alfred J.
2017-06-01
There is extensive evidence for ionospheric effects associated with earthquake-related atmospheric disturbances. Although the existence of earthquake precursors is controversial, one suggested method of detecting possible earthquake precursors and tsunamis is by observing possible ionospheric effects of atmospheric waves generated by such events. To study magneto-acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere, we have derived a general dispersion relation including the effects of the Earth's magnetic field. This dispersion relation can be used in a general atmospheric ray tracing program to calculate the propagation of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves from the ground to the ionosphere. The presence of the Earth's magnetic field in the ionosphere can radically change the dispersion properties of the wave. The general dispersion relation obtained here reduces to the known dispersion relations for magnetoacoustic waves and acoustic-gravity waves in the corresponding particular cases. The work described here is the first step in achieving a generalized ray tracing program permitting propagation studies of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves.
Mesopause airglow modulation by Doppler-ducted gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snively, J.; Pasko, V.; Taylor, M.; Hocking, W.
Ducted atmospheric gravity waves are frequently observed in airglow imaging experiments Such waves are known to propagate in ducts formed by thermal variations e g Walterscheid et al JASTP 61 461 1999 Hecht et al JGR 106 5181 2001 or wind structure e g Isler et al JGR 102 D22 26301 1997 Doppler ducts typically arise from the wind flow associated with large-scale atmospheric wave and tidal motions Additionally large-scale wind structures are accompanied by thermal perturbations which affect any superimposed short-period gravity wave motions We explore a short-period gravity wave event captured by airglow imager along with synoptic meteor radar wind data at Bear Lake Observatory 42 deg N latitude 112 deg W longitude The small-scale gravity wave is observed to propagate to the southeast with sim 22 km horizontal wave length and fast sim 75-80 m s horizontal phase velocity A large-scale wind flow is simultaneously apparent in radar data and is likely associated with the semidiurnal tide The large-scale wind flow along the direction of wave propagation has a peak of nearly 60 m s with an approximate vertical wavelength of 40 km Using measured wind data and wave properties in conjunction with model wind and temperature data Hedin et al JGR 96 7647 1991 JGR 96 1159 1991 it is revealed that the wave is ducted primarily by Doppler-shift The observed wave also shares some features with a wave reported by Taylor et al GRL 22 2849 1995 including a phase reversal between OH and OI emissions
Mapping High Latitude Gravity Wave Amplitudes over Antarctica during Summer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badenhausen, P.; Millan, R. M.; Gerrard, A. J.
2015-12-01
Appropriate inclusion of gravity wave amplitudes into general circulation models is required to get accurate atmospheric circulation characteristics. However, high latitude gravity wave amplitudes are particularly difficult to obtain due to the challenging experimental and logistical constraints in these regions. In this study, we present gravity wave climatology of high latitudes during austral summer conditions over the Antarctic continent. These data were obtained using high-resolution GPS measurements aboard long duration high altitude balloon flights that were flown as part of the NASA Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) mission in December 2013-February 2014 and December 2012-February 2013. The results show increased gravity wave activity along the coast of the Antarctic continent, particularly over the Peninsula and Halley Bay, whereas at higher latitudes, particularly over regions near the South Pole, gravity wave amplitudes decrease substantially. Through use of horizontal winds data, we obtained measurements of the vertical transport of horizontal momentum fluxes, which were unusually high for the summer high latitude lower stratosphere. Such unique measurements as these are immediately applicable to understanding of upwelling in the summer middle atmosphere as well as to the formation of overlaying mesospheric clouds formation.
Infrasound monitoring, acoustic-gravity waves and global atmospheric dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanc, E.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Farges, T.
2008-12-01
For the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the International Monitoring System has been developed. As part of this system, the infrasound network provides an unique opportunity to monitor continuously pressure waves in the atmosphere. Such infrasonic waves propagate in the channel formed by the temperature and wind gradients of the atmosphere. Long term observations provide information about the evolution of the propagation conditions and then of atmospheric parameters. The monitoring of continuous sources, as ocean swell, gives the characteristics of the stratospheric wave channel submitted to stratospheric warming effects. Large scale gravity waves, which are also observed by the network, produce a forcing of the stratosphere at low and middle latitudes and long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation towards high latitudes, leading to fluctuations in the strength of the polar vortex. These fluctuations move down to the lower stratosphere with possible effects on the tropospheric temperature. Gravity wave monitoring in Antarctica reveals a gravity wave system probably related to the wind effect over mountains. At mid latitudes an additional main sources of disturbances is the thunderstorm activity. The infrasound monitoring system allows a better knowledge of the atmospheric wave systems and of the dynamics of the atmosphere. In return this better knowledge of the wave systems allow a better identification of the possible explosion signals in the background of the atmospheric waves and then to improve the discrimination methods
Dissipation of acoustic-gravity waves: an asymptotic approach.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-12-01
Acoustic-gravity waves in the middle and upper atmosphere and long-range propagation of infrasound are strongly affected by air viscosity and thermal conductivity. To characterize the wave dissipation, it is typical to consider idealized environments, which admit plane-wave solutions. Here, an asymptotic approach is developed that relies instead on the assumption that spatial variations of environmental parameters are gradual. It is found that realistic assumptions about the atmosphere lead to rather different predictions for wave damping than do the plane-wave solutions. A modification to the Sutherland-Bass model of infrasound absorption is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, Takashi S.; Nakamura, Takuji; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Taylor, Michael J.; Zhao, Yucheng; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Murphy, Damian J.; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy
2017-09-01
We have obtained horizontal phase velocity distributions of the gravity waves around 90 km from four Antarctic airglow imagers, which belong to an international airglow imager/instrument network known as ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network). Results from the airglow imagers at Syowa (69°S, 40°E), Halley (76°S, 27°W), Davis (69°S, 78°E), and McMurdo (78°S, 167°E) were compared, using a new statistical analysis method based on 3-D Fourier transform (Matsuda et al., 2014) for the observation period between 7 April and 21 May 2013. Significant day-to-day and site-to-site differences were found. The averaged phase velocity spectrum during the observation period showed preferential westward direction at Syowa, McMurdo, and Halley, but no preferential direction at Davis. Gravity wave energy estimated by I'/I was 5 times larger at Davis and Syowa than at McMurdo and Halley. We also compared the phase velocity spectrum at Syowa and Davis with the background wind field and found that the directionality only over Syowa could be explained by critical level filtering of the waves. This suggests that the eastward propagating gravity waves over Davis could have been generated above the polar night jet. Comparison of nighttime variations of the phase velocity spectra with background wind measurements suggested that the effect of critical level filtering could not explain the temporal variation of gravity wave directionality well, and other reasons such as variation of wave sources should be taken into account. Directionality was determined to be dependent on the gravity wave periods.
Saturated-cascade similitude theory of gravity wave spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewan, Edmond
1997-12-01
A theory is presented, which is based mainly on dimensional analysis (but also on gravity wave theory), that attempts to explain all the types of gravity wave power spectral densities (PSDs) now being measured. This theory is based on two concepts, namely, wave saturation and wave cascade. The immediate result of the simultaneous presence of these two processes is that there should exist a unique relation between the vertical (or horizontal) wavelength of a gravity wave and its period (provided the Brunt Period and dissipation rate are given and Doppler effects are omitted). This relation provides a way to derive all of the intrinsic spectra from the fundamental one which is the vertical wavenumber PSD of the horizontal winds. The most important suggestion to emerge from this theory is that ɛ, the dissipation rate, is the main controlling independent variable for the amplitude of all but 3 of the 12 spectra predicted. It would also control the wavelength-period relations. Comparisons are made between observations and theory, and important experimental tests are proposed. This model presently appears to be useful in the analysis of gravity wave data obtained by means of lidars, radars, interferometers, and imagers. In addition, it raises a number of new scientific issues for future research.
Gravity Waves in Hot Planet Atmospheres with High Speed Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, J. Y.-K.; Watkins, C. L.
2013-09-01
Many global hydrodynamics models have been used to study the large-scale flows of close-in extrasolar planet atmospheres. None of these models, however, resolve gravity waves which can significantly affect the large-scale flow and its associated variability in the atmosphere. Such waves are generated by a variety of mechanisms - including, inter alia, spatially or temporally varying diabatic heating, convective overshoots, hydrodynamic instabilities and adjustment processes. Previously, we have examined mesoscale gravity waves in an inviscid atmosphere with moderately fast background flows [1]. In this work, we study large-scale, as well as mesoscale, waves in atmospheres containing high-speed flows and regions of strong dissipation. The primary focus is on the waves' propagation characteristics and interaction with the mean-flow.
Mesospheric gravity waves and their sources at the South Pole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, D.
2016-12-01
The sourcing locations and mechanisms for short period, long vertical wavelength upward-propagating gravity waves at high polar latitudes remain largely unknown. Using all-sky imager data from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station we determine the spatial and temporal characteristics of 94 observed small-scale waves in three austral winter months in 2003 and 2004. These data, together with background atmospheres from synoptic and/or climatological empirical models, are used to model gravity wave propagation from the polar mesosphere to each wave's source using a ray-tracing model. Our results provide a compelling case that a significant proportion of the observed waves are launched in several discrete layers in the tropopause and/or stratosphere. Analyses of synoptic geopotentials and temperatures indicate that wave formation is a result of baroclinic instability processes in the stratosphere and the interaction of planetary waves with the background wind fields in the tropopause. These results are significant for defining the influences of the polar vortex on the production of these small-scale, upward propagating gravity waves at the highest polar latitudes.
Characterisitics of Inertial Gravity Waves in the Antarctic Stratosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, D. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Alexander, S.; Love, P. T.; Vincent, R. A.
2013-12-01
A decade of radiosonde observations of wind and temperature in the troposphere and lower stratosphere have made it possible to compile a climatology of low-frequency gravity waves above Davis, Antarctica (69S, 78E). Wave characteristics, extracted using wavelet analysis [Zink and Vincent, 2001], show strong seasonal and height variations. In particular, the high prevalence of down-going waves in the winter lower stratosphere previously identified at other Antarctic sites [Moffat-Griffin et al. 2011; Yoshiki and Sato, 2000] has been shown to exist at Davis. The vertical structure and seasonal variation of down-going wave percentages are shown in Figure 1a, and a relationship with the background zonal wind structure (contoured) is suggested. Figures 1b and 1c show that the down-going waves replace up-going waves in the winter lower stratosphere. Statistical distributions of the characteristics of the up and down-going waves show strong similarities suggesting a common source. It is also possible that both classes of waves have characteristics that are more strongly dependent on propagation conditions than their source mechanism. It has been suggested [Sato and Yoshiki, 2008] that imbalance processes in the polar night jet may play a role in their production. This possibility is considered along with the propagation characteristics of the waves to explore their role in the dynamics of the polar stratosphere, and to examine the adequacy of their representation in atmospheric models. References: Moffat-Griffin, T., R. E. Hibbins, M. J. Jarvis and S. R. Colwell, Seasonal variations of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere over an Antarctic Peninsula station, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14111, doi:10.1029/2010JD015349, 2011. Sato, K. And M. Yoshiki, Gravity wave generation around the polar vortex in the stratosphere revealed by 3-hourly radiosonde observations at Syowa station, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3719-3735, 2008. Yoshiki, M. And K. Sato, A statistical study of
First tsunami gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data
Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lognonné, Philippe; Walwer, Damian; ...
2015-05-09
After the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Tohoku, the ionospheric signature of the displacements induced in the overlying atmosphere has been observed by ground stations in various regions of the Pacific Ocean. We analyze here the data of radio occultation satellites, detecting the tsunami-driven gravity wave for the first time using a fully space-based ionospheric observation system. One satellite of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) recorded an occultation in the region above the tsunami 2.5 h after the earthquake. The ionosphere was sounded from top to bottom, thus providing themore » vertical structure of the gravity wave excited by the tsunami propagation, observed as oscillations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). The observed vertical wavelength was about 50 km, with maximum amplitude exceeding 1 total electron content unit when the occultation reached 200 km height. We compared the observations with synthetic data obtained by summation of the tsunami-coupled gravity normal modes of the Earth/Ocean/atmosphere system, which models the associated motion of the ionosphere plasma. These results provide experimental constraints on the attenuation of the gravity wave with altitude due to atmosphere viscosity, improving the understanding of the propagation of tsunami-driven gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. They demonstrate that the amplitude of the tsunami can be estimated to within 20% by the recorded ionospheric data.« less
First tsunami gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data
Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lognonné, Philippe; Walwer, Damian; Rolland, Lucie M.
2015-05-09
After the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Tohoku, the ionospheric signature of the displacements induced in the overlying atmosphere has been observed by ground stations in various regions of the Pacific Ocean. We analyze here the data of radio occultation satellites, detecting the tsunami-driven gravity wave for the first time using a fully space-based ionospheric observation system. One satellite of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) recorded an occultation in the region above the tsunami 2.5 h after the earthquake. The ionosphere was sounded from top to bottom, thus providing the vertical structure of the gravity wave excited by the tsunami propagation, observed as oscillations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). The observed vertical wavelength was about 50 km, with maximum amplitude exceeding 1 total electron content unit when the occultation reached 200 km height. We compared the observations with synthetic data obtained by summation of the tsunami-coupled gravity normal modes of the Earth/Ocean/atmosphere system, which models the associated motion of the ionosphere plasma. These results provide experimental constraints on the attenuation of the gravity wave with altitude due to atmosphere viscosity, improving the understanding of the propagation of tsunami-driven gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. They demonstrate that the amplitude of the tsunami can be estimated to within 20% by the recorded ionospheric data.
Climatology of gravity waves over Poker Flat, Alaska for 1983
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balsley, B. B.; Garello, R.
1986-01-01
An analysis of short-period wind fluctuations over Poker Flat, Alaska, obtained using the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar is presented. Results are shown for the troposphere and lower stratosphere as well as for the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Contours depict various levels of wind variance (m2s-2). These results pertain only to wind fluctuation periods lying between one and six hours. These particular fluctuations are generally considered to arise primarily from atmospheric gravity waves. Insofar as this is true, the figure thus describes a general climatology of gravity waves at high latitudes.
Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.
1999-01-01
We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, Steven E.; Dorian, Paul B.
1988-01-01
The multiscale environment of gravity wave events and the probable mechanisms of their origin are examined on the basis of observations taken during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment in extreme eastern Montana, during the period from 1200 UTC July 11, 1981, to 0500 UTC July 12. During this time, two distinct gravity wave episodes were diagnosed. The results of the analysis of the evolving structures in the subsynoptic-scale and mesoscale environments indicate that the observed mesoscale gravity waves were generated by geostrophic adjustment processes, with additional energy supplied through interaction with the critical level; their coherence was maintained through a ducting mechanism.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, Steven E.; Dorian, Paul B.
1988-01-01
The multiscale environment of gravity wave events and the probable mechanisms of their origin are examined on the basis of observations taken during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment in extreme eastern Montana, during the period from 1200 UTC July 11, 1981, to 0500 UTC July 12. During this time, two distinct gravity wave episodes were diagnosed. The results of the analysis of the evolving structures in the subsynoptic-scale and mesoscale environments indicate that the observed mesoscale gravity waves were generated by geostrophic adjustment processes, with additional energy supplied through interaction with the critical level; their coherence was maintained through a ducting mechanism.
Gravity-Wave Dynamics in the Atmosphere
2010-02-01
of wave-induced downslope winds. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 32(2):320–339, 1975. [12] P. K. Kundu and I. M. Cohen. Fluid Mechanics . Elsevier...Wave Beams and Local Generation of Solitary Waves in the Ocean Thermocline”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics , 593, 297-313 (2007) Akylas, T. R. & Druecke...334–348, 1992. [4] T. H. Bell. Lee waves in stratified flows with simple harmonic time-dependence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics , 67(FEB25):705–722
Simultaneous rocket and MST radar observation of an internal gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Philbrick, C. R.
1986-01-01
In June, 1983, the Structure and Atmospheric Turbulence Environment (STATE) rocket and Poker Flat Mesophere-Stratosphere-Troposphere radar campaign was conducted to measure the interaction between turbulence, electron density and electron density gradient that has produced unusually strong MST radar echoes from the summer mesosphere over Poker Flat, Alaska. Analysis or radar wind measurements and a concurrent wind and temperature profile obtained from a rocket probe carrying a three-axis accelerometer are given. The two data sets provide a fairly complete (and in some cases, redundant) picture of the breaking (or more correctly, the saturation) of a large-amplitude, low-frequency, long-wavelength internal gravity wave. The data show that small-scale turbulence and small-scale wave intensity is greatest at those altitudes where the large-scale wave-induced temperature lapse rate is most negative or most nearly unstable, but the wind shear due to the large-scale wave is a minimum. A brief review of linear gravity-wave theory is presented as an aid to the identification of the gravity-wave signature in the radar and rocket data. Analysis of the time and height cross sections of wind speed and turbulence intensity observed by the Poker Flat MST radar follows. Then, the vertical profile of temperature and winds measured by a rocket probe examined. Finally, the use of the independent data sets provided by the rocket and the radar are discussed and implications for theories of wave saturation are presented.
Satellite based study of stratospheric gravity waves generated by topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, K. N.; Thokuluwa, R.; Musali, K.
2011-12-01
Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) are oscillations manifested in atmospheric thermodynamic parameters like wind velocities, temperature, air density, pressure etc. at all altitudes in the atmosphere. The important sources of AGWs include wind flows over topography, latent heating of the atmosphere associated with convection, strong wind shears, adjustment of unbalanced flows in the vicinity of jet streams and frontal systems etc. Of these, mountain waves generated by airflow over topography are believed to be one of the dominant sources, particularly in the extra-tropics during winter. The study of mountain waves has been considered valuable by the scientific community for reasons such as, their impact on aviation, formation of rectilinear clouds etc. Moreover, mountain waves can easily transport momentum and energy vertically up through the middle atmosphere and the effect of which is essential to understand the general middle atmospheric circulation and chemistry. In the present study, we describe a mountain wave event observed in three dimensions using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite measured atmospheric radiance and temperatures over the western Himalayan mountain region. As a supplement to the AIRS measurements, we have also used the temperature information obtained from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The mountain wave event is also well represented in the high resolution Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. It is found also close agreement between the observed and theoretical vertical wavelengths for a stationary gravity wave calculated reanalysis winds. Using three dimensional (3d) wave properties of the wave, we also estimated the wave momentum flux.
Statistical Characteristics of Polar Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed Over Alaska
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negale, M.; Nielsen, K.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Dyrland, M. E.; Suzuki, S.
2013-12-01
Short-period (<1 hr) gravity wave observations over the Arctic region are few and their impact on the Arctic mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region via momentum deposition is of high interest, but has yet to be determined. The Mesospheric Airglow Imaging and Dynamics (MAID) project was initiated in January 2011 to investigate the presence and dynamics of these waves over the interior of Alaska. Observations were made from the Davis Building at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) (65N) using an all-sky imager. This site provides an exceptional opportunity to establish a long-term climatology of short-period gravity waves in the Arctic. Here, we present summary measurements of prominent gravity waves focusing on their winter-time spatial and temporal characteristics. Measurements were made over two consecutive winters in 2011 and 2012 yielding 117 quasi-monochromatic wave events obtained from sequential OH (715-930 nm) images. Their characteristics are compared with recent gravity wave observations at Resolute Bay, Canada (75N), ALOMAR Station, Norway (69N), Svalbard (78N) in the Arctic, and with Rothera Station (76S) in Antarctic. The distributions of the wave parameters measured at PFRR were found to be similar to those of the other high-latitude sites, except for the direction of propagation. The wave headings observed at PFRR exhibited dominant preference for motion towards the east, while the other high-latitude observations reported westward motion. To investigate the preferred wave directionality, we look at the effects of critical level filtering using zonal and meridional winds obtained from NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07).
Resonant Interactions of Capillary-Gravity Water Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Calin Iulian
2016-11-01
We show here that capillary-gravity wave trains can propagate at the free surface of a rotational water flow of constant non-zero vorticity over a flat bed only if the flow is two-dimensional. Moreover, we also show that the vorticity must have only one non zero component which points in the horizontal direction orthogonal to the direction of wave propagation. This result is of relevance in the study of nonlinear resonances of wave trains. We perform such a study for three- and four wave interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hostetler, Chris Alan
Gravity wave models for the horizontal wave number spectra of atmospheric velocity and density fluctuations are derived by assuming that both saturated and unsaturated waves obey the polarization and dispersion relations and that the joint (m,w) spectrum is separable. The models show that the joint (k,l,m) and (k,l,w) spectra are not separable. The one-dimensional horizontal wave number spectra models are consistent with existing observations of horizontal wave number spectra in the lower stratosphere and upper mesosphere. The gravity wave models are used to analyze the effects of Doppler shifting caused by the mean wind field on the separability of gravity wave spectra. If the intrinsic joint (m,w) spectrum is separable, Doppler effects associated with even small mean winds will destroy separability of the observed joint (m,w(sub o)) spectrum, particularly at high vertical wave numbers. Vertical and horizontal wave number spectra of density perturbations in the upper stratosphere (25-40 km) and the upper mesosphere (approximately 80-105 km) measured during the ALOHA-90 campaign are presented. The spectra were inferred from approximately 45 h of airborne Na/Rayleigh lidar observations in the vicinity of Hawaii. Density variances, vertical shear variances, Richardson's numbers, characteristic vertical and horizontal wave numbers, and power law slopes of the vertical and horizontal wave number spectra are computed and discussed. The observed m-spectra contradict the predictions of the linear instability theory of Dewan and Good, and the scale-dependent diffusive filtering theory of Gardner, and appear to be compatible with the Doppler spreading theory of Hines, the scale-dependent diffusion theory of Weinstock, the scale-independent diffusive filtering theory of Gardner, and the similitude model of Dewan. In the stratosphere, the m-spectra exhibit significant energy at low wave numbers less than the values expected for m(sub *). The source of this energy is believed
Numerical simulation of the resonantly excited capillary-gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanazaki, Hideshi; Hirata, Motonori; Okino, Shinya
2015-11-01
Capillary gravity waves excited by an obstacle are investigated by a direct numerical simulation. In the flow without capillary effects, it is well known that large-amplitude upstream advancing solitary waves are generated periodically under the resonant condition, i.e., when the phase velocity of the long surface waves and the mean flow velocity agrees. With capillary effects, solutions of the Euler equations show the generation of very short waves further upstream of the solitary waves and also in the depression region downstream of the obstacle. The overall characteristics of these waves agree with the solutions of the forced fifth-order KdV equation, while the weakly nonlinear theory generally overestimates the wavelength of the short waves.
Characteristics of Gravity Wave activity over a Tropical station, Gadanki
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Debashis; Ratnam Madineni, Venkat
Exact source mechanisms for the generation of gravity waves of different scales are investigated over a low latitude station like Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE), with a special emphasis during mon-soon season. MST Radar, operated in a continuous mode is used to characterize the short and medium scale gravity waves, whereas, collocated high-resolution GPS radiosonde measurements for inertia gravity waves. Different wave parameters are estimated using the hodograph analysis. It is well known that convection, wind shear (vertical shear of horizontal wind and/or geostropic adjustment i.e., spontaneous imbalance in jets) and topography are dominant sources for the generation of gravity waves over the tropics. During southwest monsoon season (June-August), over Indian region both convection and wind shear co-exists but wind shear (both vertical shear of horizontal wind and geostropic adjustment) is found responsible for the generation of GWs on various scales. This analysis has lead an interesting question `what happened to the waves generated due to convection?'. Clear semi-annual variation in inertia gravity wave energy with maximum during monsoon and winter and minimum during pre-and post-monsoons in the tro-posphere is noticed during 2006 and 2008 but not clear in 2007. Annual variation is observed in the lower stratosphere with maximum during monsoon (winter enhancement is not significant) season. This kind of winter enhancement in the troposphere is not expected at this tropical site but the contribution of meridional wind to the total kinetic energy is prominent. At the lower stratospheric height waves are propagating mainly eastward, indicates the selective filter-ing of westward propagating gravity waves due to strong shear. In addition, wave mean flow interactions due to the wind shear of the QBO become important in the lower stratosphere, which modifies the potential energy (EP) distribution at lower stratosphere. The magnitude of stratospheric EP is 10 J/Kg over
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bičák, Jiří; Schmidt, Josef
2016-01-01
The question of the uniqueness of energy-momentum tensors in the linearized general relativity and in the linear massive gravity is analyzed without using variational techniques. We start from a natural ansatz for the form of the tensor (for example, that it is a linear combination of the terms quadratic in the first derivatives), and require it to be conserved as a consequence of field equations. In the case of the linear gravity in a general gauge we find a four-parametric system of conserved second-rank tensors which contains a unique symmetric tensor. This turns out to be the linearized Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor employed often in full general relativity. We elucidate the relation of the four-parametric system to the expression proposed recently by Butcher et al. "on physical grounds" in harmonic gauge, and we show that the results coincide in the case of high-frequency waves in vacuum after a suitable averaging. In the massive gravity we show how one can arrive at the expression which coincides with the "generalized linear symmetric Landau-Lifshitz" tensor. However, there exists another uniquely given simpler symmetric tensor which can be obtained by adding the divergence of a suitable superpotential to the canonical energy-momentum tensor following from the Fierz-Pauli action. In contrast to the symmetric tensor derived by the Belinfante procedure which involves the second derivatives of the field variables, this expression contains only the field and its first derivatives. It is simpler than the generalized Landau-Lifshitz tensor but both yield the same total quantities since they differ by the divergence of a superpotential. We also discuss the role of the gauge conditions in the proofs of the uniqueness. In the Appendix, the symbolic tensor manipulation software cadabra is briefly described. It is very effective in obtaining various results which would otherwise require lengthy calculations.
pp-waves with torsion and metric-affine gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasic, Vedad; Vassiliev, Dmitri
2005-10-01
A classical pp-wave is a four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime which admits a nonvanishing parallel spinor field; here the connection is assumed to be Levi-Civita. We generalize this definition to metric compatible spacetimes with torsion and describe basic properties of such spacetimes. We use our generalized pp-waves for constructing new explicit vacuum solutions of quadratic metric-affine gravity.
Propagation of gravity waves through non-uniform stratification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pütz, Christopher; Klein, Rupert
2017-04-01
We present a method to compute the transmission of gravity waves through a finite region of a non-uniformly stratified atmosphere. It is based on an approximate solution of the Taylor-Goldstein equation. With the method, we are able to compute a transmission coefficient for gravity waves, which is defined as the ratio of the vertical wave energy fluxes below and above the region of non-uniform stratification. It makes use of the fact that plane wave solutions exist in uniform stratification and models the atmosphere as a multi-layer fluid where each layer is uniformly stratified. The solutions are matched at the interfaces in a way that the continuity of pressure and vertical wind is ensured, so that we are finally able to relate incident and transmitted wave amplitudes. Further, the limit of increasing number of layers is investigated and we obtain a reformulation of the Taylor-Goldstein equation. This equation can not be solved analytically, but numerically, giving a solution in which it is possible to distinguish between the two branches of the gravity wave dispersion relation, namely upward and downward travelling waves. Hence, we are also able to compute a transmission coefficient from this procedure. Moreover, it can be shown that the multi-layer solution converges to the limit solution quadratically with increasing number of layers. The results we obtain for some test cases are in accordance with several existing results, but provide more general insights into the interaction of gravity waves propagating through non-uniform stratification. Also, the multi-layer method can be extended to give an approximate solution to the Taylor-Goldstein equation without using any numerical integration.
Polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R ) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Dicong; Gong, Yungui; Hou, Shaoqi; Liu, Yunqi
2017-05-01
We point out that there are only three polarizations for gravitational waves in f (R ) gravity, and the polarization due to the massive scalar mode is a mix of the pure longitudinal and transverse breathing polarization. The classification of the six polarizations by the Newman-Penrose quantities is based on weak, plane and null gravitational waves, so it is not applicable to the massive mode.
Advances in understanding the gravity wave spectrum during MAP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanzandt, T. E.
1989-01-01
Prior to MAP, virtually nothing was known about gravity wave spectra in the atmosphere. The development of observational techniques has played a major role in these studies. Radar and lidar have been particularly important since they can measure atmospheric parameters continuously over large height ranges. Some advances made are: (1) The observed fluctuations and power spectra in the free atmosphere are mostly if not entirely due to a superposition of gravity waves, which can be modeled by the Garrett Munk (GM) model; (2) There is no evidence that 2-D turbulence makes a significant contribution to the observed fluctuations. In any case, the agreement between observations and the GM model shows that the 2DT contribution must be relatively small; (3) Spectra versus vertical wave number are saturated at large wave number, with theory and observations indicating that t approximately equals 3; and (4) Vertical velocity fluctuations and spectra measured near rough terrain are strongly contaminated by mountain waves. But over very flat terrain the spectra are dominated by gravity waves at periods shorter than about 6 hours and apparently by synoptic scale velocities at periods longer than 6 hours. Thus it may be possible to study synoptic scale vertical velocities using radars located in very flat terrain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, M. J.; Sherwood, S.; Mahoney, M. J.; Bui, P.
2003-12-01
Gravity waves are known to affect cloud formation via the temperature perturbations they cause, and these effects can be significant in conditions that are otherwise marginal for cloud formation. Cirrus clouds near the tropopause can form in the cold phases of gravity waves. The ER-2 aircraft observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign provide a unique set for gravity wave analysis. For the first time, data from both the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) and Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) were obtained together from the ER-2 platform, with flight paths near convection. Analyses of MTP and MMS data can be combined to provide the full set of gravity wave parameters needed to model their origin, propagation, and eventual fate. This wave analysis requires long, constant-level flight paths. First a wavelet analysis in horizontal wavenumber is performed along the flight path direction for measurements of temperature and horizontal wind. From this, the strongest wave modes are identified, and the vertical wavenumber estimated from the MTP data for these modes. Linear wave theory is then employed to compute the propagation directions and intrinsic frequencies for these strongest wave modes. The results of this analysis thus provide the full three-dimensional propagation characteristics for the dominant gravity wave modes in the data. We subsequently use these results to examine their role in cirrus cloud formation at lower altitudes, and compare the results to in situ measurements made from the WB-57F aircraft platform.
Shock waves and Birkhoff's theorem in Lovelock gravity
Gravanis, E.
2010-11-15
Spherically symmetric shock waves are shown to exist in Lovelock gravity. They amount to a change of branch of the spherically symmetric solutions across a null hypersurface. The implications of their existence for the status of Birkhoff's theorem in the theory is discussed.
A Plant's Response to Gravity as a Wave Guide Phenomenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Orvin
1997-11-01
Plant experimental data provides a unifying wave theory (W-wave theory) for the growth and development of plants. A plant's response to gravity is an important aspect of this theory. It appears that a plant part is tuned to the angle with which it initially grew with respect to the gravitational field and changes produce correction responses. This is true because the velocity of W-waves (whose standing waves determine plant structure) within plant tissue is found to be different in different directions (angle a) with respect to the gravitational field. I found that there are preferred values of a, namely integral multiples of near 5 degrees for some plants. Conifers apparently are more sensitive to the gravitational field than deciduous trees, in the cases studied, so their structure is determined in more detail by the gravitational field. A plant's response to gravity appears to be a fundamental phenomenon and may provide a new model for gravity that can be experimentally verified in the laboratory. Along these same lines accelerometers placed in plant tissue indicate that plants produce gravity related forces that facilitate sap flow. See the
Global Ray Tracing Simulations of the SABER Gravity Wave Climatology
2009-01-01
parameterization studies [e.g., McLandress, 1998; Charron et al., 2002; McLandress and Scinocca, 2005]. [76] The GROGRAT simulations include only medium- scale and...12,847–12,854. Charron , M., E. Manzini, and C. D. Warner (2002), Intercomparison of gravity wave parameterizations: Hines Doppler-spread and Warner
Educing the emission mechanism of internal gravity waves in the differentially heat rotating annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolland, Joran; Hien, Steffen; Achatz, Ulrich; Borchert, Sebastian; Fruman, Mark
2016-04-01
geostrophic balance. For the first stage of this investigation, we separated the flow between a balance and an imbalanced part at first order in Rossby number: the balanced pressure field was computed through an inversion of the potential vorticity equation [3]. The balanced horizontal velocity field and buoyancy were then computed using the geostrophic and hydrostatic balance conditions. We first checked that this decomposition gave on the one hand a large scaled balanced flow, comprising mostly of the baroclinic wave, and on the other hand a small scale flow comprising mostly of the gravity wave signal. We then proceeded with the central stage of the validation: we simulated the tangent linear dynamics of the imbalanced part of the flow [4]. The equations are linearised about the balanced part, and any imbalances forces the modeled imbalanced part. The output of this simulation compares very well with the actual imbalanced part, thus confirming that the observed gravity waves are indeed generated through spontaneous imbalance. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of emission by this mechanism in a flow which is not idealised: a flow which can be obtained as a result of a numerical simulation of primitive equations or actually observed in a laboratory experiment. References [1] R. Plougonven, F. Zhang, Internal gravity waves from atmospheric jets and fronts, Rev. Geophys. 52, 33-76 (2014). [2] S. Borchert, U. Achatz, M.D. Fruman, Spontaneous Gravity wave emission in the differentially heated annulus, J. Fluid Mech. 758, 287-311 (2014). [3] F. Zhang, S.E . Koch, C. A. Davis, M. L. Kaplan, A Survey of unbalanced flow diagnostics and their application, Adv. Atmo. Sci. 17, 165-183 (2000). [4] S. Wang, F. Zhang, Source of gravity waves within a vortex dipole jet revealed by a linear model, J. Atmo. Sci. 67, 1438-1455 (2010).
Satellite observations of gravity wave activity and dissipation during sudden stratospheric warmings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin
2015-04-01
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are a circulation anomaly that occurs mainly at high northern latitudes in boreal winter. During major SSWs the eastward directed polar jet reverses, and, for a certain period, the stratosphere is governed by anomalous westward winds. It is known that both planetary waves and gravity waves contribute to the formation and evolution of SSWs. However, the small horizontal scales of gravity waves (tens to a few thousand km) challenge both observations and modeling of gravity waves. Therefore, the role of gravity waves during SSWs is still not fully understood. In particular, gravity waves should play an important role during the recovery of the stratopause and of the eastward directed polar jet after major SSWs. This is indicated by several modeling efforts. However, validation by global observations of gravity waves is still an open issue. Gravity wave momentum fluxes and potential gravity wave drag were derived from HIRDLS and SABER satellite observations, and the role of gravity waves during recent SSWs in the boreal winters 2001/2002-2013/2014 is investigated. We find that gravity waves with slow horizontal phase speeds, likely mountain waves, play an important role during SSWs. Both gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag are enhanced before the central date of major SSWs. After the central date, gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in the stratosphere are strongly reduced. Still, gravity wave drag contributes to the wind reversals related to the anomalous westward winds. Another finding is that, after major SSWs, the contribution of gravity wave drag at the bottom of re-established eastward directed polar jets is small. At the top of those jets, however, strong gravity wave drag is found, which indicates that gravity waves contribute to the downward propagation of newly formed polar jets and of elevated stratopauses to their "climatological" altitude. This confirms recent modeling work by, for example
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, Steven E.; Golus, Robert E.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a statistical analysis of the characteristics of the wavelike activity that occurred over the north-central United States on July 11-12, 1981, using data from the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment in Montana. In particular, two distinct wave episodes of about 8-h duration within a longer (33 h) period of wave activity were studied in detail. It is demonstrated that the observed phenomena display features consistent with those of mesoscale gravity waves. The principles of statistical methods used to detect and track mesoscale gravity waves are discussed together with their limitations.
Generating electromagnetic waves from gravity waves in cosmology
Hogan, P. A.; O'Farrell, S.
2009-05-15
Examples of test electromagnetic waves on a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background are constructed from explicit perturbations of the FLRW space-times describing gravitational waves propagating in the isotropic universes. A possible physical mechanism for the production of the test electromagnetic waves is shown to be the coupling of the gravitational waves with a test magnetic field, confirming the observation of Marklund, Dunsby and Brodin [Phys. Rev. D 62, 101501(R) (2000)].
Energy density of relic gravity waves from inflation
Sahni, V. )
1990-07-15
We evaluate both the spectral energy density and the total energy density for relic gravity waves produced during the transition from an early inflationary phase to a matter-dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-type expansion: {ital a}{similar to}{ital t}{sup {ital c}} ({ital c}{lt}1). We find that for power-law inflation the spectral energy density for gravity waves has more power on larger scales than for purely exponential inflation. Evaluating the energy density of created massless particles (both gravitons and massless scalars) we find that in the case of exponential inflation the ratio of the density of created particles to the total density of matter is a constant, if {ital c}{ge}1/2. This unusual behavior is a consequence of the fact that the equation of state for created particles mimics the equation of state for matter driving the expansion of the Universe. As a result, self-consistent solutions of the Einstein equations can be found, in which the expansion of the Universe is sustained solely by the ongoing production of massless particles, so that {ital G}{sub {mu}{nu}}=8{pi}{ital G}{l angle}{ital T}{sub {mu}{nu}}{r angle}. In the case of power-law and quasiexponential inflation we find that the ratio of the energy density of gravity waves to the background matter density increases with time, as gravity waves with longer wavelengths and larger amplitudes enter the horizon at successively later epochs. This could lead to the energy density of gravity waves becoming comparable to the energy density of matter at late times, if inflation commenced at Planckian energies.
Capillary-gravity waves generated by a slow moving object.
Chepelianskii, A D; Chevy, F; Raphaël, E
2008-02-22
We investigate theoretically and experimentally the capillary-gravity waves created by a small object moving steadily at the water-air interface along a circular trajectory. It is well established that, for straight uniform motion, no steady waves appear at velocities below the minimum phase velocity c(min)=23 cm s(-1). We demonstrate that no such velocity threshold exists for a steady circular motion, for which, even for small velocities, a finite wave drag is experienced by the object. This wave drag originates from the emission of a spiral-like wave pattern. Our results are in good agreement with direct experimental observations of the wave pattern created by a circularly moving needle in contact with water. Our study leads to new insights into the problem of animal locomotion at the water-air interface.
Experimental study of spatiotemporally localized surface gravity water waves.
Chabchoub, A; Akhmediev, N; Hoffmann, N P
2012-07-01
We present experimental results on the study of spatiotemporally localized surface wave events on deep water that can be modeled using the Peregrine breather solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. These are often considered as prototypes of oceanic rogue waves that can focus wave energy into a single wave packet. For small steepness values of the carrier gravity waves the Peregrine breathers are relatively wide, thus providing an excellent agreement between the theory and experimental results. For larger steepnesses the focusing leads to temporally and spatially shorter events. Nevertheless, agreement between measurements and the Peregrine breather theory remains reasonably good, with discrepancies of modulation gradients and spatiotemporal symmetries being tolerable. Lifetimes and travel distances of the spatiotemporally localized wave events determined from the experiment are in good agreement with the theory.
Nonlinear reflection of internal gravity wave onto a slope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raja, Keshav; Sommeria, Joel; Staquet, Chantal; Leclair, Matthieu; Grisouard, Nicolas; Gostiaux, Louis
2016-04-01
reflected wave. We study the momentum and energy budget of the process in order to understand the mechanism of generation of mean flow, its interaction with the wave and account for the loss of wave energy upon reflection. REFERENCES N. Grisouard, M. Leclair, L. Gostiaux and C. Staquet 2013. Large scale energy transfer from an internal gravity wave reflecting on a simple slope IUTAM Symposium Procedia 8 119-128 M. Leclair, K. Raja and C. Staquet 2016. Nonlinear reflection of a two-dimensional finite-width internal gravity wave onto a slope Journal of Fluid Mechanics. in preparation
Non linear inversion of gravity gradients and the GGI gradiometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talwani, Manik
2011-12-01
All gradiometers currently operating for exploration in the field are based on Lockheed Martin's GGI gradiometer. The working of this gradiometer is described and a method for robust non linear inversion of gravity gradients is presented. The inversion method involves obtaining the gradient response of a trial body consisting of vertical rectangular prisms. The inversion adjusts the depth to the tops or bases of the prisms. In the trial model all the prisms are not required to have the same area of cross section or the same density (which can also be allowed to vary with depth). The depth to the tops and bottoms of each prism can also be different. This response is compared with the observed values of gradient and through an iterative procedure, the difference is minimized in a least square sense to arrive at a best fitting model by varying the position of the tops or bottoms of the prisms. Each gradient can be individually inverted or one or more gradients can be jointly inverted. The method is extended to invert gravity values individually or jointly with gradient values. The use of Differential Curvature, a quantity which is directly obtained by current gradiometers in use and which is an invariant under a rotation in the horizontal plane, is emphasized. Synthetic examples as well as a field example of inversion are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duncan, J. H.; Diorio, J. D.; Lisiewski, A.; Harris, R.
2009-11-01
The wave pattern generated by a small pressure source moving across a water surface at speeds less than the minimum phase speed for linear gravity-capillary waves (cmin = 23 cm/s) was investigated experimentally. The resulting wave pattern was measured using cinematic shadowgraph and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques. The results show the existence of several distinct behavioral states. At low speeds, no wave behavior is observed and the pattern resembles the symmetric stationary condition. However, at a critical speed, but still below cmin, the pattern undergoes a sudden transition to an asymmetric state with a stationary, 2D solitary wave that forms behind the pressure source. This solitary wave is elongated in the cross-stream relative to the stream-wise direction and resembles gravity-capillary ``lumps'' observed in previous numerical calculations. As the translation speed approaches cmin, another time-dependent behavior is observed characterized by periodic ``shedding'' from a V-shaped solitary wave pattern. This work will be discussed in conjunction with the recent numerical calculations of T. Akylas and his research group.
Investigating seasonal gravity wave activity in the summer polar mesosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Randall, C. E.; Lumpe, J. D.; Siskind, D. E.; Bailey, S. M.; Russell, J. M.
2015-05-01
The NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite is the first spaceborne mission dedicated to studying high-altitude (~83 km) Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs). Since its launch in 2007, the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument onboard AIM has obtained large-field, high resolution (25 km2/pixel) images of the PMCs, enabling a unique investigation of mesospheric gravity wave activity in the summer polar mesosphere where previous measurements have been sparse. In this study, we have analyzed 12 consecutive seasons of AIM/CIPS PMC albedo data to determine the statistical properties of medium and large horizontal scale (>100 km) gravity waves present in the PMC data. Over 60,000 wave events with horizontal scale-sizes ranging up to >2000 km have been identified and measured, revealing a wealth of wave events particularly in the ~300-800 km range where our analysis sensitivity is largest. These data are ideal for investigating the intra-seasonal, inter-annual and hemispheric variability of these waves as observed over the whole summer polar cap regions. Throughout this 6 year study, the wave activity in the southern hemisphere was found to be consistently 10-15% higher than in the northern hemisphere and both the northern and southern hemisphere wave activity was determined to decrease systematically (by ~15%) during the course of each summer season. This decrease agrees well with previous seasonal stratospheric studies of variations in the wave energy, suggesting a direct influence of the lower atmospheric sources on polar mesospheric dynamics. Very similar and consistent results were also found from season to season in both hemispheres providing new information for gravity wave modeling and dynamical studies of the high-latitude summer-time mesosphere.
Mesospheric Non-Migrating Tides Generated With Planetary Waves: II Influence of Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. L.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.
2003-01-01
We demonstrated that, in our model, non-linear interactions between planetary waves (PW) and migrating tides could generate in the upper mesosphere non-migrating tides with amplitudes comparable to those observed. The Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) we employ incorporates Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW), which affect in numerous ways the dynamics of the mesosphere. The latitudinal (seasonal) reversals in the temperature and zonal circulation, which are largely caused by GWs (Lindzen, 198l), filter the PWs and contribute to the instabilities that generate the PWs. The PWs in turn are amplified by the momentum deposition of upward propagating GWs, as are the migrating tides. The GWs thus affect significantly the migrating tides and PWs, the building blocks of non-migrating tides. In the present paper, we demonstrate that GW filtering also contributes to the non-linear coupling between PWs and tides. Two computer experiments are presented to make this point. In one, we simply turn off the GW source to show the effect. In the second case, we demonstrate the effect by selectively suppressing the momentum source for the m = 0 non-migrating tides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dugan, J. P.; Piotrowski, C. C.; Williams, J. Z.
2001-08-01
Visible images of nearshore ocean waves obtained from an aircraft have been utilized to estimate the surface currents and water depth below the waves. A digital framing camera was mounted in a motion-stabilized turret and used to obtain temporal sequences of high-quality optical images of shoaling ocean waves. Data on the position and attitude of the camera/turret were used to map the image data to a rectilinear coordinate system at the level of the surface, effectively separating the spatial and temporal modulations due to the waves. The resulting three-dimensional (3-D) space-time data sets were Fourier transformed to obtain frequency-wave number spectra of these modulations. These spectra contain information on the propagation characteristics of the waves, such as their wavelengths and frequencies, and their directions and speeds of propagation. The water depth and current vector have been estimated by choosing these parameters so that a "best" fit is obtained between the theoretical dispersion relation for linear gravity waves and these 3-D wave spectra. Image data sets were acquired during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) along the quasi-linear coastline in the vicinity of the Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility (FRF) near Duck on the North Carolina Outer Banks. Summary wave parameters and bathymetry and current retrievals are typically within 10% of contemporaneous in situ measurements, though outliers occur.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Hyun-Joo; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.
2012-01-01
The realism of ray-based spectral parameterization of convective gravity wave drag, which considers the updated moving speed of the convective source and multiple wave propagation directions, is tested against the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the Aqua satellite. Offline parameterization calculations are performed using the global reanalysis data for January and July 2005, and gravity wave temperature variances (GWTVs) are calculated at z = 2.5 hPa (unfiltered GWTV). AIRS-filtered GWTV, which is directly compared with AIRS, is calculated by applying the AIRS visibility function to the unfiltered GWTV. A comparison between the parameterization calculations and AIRS observations shows that the spatial distribution of the AIRS-filtered GWTV agrees well with that of the AIRS GWTV. However, the magnitude of the AIRS-filtered GWTV is smaller than that of the AIRS GWTV. When an additional cloud top gravity wave momentum flux spectrum with longer horizontal wavelength components that were obtained from the mesoscale simulations is included in the parameterization, both the magnitude and spatial distribution of the AIRS-filtered GWTVs from the parameterization are in good agreement with those of the AIRS GWTVs. The AIRS GWTV can be reproduced reasonably well by the parameterization not only with multiple wave propagation directions but also with two wave propagation directions of 45 degrees (northeast-southwest) and 135 degrees (northwest-southeast), which are optimally chosen for computational efficiency.
Correlation between opposite-helicity gravitons: Imprints on gravity-wave and microwave backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João
2017-01-01
We examine some of the roots of parity violation for gravitons and uncover a closely related new effect: correlations between right- and left-handed gravitons. Such correlators have spin 4 if they involve gravitons moving along the same direction and spin zero for gravitons moving with opposite directions. In the first case, the most immediate implication would be a degree of linear polarization for the tensor vacuum fluctuations, which could be seen by gravity-wave detectors sensitive enough to probe the primordial background, its degree of polarization and anisotropies. Looking at the anisotropy of the gravity waves linear polarization, we identify the parity respecting and violating components of the effect. The imprint on the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization would be more elusive, since it averages to zero in the two-point functions, appearing only in their cosmic variance or in fourth-order correlators. In contrast, spin-zero correlations would have an effect on the two-point function of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization, enhancing the B B component if they were anticorrelations. Such correlations represent an amplitude for the production of standing waves, as first envisaged by Grishchuk, and could also leave an interesting signature for gravity-wave detectors.
Dust gravitational drift wave in complex plasma under gravity
Salahshoor, M. Niknam, A. R.
2014-12-15
The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in a complex plasma under gravity is presented. It is assumed that the waves propagate parallel to the external fields. The effects of weak electric field, neutral drag force, and ion drag force are also taken into account. The dispersion relation is numerically examined in an appropriate parameter space in which the gravity plays the dominant role in the dynamics of microparticles. The numerical results show that, in the low pressure complex plasma under gravity, a low frequency drift wave can be developed in the long wavelength limit. The stability state of this wave is switched at a certain critical wavenumber in such a way that the damped mode is transformed into a growing one. Furthermore, the influence of the external fields on the dispersion properties is analyzed. It is shown that the wave instability is essentially due to the electrostatic streaming of plasma particles. It is also found that by increasing the electric field strength, the stability switching occurs at smaller wavenumbers.
Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franzin, E.; Cardoso, V.; Pani, P.; Raposo, G.
2017-05-01
The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects.
Ionospheric gravity waves detected offshore Hawaii after tsunamis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolland, Lucie M.; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Lognonné, Philippe; Loevenbruck, Anne
2010-09-01
On-board satellites techniques provide global coverage and could play an important role in the continuous oceanic survey to prevent the damage produced by powerful tsunamis. We report here new ionospheric observations related to three significant transpacific tsunami events triggered by the 2006 Kuril earthquake, the 2009 Samoa earthquake and the 2010 Chile earthquake. Total Electron Content (TEC) variations extracted from data recorded by a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network based in Hawaii show ionospheric disturbances within the hours following the tsunami wave passage at sea-level. For each event, we observe ionospheric gravity waves propagating with velocity, direction and arrival time coherent with the tsunami. The tsunamigenic signature in the ionosphere is also compared to in-situ sea-level measurements. These observations provide new examples of the sensitivity of the ionosphere to tsunamigenic gravity waves and confirm that ionospheric monitoring by GPS can provide complementary information on tsunami propagation.
Soundproof simulations of stratospheric gravity waves on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolarkiewicz, P.; Szmelter, J.
2012-04-01
An edge-based unstructured-mesh semi-implicit model is presented that integrates nonhydrostatic soundproof equations, inclusive of anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems of partial differential equations. The model numerics employ nonoscillatory forward-in-time MPDATA methods [Smolarkiewicz, 2006, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fl., 50, 1123-1144] using finite-volume spatial discretization and unstructured meshes with arbitrarily shaped cells. Implicit treatment of gravity waves benefits both accuracy and stability of the model. The unstructured-mesh solutions are compared to equivalent structured-grid results for intricate, multiscale internal-wave phenomenon of a non-Boussinesq amplification and breaking of deep stratospheric gravity waves. The departures of the anelastic and pseudo-incompressible results are quantified in reference to a recent asymptotic theory [Achatz et al., 2010, J. Fluid Mech., 663, 120-147].
Propagation and Breaking at High Altitudes of Gravity Waves Excited by Tropospheric Forcing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Garcia, Rolando R.
1996-01-01
An anelastic approximation is used with a time-variable coordinate transformation to formulate a two-dimensional numerical model that describes the evolution of gravity waves. The model is solved using a semi-Lagrangian method with monotone (nonoscillatory) interpolation of all advected fields. The time-variable transformation is used to generate disturbances at the lower boundary that approximate the effect of a traveling line of thunderstorms (a squall line) or of flow over a broad topographic obstacle. The vertical propagation and breaking of the gravity wave field (under conditions typical of summer solstice) is illustrated for each of these cases. It is shown that the wave field at high altitudes is dominated by a single horizontal wavelength; which is not always related simply to the horizontal dimension of the source. The morphology of wave breaking depends on the horizontal wavelength; for sufficiently short waves, breaking involves roughly one half of the wavelength. In common with other studies, it is found that the breaking waves undergo "self-acceleration," such that the zonal-mean intrinsic frequency remains approximately constant in spite of large changes in the background wind. It is also shown that many of the features obtained in the calculations can be understood in terms of linear wave theory. In particular, linear theory provides insights into the wavelength of the waves that break at high altitudes, the onset and evolution of breaking. the horizontal extent of the breaking region and its position relative to the forcing, and the minimum and maximum altitudes where breaking occurs. Wave breaking ceases at the altitude where the background dissipation rate (which in our model is a proxy for molecular diffusion) becomes greater than the rate of dissipation due to wave breaking, This altitude, in effect, the model turbopause, is shown to depend on a relatively small number of parameters that characterize the waves and the background state.
On Highest Profile of Faraday Gravity Waves Calculated in Lagrangian Variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekerzh-Zenkovich, S.; Sekerzh-Zenkovich, S.
2001-12-01
The calculation of the highest achievable profile of a nonlinear steady progressive deep water gravity wave is basically a solved classical problem (G. B. Whitham, Linear and Nonlinear Waves, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974). The wave of greatest height has a sharp profile with a crest angle equal to 120 degrees. On the other hand, the corresponding problem for standing waves apparently has not been treated thoroughly (J. W. Rottman, J. Fluid Mech. 1982, 124:293-306, and M. Perlin, and W. W. Schultz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2000, 32:1-24) and to day there exist different predictions on the shape and amplitude of the highest standing gravity wave. In the present study, the results of analytical modeling of highest two-dimensional Faraday gravity waves excited on the free surface of a fluid contained in a rectangular vertically oscillating container are presented. The corresponding problem for free waves was reported by I. Shingareva & S. Sekerzh-Zenkovich (Int. Conf. Fluxes and Structures in Fluids, Moscow, 2001). The equations of motion and boundary conditions are written in terms of Lagrangian variables. Approximate solutions are derived with a formal asymptotic procedure of two time-scales (similar to the Krylov-Bogolyubov averaging method). Approximations from second to eight order have been obtained for the nonlinear wave frequency and wave profile. The main result is, that the steepness of the highest profiles obtained with the fourth and fifth approximations are in better agreement with those obtained in Schultz's et al. experiment (J. Fluid Mech. 1998, 369:253-72), while the shape of the profiles is like the shape of the highest profiles of nonregular waves observed in Jiang's et al. experiments (J. Fluid Mech. 1998, 369:273-99) and differs from those predicted previously in the theoretical papers. The present work has been funded by CONACYT Mexico, Project 35226-E.
The Binary Pulsar: Gravity Waves Exist.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Will, Clifford
1987-01-01
Reviews the history of pulsars generally and the 1974 discovery of the binary pulsar by Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse specifically. Details the data collection and analysis used by Taylor and Hulse. Uses this discussion as support for Albert Einstein's theory of gravitational waves. (CW)
The Binary Pulsar: Gravity Waves Exist.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Will, Clifford
1987-01-01
Reviews the history of pulsars generally and the 1974 discovery of the binary pulsar by Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse specifically. Details the data collection and analysis used by Taylor and Hulse. Uses this discussion as support for Albert Einstein's theory of gravitational waves. (CW)
Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in nightglow satellite imagery
Miller, Steven D.; Straka, William C.; Yue, Jia; Smith, Steven M.; Alexander, M. Joan; Hoffmann, Lars; Setvák, Martin; Partain, Philip T.
2015-01-01
Gravity waves (disturbances to the density structure of the atmosphere whose restoring forces are gravity and buoyancy) comprise the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper atmospheric circulation, determining boundary conditions to stratospheric processes, which in turn influence tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various spatial and temporal scales. Despite their recognized importance, very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics. The knowledge gap is mainly due to lack of global, high-resolution observations from currently available satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained, limiting the description of various processes influenced by them. Here we highlight, through a series of examples, the unanticipated ability of the Day/Night Band (DNB) on the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite to resolve gravity structures near the mesopause via nightglow emissions at unprecedented subkilometric detail. On moonless nights, the Day/Night Band observations provide all-weather viewing of waves as they modulate the nightglow layer located near the mesopause (∼90 km above mean sea level). These waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from orography to convection, intensifying fronts, and even seismic and volcanic events. Cross-referencing the Day/Night Band imagery with conventional thermal infrared imagery also available helps to discern nightglow structures and in some cases to attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the atmospheric circulation. PMID:26630004
Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in nightglow satellite imagery.
Miller, Steven D; Straka, William C; Yue, Jia; Smith, Steven M; Alexander, M Joan; Hoffmann, Lars; Setvák, Martin; Partain, Philip T
2015-12-08
Gravity waves (disturbances to the density structure of the atmosphere whose restoring forces are gravity and buoyancy) comprise the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper atmospheric circulation, determining boundary conditions to stratospheric processes, which in turn influence tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various spatial and temporal scales. Despite their recognized importance, very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics. The knowledge gap is mainly due to lack of global, high-resolution observations from currently available satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained, limiting the description of various processes influenced by them. Here we highlight, through a series of examples, the unanticipated ability of the Day/Night Band (DNB) on the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite to resolve gravity structures near the mesopause via nightglow emissions at unprecedented subkilometric detail. On moonless nights, the Day/Night Band observations provide all-weather viewing of waves as they modulate the nightglow layer located near the mesopause (∼ 90 km above mean sea level). These waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from orography to convection, intensifying fronts, and even seismic and volcanic events. Cross-referencing the Day/Night Band imagery with conventional thermal infrared imagery also available helps to discern nightglow structures and in some cases to attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the atmospheric circulation.
Primordial gravitational waves in bimetric gravity
Sakakihara, Yuki; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp
2015-09-01
We study primordial tensor power-spectra generated during inflation in bimetric gravity. More precisely, we examine a homogeneous expanding spacetime in a minimal bimetric model with an inflaton and calculate tensor perturbations on the homogeneous background under slow-roll approximation. In terms of the mass eigenstates, only the power-spectrum of the massless state remains constant and both the power-spectrum of the massive state and the cross power-spectrum rapidly decay during inflation. The amplitude of the physical power-spectrum is suppressed due to the flavor mixing. All power-spectra in the flavor eigenstates coincide with each other up to the first order of the slow-roll parameter.
Linking Atmospheric Gravity Wave Research to the Undergraduate Curriculum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gay, J.; Nielsen, K.
2015-12-01
Atmospheric gravity waves are often generated in the lower atmosphere and can, under favorable atmospheric conditions, propagate into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. As a consequence of this vertical propagation, the waves carry momentum fluxes and energy from the lower atmosphere into the near-space environment, providing a strong coupling across atmospheric layers. While these waves have been observed and studied in details for decades, there are still many questions to be addressed regarding the tropospheric source location and nature of individually observed waves in the mesosphere. In an effort to increase undergraduate student research experiences, we are linking atmospheric gravity wave research and undergraduate curriculum to improve both academic and scholarly experiences by our students. In this particular case, we present a research project addressing the identification of tropospheric source locations of mesospheric waves observed by airglow imagers. The project involves observations, theory, and modeling techniques with a strong emphasis on how each part plays a role in the curriculum. Specifically, a simple ray tracing model is propagating observed waves downwards through the atmosphere until the point of origin is reached. In the process, we apply basic calculus, numerical methods, and simple fluid dynamics related to course taught at the undergraduate level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snively, Jonathan; Zettergren, Matthew
2017-04-01
Acoustic waves (AWs, 1-4 minute periods) and gravity waves (GWs, 5-10s minute periods) are readily generated by transient forcing at Earth's surface or troposphere, and are routinely observed in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI). Observations include ground and space-based imaging of GWs via their perturbations to airglow layers [e.g., Taylor and Hapgood, PSS, 36(10), 1988, Akiya et al., GRL, 41(19), 2014] and detection of both AWs and GWs in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) [e.g., Nishioka et al., GRL, 40(21), 2013]. Of observational importance are waves that are spectrally coherent and that may persist over long periods of time, locally or over large horizontal or radial extents, due to reflection, ducting, and resonance. Specifically, mesospheric airglow data frequently reveal evidence for coherent ducted gravity waves with phase velocities 25-125 m/s and horizontal wavelengths 10s-100 km [e.g., Simkhada et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 2009; Akiya et al., 2014]. Likewise, F-region ionospheric responses are dominated by gravity waves typically with higher phase velocities >100 m/s and larger scales >100 km, which may also be ducted, in addition to persistent acoustic waves with periods 3-4 minutes [e.g., Nishioka et al., 2013; Lay et al., JGR, 120(7), 2015] that are consistent with simulations of resonance from ground to thermosphere [e.g., Walterscheid et al., JGR, 108(A11), 2003; Matsumura et al., JASTP, 75-76, 2012]. Here, we investigate the effects of finite amplitude for acoustic and gravity waves generated by transient sources (with resulting spectra spanning few-10s minute periods) and their observable signatures in the MLTI. A nonlinear, compressible, atmospheric dynamics model is used, and coupled with models for the responses of the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer and a self-consistent ionosphere [e.g., Snively, GRL, 40(17), 2013; Zettergren and Snively, JGR, 120(9), 2015]. We find that the dominant observable wave spectra
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHALLOW WATER WAVES: LINEAR ANALYSIS
Heng, Kevin; Spitkovsky, Anatoly E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.ed
2009-10-01
We present a linear analysis of inviscid, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shallow water systems. In spherical geometry, a generic property of such systems is the existence of five wave modes. Three of them (two magneto-Poincare modes and one magneto-Rossby mode) are previously known. The other two wave modes are strongly influenced by the magnetic field and rotation, and have substantially lower angular frequencies; as such, we term them 'magnetostrophic modes'. We obtain analytical functions for the velocity, height, and magnetic field perturbations in the limit that the magnitude of the MHD analogue of Lamb's parameter is large. On a sphere, the magnetostrophic modes reside near the poles, while the other modes are equatorially confined. Magnetostrophic modes may be an ingredient in explaining the frequency drifts observed in Type I X-ray bursts from neutron stars.
Detecting gravity waves from binary black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahlquist, Hugo D.
1989-01-01
One of the most attractive possible sources of strong gravitational waves would be a binary system comprising massive black holes (BH). The gravitational radiation from a binary is an elliptically polarized, periodic wave which could be observed continuously - or at intervals whenever a detector was available. This continuity of the signal is certainly appealing compared to waiting for individual pulses from infrequent random events. It also has the advantage over pulses that continued observation can increase the signal-to-noise ratio almost indefinitely. Furthermore, this system is dynamically simple; the theory of the generation of the radiation is unambiguous; all characteristics of the signal can be precisely related to the dynamical parameters of the source. The current situation is that while there is no observational evidence as yet for the existence of massive binary BH, their formation is theoretically plausible, and within certain coupled constraints of mass and location, their existence cannot be observationally excluded. Detecting gravitational waves from these objects might be the first observational proof of their existence.
The structure of short gravity waves on the ocean surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, O. M.
1981-01-01
A brief review is given of the salient properties of short gravity waves and the way in which their structure is modified by longer waves or swell, by variable currents, and by internal waves. It is noted that an underlying swell produces a mottled pattern in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, and an expression is derived giving the fractional modulation in backscattering cross section of the ocean surface in terms of the slope of an underlying swell, the wind direction, and the direction of swell propagation relative to the angle of observation. The expression provides the possibility in appropriate circumstances of estimating the swell slope by remote sensing, in addition to the wavelength and direction of propagation, which can be measured directly from the imagery. An account is also given of the refraction of waves in variable currents and internal waves.
Planetary-scale inertio gravity waves in the Mesosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.
2003-12-01
In the polar region of the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10 hours. Waves with such periods are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), and they are identified as planetary-scale inertio gravity waves (IGW). These waves have periods between 9 and 11 hours and appear above 70 km in the zonal mean (m = 0), as well as in m = 1 to 4 propagating eastward and westward. They grow in magnitude to altitudes near 100 km and have vertical wavelengths of about 25 km. The m = 1 westward IGWs have the largest amplitudes, up to 30 m/s at the poles. The IGWs occur intermittently but reveal systematic seasonal variations. Their amplitudes generally are largest in late winter and spring. Numerical experiments show that the waves also appear without tidal excitation. Like the planetary waves in the model, the IGWs are produced by instabilities that arise in the mean zonal circulation.
Airborne sodium lidar measurements of gravity wave intrinsic parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Kang H.; Gardner, Chester S.
1990-11-01
A data analysis technique for determining gravity wave intrinsic parameters including wave propagation direction is described. The technique involves measuring the altitude variations of the wave-induced density perturbations of the atmospheric Na layer. This technique can be used with airborne lidars, multiple ground-based lidars, and steerable lidars. In this paper the technique is applied to airborne Na lidar data obtained during a round-trip flight from Denver, Colorado, to the Pacific Coast in November 1986. During the flight, strong wave perturbations were observed in the Na layer near the Pacific coast over a horizontal distance of nearly 700 km. The intrinsic horizontal wavelength of this wave was estimated to be about 85 km, and the vertical wavelength was 4.1 km. The intrinsic period was about 102 min, and the propagation direction was almost due south.
Constraining gravity with hadron physics: neutron stars, modified gravity and gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.
2017-03-01
The finding of Gravitational Waves (GW) by the aLIGO scientific and VIRGO collaborations opens opportunities to better test and understand strong interactions, both nuclear-hadronic and gravitational. Assuming General Relativity holds, one can constrain hadron physics at a neutron star. But precise knowledge of the Equation of State and transport properties in hadron matter can also be used to constrain the theory of gravity itself. I review a couple of these opportunities in the context of modified f (R) gravity, the maximum mass of neutron stars, and progress in the Equation of State of neutron matter from the chiral effective field theory of QCD.
Spectra of Baroclinic Inertia-Gravity Wave Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1996-01-01
Baroclinic inertia-gravity (IG) waves form a persistent background of thermocline depth and sea surface height oscillations. They also contribute to the kinetic energy of horizontal motions in the subsurface layer. Measured by the ratio of water particle velocity to wave phase speed, the wave nonlinearity may be rather high. Given a continuous supply of energy from external sources, nonlinear wave-wave interactions among IG waves would result in inertial cascades of energy, momentum, and wave action. Based on a recently developed theory of wave turbulence in scale-dependent systems, these cascades are investigated and IG wave spectra are derived for an arbitrary degree of wave nonlinearity. Comparisons with satellite-altimetry-based spectra of surface height variations and with energy spectra of horizontal velocity fluctuations show good agreement. The well-known spectral peak at the inertial frequency is thus explained as a result of the inverse cascade. Finally, we discuss a possibility of inferring the internal Rossby radius of deformation and other dynamical properties of the upper thermocline from the spectra of SSH (sea surface height) variations based on altimeter measurements.
Spectra of Baroclinic Inertia-Gravity Wave Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1996-01-01
Baroclinic inertia-gravity (IG) waves form a persistent background of thermocline depth and sea surface height oscillations. They also contribute to the kinetic energy of horizontal motions in the subsurface layer. Measured by the ratio of water particle velocity to wave phase speed, the wave nonlinearity may be rather high. Given a continuous supply of energy from external sources, nonlinear wave-wave interactions among IG waves would result in inertial cascades of energy, momentum, and wave action. Based on a recently developed theory of wave turbulence in scale-dependent systems, these cascades are investigated and IG wave spectra are derived for an arbitrary degree of wave nonlinearity. Comparisons with satellite-altimetry-based spectra of surface height variations and with energy spectra of horizontal velocity fluctuations show good agreement. The well-known spectral peak at the inertial frequency is thus explained as a result of the inverse cascade. Finally, we discuss a possibility of inferring the internal Rossby radius of deformation and other dynamical properties of the upper thermocline from the spectra of SSH (sea surface height) variations based on altimeter measurements.
Gravity Waves in the Atmospheres of Mars and Venus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tellmann, Silvia; Paetzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Bird, Michael K.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Hinson, David P.; Imamura, Takeshi
2016-10-01
Gravity waves are ubiquitous in all stably stratified planetary atmospheres and play a major role in the redistribution of energy and momentum. Gravity waves can be excited by many different mechanisms, e.g. by airflow over orographic obstacles or by convection in an adjacent layer.Gravity waves on Mars were observed in the lower atmosphere [1,2] but are also expected to play a major role in the cooling of the thermosphere [3] and the polar warming [4]. They might be excited by convection in the daytime boundary layer or by strong winter jets in combination with the pronounced topographic diversity on Mars.On Venus, gravity waves play an important role in the mesosphere above the cloud layer [5] and probably below. Convection in the cloud layer is one of the most important source mechanisms but certain correlations with topography were observed by different experiments [6,7,8].Temperature height profiles from the radio science experiments on Mars Express (MaRS) [9] and Venus Express (VeRa) [10] have the exceptionally high vertical resolution necessary to study small-scale vertical gravity waves, their global distribution, and possible source mechanisms.Atmospheric instabilities, which are clearly identified in the data, can be investigated to gain further insight into possible atmospheric processes contributing to the excitation of gravity waves.[1] Creasey, J. E., et al.,(2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01803, doi:10.1029/2005GL024037.[2]Tellmann, S., et al.(2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 306-320, doi:10.1002/jgre.20058.[3]Medvedev, A. S., et al.(2015), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 120, 913-927. doi:10.1002/2015JE004802.[4] Barnes, J. R. (1990), J. Geophys. Res., 95, B2, 1401-1421.[5] Tellmann, S., et al. (2012), Icarus, 221, 471 - 480.[6] Blamont, J.E. et al., (1986) 231, 1422-1425.[7] Bertaux J.-L., et al. (2016), J. Geophys. Res., Planets, in press.[8] Piccialli, A., et al. (2014), Icarus, 227, 94 - 111.[9] Pätzold, M., et al. (2016), Planet. Space Sci
Tropical stratospheric gravity wave activity and relationships to clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, M. Joan; Beres, Jadwiga H.; Pfister, Leonhard
2000-09-01
Wind measurements from NASA's ER-2 aircraft in the stratosphere are used to obtain information on the momentum flux carried by gravity waves with horizontal wavelengths between 5 and 150 km. Tropical data are compared with the cloud brightness temperature below the aircraft as an indicator of deep convective activity. A striking correlation between cold, high clouds and large gravity wave momentum flux is seen in data from the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) tropical campaign during the monsoon season over northern Australia and Indonesia. There is an enhancement in the flux carried by waves propagating against the background wind in these observations. The same analysis was performed with data from more recent ER-2 flights over the tropical Pacific Ocean during the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA), Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT), and Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) campaigns which took place in 1994, 1995-1996, and 1997, respectively. These data also show a correlation between gravity wave momentum flux and deep convective clouds, but the relationship is much weaker, and the magnitudes of the momentum flux over the deepest clouds are about 7 times smaller than those seen in the STEP data. The reasons for these differences remain uncertain, but possibilities include both real geophysical differences and differences associated with the flight paths during the 1987 versus later campaigns.
Propagation of Love waves in a void medium over a sandy half space under gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Pulak; Gupta, Asit Kumar; Kundu, Santimoy
2017-03-01
The present study investigates the propagation of Love wave in a void layer resting over a sandy half space under the effect of gravitational force. The equations of motion have been gathered separately for different layers, and the boundary conditions have been introduced for two different layers at their interface. The mathematical analysis of the problem has been dealt with the help of Whittaker's function by expanding it asymptotically up to linear terms. The study reveals that in such a situation there exist two different wave fronts for the two above-mentioned layers: one is for the effects of gravity and sandy parameters, whereas other is for the effect of void parameter.
Propagation of Love waves in a void medium over a sandy half space under gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Pulak; Gupta, Asit Kumar; Kundu, Santimoy
2017-04-01
The present study investigates the propagation of Love wave in a void layer resting over a sandy half space under the effect of gravitational force. The equations of motion have been gathered separately for different layers, and the boundary conditions have been introduced for two different layers at their interface. The mathematical analysis of the problem has been dealt with the help of Whittaker's function by expanding it asymptotically up to linear terms. The study reveals that in such a situation there exist two different wave fronts for the two above-mentioned layers: one is for the effects of gravity and sandy parameters, whereas other is for the effect of void parameter.
Can gravity waves significantly impact PSC occurrence in the Antarctic?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, A. J.; George, S. E.; Woollands, R. M.
2009-11-01
A combination of POAM III aerosol extinction and CHAMP RO temperature measurements are used to examine the role of atmospheric gravity waves in the formation of Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). POAM III aerosol extinction observations and quality flag information are used to identify Polar Stratospheric Clouds using an unsupervised clustering algorithm. A PSC proxy, derived by thresholding Met Office temperature analyses with the PSC Type Ia formation temperature (TNAT), shows general agreement with the results of the POAM III analysis. However, in June the POAM III observations of PSC are more abundant than expected from temperature threshold crossings in five out of the eight years examined. In addition, September and October PSC identified using temperature thresholding is often significantly higher than that derived from POAM III; this observation probably being due to dehydration and denitrification. Comparison of the Met Office temperature analyses with corresponding CHAMP observations also suggests a small warm bias in the Met Office data in June. However, this bias cannot fully explain the differences observed. Analysis of CHAMP data indicates that temperature perturbations associated with gravity waves may partially explain the enhanced PSC incidence observed in June (relative to the Met Office analyses). For this month, approximately 40% of the temperature threshold crossings observed using CHAMP RO data are associated with small-scale perturbations. Examination of the distribution of temperatures relative to TNAT shows a large proportion of June data to be close to this threshold, potentially enhancing the importance of gravity wave induced temperature perturbations. Inspection of the longitudinal structure of PSC occurrence in June 2005 also shows that regions of enhancement are geographically associated with the Antarctic Peninsula; a known mountain wave "hotspot". The latitudinal variation of POAM III observations means that we only
Gravity Related Standing Waves in Plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Claudia
2005-04-01
Leaf and branch spacing are termed internodal spacings (1/2 wavelengths here) in the literature. There is apparently a unique set of available 1/2λ' s with the choice determined by growing conditions. The ratio of the usually larger vertical velocity to the horizontal wave velocity is apparently determined by the genotype and shapes the plant. The ratio for a particular plant can often be found by measuring several hundred vertical and horizontal spacings and taking reciprocals. Then find the horizontal reciprocal average Ah and do the same for the vertical to get Av Then equating frequencies vvAv=vhAh (also equals similar terms for other 5^o integral^ multiples) gives vv/vh=Ah/Av. Standard deviations for Av and Ah are in the range of 15-50%. The ratios, however, are nearly exactly (usually within 1%) ratios of small integers like 3/1 for Ponderosa pine.In species, where higher frequencies dominate, one can often measure cell lengths as half wavelengths and similarly arrive at the velocity ratio. Velocities are found by disturbing the standing waves and plotting the resultant electrical signal from spaced probes as a function of time. See chatlink.com/˜oedphd
Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia–gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum
Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver
2014-01-01
Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth’s rotation and the atmosphere’s stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia–gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia–gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia–gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349
Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum.
Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver
2014-12-02
Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km.
Evolution of cosmological gravitational waves in f(R) gravity
Ananda, K. N.; Carloni, S.; Dunsby, P. K. S.
2008-01-15
We give a rigorous and mathematically clear presentation of the covariant and gauge-invariant theory of gravitational waves in a perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe for fourth order gravity, where the matter is described by a perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state. As an example of a consistent analysis of tensor perturbations in fourth order gravity, we apply the formalism to a simple background solution of R{sup n} gravity. We obtain the exact solutions of the perturbation equations for scales much bigger than and smaller than the Hubble radius. It is shown that the evolution of tensor modes is highly sensitive to the choice of n and an interesting new feature arises. During the radiation dominated era, their exists a growing tensor perturbation for nearly all choices of n. This occurs even when the background model is undergoing accelerated expansion as opposed to the case of general relativity. Consequently, cosmological gravitational wave modes can in principle provide a strong constraint on the theory of gravity independent of other cosmological data sets.
Gravity-wave induced CO2 clouds on Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul
2016-07-01
We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO2 condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the whole atmosphere GW parameterization of Yiǧit et al. (2008)}. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO2 ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO2 cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date. Reference: Yiǧit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.
Gravity wave momentum flux in the lower stratosphere over convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. Joan; Pfister, Leonhard
1995-01-01
This work describes a method for estimating vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum carried by short horizontal scale gravity waves (lambda(sub x) = 10-100 km) using aircraft measured winds in the lower stratosphere. We utilize in situ wind vector and pressure altitude measurements provided by the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on board the ER-2 aircraft to compute the momentum flux vectors at the flight level above deep convection during the tropical experiment of the Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP-Tropical). Data from Flight 9 are presented here for illustration. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum these observations points in opposite directions on either side of the location of a strong convective updraft in the cloud shield. This property of internal gravity waves propagating from a central source compares favorably with previously described model results.
Acoustic-gravity waves in atmospheric and oceanic waveguides.
Godin, Oleg A
2012-08-01
A theory of guided propagation of sound in layered, moving fluids is extended to include acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) in waveguides with piecewise continuous parameters. The orthogonality of AGW normal modes is established in moving and motionless media. A perturbation theory is developed to quantify the relative significance of the gravity and fluid compressibility as well as sensitivity of the normal modes to variations in sound speed, flow velocity, and density profiles and in boundary conditions. Phase and group speeds of the normal modes are found to have certain universal properties which are valid for waveguides with arbitrary stratification. The Lamb wave is shown to be the only AGW normal mode that can propagate without dispersion in a layered medium.
Interactions between small and medium scale gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heale, Christopher; Snively, Jonathan
2016-07-01
Gravity waves play a prominent role in the momentum and energy budget of the Earth's upper atmosphere [e.g. Fritts and Alexander ,Rev. Geophys., 41, 1003, 2003]. Small scale waves with large vertical wavelengths are able to propagate into the thermosphere where they will dissipate and deposit their energy and momentum [e.g. Vadas and Fritts, J. Geoph. Res.,110, D15103, 2005; Yiǧit et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmospheres, 114, D07101, 14, 2009; Liu et al., Ann. Geophys., 31, 2013; Heale et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 2014]. However, small scale waves are also prone to refraction, reflection, filtering, and instabilities by the temperature and wind structure of the atmosphere. One of the primary sources of variability on scales relevant to these small-scale waves is other, larger scale waves. The use of multiple instruments and Airglow keograms has begun to uncover the richness of the spectrum in the atmosphere, but interaction and relatively poorly understood [e.g. Fritts et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 2014; Bossert et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2015; Lu et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2015; Yuan et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 2016]. We use a 2D nonlinear, compressible numerical model to investigate the character of interactions between small-scale and medium-scale gravity waves at varied amplitudes as they approach nonlinearity. We investigate the relative importance of linear and nonlinear interaction processes and their effects on the propagation of multiple wave packets, and the possibility of energy exchanges and the threshold of onset for instability or breaking within the waves. Furthermore, we assess the validity of linear interpretations of observational data where coherent large-amplitude waves are detected at multiple, separated scales.
Analysis of Gravity Waves Structures Visible in Noctilucent Cloud Images
2010-01-01
author. Tel.: +1 4357978128. E-mail address: dominiquepautet@gmail.com Keywords: Noctilucent clouds ( NLC ); Mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT...clouds ( NLC ) are high-altitude bright cloud formations visible under certain conditions from high-latitude places during the summer months. Even if the...visible in the NLC images taken every summer night since 2004 from Stockholm, Sweden (59.4ºN). The parameters of 30 short-period gravity wave events
Gravity Wave Variances and Propagation Derived from AIRS Radiances
2011-04-15
Introduction Gravity waves (GWs) are known to play a key role in global climate and weather dy- namics by transporting energy and momentum from the lower...iscussion P aper | different roles at different levels in the formation of this shape. In the NH winter, there is no such northward curvature in either...conclude that background wind plays a leading role in shaping the GW spectrum during the upward propagation. However, three preferred angles at FOV No. 25
Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation
2008-12-01
Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS : Characteristics and Interpretation DONG L. WU Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of...stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder ( MLS ) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically...orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5–8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere
Interseasonal Variations in the Middle Atmosphere Forced by Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization, gravity waves (GW) propagating in the east/west direction can generate the essential features of the observed equatorial oscillations of the zonal circulation and in particular the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. We report here that the NSM also produces inter-seasonal variations in the zonally symmetric meridional circulation. A distinct meridional oscillation (MO) is generated, which appears to be the counterpart to the QBO. With a vertical grid-point resolution of about 0.5 km, the NSM produces the MO through momentum deposition of GW's propagating in the north/south direction. This process is inherently non-linear, of third (odd) order, which enables the oscillation. Since the meridional winds are relatively small compared to the zonal winds, the vertical wavelength required to maintain the MO is also smaller, i.e., only about 10 km instead of the 30 km for the QBO. The corresponding viscous stress is then larger, and the period of the MO is thus short compared with that of the QBO, i.e., only about 3 to 4 months. Depending on the strength of the GW forcing, the computed amplitudes of the meridional wind oscillation are typically 5 m/s in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and the associated temperature amplitudes are between about 2 and 3 K. These amplitudes may be observable with the instruments on the TIMED spacecraft. Extended computer simulations with the NSM in 2D and 3D reveal that the MO at low latitudes is modulated by the QBO and in turn can influence it to produce a hemispherically asymmetric component. The annual circulation from the summer to the winter hemisphere is likely to play an important role.
Interseasonal Variations in the Middle Atmosphere Forced by Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization, gravity waves (GW) propagating in the east/west direction can generate the essential features of the observed equatorial oscillations in the zonal circulation and in particular the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. We report here that the NSM also produces inter-seasonal variations in the zonally symmetric (m = 0) meridional circulation. A distinct but variable meridional wind oscillation (MWO) is generated, which appears to be the counterpart to the QBO. With a vertical grid-point resolution of about 0.5 km, the NSM produces the MWO through momentum deposition of GWs propagating in the north/south direction. The resulting momentum source represents a third (generally odd) order non-linear function of the meridional winds, and this enables the oscillation, as in the case of the QBO for the zonal winds. Since the meridional winds are relatively small compared to the zonal winds, however, the vertical wavelength that maintains the MWO is much smaller, i.e., only about 10 km instead of 40 km for the QBO. Consistent with the associated increase of the viscous stress, the period of the MWO is then short compared with that of the QBO, i.e., only about two to four months. Depending on the strength of the GW forcing, the computed amplitudes of the MWO are typically 4 m/s in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and the associated temperature amplitudes are between about 2 and 3 K. These amplitudes may be observable with the instruments on the TIMED spacecraft. Extended computer simulations with the NSM in 2D (two-dimensional) and 3D (three-dimensional) reveal that the MWO is modulated by and in turn influences the QBO.
Interseasonal Variations in the Middle Atmosphere Forced by Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization, gravity waves (GW) propagating in the east/west direction can generate the essential features of the observed equatorial oscillations of the zonal circulation and in particular the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. We report here that the NSM also produces inter-seasonal variations in the zonally symmetric meridional circulation. A distinct meridional oscillation (MO) is generated, which appears to be the counterpart to the QBO. With a vertical grid-point resolution of about 0.5 km, the NSM produces the MO through momentum deposition of GW's propagating in the north/south direction. This process is inherently non-linear, of third (odd) order, which enables the oscillation. Since the meridional winds are relatively small compared to the zonal winds, the vertical wavelength required to maintain the MO is also smaller, i.e., only about 10 km instead of the 30 km for the QBO. The corresponding viscous stress is then larger, and the period of the MO is thus short compared with that of the QBO, i.e., only about 3 to 4 months. Depending on the strength of the GW forcing, the computed amplitudes of the meridional wind oscillation are typically 5 m/s in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and the associated temperature amplitudes are between about 2 and 3 K. These amplitudes may be observable with the instruments on the TIMED spacecraft. Extended computer simulations with the NSM in 2D and 3D reveal that the MO at low latitudes is modulated by the QBO and in turn can influence it to produce a hemispherically asymmetric component. The annual circulation from the summer to the winter hemisphere is likely to play an important role.
Selection rules for the nonlinear interaction of internal gravity waves.
Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip S
2009-03-27
Two intersecting beams of internal gravity waves will generically create two wave packets by nonlinear interaction. The frequency of one packet will be the sum and that of the other packet will be the difference of the frequencies of the intersecting beams. In principle, each packet should form an "X" pattern, or "St. Andrew's cross" consisting of four beams outgoing from the point of intersection. Here we derive selection rules and show that most of the expected nonlinear beams are forbidden. These rules can also be applied to the reflection of a beam from a boundary.
Leptogenesis from gravity waves in models of inflation.
Alexander, Stephon H S; Peskin, Michael E; Sheikh-Jabbari, M M
2006-03-03
We present a new mechanism for creating the observed cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry which satisfies all three Sakharov conditions from one common thread, gravitational waves. We generate lepton number through the gravitational anomaly in the lepton number current. The source term comes from elliptically polarized gravity waves that are produced during inflation if the inflaton field contains a CP-odd component. The amount of matter asymmetry generated in our model can be of realistic size for the parameters within the range of some inflationary scenarios and grand unified theories.
Generation of vortices by gravity waves on a water surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filatov, S. V.; Aliev, S. A.; Levchenko, A. A.; Khramov, D. A.
2016-11-01
The generation of a vortex motion on a water surface by gravity waves at frequencies of 3 and 4 Hz and wavelengths of 17 and 9.7 cm, respectively, has been studied experimentally. It has been shown that the results can be described by a model of the formation of a vorticity by nonlinear waves. It has been shown for the first time that the vorticity amplitude on a water surface depends on the phase difference between the waves propagating at an angle of 90° with respect to each other and with a period of 360°. A quadratic dependence of the surface vorticity amplitude on the angular amplitude of the waves has been observed. Transfer of the energy of the vortex motion from the pumping region to a larger scale has been discovered.
Effect of gravity waves on the North Atlantic circulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, Carsten
2017-04-01
The recently proposed IDEMIX (Internal wave Dissipation, Energy and MIXing) parameterisation for the effect of gravity waves offers the possibility to construct consistent ocean models with a closed energy cycle. This means that the energy available for interior mixing in the ocean is only controlled by external energy input from the atmosphere and the tidal system and by internal exchanges. A central difficulty is the unknown fate of meso-scale eddy energy. In different scenarios for that eddy dissipation, the parameterized internal wave field provides between 2 and 3 TW for interior mixing from the total external energy input of about 4 TW, such that a transfer between 0.3 and 0.4 TW into mean potential energy contributes to drive the large-scale circulation in the model. The impact of the different mixing on the meridional overturning in the North Atlantic is discussed and compared to hydrographic observations. Furthermore, the direct energy exchange of the wave field with the geostrophic flow is parameterized in extended IDEMIX versions and the sensitivity of the North Atlantic circulation by this gravity wave drag is discussed.
Characteristics of acoustic gravity waves obtained from Dynasonde data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negrea, Cǎtǎlin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Codrescu, Mihail
2016-04-01
Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are ubiquitous in the thermosphere-ionosphere and are often assumed to be caused by acoustic gravity waves (AGWs). This study performs an analysis of the TID and AGW activity above Wallops Island, VA, during October 2013. The variations in electron density and ionospheric tilts obtained with the Dynasonde technique are used as primary indicators of wave activity. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the data are discussed in detail, using also results of the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) and the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (GIP). The full set of propagation parameters (frequency, and the vertical, zonal and meridional wave vector components) of the TIDs is determined over the 160-220 km height range. A test of the self-consistency of these results within the confines of the theoretical AGW dispersion relation is devised. This is applied to a sample data set of 24 October 2013. A remarkable agreement has been achieved for wave periods between 52 and 21 min, for which we can rigorously claim the TIDs are caused by underlying acoustic gravity waves. The Wallops Island Dynasonde can operate for extended periods at a 2 min cadence, allowing determination of the statistical distributions of propagation parameters. A dominant population of TIDs is identified in the frequency band below 1 mHz, and for it, the distributions of the horizontal wavelengths, vertical wavelengths, and horizontal phase speeds are obtained.
Brunt-Doppler ducting of small-period gravity waves
Wang, D.Y.; Tuan, T.F. )
1988-09-01
The variation of the Brunt period with height lends itself to a natural ducting and filtering mechanism for low-altitude short-period gravity waves. The authors investigate this mechanism in combination with Doppler ducting produced by the variation in horizontal winds. Both the frequency dispersion at fixed propagation direction and the direction dispersion at fixed frequency have been examined in a COSPAR background atmosphere with zonal and meridional winds. The results show that not only are the low-altitude short-period gravity waves ducted, but unlike the usual ducting mechanisms due to uneven structure and dissipation which produce only partially guided modes, this mechanism produces primarily guided modes in the absence of winds and a mixture of fully and partially guided modes with winds. The wind effects are very large on the higher modes and less significant on the few lowest modes, including the Lamb mode. Investigation of viscous dissipation, nonlinearity, and instability have shown that viscosity is unimportant for most altitudes of interest and that nonlinearity and instability can play a role for all but the lowest guided modes. They propose that simultaneous continuous observation of airglow at mesospheric and ionospheric altitudes be made to verify not only the low-altitude Brunt-Doppler ducting for short-period gravity waves, but also the vertical energy distribution of the medium- and large-scale TIDs.
Linear and Nonlinear Electrostatic Waves in Unmagnetized Dusty Plasmas
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2010-12-14
A rigorous and systematic theoretical study has been made of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves propagating in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The basic features of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves (particularly, dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves) for different space and laboratory dusty plasma conditions are described. The experimental observations of such linear and nonlinear features of dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves are briefly discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Trob, D.; Porter, H. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Special Session: SA03 The mesosphere/lower thermosphere region: Structure, dynamics, composition, and emission. Ground based and satellite observations in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) reveal large seasonal variations in the horizontal wind fields of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. To provide an understanding of the observations, we discuss results obtained with our Numerical Spectral Model (NMS) that incorporates the gravity wave Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) of Hines. Our model reproduces many of the salient features observed, and we discuss numerical experiments that delineate the important processes involved. Gravity wave momentum deposition and the seasonal variations in the tidal excitation contribute primarily to produce the large equinoctial amplitude maxima in the diurnal tide. Gravity wave induced variations in eddy viscosity, not accounted for in the model, have been shown by Akmaev to be important too. For the semidiurnal tide, with amplitude maximum observed during winter solstice, these processes also contribute, but filtering by the mean zonal circulation is more important. A deficiency of our model is that it cannot reproduce the observed seasonal variations in the phase of the semidiurnal tide, and numerical experiments are being carried out to diagnose the cause and to alleviate this problem. The dynamical components of the upper mesosphere are tightly coupled through non-linear processes and wave filtering, and this may constrain the model and require it to reproduce in detail the observed phenomenology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Trob, D.; Porter, H. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Special Session: SA03 The mesosphere/lower thermosphere region: Structure, dynamics, composition, and emission. Ground based and satellite observations in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) reveal large seasonal variations in the horizontal wind fields of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. To provide an understanding of the observations, we discuss results obtained with our Numerical Spectral Model (NMS) that incorporates the gravity wave Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) of Hines. Our model reproduces many of the salient features observed, and we discuss numerical experiments that delineate the important processes involved. Gravity wave momentum deposition and the seasonal variations in the tidal excitation contribute primarily to produce the large equinoctial amplitude maxima in the diurnal tide. Gravity wave induced variations in eddy viscosity, not accounted for in the model, have been shown by Akmaev to be important too. For the semidiurnal tide, with amplitude maximum observed during winter solstice, these processes also contribute, but filtering by the mean zonal circulation is more important. A deficiency of our model is that it cannot reproduce the observed seasonal variations in the phase of the semidiurnal tide, and numerical experiments are being carried out to diagnose the cause and to alleviate this problem. The dynamical components of the upper mesosphere are tightly coupled through non-linear processes and wave filtering, and this may constrain the model and require it to reproduce in detail the observed phenomenology.
Inverting for a deterministic surface gravity wave using the sensitivity-kernel approach.
Roux, Philippe; Nicolas, Barbara
2014-04-01
The dynamic imaging of a deterministic gravity wave propagating at an air-water interface requires continuous sampling of every point at this interface. This sampling can be done acoustically using waves that propagate in the water column but have specular reflection points that fully scan the air-water interface. This study aims to perform this complex task experimentally, with identical ultrasonic source and receiver arrays that face each other in a 1-m-long, 5-cm-deep fluid waveguide, and with frequencies in the MHz range. The waveguide transfer matrix is recorded 100 times per second between the source-receiver arrays, while a gravity wave is generated at the air-water interface. Through the beamforming process, a large set of acoustic multi-reverberated beams are isolated and identified that interact with the air-water interface. The travel-time and amplitude modulations of each eigenbeam are measured when the surface gravity wave travels through the source-receiver plane. Linear inversion of the travel-time and amplitude perturbations is performed from a few thousand eigenbeams using diffraction-based sensitivity kernels. Inversion results using travel-times, amplitudes, or these two observables together, lead to accurate spatial-temporal patterns of the surface deformation. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed.
Long-Term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckermann, Stephen D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Wu, Dong L.
1998-01-01
This is the first quarter's report on research to extract global gravity-wave data from satellite data and to model those observations synoptically. Preliminary analysis of global maps of extracted middle atmospheric temperature variance from the CRISTA instrument is presented, which appear to contain gravity-wave information. Corresponding simulations of global gravity-wave and mountain-wave activity during this mission period are described using global ray-tracing and mountain-wave models, and interesting similarities among simulated data and CRISTA data are noted. Climatological simulations of mesospheric gravity-wave activity using the HWM-03 wind-temperature climatology are also reported, for comparison with UARS MLS data. Preparatory work on modeling of gravity wave observations from space-based platforms and subsequent interpretation of the MLS gravity-wave product are also described. Preliminary interpretation and relation to the research objectives are provided, and further action for the next quarter's research is recommended.
Understanding airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snively, Jonathan; Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton, William R., Jr.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique
Airglow imaging is a primary tool in the study of gravity waves at mesospheric and lower-thermospheric (MLT) altitudes, clearly revealing signatures of small-scale (<100 km) and short-period (<30 min) waves. Short-period waves are in particular able to carry significant momentum into the MLT [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, 2003, Rev. Geophys., 41(1)]. However, quantification of short-period wave fluxes and propagation characteristics is complicated by their susceptibility to refraction by ambient wind and thermal structure at airglow altitudes. These effects lead to vertical wavelengths that vary dramatically with altitude throughout the airglow layers, and reflection and ducting, which can prevent the accurate assessment of ampli-tude and vertical direction of propagation [e.g., Fritts, 2000, JGR, 105(D17), 22,355-22,360]. To investigate airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves, we utilize a two-dimensional nonlinear dynamics model coupled with OH Meinel band and OI 557.7 nm airglow photochem-istry models. Case studies where the ambient atmospheric structure significantly influences wave propagation are presented, for both ducted and reflected waves, and also for waves ap-proaching critical levels. Arising from Doppler shifts to higher and lower intrinsic frequencies, respectively, these effects contribute to significant variation of vertical wavelength throughout the airglow region, and may limit the altitude of propagation. Cancellation effects of vertically-integrated airglow volume emission rate perturbations are discussed, along with observable nonlinear features due to large amplitude [e.g., Huang et al., 2003, JGR, 108(A5), 1173], and effects of partial perturbations to airglow layers by vertically-confined waves [e.g., Snively et al., JGR, In Review, 2010]. In particular, it is demonstrated that high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of airglow intensity and brightness-weighted temperature, combined with detailed descriptions of ambient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kriske, Richard
2010-10-01
The author has previously proposed that perhaps there needs to be a look at the CMBR as being a measure of curvature. It seems that a valid theory of curved space in a four dimensional space time would allow the Red Shift to occur due to the changing orientation of the time dimension that would slowly point more and more away from any observer at any point until like the Earth's horizon in two curved space dimensions to point away from the observer and give the sharp cut off of the Horizon. A three curved space dimensional cut off would result in the appearace of increasing velocity as the distance from the observer increases and this without the Big-Bang theory. What would one observe for Gravitational waves on this surface? The three space dimensions would wiggle and the time dimension (which is not curved) would move to stay perpendicular to this motion, giving odd accelerations and I predict a different Microwave signal. Perhaps a nonuniformity in the Back Ground radiation that would shift over time.
Gravity-capillary waves in finite depth on flows of constant vorticity.
Hsu, Hung-Chu; Francius, Marc; Montalvo, Pablo; Kharif, Christian
2016-11-01
This paper considers two-dimensional periodic gravity-capillary waves propagating steadily in finite depth on a linear shear current (constant vorticity). A perturbation series solution for steady periodic waves, accurate up to the third order, is derived using a classical Stokes expansion procedure, which allows us to include surface tension effects in the analysis of wave-current interactions in the presence of constant vorticity. The analytical results are then compared with numerical computations with the full equations. The main results are (i) the phase velocity is strongly dependent on the value of the vorticity; (ii) the singularities (Wilton singularities) in the Stokes expansion in powers of wave amplitude that correspond to a Bond number of 1/2 and 1/3, which are the consequences of the non-uniformity in the ordering of the Fourier coefficients, are found to be influenced by vorticity; (iii) different surface profiles of capillary-gravity waves are computed and the effect of vorticity on those profiles is shown to be important, in particular that the solutions exhibit type-2-like wave features, characterized by a secondary maximum on the surface profile with a trough between the two maxima.
Gravity-capillary waves in finite depth on flows of constant vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hung-Chu; Francius, Marc; Montalvo, Pablo; Kharif, Christian
2016-11-01
This paper considers two-dimensional periodic gravity-capillary waves propagating steadily in finite depth on a linear shear current (constant vorticity). A perturbation series solution for steady periodic waves, accurate up to the third order, is derived using a classical Stokes expansion procedure, which allows us to include surface tension effects in the analysis of wave-current interactions in the presence of constant vorticity. The analytical results are then compared with numerical computations with the full equations. The main results are (i) the phase velocity is strongly dependent on the value of the vorticity; (ii) the singularities (Wilton singularities) in the Stokes expansion in powers of wave amplitude that correspond to a Bond number of 1/2 and 1/3, which are the consequences of the non-uniformity in the ordering of the Fourier coefficients, are found to be influenced by vorticity; (iii) different surface profiles of capillary-gravity waves are computed and the effect of vorticity on those profiles is shown to be important, in particular that the solutions exhibit type-2-like wave features, characterized by a secondary maximum on the surface profile with a trough between the two maxima.
Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe
2016-04-01
Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.
Gravity jitter effected slosh waves and the stability of a rotating bubble under microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.
1991-01-01
The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh wave with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.
Characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves measured by an OH airglow imager at Qujing, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qinzeng; Chen, Jinsong; Yuan, Wei; Yue, Jia; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Jiyao; Liu, Mohan
An all-sky imager was installed at Qujing (25.6ºN, 103.7ºE) to investigate the characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves over the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Using OH airglow images from November 2011 to October 2013, we detected 332 events of gravity waves. Along with the collocated meteor radar wind measurements and mean temperature data from SABER instrument onboard the TIMED satellite, the propagation condition (freely propagating, ducted, or evanescent) of these gravity waves was estimated. Most gravity waves exhibited ducted and evanescent behavior. About 20% of the events are freely propagating waves. We analyzed the sources in the lower atmosphere for these freely propagating gravity waves using ray tracing analysis. Statistical analysis shows a clear relation between mesospheric gravity wave activity and jet streams around Yunnan-Guizhou-Tibet Plateau. We also investigate the statistical features of all observed gravity waves. The propagation directions of the gravity waves show a strong northeastward preference in summer, while almost all gravity waves propagate southeastward in winter. The gravity waves propagation directions in winter are significantly different from other observations at northern middle latitudes, such as Xinglong(40.2ºN,117.4ºE), Shigaraki(34.9ºN,136.1 ºE), Urbana IL(40ºN, 80ºW). They all found the gravity waves presented southwestward propagation directions in winter. The horizontal wavelengths of observed gravity waves are typically from 10 to 35 km, the vertical wavelengths from 10 to 30 km, the observed periods from 4 to 8 min and the observed horizontal phase speeds of 30 to 90 m/s. The intrinsic periods are mainly in the range of 4-8 min. The intrinsic phase speeds are mainly in the range of 40-100 m/s. The wind filtering in the middle atmosphere plays a role in controlling the propagation directions of the gravity waves.
Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V
2014-08-01
We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.
2014-08-01
We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.
Gravitational-wave probe of effective quantum gravity
Alexander, Stephon; Finn, Lee Samuel; Yunes, Nicolas
2008-09-15
All modern routes leading to a quantum theory of gravity - i.e., perturbative quantum gravitational one-loop exact correction to the global chiral current in the standard model, string theory, and loop quantum gravity - require modification of the classical Einstein-Hilbert action for the spacetime metric by the addition of a parity-violating Chern-Simons term. The introduction of such a term leads to spacetimes that manifest an amplitude birefringence in the propagation of gravitational waves. While the degree of birefringence may be intrinsically small, its effects on a gravitational wave accumulate as the wave propagates. Observation of gravitational waves that have propagated over cosmological distances may allow the measurement of even a small birefringence, providing evidence of quantum gravitational effects. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be sensitive enough to observe the gravitational waves from sources at cosmological distances great enough that interesting bounds on the Chern-Simons coupling may be found. Here we evaluate the effect of a Chern-Simons induced spacetime birefringence to the propagation of gravitational waves from such systems. Focusing attention on the gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes systems, which LISA will be capable of observing at redshifts approaching 30, we find that the signature of Chern-Simons gravity is a time-dependent change in the apparent orientation of the binary's orbital angular momentum with respect to the observer line-of-sight, with the magnitude of change reflecting the integrated history of the Chern-Simons coupling over the worldline of the radiation wave front. While spin-orbit coupling in the binary system will also lead to an evolution of the system's orbital angular momentum, the time dependence and other details of this real effect are different than the apparent effect produced by Chern-Simons birefringence, allowing the two effects to be separately identified
Island sheltering of surface gravity waves: model and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawka, S. S.; Inman, D. L.; Guza, R. T.
A field experiment is used to evaluate a numerical model of the sheltering of gravity waves by islands offshore of the Southern California region. The sheltering model considered here includes only the effects of island blocking and wave refraction over the island bathymetry. Wave frequency and directional spectra measured in the deep ocean (unsheltered region west of the islands) were used as input to the sheltering model and compared with coastal observations. An airborne L-band synthetic aperture radar was used to image the directional properties of the waves in the deep ocean. In addition to the unsmoothed spectra, a unimodal directional spectrum model obtained from fits to the radar spectra was also employed to suppress the high noise level of this system. Coastal measurements were made in about 10 m depth at Torrey Pines Beach with a high resolution array of pressure sensors. The model predictions and data at Torrey Pines Beach agree well in a limited frequency range (0.082 to 0.114 Hz) where the unimodal deep ocean model is appropriate. The prediction that unimodal northern swell in the deep ocean results in a bimodal directional spectrum at Torrey Pines Beach is quantitatively verified. The northern peak of the bimodal spectra is due to waves coming through the window between San Clemente and San Miguel-Santa Rosa Islands. The southerly peak is due to wave refraction over Cortez and Tanner Banks. For lower frequency waves, the effects of strong refraction in the island vicinity are shown qualitatively. Refraction can theoretically supply up to approximately 10% of the deep ocean energy that is otherwise blocked at this site. The modifications of the island shadows due to wave refraction become theoretically negligible for wave frequencies 0.11Hz. Also, local wave generation effects, which are not included in this sheltering model, are shown to be occasionally important for waves with frequencies 0.12Hz.
Stratospheric Gravity Wave Scales And Fluxes During Deepwave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, R. B.
2015-12-01
The Gulfstream V research aircraft flights for the Deepwave project in June and July 2014 included 97 legs over the Southern Alps of New Zealand and 150 legs over the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean, mostly in the low stratosphere at 12.1 km altitude. Improved instrument calibration, redundant sensors, longer flight legs, energy flux estimation and wavelet and filter analysis revealed new gravity wave properties. Over the sea, flight level wave amplitudes mostly fall below our detection threshold. Over terrain, disturbances show characteristic mountain wave attributes of positive vertical energy flux (EFz), negative momentum flux and upwind horizontal energy flux. In some cases, the fluxes change rapidly within an eight hour flight, even though environmental conditions are unchanged, suggesting high sensitivity or auto-oscillation. The extreme EFz=22W/m2.Most intriguing is the variety of disturbance scales found over New Zealand. In many cases, the dominant wavelength of the flux carrying mountain waves is long; between 60 and 150km. In the strong cases however, with EFz>4W/m2, the wave "downshifts" to an intermediate wavelength between 20 to 60 km. Two other disturbance scales are seen. In all cases, the vertical wind variance at flight level is dominated by short "fluxless" waves with wavelengths in the 8 to 15km range. These waves propagate upwind but they carry no vertical momentum or energy fluxes. These fluxless waves may be secondary ducted waves riding on the tropopause inversion. In four cases, mountain waves stagnate the wind and turbulent wave breaking is found with a dominant wavelength of 500m.
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.
2014-07-01
This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.
Surface gravity waves over a two-dimensional random seabed.
Pihl, Jørgen H; Mei, Chiang C; Hancock, Matthew J
2002-07-01
We extend homogenization theory to study the two-dimensional evolution of weakly nonlinear waves in a sea where the bathymetry is random over a large area. A deterministic nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the envelope of a nearly sinusoidal progressive wave train. Randomness is shown to yield a linear term with a complex coefficient depending on a certain statistical average of the bathymetry. Numerical solutions are discussed for the diffraction of a Stokes wave in head-sea incidence towards a bathymetry of given plan form. Effects of the height and plan form of the randomness, as well as wave nonlinearity are examined analytically and numerically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia
2015-04-01
In climate models, gravity waves remain too poorly resolved to be directly modelled. Instead, simplified parameterizations are used to include gravity wave effects on model winds. A few climate models link some of the parameterized waves to convective sources, providing a mechanism for feedback between changes in convection and gravity wave-driven changes in circulation in the tropics and above high-latitude storms. These convective wave parameterizations are based on limited case studies with cloud-resolving models, but they are poorly constrained by observational validation, and tuning parameters have large uncertainties. Our new work distills results from complex, full-physics cloud-resolving model studies to essential variables for gravity wave generation. We use the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model to study relationships between precipitation, latent heating/cooling and other cloud properties to the spectrum of gravity wave momentum flux above midlatitude storm systems. Results show the gravity wave spectrum is surprisingly insensitive to the representation of microphysics in WRF. This is good news for use of these models for gravity wave parameterization development since microphysical properties are a key uncertainty. We further use the full-physics cloud-resolving model as a tool to directly link observed precipitation variability to gravity wave generation. We show that waves in an idealized model forced with radar-observed precipitation can quantitatively reproduce instantaneous satellite-observed features of the gravity wave field above storms, which is a powerful validation of our understanding of waves generated by convection. The idealized model directly links observations of surface precipitation to observed waves in the stratosphere, and the simplicity of the model permits deep/large-area domains for studies of wave-mean flow interactions. This unique validated model tool permits quantitative studies of gravity wave driving of regional
A plant's response to gravity as a wave phenomenon.
Wagner, O E
1999-07-01
to lower waves when traveling along the gravitational field as compared to traveling perpendicular to the gravitational field. Both effects may complete the picture. Gravity has a very large influence on frequencies appearing to reduce frequencies to lower values by as much as a factor of one third (or even a smaller fraction) in live plant material. This results in cell lengths and internodal spacings being up to three (or even more) times longer parallel to the gravitational field compared to perpendicular to the gravitational field. Cell lengths and internodal spacings take on immediate values between vertical and horizontal. If the gravitational field is missing or nearly so as with microgravity, the cell is missing the gravity references that determine its shape, for example. It appears that plant parts grow at discrete angles to the gravitational field. All these features constitute overwhelming proof that plants are wave operated with the characteristics of the waves involved very much influenced by the gravitational field.
Comparison of simulated and observed convective gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalisch, S.; Chun, H.-Y.; Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Trinh, Q. T.; Eckermann, S. D.; Riese, M.
2016-11-01
Gravity waves (GWs) from convection have horizontal wavelengths typically shorter than 100 km. Resolving these waves in state-of-the-art atmospheric models still remains challenging. Also, their time-dependent excitation process cannot be represented by a common GW drag parametrization with static launch distribution. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate the excitation and three-dimensional propagation of GWs forced by deep convection in the troposphere and estimate their influence on the middle atmosphere. For that purpose, the GW ray tracer Gravity-wave Regional Or Global Ray Tracer (GROGRAT) has been coupled to the Yonsei convective GW source model. The remaining free model parameters have been constrained by measurements. This work led to a coupled convective GW model representing convective GWs forced from small cells of deep convection up to large-scale convective clusters. In order to compare our simulation results with observed global distributions of momentum flux, limitations of satellite instruments were taken into account: The observational filter of a limb-viewing satellite instrument restricts measurements of GWs to waves with horizontal wavelengths longer than 100 km. Convective GWs, however, often have shorter wavelengths. This effect is taken into account when comparing simulated and observable GW spectra. We find good overall agreement between simulated and observed GW global distributions, if superimposed with a nonorographic background spectrum for higher-latitude coverage. Our findings indicate that parts of the convective GW spectrum can indeed be observed by limb-sounding satellites.
Statistics and Physics of Stratospheric Gravity Wave Attenuation over New Zealand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruse, C. G.; Smith, R. B.
2015-12-01
The DEEPWAVE field project took place over the New Zealand region during June and July of 2014 and was focused on observing orographic and non-orographic gravity waves from their source regions in the troposphere to attenuation regions in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. An important preliminary finding of this project is that many mountain wave events are attenuated in a 15-20km "valve layer" in the lower stratosphere, characterized by weak winds and non-linearity. This valve layer strongly attenuates about half of New Zealand mountain wave events, reducing wave momentum fluxes by as much as 90% and producing a maximum in momentum flux divergence. This work further characterizes this lower-stratospheric mountain wave attenuation and seeks to understand the physics of actual wave attenuation events "reproduced" within 6- and 2-km resolution realistic WRF simulations. Local attenuation diagnostics, such as Richardson Number, stratification, and the non-linearity ratio, are used to characterize the size and 3-D distribution of attenuation regions and to diagnose dissipation mechanisms. Potential vorticity (PV) is also used as a diagnostic to identify attenuation regions and also to trace the influences of these regions downstream. Preliminary work has revealed that mountain wave attenuation over New Zealand is spatially inhomogeneous, generates PV in dipoles, and that lateral shear instabilities cause lateral mixing 1000s of kilometers downstream of the attenuation regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, Takashi S.; Nakamura, Takuji; Murphy, Damian; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy; Zhao, Yucheng; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Taylor, Michael
2016-07-01
ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Imaging/Instrument Network) is an international airglow imager/instrument network in the Antarctic, which commenced observations in 2011. It seeks to reveal characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves, and to study sources, propagation, breaking of the gravity waves over the Antarctic and the effects on general circulation and upper atmosphere. In this study, we compared distributions of horizontal phase velocity of the gravity waves at around 90 km altitude observed in the mesospheric airglow imaging over different locations using our new statistical analysis method of 3-D Fourier transform, developed by Matsuda et al. (2014). Results from the airglow imagers at four stations at Syowa (69S, 40E), Halley (76S, 27W), Davis (69S, 78E) and McMurdo (78S, 156E) out of the ANGWIN imagers have been compared, for the observation period between April 6 and May 21 in 2013. In addition to the horizontal distribution of propagation and phase speed, gravity wave energies have been quantitatively compared, indicating a smaller GW activity in higher latitude stations. We further investigated frequency dependence of gravity wave propagation direction, as well as nightly variation of the gravity wave direction and correlation with the background wind variations. We found that variation of propagation direction is partly due to the effect of background wind in the middle atmosphere, but variation of wave sources could play important role as well. Secondary wave generation is also needed to explain the observed results.
Role of gravity waves in vertical coupling during sudden stratospheric warmings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiğit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.
2016-12-01
Gravity waves are primarily generated in the lower atmosphere, and can reach thermospheric heights in the course of their propagation. This paper reviews the recent progress in understanding the role of gravity waves in vertical coupling during sudden stratospheric warmings. Modeling of gravity wave effects is briefly reviewed, and the recent developments in the field are presented. Then, the impact of these waves on the general circulation of the upper atmosphere is outlined. Finally, the role of gravity waves in vertical coupling between the lower and the upper atmosphere is discussed in the context of sudden stratospheric warmings.
Buoyant Gravity Currents Released from Tropical Instability Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warner, S. J.; Holmes, R.; Moum, J. N.; McHugh Hawkins, E. H.
2016-02-01
Extremely sharp fronts with a 0.5°C sea surface temperature change over lateral distances of 2m were observed in the equatorial Pacific on two occasions at 0°, 140°W and at 0.75°N, 110°W. In both cases, relatively warm and fresh water extending to 50m depth propagated to the southwest as a buoyant gravity current. This is confirmed by comparing estimates of front propagation velocity, calculated from a variety of shipboard and moored instruments, to theoretical gravity current models. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates exceeding 10-4 W kg-1 were measured with a microstructure profiler on the warm/fresh side behind the leading edge of the front — 1000 times greater than dissipation rates found on the quiescent side. From satellite images, these gravity currents were observed to propagate ahead of the trailing edge of a tropical instability wave (TIW) cold cusp. The observations are compared to a numerical model of the equatorial Pacific with 6km horizontal resolution. The model results suggest that TIW fronts may release gravity currents through frontogenesis and loss-of-balance as the fronts approach the equator. While the lateral scale of the modeled fronts is many times larger than the observed fronts, they appear to obey a similar dynamical balance between pressure gradient and across-front acceleration.
Gravity Waves and Convection in Colorado during July 1983.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einaudi, F.; Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Fua, D.
1987-06-01
In order to gain insight into the complex dynamics of a convective system interacting with a gravity wave train, we have carried out an experiment in northeast Colorado during July and August, 1983, utilizing data from several program areas in NOAA. Pressure data from the PROFS mesonetwork of microbarograph stations were combined with velocity profiles from the Wave Propagation Laboratory UHF wind profiler (ST) radar at Stapleton Airport in Denver and convective cell location data from the NWS Limon weather radar. Several events were clearly visible in the microbarograph data, from which four (called Events A, B, C and D) in late July were selected for further study. These events differed from each other in fundamental ways.In each event the waves represent oscillations of a substantial depth of the troposphere and seem to appear and disappear together with the convective cells. In Events A and B the waves have a critical level and are probably unstable modes generated by wind shear in the jet stream, from which they extract energy. We suggest that the convective cells cause the selection of some modes over others in a system that is initially dynamically unstable. In Event A the wave appears to be locked together with the convective cells, which move at the same velocity as the phase velocity of the wave. The wave and the cells seem to grow and evolve synergetically. In Event B the wave and convective cells commence at about the same time, but the cell velocities are quite different from the wave phase velocity. The cell velocities vary substantially over the time of the event and appear to be controlled by the local winds.In the Events C and D, the waves move faster than the maximum wind in the jet and at least twice as fast as the convective cells. It is suggested that these are nonsingular neutral modes whose excitation depends on a number of mechanisms, such as vertical convective motions and acceleration in the jet flow.
Local diagnosis of gravity wave propagation during different background wind conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoon, Lena; Zülicke, Christoph
2017-04-01
A new method to diagnose gravity wave properties of a 3-dimensional data set is introduced. Based on the Hilbert transform the amplitude and 3-dimensional wave number is provided on every grid point with the possibility to analyze wave propagation locally. As an exemplary case study two situations with different wind conditions in early 2016 are chosen from ECMWF reanalysis data. These situations are analyzed for vertical gravity wave propagation. During a minor sudden stratospheric warming event gravity waves propagate from the tropopause into the lower stratosphere up to the wind reversal. There the gravity wave becomes shallower and it is absorbed. During strong westerly wind conditions gravity wave action indicates wave propagation to higher altitudes and damping by the model sponge layer leading to no gravity wave signals above about 50 km. Local and zonally averaged results show that consideration of the wave energy may mislead the interpretation of gravity wave behavior due to its dependence on density and background wind. The wave action is highlighted as a better measure for gravity wave propagation.
Sediment gravity flows triggered by remotely generated earthquake waves
Johnson, H. Paul; Gomberg, Joan S.; Hautala, Susan; Salmi, Marie
2017-01-01
Recent great earthquakes and tsunamis around the world have heightened awareness of the inevitability of similar events occurring within the Cascadia Subduction Zone of the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed seafloor temperature, pressure, and seismic signals, and video stills of sediment-enveloped instruments recorded during the 2011–2015 Cascadia Initiative experiment, and seafloor morphology. Our results led us to suggest that thick accretionary prism sediments amplified and extended seismic wave durations from the 11 April 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake, located more than 13,500 km away. These waves triggered a sequence of small slope failures on the Cascadia margin that led to sediment gravity flows culminating in turbidity currents. Previous studies have related the triggering of sediment-laden gravity flows and turbidite deposition to local earthquakes, but this is the first study in which the originating seismic event is extremely distant (> 10,000 km). The possibility of remotely triggered slope failures that generate sediment-laden gravity flows should be considered in inferences of recurrence intervals of past great Cascadia earthquakes from turbidite sequences. Future similar studies may provide new understanding of submarine slope failures and turbidity currents and the hazards they pose to seafloor infrastructure and tsunami generation in regions both with and without local earthquakes.
Sediment gravity flows triggered by remotely generated earthquake waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, H. Paul; Gomberg, Joan S.; Hautala, Susan L.; Salmi, Marie S.
2017-06-01
Recent great earthquakes and tsunamis around the world have heightened awareness of the inevitability of similar events occurring within the Cascadia Subduction Zone of the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed seafloor temperature, pressure, and seismic signals, and video stills of sediment-enveloped instruments recorded during the 2011-2015 Cascadia Initiative experiment, and seafloor morphology. Our results led us to suggest that thick accretionary prism sediments amplified and extended seismic wave durations from the 11 April 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake, located more than 13,500 km away. These waves triggered a sequence of small slope failures on the Cascadia margin that led to sediment gravity flows culminating in turbidity currents. Previous studies have related the triggering of sediment-laden gravity flows and turbidite deposition to local earthquakes, but this is the first study in which the originating seismic event is extremely distant (> 10,000 km). The possibility of remotely triggered slope failures that generate sediment-laden gravity flows should be considered in inferences of recurrence intervals of past great Cascadia earthquakes from turbidite sequences. Future similar studies may provide new understanding of submarine slope failures and turbidity currents and the hazards they pose to seafloor infrastructure and tsunami generation in regions both with and without local earthquakes.
Sheen, D.R.; Liu, C.H.
1988-12-01
Two types of disturbances observed in the ionization density and the line-of-sight ion velocity data from the Worldwide Atmospheric Gravity Wave Study are analyzed and compared with theoretical studies. The study concentrates on the source-response relationship between auroral activities and gravity waves observed in the F-region. In the first section, the measured and derived wave parameters for a semiperiodic TID observed on October 18, 1985 during a moderately magnetically active period are shown to be consistent with predictions from wave theory. In the second section, the background wave spectra observed during several magnetically quiet days are analyzed. It is shown that the neutral vertical velocity spectrum can be modeled as a power law type spectrum. The overall kinetic energy of this spectrum is calculated and compared with the TID. 32 references.
INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES IN MASSIVE STARS: ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT
Rogers, T. M.; Lin, D. N. C.; McElwaine, J. N.; Lau, H. H. B. E-mail: lin@ucolick.org E-mail: hblau@astro.uni-bonn.de
2013-07-20
We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation, and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in Earth's atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explain many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars, and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.
On the Chemical Mixing Induced by Internal Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, T. M.; McElwaine, J. N.
2017-10-01
Detailed modeling of stellar evolution requires a better understanding of the (magneto)hydrodynamic processes that mix chemical elements and transport angular momentum. Understanding these processes is crucial if we are to accurately interpret observations of chemical abundance anomalies, surface rotation measurements, and asteroseismic data. Here, we use two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the generation and propagation of internal gravity waves in an intermediate-mass star to measure the chemical mixing induced by these waves. We show that such mixing can generally be treated as a diffusive process. We then show that the local diffusion coefficient does not depend on the local fluid velocity, but rather on the wave amplitude. We then use these findings to provide a simple parameterization for this diffusion, which can be incorporated into stellar evolution codes and tested against observations.
Localized packets of acoustic gravity waves in the ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skorokhod, T. V.; Lizunov, G. V.
2012-02-01
Using mass-spectrometric measurement data from the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, we investigated the distribution of medium-scale acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) at altitudes of the F-region of the ionosphere. It is shown that the planetary field of AGWs contains a regular and a sporadic component. The regular distribution of AGWs involves active polar areas (where the ionosphere is highly disturbed) and a relatively calm equatorial area. Sporadic AGWs are isolated and spatially localized wave packets that are distinguished against the background of the regular distribution of the wave field. We generated a directory containing observations of sporadic AGW for the period January-February 1983 and performed a statistical analysis of their relation to earthquakes.
Experimental study of three-wave interactions among capillary-gravity surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haudin, Florence; Cazaubiel, Annette; Deike, Luc; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael
2016-04-01
In propagating wave systems, three- or four-wave resonant interactions constitute a classical nonlinear mechanism exchanging energy between the different scales. Here we investigate three-wave interactions for gravity-capillary surface waves in a closed laboratory tank. We generate two crossing wave trains and we study their interaction. Using two optical methods, a local one (laser doppler vibrometry) and a spatiotemporal one (diffusive light photography), a third wave of smaller amplitude is detected, verifying the three-wave resonance conditions in frequency and in wave number. Furthermore, by focusing on the stationary regime and by taking into account viscous dissipation, we directly estimate the growth rate of the resonant mode. The latter is then compared to the predictions of the weakly nonlinear triadic resonance interaction theory. The obtained results confirm qualitatively and extend previous experimental results obtained only for collinear wave trains. Finally, we discuss the relevance of three-wave interaction mechanisms in recent experiments studying gravity-capillary turbulence.
Experimental study of three-wave interactions among capillary-gravity surface waves.
Haudin, Florence; Cazaubiel, Annette; Deike, Luc; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael
2016-04-01
In propagating wave systems, three- or four-wave resonant interactions constitute a classical nonlinear mechanism exchanging energy between the different scales. Here we investigate three-wave interactions for gravity-capillary surface waves in a closed laboratory tank. We generate two crossing wave trains and we study their interaction. Using two optical methods, a local one (laser doppler vibrometry) and a spatiotemporal one (diffusive light photography), a third wave of smaller amplitude is detected, verifying the three-wave resonance conditions in frequency and in wave number. Furthermore, by focusing on the stationary regime and by taking into account viscous dissipation, we directly estimate the growth rate of the resonant mode. The latter is then compared to the predictions of the weakly nonlinear triadic resonance interaction theory. The obtained results confirm qualitatively and extend previous experimental results obtained only for collinear wave trains. Finally, we discuss the relevance of three-wave interaction mechanisms in recent experiments studying gravity-capillary turbulence.
Plane-wave analysis of solar acoustic-gravity waves: A (slightly) new approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bogart, Richard S.; Sa, L. A. D.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Haber, Deborah A.; Toomre, Juri; Hill, Frank
1995-01-01
The plane-wave decomposition of the acoustic-gravity wave effects observed in the photosphere provides a computationally efficient technique that probes the structure of the upper convective zone and boundary. In this region, the flat sun approximation is considered as being reasonably accurate. A technique to be used for the systematic plane-wave analysis of Michelson Doppler imager data, as part of the solar oscillations investigation, is described. Estimates of sensitivity are presented, and the effects of using different planar mappings are discussed. The technique is compared with previous approaches to the three dimensional plane-wave problem.
Projected constraints on Lorentz-violating gravity with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Devin; Yunes, Nicolás; Yagi, Kent
2015-04-01
Gravitational waves are excellent tools to probe the foundations of general relativity in the strongly dynamical and nonlinear regime. One such foundation is Lorentz symmetry, which can be broken in the gravitational sector by the existence of a preferred time direction and, thus, a preferred frame at each spacetime point. This leads to a modification in the orbital decay rate of binary systems, and also in the generation and chirping of their associated gravitational waves. Here we study whether waves emitted in the late, quasicircular inspiral of nonspinning, neutron star binaries can place competitive constraints on two proxies of gravitational Lorentz violation: Einstein-Æther theory and khronometric gravity. We model the waves in the small-coupling (or decoupling) limit and in the post-Newtonian approximation, by perturbatively solving the field equations in small deformations from general relativity and in the small-velocity or weak-gravity approximation. We assume that a gravitational wave consistent with general relativity has been detected with second- and third-generation, ground-based detectors, and with the proposed space-based mission DECIGO, with and without coincident electromagnetic counterparts. Without a counterpart, a detection consistent with general relativity can only place competitive constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation when using future, third-generation or space-based instruments. On the other hand, a single counterpart is enough to place constraints that are 10 orders of magnitude more stringent than current binary pulsar bounds, even when using second-generation detectors. This is because Lorentz violation forces the group velocity of gravitational waves to be different from that of light, and this difference can be very accurately constrained with coincident observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ayuka; Maejima, Yasumitsu
2016-03-01
Generation of gravity waves by convection was studied using a nonlinear two-dimensional model. A boundary-layer convection forced by a horizontally-uniform heating and a plume forced by a localized heating representing a local dust storm were tested. The results suggest that vigorous convection occurs due to the low density of the martian atmosphere and that short-period waves having frequencies near the buoyancy frequency can be preferentially generated. The propagation of those gravity waves to thermospheric heights was studied using a linearized one-dimensional model. Because of the fast vertical propagation the waves attain large amplitudes in the lower thermosphere, being consistent with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey's accelerometer measurements and MAVEN's neutral and ion measurements. The heating and cooling caused by the waves are expected to be significant in the energy budget of the thermosphere, and the vertical mixing induced by those gravity waves should influence the homopause height. Since the thermospheric densities of light, minor species increase with the lowering of the homopause, a lower homopause may have enhanced the escape of such species to space for early Mars, where slower, weaker gravity waves should dominate.
Sound propagation through internal gravity wave fields in a laboratory tank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L.; Lin, Ying-Tsing
2014-11-01
We conduct laboratory experiments and numerical simulations for sound propagation through an internal gravity wave field. The goal is to improve the understanding of the effect of internal gravity waves on acoustic propagation in the oceans. The laboratory tank is filled with a fluid whose density decreases linearly from the bottom to the top of the tank; the resultant buoyancy frequency is 0.15 Hz. A 1 MHz sound wave is generated and received by 12.5 mm diameter transducers, which are positioned 0.2 m apart on a horizontal acoustic axis that is perpendicular to the internal wave beam. The fluid velocity field, measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), agrees well with results from simulations made using a Navier-Stokes spectral code. The sound intensity at the receiver is computed numerically for different measured and simulated frozen density fields. Fluctuations in the sound speed and intensity are determined as a function of the location of the receiver and the frequency and phase of the internal waves. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N000141110701 (WHOI). Also, L.Z. is supported by the 2013-14 ASA F. V. Hunt Postdoctoral Research Fellowship.
Dynamics and Predictability of Deep Propagating Atmospheric Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, J.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R.; Eckermann, S. D.
2012-12-01
An overview will be provided of the first field campaign that attempts to follow deeply propagating gravity waves (GWs) from their tropospheric sources to their mesospheric breakdown. The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE experiment over New Zealand (DEEPWAVE-NZ) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program focused on providing a new understanding of GW dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program will employ the new NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. The NGV will be equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments for the DEEPWAVE measurement program, providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. The region near New Zealand is chosen since all the relevant GW sources occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit GWs to propagate to very high altitudes. Given large-amplitude GWs that propagate routinely into the MLT, the New Zealand region offers an ideal natural laboratory for studying these important GW dynamics and effects impacting weather and climate over a much deeper atmospheric layer than previous campaigns have attempted (0-100 km altitude). The logistics of making measurements in the vicinity of New Zealand are potentially easier than from the Andes and Drake Passage region. A suite of GW-focused modeling and predictability tools will be used to guide NGV flight planning to GW events of greatest scientific significance. These models will also drive scientific interpretation of the GW measurements, together providing answers to the key science questions posed by DEEPWAVE about GW dynamics, morphology, predictability and impacts from 0-100 km. Preliminary results will be presented from high-resolution and adjoint models applied over areas featuring deep wave propagation. The high
Time and space analysis of turbulence of gravity surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mordant, Nicolas; Aubourg, Quentin; Viboud, Samuel; Sommeria, Joel
2016-11-01
Wave turbulence is a statistical state made of a very large number of nonlinearly interacting waves. The Weak Turbulence Theory was developed to describe such a situation in the weakly nonlinear regime. Although, oceanic data tend to be compatible with the theory, laboratory data fail to fulfill the theoretical predictions. A space-time resolved measurement of the waves have proven to be especially fruitful to identify the mechanism at play in turbulence of gravity-capillary waves. We developed an image processing algorithm to measure the motion of the surface of water with both space and time resolution. We first seed the surface with slightly buoyant polystyrene particles and use 3 cameras to reconstruct the surface. Our stereoscopic algorithm is coupled to PIV so that to obtain both the surface deformation and the velocity of the water surface. Such a coupling is shown to improve the sensitivity of the measurement by one order of magnitude. We use this technique to probe the existence of weakly nonlinear turbulence excited by two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wave flume. We observe a truly weakly nonlinear regime of isotropic wave turbulence. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 647018-WATU).
Turbulent dynamics of breaking internal gravity waves on slopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arthur, Robert; Fringer, Oliver
2014-11-01
The turbulent dynamics of breaking internal gravity waves on slopes are investigated using a high-resolution numerical model. A Navier-Stokes code is employed in an idealized, three-dimensional domain where an internal solitary wave of depression impinges upon a sloping bottom. A bottom-following curvilinear grid is used to capture the bathymetry accurately, and the vertical grid spacing Δz+ = O(1) near the bottom in the breaking region to resolve the near-wall flow. In order to understand the transition to turbulence as a result of wave breaking, flow variability is analyzed in the cross-stream dimension. In particular, streamwise vorticity, or secondary streamwise rolls that lead to the turbulent breakdown of the wave, is found to develop in regions of unstable stratification. Dissipation and irreversible mixing of the density field are analyzed as a function of time, and related to breaking dynamics; irreversible mixing is quantified in terms of the change in background potential energy inside the domain. The mixing efficiency is also calculated for various wave and slope conditions. These results have application to the nearshore coastal ocean, where breaking internal waves affect the distributions of ecologically important scalars such as temperature, oxygen, and nutrients.
Monitoring gravity waves detected by I33MG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randrianarinosy, Fanomezana; Andrianaivoarisora, Jean Bernardo; Tahina Rakotoariza, Andriniaina; Rambolamanana, Gérard; Harifidy Ramanantsoa, Andry
2013-04-01
Since September 2001, I33MG has recorded and stored data in the National Data Centre which belongs to the Laboratory of Seismology and Infrasound at the Institute and Observatory of Geophysics in Antananarivo (IOGA). The recorded data allowed us to monitor different sources of infrasound such as microbaroms, lightning, volcanoes, cyclones, mountain associated waves, explosions, etc which can be distinguished as acoustic waves. Besides, in the framework of the ARISE project, atmospheric waves having frequency below the acoustic cut-off frequency, known as gravity waves, are considered. Buoyancy oscillations are observed that fill the atmosphere and ocean and propagate long distances horizontally and vertically, have length scales from meters to thousands of kilometers, time scales from seconds to weeks, and release energy into turbulence by wave breaking. WinPMCC based on the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) is used to detect and to get the wave parameters. Azimuth variation versus time is observed but events are mostly found from 200° to 360°, 0° to 100° and a few from 100° to 200°.
Planetary and Gravity Waves in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, R. A.
1985-01-01
Rocket and ground based studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere show that waves play an important role in the dynamics of their region. The waves manifest themselves in wind, temperature, density, pressure, ionization and airglow fluctuations in the 80-120 km height range. Rockets have enabled the density and temperature structure to be measured with excellent height resolution, while long term studies of wind motions using MST, partial reflection and meteor radars and, more recently, lidar investigations of temperature and density, have enabled the temporal behaviour of the waves to be better understood. A composite of power spectra is shown of wind motions measured near the mesopause at widely separated locations and illustrates how wave energy is distributed as a function of frequency. The spectra show three distinct parts; (1) a long period section corresponding to periods longer than 24 h; (2) a section between 12 and 24 h priod where the spectra are dominated by narrow; peaks associated with the semidiurnal and diurnal tides and (3) a section at periods less than 12 h where the spectral density decreases montonically (except for the 8 h tidal peak). The long period section is associated with transient planetary scale waves while the short period motions are caused by gravity waves.
High-altitude responses to tsunami forcing: 2. Response of the ionosphere to gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krall, J.; Huba, J.; Drob, D. P.; Wu, T. W.
2015-12-01
The NRL first-principles ionosphere model SAMI3/ESF is used to study the ionospheric effects associated with tsunami-driven gravity waves. We consider two gravity wave models: spectral and nonlinear. It is shown that gravity-wave induced variations in the neutral wind lead to plasma variations both perpendicular and parallel to the geomagnetic field, and that these variations are a function of gravity wave propagation direction relative to the geomagnetic field. In addition we find that the ionosphere response is affected by altitude range of the gravity waves; specifically whether or not the gravity waves penetrate above the F peak. It is found that the TEC exhibits variations +/- 0.15 TECU and the 6300A airglow emission variation is up to +/- 2.5% relative to the unperturbed background airglow, consistent with observations.
Wave drag due to generation of capillary-gravity surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burghelea, Teodor; Steinberg, Victor
2002-11-01
The onset of the wave resistance via the generation of capillary-gravity waves by a small object moving with a velocity V is investigated experimentally. Due to the existence of a minimum phase velocity Vc for surface waves, the problem is similar to the generation of rotons in superfluid helium near their minimum. In both cases, waves or rotons are produced at V>Vc due to Cherenkov radiation. We find that the transition to the wave drag state is continuous: in the vicinity of the bifurcation the wave resistance force is proportional to (V-Vc) for various fluids. This observation contradicts the theory of Raphaël and de Gennes. We also find that the reduced wave drag force for different fluids and different ball size may be scaled in such a way that all the data collapse on a single curve. The capillary-gravity wave pattern and the shape of the wave-generating region are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Good agreement between the theory and the experimental data is found in this case.
Large stationary gravity wave in the atmosphere of Venus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Futaguchi, Masahiko; Hashimoto, George L.; Horinouchi, Takeshi; Imamura, Takeshi; Iwagaimi, Naomoto; Kouyama, Toru; Murakami, Shin-Ya; Nakamura, Masato; Ogohara, Kazunori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Sato, Takao M.; Suzuki, Makoto; Taguchi, Makoto; Takagi, Seiko; Ueno, Munetaka; Watanabe, Shigeto; Yamada, Manabu; Yamazaki, Atsushi
2017-01-01
The planet Venus is covered by thick clouds of sulfuric acid that move westwards because the entire upper atmosphere rotates much faster than the planet itself. At the cloud tops, about 65 km in altitude, small-scale features are predominantly carried by the background wind at speeds of approximately 100 m s-1. In contrast, planetary-scale atmospheric features have been observed to move slightly faster or slower than the background wind, a phenomenon that has been interpreted to reflect the propagation of planetary-scale waves. Here we report the detection of an interhemispheric bow-shaped structure stretching 10,000 km across at the cloud-top level of Venus in middle infrared and ultraviolet images from the Japanese orbiter Akatsuki. Over several days of observation, the bow-shaped structure remained relatively fixed in position above the highland on the slowly rotating surface, despite the background atmospheric super rotation. We suggest that the bow-shaped structure is the result of an atmospheric gravity wave generated in the lower atmosphere by mountain topography that then propagated upwards. Numerical simulations provide preliminary support for this interpretation, but the formation and propagation of a mountain gravity wave remain difficult to reconcile with assumed near-surface conditions on Venus. We suggest that winds in the deep atmosphere may be spatially or temporally more variable than previously thought.
Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.
2013-10-01
The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E) observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE). These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.
Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.
2013-06-01
The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) on the island Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E) observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE). These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of a pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g. horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.
Image measurements of short-period gravity waves at equatorial latitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, M. J.; Pendleton, W. R.; Clark, S.; Takahashi, H.; Gobbi, D.; Goldberg, R. A.
1997-11-01
A high-performance, all-sky imaging system has been used to obtain novel data on the morphology and dynamics of short-period (<1 hour) gravity waves at equatorial latitudes. Gravity waves imaged in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere were recorded in three nightglow emissions, the near-infrared OH emission, and the visible wavelength OI (557.7 nm) and Na (589.2 nm) emissions spanning the altitude range ˜80-100 km. The measurements were made from Alcantara, Brazil (2.3°S, 44.5°W), during the period August-October 1994 as part of the NASA/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais "Guara campaign". Over 50 wave events were imaged from which a statistical study of the characteristics of equatorial gravity waves has been performed. The data were found to divide naturally into two groups. The first group corresponded to extensive, freely propagating (or ducted) gravity waves with observed periods ranging from 3.7 to 36.6 min, while the second group consisted of waves of a much smaller scale and transient nature. The later group exhibited a bimodal distribution for the observed periods at 5.18±0.26 min and 4.32±0.15 min, close to the local Brunt-Vaisala period and the acoustic cutoff period, respectively. In comparison, the larger-scale waves exhibited a clear tendency for their horizontal wavelengths to increase almost linearly with observed period. This trend was particularly well defined around the equinox and can be represented by a power-law relationship of the form λh=(3.1±0.5)τob1.06±0.10, where λh is measured in kilometers and τob in minutes. This result is in very good agreement with previous radar and passive optical measurements but differs significantly from the relationship λh ∝ τ1.5ob inferred from recent lidar studies. The larger-scale waves were also found to exhibit strong anisotropy in their propagation headings with the dominant direction of motion toward the-NE-ENE suggesting a preponderance for wave generation over the South
Ralph, F.M.; Venkateswaran, S.V. ); Mazaudier, C. ); Crochet, M. )
1993-02-01
Observations from two Doppler sodars and a radar wind profiler have been used in conjunction with data from a rawinsonde station and a mesoscale surface observation network to conduct a case study of a gravity current entering into an environment containing a nocturnal inversion and an elevated neutral layer. On the basis of synoptic and mesoscale analyses, it is concluded that the gravity current might have originated either as a scale-contracted cold front or as a gust front resulting from thunderstorm outflows observed very near the leading edge of a cold front. Despite this ambiguity, the detailed vertical structure of the gravity current itself is well resolved from the data. Moreover, the vertical velocity measurements provided by the sodars and the radar wind profiler at high time resolution have given unique information about the height structure of gravity waves excited by the gravity current. Although only wave periods, and not phase speeds or wavelengths, are directly measured, it is possible to make reasonable inferences about wave excitation mechanisms and about the influence and control of ambient stratification on wave-field characteristics. Both Kelvin-Helmholtz waves generated in the regions of high wind shear found in association with the gravity current and lee-type waves forced by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to opposing prefrontal flow are identified. It is also found that the propagation speed of the gravity current and the relative depths of the prefrontal inversion and the postfrontal cold air were not favorable for the formation of either internal bores or solitary waves at the time of day at which the gravity current was being observed. 42 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, Richard L.; Smith, Roger W.
2004-07-01
Lidar observations of the mesospheric sodium (Na) layer have been made at Poker Flat Research Range, Chatanika, Alaska (65°N,147°W) over a 4-year period. Long-period oscillations have been observed routinely in the bottomside of the Na layer. Simultaneous hydroxyl airglow temperature measurements have confirmed that these oscillations are associated with upwardly propagating gravity waves. These lidar observations have yielded statistically significant measurements of upwardly propagating gravity waves on 24 occasions. A gravity-wave model with pseudo-steady-state chemistry is used to determine the characteristics of the waves. These 24 waves have an average observed period of 6.9h, average vertical wavelength of 14.2km, average temperature amplitude of 8K, and average horizontal velocity amplitude of 30m/s. These waves appear to be damped over the altitude of the Na layer with a growth length of 216km. The waves do not appear to be damped by viscous dissipation or linear instabilities in the waves themselves. However, 20 of the 24 wave events are accompanied by overturning structures in the bottomside of the Na layer. These wave-overturning events have the same characteristics as those observed at Urbana, IL (40°N,88°W), that were interpreted as convective instabilities arising from the superposition of large- and small-scale waves. The current observations suggest that such convective instabilities are a relatively common feature at this high-latitude site and contribute to the damping of large-scale gravity waves.
Model-data comparisons of moments of nonbreaking shoaling surface gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elgar, Steve; Freilich, M. H.; Guza, R. T.
1990-01-01
The predictions of linear and nonlinear (Boussinesq) shoaling wave models for nonbreaking unidirectional surface gravity waves are compared to field observations, with particular emphasis on quantities that may be important for cross-shore sediment transport. The extensive data sets were obtained on two natural beaches, span water depths between 1 and 10 m, and include incident wave power spectra with narrow, broad, and bimodal shapes. Significant wave heights varied between approximately 30 and 100 cm, and peak periods between approximately 8 and 18 s. The evolution of total variances of sea surface elevation, cross-shore velocity, and horizontal acceleration is modeled at least qualitatively well by both linear and nonlinear theories. Only the nonlinear theory predicts the increasingly asymmetric sea surface elevations and horizontal velocities (pitched-forward wave shapes) and the weaker variation of skewness (difference between crest and trough profiles) which are observed to occur during shoaling. The nonlinear theory also models qualitatively well the large skewed accelerations which occur during the passage of asymmetric waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolls, M. J.; Vadas, S.; Sulzer, M. P.; Aponte, N.
2013-12-01
We report on experimental techniques and results for extracting horizontal and vertical wave parameters of thermospheric gravity waves using incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measurements of the three-dimensional properties of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). We use results from the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) and the Arecibo Observatory (AO) to extract the three-dimensional properties of waves, including horizontal and vertical wavelengths, phase speeds, and propagation directions. Comparison to theoretical ray tracing results sheds light on the dissipative and wind filtering mechanisms that drive the measurements. High-resolution vertical wavelength measurements reveal maxima at the altitudes near where the TID amplitude is maximum, consistent with gravity wave packet theory. Simultaneous measurements of lower thermospheric neutral winds reveal the effects of strong winds (often greater that 150 m/s) on determining the wave spectra at higher altitudes. We discuss how these measurements can shed light on the lower atmospheric sources that contribute to thermospheric gravity waves and drive ionospheric variability.
Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere
2014-10-15
Observation and modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...ABSTRACT Build a compatible set of models which 1) calculate the atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) excited by a tsunami , 2) propagate these GWs into...modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon L. Vadas NWRA/CoRA 3380 S. Mitchell Lane Boulder, CO 80301, USA phone
Long-Term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckermann, Stephen D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Wu, Dong L.
1998-01-01
Progress in research into the global morphology of gravity wave activity using UARS data is described for the period March-June, 1998. Highlights this quarter include further progress in the analysis and interpretation of CRISTA temperature variances; model-generated climatologies of mesospheric gravity wave activity using the HWM-93 wind and temperature model; and modeling of gravity wave detection from space-based platforms. Preliminary interpretations and recommended avenues for further analysis are also described.
Surface gravity waves at equilibrium with a steady wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1994-01-01
Observations of wave fields' spatial evolution and of gravity wave spectra S(sub omega) are analyzed on the basis of the data reported by several research groups as well as on a 2-year data set of wind and wave measurements by stationary National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration buoys near the Hawaiian Islands. We seek to clarify the role of the wave energy advection (with the wave group velocity) in the overall energy balance. This advective transfer appears to be no less important than the local (breaking wave induced) dissipation as a factor of wind-wave equilibrium. The advection is found to manifest itself in the shape of wave spectra by reducing the rate at which the spectra density of the wave energy, S(sub omega approximately omega (exp -p), falls off as the frequency increases away from the spectra peak. This and other conclusions are derived by comparing the field observations with theoretical predictions of the weak turbulence theory for a spatially inhomogeneous, statistically stationary, wave field. The observations also indicate that the typical wave age xi = C(sub 0)/U in the open ocean is much greater than the limiting value 1.2 attributed to the 'fully developed sea.' Although the observed spectra can be approximated by a power law with a single 'effective' exponent, this apparent exponent, p, is found to depend on the wave age. At high xi and at frequencies below the generation range, -p tends to -3 rather than the value of -11/3 predicted by the Zakharov-Zaslavskii theory. This deviation is interpreted as pointing to a nonconservative nature of the inverse cascade, the latter including a leakage of energy to low-wavenumber modes. Dependence of the overall effective exponent on xi is shown to be responsible for variation in the coefficients b, B, c, C appearing in empirical fetch laws, such as xi = C bar-x (exp c) and e = B bar-x (exp B), where bar-x and e are the dimensionless fetch and wave energy, respectively.
Surface gravity waves at equilibrium with a steady wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1994-01-01
Observations of wave fields' spatial evolution and of gravity wave spectra S(sub omega) are analyzed on the basis of the data reported by several research groups as well as on a 2-year data set of wind and wave measurements by stationary National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration buoys near the Hawaiian Islands. We seek to clarify the role of the wave energy advection (with the wave group velocity) in the overall energy balance. This advective transfer appears to be no less important than the local (breaking wave induced) dissipation as a factor of wind-wave equilibrium. The advection is found to manifest itself in the shape of wave spectra by reducing the rate at which the spectra density of the wave energy, S(sub omega approximately omega (exp -p), falls off as the frequency increases away from the spectra peak. This and other conclusions are derived by comparing the field observations with theoretical predictions of the weak turbulence theory for a spatially inhomogeneous, statistically stationary, wave field. The observations also indicate that the typical wave age xi = C(sub 0)/U in the open ocean is much greater than the limiting value 1.2 attributed to the 'fully developed sea.' Although the observed spectra can be approximated by a power law with a single 'effective' exponent, this apparent exponent, p, is found to depend on the wave age. At high xi and at frequencies below the generation range, -p tends to -3 rather than the value of -11/3 predicted by the Zakharov-Zaslavskii theory. This deviation is interpreted as pointing to a nonconservative nature of the inverse cascade, the latter including a leakage of energy to low-wavenumber modes. Dependence of the overall effective exponent on xi is shown to be responsible for variation in the coefficients b, B, c, C appearing in empirical fetch laws, such as xi = C bar-x (exp c) and e = B bar-x (exp B), where bar-x and e are the dimensionless fetch and wave energy, respectively.
Nonlinear gravity waves in the water flow with inhomogeneous vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrashkin, Anatoly; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-04-01
Nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived for weakly modulated nonlinear wave packets in the infinite-depth water flow with inhomogeneous vorticity. Governing 2-D equations are written in Lagrangian variables. Nonlinear Schrodinger equation is obtained in the third order of perturbation theory taking into account weak non-uniform vortex current. Two limiting cases are analyzed. The first one corresponds to the uniform surface flow and is described by the classic nonlinear Schrodinger equation allowed the modulational instability. The second one is the Gerstner's wave packet. In this limiting case the nonlinear term is absent confirming known fact that nonlinear Gerstner's wave has the linear dispersion relation.
Mesoscale Gravity Wave Variances from AMSU-A Radiances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Dong L.
2004-01-01
A variance analysis technique is developed here to extract gravity wave (GW) induced temperature fluctuations from NOAA AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) radiance measurements. By carefully removing the instrument/measurement noise, the algorithm can produce reliable GW variances with the minimum detectable value as small as 0.1 K2. Preliminary analyses with AMSU-A data show GW variance maps in the stratosphere have very similar distributions to those found with the UARS MLS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder). However, the AMSU-A offers better horizontal and temporal resolution for observing regional GW variability, such as activity over sub-Antarctic islands.
Consistent vertical and horizontal resolution. [for internal gravity waves study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindzen, Richard S.; Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael
1989-01-01
Simple physical relations (namely, the Rossby ratio between vertical and horizontal scales in quasi-geostrophic flow and the dispersion relation for internal gravity waves) are used to estimate the vertical resolution consistent with a given horizontal resolution. Using these relations it is found that virtually all large scale models and observing systems have inadequate vertical resolution. In models, the excess horizontal resolution can lead to increased model 'noise' rather than improved accuracy. In observing systems, the finer horizontal scales can be severely misrepresented.
Do waves carrying orbital angular momentum possess azimuthal linear momentum?
Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M
2013-09-06
All beams are a superposition of plane waves, which carry linear momentum in the direction of propagation with no net azimuthal component. However, plane waves incident on a hologram can produce a vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum that seems to require an azimuthal linear momentum, which presents a paradox. We resolve this by showing that the azimuthal momentum is not a true linear momentum but the azimuthal momentum density is a true component of the linear momentum density.
Internal Gravity Waves: Generation and Breaking Mechanisms by Laboratory Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
la Forgia, Giovanni; Adduce, Claudia; Falcini, Federico
2016-04-01
Internal gravity waves (IGWs), occurring within estuaries and the coastal oceans, are manifest as large amplitude undulations of the pycnocline. IGWs propagating horizontally in a two layer stratified fluid are studied. The breaking of an IGW of depression shoaling upon a uniformly sloping boundary is investigated experimentally. Breaking dynamics beneath the shoaling waves causes both mixing and wave-induced near-bottom vortices suspending and redistributing the bed material. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a Perspex tank through the standard lock-release method, following the technique described in Sutherland et al. (2013). Each experiment is analysed and the instantaneous pycnocline position is measured, in order to obtain both geometric and kinematic features of the IGW: amplitude, wavelength and celerity. IGWs main features depend on the geometrical parameters that define the initial experimental setting: the density difference between the layers, the total depth, the layers depth ratio, the aspect ratio, and the displacement between the pycnoclines. Relations between IGWs geometric and kinematic features and the initial setting parameters are analysed. The approach of the IGWs toward a uniform slope is investigated in the present experiments. Depending on wave and slope characteristics, different breaking and mixing processes are observed. Sediments are sprinkled on the slope to visualize boundary layer separation in order to analyze the suspension e redistribution mechanisms due to the wave breaking.
Quantum Gravity Explanation of the Wave-Particle Duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterberg, Friedwardt
2016-03-01
A quantum gravity explanation of the quantum-mechanical wave-particle duality is given by the watt-less emission of gravitational waves from a particle described by the Dirac equation. This explanation is possible through the existence of negative energy, and hence negative mass solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations. They permit to understand the Dirac equation as the equation for a gravitationally bound positive-negative mass (pole-dipole particle) two-body configuration, with the mass of the Dirac particle equal to the positive mass of the gravitational field binding the positive with the negative mass particle, and with the positive and negative mass particles making a luminal ``Zitterbewegung'' (quivering motion), emitting a watt-less oscillating positive-negative space curvature wave. Is it shown that this thusly produced ``Zitterbewegung'' reproduces the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. The watt-less gravitational wave emitted by the quivering particles is conjectured to be the de Broglie pilot wave.
Gravity waves and convection in Colorado during July 1983
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Einaudi, F.; Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Fua, D.
1987-01-01
The dynamics of gravity-wave/convective-cell interaction is studied using NOAA data collected in NE Colorado during July and August 1983. The pressure fields measured with microbarographs, the tropospheric wind profiles obtained with a UHF wind profiler radar, and precipitation data collected with a 10-cm weather radar for four events (A, B, C, and D) are analyzed. The four disturbances are detected through a substantial depth of the troposphere. It is observed that in event A the wave and convective cells appear to be locked together; in event B, the wave and convective cells commence about the same time, but the wave velocities differ from the cell velocities; and in events C and D, the waves move faster than the maximum wind in the jet and faster than the convective cells. It is suggested that events A and B are generated by wind shear in the jet stream, and the excitation of events C and D depends on mechanisms such as vertical convective motion and acceleration in the jet flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetzer, Eric J.; Gille, John C.
1996-02-01
Zonal-mean gravity wave variance in the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) temperature data is seen to correlate strongly with the residual term in the LIMS zonal-mean momentum budget throughout much of the observed mesosphere. This momentum residual is attributed to gravity wave momentum transport at scales that cannot be directly sampled by the LIMS instrument Correlation is highest in the vicinity of the fall and winter mesospheric jets, where both gravity wave variance and momentum residual reach their largest values. Correlation is also high in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical mesophere, where gravity wave variance and the momentum residual have broad temporal maxima during the easterly acceleration of the stratopause semi-annual oscillation (SAO). This subtropical correlation has important implications for the SAO eastward acceleration, which several studies suggest is forced by gravity wave momentum flux divergence. Correlation between gravity wave variance and inferred gravity wave momentum flux divergence is unexpected because variance is dominated by large scales and long periods (inertio-gravity waves), while both theoretical arguments and ground-based observations indicate that momentum transport is dominated by periods under 1 h. The results of this study suggest a broadband gravity wave field experiencing forcing and loss processes, which are largely independent of frequency.
Ducting of acoustic-gravity waves in a nonisothermal atmosphere around a spherical globe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Jun; Wan, Weixing; Yuan, Hong
1998-05-01
The ducting mechanism of acoustic-gravity waves in a thermally stratified atmosphere with spherical geometry is investigated analytically. By introducing a reasonable atmospheric sound speed model, the Green's function of Navier-Stokes equations is derived. The dispersion relation of ducted acoustic-gravity wave modes is studied. Calculations reported here show various ducted modes, namely, the quasi-surface modes, the fully ducted modes, and the imperfectly ducted mode. The ducting mechanism of the "leaky" gravity wave mode, usually referred to as mesospherically ducted mode, is reexamined. We find that the sudden rise of temperature at the lower thermosphere can itself contribute to the ducting of the lower atmospheric gravity waves.
Characteristic of gravity waves resolved in ECMWF anaylses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preusse, Peter; Ern, Manfred; Riese, Martin
2014-05-01
Gravity waves (GWs) influence the circulation of the atmosphere on global scale. Can we employ global models such as the ECMWF high-resolution GCM to infer quantities of resolved GWs? Does this give us insight for the characteristics and relative importance of real GW sources? And can we use such data savely for, e.g., campaign planing? We here apply techniques developed for an ESA study proving the scientifc break-through which could be reached by a novel infrared limb imager. The 3D wave structure of mesoscale GWs is exploited to determine amplitudes and 3D wave vectors of GWs at different levels (25km, 35km and 45km altitude) in the stratosphere. Similar to real observations, GW momentum flux is largest in the winter polar vortex and exhibits a second maximum in the summer subtropics. Based on the 3D wavevectors backward ray-tracing is employed to characterize specific sources. For instance, we find for the northern winter strong GWMF associated with mountain waves from Norway and Greenland as well as waves emitted in the lower troposphere from a storm approaching Norway. Waves from these sources spread up to several thousand km in the stratosphere. Together these three events form a burst in the total hemispheric GWMF of a factor of 3. Strong mountain wave events are also found e.g. at Tierre del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, regions which are in the focus of observational and modeling studies for a decade. Gravity waves in the tropical region are likely generated above deep convection in the upper troposphere. They have significantly larger horizontal wavelengths but shorter vertical wavelengths than indicated by observations. They also exhibit lower phase speeds than waves simulated by mesoscale modeling of deep convection events. This difference is not due to the model resolution. Rather, GWs in ECMWF are excited aloft of the convection in the altitudes of largest wind-shear and least dynamical stability. GWs which are excited by resonant forcing
Impact of ENSO on seasonal variations of Kelvin Waves and mixed Rossby-Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakhman, Saeful; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni
2017-01-01
Characteristics of atmospheric equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-Gravity (MRG) waves as well as their relationship with tropical convective activity associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were analyzed. Kelvin waves and MRG waves were identified by using a Space-Time Spectral Analysis (STSA) technique, where the differences in the strength of both waves were quantified by taking the wave spectrum differences for each ENSO phase. Our result showed that Kelvin wave activity is stronger during an El Nino years, whereas the MRG wave activity is stronger during the La Nina years. Seasonal variations of Kelvin wave activity occurs predominantly in MAM over the central to the east Pacific in the El Nino years, while the strongest seasonal variation of MRG wave activity occus in MAM and SON over the northern and southern Pacific during La Nina years. The local variation of Kelvin wave and MRG wave activities are found to be controlled by variation in lower level atmospheric convection induced by sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific Ocean.
Linear coupling of acoustic and cyclotron waves in plasma flows
Rogava, Andria; Gogoberidze, Grigol
2005-05-15
It is found that in magnetized electrostatic plasma flows the velocity shear couples ion-acoustic waves with ion-cyclotron waves and leads, under favorable conditions, to their efficient reciprocal transformations. It is shown that in a two-dimensional setup this coupling has a remarkable feature: it is governed by equations that are mathematically equal to the ones describing coupling of sound waves with internal gravity waves [Rogava and Mahajan, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1185 (1997)] in neutral fluids. For flows with low shearing rates a fully analytic, quantitative description of the coupling efficiency, based on a noteworthy quantum-mechanical analogy, is given and transformation coefficients are calculated.
Modulational development of nonlinear gravity-wave groups
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chereskin, T. K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.
1985-01-01
Observations of the development of nonlinear surface gravity-wave groups are presented, and the amplitude and phase modulations are calculated using Hilbert-transform techniques. With increasing propagation distance and wave steepness, the phase modulation develops local phase reversals whose locations correspond to amplitude minima or nodes. The concomitant frequency modulation develops jumps or discontinuities. The observations are compared with recent similar results for wavetrains. The observations are modelled numerically using the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The motivation is twofold: to examine quantitatively the evolution of phase as well as amplitude modulation, and to test the inviscid predictions for the asymptotic behavior of groups versus long-time observations. Although dissipation rules out the recurrence, there is a long-time coherence of the groups. The phase modulation is found to distinguish between dispersive and soliton behavior.
Effect of surface gravity waves on atmospheric circulation
Janssen, P.A.E.M. |
1994-12-31
During the last decade there has been considerable interest in the problem of the interaction of wind and waves with emphasis on the sea state dependence of the momentum transfer across the air-sea interface. Simulations with the WAM model show that, depending on the sea state, the drag coefficient may vary by a factor of two. Therefore, one may wonder whether two-way interaction has impact on e.g. the evolution of a depression and the atmospheric circulation. In order to study systematic effects on the atmospheric circulation, climate runs have to be performed. Performing Monte Carlo Forecasting with the coupled WAM-ECMWF model for the winter season 1990, it is concluded that surface gravity waves have a significant impact on the atmospheric circulation.
Transport of inertial anisotropic particles under surface gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dibenedetto, Michelle; Koseff, Jeffrey; Ouellette, Nicholas
2016-11-01
The motion of neutrally and almost-neutrally buoyant particles under surface gravity waves is relevant to the transport of microplastic debris and other small particulates in the ocean. Consequently, a number of studies have looked at the transport of spherical particles or mobile plankton in these conditions. However, the effects of particle-shape anisotropy on the trajectories and behavior of irregularly shaped particles in this type of oscillatory flow are still relatively unknown. To better understand these issues, we created an idealized numerical model which simulates the three-dimensional behavior of anisotropic spheroids in flow described by Airy wave theory. The particle's response is calculated using a simplified Maxey-Riley equation coupled with Jeffery's equation for particle rotation. We show that the particle dynamics are strongly dependent on their initial conditions and shape, with some some additional dependence on Stokes number.
Holographic p-wave superconductors from Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Cai Ronggen; Nie Zhangyu; Zhang Haiqing
2010-09-15
We study the holographic p-wave superconductors in a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity with an SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge field. In the probe approximation, we find that when the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient grows, the condensation of the vector field becomes harder, both the perpendicular and parallel components, with respect to the direction of the condensation, of the anisotropic conductivity decrease. We also study the mass of the quasiparticle excitations, the gap frequency and the DC conductivities of the p-wave superconductor. All of them depend on the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient. In addition, we observe a strange behavior for the condensation and the relation between the gap frequency and the mass of quasiparticles when the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is larger than 9/100, which is the upper bound for the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient from the causality of the dual field theory.
Chaotic particle motion under linear surface waves.
Bohr, Tomas; Hansen, Jonas Lundbek
1996-12-01
We investigate the motion of infinitesimal particles in the flow field inside the fluid under a traveling surface wave. It is shown that, even for two-dimensional waves, a superposition of two or more traveling harmonic waves is enough to generate chaotic particle motion, i.e., Lagrangian chaos. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics.
Analytical and numerical investigation on nonlinear internal gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kshevetskii, S. P.
The propagation of long, weakly nonlinear internal waves in a stratified gas is studied. Hydrodynamic equations for an ideal fluid with the perfect gas law describe the atmospheric gas behaviour. If we neglect the term Ͽ dw/dt (product of the density and vertical acceleration), we come to a so-called quasistatic model, while we name the full hydro-dynamic model as a nonquasistatic one. Both quasistatic and nonquasistatic models are used for wave simulation and the models are compared among themselves. It is shown that a smooth classical solution of a nonlinear quasistatic problem does not exist for all t because a gradient catastrophe of non-linear internal waves occurs. To overcome this difficulty, we search for the solution of the quasistatic problem in terms of a generalised function theory as a limit of special regularised equations containing some additional dissipation term when the dissipation factor vanishes. It is shown that such solutions of the quasistatic problem qualitatively differ from solutions of a nonquasistatic nature. It is explained by the fact that in a nonquasistatic model the vertical acceleration term plays the role of a regularizator with respect to a quasistatic model, while the solution qualitatively depends on the regularizator used. The numerical models are compared with some analytical results. Within the framework of the analytical model, any internal wave is described as a system of wave modes; each wave mode interacts with others due to equation non-linearity. In the principal order of a perturbation theory, each wave mode is described by some equation of a KdV type. The analytical model reveals that, in a nonquasistatic model, an internal wave should disintegrate into solitons. The time of wave disintegration into solitons, the scales and amount of solitons generated are important characteristics of the non-linear process; they are found with the help of analytical and numerical investigations. Satisfactory coincidence of
Internal gravity wave contributions to global sea surface variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savage, A.; Arbic, B. K.; Richman, J. G.; Shriver, J. F.; Buijsman, M. C.; Zamudio, L.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Sharma, H.
2016-02-01
High-resolution (1/12th and 1/25th degree) 41-layer simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), forced by both atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential, are used to construct global maps of sea-surface height (SSH). The HYCOM output has been separated into steric, non-steric, and total sea-surface height and the maps display variance in subtidal, tidal, and supertidal bands. Two of the global maps are of particular interest in planning for the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide-swath satellite altimeter mission; (1) a map of the nonstationary tidal signal (estimated after removing the stationary tidal signal via harmonic analysis), and (2) a map of the steric supertidal contributions, which are dominated by the internal gravity wave continuum. Both of these maps display signals of order 1 cm2, the target accuracy for the SWOT mission. Therefore, both non-stationary internal tides and non-tidal internal gravity waves are likely to be important sources of "noise" that must be accurately removed before examination of lower-frequency phenomena can take place.
Lightning Flashes and Gravity Waves in Tropical Cyclone Mahasen
2017-09-28
Tropical Cyclone Mahasen is moving north through the Indian Ocean along a track that places landfall along the Bangladesh coast on May 16th around 1200Z. On May 13, 2013 the Suomi NPP satellite caught an interesting glimpse of the storm as it moved off the eastern coast of India. The VIIRS Day-Night Band was able to resolve lightning flashes towards the center of the storm, along with mesopheric gravity waves emanating outwards like ripples in a pond. These gravity waves are of particular interest to air traffic controllers so assist in identifying areas of turbulence. Since the moon was in a new phase, the lights and other surface features of India and Sri Lanka are clearly visible, though the clouds of TC Mahasen are not - a tradeoff that occurs as the amount of moonlight cycles throughout the month. Credit: NASA/NOAA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J.
2017-05-01
New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened rep-etitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.
Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints
Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A. E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com
2014-05-01
We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant αR{sup 2}+βR{sub μν}R{sup μν} can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.
Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A.
2014-05-01
We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant αR2+βRμνRμν can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.
Generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by surface gravity waves
King, J.N.; Mehta, A.J.; Dean, R.G.
2009-01-01
A generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by linear surface gravity waves over a series of layered hydrogeologic units is developed by adapting a previous solution for a hydrogeologic unit with an infinite thickness (Case I) to a unit with a finite thickness (Case II) and to a dual-unit system (Case III). The model compares favorably with laboratory observations. The amplitude of wave-forced benthic water flux is shown to be directly proportional to the amplitude of the wave, the permeability of the hydrogeologic unit, and the wave number and inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity of water. A dimensionless amplitude parameter is introduced and shown to reach a maximum where the product of water depth and the wave number is 1.2. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body. The Case I model estimates an 11.5-cm/d SGD forced by a wave with a 1 s period and 5-cm amplitude in water that is 0.5-m deep. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.3-m-thick hydrogeologic unit, with a no-flow bottom boundary, the Case II model estimates a 9.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.2-m-thick hydrogeologic unit over an infinitely thick, more permeable unit, the Case III quasi-confined model estimates a 15.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. The quasi-confined model has benthic constituent flux implications in coral reef, karst, and clastic regions. Waves may undermine tracer and seepage meter estimates of SGD at some locations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
Characteristics of Kelvin waves and gravity waves observed with radiosondes over Indonesia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, Atsushi; Tsuda, Toshitaka
1997-11-01
Profiles of wind velocity and temperature at 0-35 km were observed by means of radiosondes in west Java, Indonesia, during November 1992 and April 1993 and used to study the behavior of various atmospheric waves in the equatorial atmosphere. An oscillation, of zonal winds with a period of about 27 days was found in the troposphere, which was associated with variations in humidity and cloud top height. Kelvin waves showed phase progression beginning at cloud top height (13-16 km) and were particularly enhanced near the tropopause. The Kelvin waves strongly modulated the tropopause structure including the tropopause height, minimum temperature, and atmospheric stability. A hodograph analysis was applied to determine the propagation characteristics of inertial gravity waves. Height variation of the vertical group velocity suggests that the gravity waves were generated in the troposphere, while the horizontal phase velocity distribution suggests that they were interacting with the background mean zonal winds. These wave activities were enhanced when tall, convective clouds passed over the site, suggesting that cumulus convection seems to play a key role in generating these waves in the equatorial region.
Propagation of tsunami-driven gravity waves into the thermosphere and ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickey, M. P.; Schubert, G.; Walterscheid, R. L.
2009-08-01
Recent observations have revealed large F-region electron density perturbations (˜100%) and total electron content (TEC) perturbations (˜30%) that appear to be correlated with tsunamis. The characteristic speed and horizontal wavelength of the disturbances are ˜200 m/s and ˜400 km. We describe numerical simulations using our spectral full-wave model (SFWM) of the upward propagation of a spectrum of gravity waves forced by a tsunami, and the interaction of these waves with the F-region ionosphere. The SFWM describes the propagation of linear, steady-state acoustic-gravity waves in a nonisothermal atmosphere with the inclusion of eddy and molecular diffusion of heat and momentum, ion drag, Coriolis force, and height-dependent mean winds. The tsunami is modeled as a deformation of our model lower boundary traveling at the shallow water wave speed of 200 m/s with a maximum vertical displacement of 50 cm and described by a modified Airy function in the horizontal direction. The derived vertical velocity spectrum at the surface describes the forcing at the lower boundary of the SFWM. A steady-state 1-D ionospheric perturbation model is used to calculate the electron density and TEC perturbations. The molecular diffusion strongly damps the waves in the topside (>300-km altitude) ionosphere. In spite of this, the F-region response is large, with vertical displacements of ˜2 to 5 km and electron density perturbations of ˜100%. Mean winds have a profound effect on the ability of the waves to propagate into the F-region ionosphere.
Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.
1995-01-01
Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.
Gravity capillary waves in fluid layers under normal electric fields.
Papageorgiou, Demetrios T; Petropoulos, Peter G; Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc
2005-11-01
We study the formation and dynamics of interfacial waves on a perfect dielectric ideal fluid layer of finite depth, wetting a solid wall, when the region above the fluid is hydrodynamically passive but has constant permittivity, for example, air. The wall is held at a constant electric potential and a second electrode having a different potential is placed parallel to the wall and infinitely far from it. In the unperturbed state the interface is flat and the normal horizontally uniform electric field is piecewise constant in the liquid and air. We derive a system of long wave nonlinear evolution equations valid for interfacial amplitudes as large as the unperturbed layer depth and which retain gravity, surface tension and electric field effects. It is shown that for given physical parameters there exists a critical value of the voltage potential difference between electrodes, below which the system is dispersive and above which a band of unstable waves is possible centered around a finite wavenumber. In the former case nonlinear traveling waves are calculated and their stability is studied, while in the latter case the instability leads to thinning of the layer with the interface touching down in finite time. A similarity solution of the second kind is found to be dominant near the singularity, and the scaling exponents are determined using analysis and computations.
The response of superpressure balloons to gravity wave motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, R. A.; Hertzog, A.
2014-04-01
Superpressure balloons (SPB), which float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces, provide a unique way of measuring the properties of atmospheric gravity waves (GW) as a function of wave intrinsic frequency. Here we devise a quasi-analytic method of investigating the SPB response to GW motions. It is shown that the results agree well with more rigorous numerical simulations of balloon motions and provide a better understanding of the response of SPB to GW, especially at high frequencies. The methodology is applied to ascertain the accuracy of GW studies using 12 m diameter SPB deployed in the 2010 Concordiasi campaign in the Antarctic. In comparison with the situation in earlier campaigns, the vertical displacements of the SPB were measured directly using GPS. It is shown using a large number of Monte Carlo-type simulations with realistic instrumental noise that important wave parameters, such as momentum flux, phase speed and wavelengths, can be retrieved with good accuracy from SPB observations for intrinsic wave periods greater than ca. 10 min. The noise floor for momentum flux is estimated to be ca. 10-4 mPa.
Frontal instability and the radiation of inertia gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flór, J.-B.; Scolan, H.
2009-04-01
In this experimental study we consider the instability of a density front in a differentially rotating two-layer fluid. Within the rotating frame the upper layer is accelerated by the differential rotation of a lid at the surface. In contrast to former comparable experiments of this type, we consider miscible fluids in a relatively wide annular tank. Velocity and dye measurements (PIV and LIF) allow for the measurements of the velocity and density fields. In the parameter space set by rotational Froude number and dissipation (i.e. ratio of spin-down time to disk rotation time), different flow regimes are observed, ranging from axisymmetric to irregular baroclinic instable flows. The different regimes more or less adjoin those found for immiscible fluids by Williams et al. (J. Fluid Mech. 2005). In the present experiments, we find a new type of instability that is due to the resonant interaction between Kelvin and Rossby waves (first studied Sakai, J. Fluid Mech 1989) and compare our experimental results with the analytical results obtained on an annular domain by Gula, Zeitlin and Plougonven (2009). Further, observations in the unstable flow regimes suggest 'spontaneous emission' of inertia gravity waves. The origin of these waves is discussed in the light of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability Hölmböe instability, and geostrophic adjustment waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombriser, Lucas; Lima, Nelson A.
2017-02-01
With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar-tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar-tensor modification of gravity.
Scalar gravitational waves in the effective theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottola, Emil
2017-07-01
As a low energy effective field theory, classical General Relativity receives an infrared relevant modification from the conformal trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor of massless, or nearly massless, quantum fields. The local form of the effective action associated with the trace anomaly is expressed in terms of a dynamical scalar field that couples to the conformal factor of the spacetime metric, allowing it to propagate over macroscopic distances. Linearized around flat spacetime, this semi-classical EFT admits scalar gravitational wave solutions in addition to the transversely polarized tensor waves of the classical Einstein theory. The amplitude of the scalar wave modes, as well as their energy and energy flux which are positive and contain a monopole moment, are computed. Astrophysical sources for scalar gravitational waves are considered, with the excited gluonic condensates in the interiors of neutron stars in merger events with other compact objects likely to provide the strongest burst signals.
Simultaneous observations of storm-generated sprite and gravity wave over Bangladesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chien-Chung; Dai, Jeff; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Huang, Tai-Yin
2016-09-01
We report simultaneous observations of sprite and gravity wave generated by a storm over Bangladesh. The origin of a concentric gravity wave can be traced to the storm region on 27 April 2014 over Bangladesh with a low cloud top surface temperature (175 K). After data analysis, the time period of the concentric gravity wave is found to be 8.8-8.9 min. The horizontal wavelength is found to be 50 km for red emissions ( 55 km for green emissions), and the horizontal phase velocity is 94.4 ± 31.7 m s-1 for red emissions (102.6 ± 29.4 m s-1 for green emissions). Using the dispersion relation of gravity wave, the elevation angle of wave propagation direction is found to be 53.3°. The sprite associated with the gravity wave was also recorded at 1534 UT on 27 April 2014. The initiation time of storm-generated gravity wave is estimated to be 1454 UT at which lightning activity was relatively low using lightning data. At time 1534 UT of the recorded sprite, the lightning rate was close to its maximum value. The storm-generated gravity wave could be thought as a precursor phenomenon for lightning and sprites since one of the necessary conditions for gravity wave, lightning, and sprites is strong convection inside storms.
Simultaneous observations of storm-generated sprite and gravity wave over Bangladesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, C. L.; Chou, C. C.; Huang, T. Y.
2016-12-01
We report simultaneous observations of sprite and gravity wave generated by a storm over Bangladesh. The origin of a concentric gravity wave can be traced to the storm region on Apr 27, 2014 over Bangladesh with a low cloud top surface temperature (175K). After data analysis, the time period of the concentric gravity wave is found to be 8.8-8.9 minutes. The horizontal wavelength is found to be 50 km for red emissions ( 55 km for green emissions) and the horizontal phase velocity is 94.4 ± 31.7 m s-1 for red emissions (102.6 ± 29.4 m s-1 for green emissions). Using the dispersion relation of gravity wave, the elevation angle of wave propagation direction is found to be 53.3 º. The sprite associated with the gravity wave was also recorded at 1534 UT on Apr 27, 2014. The initiation time of storm-generated gravity wave is estimated to be 1454 UT at which lightning activity was relatively low using lightning data. At time 1534 UT of the recorded sprite, the lightning rate was close to its maximum value. The storm-generated gravity wave could be thought as a precursor phenomenon for lightning and sprites since one of the necessary conditions for gravity wave, lightning and sprites is strong convection inside storms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.
1992-01-01
The paper discusses the dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, slosh wave excitation under normal and reduced gravity and different flow rates during liquid hydrogen draining. Liquid residuals at the incipience of suction dip increase as the values of gravity decrease. Also liquid residuals increase with the draining flow rates. Lower ratio of Bond number and Weber number are unable to excite slosh waves. Lower flow rates and higher gravity excites waves with lower frequencies and higher wave amplitude slosh waves.
Multi-wave interaction theory for wind-generated surface gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1992-01-01
Consistently employing the assumption of localness of wave-wave interactions in the wavenumber space, the Kolmogorov treatment of the energy cascade is applied to the case of wind-generated surface gravity waves. The effective number v of resonantly interacting wave harmonics is not limited to four but is found as a solution of a coupled system of equations expressing: (i) the dependence of the spectrum shape on the degree of the wave nonlinearity, and (ii) the continuity of the wave action flux through the spectrum given a continuous positive input from wind. The latter is specified in a Miles-type fashion, and a simple scaling relationship based on the concept of the turnover time is derived in place of the kinetic equation. The mathematical problem is reduced to an ordinary differential equation of first order. The exponent in the 'power law' for the spectral density of the wave potential energy and the effective number of resonantly interacting wave harmonics are found as functions of the wave frequency and of external factors of wind-wave interaction. The solution is close to the Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum at low frequencies and low wind input while approaching the Phillips spectrum at high frequencies and sufficiently high wind.
Multi-wave interaction theory for wind-generated surface gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, Roman E.
1992-01-01
Consistently employing the assumption of localness of wave-wave interactions in the wavenumber space, the Kolmogorov treatment of the energy cascade is applied to the case of wind-generated surface gravity waves. The effective number v of resonantly interacting wave harmonics is not limited to four but is found as a solution of a coupled system of equations expressing: (i) the dependence of the spectrum shape on the degree of the wave nonlinearity, and (ii) the continuity of the wave action flux through the spectrum given a continuous positive input from wind. The latter is specified in a Miles-type fashion, and a simple scaling relationship based on the concept of the turnover time is derived in place of the kinetic equation. The mathematical problem is reduced to an ordinary differential equation of first order. The exponent in the 'power law' for the spectral density of the wave potential energy and the effective number of resonantly interacting wave harmonics are found as functions of the wave frequency and of external factors of wind-wave interaction. The solution is close to the Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum at low frequencies and low wind input while approaching the Phillips spectrum at high frequencies and sufficiently high wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Hannawald, Patrick; Bittner, Michael
2016-04-01
The upper mesosphere lower thermosphere region is well known for enhanced gravity wave breaking. Airglow emissions originating in this height region provide a good possibility for detailed studies of gravity wave behavior in this altitude. Therefore, rotational temperatures and intensities of the OH(3-1), OH(4-2), OH(6-2) and O2b(0-1)-transitions recorded at the NDMC (Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change) site Oberpfaffenhofen (48.1°N, 10.3°E), Germany are examined. First results indicate, that both significant amplitude growth from the lower (~87km) OH airglow emissions to the higher (~95km) O2 airglow emissions of more than 100% as well as strong damping can be observed. On several occasions OH- and O2-emissions show completely independent behavior - probably related to the complete breakup of a gravity wave. These amplitude changes are set into relation to emission layer height, vertical wavelength, absolute temperature and potential seasonal dependence. Observations from further NDMC sites in France, Germany and Austria are used to discuss the evolution of these waves on horizontal scales from 100km to 1000km.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Bing
in a 5-direction mode, whose laser beams were pointed to zenith and 30? off-zenith at four cardinal directions. Thus, there is a ˜50 km separation at ˜90 km altitude between zenith and any off-zenith directions. Besides the vertical information from traditional lidar measurement profiles, horizontal wavelength and propagation direction are derived from the phase differences among measurements in different directions. With a full set of wave and background parameters, multiple dispersion and polarization relations are examined and the results validate the goodness of different assumptions involved in linear gravity wave theory. Better knowledge of gravity waves from observational and numerical, as well as theoretical studies directly contribute to the development of physically-based parameterizations. The second topic of this dissertation is about long-term climatology and statistical characteristics of gravity waves observed by an airglow imager. The results provide some insights on how the source spectrum can be specified and tuning factors are constrained in the parameterization. Results from two sites are compared, one is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and the other above the Andes Mountains. The difference and similarity provide some clues to the effects of wave sources and background flow on the gravity wave climatology and intermittency in the mesopause region. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
On the Interaction Between Gravity Waves and Atmospheric Thermal Tides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agner, Ryan Matthew
Gravity waves and thermal tides are two of the most important dynamical features of the atmosphere. They are both generated in the lower atmosphere and propagate upward transporting energy and momentum to the upper atmosphere. This dissertation focuses on the interaction of these waves in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region of the atmosphere using both observational data and Global Circulation Model (GCMs). The first part of this work focuses on observations of gravity wave interactions with the tides using both LIDAR data at the Star Fire Optical Range (SOR, 35?N, 106.5?W) and a meteor radar data at the Andes LIDAR Observatory (ALO, 30.3?S, 70.7?W). At SOR, the gravity waves are shown to enhance or damp the amplitude of the diurnal variations dependent on altitude while the phase is always delayed. The results compare well with previous mechanistic model results and with the Japanese Atmospheric General circulation model for Upper Atmosphere Research (JAGUAR) high resolution global circulation model. The meteor radar observed the GWs to almost always enhance the tidal amplitudes and either delay or advance the phase depending on the altitude. When compared to previous radar results from the same meteor radar when it was located in Maui, Hawaii, the Chile results are very similar while the LIDAR results show significant differences. This is because of several instrument biases when calculating GW momentum fluxes that is not significant when determining the winds. The radar needs to perform large amounts of all-sky averaging across many weeks, while the LIDAR directly detects waves in a small section of sky. The second part of this work focuses on gravity wave parameterization scheme effects on the tides in GCMs. The Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (SD-WACCM) and the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (eCMAM) are used for this analysis. The gravity wave parameterization schemes in the eCMAM (Hines scheme) have been
Stratification and Dissipation Effects in Running 2D Surface and Internal Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kistovich, A. V.; Chashechkin, Yu. D.
2012-04-01
Problem of 2D gravity wave propagation inside and along a free surface of a deep viscous stratified fluid is analyzed analytically basing on set of fundamental governing equations that are continuity and Navier-Stokes neglecting by compressibility effects. Conventional boundary conditions taking into account solid films on the free surface where used. In a limit of clean fluid surface the set is transformed into partial differential equation of the fourth order for a stream function. The sense of applied approximations is discussed. In infinitesimal limit the equation is split on independent sub-equations with characteristic dispersion relations describing propagating independent surface and internal waves. Waves are supplemented by fine flow components. Relations between amplitude of regular waves and singular perturbed components corresponding of a fine structure are derived and discussed. Expressions for vorticity and rate of baroclinic generation of vorticity are presented. Waves of finite amplitudes are investigated in the limit of non-viscous fluid. Two kinds of the running surface wave forms for different values of the wave steepness were calculated and discussed. New approximate non-linear equations was solved and a set of solutions for stratified and homogeneous fluids describing running waves of small finite and large steepness of the waves are constructed. Received expressions for drift velocity are transferred into well-known Stokes solutions in limit of small steepness. Calculations of running periodic internal waves are compared with data of laboratory experiments performed on USU "HPC IPMech RAS" under support of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Goscontract No. 16.518.11.7059. Extrapolation results of calculations on the environmental conditions are speculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivakandan, Mani; Patra, Amit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle; Thokuluwa, Ramkumar; Paulino, Igo; Taori, Alok; Kandula, Niranjan
2016-07-01
Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) occurs in the equatorial ionosphere in pre-mid night (most of the time) as well as post-midnight (rarely) hours. The generation of EPBs by Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) due to seeding of gravity wave perturbation (polarization electric field) have well been explained theoretically by several authors but experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis is very limited. Using co-located observations from Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2o E) using an all sky airglow imager and Gadanki Ionospheric Radar Interferometer (GIRI) and Ionosonde observations from Tirunelveli (8.7o N, 77.8o E), we investigate the role of gravity waves in the generation EPB during geomagnetic quiet conditions. To avoid any changes occurring in the background ionosphere owing to the large scale features (e.g., seasonal variation), we use four consecutive nights (03-06, February, 2014). Out of these four nights on two nights we have noted very strong plasma depletions in the OI 630 nm airglow emission and radar plumes. We analyse data to identify cases where, 1) EPBs occurred with large amplitudes of mesospheric gravity waves, 2) Occurrence of EPBs without large amplitudes of mesospheric gravity waves, and 3) identifiable mesospheric gravity waves without occurrence of EPBs. In order to calculate the mesospheric gravity wave parameter we used mesospheric OH airglow emission imager data, to identify their propagation to the E-region, we used E-region observations made using the MST radar which resembled the gravity wave signatures. Together with these, by using ray tracing techniques, we have identified the source region of the noted gravity wave events also. These results are discussed in detail in the present study.
The role of gravity waves in solar-terrestrial atmosphere coupling and severe storm detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Smith, R. E.
1979-01-01
The role that gravity waves play in the coupling of the solar wind and the ionosphere, the coupling of high and low latitude ionospheres, and the coupling of the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere are discussed. Examples are given of the detection of tornado touchdowns from locating the sources of the gravity waves.
The role of gravity waves in solar-terrestrial atmosphere coupling and severe storm detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Smith, R. E.
1979-01-01
The role that gravity waves play in the coupling of the solar wind and the ionosphere, the coupling of high and low latitude ionospheres, and the coupling of the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere are discussed. Examples are given of the detection of tornado touchdowns from locating the sources of the gravity waves.
Effect of gravity wave temperature variations on homogeneous ice nucleation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinh, Tra; Podglajen, Aurélien; Hertzog, Albert; Legras, Bernard; Plougonven, Riwal
2015-04-01
Observations of cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) have shown various ice number concentrations (INC) (e.g., Jensen et al. 2013), which has lead to a puzzle regarding their formation. In particular, the frequently observed low numbers of ice crystals seemed hard to reconcile with homogeneous nucleation knowing the ubuquity of gravity waves with vertical velocity of the order of 0.1 m/s. Using artificial time series, Spichtinger and Krämer (2013) have illustrated that the variation of vertical velocity during a nucleation event could terminate it and limit the INC. However, their study was limited to constructed temperature time series. Here, we carry out numerical simulations of homogeneous ice nucleation forced by temperature time series data collected by isopycnic balloon flights near the tropical tropopause. The balloons collected data at high frequency (30 s), so gravity wave signals are well resolved in the temperature time series. With the observed temperature time series, the numerical simulations with homogeneous freezing show a full range of ice number concentrations (INC) as previously observed in the tropical upper troposphere. The simulations confirm that the dynamical time scale of temperature variations (as seen from observations) can be shorter than the nucleation time scale. They show the existence of two regimes for homogeneous ice nucleation : one limited by the depletion of water vapor by the nucleated ice crystals (those we name vapor events) and one limited by the reincrease of temperature after its initial decrease (temperature events). Low INC may thus be obtained for temperature events when the gravity wave perturbations produce a non-persistent cooling rate (even with large magnitude) such that the absolute change in temperature remains small during nucleation. This result for temperature events is explained analytically by a dependence of the INC on the absolute drop in temperature (and not on the cooling rate). This
Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.
1999-01-01
Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.
Study of internal gravity waves in the meteor zone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gavrilov, N. M.
1987-01-01
An important component of the dynamical regime of the atmosphere at heights near 100 km are internal gravity waves (IGW) with periods from about 5 min to about 17.5 hrs which propagate from the lower atmospheric layers and are generated in the uppermost region of the atmosphere. As IGW propagate upwards, their amplitudes increase and they have a considerable effect on upper atmospheric processes: (1) they provide heat flux divergences comparable with solar heating; (2) they influence the gaseous composition and produce wave variations of the concentrations of gaseous components and emissions of the upper atmosphere; and (3) they cause considerable acceleration of the mean stream. It was concluded that the periods, wavelengths, amplitudes and velocities of IGW propagation in the meteor zone are now measured quite reliably. However, for estimating the influence of IGW on the thermal regime and the circulation of the upper atmosphere these parameters are not as important as the values of wave fluxes of energy, heat, moment and mass.
Ray Tracing Modeling of Gravity Wave Propagation and Dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vadas, Sharon; Crowley, Geoff
In this paper, we describe a ray trace model which calculates the wavevector, location and phase of a gravity wave (GW) as it propagates in the lower atmosphere and thermosphere. If used for a discreet transient source (such as a deep convective plume), we describe how this model can calculate the body forcing and the heat/cooling that are created when the GWs within a wave packet dissipate in the thermosphere from kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity. Although the body force calculation requires only the divergence of the momentum flux, the heat/cooling calculation requires the reconstructed GW field (e.g., density, velocity perturbations), which in turn requires the GW dissipative polarization relations. We describe these relations. We then describe the results of a recent study involving GWs identified from TIDDBIT HF Doppler sounder data taken at Wallops Island, VI, USA. Using this ray trace model, we determine if the unusual neutral wind profile measured by a rocket experiment at high altitudes (~290-370 km) could have been caused by the propagation and dissipation of several waves observed by TIDDBIT at lower altitudes.
Rossby waves with linear topography in barotropic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Liangui; da, Chaojiu; Song, Jian; Zhang, Huiqin; Yang, Hongli; Hou, Yijun
2008-08-01
Rossby waves are the most important waves in the atmosphere and ocean, and are parts of a large-scale system in fluid. The theory and observation show that, they satisfy quasi-geostrophic and quasi-static equilibrium approximations. In this paper, solitary Rossby waves induced by linear topography in barotropic fluids with a shear flow are studied. In order to simplify the problem, the topography is taken as a linear function of latitude variable y, then employing a weakly nonlinear method and a perturbation method, a KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation describing evolution of the amplitude of solitary Rossby waves induced by linear topography is derived. The results show that the variation of linear topography can induce the solitary Rossby waves in barotropic fluids with a shear flow, and extend the classical geophysical theory of fluid dynamics.
A simple nearly analytic model of a gravity wave driven middle atmospheric circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, Jeffrey R.
1991-01-01
A nearby analytic model of a gravity wave driven middle atmosphere circulation is formulated. The simplified model represents the one-dimensional interaction of a single gravity wave mode with a zonal-mean flow. Solutions of this model are shown to agree very well with numerical results from a more complete mean-flow/gravity-wave model (essentially the model developed by Holton, 1982). A single nondimensional parameter, the ratio of a mean flow radiative forcing parameter, and the gravity wave momentum flux incident into the middle atmosphere from below largely determine the solution of the model. For typical middle atmosphere parameter values, an approximate solution can be obtained, and this solution permits the parameter dependence of the circulation to be characterized very simply. The gravity wave driven circulation extends downward from the level (the breaking level, approximately) where the momentum flux equals the mean flow radiative forcing.
New Perspective on the Role of Gravity Waves in the Stratospheric Dynamics and Variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šácha, Petr; Pišoft, Petr; Kuchař, Aleš; Lilienthal, Friederike; Jacobi, Christoph; Mikšovský, Jiří
2017-04-01
In the lower and middle atmosphere, the most natural, immediate and fastest way for communication of information in the vertical are gravity waves (GWs). Although GWs induce highest accelerations in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere region, the imposed drag force is much bigger in the stratosphere. In our study we present results from idealistic model sensitivity simulations showing an important role of the spatial distribution of GW activity for the polar vortex stability, formation of planetary waves and for the strength and structure of the zonal mean residual circulation. Consequently, using multiple linear regression and conditional analysis, we study the relation between spatial distribution of the GW drag in the stratosphere and selected atmospheric phenomena (ENSO, NAO, QBO) showing possible implications for the middle atmospheric dynamics and teleconnection patterns.
Smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics modeling of dissipation mechanisms in gravity waves.
Colagrossi, Andrea; Souto-Iglesias, Antonio; Antuono, Matteo; Marrone, Salvatore
2013-02-01
The smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used to study the evolution of free-surface Newtonian viscous flows specifically focusing on dissipation mechanisms in gravity waves. The numerical results have been compared with an analytical solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for Reynolds numbers in the range 50-5000. We found that a correct choice of the number of neighboring particles is of fundamental importance in order to obtain convergence towards the analytical solution. This number has to increase with higher Reynolds numbers in order to prevent the onset of spurious vorticity inside the bulk of the fluid, leading to an unphysical overdamping of the wave amplitude. This generation of spurious vorticity strongly depends on the specific kernel function used in the SPH model.
FFT and Wavelet analysis for the study of gravity wave activity over a modeled hurricane environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuester, M. A.; Alexander, J.; Ray, E.
2005-12-01
Understanding of gravity waves and their sources are important for driving global circulations in climate and weather forecasting models. Temperature fluctuations associated with gravity waves near the tropopause also affect cirrus cloud formation, which is important to the study of radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Deep convection is believed to be a major source for these waves and hurricanes may be particularly long-lived and intense sources. Simulations of Hurricane Humberto have been studied using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). Humberto is simulated at both tropical storm and hurricane stages. Information about gravity waves and their sources can be inferred from horizontal wind and temperature variances in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Both Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Wavelet analyses are employed to investigate wave properties and behavior in the lower stratosphere. FFT analysis gives an overall view of storm affects while Wavelet analysis gives a local picture of gravity wave activity. It is found that a hurricane can be a significant source of deep heating which actively triggers gravity waves from the hot tower region of the storm eye wall. Convectively generated gravity waves are observed in the lower stratosphere of this model with horizontal scales of 10-250 km, vertical scales around 5 km and with intrinsic periods of approximately 20 minutes. Some specific characteristics of gravity waves found above the storm will be presented along with further discussion from the wave activity observed with the model. Deep convection over the oceans is thought to play a key role in atmospheric forcing via the creation of vertically propagating gravity waves and hurricane induced gravity waves may play a role in stratospheric forcing during the hurricane season.
Evidence of a saturated gravity-wave spectrum throughout the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, D. C.; Smith, S. A.
1986-01-01
The view adapted here is that the dominant mesoscale motions are due to internal gravity waves and show that previous and new vertical wave number spectra of horizontal winds are consistent with the notion of a saturation limit on wave amplitudes. It is also proposed that, at any height, only those vertical wave numbers m less than m sub asterisk are at saturation amplitudes, where m sub asterisk is the vertical wave number of the dominant energy-containing scale. Wave numbers m less than m sub asterisk are unsaturated, but experience growth with height due to the decrease of atmospheric density. The result is a saturated spectrum of gravity waves with both m sub asterisk decreasing and wave energy increasing with height. This saturation theory is consistent with a variety of atmospheric spectral observations and provides a basis for the notion of a universal spectrum of atmospheric gravity waves.
Gravitational-wave observations as a tool for testing relativistic gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eardley, D. M.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.; Wagoner, R. V.; Will, C. M.
1973-01-01
Approaches regarding the role of gravitational wave observations in the investigation of relativistic theories of gravity are treated as providing greater potential in the prediction of wave propagation speed and the polarization properties of gravitational waves. The invariant classes of waves discussed have the same post-Newtonian limit as general relativity for a reasonable choice of cosmological models.
Gravity wave-induced variability of the middle thermosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Bruinsma, Sean L.; Doornbos, Eelco; Zhang, Xiaoli
2016-07-01
Contemporary theory, modeling, and first-principles simulations indicate that dissipation of gravity waves (GW) plays an important role in modifying the mean circulation, thermal structure, and composition of the thermosphere. GW can propagate into the thermosphere from various sources in the lower atmosphere, deposit energy, and momentum into the thermosphere, and thereby modify its mean circulation, thermal structure and composition. However, measurements that verify or constrain predictions of GW propagation well into the thermosphere, especially on a global basis, are extremely limited. In this paper total mass densities and cross-track winds between 230 and 280 km derived from accelerometer measurements on the Gravity Field and Ocean Circulation Earth Explorer (GOCE) satellite between November 2009 and October 2013 are used to reveal the global morphology of horizontal structures between 128 km and 640 km, which are assumed to mainly reflect the presence of GW. The zonal-mean RMS variability at these scales is quantified in terms of seasonal-latitudinal dependences and dawn-dusk differences, which are interpreted in terms of current theoretical and modeling results. Little evidence is found for any longitude variability that can be attributed to specific source regions, except at high latitudes where polar/auroral sources and magnetic control dominate and near the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula during local winter.
Precession resonance mechanism in deep-water gravity surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bustamante, Miguel; Lucas, Dan
2016-11-01
Discovered by Bustamante et al. in 2014 and published in Phys. Rev. Lett. in the same year, precession resonance is a mechanism whereby strong nonlinear energy transfers occur between modes of oscillations whose frequencies are detuned: the amplitude-dependent precession frequencies of the phases help restore the resonance, hence the name "precession resonance". After explaining how this mechanism works and how robust it is, we will discuss new applications of this effect in systems of technological interest, focusing on deep-water gravity surface waves. We report transfer efficiencies of up to 40%, depending on the numerical-experimental setup. All evidence gathered so far points to the conclusion that, to leading order, this effect is dominated by triad interactions at small (but finite) amplitudes. Joint work with Dan Lucas (DAMTP, Cambridge). Financially supported by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under research Grant No. 12/IP/1491.
Properties of thermospheric gravity waves on earth, Venus and Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Pesnell, W. D.
1992-01-01
A spectral model with spherical harmonics and Fourier components that can simulate atmospheric perturbations in the global geometry of a multiconstituent atmosphere is presented. The boundaries are the planetary surface where the transport velocities vanish and the exobase where molecular heat conduction and viscosity dominate. The time consuming integration of the conservation equations is reduced to computing the transfer function (TF) which describes the dynamic properties of the medium divorced from the complexities in the temporal and horizontal variations of the excitation source. Given the TF, the atmospheric response to a chosen source distribution is then obtained in short order. Theoretical studies are presented to illuminate some properties of gravity waves on earth, Venus and Mars.
Holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shancheng; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang
2017-02-01
We construct the holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss-Bonnet gravity via a Maxwell complex vector field model and investigate the effect of the curvature correction on the superfluid phase transition in the probe limit. We obtain the rich phase structure and find that the higher curvature correction hinders the condensate of the vector field but makes it easier for the appearance of translating point from the second-order transition to the first-order one or for the emergence of the Cave of Winds. Moreover, for the supercurrents versus the superfluid velocity, we observe that our results near the critical temperature are independent of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter and agree well with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenzie, J. F.; Doyle, T. B.
2010-01-01
This letter reports on the important features of an analysis of the combined theory of gravity - inertial - Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. In particular, it is shown that the coupling between higher frequency gravity - inertial waves and lower frequency Rossby waves, arising from the accumulated influences of the β effect, stratification characterized by the Väisäla - Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f, and the component of vertical propagation wave number kz , may lead to an unstable coupling between buoyancy - inertial modes with westward propagating Rossby waves. “Supersonic” fast rotators (such as Jupiter) are predicted to be unstable in a fairly narrow band of latitudes around their equators. The Earth is moderately supersonic and exhibits instability within about 34° of its equator. Slow “subsonic” rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus, and the Sun's corona) are unstable at all latitudes except those very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, David C.
2004-01-01
The specific objectives of this research effort included the following: 1) Quantification of gravity wave propagation throughout the lower and middle atmosphere in order to define the roles of topographic and convective sources and filtering by mean and low-frequency winds in defining the wave field and wave fluxes at greater altitudes; 2) The influences of wave instability processes in constraining wave amplitudes and fluxes and generating turbulence and transport; 3) Gravity wave forcing of the mean circulation and thermal structure in the presence of variable motion fields and wave-wave interactions, since the mean forcing may be a small residual when wave interactions, anisotropy, and momentum and heat fluxes are large; 4) The statistical forcing and variability imposed on the thermosphere at greater altitudes by the strong wave forcing and interactions occurring in the MLTI.
Gravity wave motions and momentum fluxes in the middle atmosphere at Adelaide, Australia
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, R. A.; Fritts, D. C.
1985-01-01
A study was made of gravity wave momentum fluxes in the middle atmosphere using data collected during June 1984 at Adelaide, Australia (35 deg S). The primary objectives were to identify that portion of the gravity wave spectrum that contributes most of the momentum transport and flux divergence and to examine the temporal variability of wave energies and momentum fluxes. The data were obtained with an HF (2 MHz) radar operated in a Doppler configuration with two coplanar off-vertical beams. This technique provides a direct measure of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum due to an arbitrary spectrum of gravity wave and other motions in the plane of the radar beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Sladen, Anthony
2016-04-01
Acoustic and gravity waves propagating in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground all the way to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale we introduce a high-order finite- difference time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). We present applications of these simulations to the propagation of gravity waves generated by tsunamis for realistic cases for which atmospheric models are extracted from empirical models including 3D variations of atmospheric parameters, and tsunami forcing at the ocean surface is extracted from finite-fault dislocation simulations. We describe the specific difficulties induced by the size of the simulation, the boundary conditions and the spherical geometry and compare the simulation outputs to data gathered by gravimetric satellites crossing gravity waves generated by tsunamis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, Kwoklong R.; Gary, Bruce; Singh, Hanwant B. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The advent of high altitude aircraft measurements in the stratosphere over tropical convective systems has made it possible to observe the mesoscale disturbances in the temperature field that these systems excite. Such measurements show that these disturbances have horizontal scales comparable to those of the underlying anvils (about 50-100 km) with peak to peak theta surface variations of about 300-400 meters. Moreover, correlative wind measurements from the tropical phase of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) clearly show that these disturbances are gravity waves. We present two case studies of anvil-scale gravity waves over convective systems. Using steady and time-dependent linear models of gravity wave propagation in the stratosphere, we show: (1) that the underlying convective systems are indeed the source of the observed phenomena; and (2) that their generating mechanism can be crudely represented as flow over a time-dependent mountain. We will then discuss the effects gravity waves of the observed amplitudes have on the circulation of the middle atmosphere, particularly the quasi-biennial, and semiannual oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Sladen, A.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.
2016-12-01
Acoustic and gravity waves propagating in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground all the way to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale we introduce a high-order finite-difference time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with spatially non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). We present applications of these simulations to the propagation of gravity waves generated by tsunamis for realistic cases for which atmospheric models are extracted from empirical models including variations with altitude of atmospheric parameters, and tsunami forcing at the ocean surface is extracted from shallow water simulations. We describe the specific difficulties induced by the size of the simulation, the boundary conditions and the spherical geometry and compare the simulation outputs to data gathered by gravimetric satellites crossing gravity waves generated by tsunamis.
Gravity Wave Disturbances in the F-Region Ionosphere Above Large Earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruff, Margie
The direction of propagation, duration and wavelength of gravity waves in the ionosphere above large earthquakes were studied using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network. Ground scatter data were plotted versus range and time to identify gravity waves as alternating focused and de-focused regions of radar power in wave-like patterns. The wave patterns before and after earthquakes were analyzed to determine the directions of propagation and wavelengths. Conditions were considered 48 hours before and after each identified disturbances to exclude waves from geomagnetic activity. Gravity waves were found travelling away from the epicenter before all six earthquakes for which data were available and after four of the six earthquakes. Gravity waves travelled in at least two directions away from the epicenter in all cases, and even stronger patterns were found for two earthquakes. Waves appeared, on average, 4 days before, persisting 2-3 hours, and 1-2 days after earthquakes, persisting 4-6 hours. Most wavelengths were between 200-300 km. We show a possible correlation between magnitude and depth of earthquakes and gravity wave patterns, but study of more earthquakes is required. This study provides a better understanding of the causes of ionospheric gravity wave disturbances and has potential applications for predicting earthquakes.
Wave Driven Non-linear Flow Oscillator for the 22-Year Solar Cycle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, Hans G.; Wolff, Charles L.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
In the Earth's atmosphere, a zonal flow oscillation is observed with periods between 20 and 32 months, the Quasi Biennial Oscillation. This oscillation does not require external time dependent forcing but is maintained by non-linear wave momentum deposition. It is proposed that such a mechanism also drives long-period oscillations in planetary and stellar interiors. We apply this mechanism to generate a flow oscillation for the 22-year solar cycle. The oscillation would occur just below the convective envelope where waves can propagate. Using scale analysis, we present results from a simplified model that incorporates Hines' gravity wave parameterization. Wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can produce reversing zonal flows of 25 m/s that should be sufficient to generate a corresponding oscillation in the poloidal magnetic field. Low buoyancy frequency and the associated increase in turbulence help to produce the desired oscillation period of the flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.
1981-01-01
The density response of atmospheric layers to gravity waves is developed in two forms, an exact solution and a perturbation series solution. The degree of nonlinearity in the layer density response is described by the series solution whereas the exact solution gives insight into the nature of the responses. Density perturbation in an atmospheric layer are shown to be substantially greater than the atmospheric density perturbation associated with the propagation of a gravity wave. Because of the density gradients present in atmospheric layers, interesting effects were observed such as a phase reversal in the linear layer response which occurs near the layer peak. Once the layer response is understood, the sodium layer can be used as a tracer of atmospheric wave motions. A two dimensional digital signal processing technique was developed. Both spatial and temporal filtering are utilized to enhance the resolution by decreasing shot noise by more han 10 dB. Many of the features associated with a layer density response to gravity waves were observed in high resolution density profiles of the mesospheric sodium layer. These include nonlinearities as well as the phase reversal in the linear layer response.
Linearized f(R) gravity: Gravitational radiation and Solar System tests
Berry, Christopher P. L.; Gair, Jonathan R.
2011-05-15
We investigate the linearized form of metric f(R)-gravity, assuming that f(R) is analytic about R=0 so it may be expanded as f(R)=R+a{sub 2}R{sup 2}/2+.... Gravitational radiation is modified, admitting an extra mode of oscillation, that of the Ricci scalar. We derive an effective energy-momentum tensor for the radiation. We also present weak-field metrics for simple sources. These are distinct from the equivalent Kerr (or Schwarzschild) forms. We apply the metrics to tests that could constrain f(R). We show that light deflection experiments cannot distinguish f(R)-gravity from general relativity as both have an effective post-Newtonian parameter {gamma}=1. We find that planetary precession rates are enhanced relative to general relativity; from the orbit of Mercury we derive the bound |a{sub 2}| < or approx. 1.2x10{sup 18} m{sup 2}. Gravitational-wave astronomy may be more useful: considering the phase of a gravitational waveform we estimate deviations from general relativity could be measurable for an extreme-mass-ratio inspiral about a 10{sup 6}M{sub {center_dot}} black hole if |a{sub 2}| > or approx. 10{sup 17}m{sup 2}, assuming that the weak-field metric of the black hole coincides with that of a point mass. However Eoet-Wash experiments provide the strictest bound |a{sub 2}| < or approx. 2x10{sup -9} m{sup 2}. Although the astronomical bounds are weaker, they are still of interest in the case that the effective form of f(R) is modified in different regions, perhaps through the chameleon mechanism. Assuming the laboratory bound is universal, we conclude that the propagating Ricci scalar mode cannot be excited by astrophysical sources.
Mass Distribution in Plumes: constraints from gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sacks, S. I.; Baines, P. G.
2012-12-01
The Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat Island in the Caribbean has been active for more than 15 years. A small network, consisting of 4 sites, 5 - 10 km distant from the Soufriere Hills Volcano, was installed early in 2003. Each site has borehole strainmeters as well as micro-barographs and gave clear data from all volcanic events. A number of vulcanian explosions followed the major dome collapse on 13th July, 2003 and have continued until at least January 2008.. The plumes from these fragmentation events gave rise to an ~800 second period atmospheric pressure signal of 20 - 50 pascal amplitude propagating at about 30 m/sec. The onset is rarefaction. The data are consistent with a gravity wave confined to the troposphere. Note that plumes penetrating the stratosphere have a very different air pressure character. Initial modeling indicated that the coda of these waves was sensitive to the mass distribution in the plume. Since only the data beyond about 1000 seconds are found to yield information about mass distribution, we can use a simple impulsive source. The data, and particularly the coda, are best satisfied if most of the effective mass is at mid-plume, with reduced amounts near the surface and high in the troposphere. This suggests that the heavier ash particles fall as the plume rises. Since particle size impacts the event's hazard, this type of observation may have predictive capability.
Horizontal propagation of Gravity Waves in the ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chum, J.; Base, J.; Hruska, F.; Buresova, D.; McKinnell, L. A.; Athieno, R.
2010-12-01
Using a multi-point Continuous Doppler sounding system we investigate propagation directions and velocities of Gravity Waves (GWs) in the ionosphere at altitudes from ~150 km to ~250 km. The velocities and directions are computed from the time delays between the observations of corresponding GWs at different reflection points that correspond to various sounding paths. We focused on the GWs that produce an S-shaped trace in Doppler shift spectrograms since it is know that these patterns are formed if the disturbances (waves) mainly propagate in the horizontal plane. The S-shaped signatures also make it possible to estimate the errors of measurements. The system that we used was developed in the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Republic and has been operated in the western part of the Czech Republic. A statistical study based on the analysis of about 100 events during the last solar minimum show that the analyzed GWs propagate with typical horizontal velocities from ~100 to ~200 m/s. The north-south component of GW velocities depends on the season and/or daytime. At the same time, it has an opposite sign than the north-south component of neutral winds calculated by the HWM07 model. A similar system was also installed in the South Africa, close to Cape Town at the end of May 2010. The first results of the observation of GW propagation in the ionosphere over the South Africa will also be presented.
Breaking of internal solitary waves generated by an estuarine gravity current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xiaohui; Li, Ming; Boicourt, William C.
2017-07-01
Mooring and ship-based data collected in a stratified estuary showed the generation of internal solitary waves by a bottom gravity current. Down-estuary winds drove a counterclockwise lateral circulation over channel-shoal bathymetry. When the lateral flows became supercritical, the pycnocline was sharply raised at the edge of the deep channel, leading to flow convergences and formation of a bottom gravity current. As the lateral circulation weakened during wind relaxation, the gravity current propagated onto the shoal and excited internal disturbances around its head. These disturbances evolved into a train of large-amplitude internal solitary waves that subsequently propagated ahead of the gravity current. The waves moving out of the gravity current broke, generating overturning and turbulence with energy dissipation rate reaching 1 × 10-4 m2 s-3, 3 orders of magnitude larger than the background value. Our observations suggest that breaking internal waves may be an important source of turbulent mixing in stratified estuaries.
Linear electromagnetic wave equations in materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starke, R.; Schober, G. A. H.
2017-09-01
After a short review of microscopic electrodynamics in materials, we investigate the relation of the microscopic dielectric tensor to the current response tensor and to the full electromagnetic Green function. Subsequently, we give a systematic overview of microscopic electromagnetic wave equations in materials, which can be formulated in terms of the microscopic dielectric tensor.
Long-term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckermann, Stephen D.; Jackman, C. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
An extensive body of research this quarter is documented. Further methodical analysis of temperature residuals in Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Version 8 level 3AT data show signatures during December 1992 at middle and high northern latitudes that, when compared to Naval Research Laboratory/Mountain Wave Forecast Model (NRL)/(MWFM) mountain wave hindcasts, reveal evidence of long mountain waves in these data over Eurasia, Greenland, Scandinavia and North America. The explicit detection of gravity waves in limb-scanned Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) temperatures is modeled at length, to derive visibility functions. These insights are used to convert CRISTA gravity wave temperature residuals into data that more closely resemble gravity wave fluctuations detected in data from other satellite instruments, such as Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) and Global Positioning System/Meteorology (GPS)/(MET). Finally, newly issued mesospheric temperatures from inversion of CRISTA 15gin emissions are analyzed using a new method that uses separate Kalman fits to the ascending and descending node data. This allows us to study global gravity wave amplitudes at two local times, 12 hours apart. In the equatorial mesosphere, where a large diurnal tidal temperature signal exists, we see modulations of gravity wave activity that are consistent with gravity wave-tidal interactions produced by tidal temperature variability.
Long-term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckermann, Stephen D.; Jackman, C. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
An extensive body of research this quarter is documented. Further methodical analysis of temperature residuals in Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Version 8 level 3AT data show signatures during December 1992 at middle and high northern latitudes that, when compared to Naval Research Laboratory/Mountain Wave Forecast Model (NRL)/(MWFM) mountain wave hindcasts, reveal evidence of long mountain waves in these data over Eurasia, Greenland, Scandinavia and North America. The explicit detection of gravity waves in limb-scanned Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) temperatures is modeled at length, to derive visibility functions. These insights are used to convert CRISTA gravity wave temperature residuals into data that more closely resemble gravity wave fluctuations detected in data from other satellite instruments, such as Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) and Global Positioning System/Meteorology (GPS)/(MET). Finally, newly issued mesospheric temperatures from inversion of CRISTA 15gin emissions are analyzed using a new method that uses separate Kalman fits to the ascending and descending node data. This allows us to study global gravity wave amplitudes at two local times, 12 hours apart. In the equatorial mesosphere, where a large diurnal tidal temperature signal exists, we see modulations of gravity wave activity that are consistent with gravity wave-tidal interactions produced by tidal temperature variability.
Linear connections with a propagating spin-3 field in gravity
Baekler, Peter; Boulanger, Nicolas; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2006-12-15
We show that Fronsdal's Lagrangian for a free massless spin-3 gauge field in Minkowski spacetime is contained in a general Yang-Mills-like Lagrangian of metric-affine gravity (MAG), the gauge theory of the general affine group in the presence of a metric. Because of the geometric character of MAG, this can best be seen by using Vasiliev's frame formalism for higher-spin gauge fields in which the spin-3 frame is identified with the tracefree nonmetricity one-form associated with the shear generators of GL(n,R). Furthermore, for specific gravitational gauge models in the framework of full nonlinear MAG, exact solutions are constructed, featuring propagating massless and massive spin-3 fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Rieper, Felix; Fruman, Mark
2013-04-01
We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate the GWs in a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between inner and outer cylinder walls. In this atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, various analyses suggest a distinct gravity wave activity. To identify regions of GW emission we decompose the flow into the geostrophic and ageostrophic part through the inversion of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (e.g. Verkley, 2009). The analysis of the geostrophic sources of the ageostrophic flow indicates that, in addition to boundary layer instabilities, spontaneous imbalance in the jet region acts as an important source mechanism. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011: Generation of inertia-gravity waves in the rotating thermal annulus by a localised boundary layer instability. Geophys
Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.
2003-04-01
Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.
Using a new algorithm to track mixed-Rossby gravity waves (MRG) waves in reanalysis data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Au-Yeung, A. Y. M.; Tam, C. Y.
2015-12-01
A new algorithm has been developed to track westward travelling mixed-Rossby gravity waves (MRG) waves in the western Pacific based on the theoretical meridional wind structure stated in the shallow water equation (SWE) solutions. Applied to space-time filtered (period=3 to 8 days and wavenumber =-20 to 0), asymmetric meridional wind data at the 850hPa level from the NCEP CFS reanalysis, the algorithm finds locations with Gaussian-shaped meridional wind structure stated in SWE solutions through space and time. Two groups of MRG waves were found: one with higher wavenumber (11) and another one with lower-wavenumber (6). Moreover, the MRG waves show very different dispersive properties and occurrence behavior in the western and eastern equatorial Pacific. While both groups appear in the western Pacific, mainly 6 waves were found in the eastern Pacific. The fact that both 6 and 11 waves appear in the western Pacific agrees with past discussions on the co-existence of MRG waves and tropical-disturbance type (TD-type) waves. Also, the high wavenumber wave activities mainly appear west of the dateline, meaning that some triggering process may have taken place there. Northwestward wave train movement was found west of 140E in the low-level wind composites. On the other hand, negative correlation between meridional wind and temperature (negative) found in the vertical composites indicates downward vertical wave activity flux prior to the occurrences of MRG waves. Finally, in the western Pacific, kinetic energy energetics suggests that energy source of transient eddies is from the confluent background flow and also the zonal wind shear terms in the western Pacific. Overall, our method provides a way to identify the MRG waves instantaneously; in contrast, most of the methods employed in the past (e.g., spectral analysis or lag correlation/regression) are based on aggregates of data and they can only examine wave properties averaged over a certain period of time. Since MRG
SAMI3 Simulation Study of Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Spread F
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Krall, J.; Fritts, D. C.
2012-12-01
The Naval Research Laboratory three-dimensional simulation code SAMI3/ESF is used to study the response of the post-sunset ionosphere to plane gravity waves, including the effect of the vertical wind component of the wave. It is shown that vertical winds can play a crucial role in the seeding of equatorial spread F (ESF) by gravity waves. It is also shown that the strength of the coupling of the gravity wave to ESF increases with the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave. Wavelengths shorter than 100 km are ineffective for seeding ESF. Finally, it is demonstrated that an upward vertical background wind can suppress ESF. Research supported by NRL Base Funds and NASA.
Satellite radio occultation investigations of internal gravity waves in the planetary atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirillovich, Ivan; Gubenko, Vladimir; Pavelyev, Alexander
Internal gravity waves (IGWs) modulate the structure and circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere, producing quasi-periodic variations in the wind velocity, temperature and density. Similar effects are anticipated for the Venus and Mars since IGWs are a characteristic of stably stratified atmosphere. In this context, an original method for the determination of IGW parameters from a vertical temperature profile measurement in a planetary atmosphere has been developed [Gubenko et al., 2008, 2011, 2012]. This method does not require any additional information not contained in the profile and may be used for the analysis of profiles measured by various techniques. The criterion for the IGW identification has been formulated and argued. In the case when this criterion is satisfied, the analyzed temperature fluctuations can be considered as wave-induced. The method is based on the analysis of relative amplitudes of the wave field and on the linear IGW saturation theory in which these amplitudes are restricted by dynamical (shear) instability processes in the atmosphere. When the amplitude of an internal wave reaches the shear instability threshold, energy is assumed to be dissipated in such a way that the IGW amplitude is maintained at the instability threshold level as the wave propagates upwards. We have extended the developed technique [Gubenko et al., 2008] in order to reconstruct the complete set of wave characteristics including such important parameters as the wave kinetic and potential energy per unit mass and IGW fluxes of the energy and horizontal momentum [Gubenko et al., 2011]. We propose also an alternative method to estimate the relative amplitudes and to extract IGW parameters from an analysis of perturbations of the Brunt-Vaislala frequency squared [Gubenko et al., 2011]. An application of the developed method to the radio occultation (RO) temperature data has given the possibility to identify the IGWs in the Earth's, Martian and Venusian atmospheres and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk
2000-12-01
Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.
Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition
Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng
2010-07-15
Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.
An Investigation of a Gravity Wave during GALE: 6 February 1986
1990-01-01
1967: The critical layer for internal gravity waves in a shear flow. J. Fluid Mech., 27, 513-559. Bosart, L . F. and A. Seimon , 1988: A case study of...gravity waves in a shear flow. J. Fluid Mech., 27, 513-559. Bosart, L . F. and A. Seimon , 1988: A case study of an unusually intense gravity wave. Mon...108, 804-816. Barnes, S. L ., 1964: A Technique for maximizing details in numerical weather map analysis. J. Appl. Meteor., 3, 396-409. -,1973
Internal Gravity Waves in the Magnetized Solar Atmosphere. I. Magnetic Field Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigeesh, G.; Jackiewicz, J.; Steiner, O.
2017-02-01
Observations of the solar atmosphere show that internal gravity waves are generated by overshooting convection, but are suppressed at locations of magnetic flux, which is thought to be the result of mode conversion into magnetoacoustic waves. Here, we present a study of the acoustic-gravity wave spectrum emerging from a realistic, self-consistent simulation of solar (magneto)convection. A magnetic field free, hydrodynamic simulation and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with an initial, vertical, homogeneous field of 50 G flux density were carried out and compared with each other to highlight the effect of magnetic fields on the internal gravity wave propagation in the Sun’s atmosphere. We find that the internal gravity waves are absent or partially reflected back into the lower layers in the presence of magnetic fields and argue that the suppression is due to the coupling of internal gravity waves to slow magnetoacoustic waves still within the high-β region of the upper photosphere. The conversion to Alfvén waves is highly unlikely in our model because there is no strongly inclined magnetic field present. We argue that the suppression of internal waves observed within magnetic flux concentrations may also be due to nonlinear breaking of internal waves due to vortex flows that are ubiquitously present in the upper photosphere and the chromosphere.
Capillary-gravity waves on a liquid film of arbitrary depth: analysis of the wave resistance.
Wędołowski, Karol; Napiórkowski, Marek
2013-10-01
We discuss the wave resistance in the case of an externally perturbed viscous liquid film of arbitrary thickness. Emphasis is placed on the dependence of the wave resistance on the film thickness H, the length scale b characterizing the external perturbation, and its velocity V. In particular, the effectiveness of the mechanisms of capillary-gravity waves and the viscous dissipation localized in the vicinity of the perturbation are compared and discussed as functions of H and V. We show that, in general, the wave resistance is a nonmonotonous function of H with a maximum whose amplitude and position depend on b and V. In the case of small H the wave resistance depends on a parameter S proportional V/H(3). We find three different regimes of this parameter in which the wave resistance behaves like S(r) with the exponent r equal to 1, 1/3, and -1. These results are also obtained independently within the thin liquid film approximation. This allows us to assess the range of validity of the thin liquid film approximation in various cases, in particular its dependence on the perturbation length scale b.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdilghanie, Ammar M.; Diamessis, Peter J.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of internal gravity wave (IGW) dynamics typically rely on wave velocity and density fields which are either generated through forcing terms in the governing equations or are explicitly introduced as initial conditions. Both approaches are based on the associated solution to the inviscid linear internal wave equations and, thus, assume weak-amplitude, space-filling waves. Using spectral multidomain-based numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and focusing on the forcing-driven approach, this study examines the generation and subsequent evolution of large-amplitude IGW packets which are strongly localized in the vertical in a linearly stratified fluid. When the vertical envelope of the forcing terms varies relatively rapid when compared to the vertical wavelength, the associated large vertical gradients in the Reynolds stress field drive a nonpropagating negative horizontal mean flow component in the source region. The highly nonlinear interaction of this mean current with the propagating IGW packet leads to amplification of the wave, a significant distortion of its rear flank, and a substantial decay of its amplitude. Scaling arguments show that the mean flow is enhanced with a stronger degree of localization of the forcing, larger degree of hydrostaticity, and increasing wave packet steepness. Horizontal localization results in a pronounced reduction in mean flow strength mainly on account of the reduced vertical gradient of the wave Reynolds stress. Finally, two techniques are proposed toward the efficient containment of the mean flow at minimal computational cost. The findings of this study are of particular value in overcoming challenges in the design of robust computational process studies of IGW packet (or continuously forced wave train) interactions with a sloping boundary, critical layer, or caustic, where large wave amplitudes are required for any instabilities to develop. In addition, the detailed
Clamond, Didier
2012-04-13
The velocity and other fields of steady two-dimensional surface gravity waves in irrotational motion are investigated numerically. Only symmetric waves with one crest per wavelength are considered, i.e. Stokes waves of finite amplitude, but not the highest waves, nor subharmonic and superharmonic bifurcations of Stokes waves. The numerical results are analysed, and several conjectures are made about the velocity and acceleration fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savina, Olga; Bespalov, Peter; Misonova, Vera; Petrov, Kiril
2014-05-01
We examine two mutually complementing tasks related to the theoretical analysis of acoustic-gravity disturbances in the Earth's atmosphere and its influence on magnetosphere processes. Our research is based on modern atmospherical models. We study waves propagation, absorption, and filtration. The atmospheric nonisothermicity is taken into account, for example, by introduction of a two-layered atmosphere temperature model. For a study of more delicate effects, a piecewise-linear model, for which the analytical solution is written by the hypergeometric functions, is employed. Also we consider an influence of acoustic-gravity waves on VLF electromagnetic wave excitation in the magnetosphere. This influence occurs as a result of the following processes: a modulation of the plasma density by acoustic-gravity waves in the ionosphere, a modulation of reflection from the ionosphere for VLF waves, and a modification of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor for VLF waves. Variation of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor has an influence on the operation of the plasma magnetospheric maser, where the active substances are radiation belts particles and the working modes are electromagnetic VLF waves (whistler-type waves). The plasma magnetospheric maser can be responsible for an excitation of self-oscillations. These self-oscillations are frequently characterized by alternating stages of accumulation and precipitation of energetic particles into the ionosphere during a pulse of whistler emissions. Numerical and analytical investigations of the response of self-oscillations to harmonic oscillations of the whistler reflection coefficient shows that even a small modulation rate can significantly changes the magnetospheric VLF emissions. Our results can explain the causes of the modulation of energetic electron fluxes and whistler wave intensity with a time scale from 10 to 150 seconds in the day-side magnetosphere. Such quasi-periodic VLF emissions are often observed in the sub
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukino, H.; Saito, A.; Sakanoi, T.; Otsuka, Y.
2014-12-01
The spatial scale of the atmospheric gravity wave in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere was analyzed using the simultaneous observational data of ISS-IMAP and an all-sky imager at Hawaii. There are a plenty of previous studies that discuss the relationship between the wave structures of the mesospheric airglow and the tropospheric events. The problem of the ground-based observation of the airglow is that it cannot distinguish spatial variations from temporal variations for the structures whose scale size is larger than its field-of-view. ISS-IMAP started the observation in October, 2012 to survey the atmospheric gravity waves whose horizontal scale size is 50 km and longer. The spatial resolution of the VIsible-light and infrared Spectrum Imager (VISI) of ISS-IMAP/VISI imaging observation is from 10 km to 25 km. Simultaneous observations start from March 14, 2013. The atmospheric gravity waves that detected by VISI in 762 nm were compared with the observations of ground-based all-sky imagers in 557.7 nm. The generation and the propagation of the atmospheric gravity waves were investigated with this simultaneous observation. The relationship between the tropospheric events and the atmospheric gravity waves in the mesosphere is studied with the wide field-of-view observation by VISI/ISS-IMAP, and the continuous observation of the ground-based imagers. VISI frequently observed wave packets whose scale size is 1,000-2,000 km. These wave packets were observed by the ground-based imager as a series of waves whose wave length is 20-40 km, and that continue for 5-6 hours. The generation, the propagation and the distraction of the atmospheric gravity waves will be discussed in this presentation.
Magnetoelastic shear wave propagation in pre-stressed anisotropic media under gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumari, Nirmala; Chattopadhyay, Amares; Singh, Abhishek K.; Sahu, Sanjeev A.
2017-02-01
The present study investigates the propagation of shear wave (horizontally polarized) in two initially stressed heterogeneous anisotropic (magnetoelastic transversely isotropic) layers in the crust overlying a transversely isotropic gravitating semi-infinite medium. Heterogeneities in both the anisotropic layers are caused due to exponential variation (case-I) and linear variation (case-II) in the elastic constants with respect to the space variable pointing positively downwards. The dispersion relations have been established in closed form using Whittaker's asymptotic expansion and were found to be in the well-agreement to the classical Love wave equations. The substantial effects of magnetoelastic coupling parameters, heterogeneity parameters, horizontal compressive initial stresses, Biot's gravity parameter, and wave number on the phase velocity of shear waves have been computed and depicted by means of a graph. As a special case, dispersion equations have been deduced when the two layers and half-space are isotropic and homogeneous. The comparative study for both cases of heterogeneity of the layers has been performed and also depicted by means of graphical illustrations.
Magnetoelastic shear wave propagation in pre-stressed anisotropic media under gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumari, Nirmala; Chattopadhyay, Amares; Singh, Abhishek K.; Sahu, Sanjeev A.
2017-03-01
The present study investigates the propagation of shear wave (horizontally polarized) in two initially stressed heterogeneous anisotropic (magnetoelastic transversely isotropic) layers in the crust overlying a transversely isotropic gravitating semi-infinite medium. Heterogeneities in both the anisotropic layers are caused due to exponential variation (case-I) and linear variation (case-II) in the elastic constants with respect to the space variable pointing positively downwards. The dispersion relations have been established in closed form using Whittaker's asymptotic expansion and were found to be in the well-agreement to the classical Love wave equations. The substantial effects of magnetoelastic coupling parameters, heterogeneity parameters, horizontal compressive initial stresses, Biot's gravity parameter, and wave number on the phase velocity of shear waves have been computed and depicted by means of a graph. As a special case, dispersion equations have been deduced when the two layers and half-space are isotropic and homogeneous. The comparative study for both cases of heterogeneity of the layers has been performed and also depicted by means of graphical illustrations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Tao; She, C. -Y.; Liu, Han-Li; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart
2007-01-01
In December 2004, the Colorado State University sodium lidar system at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W), conducted an approximately 80-hour continuous campaign for the simultaneous observations of mesopause region sodium density, temperature, and zonal and meridional winds. This data set reveals the significant inertia-gravity wave activities with a period of approximately 18 hours, which are strong in both wind components since UT day 338 (second day of the campaign), and weak in temperature and sodium density. The considerable variability of wave activities was observed with both wind amplitudes growing up to approximately 40 m/s at 95-100 km in day 339 and then decreasing dramatically in day 340. We also found that the sodium density wave perturbation is correlated in phase with temperature perturbation below 90 km, and approximately 180 deg out of phase above. Applying the linear wave theory, we estimated the wave horizontal propagation direction, horizontal wavelength, and apparent horizontal phase speed to be approximately 25 deg south of west, approximately 1800 +/- 150 km, and approximately 28 +/- 2 m/s, respectively of wave intrinsic period, intrinsic phase speed, and vertical wavelength were also estimated. While the onset of enhanced inertia-gravity wave amplitude in the night of 338 was observed to be in coincidence with short-period gravity wave breaking via convective instability, the decrease of inertia-gravity wave amplitude after noon of day 339 was also observed to coincide with the development of atmospheric dynamical instability layers with downward phase progression clearly correlated with the 18-hour inertia-gravity wave, suggesting likely breaking of this inertia-gravity wave via dynamical (shear) instability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Tao; She, C. -Y.; Liu, Han-Li; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart
2007-01-01
In December 2004, the Colorado State University sodium lidar system at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W), conducted an approximately 80-hour continuous campaign for the simultaneous observations of mesopause region sodium density, temperature, and zonal and meridional winds. This data set reveals the significant inertia-gravity wave activities with a period of approximately 18 hours, which are strong in both wind components since UT day 338 (second day of the campaign), and weak in temperature and sodium density. The considerable variability of wave activities was observed with both wind amplitudes growing up to approximately 40 m/s at 95-100 km in day 339 and then decreasing dramatically in day 340. We also found that the sodium density wave perturbation is correlated in phase with temperature perturbation below 90 km, and approximately 180 deg out of phase above. Applying the linear wave theory, we estimated the wave horizontal propagation direction, horizontal wavelength, and apparent horizontal phase speed to be approximately 25 deg south of west, approximately 1800 +/- 150 km, and approximately 28 +/- 2 m/s, respectively of wave intrinsic period, intrinsic phase speed, and vertical wavelength were also estimated. While the onset of enhanced inertia-gravity wave amplitude in the night of 338 was observed to be in coincidence with short-period gravity wave breaking via convective instability, the decrease of inertia-gravity wave amplitude after noon of day 339 was also observed to coincide with the development of atmospheric dynamical instability layers with downward phase progression clearly correlated with the 18-hour inertia-gravity wave, suggesting likely breaking of this inertia-gravity wave via dynamical (shear) instability.
Perturbations of the Richardson number field by gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wurtele, M. G.; Sharman, R. D.
1985-01-01
An analytic solution is presented for a stratified fluid of arbitrary constant Richardson number. By computer aided analysis the perturbation fields, including that of the Richardson number can be calculated. The results of the linear analytic model were compared with nonlinear simulations, leading to the following conclusions: (1) the perturbations in the Richardson number field, when small, are produced primarily by the perturbations of the shear; (2) perturbations of in the Richardson number field, even when small, are not symmetric, the increase being significantly larger than the decrease (the linear analytic solution and the nonlinear simulations both confirm this result); (3) as the perturbations grow, this asymmetry increases, but more so in the nonlinear simulations than in the linear analysis; (4) for large perturbations of the shear flow, the static stability, as represented by N2, is the dominating mechanism, becoming zero or negative, and producing convective overturning; and (5) the convectional measure of linearity in lee wave theory, NH/U, is no longer the critical parameter (it is suggested that (H/u sub 0) (du sub 0/dz) takes on this role in a shearing flow).
Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media.
Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara
2011-04-01
We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems.
Could linear hysteresis contribute to shear wave losses in tissues?
Parker, Kevin J
2015-04-01
For nearly 100 y in the study of cyclical motion in materials, a particular phenomenon called "linear hysteresis" or "ideal hysteretic damping" has been widely observed. More recently in the field of shear wave elastography, the basic mechanisms underlying shear wave losses in soft tissues are in question. Could linear hysteresis play a role? An underlying theoretical question must be answered: Is there a real and causal physical model that is capable of producing linear hysteresis over a band of shear wave frequencies used in diagnostic imaging schemes? One model that can approximately produce classic linear hysteresis behavior, by examining a generalized Maxwell model with a specific power law relaxation spectrum, is described here. This provides a theoretical plausibility for the phenomenon as a candidate for models of tissue behavior.
Spontaneous Gravity Wave emission in the differentially-heated rotating-annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hien, Steffen; Rolland, Joran; Borchert, Sebastian; Schoon, Lena; Zülicke, Christoph; Achatz, Ulrich
2017-04-01
The source mechanism of inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) observed in numerical simulations of the differentially heated rotating annulus experiment is investigated. The focus is on the wave generation from the balanced flow, a process presumably contributing significantly to the atmospheric IGW spectrum. Direct numerical simulations are performed for an atmosphere-like configuration of the experiment and possible regions of IGW activity are characterized by a Hilbert-transform algorithm. Subsequently, the flow is separated into a balanced and unbalanced part, assuming the limit of small Rossby number, and the forcing of IGWs by the internal balanced flow is derived rigorously. Tangent-linear simulations are then used to identify the part of the IGW signal that is rather due to radiation by the internal balanced flow than to boundary-layer instabilities at the side walls. An idealized fluid setup without rigid horizontal boundaries is considered as well, to see the effect of the identified balanced forcing unmaske by boundary-layer effects. The direct simulations show a clear baroclinic wave structure exhibiting a realistic jet-front system superimposed by three distinct wave packets. The subsequent linear analysis indicates that one wave packet is radiated from the internal flow, one affected both by the internal flow and by the inner boundary layer, and a third one is probably caused by boundary layer instabilities. The balanced forcing is found to play a significant role in the generation of unbalanced flow so that it supplements boundary-layer instabilities as key factor in the IGW emission in the differentially heated rotating annulus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borchert, S.; Achatz, U.; Rieper, F.; Fruman, M. D.
2012-04-01
We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a new finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate whether such an experiment might be useful for studies of spontaneous imbalance. A major problem was the identification of experimental parameters yielding an atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, so that energy transport by the lowest-frequency waves is predominantly horizontal while high-frequency GWs transport energy vertically. We show that this is indeed the case for a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between the inner and outer cylinder walls. We also show that this set-up yields a conspicuous signal in the horizontal divergence field close to the meandering jet. Various analyses support the notion that this signal is predominantly due to GWs superposed on a geostrophic flow. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011
Gravity Wave Variances and Propagation Derived from AIRS Radiances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, S. D.
2012-01-01
As the first gravity wave (GW) climatology study using nadir-viewing infrared sounders, 50 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance channels are selected to estimate GW variances at pressure levels between 2-100 hPa. The GW variance for each scan in the cross-track direction is derived from radiance perturbations in the scan, independently of adjacent scans along the orbit. Since the scanning swaths are perpendicular to the satellite orbits, which are inclined meridionally at most latitudes, the zonal component of GW propagation can be inferred by differencing the variances derived between the westmost and the eastmost viewing angles. Consistent with previous GW studies using various satellite instruments, monthly mean AIRS variance shows large enhancements over meridionally oriented mountain ranges as well as some islands at winter hemisphere high latitudes. Enhanced wave activities are also found above tropical deep convective regions. GWs prefer to propagate westward above mountain ranges, and eastward above deep convection. AIRS 90 field-of-views (FOVs), ranging from +48 deg. to -48 deg. off nadir, can detect large-amplitude GWs with a phase velocity propagating preferentially at steep angles (e.g., those from orographic and convective sources). The annual cycle dominates the GW variances and the preferred propagation directions for all latitudes. Indication of a weak two-year variation in the tropics is found, which is presumably related to the Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). AIRS geometry makes its out-tracks capable of detecting GWs with vertical wavelengths substantially shorter than the thickness of instrument weighting functions. The novel discovery of AIRS capability of observing shallow inertia GWs will expand the potential of satellite GW remote sensing and provide further constraints on the GW drag parameterization schemes in the general circulation models (GCMs).
Particle drift in the field of internal gravity wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinshpun, S. A.; Redcoborody, Yu. N.; Kravchuk, S. G.; Zadorozhnii, V. I.; Zhdanov, V. I.
2000-08-01
Similarly to an acoustic wave, an internal gravity wave (IGW) can cause the drift of a dispersed component in a two-component system, e.g. in a hydrosol or an aerosol. The IGW-caused particle drift may play a significance role in many natural processes occurring in very large water reservoirs or air volumes and thus is of interest for atmospheric and oceanic research. The analytical and numerical calculations of the IGW-caused particle drift motion were performed in this study for the following two sets of conditions: (i) propagating IGW in a horizontal infinite waveguide and (ii) standing IGW in a rectangular resonator. It was shown that particles concentrate in certain areas of an IGW field as a result of their migration. When IGW is propagating in an infinite waveguide, the particle drift causes the vertical stratification and horizontal unidirectional motion. The particle size affects the shape of the particle trajectories and the vertical component of the drift velocity in an infinite waveguide. In contrast, the shape of trajectories in the IGW rectangular resonator is not affected by the particle size and IGW intensity. The IGW-caused particle drift was shown to result in purification of a two-component system or in its "structurization" (the formation of purified areas of the fluid alternating with the areas loaded with particles). These effects were found to be low energy consuming: ∼10 J/m3 of liquid. However, the particle migration in the infinite waveguide and rectangular resonator is a very slow process, and the time needed for an efficient purification of a fluid increases quickly with the decrease of particle size. The particle coagulation is expected to significantly accelerate the fluid purification. Another way to reduce this characteristic time is proposed through utilizing the horizontal component of the particle drift in the semi-infinite IGW waveguide.
Precision Pulsar Timing and Gravity Waves: Recent Advances in Instrumentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demorest, P.; Ramachandran, R.; Backer, D.; Ferdman, R.; Stairs, I.; Nice, D.
2004-12-01
High-precision pulsar timing is a unique and useful tool for many different scientific applications, including studies of the interstellar medium, relativistic binary systems, and long period gravitational wave studies. Our group has designed and installed a new generation of pulsar instrumentation at several radio observatories over the past year: The Arecibo Signal Processor (ASP), the Green Bank Astronomical Signal Processor (GASP), and the Berkeley-Orleans-Nancay processor (BON). These machines perform real time coherent dedispersion of the pulsar signal on up to 64 MHz of bandwidth, and quasi-real time up to 128 MHz. They use high dynamic range voltage sampling (8 bits), which significantly reduces digitization artifacts. The processing is done in an array of personal computers, which makes the machines extremely flexible for future development. We present preliminary results from several different studies using this new instrumentation. At Green Bank, we have initiated a program of long-term precision timing of 15 pulsars using the 100m Green Bank Telescope. The data from this project will be used to study binary systems, and contribute to the ongoing multi-observatory effort to create a Pulsar Timing Array - a group of many pulsars distributed about the sky which can be used to detect gravitational radiation with a period of 1-10 years. We also have continuous use of a 85ft telescope at Green Bank which we have used to study dispersion measure fluctuations of PSR B1937+21 on timescales of 1 day to several years. These fluctuations are a potential systematic effect for the gravity wave study, and also help us learn more about the nature of interstellar weather.
Internal Gravity Wave Interactions with Double-Diffusive Instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Justin; Radko, Timour
2017-04-01
In this study, we focus on the phenomenon of oscillatory double-diffusive convection, which occurs when cool fresh water is stratified above warm salty water, as commonly observed in the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic, these regions are generally stable to the development of oscillatory double-diffusive instabilities; despite this, observations show the presence of staircases, i.e., the well-defined structures consisting of a series of homogeneous layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces. Recent studies have shown that an instability can develop in such circumstances if weak static shear is present even when the shear and double-diffusion are themselves individually stable. However, the impact of oscillating shear, associated with the ubiquitous presence of internal gravity waves, has not yet been addressed for the diffusive case. Through two-dimensional simulations of diffusive convection, we have investigated the impact of magnitude and frequency of externally forced internal waves on the double-diffusive shear instability. The analysis is focused on the parameter regime in which the flow is individually stable with respect to double-diffusion and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but could be susceptible to the combined thermohaline-shear instability. We have illustrated that rapid oscillation inhibits the development of this instability if the dominant period is shorter than four hours for the oceanographically relevant parameters; otherwise, models with static shear adequately reproduce our results. If the dominant period is shorter than four hours but still significantly exceeds the buoyancy period, the instability range is much reduced to the low Richardson number regime. Some of these simulations show the saturated system developing into structures reminiscent of double-diffusive staircases whose thickness is given by the wavelength of the forced shear. Finally, preliminary three-dimensional simulations show no major differences in the growth rate of
Impulsively Generated Linear and Non-linear Alfven Waves in the Coronal Funnels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chmielewski, P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Murawski, K.; Musielak, Z. E.
2014-01-01
We present simulation results of the impulsively generated linear and non-linear Alfvén waves in the weakly curved coronal magnetic flux-tubes (coronal funnels) and discuss their implications for the coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. We solve numerically the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic equations to find the temporal signatures of the small and large-amplitude Alfvén waves in the model atmosphere of open and expanding magnetic field configuration with a realistic temperature distribution. We compute the maximum transversal velocity of both linear and non-linear Alfvén waves at different heights of the model atmosphere, and study their response in the solar corona during the time of their propagation. We infer that the pulse-driven non-linear Alfvén waves may carry sufficient wave energy fluxes to heat the coronal funnels and also to power the solar wind that originates in these funnels. Our study of linear Alfvén waves shows that they can contribute only to the plasma dynamics and heating of the funnel-like magnetic flux-tubes associated with the polar coronal holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.
2016-07-01
Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) mean winds, gravity waves, tidal and planetary wave characteristics are investigated using two years (2013-2015) of advanced meteor radar installed at Tirupathi (13.63oN, 79.4oE), India. The observations reveal the presence of high frequency gravity waves (30-120 minutes), atmospheric tides (diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal) along with long period oscillations in both zonal and meridional winds. Background mean zonal winds show clear semi-annual oscillation in the mesosphere, whereas meridional winds are characterized by annual oscillation as expected. Diurnal tide amplitudes are significantly larger (60-80 m/s) than semi-diurnal (10-20 m/s) and terr-diurnal (5-8 m/s) tides and larger in meridional than zonal winds. The measured meridional components are in good agreement with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09) predictions than zonal up to ~90 km in all the seasons, except fall equinox. Diurnal tidal phase matches well than the amplitudes between observations and model predictions. However, no similarity is being found in the semi-diurnal tides between observations and model. The measurements are further compared with nearby Thumba meteor radar (8.5oN, 77oE) observations. Some differences do exist between the measurements from Tirupati and Thumba meteor radar and model outputs at greater heights and the possible reasons are discussed. SVU meteor radar observations clearly showed the dominance of well-known ultra-fast kelvin waves (3.5 days), 5-8 day, 16 day, 27 day, and 30-40 day oscillations. Due to higher meteor count extending up to 110 km, we could investigate the variability of these PWs and oscillations covering wider range (70-110 km) for the first time. Significant change above 100 km is noticed in all the above mentioned PW activity and oscillations. We also used ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets available at 0.125x0.125 degree grids for investigating the characteristics of these PW right from surface to 1 h
A global climatology of stratospheric gravity waves from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, Lars; Xue, Xianghui; Alexander, M. Joan
2014-05-01
We present the results of a new study that aims on the detection and classification of `hotspots' of stratospheric gravity waves on a global scale. The analysis is based on a nine-year record (2003 to 2011) of radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We detect the presence of stratospheric gravity waves based on 4.3 micron brightness temperature variances. Our method is optimized for peak events, i.e., strong gravity wave events for which the local variance considerably exceeds background levels. We estimated the occurrence frequencies of these peak events for different seasons and time of day and used the results to find local maxima of gravity wave activity. In addition, we use AIRS radiances at 8.1 micron to simultaneously detect convective events, including deep convection in the tropics and mesoscale convective systems at mid latitudes. We classified the gravity waves according to their sources, based on seasonal occurrence frequencies for convection and by means of topographic data. Our study reproduces well-known hotspots of gravity waves, e.g., the mountain wave hotspots at the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula or the convective hotspot during the thunderstorm season over the North American Great Plains. However, the high horizontal resolution of the AIRS observations also helped us to locate several smaller hotspots, which were partly unknown or poorly studied so far. Most of these smaller hotspots are found near orographic features like small mountain ranges, in coastal regions, in desert areas, or near isolated islands. This new study will help to select the most promising regions and seasons for future observational studies of gravity waves. Reference: Hoffmann, L., X. Xue, and M. J. Alexander, A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658, 2013.
Forecasting of Convectively Generated Gravity Waves in the Middle and Upper Atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassiotis, A.; Kane, T.; Gerrard, A.
2005-12-01
Model studies have shown that gravity waves excited by the thermal forcing mechanism in convection excite high-frequency waves (10-100 min) with long vertical wavelengths (greater than 20 km). Source spectra for various spatial and temporal scales of thermal forcing are now available above convective sources. When these energetic source spectra are propagated through synoptic background fields via ray-tracing methods they are able to reach middle and upper atmospheric altitudes before dissipating, and subsequently influencing the momentum budget of the region. Waves that manage to propagate deeper into the thermosphere can potentially seed instabilities such as equatorial spread-F (ESF). ESF causes scintillation in radio communications and GPS signals. The current realism of the convective source parameterizations has motivated the use of ray-tracing methods to predict some of the already observed effects of convectively-generated gravity waves in the middle and upper atmosphere. For this reason, a unique global gravity wave forecasting model called FOREGRATS (FOREcasting of Gravity waves via Ray-tracing algorithms with prescribed Tropospheric Sources) is being developed. The model will identify convective gravity wave sources in the troposphere, prescribe a realistic source spectrum, and then propagate the spectrum of waves up into the middle and upper atmosphere. In conjunction with observations at the Arecibo Observatory, which is located in a tropical convection zone, the predictability of these high-frequency/long vertical wavelength waves in the middle and upper atmosphere will be explored with FOREGRATS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ern, Manfred; Hoffmann, Lars; Preusse, Peter
2017-04-01
Gravity waves are an important driver of atmospheric dynamics. Due to their small scales, gravity waves are poorly resolved in most general circulation models and chemistry climate models, and the effect of gravity waves on the background flow has to be parametrized. A key quantity of these parametrization schemes is the vertical flux of horizontal momentum due to gravity waves. Gravity wave parametrization schemes are poorly constrained, and for a further improvement global observations of gravity wave momentum fluxes from satellite are required. First attempts were based on absolute values of gravity wave momentum fluxes derived from satellite instruments having only one viewing direction. For a better comparison with parametrization schemes, however, directional momentum fluxes, i.e. momentum flux vectors, are needed. We make use of 3D temperature distributions resulting from a dedicated high resolution temperature retrieval based on the 3D observations of the nadir scanning satellite instrument AIRS on board the EOS Aqua satellite. For January 2009 and an altitude of 36km as the first attempt, full 3D gravity wave wavenumber vectors are determined in small 3D fitting volumes, and global distributions of zonal and meridional gravity wave momentum fluxes are derived. Resulting global patterns of momentum fluxes are similar to those previously known from absolute momentum fluxes in the stratosphere: enhanced values are found in the polar jets and in the summertime subtropics. Momentum fluxes derived from AIRS are directed prevalently opposite to the background winds, i.e. eastward in the summertime subtropics, and prevalently westward in the polar jets. In addition, in the polar jets meridional momentum fluxes are opposite in their direction to the meridional winds induced by planetary waves. We also find that the distribution of AIRS net momentum fluxes is dominated by gravity waves of relatively large amplitude, and of relatively long horizontal scale
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerrard, Andrew J.; Kane, Timothy J.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Thayer, Jeffrey P.
2004-01-01
We conducted gravity wave ray-tracing experiments within an atmospheric region centered near the ARCLITE lidar system at Sondrestrom, Greenland (67N, 310 deg E), in efforts to understand lidar observations of both upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric clouds during August 1996 and the summer of 2001. The ray model was used to trace gravity waves through realistic three-dimensional daily-varying background atmospheres in the region, based on forecasts and analyses in the troposphere and stratosphere and climatologies higher up. Reverse ray tracing based on upper stratospheric lidar observations at Sondrestrom was also used to try to objectively identify wave source regions in the troposphere. A source spectrum specified by reverse ray tracing experiments in early August 1996 (when atmospheric flow patterns produced enhanced transmission of waves into the upper stratosphere) yielded model results throughout the remainder of August 1996 that agreed best with the lidar observations. The model also simulated increased vertical group propagation of waves between 40 km and 80 km due to intensifying mean easterlies, which allowed many of the gravity waves observed at 40 km over Sondrestrom to propagate quasi-vertically from 40-80 km and then interact with any mesospheric clouds at 80 km near Sondrestrom, supporting earlier experimentally-inferred correlations between upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric cloud backscatter from Sondrestrom lidar observations. A pilot experiment of real-time runs with the model in 2001 using weather forecast data as a low-level background produced less agreement with lidar observations. We believe this is due to limitations in our specified tropospheric source spectrum, the use of climatological winds and temperatures in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and missing lidar data from important time periods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.
1993-01-01
Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.
1993-01-01
Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.
Seasonal and interannual variability of mesospheric gravity wave activity at high and mid-latitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, Peter; Singer, Werner; Becker, Erich; Latteck, Ralph; Keuer, Dieter
The seasonal variation and interannual variability of the gravity wave activity in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region at high and mid-latitudes is investigated. Variations of the gravity wave activity are examined in relation to the filtering processes due to the changes of the background winds, tides and planetary waves. Our studies are basing on wind measurements from meteor and MF radars at Andenes (69° N, 16° E) and Juliusruh (55° N, 13° E). These measurements are supplemented by mesospheric temperatures derived from meteor decay times. Additionally, turbulent energy dissipation rates have been estimated from spectral width measurements using a 3 MHz Doppler radar near Andenes. Particular attention is directed to the influence of the solar activity on the gravity wave activity during the summer months when the mesospheric winds show the strongest correlation with the solar activity. Possible dependencies between the occurrence rates of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) and the gravity wave activity are discussed. Furthermore, the activity of gravity waves and their dissipation are investigated in winter in relation with wind changes during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. The summer/ winter behavior of the gravity wave activity will be compared to simulations with the simple general circulation model KMCM (K¨hlungsborn Mechanistic u Circulation Model) that extends up to 100 km. In all cases, the percentage rates of the kinetic energy of defined period ranges in relation to the total variances of the horizontal wind fluctuations are estimated.
Scalar gravitational waves in the effective theory of gravity
Mottola, Emil
2017-07-10
As a low energy effective field theory, classical General Relativity receives an infrared relevant modification from the conformal trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor of massless, or nearly massless, quantum fields. The local form of the effective action associated with the trace anomaly is expressed in terms of a dynamical scalar field that couples to the conformal factor of the spacetime metric, allowing it to propagate over macroscopic distances. Linearized around flat spacetime, this semi-classical EFT admits scalar gravitational wave solutions in addition to the transversely polarized tensor waves of the classical Einstein theory. The amplitude of the scalar wavemore » modes, as well as their energy and energy flux which are positive and contain a monopole moment, are computed. As a result, astrophysical sources for scalar gravitational waves are considered, with the excited gluonic condensates in the interiors of neutron stars in merger events with other compact objects likely to provide the strongest burst signals.« less
On the generation and evolution of internal gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lansing, F. S.; Maxworthy, T.
1984-01-01
The tidal generation and evolution of internal gravity waves is investigated experimentally and theoretically using a two-dimensional two-layer model. Time-dependent flow is created by moving a profile of maximum submerged depth 7.7 cm through a total stroke of 29 cm in water above a freon-kerosene mixture in an 8.6-m-long 30-cm-deep 20-cm-wide transparent channel, and the deformation of the fluid interface is recorded photographically. A theoretical model of the interface as a set of discrete vortices is constructed numerically; the rigid structures are represented by a source distribution; governing equations in Lagrangian form are obtained; and two integrodifferential equations relating baroclinic vorticity generation and source-density generation are derived. The experimental and computed results are shown in photographs and graphs, respectively, and found to be in good agreement at small Froude numbers. The reasons for small discrepancies in the position of the maximum interface displacement at large Froude numbers are examined.
Mesospheric gravity wave momentum flux estimation using hybrid Doppler interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spargo, Andrew J.; Reid, Iain M.; MacKinnon, Andrew D.; Holdsworth, David A.
2017-06-01
Mesospheric gravity wave (GW) momentum flux estimates using data from multibeam Buckland Park MF radar (34.6° S, 138.5° E) experiments (conducted from July 1997 to June 1998) are presented. On transmission, five Doppler beams were symmetrically steered about the zenith (one zenith beam and four off-zenith beams in the cardinal directions). The received beams were analysed with hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI) (Holdsworth and Reid, 1998), principally to determine the radial velocities of the effective scattering centres illuminated by the radar. The methodology of Thorsen et al. (1997), later re-introduced by Hocking (2005) and since extensively applied to meteor radar returns, was used to estimate components of Reynolds stress due to propagating GWs and/or turbulence in the radar resolution volume. Physically reasonable momentum flux estimates are derived from the Reynolds stress components, which are also verified using a simple radar model incorporating GW-induced wind perturbations. On the basis of these results, we recommend the intercomparison of momentum flux estimates between co-located meteor radars and vertical-beam interferometric MF radars. It is envisaged that such intercomparisons will assist with the clarification of recent concerns (e.g. Vincent et al., 2010) of the accuracy of the meteor radar technique.
Quantum Cause of Gravity Waves and Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goradia, Shantilal; Goradia Team
2016-09-01
Per Einstein's theory mass tells space how to curve and space tells mass how to move. How do they tell''? The question boils down to information created by quantum particles blinking ON and OFF analogous to `Ying and Yang' or some more complex ways that may include dark matter. If not, what creates curvature of space-time? Consciousness, dark matter, quantum physics, uncertainty principle, constants of nature like strong coupling, fine structure constant, cosmological constant introduced by Einstein, information, gravitation etc. are fundamentally consequences of that ONE TOE. Vedic philosophers, who impressed Schrodinger so much, called it ATMA split in the categories of AnuAtma (particle soul), JivAtma (life soul) and ParamAtma (Omnipresent soul) which we relate to quantum physics, biology and cosmology. There is no separate TOE for any one thing. The long range relativistic propagations of the strong and weak couplings of the microscopic black holes in are just gravity waves. What else could they be?
Ionospheric gravity wave measurements with the USU dynasonde
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berkey, Frank T.; Deng, Jun Yuan
1992-01-01
A method for the measurement of ionospheric Gravity Wave (GW) using the USU Dynasonde is outlined. This method consists of a series of individual procedures, which includes functions for data acquisition, adaptive scaling, polarization discrimination, interpolation and extrapolation, digital filtering, windowing, spectrum analysis, GW detection, and graphics display. Concepts of system theory are applied to treat the ionosphere as a system. An adaptive ionogram scaling method was developed for automatically extracting ionogram echo traces from noisy raw sounding data. The method uses the well known Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm to form a stochastic optimal estimate of the echo trace which is then used to control a moving window. The window tracks the echo trace, simultaneously eliminating the noise and interference. Experimental results show that the proposed method functions as designed. Case studies which extract GW from ionosonde measurements were carried out using the techniques described. Geophysically significant events were detected and the resultant processed results are illustrated graphically. This method was also developed for real time implementation in mind.
Formation of ionospheric sporadic E by atmospheric gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Didebulidze, Goderdzi; Dalakishvili, Giorgi; Matiashvili, Giorgi
2016-07-01
The atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) significantly influence the behavior of the thermosphere ions/electrons. It is shown, that in the lower thermosphere when the background wind present, the AGWs evolving in this wind affect the heavy metallic ions vertical motions and can lead to their convergence into horizontal thin layers and consequently form ionosphere sporadic E (Es). For certain values of the velocity of horizontal back-ground wind, occurring in this region, the declined propagation of the AGWs in the mid-latitude lower thermosphere can cause formation multilayered sporadic E. The distances between such Es layers i.e. distance between locations of maximal ions/electrons densities occur is about one AGWs vertical wavelength. The observed phenomena like of sporadic E multilayered structures and Es layers downward motions are demonstrated by using 3-D numerical simulations describing Es formation by AGWs. The formation of quasi-periodic echoes like structures by AGWs evolving in the horizontal inhomogeneous wind and possibility of its ions/electrons density oscillations by smaller periods (smaller than Bunt-Väisälä period), which also is observed phenomena, is shown. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation grant No 31/81.
Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.
2015-01-01
Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.
Structured elves: Modulation by convectively generated gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Jia; Lyons, Walter A.
2015-02-01
We report on a markedly striated elve (Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Source) (a "tiger elve") observed using an intensified high-speed Phantom camera system at the Yucca Ridge Field Station near Fort Collins, Colorado, on the night of 12 June 2013. This elve was induced by a 204 kA positive cloud-to-ground lightning flash within a mesoscale convective system in western South Dakota. A halo and a sprite followed the elve. The banded structure in the elve was aligned with convectively generated gravity waves (CGGWs) independently observed by a collocated color near-infrared camera. Assuming the height of the OH layer and elve both to be 85 km, photogrammetry allowed projection of the elve and the CGGWs onto the same geographic map. The tiger elve stripes approximately overlay on the troughs (dark bands) of CGGWs. This is consistent with model predictions that the ionization rate in the D region ionosphere is inversely proportional to the air density, which is modulated by the CGGWs.
Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.
2015-01-01
Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.
Radio observations of atmospheric gravity waves with Callisto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monstein, C.
2013-12-01
On December 12th 2013 NOAA reported between 08:04 and 12:08 only radio noise at 245 MHz observed in San Vito. But some European observatories of the e-Callisto network (Germany, UK and Ireland) observed very strange reverse drifting and v-type bursts which was never recognized by the author before. Private communication with P. Zucca from TCD showed that these strange structures are due to focusing effects in the ionosphere. Interestingly it is possible to observe complex ionospheric behavior with cheap and simple radio-telescopes like Callisto. People who are interested in such kind of observations to study ionospheric gravity waves should generate observing programs for frequencies below 100 MHz, ideally with an additional up-converter for frequencies from 15 MHz - 100 MHz. Callisto again proved to be a powerful tool for solar science and radio-monitoring. Below are shown recent observations from Bir castle in Ireland, Essen in Germany and Glasgow in Scotland. For comparison I added an observation from a LOFAR node from Chibolton in UK which was provided by Richard Fallows from Astron NL. And finally a plot from Nançay radio heliograph, provided by Karl-Heinz Gansel, Dingden Amateur Radio- Astronomy Observatory DARO, Germany. Although Callisto instruments are almost identical, the spectra look completely different, depending on their geographical longitude and latitude.
Constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion in the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strobel, Darrell F.
1988-01-01
A review of the important constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion of chemical tracers, heat and momentum is given. Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of H2O and CO and rocket-based mass spectrometer measurements of Ar constrain the eddy diffusion coefficient for constituent transport (K sub zz) to be (1-3) x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Atomic oxygen data also limits K sub zz to a comparable value in the mesopause. From the energy balance of the upper mesosphere the eddy diffusion coefficient for heat transport (D sub H) is, at most, 6 x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec at the mesopause and decreasing substantially with decreasing altitude. The available evidence for mean wind deceleration and the corresponding eddy diffusion coefficient for momentum stresses (D sub M) suggests that it is at least 1 x 10 to the 6th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Consequently the eddy Prandtl number for macroscopic scale lengths is greater than 3.
Gravity Wave Interactions with Fine Structures in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mixa, Tyler; Fritts, David; Bossert, Katrina; Laughman, Brian; Wang, Ling; Lund, Thomas; Kantha, Lakshmi
2017-04-01
An anelastic numerical model is used to probe the influences of fine layering structures on gravity wave propagation in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT). Recent lidar observations confirm the presence of persistent layered structures in the MLT that have sharp stratification and vertical scales below 1km. Gravity waves propagating through finely layered environments can excite and modulate the evolution of small scale instabilities that redefine the layering structure in these regions. Such layers in turn filter the outgoing wave spectra, promote ducting or reflection, hasten the onset of self-acceleration dynamics, and encourage wave/mean-flow interactions via energy and momentum transport. Using high resolution simulations of a localized gravity wave packet in a deep atmosphere, we identify the relative impacts of various wave and mean flow parameters to improve our understanding of these dynamics and complement recent state-of-the-art observations.
Linear and Non-Linear Excitation of Slow Waves in the Ion Cyclotron Frequency Range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skiff, Frederick Norman
We present an experimental and theoretical study of linear and nonlinear excitation of slow waves in the ion cyclotron frequency range in a finite-ion-temperature magnetized plasma. Loop antennas designed to induce electric fields either parallel or perpendicular to the static magnetic field are used to investigate coupling to the ion Bernstein wave (IBW). The experiments are modeled and the plasma is described using a self-adjoint equation which includes ion kinetic effects. Both in theory and experiment, the antenna loading is found to be insensitive to antenna polarization. Faraday shielded fast wave polarized antennas (previously thought not to excite slow waves) are shown to couple to the IBW by means of the plasma density gradient. The dependence of Bernstein wave radiation resistance on plasma density, parallel wavenumber, and wave frequency are investigated. Nonlinear (parametric) excitation of ion Bernstein waves is observed and the wave-wave coupling is compared to uniform pump theory. Variation of the decay growth rate with pump wave frequency and plasma density (collisionality) are observed. Harmonic generation associated with the use of electrostatic plate antennas is observed and found to agree with sheath rectification. Subsequent parametric coupling of the second harmonic (lower hybrid) wave with a nonresonant quasimode and with the slow ion cyclotron wave are observed. Decay wave amplitude scaling indicates nonlinear saturation of the process.
Some classes of gravitational shock waves from higher order theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oikonomou, V. K.
2017-02-01
We study the gravitational shock wave generated by a massless high energy particle in the context of higher order gravities of the form F(R,R_{μν}R^{μν},R_{μναβ}R^{μν αβ}). In the case of F(R) gravity, we investigate the gravitational shock wave solutions corresponding to various cosmologically viable gravities, and as we demonstrate the solutions are rescaled versions of the Einstein-Hilbert gravity solution. Interestingly enough, other higher order gravities result to the general relativistic solution, except for some specific gravities of the form F(R_{μν}R^{μν}) and F(R,R_{μν}R^{μν}), which we study in detail. In addition, when realistic Gauss-Bonnet gravities of the form R+F(G) are considered, the gravitational shock wave solutions are identical to the general relativistic solution. Finally, the singularity structure of the gravitational shock waves solutions is studied, and it is shown that the effect of higher order gravities makes the singularities milder in comparison to the general relativistic solutions, and in some particular cases the singularities seem to be absent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diorio, J. D.; Watkins, N.; Zuech, J.; Duncan, J. H.
2008-11-01
There have been several recent numerical investigations that have shown the existence of three-dimensional nonlinear solitary surface wave patterns that propagate with speeds less than the minimum wave phase speed prescribed by linear theory (23 cm/s for clean water). In the present study, wave patterns were generated by translating a small-diameter region of high pressure across a water surface. The high-pressure region was created by forcing air through a small-diameter vertically oriented tube attached to a carriage that propelled it horizontally at speeds near 23 cm/s. The wave pattern was measured with a cinematic LIF technique. It was found that a steady solitary wave pattern can exist at speeds below the linear-theory minimum phase speed, while for speeds above the minimum, a pattern of gravity-capillary waves was produced. The solitary wave pattern, which only appeared when the pressure forcing was large, dissipated rapidly when the forcing was turned off. The streamwise dimension of the solitary wave was much smaller than the transverse dimension.
Gravity wave vertical coupling on Earth and Mars: similarities and peculiarities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, Alexander S.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal
2016-07-01
Gravity waves play a major role in the dynamical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere both on Earth and Mars. A significant progress with understanding gravity wave phenomena in the Martian atmosphere has been achieved over the last decade. We present some of these findings focusing on comparison with the terrestrial atmosphere. Gravity waves are stronger on Mars, thanks to more violent meteorology and rougher topography. They transport energy and momentum upon propagation to the mesosphere and thermosphere, and affect the circulation there. Gravity waves facilitate a formation of mesospheric CO2 ice clouds, and cause a strong thermospheric response to dust storms in the troposphere. This talk promotes a view of coupling processes not only as an Earth phenomenon, but as a universal mechanism in planetary atmospheres.
Turbulent Bore Wave Propagation on a Linear Sloping Beach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, J. M.; Piccirillo, P. B.; Tremain, D. E.; Orwoll, M.; Abdou, I.
2002-12-01
Turbulent bore waves formed after wave breaking on beaches have been studied in the field with natural incident waves and in laboratory wave tanks for monochromatic incident wave spectra. The present research attempts to extend previous results both by focussing on broadband incident wave spectra and by looking carefully at the evolution of the turbulent bores in a highly instrumented wave tank. In our current research, turbulent bores are generated in the Max Hammond Wave Tank at SRI with a 1:25 sloped linear beach by two types of incident spectra: a monochromatic sine wave spectrum for repeatable experiments and a JONSWAP spectra (gamma=3.3) for more realistic incident waves. Instrumentation employed for measurement of bore propagation includes: 20 capacitive wave height gauges, a Ku-band Doppler radar and simultaneous video recording. There is also both a surface PIV and volume PIV capability for reconstructing fluid flow in the bore wave volume and on the surface but these measurements are not included in the experiments reported here. We have also developed a wavefront tracking algorithm that retrieves bore propagation velocity from the video imagery as a function of position. In this paper, we present measurements of the phase speed of bore waves as a function of bottom depth for a range of wave breaker types from gentle spillers to violent plungers for both monochromatic and JONSWAP broadband incident spectra. Our results are compared with shallow-water Boussinesq model predictions. The goals of this research are to improve prediction of turbulent bore waves in realistic conditions and develop remote sensing techniques for retrieving bathymetry and other surf-zone properties of the nearshore environment.
Linearized traveling wave amplifier with hard limiter characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosmahl, H. G. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A dynamic velocity taper is provided for a traveling wave tube with increased linearity to avoid intermodulation of signals being amplified. In a traveling wave tube, the slow wave structure is a helix including a sever. A dynamic velocity taper is provided by gradually reducing the spacing between the repeating elements of the slow wave structure which are the windings of the helix. The reduction which takes place coincides with the ouput point of helix. The spacing between the repeating elements of the slow wave structure is ideally at an exponential rate because the curve increases the point of maximum efficiency and power, at an exponential rate. A coupled cavity traveling wave tube having cavities is shown. The space between apertured discs is gradually reduced from 0.1% to 5% at an exponential rate. Output power (or efficiency) versus input power for a commercial tube is shown.
Linear and nonlinear propagation of water wave groups
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Donelan, M. A.; Hui, W. H.
1992-01-01
Results are presented from a study of the evolution of waveforms with known analytical group shapes, in the form of both transient wave groups and the cloidal (cn) and dnoidal (dn) wave trains as derived from the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The waveforms were generated in a long wind-wave tank of the Canada Centre for Inland Waters. It was found that the low-amplitude transients behaved as predicted by the linear theory and that the cn and dn wave trains of moderate steepness behaved almost as predicted by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Some of the results did not fit into any of the available theories for waves on water, but they provide important insight on how actual groups of waves propagate and on higher-order effects for a transient waveform.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, Joan
1996-01-01
This work evaluates the interaction of a simulated spectrum of convectively generated gravity waves with realistic middle atmosphere mean winds. The wave spectrum is derived from the nonlinear convection model described by Alexander et al. that simulated a two-dimensional midlatitude squall line. This spectrum becomes input to a linear ray tracing model for evaluation of wave propagation as a function of height through climatological background wind and buoyancy frequency profiles. The energy defined by the spectrum as a function of wavenumber and frequency is distributed spatially and temporally into wave packets for the purpose of estimating wave amplitudes at the lower boundary of the ray tracing model. A wavelet analysis provides an estimate of these wave packet widths in space and time. Without this redistribution of energies into wave packets the Fourier analysis alone inaccurately assumes the energy is evenly distributed throughout the storm model domain. The growth with height of wave amplitudes is derived from wave action flux conservation coupled to a convective instability saturation condition. Mean flow accelerations and wave energy dissipation profiles are derived from this analysis and compared to parameterized estimates of gravity wave forcing, providing a measure of the importance of the storm source to global gravity wave forcing. The results suggest that a single large convective storm system like the simulated squall line could provide a significant fraction of the zonal mean gravity wave forcing at some levels, particularly in the mesosphere. The vertical distributions of mean flow acceleration and energy dissipation do not much resemble the parameterized profiles in form because of the peculiarities of the spectral properties of the waves from the storm source. The ray tracing model developed herein provides a tool for examining the role of convectively generated waves in middle atmosphere physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. Joan
1996-01-01
This work evaluates the interaction of a simulated spectrum of convectively generated gravity waves with realistic middle atmosphere mean winds. The wave spectrum is derived from the nonlinear convection model described by Alexander et al. [1995] that simulated a two-dimensional midlatitude squall line. This spectrum becomes input to a linear ray tracing model for evaluation of wave propagation as a function of height through climatological background wind and buoyancy frequency profiles. The energy defined by the spectrum as a function of wavenumber and frequency is distributed spatially and temporally into wave packets for the purpose of estimating wave amplitudes at the lower boundary of the ray tracing model. A wavelet analysis provides an estimate of these wave packet widths in space and time. Without this redistribution of energies into wave packets the Fourier analysis alone inaccurately assumes the energy is evenly distributed throughout the storm model domain. The growth with height of wave amplitudes is derived from wave action flux conservation coupled to a convective instability saturation condition. Mean flow accelerations and wave energy dissipation profiles are derived from this analysis and compared to parameterized estimates of gravity wave forcing, providing a measure of the importance of the storm source to global gravity wave forcing. The results suggest that a single large convective storm system like the simulated squall line could provide a significant fraction of the zonal mean gravity wave forcing at some levels, particularly in the mesosphere. The vertical distributions of mean flow acceleration and energy dissipation do not much resemble the parameterized profiles in form because of the peculiarities of the spectral properties of the waves from the storm source. The ray tracing model developed herein provides a tool for examining the role of convectively generated waves in middle atmosphere physics.
Activity maps of gravity waves and triads derived from CHAMP and SABER data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wernicke, Jeannette; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael
Gravity waves have significant influence on the circulation and thermal structure of the atmo-sphere by transporting energy and momentum. One mechanism of coupling multiple altitudinal levels is the nonlinear wave-wave interaction called triad: two gravity waves can form a third one with different physical properties that can transport energy and momentum to areas far away from its origin. Due to the coarse spatial resolution most global circulation models are unable to resolve gravity waves. So, the effects have to be parameterised. In order to obtain a realistic representation it is important to expand the knowledge about the physical properties of gravity waves. Activity maps of gravity waves and triads are retrieved using satellite measurements from CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) and SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) in an area (50° N, 10° W) to (43° N, 20° E) during the years 2001 to 2008. To retrieve these maps temperature profiles are analysed using the innovative detrending algo-rithm ECUS-D (Ensemble of CUbic Splines for Detrending) to separate background temper-ature and wave signatures. For gravity waves an activity index is calculated. The dominant wavelengths are estimated and searched for nonlinearities. To analyse different observational filters the measurements are compared to each other and to the results of campaign SIGMA-1 (Satellite Validation Impact of Gravity Waves in the Middle Atmosphere). SIGMA-1 is based mainly on radiosonde measurements with high temporal reso-lution at the observatory Hohenpeißenberg and additional synoptic measurements of radiosonde stations in the surrounding region.
On the covariant gauge {alpha} of the linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime
Cheong, Lee Yen
2012-09-26
In previous work, we studied the linearized gravity with covariant gauge {beta}= 2/3 and {alpha}= 5/3. It was found that the sum of the source and initial contributions reproduces the correct field configuration over the whole de Sitter spacetime. In this paper, we extend this work to generalizing the linearized gravitational field in an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter {alpha} but the gauge parameter {beta} remains the same.
Four years of gravity waves monitoring in Antarctica : Impact for global atmospheric studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanc, E.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.
2007-12-01
The development of the Infrasound International Monitoring System, used for the verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, offers a powerful way to measure, permanently and at a global scale, the atmospheric waves at different latitudes. Infrasound stations using several microbarometers are very sensitive acoustic antennas, measuring the main characteristics of infrasound waves including velocity and direction of the wave front. Associated with new data processing methods, a global analysis of the atmospheric disturbances is now possible in a large frequency range. The networks if mostly sensitive to infrasound in the range 0.01 to 10 Hz, but most of gravity waves, which are characterized by very large amplitudes, are also detected by the network. The Antarctic stations are especially interesting for the study of gravity waves, because they are controlled by the polar vortex, and because they are rarely disturbed by the low latitude mountain gravity waves activity which is less important than in the Northern hemisphere. The monitoring of the gravity wave activity in the Antarctica station I27DE from 2003 up to 2007 reveals two active gravity wave systems. The first one, characterized by an azimuth from East, is produced in the troposphere by the wind blowing over mountains. The second system, characterized by an azimuth from West, is correlated with the wind and the temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere and is related with the polar stratospheric vortex. During magnetic storms infrasound waves are generally observed with a North azimuth at frequencies from 0.5 Hz to few Hz, however, gravity waves are generally not observed. A strong wave system has been observed coming from North only once in January 2005 several days after a major magnetic storm. The origin of this wave system in terms of magnetic storm or other processes related with the global dynamics of the stratosphere is discussed.
Wave Dissipation and Balance - NOPP Wave Project
2014-09-30
processes that affect wind-generated ocean gravity waves. The various dissipative processes that contribute to the spectral wave evolution are isolated...over mature ocean surface wave spectra. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34:3345–2358, 2004. K. Hasselmann. On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity wave...P. Giovanangeli. Air flow structure over short- gravity breaking water waves. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 126:477–705, 2008. doi: 10.1007/s10546-007
Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere
2015-10-08
Observation and modeling of tsunami-generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observation and modeling of tsunami-generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon...viscosity), and reconstruct the GW field. We would then apply our models to several observed tsunamis, and calculate the GW field in the
A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.; Zhou, Tiehan
2013-01-01
For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.
Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure from Joint Inversion of Body Wave and Gravity Data
2012-09-01
dimensional seismic structure of the Iran region obtained via simultaneous, joint inversion of body wave travel time and gravity observations. The body...lithospheric structures. To integrate both data sets into a single inversion a functional relationship between seismic velocities and density is...model of the three-dimensional seismic structure of the Iran region obtained via simultaneous, joint inversion of body wave travel time and gravity
Incorporation of a Gravity Wave Momentum Deposition Parameterization into the VTGCM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brecht, A. S.; Zalucha, A. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Rafkin, S. C.; Alexander, M.
2011-12-01
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermospheric general circulation model for Venus (VTGCM) is a three dimensional model that can calculate temperatures, zonal winds, meridional winds, vertical winds, and concentration of specific species. The calculated nightside warm region (near ~100 km) and the O2-IR and NO-UV nightglow intensity distributions have been produced to represent mean conditions observed by Venus Express data and ground-based observations with the use of Rayleigh friction (Brecht et al. JGR, 2011). Rayleigh friction is implemented to parameterize gravity wave momentum drag effects on the global mean zonal wind flow. The purpose is to obtain a first order approximation of the necessary drag to reproduce observations. In addition, Rayleigh friction provides guidelines for the implementation and adjustment of a gravity wave momentum deposition scheme. Most recently, the Alexander and Dunkerton (AMS, 1999) gravity wave momentum parameterization has been incorporated into the VTGCM. The parameterization is designed to deposit momentum fluxes locally and totally at the altitude of wave breaking. Further, it allows waves to continue to propagate above the breaking altitude. Specific fields will be shown to illustrate the impacts the parameterization has on the global circulation (i.e. temperatures, zonal winds, and night airglow distributions (O2 IR and NO UV)). In addition, the chosen values for parameters will be discussed and their importance for depositing the gravity wave momentum. The gravity wave momentum parameterization launches waves from the cloud region within the VTGCM and provides a strong source for asymmetrical global winds.
McLandress, C. ); McFarlane, N.A. )
1993-07-01
A quasigeostrophic model is used to study the combined interaction among orographically generated gravity wave drag, forced planetary waves, and zonal mean flows in the Northern Hemisphere winter stratosphere and mesosphere. The localized gravity wave drag is shown to generate planetary waves in the mesosphere that, in turn, exert a substantial drag on the zonal mean flow via the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence. The amount of planetary wave drag is found to depend not only on the presence of the localized source of orographic gravity wave drag but also on the presence of upward-propagating planetary waves in the lower stratosphere. The zonal mean wind field exhibits a split jet structure with the larger jet maximum situated in the upper stratosphere at 30[degrees]N. This feature is shown to arise from the presence of weak winds above the subtropical tropospheric jet maximum, which results in a region of low-level gravity wave breaking and reduced drag and larger winds above. 33 refs., 18 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Yeunwoo
2014-11-01
The shedding phenomena of 3-D viscous gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by a moving air-forcing on the surface of deep water are investigated. Near the resonance where the forcing speed is close to 23 cm/s, two kinds of shedding modes are possible; Anti-symmetric and symmetric modes. A relevant theoretical model equation is numerically solved for the identification of shedding of solitary waves, and is analytically studied in terms of their linear stability to transverse perturbations. Furthermore, by tracing trajectories of shed solitary waves, the decay rate of a 3-D solitary wave due to viscous dissipation is estimated. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A1002441).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mixa, T.; Fritts, D. C.; Laughman, B.; Wang, L.; Kantha, L. H.
2015-12-01
Multiple observations provide compelling evidence that gravity wave dissipation events often occur in multi-scale environments having highly-structured wind and stability profiles extending from the stable boundary layer into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Such events tend to be highly localized and thus yield local energy and momentum deposition and efficient secondary gravity wave generation expected to have strong influences at higher altitudes [e.g., Fritts et al., 2013; Baumgarten and Fritts, 2014]. Lidars, radars, and airglow imagers typically cannot achieve the spatial resolution needed to fully quantify these small-scale instability dynamics. Hence, we employ high-resolution modeling to explore these dynamics in representative environments. Specifically, we describe numerical studies of gravity wave packets impinging on a sheet of high stratification and shear and the resulting instabilities and impacts on the gravity wave amplitude and momentum flux for various flow and gravity wave parameters. References: Baumgarten, Gerd, and David C. Fritts (2014). Quantifying Kelvin-Helmholtz instability dynamics observed in noctilucent clouds: 1. Methods and observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119.15, 9324-9337. Fritts, D. C., Wang, L., & Werne, J. A. (2013). Gravity wave-fine structure interactions. Part I: Influences of fine structure form and orientation on flow evolution and instability. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(12), 3710-3734.
Seasonal variations in lower stratospheric gravity wave energy above the Falkland Islands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffat-Griffin, T.; Jarvis, M. J.; Colwell, S. R.; Kavanagh, A. J.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.
2013-10-01
gravity wavefield in the lower stratosphere (between 15 km and 22 km altitude) above Mount Pleasant Airport (51°49'S, 58°26'W) on the Falkland Islands is studied using over 2100 high-resolution radiosonde soundings from 2002 to 2010. The seasonal variation in vertical direction of propagation shows a small decrease in numbers of upward propagating waves that is related to critical level filtering; however, there is a very large increase in numbers of downward propagating waves between July and September; this is attributed to the proximity of the edge of the polar vortex. There is a seasonal variation in gravity wave energy density, with a large peak during the austral autumn equinox; this is markedly different to results in the literature both from Rothera, on the Antarctic Peninsula, and stations on the main Antarctic continent. This seasonal pattern has been shown to be linked to variations in the sources of upward propagating gravity waves. The seasonal variation in gravity wave characteristics above Mount Pleasant Airport seen in our results suggests that the gravity wavefield in this region is determined by a combination of different gravity wave sources located above and below the lower stratosphere.
An Object Oriented, Finite Element Framework for Linear Wave Equations
Koning, Joseph M.
2004-03-01
This dissertation documents an object oriented framework which can be used to solve any linear wave equation. The linear wave equations are expressed in the differential forms language. This differential forms expression allows a strict discrete interpretation of the system. The framework is implemented using the Galerkin Finite Element Method to define the discrete differential forms and operators. Finite element basis functions including standard scalar Nodal and vector Nedelec basis functions are used to implement the discrete differential forms resulting in a mixed finite element system. Discretizations of scalar and vector wave equations in the time and frequency domains will be demonstrated in both differential forms and vector calculi. This framework conserves energy, maintains physical continuity, is valid on unstructured grids, conditionally stable and second order accurate. Examples including linear electrodynamics, acoustics, elasticity and magnetohydrodynamics are demonstrated.
Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikehata, Ryo
2005-06-01
A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].
Generation of internal gravity waves by tidal flow over random oceanic topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jiajun; Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry
2015-03-01
Internal waves (IWs) are gravity waves that propagate within density-stratified fluids such as the ocean, atmosphere, and protoplanetary disks. IWs generated by tidal flow over oceanic topography provide much of the energy needed to sustain vertical mixing, which plays a critical role in ocean circulation and global climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the amount of energy that is extracted from tidal flow over topography and radiated into IWs. We conduct 2D numerical simulations to determine the IW power generated by tidal flow over random topographies that have the seafloor spectrum. The power is found to saturate with increasing topographic roughness, and to scale linearly with the characteristic height of the topography. The linear dependence on the topographic height is, surprisingly, nearly independent of the value of the exponent characterizing the topographic spectrum. Our results should lead to improved predictions of the IW power generated by tidal flow over global ocean topography. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Texas Advanced Computing Center. JZ is supported also by the President's Graduate Fellowship from the National University of Singapore.
On asymmetric generalized solitary gravity-capillary waves in finite depth.
Gao, T; Wang, Z; Vanden-Broeck, J-M
2016-10-01
Generalized solitary waves propagating at the surface of a fluid of finite depth are considered. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible and the flow to be irrotational. Both the effects of gravity and surface tension are included. It is shown that in addition to the classical symmetric waves, there are new asymmetric solutions. These new branches of solutions bifurcate from the branches of symmetric waves. The detailed bifurcation diagrams as well as typical wave profiles are presented.
Observational indications of downward-propagating gravity waves in middle atmosphere lidar data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaifler, N.; Kaifler, B.; Ehard, B.; Gisinger, S.; Dörnbrack, A.; Rapp, M.; Kivi, R.; Kozlovsky, A.; Lester, M.; Liley, B.
2017-09-01
Two Rayleigh lidars were employed at a southern-hemisphere mid-latitude site in New Zealand (45°S) and a northern-hemisphere high-latitude site in Finland (67°N) in order to observe gravity waves between 30 and 85 km altitude under wintertime conditions. Two-dimensional wavelet analysis is used to analyze temperature perturbations caused by gravity waves and to determine their vertical wavelengths and phase progression. In both datasets, upward phase progression waves occur frequently between 30 and 85 km altitude. Six cases of large-amplitude wave packets are selected which exhibit upward phase progression in the stratosphere and/or mesosphere. We argue that these wave packets propagate downward and we discuss possible wave generation mechanisms. Spectral analysis reveals that superpositions of two or three wave packets are common. Furthermore, their characteristics often match those of upward-propagating waves which are observed at the same time or earlier. In the dataset means, the contribution of upward phase progression waves to the potential energy density Ep is largest in the lower stratosphere above Finland. There, Ep of upward and downward phase progression waves is comparable. At 85 km one third of the potential energy carried by propagating waves is attributed to upward phase progression waves. In some cases Ep of upward phase progression waves far exceeds Ep of downward phase progression waves. The downward-propagating waves might be generated in situ in the middle atmosphere or arise from reflection of upward-propagating waves.
Gravity Wave Driven Instabilities at Large Richardson Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.
2011-12-01
The formalism that addresses rigorously the instability of waves on a basic state modulated by a primary wave is Floquet theory. However, the commonly used criteria for shear and convective instabilities were developed for steady horizontally uniform background flows. The prototypical shear instability is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The flow is stable if the local Richardson number Ri =N2/{\\vert{∂ /∂ z}\\vert}2 > 1/4 everywhere, where N is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency and u is the horizontal wind. The prototypical convective instability is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Ignoring wind effects and dissipation, the flow is unstable if N2 < 0 (i.e., Ri <0) somewhere. These instability structures drift with the wind. In Floquet theory the linear system of equations is transformed so that the basic wave is stationary and the vertical coordinate points along the wavenumber vector of the basic wave. A Floquet system supports instabilities when conventional Richardson number criteria indicate that the system is stable. Indeed, finite amplitude waves are unstable no matter how large the Richardson number might be. An essential instability mechanism in Floquet systems is a resonant interaction between a forced primary oscillation and a free oscillation of the time-averaged system. These are parametric instabilities. They can have a significant influence on shaping the spectrum by transferring energy from one scale to another. Hecht et al. [2005] in a study of small scale instability structures during the Maui MALT campaign noted that there were occurrences of ripple (instability) structure when the conventional criteria indicated stable conditions. We have followed up this work with a detailed survey of the occurrence of ripple structure over Maui during periods that were stable and unstable according to conventional criteria. Values of Ri were calculated from meteor radar and lidar data. We have found frequent occurrence of ripple structure when Ri > 1/4 and
Suomi NPP VIIRS/DNB imagery of nightglow gravity waves from various sources over China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chang; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Straka, William C.; Miller, Steven D.; Liu, Xiao
2017-04-01
Observation of atmospheric gravity waves provides critical insight to weather and climate researches. Some gravity waves survive middle-atmospheric filtering as they propagate upward to the mesopause region and disturb the nightglow emission layer near 90 km AMSL, making the waves visible to both ground and space sensors. Based on the high-resolution images obtained by Day/Night Band on NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite, four representative gravity wave events over China are analyzed. With the help of VIIRS thermal infrared brightness temperature and MERRA wind data, we surmise that these waves originated from orography, thunderstorm, typhoon and baroclinic, respectively. Nadir viewing satellite observations cover a wide area and unlike the surface-based perspective, do not suffer from cloud obscuration. These new observations over remote areas provide important guidance for future deployment of ground based camera systems in China.
Thermospheric Gravity Wave Characteristics Obtained Using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negale, M.; Nielsen, K.; Taylor, M. J.; Nicolls, M. J.
2014-12-01
Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in atmospheric circulation through momentum deposition in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region (~80 - 110 km). Over the past decade, modeling and observational studies have shown that these waves can penetrate to high altitudes and play similar roles in the thermospheric region (~110 - 400 km). Several case studies have revealed their presence in the thermosphere, but the distributions and variability of thermospheric gravity wave parameters are currently unknown. Using methods developed by Nicolls and Heinselman (2007), we present new high-latitude thermospheric wave characteristic distributions obtained using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) during a one year period from August 2010 - July 2011. Their winter season distributions (January 2010 - April 2011) are compared to recent results obtained using a co-located all sky airglow imager measuring the MLT gravity wave field.
Exploring Gravity Wave Dynamics and Predictability in DeepWave (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R. B.; Eckermann, S. D.; Taylor, M. J.
2013-12-01
An overview is provided of the first research program that attempts to follow deeply propagating gravity waves (GWs) from their tropospheric sources to their mesospheric breakdown. The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE program (DEEPWAVE) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program centered on New Zealand and focused on providing a new understanding of GW dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program will employ the NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. The NGV will be equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments for the DEEPWAVE measurement program, providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. Observations from these instruments obtained during a recent NGV test flight will be shown. The region near New Zealand is chosen since all the relevant GW sources (e.g., mountains, cyclones, jet streams) occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit GWs to propagate to very high altitudes. Given large-amplitude GWs that propagate routinely into the MLT, the New Zealand region offers an ideal natural laboratory for studying these important GW dynamics and effects impacting weather and climate over a much deeper atmospheric layer than previous campaigns have attempted (0-100 km altitude). In this presentation, we provide examples from a suite of GW-focused modeling and predictability tools that will be used to guide NGV flight planning to GW events of greatest scientific significance. These models will also drive scientific interpretation of the GW measurements, together providing answers to the key science questions posed by DEEPWAVE about GW dynamics, morphology, predictability and impacts from 0-100 km. Preliminary results will be presented from high-resolution and adjoint models with deep
Standing wave bi-directional linearly moving ultrasonic motor.
He, S; Chen, W; Tao, X; Chen, Z
1998-01-01
A standing wave bi-directional linearly moving ultrasonic motor has been studied for the purpose of implementing a practical linear ultrasonic motor with simple structure, simple driving and high resolution. The fundamental principle of this linear motor is projections on the right sides of a standing wave crests generating thrust force right-diagonally on the slider pressed against the projections. Correspondingly, projections on the left sides of the wave crests make the slider move toward the left. In order to realize bi-directional actuating, vibration mode B3 or B4 is excited in a rectangular plate-type vibrator to make the projections on the right sides or the left sides of the wave crests. In this paper, the operation principle of the linear motor is demonstrated. Furthermore, a prototype linear ultrasonic motor of 40 mm in length, 10 mm in width is fabricated and investigated. The following performances have been achieved: maximum speed 200 mm/s, maximum force output 150 gf, and resolution less than 0.1 microm.
Spectrograms of ship wakes: identifying linear and nonlinear wave signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pethiyagoda, Ravindra; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.
2017-01-01
A spectrogram is a useful way of using short-time discrete Fourier transforms to visualise surface height measurements taken of ship wakes in real world conditions. For a steadily moving ship that leaves behind small-amplitude waves, the spectrogram is known to have two clear linear components, a sliding-frequency mode caused by the divergent waves and a constant-frequency mode for the transverse waves. However, recent observations of high speed ferry data have identified additional components of the spectrograms that are not yet explained. We use computer simulations of linear and nonlinear ship wave patterns and apply time-frequency analysis to generate spectrograms for an idealised ship. We clarify the role of the linear dispersion relation and ship speed on the two linear components. We use a simple weakly nonlinear theory to identify higher order effects in a spectrogram and, while the high speed ferry data is very noisy, we propose that certain additional features in the experimental data are caused by nonlinearity. Finally, we provide a possible explanation for a further discrepancy between the high speed ferry spectrograms and linear theory by accounting for ship acceleration.
Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity
Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw
2012-12-01
We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.
Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.
2008-01-01
The gravity wave (GW)-resolving capabilities of 118-GHz saturated thermal radiances acquired throughout the stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically thick) radiances resolve GW perturbations from a given altitude at different horizontal locations, variances are evaluated at 12 pressure altitudes between 21 and 51 km using the 40 saturated radiances found at the bottom of each limb scan. Forward modeling simulations show that these variances are controlled mostly by GWs with vertical wavelengths z 5 km and horizontal along-track wavelengths of y 100-200 km. The tilted cigar-shaped three-dimensional weighting functions yield highly selective responses to GWs of high intrinsic frequency that propagate toward the instrument. The latter property is used to infer the net meridional component of GW propagation by differencing the variances acquired from ascending (A) and descending (D) orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5?8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS. Like UARS MLS variances, monthly-mean Aura MLS variances in January and July 2005 are enhanced when local background wind speeds are large, due largely to GW visibility effects. Zonal asymmetries in variance maps reveal enhanced GW activity at high latitudes due to forcing by flow over major mountain ranges and at tropical and subtropical latitudes due to enhanced deep convective generation as inferred from contemporaneous MLS cloud-ice data. At 21-28-km altitude (heights not measured by the UARS MLS), GW variance in the tropics is systematically enhanced and shows clear variations with the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, in general agreement with GW temperature variances derived from radiosonde, rocketsonde, and limb-scan vertical profiles.
Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation