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Sample records for lines sy-5y neuroblastoma

  1. Cytotoxicity induced by cypermethrin in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Raszewski, Grzegorz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Łukawski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of Cypermethrin (CM) on cultured human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with CM at 0-200µM for 24, 48, and 72 h, in vitro. It was found that CM induced the cell death of Neuroblastoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by LDH assays. Next, some aspects of the process of cell death triggered by CM in the human SH-SY5Y cell line were investigated. It was revealed that the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, sensitizes SH-SY5Y cells to necroptosis caused by CM. Furthermore, signal transduction inhibitors PD98059, SL-327, SB202190, SP600125 failed to attenuate the effect of the pesticide. Finally, it was shown that inhibition of TNF-a by Pomalidomide (PLD) caused statistically significant reduction in CM-induced cytotoxicity. Overall, the data obtained suggest that CM induces neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by necroptosis.

  2. Silicon as neuroprotector or neurotoxic in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

    PubMed

    Garcimartín, Alba; Merino, José Joaquín; Santos-López, Jorge Arturo; López-Oliva, María Elvira; González, María Pilar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco José; Benedí, Juana

    2015-09-01

    Silicon (Si) is a trace element that has been considered to be an environmental contaminant for many years, although different studies have recently reported it is an essential element for living cells. The present study tested the ability of different concentrations of Si G57™ to induce neuroprotection or neurotoxicity over 24 h in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Cell viability, cellular proliferation, LDH release, ROS, antioxidant capacity, TBARS, caspase-3, -8 and -9, DNA fragmentation, and TNF-α levels were evaluated. Low Si doses (50-250 ng mL(-1)) increased the cell viability and reduced caspase-3 and -8 activities and TNF-α level. The increase in cell viability was independent of any proliferative effect as there was no variation in cyclin E and PCNA levels. At higher concentrations, Si increased caspase-3, as well as TBARS, LDH, DNA fragmentation, and TNF-α releases. Altogether, these results suggest that Si could act either as a neuroprotector or a neurotoxic agent depending on the concentration tested. This study emphasizes the importance of developing new neuroprotective therapies based on low Si doses.

  3. Chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Raszewski, Grzegorz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Łukawski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Małgorzata; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2015-02-01

    Our previous in vivo studies showed that chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CM) in a mixture dermally administered, strongly inhibited cholinesterase activity in plasma and the brain and were very toxic to the rat central nervous system. In this work, the mechanisms of neurotoxicity have not been elucidated. We used human undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells to study mechanisms of pesticide-induced neuronal cell death. It was found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its mixture with cypermethrin (CPF+CM) induced cell death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by MTT assays. Pesticide-induced SH-SY5Y cell death was characterized by concentration-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as an increase in the caspase 3 activation. Pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh produced a slight but significant reversal effect of pesticide-induced toxicity indicating that the major caspase pathways are not integral to CPF- and CPF+CM-induced cell death. Furthermore, signal transduction inhibitors PD98059, SL-327, SB202190, SP600125 and mecamylamine failed to attenuate pesticides effect. Atropine exhibited minimal ability to reverse toxicity. Finally, it was shown that inhibition of TNF-α by pomalidomide attenuated CPF-/CPF+CM-induced apoptosis. Overall, our data suggest that FAS/TNF signalling pathways may participate in CPF and CPF+CM toxicity.

  4. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide. PMID:27241584

  5. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide.

  6. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Filograna, Roberta; Civiero, Laura; Ferrari, Vanni; Codolo, Gaia; Greggio, Elisa; Bubacco, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bisaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2)-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2)-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2)-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2)-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.

  7. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:27036033

  8. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment.

  9. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:27036033

  10. Synthesis of amphiphilic resveratrol lipoconjugates and evaluation of their anticancer activity towards neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, Rosa; Cardullo, Nunzio; Greco, Valentina; Malfa, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Barbara; Sciuto, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol present in grapes and other edible plants, possesses several important pharmacological activities, including anticancer activity. Nevertheless, its therapeutic use is still limited because of some unfavourable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties, mainly, poor cellular uptake and too rapid metabolism resulting in elimination from the body. To meet these drawbacks, some resveratrol conjugates would be useful, which would possess improved stability, uptake and bioavailability than the lead compound, and the ability to release it once it is internalized into the cell. In this paper we report a synthetic strategy which allowed us to obtain new amphiphilic resveratrol derivatives starting from different selectively protected resveratrol phosphoramidites or even from the resveratrol triphosphoramidite. Specifically, resveratrol was conjugated through phosphate bridge(s) to different lipophilic groups related to membrane lipids, such as cholesteryl or diacylglycero moieties. All the new lipoconjugates were tested towards human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and proved to be significantly more active than resveratrol, with a concentration-dependent activity.

  11. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1-10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1-10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons.

  12. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons. PMID:26779023

  13. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on cell viability in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

    PubMed

    Regulska, Magdalena; Pomierny, Bartosz; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Starek, Andrzej; Filip, Małgorzata; Lasoń, Władysław; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2010-01-01

    Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are a class of chemicals used extensively in the manufacture of a wide range of domestic and industrial products, which may result in human exposure and toxicity. Hematologic and reproductive toxicity of EGEs are well known whereas their action on neuronal cell viability has not been studied so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of some EGEs on cell viability and on the hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. It has been found that 2-phenoxyethanol in a concentration-dependent manner (5-25 mM, 24 h) increased the basal and H(2)O(2)-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction. 2-Butoxyethanol given alone did not affect LDH release and MTT reduction but concentration-dependently enhanced the cytotoxic effect of H(2)O(2). 2-Isopropoxyethanol significantly and concentration-dependently (1-25 mM) increased the basal LDH release and attenuated MTT reduction, but did not potentiate the cytotoxic effect of H(2)O(2). Contrary to this, 2-methoxyethanol did not show a cytotoxic effect while 2-ethoxyethanol at high concentrations intensified the hydrogen peroxide action. This study demonstrated that among the EGEs studied, 2-phenoxyethanol showed the most consistent cytotoxic effect on neurons in in vitro conditions and enhanced the hydrogen peroxide action. 2-Isopropoxyethanol had also a potent cytotoxic effect, but it did not enhance the hydrogen peroxide action, whereas 2-butoxyethanol only potentiated cytotoxic effect of H(2)O(2). It is concluded that the results of the present study should be confirmed in in vivo conditions and that some EGEs, especially 2-phenoxyethanol, 2-butoxyethanol and 2-isopropoxyethanol, may be responsible for initiation or exacerbation of neuronal cell damage.

  14. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Badorrey, Maria Sol; Capani, Francisco; Alvarez, Lisandro Diego Giraldez

    2011-09-01

    Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate if an extract of commercial powdered seeds of Guaraná could protect human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Two concentration of Guaraná dimethylsulfoxide extract (0.312 and 0.625 mg/mL) were added to SH-SY5Y cells treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h, and the cytoprotective effects were assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and analyzing nuclear integrity with Hoechst33258 stain. Results showed that the addition of Guaraná extract significantly increased the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, LDH levels were significantly reduced by addition of 0.312 mg/mL of Guaraná, but unexpectedly, no changes were observed with the higher concentration. Moreover, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were significantly reduced by addition of any of both concentrations of the extract. The results obtained in this work could provide relevant information about the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD and precede in vivo experiments. Further studies are needed to investigate which active constituent is responsible for the cytoprotective effect produced by Paullinia cupana.

  15. A fluorescence assay for measuring acetylcholinesterase activity in rat blood and a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y).

    PubMed

    Santillo, Michael F; Liu, Yitong

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme responsible for metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and inhibition of AChE can have therapeutic applications (e.g., drugs for Alzheimer's disease) or neurotoxic consequences (e.g., pesticides). A common absorbance-based AChE activity assay that uses 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) can have limited sensitivity and be prone to interference. Therefore, an alternative assay was developed, in which AChE activity was determined by measuring fluorescence of resorufin produced from coupled enzyme reactions involving acetylcholine and Amplex Red (10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine). The Amplex Red assay was used for two separate applications. First, AChE activity was measured in rat whole blood, which is a biomarker for exposure to AChE inhibitor pesticides. Activity was quantified from a 10(5)-fold dilution of whole blood, and there was a linear correlation between Amplex Red and DTNB assays. For the second application, Amplex Red assay was used to measure AChE inhibition potency in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), which is important for assessing pharmacological and toxicological potential of AChE inhibitors including drugs, phytochemicals, and pesticides. Five known reversible inhibitors were evaluated (IC50, 7-225 nM), along with irreversible inhibitors chlorpyrifos-oxon (ki=1.01 nM(-1)h(-1)) and paraoxon (ki=0.16 nM(-1)h(-1)). Lastly, in addition to inhibition, AChE reactivation was measured in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM). The Amplex Red assay is a sensitive, specific, and reliable fluorescence method for measuring AChE activity in both rat whole blood and cultured SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:26165232

  16. Overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase increases the expression of neurogenic differentiation markers in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Graser, Stephanie; Mentrup, Birgit; Schneider, Doris; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Jakob, Franz; Hofmann, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from the rare hereditary disease hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is based on mutations in the ALPL gene, tend to develop central nervous system (CNS) related issues like epileptic seizures and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depression, in addition to well-known problems with the mineralization of bones and teeth. Analyses of the molecular role of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in transgenic SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) neuroblastoma cells compared to SH-SY5Y(TNAPlow) cells indicate that the enzyme influences the expression levels of neuronal marker genes like RNA-binding protein, fox-1 homolog 3 (NEUN) and enolase 2, gamma neuronal (NSE) as well as microtubule-binding proteins like microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and microtubule-associated protein tau (TAU) during neurogenic differentiation. Fluorescence staining of SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells reveals TNAP localization throughout the whole length of the developed projection network and even synapsin Ι co-localization with strong TNAP signals at some spots at least at the early time points of differentiation. Additional immunocytochemical staining shows higher MAP2 expression in SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells and further a distinct up-regulation of tau and MAP2 in the course of neurogenic differentiation. Interestingly, transgenic SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells are able to develop longer cellular processes compared to control cells after stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Current therapies for HPP prioritize improvement of the bone phenotype. Unraveling the molecular role of TNAP in extraosseous tissues, like in the CNS, will help to improve treatment strategies for HPP patients. Taking this rare disease as a model may also help to dissect TNAP's role in neurodegenerative diseases and even improve future treatment of common pathologies.

  17. The effect of UV-filters on the viability of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

    PubMed

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Pomierny, Bartosz; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-05-01

    Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72h in high concentration (10(-5) and 10(-4)M) and 4-MBC only 10(-4)M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10(-8) to 10(-7)M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached in vivo. Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26965011

  18. The effect of UV-filters on the viability of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

    PubMed

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Pomierny, Bartosz; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-05-01

    Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72h in high concentration (10(-5) and 10(-4)M) and 4-MBC only 10(-4)M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10(-8) to 10(-7)M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached in vivo. Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Considerations for the use of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Kovalevich, Jane; Langford, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The use of primary mammalian neurons derived from embryonic central nervous system tissue is limited by the fact that once terminally differentiated into mature neurons, the cells can no longer be propagated. Transformed neuronal-like cell lines can be used in vitro to overcome this limitation. However, several caveats exist when utilizing cells derived from malignant tumors. In this context, the popular SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and its use in in vitro systems is described. Originally derived from a metastatic bone tumor biopsy, SH-SY5Y (ATCC(®) CRL-2266™) cells are a subline of the parental line SK-N-SH (ATCC(®) HTB-11™). SK-N-SH were subcloned three times; first to SH-SY, then to SH-SY5, and finally to SH-SY5Y. SH-SY5Y were deposited to the ATCC(®) in 1970 by June L. Biedler.Three important characteristics of SH-SY5Y cells should be considered when using these cells in in vitro studies. First, cultures include both adherent and floating cells, both types of which are viable. Few studies address the biological significance of the adherent versus floating phenotypes, but most reported studies utilize adherent populations and discard the floating cells during media changes. Second, early studies by Biedler's group indicated that the parental differentiated SK-N-SH cells contained two morphologically distinct phenotypes: neuroblast-like cells and epithelial-like cells (Ross et al., J Nat Cancer Inst 71:741-747, 1983). These two phenotypes may correspond to the "N" and "S" types described in later studies in SH-SY5Y by Encinas et al. (J Neurochem 75:991-1003, 2000). Cells with neuroblast-like morphology are positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-β-hydroxylase characteristic of catecholaminergic neurons, whereas the epithelial-like counterpart cells lacked these enzymatic activities (Ross et al., J Nat Cancer Inst 71:741-747, 1983). Third, SH-SY5Y cells can be differentiated to a more mature neuron-like phenotype that is characterized by

  20. Se-methylselenocysteine inhibits apoptosis induced by clusterin knockdown in neuroblastoma N2a and SH-SY5Y cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zeng, Zhenyu; Liu, Qiong; Zhang, Renli; Ni, Jiazuan

    2014-11-18

    Apoptosis, as a programmed cell death process, is essential for the maintenance of tissue function in organisms. Alteration of this process is linked to many diseases. Over-expression of clusterin (Clu) can antagonize apoptosis in various cells. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for human health. Its biological function is also associated with cell apoptosis. To explore the function of Clu and the impact of Se in the process of apoptosis, several short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were designed for the construction of two sets of recombinant plasmids: one set for plasmid-transfection of mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells (N2a cells); and the other set for lentiviral infection of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y cells). These shRNAs specifically and efficiently interfered with the intracellular expression of Clu at both the mRNA and protein levels. The Clu-knockdown cells showed apoptosis-related features, including down-regulation of antioxidative capacity and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and up-regulation of caspase-8 activity. Se-methylselenocysteine (MSC) at an optimum concentration of 1 μM could reverse the alteration in antioxidative capacity, Bcl2/Bax ratio and caspase-8 activity caused by Clu-knockdown, thus inhibiting apoptosis and maintaining cell viability. The results hereby imply the potentiality of Clu and Se in neuroprotection.

  1. Temozolomide may induce cell cycle arrest by interacting with URG4/URGCP in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Çıtışlı, Veli; Dodurga, Yavuz; Eroğlu, Canan; Seçme, Mücahit; Avcı, Çığır Biray; Şatıroğlu-Tufan, N Lale

    2015-09-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating drug used usually in glioma treatment by inducing the apoptosis in glioma cell. The aim of the study is to investigate the anticancer mechanism of TMZ in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Cytotoxic effects of TMZ were determined by using XTT assay. IC50 doses in the SH-SY5Y were detected as 5 mM. Expression profiles of novel genes URG4/URGCP, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, and BCL2 were determined by real-time PCR. The apoptotic effects of TMZ were evaluated with TUNEL method. Furthermore, effects of TMZ on colony formation and invasion were investigated in this study. It was observed that TMZ in SH-SY5Y cell line caused a significant decrease in the gene expressions of URG4/URGCP, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, and BCL2. According to TUNEL assay results, TMZ markedly induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cell line. It was found that TMZ in SH-SY5Y cell line suppressed invasion and colony formation using matrigel invasion chamber and colony formation assay, respectively. To conclude, it is thought that TMZ demonstrates anticarcinogenesis activity by affecting cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, invasion, and colony formation on SH-SY5Y cells. TMZ may be an effective agent for treatment of neuroblastoma as a single or in combination with other drugs.

  2. Therapeutic concentrations of valproate but not amitriptyline increase neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Lorna A; Savage, Niall T P; O'Callaghan, Cristina; Toulouse, André; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz M

    2013-09-10

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide found in the brain and autonomic nervous system, which is associated with anxiety, depression, epilepsy, learning and memory, sleep, obesity and circadian rhythms. NPY has recently gained much attention as an endogenous antiepileptic and antidepressant agent, as drugs with antiepileptic and/or mood-stabilizing properties may exert their action by increasing NPY concentrations, which in turn can reduce anxiety and depression levels, dampen seizures or increase seizure threshold. We have used human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to investigate the effect of valproate (VPA) and amitriptyline (AMI) on NPY expression at therapeutic plasma concentrations of 0.6mM and 630nM, respectively. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) known to differentiate SH-SY5Y cells into a neuronal phenotype and to increase NPY expression through activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was applied as a positive control (16nM). Cell viability after drug treatment was tested with a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. NPY expression was measured using immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results from immunocytochemistry have shown NPY levels to be significantly increased following a 72h but not 24h VPA treatment. A further increase in expression was observed with simultaneous VPA and TPA treatment, suggesting that the two agents may increase NPY expression through different mechanisms. The increase in NPY mRNA by VPA and TPA was confirmed with qRT-PCR after 72h. In contrast, AMI had no effect on NPY expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Together, the data point to an elevation of human NPY mRNA and peptide levels by therapeutic concentrations of VPA following chronic treatment. Thus, upregulation of NPY may have an impact in anti-cancer treatment of neuroblastomas with VPA, and antagonizing hypothalamic NPY effects may help to ameliorate VPA-induced weight gain and obesity without interfering with the

  3. Propolis Inhibits Neurite Outgrowth in Differentiating SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Bit; Yoo, Byung Sun

    2016-07-01

    Propolis is a multicomponent, active, complex resinous substance collected by honeybees from a variety of plant sources. We have studied the effect of propolis on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced to differentiate by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Propolis, at a concentration of 3 μg/mL, had no significant effect on the viability of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. However, the neurite outgrowth of the differentiating SH-SY5Y cells treated with propolis (0.3~3 μg/mL) for 48 hr was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of RA-stimulated differentiating SH-SY5Y cells with 0.3 to 3 μg/mL propolis resulted in decreased level of transglutaminase and 43-kDa growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that propolis is able to inhibit neurite outgrowth of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:27437091

  4. Propolis Inhibits Neurite Outgrowth in Differentiating SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Bit; Yoo, Byung Sun

    2016-07-01

    Propolis is a multicomponent, active, complex resinous substance collected by honeybees from a variety of plant sources. We have studied the effect of propolis on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced to differentiate by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Propolis, at a concentration of 3 μg/mL, had no significant effect on the viability of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. However, the neurite outgrowth of the differentiating SH-SY5Y cells treated with propolis (0.3~3 μg/mL) for 48 hr was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of RA-stimulated differentiating SH-SY5Y cells with 0.3 to 3 μg/mL propolis resulted in decreased level of transglutaminase and 43-kDa growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that propolis is able to inhibit neurite outgrowth of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells.

  5. Cadmium inhibits neurite outgrowth in differentiating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pak, Eun Joo; Son, Gi Dong; Yoo, Byung Sun

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, a highly ubiquitous heavy metal, is well known to induce neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism of cadmium-mediated neurotoxicity remains unclear. We have studied cadmium inhibition of neurite outgrowth using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells induced to differentiate by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Cadmium, at a concentration of 3 μmol/L, had no significant effect on the viability of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. However, the neurite outgrowth of the differentiating SH-SY5Y cells 48 hours after cadmium treatment (1-3 μmol/L cadmium) was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of RA-stimulated differentiating SH-SY5Y cells with 1 to 3 μmol/L cadmium resulted in decreased level of cross-reactivities with 43-kDa growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in a dose-dependent manner. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, NAC (N-acetyl-l-cysteine), recovered the expression of GAP-43 in cadmium-treated cells. The results indicate that cadmium is able to inhibit neurite outgrowth of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells and that this effect might result from ROS generation by cadmium.

  6. Propolis Inhibits Neurite Outgrowth in Differentiating SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han Bit; Yoo, Byung Sun

    2016-01-01

    Propolis is a multicomponent, active, complex resinous substance collected by honeybees from a variety of plant sources. We have studied the effect of propolis on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced to differentiate by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Propolis, at a concentration of 3 μg/mL, had no significant effect on the viability of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. However, the neurite outgrowth of the differentiating SH-SY5Y cells treated with propolis (0.3~3 μg/mL) for 48 hr was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of RA-stimulated differentiating SH-SY5Y cells with 0.3 to 3 μg/mL propolis resulted in decreased level of transglutaminase and 43-kDa growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that propolis is able to inhibit neurite outgrowth of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:27437091

  7. Vincristine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yue; Cheng, Shixiang; Zhang, Sai; Sun, Hongtao; Xu, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common childhood tumor. Vincristine (VCR), an alkaloid extracted from Catharanthus roseus, is commonly used in combination chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of VCR-induced neuroblastoma cell death are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of VCR on mitosis and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with increasing VCR doses for different time points. Cell proliferation was detected using the MTT assay. Mitotic rate was quantified by immunofluorescence. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 and -9 (apoptotic factors), as well as cyclin B and D (cell cycle factors), was evaluated by real-time (RT)-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. VCR inhibited SH-SY5Y cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The IC50 of VCR in SH-SY5Y cells was determined as 0.1 µM. VCR at 0.1 µM induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis, promoted the expression of caspase-3 and -9 and cyclin B, while decreasing the expression of cyclin D at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Except for the mRNA expression of cyclin D at 6 h, these changes were significant at both the mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). VCR induces mitotic arrest of SH-SY5Y cells by regulating cyclin B and D. It further induces apoptosis in these cells through the activation of caspase-3 and -9. This study provides fundamental evidence for the application of VCR in neuroblastoma chemotherapy.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqian; Wang, Hongbin; Lai, Chengjun; Wang, Lu; Deng, Yulin

    2013-02-01

    Microgravity is one of the most important features in spaceflight. Previous evidence has shown that neurophysiological impairment signs occurred under microgravity. The present study was undertaken to explore the change in protein abundance in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells that were grown in a microgravity environment. The comparative proteomic method based on the (18)O labeling technique was applied to investigate the up-regulated proteins and down-regulated proteins in SH-SY5Y under simulated microgravity. Twenty-two differentially abundant proteins were quantified in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell microfilament network was disrupted under simulated microgravity, which was determined by the immunocytochemistry. The concentration of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and free Ca2+ ion significantly increased, and the level of ATP significantly decreased under simulated microgravity. However, there was no obvious cell apoptosis observed under simulated microgravity. These results provide new molecular evidence for the change in protein abundance in SH-SY5Y cells under simulated microgravity, which might unfold biological mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures to deal with microgravity-related neurological problems. We believe that the state-of-the-art proteomic assay may be a means by which aerospace scientists will begin to understand the underlying mechanisms of space life activities at the protein level.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqian; Wang, Hongbin; Lai, Chengjun; Wang, Lu; Deng, Yulin

    2013-02-01

    Microgravity is one of the most important features in spaceflight. Previous evidence has shown that neurophysiological impairment signs occurred under microgravity. The present study was undertaken to explore the change in protein abundance in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells that were grown in a microgravity environment. The comparative proteomic method based on the (18)O labeling technique was applied to investigate the up-regulated proteins and down-regulated proteins in SH-SY5Y under simulated microgravity. Twenty-two differentially abundant proteins were quantified in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell microfilament network was disrupted under simulated microgravity, which was determined by the immunocytochemistry. The concentration of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and free Ca2+ ion significantly increased, and the level of ATP significantly decreased under simulated microgravity. However, there was no obvious cell apoptosis observed under simulated microgravity. These results provide new molecular evidence for the change in protein abundance in SH-SY5Y cells under simulated microgravity, which might unfold biological mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures to deal with microgravity-related neurological problems. We believe that the state-of-the-art proteomic assay may be a means by which aerospace scientists will begin to understand the underlying mechanisms of space life activities at the protein level. PMID:23421552

  10. SPHK1/sphingosine kinase 1-mediated autophagy differs between neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moruno Manchon, Jose Felix; Uzor, Ndidi-Ese; Finkbeiner, Steven; Tsvetkov, Andrey S

    2016-08-01

    Although implicated in neurodegeneration, autophagy has been characterized mostly in yeast and mammalian non-neuronal cells. In a recent study, we sought to determine if SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1), implicated previously in macroautophagy/autophagy in cancer cells, regulates autophagy in neurons. SPHK1 synthesizes sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid involved in cell survival. In our study, we discovered that, when neuronal autophagy is pharmacologically stimulated, SPHK1 relocalizes to the endocytic and autophagic organelles. Interestingly, in non-neuronal cells stimulated with growth factors, SPHK1 translocates to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates sphingosine to produce S1P. Whether SPHK1 also binds to the endocytic and autophagic organelles in non-neuronal cells upon induction of autophagy has not been demonstrated. Here, we determined if the effect in neurons is operant in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. In both non-differentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, a short incubation of cells in amino acid-free medium stimulated the formation of SPHK1-positive puncta, as in neurons. We also found that, unlike neurons in which these puncta represent endosomes, autophagosomes, and amphisomes, in SH-SY5Y cells SPHK1 is bound only to the endosomes. In addition, a dominant negative form of SPHK1 was very toxic to SH-SY5Y cells, but cultured primary cortical neurons tolerated it significantly better. These results suggest that autophagy in neurons is regulated by mechanisms that differ, at least in part, from those in SH-SY5Y cells.

  11. SPHK1/sphingosine kinase 1-mediated autophagy differs between neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moruno Manchon, Jose Felix; Uzor, Ndidi-Ese; Finkbeiner, Steven; Tsvetkov, Andrey S

    2016-08-01

    Although implicated in neurodegeneration, autophagy has been characterized mostly in yeast and mammalian non-neuronal cells. In a recent study, we sought to determine if SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1), implicated previously in macroautophagy/autophagy in cancer cells, regulates autophagy in neurons. SPHK1 synthesizes sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid involved in cell survival. In our study, we discovered that, when neuronal autophagy is pharmacologically stimulated, SPHK1 relocalizes to the endocytic and autophagic organelles. Interestingly, in non-neuronal cells stimulated with growth factors, SPHK1 translocates to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates sphingosine to produce S1P. Whether SPHK1 also binds to the endocytic and autophagic organelles in non-neuronal cells upon induction of autophagy has not been demonstrated. Here, we determined if the effect in neurons is operant in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. In both non-differentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, a short incubation of cells in amino acid-free medium stimulated the formation of SPHK1-positive puncta, as in neurons. We also found that, unlike neurons in which these puncta represent endosomes, autophagosomes, and amphisomes, in SH-SY5Y cells SPHK1 is bound only to the endosomes. In addition, a dominant negative form of SPHK1 was very toxic to SH-SY5Y cells, but cultured primary cortical neurons tolerated it significantly better. These results suggest that autophagy in neurons is regulated by mechanisms that differ, at least in part, from those in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:27467777

  12. Salicin from Willow Bark can Modulate Neurite Outgrowth in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Kersten, Astrid; Fiebich, Bernd; Hug, Martin J; Schempp, Christoph M

    2015-10-01

    Salicin from willow bark has been used throughout centuries in China and Europe for the treatment of pain, headache, and inflammatory conditions. Recently, it could be demonstrated that salicin binds and activates the bitter taste receptor TAS2R16. Studies on rodent tissues showed the general expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in rodent brain. Here, we demonstrate the expression of hTAS2R16 in human neuronal tissues and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The functionality was analyzed in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y after stimulation with salicin, a known TAS2R16 agonist. In this setting salicin induced in SH-SY5Y cells phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, the key transcription factor of neuronal differentiation. PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway, as well as probenecid, a TAS2R16 antagonist, inhibited receptor phosphorylation as well as neurite outgrowth. These data show that salicin might modulate neurite outgrowth by bitter taste receptor activation.

  13. Cytotoxic effect of extract from Dunaliella salina against SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Atasever-Arslan, Belkis; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Bekaroglu, Maide G; Taskin, Emre; Altinoz, Eyup; Cetiner, Selim

    2015-04-01

    Cytotoxic effects of essential oils extracted from Dunaliella salina on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were investigated in this study. GC-MS analysis was used for determination of the composition of essential oils found in Dunaliella salina extract. All experimented concentrations of Dunaliella salina extract on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were significantly more cytotoxic than the tested concentrations of the extract on ECV304 human endothelial cells used as a control. Fifthy compounds were detected in GC-MS analysis of the extract, and five major compounds were predominantly found as follows: octadecanoic acid, methyl ester (27.43%); hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (Cas) methyl palmitate (24.82%); 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (7.39%); octadecanoic acid (5.03%), pentadecanoic acid (3.60%). The cytotoxic activity of Dunaliella salina extract on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells might be due to high concentrations of octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. Furthermore, results indicate that the extract demonstrates some proliferative effect on ECV304 cells in a dose-dependent manner between 0.25 and 5 μg/ml. These results suggest that Dunaliella salina may have anticancer potential against human neuroblastoma cells.

  14. Downregulation of survivin by siRNA inhibits invasion and promotes apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Liang, H; Cao, W; Xu, R; Ju, X L

    2014-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that occurs mainly in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have a poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are not very effective. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of the apoptosis protein family, plays a significant role in cell division, inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of cell proliferation and invasion. Previous studies found that survivin is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas and is correlated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether survivin could serve as a potential therapeutic target of human neuroblastoma. We employed RNA interference to reduce survivin expression in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and analyzed the effect of RNA interference on cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. RNA interference of survivin led to a significant decrease in invasiveness and proliferation and increased apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. RNA interference of survivin inhibited tumor growth in vivo by 68 ± 13% (P=0.002) and increased the number of apoptotic cells by 9.8 ± 1.2% (P=0.001) compared with negative small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment controls. Moreover, RNA interference of survivin inhibited the formation of lung metastases by 92% (P=0.002) and reduced microvascular density by 60% (P=0.0003). Survivin siRNA resulted in significant downregulation of survivin mRNA and protein expression both in vitro and in vivo compared with negative siRNA treatment controls. RNA interference of survivin was found to be a potent inhibitor of SH-SY5Y tumor growth and metastasis formation. These results support further clinical development of RNA interference of survivin as a treatment of neuroblastoma and other cancer types.

  15. The effects of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on the cellular events associated with Alzheimer's disease in a stably expressed HFE neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

    PubMed

    Mairuae, Nootchanat; Connor, James R; Lee, Sang Y; Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp; Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn

    2015-08-31

    It has been reported that persons carrying the H63D variant in their hemochromatosis (HFE) gene are at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the possibility that okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and quercetin could mitigate this risk factor by examining its effect on AD-associated cellular events in HFE stably expressing SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment of H63D HFE cells either with okra or quercetin significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and protein oxidation compared to untreated cells. The levels of tau phosphorylation at serine-199, serine-202, and serine-396 sites were also significantly decreased when cells were treated with okra. Exposure of the H63D and wild type (WT) cells to iron increased tau phosphorylation, but this response was decreased significantly when cells were treated with okra. The mechanism responsible for these changes appears to be related to decreased glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activity, an upstream signaling kinase of tau phosphorylation. We also established that okra treatment dramatically decreases intracellular iron levels in H63D cells compared to untreated cells. Our results provide important in vitro data on the effects of okra on various AD-associated cellular processes in H63D variant HFE cells. These results suggest okra may be beneficial in people expressing the H63D variant to reduce the risk of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases related to oxidative stress. Further in vivo studies would help confirm this.

  16. The effects of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on the cellular events associated with Alzheimer's disease in a stably expressed HFE neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

    PubMed

    Mairuae, Nootchanat; Connor, James R; Lee, Sang Y; Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp; Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn

    2015-08-31

    It has been reported that persons carrying the H63D variant in their hemochromatosis (HFE) gene are at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the possibility that okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and quercetin could mitigate this risk factor by examining its effect on AD-associated cellular events in HFE stably expressing SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment of H63D HFE cells either with okra or quercetin significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and protein oxidation compared to untreated cells. The levels of tau phosphorylation at serine-199, serine-202, and serine-396 sites were also significantly decreased when cells were treated with okra. Exposure of the H63D and wild type (WT) cells to iron increased tau phosphorylation, but this response was decreased significantly when cells were treated with okra. The mechanism responsible for these changes appears to be related to decreased glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activity, an upstream signaling kinase of tau phosphorylation. We also established that okra treatment dramatically decreases intracellular iron levels in H63D cells compared to untreated cells. Our results provide important in vitro data on the effects of okra on various AD-associated cellular processes in H63D variant HFE cells. These results suggest okra may be beneficial in people expressing the H63D variant to reduce the risk of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases related to oxidative stress. Further in vivo studies would help confirm this. PMID:26170247

  17. Weightlessness influences the cytoskeleton and ROS level in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Wang; Lina, Qu; Yingxian, Li; Qi, Li; Lei, Bi; Yinghui, Li

    During Spaceflight the nerve system of astronauts was obviously influenced To investigate how gravity effects nerve system the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were taken as research object By utilizing clinostat and parabolic flight for the model of gravity changing the level of reactive oxygen species was assayed in different time under simulated microgravity the cytomorphology and cytoskeleton of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were also observed after parabolic flight and clinostat by the conventional and the confocal laser scanning microscope The data showed that ROS level was enhanced and the cytoskeleton was damaged which microfilaments and microtubules were highly disorganized the cell shape was deteriorated under simulated microgravity indicating the relativity between the ROS level fluctuating and cytoskeleton changing It illuminates signal transduction disturbed by oxidative stress also regulates the cytoskeleton changing in SH-SY5Y cells The results suggest the cytoskeleton which is the receptor for sensing gravity was also regulated by cellular redox state which clues on the complexity of cell for self-adjusting to gravity changing

  18. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.; Mishra, R.K.

    1989-02-15

    The existence of specific alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites has been shown in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SH5Y) cells using direct radioligand binding. (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to both Y-79 and SH-SY5Y cell membranes. The binding of alpha 1 specific antagonist, (/sup 3/H)Prazocine, was not detectable in either cell type. Competition studies with antagonists yielded pharmacological characteristics typical of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than phentolamine greater than prazocine. Based on the affinity constants of prazocine and oxymetazoline, it appears that Y-79 cells contain alpha 2A receptor, whereas SH-SY5Y cells probably represent a mixture of alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptors. alpha 2-agonists clonidine and (-)epinephrine inhibition curves yielded high and low affinity states of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions reduced the proportion of high affinity sites of alpha 2 receptors. These two neuronal cell lines of human origin would prove useful in elucidating the action and regulation of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and their interaction with other receptor systems.

  19. Interaction among mu-opioid receptors and alpha 2-adrenoceptors on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lameh, J; Eiger, S; Sadée, W

    1992-09-01

    The clonal human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH-SY5Y was previously shown to express mu-opioid and alpha 2-adrenoceptors which are both negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase. Because of the potential use of alpha 2-agonists in the treatment of narcotic dependence, we tested the interactions among he alpha 2-agonists, clonidine and norepinephrine, and morphine on AC in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with retinoic acid resulting in partial neuronal differentiation greatly enhanced the cells' sensitivity towards adenylyl cyclase stimulation by prostaglandin E1, and its inhibition by morphine and alpha 2-agonists. Norepinephrine (EC50 = 69 nM) maximally inhibited prostaglandin E1-stimulated cAMP accumulation (by approximately 83%), and the alpha 2-agonist yohimbine reversed these effects. Clonidine (EC50 = 32 nM) was a partial agonist, with 50 to 60% maximal inhibition. The combined effects of morphine (maximum approximately 70% inhibition) and norepinephrine exceeded the effect of either agent alone, yielding more than 90% inhibition of prostaglandin E1-stimulated cAMP accumulation. As previously reported for morphine, only a partial tolerance was observed for adenylyl cyclase inhibition by norepinephrine. Further, no cross-tolerance was observed between clonidine and morphine. The combined results indicate that mu-opioid receptors and an alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtype are colocalized on the same cells in SH-SY5Y culture, which hence serves as a model to study opioid-alpha 2-adrenergic interactions.

  20. Aluminium induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line is independent of p53.

    PubMed

    Mustafa Rizvi, Syed Husain; Parveen, Arshiya; Verma, Anoop K; Ahmad, Iqbal; Arshad, Md; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and its compounds are used in the form of house hold utensils, medicines and in antiperspirant etc. Increasing number of evidences suggest the involvement of Al+3 ions in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Here, we have attempted to investigate the role of Al in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the regulation of p53 during neuronal apoptosis using neuroblastoma cell line. We observed that Al caused oxidative stress by increasing ROS production and intracellular calcium levels together with depletion of intracellular GSH levels. We also studied modulation of key pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and found significant alterations in the levels of Nrf2, NQO1, pAKT, p21, Bax, Bcl2, Aβ1-40 and Cyt c together with increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins like CHOP and caspase 12. However, with respect to the role of p53, we observed downregulation of its transcript as well as protein levels while analysis of its ubiquitination status revealed no significant changes. Not only did Al increase the activities of caspase 9, caspase 12 and caspase 3, but, by the use of peptide inhibitors of specific and pan-caspases, we observed significant protection against neuronal cell death upon inhibition of caspase 12, demonstrating the prominent role of endoplasmic reticulum stress generated responses in Al toxicity. Overall our findings suggest that Al induces ER stress and ROS generation which compromises the antioxidant defenses of neuronal cells thereby promoting neuronal apoptosis in p53 independent pathway.

  1. Aluminium Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediated Cell Death in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cell Line Is Independent of p53

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa Rizvi, Syed Husain; Parveen, Arshiya; Verma, Anoop K.; Ahmad, Iqbal; Arshad, Md; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust and its compounds are used in the form of house hold utensils, medicines and in antiperspirant etc. Increasing number of evidences suggest the involvement of Al+3 ions in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we have attempted to investigate the role of Al in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the regulation of p53 during neuronal apoptosis using neuroblastoma cell line. We observed that Al caused oxidative stress by increasing ROS production and intracellular calcium levels together with depletion of intracellular GSH levels. We also studied modulation of key pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and found significant alterations in the levels of Nrf2, NQO1, pAKT, p21, Bax, Bcl2, Aβ1-40 and Cyt c together with increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins like CHOP and caspase 12. However, with respect to the role of p53, we observed downregulation of its transcript as well as protein levels while analysis of its ubiquitination status revealed no significant changes. Not only did Al increase the activities of caspase 9, caspase 12 and caspase 3, but, by the use of peptide inhibitors of specific and pan-caspases, we observed significant protection against neuronal cell death upon inhibition of caspase 12, demonstrating the prominent role of endoplasmic reticulum stress generated responses in Al toxicity. Overall our findings suggest that Al induces ER stress and ROS generation which compromises the antioxidant defenses of neuronal cells thereby promoting neuronal apoptosis in p53 independent pathway. PMID:24878590

  2. Aluminium induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line is independent of p53.

    PubMed

    Mustafa Rizvi, Syed Husain; Parveen, Arshiya; Verma, Anoop K; Ahmad, Iqbal; Arshad, Md; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and its compounds are used in the form of house hold utensils, medicines and in antiperspirant etc. Increasing number of evidences suggest the involvement of Al+3 ions in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Here, we have attempted to investigate the role of Al in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the regulation of p53 during neuronal apoptosis using neuroblastoma cell line. We observed that Al caused oxidative stress by increasing ROS production and intracellular calcium levels together with depletion of intracellular GSH levels. We also studied modulation of key pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and found significant alterations in the levels of Nrf2, NQO1, pAKT, p21, Bax, Bcl2, Aβ1-40 and Cyt c together with increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins like CHOP and caspase 12. However, with respect to the role of p53, we observed downregulation of its transcript as well as protein levels while analysis of its ubiquitination status revealed no significant changes. Not only did Al increase the activities of caspase 9, caspase 12 and caspase 3, but, by the use of peptide inhibitors of specific and pan-caspases, we observed significant protection against neuronal cell death upon inhibition of caspase 12, demonstrating the prominent role of endoplasmic reticulum stress generated responses in Al toxicity. Overall our findings suggest that Al induces ER stress and ROS generation which compromises the antioxidant defenses of neuronal cells thereby promoting neuronal apoptosis in p53 independent pathway. PMID:24878590

  3. Expression and Pharmacology of Endogenous Cav Channels in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Silmara R.; Vetter, Irina; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells provide a useful in vitro model to study the mechanisms underlying neurotransmission and nociception. These cells are derived from human sympathetic neuronal tissue and thus, express a number of the Cav channel subtypes essential for regulation of important physiological functions, such as heart contraction and nociception, including the clinically validated pain target Cav2.2. We have detected mRNA transcripts for a range of endogenous expressed subtypes Cav1.3, Cav2.2 (including two Cav1.3, and three Cav2.2 splice variant isoforms) and Cav3.1 in SH-SY5Y cells; as well as Cav auxiliary subunits α2δ1–3, β1, β3, β4, γ1, γ4–5, and γ7. Both high- and low-voltage activated Cav channels generated calcium signals in SH-SY5Y cells. Pharmacological characterisation using ω-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA revealed significantly (∼ 10-fold) higher affinity at human versus rat Cav2.2, while GVIA, which interacts with Cav2.2 through a distinct pharmacophore had similar affinity for both species. CVID, GVIA and MVIIA affinity was higher for SH-SY5Y membranes vs whole cells in the binding assays and functional assays, suggesting auxiliary subunits expressed endogenously in native systems can strongly influence Cav2.2 channels pharmacology. These results may have implications for strategies used to identify therapeutic leads at Cav2.2 channels. PMID:23536870

  4. Investigation of anticancer mechanism of oleuropein via cell cycle and apoptotic pathways in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seçme, Mücahit; Eroğlu, Canan; Dodurga, Yavuz; Bağcı, Gülseren

    2016-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common types of pediatric tumors that can spread quickly in neuronal tissues. Oleuropein which is active compound of olive leaves, belongs to polyphenols group and has antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and anti-carcinogenic effects. The aim of the study is to determine the therapeutic effects of oleuropein on cell proliferation, invasion, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptotic mechanisms in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line under in vitro conditions. The effect of oleuropein on cell viability was determined by XTT method. 84 cell cycle control and 84 apoptosis related genes were evaluated by RT-PCR. Effects of oleuropein on apoptosis were researched by TUNEL assay. Protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. Effects of oleuropein on cell invasion, colony formation and migration were detected by matrigel-chamber, colony formation assay and wound-healing assay, respectively. IC50 value of oleuropein in SH-SY5Y cells was detected as 350 μM at 48th hours. It is determined that oleuropein causes cell cycle arrest by down-regulating of CylinD1,CylinD2,CyclinD3,CDK4,CDK6 and up-regulating of p53 and CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN1A gene expressions. Oleuropein also induces apoptosis by inhibiting of Bcl-2 and activating of Bax,caspase-9 and caspase-3 gene expressions. Apoptotic cell ratio was found 36.4 ± 3.27% in oleuropein dose group. Oleuropein decreased invasion in SH-SY5Y cells and suppressed colony numbers in ratio of 53.6 ± 4.71%.Our results demonstrated that oleuropein can be a therapeutic agent in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  5. Characterisation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine2A and 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y: comparative stimulation by hallucinogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Newton, R A; Phipps, S L; Flanigan, T P; Newberry, N R; Carey, J E; Kumar, C; McDonald, B; Chen, C; Elliott, J M

    1996-12-01

    Stable transfection of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y with the human 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) or 5-HT2C receptor cDNA produced cell lines demonstrating ligand affinities that correlated closely with those for the corresponding endogenous receptors in human frontal cortex and choroid plexus, respectively. Stimulation of the recombinant receptors by 5-HT induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis with higher potency but lower efficacy at the 5-HT2C receptor (pEC50 = 7.80 +/- 0.06) compared with the 5-HT2A receptor (pEC50 = 7.30 +/- 0.08). Activation of the 5-HT2A receptor caused a transient fourfold increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Whole-cell recordings of cells clamped at -50 mV demonstrated a small inward current (2 pA) in response to 10 microM 5-HT for both receptors. There were no differences in potency or efficacy of phosphoinositide hydrolysis among four hallucinogenic [d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and mescaline] and three nonhallucinogenic drugs (m-chlorophenylpiperazine, quipazine, and ergotamine). Comparison of equipotent doses producing 20% of the maximal response induced by 5-HT revealed selective activation of the 5-HT2A receptor by LSD and to a lesser degree by DOI, mescaline, and ergotamine. Quipazine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine were relatively nonselective, whereas m-chlorophenylpiperazine selectively activated the 5-HT2C receptor. It is unlikely therefore that hallucinosis is mediated primarily by activity at the 5-HT2C receptor, whereas activity at the 5-HT2A receptor may represent an important but not unique mechanism associated with hallucinogenic drug action.

  6. Morphine protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells against Dickkopf1-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun-Peng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jin-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Morphine is used to relieve pain in patients with cancer in terminal phases. Dickkopf‑1 (DKK1), a secreted protein, is a negative regulator of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. Morphine and DKK1 are associated with tumorigenesis. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study evaluating the effects of these two factors simultaneously. In the present study, the effects of morphine and DKK1 on neuroblastoma cells in vivo and in vitro were evaluated. To establish the in vitro effects of DKK1 and morphine, human neuroblastoma SH‑SY5Y cells were transfected with a DKK1‑expressing plasmid and cell migration, apoptosis, migration and invasion were evaluated prior to and following morphine treatment. The results indicated that DKK1 induced apoptosis and inhibited the mobility of neuroblastoma cells and that morphine attenuated these DKK1‑induced effects. To evaluate the effects of DKK1 and morphine in vivo, a mouse model of neuroblastoma was established, where mice bearing tumors of native SH-SY5Y cells were injected with DKK1. Tumor size, spatial memory and survival rate were investigated in untreated, DKK1‑treated and DKK1+morphine‑treated mice. Water maze and T‑maze tests were performed, which revealed that DKK1‑treated mice exhibited a better memory than DKK1 + morphine‑treated mice. The expression of DKK1 in established xenografted tumors was associated with decreased tumor size and an increased survival rate, whereas morphine reversed these effects. Furthermore, it was confirmed that morphine and DKK1 take effect, at least in part, via the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. The results of the present study indicate that morphine may protect neuroblastoma cells and thus, it may be used in neuroblastoma patients.

  7. Recognition and identification of active components from Radix Bupleuri using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Feihu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xu, Tanghui; Quan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Jianguo; Dai, Zunxiao; Wu, Bin; Wu, Qiangju

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to screen active components of Radix Bupleuri (a traditional Chinese herb) and discover novel anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the cell membrane chromatography model. Retention components by the SH-SY5Y/CMC model were collected and then analyzed by GC/MS under the optimized conditions in offline conditions. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the SH-SY5Y/CMC method using amisulpride and haloperidol as standard compounds, this method was applied to screening active components from the extracts of Radix Bupleuri. Retention components of SH-SY5Y/CMC model were saikosaponin A, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2, saikosaponin C and saikosaponin D, which were identified by the GC/MS method. In vitro pharmacological trials-MTT, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C could protect SY5Y cells. The protective effects of saikosaponin B1 and saikosaponin C were concentration dependent. Saikosaponin A and saikosaponin D inhibited cell viability at concentrations >30 µg/mL (p < 0.05). Via SH-SY5Y/CMC method and SH-SY5Y MTT trial, we rapidly detected target components from Radix Bupleuri, accurately identified them and determined their different effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C may be anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs.

  8. Effects of dichlorobenzene on acetylcholine receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ren-Ming; Chiung, Yin-Mei; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jenn-Hwa; Liu, Pei-Shan

    2008-11-20

    para-Dichlorobenzene (DCB), a deodorant and an industrial chemical, is a highly volatile compound and is known to be an indoor air contaminant. Because of its widespread use and volatility, the toxicity of DCB presents a concern to industrial workers and public. Some toxic aspects of DCB have already been focused but its effects on neuronal signal transduction have been hitherto unknown. The effects of DCB on the cytosolic calcium homeostasis are investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in this study. DCB, above 200 microM, was found to induce a rise in cytosolic calcium concentration that could not be counteracted by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists but was partially inhibited by thapsigargin. To understand the actions of DCB on the acetylcholine receptors, we investigated its effects on the changes of cytosolic calcium concentration following nicotinic AChR stimulation with epibatidine and muscarinic AChR stimulation with methacholine in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. DCB inhibited the cytosolic calcium concentration rise induced by epibatidine and methacholine with respective IC(50)s of 34 and 294 microM. The inhibitions of DCB were not the same as thapsigargin's inhibition. In the electrophysiological observations, DCB blocked the influx currents induced by epibatidine. Our findings suggest that DCB interferes with the functional activities of AChR, including its coupling influx currents and cytosolic calcium elevations.

  9. Activation of protein kinase C in permeabilized human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C; Saermark, T; Mau, S; Simonsson, P

    1992-08-01

    The activation of protein kinase C was investigated in digitonin-permeabilized human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by measuring the phosphorylation of the specific protein kinase C substrate myelin basic protein4-14. The phosphorylation was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitory peptide PKC19-36 and was associated to a translocation of the enzyme to the membrane fractions of the SH-SY5Y cells. 1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol had no effect on protein kinase C activity unless the calcium concentration was raised to concentrations found in stimulated cells (above 100 nM). Calcium in the absence of other activators did not stimulate protein kinase C. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was not dependent on calcium for the activation or the translocation of protein kinase C. The induced activation was sustained for 10 min, and thereafter only a small net phosphorylation of the substrate could be detected. Calcium or dioctanoylglycerol, when applied alone, only caused a minor translocation, whereas in combination a marked translocation was observed. Arachidonic acid (10 microM) enhanced protein kinase C activity in the presence of submaximal concentrations of calcium and dioctanoylglycerol. Quinacrine and p-bromophenacyl bromide did not inhibit calcium- and dioctanoylglycerol-induced protein kinase C activity at concentrations which are considered to be sufficient for phospholipase A2 inhibition.

  10. Nicotine regulates SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell proliferation through the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Serres, Florence; Carney, Stephen L

    2006-07-26

    Nicotine has been shown to produce some beneficial effects in neurodegenerative disorders, and several studies have suggested that these effects may be mediated in part through the action of the neurotrophic factor BDNF. To further elucidate the interaction between nicotine and BDNF, we examined the effect of nicotine on the proliferation of the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which, following differentiation with retinoic acid, expresses both nicotinic receptors and the receptor for BDNF, TrkB. Both nicotine and the nicotinic alpha-7 selective agonist AR-17779 significantly increased cell proliferation albeit with bell-shaped dose-response kinetics. The blockade of this effect with either the alpha-7 nicotinic antagonist methyllycaconitine or the non-selective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine indicated that the effect was mediated by nicotinic receptors. Prior addition of neutralising BDNF antibodies or of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252A (200 nM) completely blocked nicotine-induced proliferation, suggesting the involvement of TrkB signalling in the mediation of the effect. Nicotine also enhanced both the secretion of BDNF from the SH-SY5Y and cell surface density of TrkB receptors. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with MLA. These data indicate that activation of nicotinic receptors has effects upon the BDNF-TrkB pathway, inducing cell proliferation by promoting the release of BDNF, which in turn activates TrkB receptors.

  11. Rosiglitazone protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Tae Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Shim, Wan Sub; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Soo Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo . E-mail: bscha@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-02-03

    Acetaldehyde, an inhibitor of mitochondrial function, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome with elevation of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and apoptosis. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonist, has been known to show various non-hypoglycemic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-apoptotic. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and attempted to examine its mechanism. Acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis was moderately reversed by rosiglitazone treatment. Our results suggest that the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to ability to induce the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and to regulate Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These data indicate that rosiglitazone may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease.

  12. Morphological Differentiation Towards Neuronal Phenotype of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Estradiol, Retinoic Acid and Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Teppola, Heidi; Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Jalonen, Tuula O; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2016-04-01

    Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells maintain their potential for differentiation and regression in culture conditions. The induction of differentiation could serve as a strategy to inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth. Previous studies have shown that differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells can be induced by all-trans-retinoic-acid (RA) and cholesterol (CHOL). However, signaling pathways that lead to terminal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells are still largely unknown. The goal of this study was to examine in the RA and CHOL treated SH-SY5Y cells the additive impacts of estradiol (E2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cell morphology, cell population growth, synaptic vesicle recycling and presence of neurofilaments. The above features indicate a higher level of neuronal differentiation. Our data show that treatment for 10 days in vitro (DIV) with RA alone or when combined with E2 (RE) or CHOL (RC), but not when combined with BDNF (RB), significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the cell population growth. Synaptic vesicle recycling, induced by high-K(+) depolarization, was significantly increased in all treatments where RA was included (RE, RC, RB, RCB), and when all agents were added together (RCBE). Specifically, our results show for the first time that E2 treatment can alone increase synaptic vesicle recycling in SH-SY5Y cells. This work contributes to the understanding of the ways to improve suppression of neuroblastoma cells' population growth by inducing maturation and differentiation.

  13. [Effect of alpha-conotoxin MII and its N-terminal derivatives on Ca2+ and Na+ signals induced by nicotine in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y].

    PubMed

    Surin, A M; Kriukova, E V; Strukov, A S; Zhmak, M N; Talka, R; Tuominen, R; Salminen, O; Khiroug, L; Kasheverov, I E; Tsetlin, V I

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the regulation ofintracellular Ca2+-dependent processes in cells both in normal and pathological states, alpha-Conotoxins isolated from Conus snails venom are a valuable tool for the study of pharmacological properties and functional role of nAChRs. In the present study the alpha-conotoxin MII analogue with the additional tyrosine attached to the N terminus (Y0-MII) was prepared. Also we synthesized analogs with the N-terminal glycine residue labeled with the Bolton- Hunter reagent (BH-MII) or fluorestsein isothiocyanate (FITC-MII). Fluorescence microscopy studies of the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells loaded with Ca2+ indicator Fura-2 or with Ca2+ and Na+ indicators Fluo-4 and SBFI were performed to examine effect of MII modification on its ability to inhibit nicotin-induced increases in intracellular free Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations ([Ca2+] and [Na+]i respectively). Monitoring of individual cell [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i signals revealed different kinetics of [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i rise and decay in responses to brief nicotine (Nic) applications (10-30 microM, 3-5 min), which indicates to different mechanisms of Ca2+ and Na+ homeostasis control in SH-SY5Y cells. MII inhibited in concentration-dependent manner the both [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i increase induced by Nic. Additional tyrosine in the Y0-MII or, especially, more sizeable label in FITC-MII significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of MII. Whereas the efficiency of the Ca2+ response inhibition by BH-MII was found to be close to the efficiency of its inhibition by natural alpha-conotoxin MII, radioiodinated derivatives BH-MII can be used in radioligand assay. PMID:22792725

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the lidocaine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kehan; Han, Xuechang

    2015-05-01

    Lidocaine has been indicated to promote apoptosis and to promote endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the mechanism underlining ER stress-mediated apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the promotion to ER stress in the lidocaine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Firstly, we confirmed that lidocaine treatment induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, time-dependently and dose-dependently, via MTT cell viability assay and annexin V/FITC apoptosis detection with a FACScan flow cytometer. And the anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were downregulated, whereas the apoptosis-executive caspase 3 was promoted through Western blot assay and caspase 3 activity assay. Moreover, the ER stress-associated binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were also upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels by lidocaine treatment. On the other hand, downregulation of the ER stress-associated BiP by RNAi method not only blocked the lidocaine-promoted ER stress but also attenuated the lidocaine-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the involvement of ER stress in the lidocaine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our study provides a better understanding on the mechanism of lidocaine's neurovirulence.

  15. Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK)

    SciTech Connect

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Splettstoesser, Frank; Buesselberg, Dietrich . E-mail: Dietrich.Buesselberg@uni-due.de

    2007-05-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has anticancer properties; however, its use also leads to neuro-, hepato- or nephro-toxicity, and therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} toxicity. We studied As{sub 2}O{sub 3} influence on intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) homeostasis of human neuroblastoma SY-5Y and embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293).We also relate the As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications with cytotoxicity. We used Ca{sup 2+} sensitive dyes (fluo-4 and rhod-2) combined with laser scanning microscopy or fluorescence activated cell sorting to measure Ca{sup 2+} changes during the application of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and we approach evaluation of cytotoxicity. As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 {mu}M) increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in SY-5Y and HEK 293 cells. Three forms of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations were found: (1) steady-state increases (2) transient [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations and (3) Ca{sup 2+}-spikes. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications were independent from extracellular Ca{sup 2+} but dependent on internal calcium stores. The effect was not reversible. Inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and ryanodine (Ry) receptors are involved in regulation of signals induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 2-APB and dantrolene significantly reduced the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-rise (p < 0.001, t-test) but did not completely abolish [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevation or spiking. This indicates that other Ca{sup 2+} regulating mechanisms are involved. In cytotoxicity tests As{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly reduced cell viability in both cell types. Staining with Hoechst 33342 showed occurrence of apoptosis and DNA damage. Our data suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is an important messenger in As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced cell death.

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and SH-SY5Y cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jinghui

    The Arctic and sub-arctic regions are impacted by the growth of the global nanotechnology industry. Nanomaterials have unique chemical and physical properties that may lead to toxicological effects that interfere with normal cellular metabolism. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are now very common and widely used in daily life. In industry, ZnO NPs are used to protect different materials from damage caused by UV exposure. The scientific literature suggests that ZnO NPs can have negative impacts on both living organisms and plants. However, there is a paucity of research on the mechanisms by which ZnO NPs may affect the neuronal cells. This study investigates how ZnO NPs interact with the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed that the ZnO NPs form 36 nm particles on average, and increase the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in extracellular fluid, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, ZnO NPs, in presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), can also decrease the level of extracellular VEGF compared with TNF-alpha treatment alone. These findings suggest the basis for more studies on understanding the mechanism by which ZnO NPs impact cytokine signaling. Another direction is using ELISA technology to observe the interactions of NPs with different cell types such as neuronal stem cells.

  17. Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles from 'Ershiwuwei Shanhu' Pill Induced Cellular Swelling of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yali; Song, Xiaoping; Zheng, Siting; Luo, Yuandai; Wang, Leyu; Huang, Fukai; Qiu, Xiaozhong

    2016-03-01

    Drug-loaded nanoparticles from 'Ershiwuwei Shanhu' Pill (ESP) inducing cellular swelling of the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were investigated. Electron microscope was used to observe nanoparticles existing in the freeze-dried supernatant of 'Ershiwuwei Shanhu' Pill. Drug-free nanoparticles were obtained from the solution of drug-loaded nanoparticles via dialysis. The size and zeta potential of two kinds of nanoparticles were tested by granularmetric analysis and surface charge analysis. Results showed that nanoparticles could penetrate into cellular nucleus and caused cell swelling. CCK8 analysis implied that low concentration of drug-free nanoparticles from 'Ershiwuwei Shanhu' Pill can induce cell proliferation of the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, while drug-loaded nanoparticles can reduce cell viability through NF-κB pathway. Drug-loaded nanoparticles existed in 'Ershiwuwei Shanhu' pill might play a vital role during pharmacotherapy, which served as nanocarriers in delivering drugs into cells.

  18. CI-1010 induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore precedes oxidative stress and apoptosis in SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Terry J; Phelka, Amanda D; Tjalkens, Ronald B; Dethloff, Lloyd A; Philbert, Martin A

    2003-02-14

    The hetero-bifunctional nitroimidazole radiosensitizer CI-1010, R-alpha-[[(2-bromoethyl)-amino]methyl]-2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol monohydrobromide, causes selective irreversible apoptotic loss of retinal photoreceptor cells in vivo. The human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, was used as a neuronotypic model of CI-1010-mediated retinal degeneration. Exposure to CI-1010 for 24 h induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells, as determined by histopathological and ultrastructural analysis and by TUNEL technique. CI-1010 causes a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in SY5Y cells, as measured by the reduction of MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Superoxide dismutase reduced loss of cell viability following CI-1010 treatment suggesting an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism of toxicity. The effects of CI-1010 on mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were assessed in live SY5Y cells by confocal microscopy using the fluorescent dyes, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and 5,6-carboxy-2',7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate. CI-1010 caused a rapid depolarization of mitochondria in SY5Y cells followed by an increase in ROS. Both CI-1010-induced mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent increases in ROS were prevented by pretreatment with either the permeability transition pore inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), and by the antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. However, CsA and alpha-tocopherol were unable to prevent apoptosis in CI-1010-treated cells, suggesting the influence of additional mechanism(s) of CI-1010-induced toxicity. This study evaluates intracellular oxidative stress associated with pore opening prior to apoptosis and provides evidence in support of a mitochondrial mechanism of CI-1010-induced neuronal cell death.

  19. Interleukin-24 induces neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis by promoting ROS production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Dongchuan; Gong, Jinchao; Han, Tao

    2013-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is among the most aggressive tumors that occur in childhood and infancy. The clinical prognosis of children with advanced-stage neuroblastoma is still poor. Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is emerging as a new cytokine involved in tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and has been widely studied as a tumor inhibitor. However, little is known about this cytokine's role in neuroblastoma. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of IL-24 on inducing neuroblastoma cell differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in vitro. Our data show that IL-24 promotes neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing action of IL-24 depends on the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that IL-24 can induce neuroblastoma cell differentiation and apoptosis and may be a potential therapeutic agent for neuroblastoma.

  20. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under high glucose.

    PubMed

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives ameliorated high glucose toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The investigated compounds, particularly clioquinol, attenuated the increased expression of calpain, even under high-glucose conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives thus adversely affected the promotion of neuronal cell death by high glucose via the calpain-calpastatin signaling pathways. These findings support the beneficial effects of 8-hydroxyquinolines for further therapeutic development. PMID:27635352

  1. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk

    2016-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives ameliorated high glucose toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The investigated compounds, particularly clioquinol, attenuated the increased expression of calpain, even under high-glucose conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives thus adversely affected the promotion of neuronal cell death by high glucose via the calpain-calpastatin signaling pathways. These findings support the beneficial effects of 8-hydroxyquinolines for further therapeutic development. PMID:27635352

  2. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk

    2016-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives ameliorated high glucose toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The investigated compounds, particularly clioquinol, attenuated the increased expression of calpain, even under high-glucose conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives thus adversely affected the promotion of neuronal cell death by high glucose via the calpain-calpastatin signaling pathways. These findings support the beneficial effects of 8-hydroxyquinolines for further therapeutic development.

  3. Enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during methamphetamine induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.-W.; Ping, Y.-H.; Yen, J.-C.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, S.-F.; Yeh, C.-L.; Chi, C.-W.; Lee, H.-C. . E-mail: hclee2@ym.edu.tw

    2007-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an abused drug that may cause psychiatric and neurotoxic damage, including degeneration of monoaminergic terminals and apoptosis of non-monoaminergic cells in Brain. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these METH-induced neurotoxic effects remain to be clarified. In this study, we performed a time course assessment to investigate the effects of METH on intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations in a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. We characterized that METH induces a temporal sequence of several cellular events including, firstly, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within 1 h of the METH treatment, secondly, an extensive decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 8 h of the treatment, thirdly, an increase in mitochondrial mass after the drug treatment for 24 h, and finally, a decrease in mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial proteins per mitochondrion as well as the occurrence of apoptosis after 48 h of the treatment. Importantly, vitamin E attenuated the METH-induced increases in intracellular ROS level and mitochondrial mass, and prevented METH-induced cell death. Our observations suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis may play critical roles in METH-induced neurotoxic effects.

  4. PA6 Stromal Cell Co-Culture Enhances SH-SY5Y and VSC4.1 Neuroblastoma Differentiation to Mature Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Ross; Subramanian, Vasanta

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma cell lines such as SH-SY5Y have been used for modelling neurodegenerative diseases and for studying basic mechanisms in neuroscience. Since neuroblastoma cells proliferate and generally do not express markers of mature or functional neurons, we exploited a co-culture system with the stromal cell line PA6 to better induce differentiation to a more physiologically relevant status. We found that co-culture of the neuroblastoma cell lines in the presence of neural inducers such retinoic acid was able to generate a high proportion of quiescent neurons with very long neurites expressing differentiation markers. The co-culture system additionally cuts short the time taken to produce a more mature phenotype. We also show the application of this system to study proteins implicated in motor neuron disease. PMID:27391595

  5. Effect of graphene oxide on undifferentiated and retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Min; Zhang, Yujie; Liang, Le; Wei, Min; Hu, Wenbing; Li, Xiaoming; Huang, Qing

    2012-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), has created an unprecedented opportunity for development and application in biology, due to its abundant functional groups and well water solubility. Recently, the potential toxicity of GO in the environment and in humans has garnered more and more attention. In this paper, we systematically studied the cytotoxicity of GO nanosheets via examining the effect of GO on the morphology, viability and differentiation of a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, which was an ideal model used to study neuronal disease in vitro. The results suggested that GO had no obvious cytotoxicity at low concentration (<80 μg mL-1) for 96 h, but the viability of cells exhibited dose- and time-dependent decreases at high concentration (>=80 μg mL-1). Moreover, GO did not induce apoptosis. Very interestingly, GO significantly enhanced the differentiation of SH-SY5Y induced-retinoic acid (RA) by evaluating neurite length and the expression of neuronal marker MAP2. These data provide a promising application for neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells are highly sensitive to the lysosomotropic aldehyde 3-aminopropanal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengquan; Li, Wei; Hillman, Jan; Brunk, Ulf T

    2004-08-01

    3-Aminopropanal (3-AP), a degradation product of polyamines such as spermine, spermidine and putrescine, is a lysosomotropic small aldehyde that causes apoptosis or necrosis of most cells in culture, apparently by inducing moderate or extensive lysosomal rupture, respectively, and secondary mitochondrial changes. Here, using the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, we found simultaneous occurrence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death when cultures were exposed to 3-AP in concentrations that usually are either nontoxic, or only cause apoptosis. At 30 mM, but not at 10 mM, the lysosomotropic base and proton acceptor NH3 completely blocked the toxic effect of 3-AP, proving that 3-AP is lysosomotropic and suggesting that the lysosomal membrane proton pump of neuroblastoma cells is highly effective, creating a lower than normal lysosomal pH and, thus, extensive intralysosomal accumulation of lysosomotropic drugs. A wave of internal oxidative stress, secondary to changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, followed and gave rise to further lysosomal rupture. The preincubation of cells for 24 h with a chain-breaking free radical-scavenger, alpha-tocopherol, before exposure to 3-AP, significantly delayed both the wave of oxidative stress and the secondary lysosomal rupture, while it did not interfere with the early 3-AP-mediated phase of lysosomal break. Obviously, the reported oxidative stress and apoptosis/necrosis are consequences of lysosomal rupture with ensuing release of lysosomal enzymes resulting in direct/indirect effects on mitochondrial permeability, membrane potential, and electron transport. The induced oxidative stress seems to act as an amplifying loop causing further lysosomal break that can be partially prevented by alpha-tocopherol. Perhaps secondary brain damage during a critical post injury period can be prevented by the use of drugs that temporarily raise lysosomal pH, inactivate intralysosomal 3-AP, or stabilize lysosomal membranes against

  7. Modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis by trimethyltin chloride in human tumour cells: neuroblastoma SY5Y and cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa S3.

    PubMed

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Splettstoesser, Frank; Dopp, Elke; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2005-12-01

    Physiological modifications of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) levels trigger and/or regulate a diversity of cellular activities (e.g. neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, muscular contraction, cell proliferation), while calcium overloads could result in cytotoxicity. Previously, we have shown that trimethyltin chloride (Me3SnCl; TMT) modulates calcium homeostasis in cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa S3) cells [Florea, A.-M., Dopp, E., Büsselberg, D., 2005. TMT induces elevated calcium transients in HeLa cells: types and levels of response. Cell Calcium 37, 252-258]. Here we compare [Ca2+]i-changes induced by trimethyltin chloride in neuroblastoma SY5Y and HeLa S3 cells using calcium-sensitive dyes (fluo-4/AM (fluo-4) and rhod-2/AM (rhod-2)) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM). TMT-induced calcium elevations in neuroblastoma SY5Y as well as in HeLa S3 cells. [Ca2+]i rose to a sustained plateau or to transient spikes. Overall, the detected averaged increase of the maximum calcium elevation were: 0.5 microM approximately 125.6%; 5 microM approximately 130.1%; 500 microM approximately 145% in HeLa S3 cells and 0.5 microM approximately 133.3%; 5 microM approximately 136.1%; 500 microM approximately 147.1% in neuroblastoma SY5Y cells. The calcium rise derived from internal stores did not significantly depend on the presence of calcium in the external solution: approximately 109% (no calcium added) versus approximately 117% (2 mM calcium; 5 microM TMT) in HeLa cells. This difference was similar in neuroblastoma SY5Y cells, were approximately 127% versus approximately 136% increase (5 microM TMT) were measured. Staining of calcium stores with rhod-2 showed a TMT-induced [Ca2+]i-decrease in the stores followed by an increase of the calcium concentration in the nuclei of the two cell lines tested. Our results suggest that toxic effects in human tumour cells after exposure to trimethyltin compounds might be due to an elevation of [Ca2+]i.

  8. Paradoxical role of 3-methyladenine in pyocyanin-induced toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Amelia J; Grant, Gary D; Perkins, Anthony V; Flegg, Cameron; Davey, Andrew K; Allsopp, Tristan J; Renshaw, Gillian; Kavanagh, Justin; McDermott, Catherine M; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2013-01-01

    The role of autophagy in pyocyanin (PCN)-induced toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear, with only evidence from our group identifying it as a mechanism underlying toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further examine the role of autophagy in PCN-induced toxicity in the CNS. To achieve this, we exposed 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to PCN (0-100 μmol/L) and tested the contribution of autophagy by measuring the impact of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) using a series of biochemical and molecular markers. Pretreatment of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells with 3-MA (5 mmol/L) decreased the PCN-induced acidic vesicular organelle and autophagosome formation as measured using acridine orange and green fluorescent protein-LC3 -LC3 fluorescence, respectively. Furthermore, 3-MA (5 mmol/L) significantly protected 1321N1 astrocytoma cells against PCN-induced toxicity. In contrast pretreatment with 3-MA (5 mmol/L) increased PCN-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Given the influence of autophagy in inflammatory responses, we investigated whether the observed effects in this study involved inflammatory mediators. The PCN (100 μmol/L) significantly increased the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂), and leukotriene B4 (LTB₄) in both cell lines. Consistent with its paradoxical role in modulating PCN-induced toxicity, 3-MA (5 mmol/L) significantly reduced the PCN-induced production of IL-8, PGE₂, and LTB₄ in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells but augmented their production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, we show here for the first time the paradoxical role of autophagy in mediating PCN-induced toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and provide novel evidence that these actions may be mediated by effects on IL-8, PGE₂, and LTB₄ production.

  9. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammation through the melatonin receptor in the SH-SY5Y cell line.

    PubMed

    Wongprayoon, Pawaris; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2015-09-01

    Methamphetamine is a well-known psychostimulant drug, the abuse of which is a serious worldwide public health issue. In addition to its addictive effect, methamphetamine exposure has been shown to be associated with neuroinflammation in several brain areas. Several lines of evidence indicate that TNFα plays an important role in the methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammatory processes that result in apoptotic cell death. Many investigators have demonstrated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of melatonin, but the mechanism by which this occurs still needs to be explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of methamphetamine on TNFα expression and NFκB activation in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. We demonstrated the time-dependent effect of methamphetamine on the induction of TNFα expression as well as IκB degradation and NFκB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of melatonin on methamphetamine-induced TNFα overexpression and NFκB activation. The results showed that pretreatment with 100nM melatonin could prevent the TNFα overexpression caused by methamphetamine exposure. This attenuating effect was prevented by pre-incubation with luzindole, an antagonist of the melatonin MT1/MT2 receptors. Furthermore, methamphetamine-induced IκB degradation and NFκB nuclear translocation were also suppressed by pretreatment with melatonin, and pretreatment with luzindole diminished these protective effects. MT2 knockdown by siRNA abrogated the anti-inflammatory effect exerted by melatonin. From these findings, we propose that melatonin exerts its protective effects on methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammation through the membrane receptor, at least in part MT2 subtype, in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

  10. Isatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinlian; Hou, Lin; Ju, Chuanxia; Zhang, Jinyu; Ge, Yinlin; Yue, Wang

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of the isatin in vitro and in vivo. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to isatin at various concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 μmol/l) for 48 h. Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA were analyzed via RT-PCR. Bcl-2, Bax, the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) and cytochrome c protein were analyzed via western blot. Apoptosis, caspase-9, 3 activation and mitochondrial depolarization were assayed by flow cytometry. SH-SY5Y cells were injected into the right side of the mouse armpit. When the neoplasm was detected, the nude mice were randomly divided into four groups and received an injection of DMEM (negative control), 25 or 50mg/kg isatin, or cyclophosphamide (positive control). The inhibitory effects of isatin on the murine xenograft were determined using a growth curve and Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA and protein were studied using RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The results showed that apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells was induced by isatin. Furthermore, Bcl-2 expression was decreased and the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax was significantly decreased by isatin. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential was markedly reduced and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol was increased after treatment with isatin. Simultaneously, caspase-9, 3 was activated, followed by degradation of ICAD, a caspase-3 substrate. Finally, tumor xenograft growth was markedly suppressed and a decrease was found in Bcl-2 and Bax expression in vivo. These results suggest that isatin can induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of neuroblastoma cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

  11. Force spectroscopy of membrane hardness of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells before and after differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul; Choi, Yun Kyong; Park, Jung Keuck

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is utilized in many studies for measuring the structure and the physical characteristics of soft and bio materials. In particular, the force spectroscopy function in the AFM system allows us to explore the mechanical properties of bio cells. In this study, we probe the variation in the membrane hardness of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (SH-cells) before and after differentiation by using force spectroscopy. The SH-cell, which is usually differentiated by using a chemical treatment with retinoic acid (RA), is a neuronal cell line employed widely as an in-vitro model for neuroscience research. In force spectroscopy, the force-distance curves are obtained from both the original and the RA-treated cells while the AFM tip approaches and pushes on the cell membranes. The slope deduced from linear region in the force-distance curve is the spring constant and corresponds to the hardness of the cell membrane. The spring constant of the RA-treated cells (0.597 ± 0.010 nN/nm) was smaller than that of the original cells (0.794 ± 0.010 nN/nm), reflecting a hardness decrease in the cells differentiated with the RA treatments. The results clearly demonstrated that the differentiated cells are softer than the original cells. The change in the elasticity of the differentiated cells might be caused by morphological modification during differentiation process. We suggest that force spectroscopy can be employed as a novel method to determine the degree of differentiation of stem cells into various functional cells.

  12. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md. Motarab; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2012-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-{kappa}B), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro

  13. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wu, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Bo; He, Xi; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity. PMID:26256823

  14. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wu, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Bo; He, Xi; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity.

  15. Electrophysiological variability in the SH-SY5Y cellular line.

    PubMed

    Santillo, Silvia; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Di Maio, Vito

    2014-01-01

    The basic electrophysiological properties of SH-SY5Y tumour cells have been studied by whole cell patch-clamp in voltage clamp configuration. The results shown the existence of a large variability of the response among individual cells in the same experimental conditions. Experiments conducted by using different ionic concentrations of the recording pipette filling solution, yielded a significant variability of peak current amplitude for all the filling solutions used. In addition, variability among groups was detected. The inter-group variability was not dependent on the different ionic components among the groups. Our results confirm earlier findings that this cell line is not constituted of an uniform population of cells. Moreover, from the present results we can conclude that these cells have diverse regulatory patterns of membrane conductance, probably due to both the expression as well as a non precise regulation of the membrane density of the different channels. PMID:24448369

  16. Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Ataur; Bishayee, Kausik; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim root extract (APRE) is a popular herbal medicine used for treating stomachache, abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, and rheumatism; however the effect of APRE on cancer cells has not yet been explored. Here, we examined APRE cytotoxicity seen on target neuroblastoma cells (NB) using cell viability assays, DAPI visualization of fragmented DNA, and Western blotting analysis of candidate signaling pathways involved in proliferation and apoptosis. We demonstrated that APRE reduced cell viability in NB to a greater extent than in fibroblast cells. In addition, we found that APRE could inhibit the three classes of MAPK proteins and could also down-regulate the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β activity all being relevant for proliferation and survival. APRE could also up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. With APRE treatment, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 was demonstrated in the SH-SY5Y cells. We could not found increased activity of death receptor and caspase-8 as markers of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway for the APRE treated cells. In presence of a caspase-3 siRNA and a pan-caspase inhibitor, APRE could not reduce the viability of NB cells to a significant degree. So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the non-caspase autophagy pathway or ER stress-ROS mediated pathways were not involved. These findings demonstrate that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway mediates the apoptotic effects of APRE on SH-SY5Y cells, and that APRE shows promise as a novel agent for neuroblastoma therapy. PMID:26674967

  17. Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Ataur; Bishayee, Kausik; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2016-02-01

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim root extract (APRE) is a popular herbal medicine used for treating stomachache, abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, and rheumatism; however the effect of APRE on cancer cells has not yet been explored. Here, we examined APRE cytotoxicity seen on target neuroblastoma cells (NB) using cell viability assays, DAPI visualization of fragmented DNA, and Western blotting analysis of candidate signaling pathways involved in proliferation and apoptosis. We demonstrated that APRE reduced cell viability in NB to a greater extent than in fibroblast cells. In addition, we found that APRE could inhibit the three classes of MAPK proteins and could also down-regulate the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β activity all being relevant for proliferation and survival. APRE could also up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. With APRE treatment, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 was demonstrated in the SH-SY5Y cells. We could not found increased activity of death receptor and caspase-8 as markers of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway for the APRE treated cells. In presence of a caspase-3 siRNA and a pan-caspase inhibitor, APRE could not reduce the viability of NB cells to a significant degree. So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the non-caspase autophagy pathway or ER stress-ROS mediated pathways were not involved. These findings demonstrate that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway mediates the apoptotic effects of APRE on SH-SY5Y cells, and that APRE shows promise as a novel agent for neuroblastoma therapy. PMID:26674967

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce lipoxygenase-mediated apoptosis and necrosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Dong-Yung; Her, Song; Wie, Myung-Bok

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are known to induce oxidative stress and modulate an inflammatory process in various cell types. Although the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs in various cell types have been evaluated, few neurotoxic surveys on ZnO NPs as well as rescue studies have been reported. This study was designed to examine the neurotoxic ZnO NP concentration according to exposure time and dose, and the mechanisms that underlie ZnO NP-induced neurotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. A significant reduction in neuronal viability as well as distinct morphological findings resulted from application of 15 μM ZnO NPs. Apoptotic injury-as measured by annexin V and caspase 3/7 activities-was significantly elevated at 12 h and 24 h, but not 6 h, after ZnO NP exposure. However, electron microscopy revealed typical necrotic characteristics, such as swelling or loss of cell organelles and rupture of the cytosolic or nuclear membrane at 12 h and 24 h after ZnO NP exposure. In rescue studies, the lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor esculetin attenuated ZnO NP-induced neuronal injury. The elevation of PI3 kinase (PI3K) and p-Akt/Akt activities induced by ZnO NP was significantly decreased by esculetin or LY294002. Allopurinol, N-acetyl-l-cysteine and α-tocopherol protected ZnO NP-induced cytotoxicity. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced neurotoxicity and ZnO NP-mediated NO overproduction were ameliorated by esculetin. Esculetin reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the depletion of antioxidant enzymes induced by ZnO NPs. The concentration of zinc from the dissolution of ZnO NPs increased in proportion to increases in the ZnO NPs concentration. These results suggest that ZnO NPs induce apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/caspase-3/7 pathway and necrosis by LOX-mediated ROS production elevation.

  19. Role of D-Limonene in Autophagy Induced by Bergamot Essential Oil in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Rossella; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Ciociaro, Antonella; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Chiappini, Carlotta; Berliocchi, Laura; Tassorelli, Cristina; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a well characterized, widely used plant extract. BEO exerts anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective activities in rodents through mechanisms that are only partly known and need to be further investigated. To gain more insight into the biological effects of this essential oil, we tested the ability of BEO (0.005–0.03%) to modulate autophagic pathways in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. BEO-treated cells show increased LC3II levels and appearance of dot-like formations of endogenous LC3 protein that colocalize with the lysosome marker LAMP-1. Autophagic flux assay using bafilomycin A1 and degradation of the specific autophagy substrate p62 confirmed that the observed increase of LC3II levels in BEO-exposed cells is due to autophagy induction rather than to a decreased autophagosomal turnover. Induction of autophagy is an early and not cell-line specific response to BEO. Beside basal autophagy, BEO also enhanced autophagy triggered by serum starvation and rapamycin indicating that the underlying mechanism is mTOR independent. Accordingly, BEO did not affect the phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser757) and p70S6K (Thr389), two downstream targets of mTOR. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by BEO is beclin-1 independent, occurs in a concentration-dependent manner and is unrelated to the ability of BEO to induce cell death. In order to identify the active constituents responsible for these effects, the two most abundant monoterpenes found in the essential oil, d-limonene (125–750 µM) and linalyl acetate (62.5–375 µM), were individually tested at concentrations comparable to those found in 0.005–0.03% BEO. The same features of stimulated autophagy elicited by BEO were reproduced by d-limonene, which rapidly increases LC3II and reduces p62 levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Linalyl acetate was ineffective in replicating BEO effects; however, it greatly enhanced LC3 lipidation triggered by d

  20. NGF sensitizes TrkA SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, P; Cappabianca, L; Farina, A R; Gneo, L; Mackay, A R

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel pro-apoptotic function for nerve growth factor (NGF) and its tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor in sensitizing TRAIL (TNF-related apoptotis-inducing ligand)-resistant SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma (NB) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, resulting in the abrogation of anchorage-independent tumourigenic growth in vitro. We show that the TRAIL-resistant SH-SY5Y phenotype is cFLIP (cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein) dependent and not due to low-level functional TRAIL receptor or caspase expression or an inhibitory equilibrium between functional and decoy TRAIL receptors or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and BH3-only (Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only) family proteins. NGF sensitization of SH-SY5Y cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis was dependent upon TrkA expression, activation and subsequent sequestration of cFLIP. This reduces cFLIP recruitment to TRAIL-activated death receptors and increases the recruitment of caspase-8, leading to TRAIL-induced, caspase-dependent, type II apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. This effect was temporary, inhibited within 6 h by nuclear factor-κ binding (NF-κB)-mediated increase in myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (Mcl-1) expression, abrogated by transient cFLIP or B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) overexpression and optimized by NF-κB and Mcl-1 inhibitors. This novel mechanism adds an important pro-apoptotic immunological dimension to NGF/TrkA interaction that may not only help to explain the association between TrkA expression, better prognosis and spontaneous remission in NB, but also provides a novel potential pro-apoptotic therapeutic use for NGF, TRAIL and inhibitors of NF-κB and/or Mcl-1 in favourable and unfavourable NBs that express TrkA and exhibit cFLIP-mediated TRAIL resistance. PMID:27551499

  1. NGF sensitizes TrkA SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, P; Cappabianca, L; Farina, A R; Gneo, L; Mackay, A R

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel pro-apoptotic function for nerve growth factor (NGF) and its tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor in sensitizing TRAIL (TNF-related apoptotis-inducing ligand)-resistant SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma (NB) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, resulting in the abrogation of anchorage-independent tumourigenic growth in vitro. We show that the TRAIL-resistant SH-SY5Y phenotype is cFLIP (cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein) dependent and not due to low-level functional TRAIL receptor or caspase expression or an inhibitory equilibrium between functional and decoy TRAIL receptors or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and BH3-only (Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only) family proteins. NGF sensitization of SH-SY5Y cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis was dependent upon TrkA expression, activation and subsequent sequestration of cFLIP. This reduces cFLIP recruitment to TRAIL-activated death receptors and increases the recruitment of caspase-8, leading to TRAIL-induced, caspase-dependent, type II apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. This effect was temporary, inhibited within 6 h by nuclear factor-κ binding (NF-κB)-mediated increase in myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (Mcl-1) expression, abrogated by transient cFLIP or B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) overexpression and optimized by NF-κB and Mcl-1 inhibitors. This novel mechanism adds an important pro-apoptotic immunological dimension to NGF/TrkA interaction that may not only help to explain the association between TrkA expression, better prognosis and spontaneous remission in NB, but also provides a novel potential pro-apoptotic therapeutic use for NGF, TRAIL and inhibitors of NF-κB and/or Mcl-1 in favourable and unfavourable NBs that express TrkA and exhibit cFLIP-mediated TRAIL resistance. PMID:27551499

  2. Dichloroacetate stimulates changes in the mitochondrial network morphology via partial mitophagy in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) is beneficial in cancer therapy because it induces apoptosis and decreases cancer growth in vitro and in vivo without affecting non-cancer cells. DCA stimulates the activity of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Consequently, DCA promotes oxidative phosphorylation after glycolysis. Therefore, DCA produces changes in energy metabolism that could affect the mitochondrial network and mitophagy. This investigation determined the effects of DCA treatment on mitophagy in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and distributed into 3 groups: control, NH4Cl and chloroquine. Each group was treated with DCA at 0, 5, 30 and 60 mM for 16 h. Samples were analyzed for cell viability, mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial network morphology and expression of key proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics, such as LC3b, FIS1, OPA1, PARKIN and PINK1. In all groups, DCA caused a decrease in cell viability, an induction of autophagy in a dose-dependent manner and a decrease in Tim23, FIS1 and PARKIN protein expression, leading to profound morphological changes in the mitochondrial network resulting in shorter and more fragmented filaments. However, TFAM protein levels remained unchanged. Similarly, the mitochondrial copy number was not significantly different among the treatment groups. In conclusion, DCA induces mitophagy and remodeling of the mitochondrial network. In this remodeling, DCA induces a decrease in the expression of key proteins involved in protein degradation and mitochondrial dynamics but does not significantly affect the mtDNA density. Blocking late phase autophagy increases the effects of DCA, suggesting that autophagy protects the cell, at least partially, against DCA.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of propofol on ER stress-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ai; Tsuji, Mayumi; Inagaki, Manami; Tamura, Yurie; Kato, Masumi; Niiya, Akifumi; Usui, Yuki; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2014-02-15

    Anesthetic treatment has been associated with widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the neonatal rodent brain. It has recently been suggested that propofol, a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent, may have a potential as a neuroprotective agent. An apoptotic pathway mediated through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been attracting attention. ER stress is associated with accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in ER, and ER stress-induced apoptosis is implicated in a wide range of diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. We investigated whether thapsigargin-induced ER stress is prevented by propofol in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with various concentrations of propofol (1-10 μM) for 3h before co-treatment with 0.5 μM thapsigargin and propofol for 20 h. Levels of ssDNA, specific evidence of apoptosis, and biomarkers of ER stress (mRNA expression of Chop and sXbp-1) were determined. We also assayed calpain and caspase-4 activities and intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) levels. Thapsigargin-induced increases in ssDNA levels, expressions of ER stress biomarkers, activities of caspase-4 and calpain, and level of [Ca(2+)]i were suppressed by co-incubation with propofol. Our data indicate the possibility that propofol inhibits the Ca(2+) release from ER at clinically employed dose levels. These results demonstrate that propofol suppresses the ER stress-induced apoptosis in this cell system, and may have the neuroprotective potency. It may also be a promising agent for preventing damage from cerebral ischemia or edema.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of arctigenin via upregulation of P-CREB in mouse primary neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Wen, Qingping; Ren, Lu; Liang, Wenbo; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Dong; Hu, Yv; Hao, Haiguang; Yan, Yaping; Zhang, Guangxian; Yang, Jingxian; Kang, Tingguo

    2013-09-10

    Arctigenin (Arc) has been shown to act on scopolamine-induced memory deficit mice and to provide a neuroprotective effect on cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration through mechanisms not completely defined. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Arc on H89-induced cell damage and its potential mechanisms in mouse cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that Arc prevented cell viability loss induced by H89 in human SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Arc reduced intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) production induced by H89 in neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells, and Arc also inhibited the presenilin 1(PS1) protein level in neurons. In addition, neural apoptosis in both types of cells, inhibition of neurite outgrowth in human SH-SY5Y cells and reduction of synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) expression in neurons were also observed after H89 exposure. All these effects induced by H89 were markedly reversed by Arc treatment. Arc also significantly attenuated downregulation of the phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB) induced by H89, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Arc. These results demonstrated that Arc exerted the ability to protect neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against H89-induced cell injury via upregulation of p-CREB.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of arctigenin via upregulation of P-CREB in mouse primary neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Wen, Qingping; Ren, Lu; Liang, Wenbo; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Dong; Hu, Yv; Hao, Haiguang; Yan, Yaping; Zhang, Guangxian; Yang, Jingxian; Kang, Tingguo

    2013-01-01

    Arctigenin (Arc) has been shown to act on scopolamine-induced memory deficit mice and to provide a neuroprotective effect on cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration through mechanisms not completely defined. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Arc on H89-induced cell damage and its potential mechanisms in mouse cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that Arc prevented cell viability loss induced by H89 in human SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Arc reduced intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) production induced by H89 in neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells, and Arc also inhibited the presenilin 1(PS1) protein level in neurons. In addition, neural apoptosis in both types of cells, inhibition of neurite outgrowth in human SH-SY5Y cells and reduction of synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) expression in neurons were also observed after H89 exposure. All these effects induced by H89 were markedly reversed by Arc treatment. Arc also significantly attenuated downregulation of the phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB) induced by H89, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Arc. These results demonstrated that Arc exerted the ability to protect neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against H89-induced cell injury via upregulation of p-CREB. PMID:24025424

  6. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether promotes human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells migration via the GPER/PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, P-C; Wang, H-L; Chen, G-H; Luo, Q; Chen, Z; Wang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is the predominant tumor of early childhood. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) has the highest concentration among all polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human body, particularly for children. Considering that accumulating evidences showed developmental neurotoxicity of PBDE, there is an urgent need to investigate the effects of BDE-47 on the development of neuroblastoma. This study revealed that BDE-47 had limited effects on the cytotoxicity while significantly increased the in vitro migration and invasion of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This was further confirmed by the results that BDE-47 treatment significantly downregulated the expression of E-cadherin and zona occludin-1 and upregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Silencing of MMP-9 by specific small interfering RNA significantly abolished the BDE-47-induced migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. Further, the signals G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER)/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) mediated the BDE-47-induced upregulation of MMP-9 and in vitro migration of SH-SY5Y cells since G15 (GPER inhibitor) and LY 294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor) significantly abolished the effects of BDE-47. Our results revealed that BDE-47 significantly triggered the metastasis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via upregulation of MMP-9 by the GPER/PI3K/Akt signal pathway. This study revealed for the first time that BDE-47 can promote the migration of SH-SY5Y cells. It also provided a better understanding about the metastasis of human neuroblastoma induced by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  7. Differential toxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and rat brain mitochondria: protective role of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-González, Javier; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Méndez-Álvarez, Estefanía; Rose, Sarah; Hikima, Atsuko; Jenner, Peter; Soto-Otero, Ramón

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are two pathophysiological factors often associated with the neurodegenerative process involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is able to cause dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental models of PD by an oxidative stress-mediated process, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. It has been established that some antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are often altered in PD, which suggests a potential role of these enzymes in the onset and/or development of this multifactorial syndrome. In this study we have used high-resolution respirometry to evaluate the effect of 6-OHDA on mitochondrial respiration of isolated rat brain mitochondria and the lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay to assess the percentage of cell death induced by 6-OHDA in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Our results show that 6-OHDA affects mitochondrial respiration by causing a reduction in both respiratory control ratio (IC(50) = 200 ± 15 nM) and state 3 respiration (IC(50) = 192 ± 17 nM), with no significant effects on state 4(o). An inhibition in the activity of both complex I and V was also observed. 6-OHDA also caused cellular death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (IC(50) = 100 ± 9 μM). Both SOD and CAT have been shown to protect against the toxic effects caused by 6-OHDA on mitochondrial respiration. However, whereas SOD protects against 6-OHDA-induced cellular death, CAT enhances its cytotoxicity. The here reported data suggest that both superoxide anion and hydroperoxyl radical could account for 6-OHDA toxicity. Furthermore, factors reducing the rate of 6-OHDA autoxidation to its p-quinone appear to enhance its cytotoxicity. PMID:22821477

  8. Cyclophilin B protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoojung; Jeong, Kwon; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Young-Seok; Jeong, Suyun; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae

    2016-09-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. PD involves a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyidine (MPTP) and its toxic metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) inhibit the complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and have been widely used to construct PD models. Cyclophilin B (CypB) is an endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds to cyclosporine A as a cyclophilin family member. CypB has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. We investigated the protective effects of overexpressed CypB on MPP+-induced neurocytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Overexpressed CypB decreased MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase, and prevented neurocytotoxicity via mitogen-activated protein kinase, especially the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. In addition, CypB inhibited the activation of MPP(+)-induced the pro-apoptotic molecules poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, and Bcl-2, and attenuated MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The data suggest that overexpressed CypB protects neuronal cells from MPP+-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

  9. Cyclophilin B protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoojung; Jeong, Kwon; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Young-Seok; Jeong, Suyun; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae

    2016-09-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. PD involves a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyidine (MPTP) and its toxic metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) inhibit the complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and have been widely used to construct PD models. Cyclophilin B (CypB) is an endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds to cyclosporine A as a cyclophilin family member. CypB has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. We investigated the protective effects of overexpressed CypB on MPP+-induced neurocytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Overexpressed CypB decreased MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase, and prevented neurocytotoxicity via mitogen-activated protein kinase, especially the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. In addition, CypB inhibited the activation of MPP(+)-induced the pro-apoptotic molecules poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, and Bcl-2, and attenuated MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The data suggest that overexpressed CypB protects neuronal cells from MPP+-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. PMID:27569281

  10. Protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis by mitochondrial thioredoxin in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yan; Yu Min; Jones, Dean P.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Cai Jiyang . E-mail: jiyang.cai@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-10-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays important roles in aging and age-related degenerative disorders. The newly identified mitochondrial thioredoxin (mtTrx; Trx2) is a key component of the mitochondrial antioxidant system which is responsible for the clearance of reactive intermediates and repairs proteins with oxidative damage. Here, we show that in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma 1cells, overexpression of mtTrx inhibited apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by a chemical oxidant, tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH). The effects of calcium ionophore (Br-A23187) were not affected by mtTrx, suggesting the protection was specific against oxidative injury. The mitochondrial glutathione pool was oxidized by tBH, and this oxidation was not inhibited by increased mtTrx. Consequently, the antioxidant function of mtTrx is not redundant, but rather in addition, to that of GSH. Mutations of Cys90 and Cys93 to serines rendered mtTrx ineffective in protection against tBH-induced cytoxicity. These data indicate that mtTrx controls the mitochondrial redox status independently of GSH and is a key component of the defensive mechanism against oxidative stress in cultured neuronal cells.

  11. Vitamin E, γ-tocotrienol, Protects Against Buthionine Sulfoximine-Induced Cell Death by Scavenging Free Radicals in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jen-Kit; Then, Sue-Mian; Mazlan, Musalmah; Jamal, Rahman; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2016-01-01

    The induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to selectively kill cancer cells is an important feature of radiotherapy and various chemotherapies. Depletion of glutathione can induce apoptosis in cancer cells or sensitize them to anticancer treatments intended to modulate ROS levels. In contrast, antioxidants protect cancer cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death by scavenging ROS. The role of exogenous antioxidants in cancer cells under oxidative insults remains controversial and unclear. This study aimed to identify protective pathways modulated by γ-tocotrienol (γT3), an isomer of vitamin E, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under oxidative stress. Using buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) as an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, we found that BSO treatment reduced the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. BSO induced cell death by increasing apoptosis, decreased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and increased ROS levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Addition of γT3 increased the viability of BSO-treated cells, suppressed apoptosis, and decreased the ROS level induced by BSO, while the GSH level was unaffected. These results suggest that decreasing GSH levels by BSO increased ROS levels, leading to apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. γT3 attenuated the BSO-induced cell death by scavenging free radicals.

  12. Different regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes in response to dioxin in undifferentiated and neuronally differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Imran, Saima; Ferretti, Patrizia; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Some environmental pollutants derived from industrial processes have been suggested to be responsible for neurological impairment in children, especially in heavily polluted areas. Since these compounds are usually activators of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), it would be important to better understand the molecular pathways downstream of AhR leading to neural deficits. To this purpose, appropriate in vitro human neural model is much needed. Here we have investigated whether undifferentiated and neuronally differentiated human neuroblastoma cells, SH-SY5Y cells, can provide a suitable model for monitoring AhR activity induced by environmental pollutants, focusing on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a known activator of AhR. Further characterization of differentiated SH-SY5Y showed an increase in AhRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor), no change in ARNT1 (AhR nuclear translocator 1), and a decrease in ARNT2 expression with differentiation; in contrast, AhR was undetectable in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Nonetheless, treatment of parental as well as differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with TCDD resulted in the induction of AhR-regulated genes, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1; AhRR expression was also affected, but to a much smaller extent. These results indicate that undifferentiated SH-SY5Y are less sensitive to TCDD than neuronally differentiated ones, suggesting a higher resistance of the undifferentiated tumor cells to toxic insults. They also suggest that TCDD in these cells may not act via direct activation of AhR that is undetectable in SH-SY5Y as well as in differentiated neurons. Hence, these cells do not provide an appropriate model for studying ligand-mediated activation of AhR.

  13. Effect of toluene diisocyanate on homeostasis of intracellular-free calcium in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.-S. . E-mail: psliu@mail.scu.edu.tw; Chiung, Y.-M.; Kao, Y.-Y.

    2006-03-01

    The mechanisms of TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate)-induced occupational asthma are not fully established. Previous studies have indicated that TDI induces non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine and induces contraction of smooth muscle tissue by activating 'capsaicin-sensitive' nerves resulting asthma. Cytosolic-free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}) are elevated when either capsaicin acts at vanilloid receptors, or methacholine at muscarinic receptors. This study therefore investigated the effects of TDI on Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. TDI was found to elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} by releasing Ca{sup 2+} from the intracellular stores and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. 500 {mu}M TDI induced a net [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} increase of 112 {+-} 8 and 78 {+-} 6 nM in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, respectively. In Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer, TDI induced Ca{sup 2+} release from internal stores to reduce their Ca{sup 2+} content and this reduction was evidenced by a suppression occurring on the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} rise induced by thapsigargin, ionomycin, and methacholine after TDI incubation. In the presence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, simultaneous exposure to TDI and methacholine led a higher level of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} compared to single methacholine stimulation, that might explain that TDI induces bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. We conclude that TDI is capable of interfering the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} homeostasis including releasing Ca{sup 2+} from internal stores and inducing extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. The interaction of this novel character and bronchial hyperreactivity need further investigation.

  14. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Helena; Runesson, Johan; Lundqvist, Jessica; Lindegren, Helene; Axelsson, Viktoria; Forsby, Anna

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  15. Calpastatin overexpression reduces oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial impairment and cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by decreasing calpain and calcineurin activation, induction of mitochondrial fission and destruction of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Tangmansakulchai, Kulvadee; Abubakar, Zuroida; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Leepiyasakulchai, Chaniya; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Chetsawang, Banthit

    2016-09-01

    Calpain is an intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent protease, and the activation of calpain has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Calpain activity can be regulated by calpastatin, an endogenous specific calpain inhibitor. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated a potential role of calpastatin in preventing calpain-mediated pathogenesis. Additionally, several studies have revealed that calpain activation and mitochondrial damage are involved in the cell death process; however, recent evidence has not clearly indicated a neuroprotective mechanism of calpastatin against calpain-dependent mitochondrial impairment in the process of neuronal cell death. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential ability of calpastatin to inhibit calpain activation and mitochondrial impairment in oxidative stress-induced neuron degeneration. Calpastatin was stably overexpressed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In non-calpastatin overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly decreased cell viability, superoxide dismutase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production and mitochondrial fusion protein (Opa1) levels in the mitochondrial fraction but increased reactive oxygen species formation, calpain and calcineurin activation, mitochondrial fission protein (Fis1 and Drp1) levels in the mitochondrial fraction and apoptotic cells. Nevertheless, these toxic effects were abolished in hydrogen peroxide-treated calpastatin-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential ability of calpastatin to diminish calpain and calcineurin activation and mitochondrial impairment in neurons that are affected by oxidative damage. PMID:27453331

  16. Differences between normal and alpha-synuclein overexpressing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after Abeta(1-42) and NAC treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunya, Akos; Földi, István; Szegedi, Viktor; Soós, Katalin; Zarándi, Márta; Szabó, Antal; Zádori, Dénes; Penke, Botond; Datki, Zsolt L

    2008-03-28

    Alpha-synuclein (alphaSN) plays a major role in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Intracellular inclusions containing aggregated alphaSN have been reported in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's affected brains. Moreover, a proteolytic fragment of alphaSN, the so-called non-amyloid component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid (NAC) was found to be an integral part of Alzheimer's dementia related plaques. Despite the extensive research on this topic, the exact toxic mechanism of alphaSN remains elusive. We have taken the advantage of an alphaSN overexpressing SH-SY5Y cell line and investigated the effects of classical apoptotic factors (e.g. H(2)O(2), amphotericin B and ruthenium red) and aggregated disease-related peptides on cell viability compared to wild type neuroblastoma cells. It was found that alphaSN overexpressing cells are more sensitive to aggregated peptides treatment than normal expressing counterparts. In contrast, cells containing elevated amount of alphaSN were less vulnerable to classical apoptotic stressors than wild type cells. In addition, alphaSN overexpression is accompanied by altered phenotype, attenuated proliferation kinetics, increased neurite arborisation and decreased cell motility. Based on these results, the alphaSN overexpressing cell lines may represent a good and effective in vitro model for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. PMID:18355641

  17. Cellular Stress and p53-Associated Apoptosis by Juniperus communis L. Berry Extract Treatment in the Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lantto, Tiina A; Laakso, Into; Dorman, H J Damien; Mauriala, Timo; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kõks, Sulev; Raasmaja, Atso

    2016-07-13

    Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L.) on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis) method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response was involved in juniper berry extract mediated cell death. In composition analysis, we identified and quantified low concentrations of fifteen phenolic compounds. The main groups of them were flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, flavanol and biflavonoid including glycosides of quercetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein and hypolaetin. It is suggested that juniper berry extract induced the p53-associated apoptosis through the potentiation and synergism by several phenolic compounds.

  18. Cellular Stress and p53-Associated Apoptosis by Juniperus communis L. Berry Extract Treatment in the Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lantto, Tiina A.; Laakso, Into; Dorman, H. J. Damien; Mauriala, Timo; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kõks, Sulev; Raasmaja, Atso

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L.) on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis) method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response was involved in juniper berry extract mediated cell death. In composition analysis, we identified and quantified low concentrations of fifteen phenolic compounds. The main groups of them were flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, flavanol and biflavonoid including glycosides of quercetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein and hypolaetin. It is suggested that juniper berry extract induced the p53-associated apoptosis through the potentiation and synergism by several phenolic compounds. PMID:27420050

  19. A "classical" homodimeric erythropoietin receptor is essential for the antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin on differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Um, Moonkyoung; Gross, Alec W; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-03-01

    The hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) exerts cytoprotective effects on several types of neuronal cells both in vivo and in culture. Detailed molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been elucidated and even the identity of the cytoprotective Epo receptors in neuronal cells is controversial. Here we show that Epo prevents staurosporine-induced apoptosis of differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and activates the STAT5, AKT and MAPK signaling pathways. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have fewer than 50 high affinity Epo surface binding sites per cell, which could not be detected by standard assays measuring binding of 125I-labeled Epo. However, by measuring endocytosis of 125I-Epo, we could reliably quantify very small numbers of high-affinity Epo surface binding sites. Using SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing an Epo receptor (EpoR) shRNA and thus lacking detectable EpoR expression, we show that high affinity binding of Epo to these neuronal cells is mediated by the hematopoietic EpoR, and that this EpoR is also essential for the antiapoptotic activity of Epo. In contrast, a mutant Epo that has an intact binding site 1 but a non-functional binding site 2 and hence binds only to one cell surface EpoR molecule ("site 2" Epo mutant) displays significantly lower antiapoptotic activity than wild-type Epo. Furthermore, expression of the GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common beta chain, which was proposed to be responsible for the cytoprotective activity of Epo on certain types of neuronal cells, was undetectable in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Epo also alleviated staurosporine-induced apoptosis of rat PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells while the R103A "site 2" Epo mutant did not, and we could not detect expression of the common beta chain in PC-12 cells. Together our results indicate that Epo exerts its antiapoptotic effects on differentiated SH-SY5Y and PC-12 cells through the standard stoichiometry of one molecule of Epo binding to two EpoR subunits

  20. MLIF Alleviates SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Injury Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by Targeting Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiuzhen; Zhang, Yuefan; Liu, Yulan; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Rui, Yaocheng; Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a heat-stable pentapeptide, has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic brain injury. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of MLIF against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability, and flow cytometry assay and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate apoptosis. LDH assay was used to exam necrosis. The release of inflammatory cytokines was detected by ELISA. Levels of the apoptosis associated proteins were measured by western blot analysis. To identify the protein target of MLIF, pull-down assay and mass spectrometry were performed. We observed that MLIF enhanced cell survival and inhibited apoptosis and necrosis by inhibiting p-JNK, p53, c-caspase9 and c-caspase3 expression. In the microglia, OGD-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines was markedly reduced in the presence of MLIF. Furthermore, we found that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2) is a downstream target of MLIF. Knockdown eEF1A2 using short interfering RNA (siRNA) almost completely abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of MLIF in SH-SY5Y cells subjected to OGD, with an associated decrease in cell survival and an increase in expression of p-JNK and p53. These results indicate that MLIF ameliorates OGD-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma injury by inhibiting the p-JNK/p53 apoptotic signaling pathway via eEF1A2. Our findings suggest that eEF1A2 may be a new therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury. PMID:26918757

  1. MLIF Alleviates SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Injury Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by Targeting Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulan; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Rui, Yaocheng; Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a heat-stable pentapeptide, has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic brain injury. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of MLIF against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability, and flow cytometry assay and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate apoptosis. LDH assay was used to exam necrosis. The release of inflammatory cytokines was detected by ELISA. Levels of the apoptosis associated proteins were measured by western blot analysis. To identify the protein target of MLIF, pull-down assay and mass spectrometry were performed. We observed that MLIF enhanced cell survival and inhibited apoptosis and necrosis by inhibiting p-JNK, p53, c-caspase9 and c-caspase3 expression. In the microglia, OGD-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines was markedly reduced in the presence of MLIF. Furthermore, we found that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2) is a downstream target of MLIF. Knockdown eEF1A2 using short interfering RNA (siRNA) almost completely abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of MLIF in SH-SY5Y cells subjected to OGD, with an associated decrease in cell survival and an increase in expression of p-JNK and p53. These results indicate that MLIF ameliorates OGD-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma injury by inhibiting the p-JNK/p53 apoptotic signaling pathway via eEF1A2. Our findings suggest that eEF1A2 may be a new therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury. PMID:26918757

  2. Cucurbitacin B inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK pathways in SH‑SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Liu, Yunyi; Liu, Weiwei; Ma, Fengyun; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-07-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB) is a tetracyclic triterpene that is contained in extracts from cucurbitaceous plants and has been demonstrated to have anticancer and anti‑inflammatory activities. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CuB exhibits anticancer effects on SH‑SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and to analyze the underlying molecular mechanism. The results demonstrated that CuB not only induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, but also induced apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V staining, downregulation of phospho‑Janus kinase 2 (p‑JAK2), phospho‑signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p‑STAT3), phospho‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinases and the activation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). CuB also altered the expression of gene products that mediated cell proliferation (Cyclin B1 and cyclin‑dependent kinase 1), cell survival (B‑cell lymphoma 2, Bcl2‑associated X protein) and increased the expression of p53 and p21. These results provide the evidence that JAK2/STAT3 and MAPKs have crucial roles in CuB‑induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in SH‑SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

  3. Interferon-β counter-regulates its own pro-apoptotic action by activating p38 MAPK signalling in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dedoni, Simona; Olianas, Maria C; Onali, Pierluigi

    2014-10-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) induce apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this event have not been completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, a key regulator of apoptosis and a known modulator of IFN-induced responses in non-neuronal cells. We show that in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells IFN-β induced a delayed and sustained increase of p38 MAPK activity through a novel mechanism involving the sequential activation of Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 signalling, enhanced expression of the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), increased reactive oxygen species production and stimulation of the MAPK kinase kinase transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1. Either blockade of p38 MAPK by the second generation inhibitors BIRB0796 and VX745 or siRNA knockdown of p38α MAPK enhanced IFN-β-induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to IFN-β increased the phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein HSP27 at Ser15, Ser78 and Ser82 with a time course similar to p38 MAPK activation and this response was suppressed by either p38α MAPK depletion or pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2). Either silencing of HSP27 expression by siRNA or MK2 inhibition potentiated IFN-β-induced apoptotic death. These results indicate that IFN-β-induced apoptosis of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is associated with a long-lasting up-regulation of p38 MAPK activity, stimulation of MK2 and phosphorylation of the pro-survival protein HSP27. Moreover, the data show that inhibition of p38 MAPK signalling potentiates the anti-neuroblastoma activity of the cytokine, indicating that this pathway mediates a counter-regulatory response.

  4. Opioid receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: evidence for distinct morphine (. mu. ) and enkephalin (delta) binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.I.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-06-13

    Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exhibited a heterogeneous population of ..mu.. and delta types of opioid binding sites. These specific binding sites displayed the characteristic saturability, stereospecificity and reversibility, expected of a receptor. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)-D-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin (DADLE) in the presence of 10/sup -5/M D-Pro/sup 4/-morphiceptin (to block the ..mu.. receptors) and the competitive displacement by various highly selective ligands yielded the binding parameters of delta sites which closely resemble those of the delta receptors in brain and mouse neuroblastoma clones. Similarly, the high affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine, together with the higher potency of morphine analogues to displace (/sup 3/H)-naloxone binding established the presence of ..mu.. sites. Guanine nucleotides and NaCl significantly inhibited the association and increased the dissociation of (/sup 3/H)-DADLE binding.

  5. Effects of antidepressants on DSP4/CPT-induced DNA damage response in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Hilton, Benjamin A.; Cui, Kui; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is a form of cell stress and injury. Increased systemic DNA damage is related to the pathogenic development of neurodegenerative diseases. Depression occurs in a relatively high percentage of patients suffering from degenerative diseases, for whom antidepressants are often used to relieve depressive symptoms. However, few studies have attempted to elucidate why different groups of antidepressants have similar effects on relieving symptoms of depression. Previously, we demonstrated that neurotoxins N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4)- and camptothecin (CPT)-induced the DNA damage response in SH-SY5Y cells, and DSP4 caused cell cycle arrest which was predominately in the S-phase. The present study shows that CPT treatment also resulted in similar cell cycle arrest. Some classic antidepressants could reduce the DNA damage response induced by DSP4 or CPT in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell viability examination demonstrated that both DSP4 and CPT caused cell death, which was prevented by spontaneous administration of some tested antidepressants. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that a majority of the tested antidepressants protect cells from being arrested in S-phase. These results suggest that blocking the DNA damage response may be an important pharmacologic characteristic of antidepressants. Exploring the underlying mechanisms may allow for advances in the effort to improve therapeutic strategies for depression appearing in degenerative and psychiatric diseases. PMID:26038195

  6. Carnosic Acid Prevents Beta-Amyloid-Induced Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells via the Induction of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-09-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ), the hallmark protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD), induces neurotoxicity that involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to cell death. Carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene isolated from the herb rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), was investigated in our study to assess its neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism against Aβ-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CA pretreatment alleviated the Aβ25-35-induced loss of cell viability, inhibited both Aβ1-42 accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation, reduced reactive oxygen species generation, and maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, CA increased the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/I ratio and decreased SQSTM1(p62), indicating that CA could induce autophagy. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) attenuated the neuroprotective effect of CA, suggesting that autophagy was involved in the neuroprotection of CA. It was also observed that CA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, blocking AMPK with si-AMPKα successfully inhibited the upregulation of LC3-II/I, prevented the downregulation of phosphorylation of mTOR and SQSTM1(p62), indicating that CA induced autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells via the activation of AMPK. These results suggested that CA might be a potential agent for preventing AD. PMID:27168327

  7. Phosphoproteome Profiling of SH-SY5y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with Anesthetics: Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Affect the Phosphorylation of Proteins Involved in Cytoskeletal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joomin; Ahn, Eunsook; Park, Wyun Kon; Park, Seyeon

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics are used to decrease the spinal cord transmission of painful stimuli. However, the molecular or biochemical processes within cells that regulate anesthetic-induced responses at the cellular level are largely unknown. Here, we report the phosphoproteome profile of SH-SY5y human neuroblastoma cells treated with sevoflurane, a clinically used anesthetic. Phosphoproteins were isolated from cell lysates and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The phosphorylation of putative anesthetic-responsive marker proteins was validated using western blot analysis in cells treated with both sevoflurane and isoflurane. A total of 25 phosphoproteins were identified as differentially phosphorylated proteins. These included key regulators that signal cytoskeletal remodeling steps in pathways related to vesicle trafficking, axonal growth, and cell migration. These proteins included the Rho GTPase, Ras-GAP SH3 binding protein, Rho GTPase activating protein, actin-related protein, and actin. Sevoflurane and isoflurane also resulted in the dissolution of F-actin fibers in SH-SY5y cells. Our results show that anesthetics affect the phosphorylation of proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling pathways. PMID:27611435

  8. Atrazine induces apoptosis of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells via the regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, Sunny O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-02-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is a well known herbicide that is frequently detected in ground and surface water at significant levels. Our objective was to study the toxic effect of ATZ on the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells, and the degree of cytotoxicity and morphological changes were followed during the cell death. Application of cytotoxicity bioassays indicates that ATZ (5-50 µg/mL) decreases cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The evidence of apoptosis was confirmed by an increase in caspase-3 activity, and cell death was blocked when caspase-3 activity was inhibited. Typical apoptotic phenotype that includes nuclear fragmentation, micro nuclei formation, DNA fragmentation and increase in the expressions apoptosis-associated markers Bax, p53 and p21 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in treated cells. We also observed dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in ATZ-treated cells. These results suggest that ATZ-induces apoptosis and ROS levels in SH-SY5Y cells, and could be implicated in human neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:25752436

  9. Phosphoproteome Profiling of SH-SY5y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with Anesthetics: Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Affect the Phosphorylation of Proteins Involved in Cytoskeletal Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joomin; Ahn, Eunsook; Park, Wyun Kon; Park, Seyeon

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics are used to decrease the spinal cord transmission of painful stimuli. However, the molecular or biochemical processes within cells that regulate anesthetic-induced responses at the cellular level are largely unknown. Here, we report the phosphoproteome profile of SH-SY5y human neuroblastoma cells treated with sevoflurane, a clinically used anesthetic. Phosphoproteins were isolated from cell lysates and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The phosphorylation of putative anesthetic-responsive marker proteins was validated using western blot analysis in cells treated with both sevoflurane and isoflurane. A total of 25 phosphoproteins were identified as differentially phosphorylated proteins. These included key regulators that signal cytoskeletal remodeling steps in pathways related to vesicle trafficking, axonal growth, and cell migration. These proteins included the Rho GTPase, Ras-GAP SH3 binding protein, Rho GTPase activating protein, actin-related protein, and actin. Sevoflurane and isoflurane also resulted in the dissolution of F-actin fibers in SH-SY5y cells. Our results show that anesthetics affect the phosphorylation of proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling pathways.

  10. Phosphoproteome Profiling of SH-SY5y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with Anesthetics: Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Affect the Phosphorylation of Proteins Involved in Cytoskeletal Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joomin; Ahn, Eunsook; Park, Wyun Kon; Park, Seyeon

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics are used to decrease the spinal cord transmission of painful stimuli. However, the molecular or biochemical processes within cells that regulate anesthetic-induced responses at the cellular level are largely unknown. Here, we report the phosphoproteome profile of SH-SY5y human neuroblastoma cells treated with sevoflurane, a clinically used anesthetic. Phosphoproteins were isolated from cell lysates and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The phosphorylation of putative anesthetic-responsive marker proteins was validated using western blot analysis in cells treated with both sevoflurane and isoflurane. A total of 25 phosphoproteins were identified as differentially phosphorylated proteins. These included key regulators that signal cytoskeletal remodeling steps in pathways related to vesicle trafficking, axonal growth, and cell migration. These proteins included the Rho GTPase, Ras-GAP SH3 binding protein, Rho GTPase activating protein, actin-related protein, and actin. Sevoflurane and isoflurane also resulted in the dissolution of F-actin fibers in SH-SY5y cells. Our results show that anesthetics affect the phosphorylation of proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling pathways. PMID:27611435

  11. Atrazine induces apoptosis of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells via the regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, Sunny O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-02-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is a well known herbicide that is frequently detected in ground and surface water at significant levels. Our objective was to study the toxic effect of ATZ on the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells, and the degree of cytotoxicity and morphological changes were followed during the cell death. Application of cytotoxicity bioassays indicates that ATZ (5-50 µg/mL) decreases cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The evidence of apoptosis was confirmed by an increase in caspase-3 activity, and cell death was blocked when caspase-3 activity was inhibited. Typical apoptotic phenotype that includes nuclear fragmentation, micro nuclei formation, DNA fragmentation and increase in the expressions apoptosis-associated markers Bax, p53 and p21 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in treated cells. We also observed dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in ATZ-treated cells. These results suggest that ATZ-induces apoptosis and ROS levels in SH-SY5Y cells, and could be implicated in human neurodegenerative disorder.

  12. Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

    PubMed Central

    Power-Charnitsky, Verna-Ann; Sharma, Alok; Audhya, Tapan; Zhang, Yiting

    2016-01-01

    The folate and cobalamin (Cbl-) dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) is highly sensitive to oxidation and its activity affects all methylation reactions. Recent studies have revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA in human brain and patient-derived fibroblasts. Here we show that MS mRNA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells is alternatively spliced, resulting in three primary protein species, thus providing a useful model to examine cofactor dependence of these variant enzymes. MS activity was dependent upon methylcobalamin (MeCbl) or the combination of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). OHCbl-based activity was eliminated by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) but could be rescued by provision of either glutathionylcobalamin (GSCbl) or MeCbl. Pretreatment of cells with lead, arsenic, aluminum, mercury, or the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal lowered GSH levels and inhibited MS activity in association with decreased uptake of cysteine, which is rate-limiting for GSH synthesis. Thimerosal treatment decreased cellular levels of GSCbl and MeCbl. These findings indicate that the alternatively spliced form of MS expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells is sensitive to inhibition by thimerosal and neurotoxic metals, and lower GSH levels contribute to their inhibitory action. PMID:26989453

  13. Mu-opioids activate phospholipase C in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells via calcium-channel opening.

    PubMed

    Smart, D; Smith, G; Lambert, D G

    1995-01-15

    We have recently reported that, in SH-SY5Y cells, mu-opioid receptor occupancy activates phospholipase C via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. In the present study we have further characterized the mechanisms involved in this process. Fentanyl (0.1 microM) caused a monophasic increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate mass formation, with a peak (20.5 +/- 3.6 pmol/mg of protein) at 15 s. Incubation in Ca(2+)-free buffer abolished this response, while Ca2+ replacement 1 min later restored the stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation (20.1 +/- 0.6 pmol/mg of protein). In addition, nifedipine (1 nM-0.1 mM), an L-type Ca(2+)-channel antagonist, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, with an IC50 of 60.3 +/- 1.1 nM. Elevation of endogenous beta/gamma subunits by selective activation of delta-opioid and alpha 2 adrenoceptors failed to stimulate phospholipase C. Fentanyl also caused a dose-dependent (EC50 of 16.2 +/- 1.0 nM), additive enhancement of carbachol-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation. In summary, we have demonstrated that in SH-SY5Y cells activation of the mu-opioid receptor allows Ca2+ influx to activate phospholipase C. However, the possible role of this mechanism in the process of analgesia remains to be elucidated. PMID:7832776

  14. Neuroprotective effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor group II and III activators against MPP(+)-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: the impact of cell differentiation state.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Greda, A; Golda, S; Korostynski, M; Grygier, B; Roman, A; Pilc, A; Lason, W

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have documented that metabotropic glutamate receptors from group II and III (mGluR II/III) are a potential target in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), however, the neuroprotective effects of particular mGluR II/III subtypes in relation to PD pathology are recognized only partially. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various mGluR II/III activators in the in vitro model of PD using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and mitochondrial neurotoxin MPP(+). We demonstrated that all tested mGluR ligands: mGluR II agonist - LY354740, mGluR III agonist - ACPT-I, mGluR4 PAM - VU0361737, mGluR8 agonist - (S)-3,4-DCPG, mGluR8 PAM - AZ12216052 and mGluR7 allosteric agonist - AMN082 were protective against MPP(+)-evoked cell damage in undifferentiated (UN-) SH-SY5Y cells with the highest neuroprotection mediated by mGluR8-specific agents. However, in retinoic acid- differentiated (RA-) SH-SY5Y cells we found protection mediated only by mGluR8 activators. We also demonstrated the cell proliferation stimulating effect for mGluR4 and mGluR8 PAMs. Next, we showed that the protection mediated by mGluR II/III activators in UN-SH-SY5Y was not accompanied by the modulation of caspase-3 activity, however, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei was found. Finally, we showed that the inhibitor of necroptosis, necrostatin-1 blocked the mGluR III-mediated protection. Altogether our comparative in vitro data add a further proof to neuroprotective effects of mGluR agonists or PAMs and point to mGluR8 as a promising target for neuroprotective interventions in PD. The results also suggest the participation of necroptosis-related molecular pathways in neuroprotective effects of mGluR III activation. PMID:24713472

  15. Alterations in the expression of G-proteins and regulation of adenylate cyclase in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells chronically exposed to low-efficacy mu-opioids.

    PubMed

    Ammer, H; Schulz, R

    1993-10-01

    Western-blot analysis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (mu- and delta-receptors) revealed the presence of the following G-protein subunits: Gi alpha 1, Gi alpha 2, Gs alpha, G(o) alpha, Gz alpha, and G beta, a pattern resembling that observed in central nervous tissue. Chronic treatment of differentiated [all-trans-retinoic acid (10 microM; 6 days)] SH-SY5Y cells with D(-)-morphine (10 microM; 3 days) significantly increased the abundance of all G-protein subunits identified. Co-incubation of morphine-exposed cells together with naloxone (10 microM; 3 days) or the mu-selective opioid antagonist CTOP (10 microM; 3 days), but not with the delta-selective antagonist ICI-174,864 (10 microM; 3 days), completely abolished this effect, suggesting that the increase in G-protein abundance is specifically mediated by mu-receptors. Moreover, the biologically inactive enantiomer L(+)-morphine (10 microM; 3 days) failed to produce a similar effect. G-protein up-regulation developed in a time- and dose-dependent manner and is most likely due to enhanced protein synthesis de novo, since concomitant treatment of the cells with cycloheximide (100 micrograms/ml; 3 days) prevented this effect. Chronic treatment with the low-efficacy mu-selective opioid peptide morphiceptin (10 microM; 3 days), but not with the highly potent mu-agonist DAGO (0.1 microM; 3 days) produced a comparable increase in G-protein abundance. Coincident with quantitative effects on G-protein levels in morphine-tolerant/dependent SH-SY5Y cells, we found elevated levels of basal, forskolin (1 microM)- and prostaglandin-E1 (1 microM)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities. Reconstitution experiments using S49 cyc- lymphoma-cell membranes suggest that this increase is most likely due to elevated levels of functionally intact Gs. Chronic treatment with both morphine and DAGO induces high degrees of tolerance in this cell line. However, the intrinsic activity of G1 was unchanged, as assessed in functional studies

  16. Spirafolide from bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) prevents dopamine-induced apoptosis by decreasing reactive oxygen species production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Bora; Koo, Uk; Nam, Kung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Shin, Jongheon; Mar, Woongchon

    2010-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This study tested the neuroprotective effects of spirafolide, a compound purified from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), against dopamine (DA)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Following a 24-h exposure of cells to DA (final conc., 0.6 mM), we observed a marked increase in apoptosis, increased generation of ROS and decreased cell viability. Pretreatment of the cells for 24 h with spirafolide (0.4, 2, and 10 μM) before exposure to DA notably increased cell survival (p < 0.01) and lowered intracellular ROS levels (p < 0.01). These results indicate that spirafolide has neuroprotective effects against DA toxicity. These effects may contribute to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Neurosupportive Role of Vanillin, a Natural Phenolic Compound, on Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin, a phenolic compound, has been reported to offer neuroprotection against experimental Huntington's disease and global ischemia by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The present study aims to elucidate the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of vanillin in rotenone induced neurotoxicity. Cell viability was assessed by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to various concentrations of rotenone (5–200 nM) for 24 h. The therapeutic effectiveness of vanillin against rotenone was measured by pretreatment of vanillin at various concentrations (5–200 nM) and then incubation with rotenone (100 nM). Using effective dose of vanillin (100 nM), mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression patterns of apoptotic markers were assessed. Toxicity of rotenone was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation, release of cyt-c, and enhanced expressions of proapoptotic and downregulation of antiapoptotic indices via the upregulation of p38 and JNK-MAPK pathway proteins. Our results indicated that the pretreatment of vanillin attenuated rotenone induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Thus, vanillin may serve as a potent therapeutic agent in the future by virtue of its multiple pharmacological properties in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including PD. PMID:26664453

  18. Neurosupportive Role of Vanillin, a Natural Phenolic Compound, on Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin, a phenolic compound, has been reported to offer neuroprotection against experimental Huntington's disease and global ischemia by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The present study aims to elucidate the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of vanillin in rotenone induced neurotoxicity. Cell viability was assessed by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to various concentrations of rotenone (5-200 nM) for 24 h. The therapeutic effectiveness of vanillin against rotenone was measured by pretreatment of vanillin at various concentrations (5-200 nM) and then incubation with rotenone (100 nM). Using effective dose of vanillin (100 nM), mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression patterns of apoptotic markers were assessed. Toxicity of rotenone was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation, release of cyt-c, and enhanced expressions of proapoptotic and downregulation of antiapoptotic indices via the upregulation of p38 and JNK-MAPK pathway proteins. Our results indicated that the pretreatment of vanillin attenuated rotenone induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Thus, vanillin may serve as a potent therapeutic agent in the future by virtue of its multiple pharmacological properties in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including PD.

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is independent of phosphoinositide signalling, but dependent on sphingosine kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Young, K W; Challiss, R A; Nahorski, S R; MacKrill, J J

    1999-01-01

    Extracellular application of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The maximal response to LPA occurred between 0. 1 and 1 microM, at which point [Ca(2+)](i) was increased by approx. 500 nM. This increase was of similar magnitude to that caused by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist methacholine (MCh), although the initial rate of release by LPA was slower. Both LPA and MCh released Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, as assessed by inhibition of their effects by thapsigargin, a blocker of endoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) uptake, and by the persistence of their action in nominally Ca(2+)-free extracellular medium. Similarly, both agonists appeared to stimulate store-refilling Ca(2+) entry. MCh produced a marked elevation in cellular Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and stimulated [(3)H]InsP accumulation in the presence of Li(+). In contrast, LPA failed to stimulate detectable phosphoinositide turnover. Chronic down-regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor (InsP(3)R) proteins with MCh did not affect Ca(2+) responses to LPA. In addition, heparin, a competitive antagonist of InsP(3)Rs, blocked Ca(2+)-mobilization in permeabilized SH-SY5Y cells in response to MCh or exogenously added Ins(1,4,5)P(3), but failed to inhibit Ca(2+)-release induced by LPA. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by LPA was blocked by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]-diphosphate, indicating that this agonist acts via a G-protein-coupled receptor. However, pertussis toxin was without effect on LPA-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) responses, suggesting that G(i/o)-proteins were not involved. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS, 30 microM), a competitive inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, blocked LPA-induced Ca(2+) responses by almost 90%. In addition, MCh-induced Ca(2+) responses were also diminished by the addition of DMS, although to a lesser extent than with LPA. We conclude that LPA mobilizes intracellular Ca(2

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is independent of phosphoinositide signalling, but dependent on sphingosine kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Young, K W; Challiss, R A; Nahorski, S R; MacKrill, J J

    1999-10-01

    Extracellular application of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The maximal response to LPA occurred between 0. 1 and 1 microM, at which point [Ca(2+)](i) was increased by approx. 500 nM. This increase was of similar magnitude to that caused by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist methacholine (MCh), although the initial rate of release by LPA was slower. Both LPA and MCh released Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, as assessed by inhibition of their effects by thapsigargin, a blocker of endoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) uptake, and by the persistence of their action in nominally Ca(2+)-free extracellular medium. Similarly, both agonists appeared to stimulate store-refilling Ca(2+) entry. MCh produced a marked elevation in cellular Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and stimulated [(3)H]InsP accumulation in the presence of Li(+). In contrast, LPA failed to stimulate detectable phosphoinositide turnover. Chronic down-regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor (InsP(3)R) proteins with MCh did not affect Ca(2+) responses to LPA. In addition, heparin, a competitive antagonist of InsP(3)Rs, blocked Ca(2+)-mobilization in permeabilized SH-SY5Y cells in response to MCh or exogenously added Ins(1,4,5)P(3), but failed to inhibit Ca(2+)-release induced by LPA. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by LPA was blocked by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]-diphosphate, indicating that this agonist acts via a G-protein-coupled receptor. However, pertussis toxin was without effect on LPA-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) responses, suggesting that G(i/o)-proteins were not involved. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS, 30 microM), a competitive inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, blocked LPA-induced Ca(2+) responses by almost 90%. In addition, MCh-induced Ca(2+) responses were also diminished by the addition of DMS, although to a lesser extent than with LPA. We conclude that LPA mobilizes intracellular Ca(2

  1. Organic solvent-induced changes in membrane geometry in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells - a common narcotic effect?

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, Cécil J W; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S; Vijverberg, Henk P M

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to organic solvents may cause narcotic effects. At the cellular level, these narcotic effects have been associated with a reduction in neuronal excitability caused by changes in membrane structure and function. In order to critically test whether changes in membrane geometry contribute to these narcotic effects, cultured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells have been exposed to selected organic solvents. The solvent-induced changes in cell membrane capacitance were investigated using the whole-cell patch clamp technique for real-time capacitance measurements. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to the cyclic hydrocarbons m-xylene, toluene, and cyclohexane caused a rapid and reversible increase of membrane capacitance. The aliphatic, nonpolar n-hexane did not cause a detectable change of whole-cell membrane capacitance, whereas the amphiphiles n-hexanol and n-hexylamine caused an increase of membrane capacitance and a concomitant reduction in membrane resistance. Despite a large difference in dielectric properties, the chlorinated hydrocarbons 1,1,2,2-tetrachoroethane and tetrachloroethylene caused a similar magnitude increase in membrane capacitance. The theory on membrane capacitance has been applied to deduce changes in membrane geometry caused by solvent partitioning. Although classical observations have shown that solvents increase the membrane capacitance per unit area of membrane, i.e., increase membrane thickness, the present results demonstrate that solvent partitioning predominantly leads to an increase in membrane surface area and to a lesser degree to an increase in membrane thickness. Moreover, the present results indicate that the physicochemical properties of each solvent are important determinants for its specific effects on membrane geometry. This implies that the hypothesis that solvent partitioning is associated with a common perturbation of membrane structure needs to be revisited and cannot account for the commonly observed narcotic effects of

  2. Does MW Radiation Affect Gene Expression, Apoptotic Level, and Cell Cycle Progression of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells?

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Handan; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Saglam, Atiye Seda Yar; Tuysuz, Mehmed Zahid; Canseven, Ayşe Gulnihal; Yagci, Abdullah Munci; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants. SH-SY5Y NB cells were exposed to 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation for 24 h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491 W/kg. Control samples were in the same conditions with MW-exposed samples but they were not exposed to MW radiation. The apoptotic activity of cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Moreover, mRNA levels of proliferative and cell cycle proteins were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The change in cell cycle progression was observed by using CycleTest-Plus DNA reagent. No significant change was observed in apoptotic activity of MW-exposed cells compared to control cells. The mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in MW group (p < 0.05). The percentage of MW-exposed cells in G1 phase was significantly higher than the percentage of control cells in G1 phase. MW radiation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. These results showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but changed cell cycle progression.

  3. Progranulin Deficiency Reduces CDK4/6/pRb Activation and Survival of Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    de la Encarnación, Ana; Alquézar, Carolina; Esteras, Noemí; Martín-Requero, Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    Null mutations in GRN are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP). However, the influence of progranulin (PGRN) deficiency in neurodegeneration is largely unknown. In neuroblastoma cells, silencing of GRN gene causes significantly reduced cell survival after serum withdrawal. The following observations suggest that alterations of the CDK4/6/retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway, secondary to changes in PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation induced by PGRN deficiency, are involved in the control of serum deprivation-induced apoptosis: (i) inhibiting CDK4/6 levels or their associated kinase activity by sodium butyrate or PD332991 sensitized control SH-SY5Y cells to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis without affecting survival of PGRN-deficient cells; (ii) CDK4/6/pRb seems to be downstream of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways since their specific inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, were able to decrease CDK6-associated kinase activity and induce death of control SH-SY5Y cells; (iii) PGRN-deficient cells show reduced stimulation of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, and CDK4/6 activities compared with control cells in the absence of serum; and (iv) supplementation of recombinant human PGRN was able to rescue survival of PGRN-deficient cells. These observations highlight the important role of PGRN-mediated stimulation of the PI3K/Akt-ERK1/2/CDK4/6/pRb pathway in determining the cell fate survival/death under serum deprivation.

  4. Antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin in differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells require activation of both the STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Um, Moonkyoung; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-01

    The hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) prevents neuronal death during ischemic events in the brain and in neurodegenerative diseases, presumably through its antiapoptotic effects. To explore the role of different signaling pathways in Epo-mediated antiapoptotic effects in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we employed a prolactin receptor (PrlR)/erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) chimera system, in which binding of prolactin (Prl) to the extracellular domain activates EpoR signaling in the cytosol. On induction of apoptosis by staurosporine, Prl supports survival of the SH-SY5Y cells expressing the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera. In these cells Prl treatment strongly activates the STAT5, AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways and induces weak activation of the p65 NF-kappaB factor. Selective mutation of the eight tyrosine residues of the EpoR cytoplasmic domain results in impaired or absent activation of either STAT5 (mutation of Tyr(343)) or AKT (mutation of Tyr(479)) or both (mutation of all eight tyrosine residues). Most interestingly, Prl treatment does not prevent apoptosis in cells expressing mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras in which either the STAT5 or the AKT signaling pathways are not activated. In contrast, ERK 1/2 is fully activated by all mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras, comparable with the level seen with the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera, implying that activation of the MAPK signaling pathway per se is not sufficient for antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, the antiapoptotic effects of Epo in neuronal cells require the combinatorial activation of multiple signaling pathways, including STAT5, AKT, and potentially MAPK as well, in a manner similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells.

  5. Damage of neuroblastoma cell SH-SY5Y mediated by MPP+ inhibits proliferation of T-cell leukemia Jurkat by co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuli; Awan, Umer Farooq; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Luna; Qing, Hong; Ma, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive immune system has implications in pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Research data demonstrated that the peripheral CD4+ T-cell population decreased in pathogenesis of PD. The effect of damaged dopaminergic neurons on peripheral T cells of PD is still unknown. In this study, we constructed a neuronal and glial cells co-culture model by using human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y and gliomas cells U87. After the co-culture cells were treated with neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) for 24 h, the conditioned media was harvested and used to cultivate T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells for another 24 h. We then analyzed the cell proliferation, cell cycle and necrosis effect of Jurkat cells. The results showed that co-culture medium of SH-SY5Y and U87 cells with MPP+ treatment inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells compared to control medium without MPP+, even though the same concentration of MPP+ had very little toxicity to the Jurkat cell. Furthermore, co-culture medium with low concentration of MPP+ (100 µM) arrested Jurkat cells cycle in G2/M phase through increasing cell cycle division 2 (CDC2) and CyclinB1 expression level, whereas co-culture medium with high concentration of MPP+ (500 µM) induced Jurkat cell necrosis through cellular swelling and membrane breakage. Our data implies that damaged dopamine neurons with glial cells can lead to the reduced number or inhibited proliferation activity of peripheral T cells. PMID:24933638

  6. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells is associated with changes in the abundance of G proteins.

    PubMed

    Ammer, H; Schulz, R

    1994-04-01

    Western blot analysis, using subtype-specific anti-G protein antibodies, revealed the presence of the following G protein subunits in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: Gs alpha, Gi alpha 1, Gi alpha 2, Go alpha, Gz alpha, and G beta. Differentiation of the cells by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment (10 mumol/L; 6 days) caused substantial alterations in the abundance of distinct G protein subunits. Concomitant with an enhanced expression of mu-opioid binding sites, the levels of the inhibitory G proteins Gi alpha 1 and Gi alpha 2 were found to be significantly increased. This coordinate up-regulation is accompanied by functional changes in mu-opioid receptor-stimulated low-Km GTPase, mu-receptor-mediated adenylate cyclase inhibition, and receptor-independent guanosine 5'-(beta gamma-imido)triphosphate [Gpp(NH)p; 10 nmol/L]-mediated attenuation of adenylate cyclase activity. In contrast, increased levels of inhibitory G proteins had no effect on muscarinic cholinergic receptor-mediated adenylate cyclase inhibition. With respect to stimulatory receptor systems, a reciprocal regulation was observed for prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) receptors and Gs alpha, the G protein subunit activating adenylate cyclase. RA treatment of SH-SY5Y cells increases both the number of PGE1 binding sites and PGE1-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, but significantly reduced amounts of Gs alpha were found. This down-regulation is paralleled by a decrease in the stimulatory activity of Gs alpha as assessed in S49 cyc- reconstitution assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8133263

  7. Does MW Radiation Affect Gene Expression, Apoptotic Level, and Cell Cycle Progression of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells?

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Handan; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Saglam, Atiye Seda Yar; Tuysuz, Mehmed Zahid; Canseven, Ayşe Gulnihal; Yagci, Abdullah Munci; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants. SH-SY5Y NB cells were exposed to 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation for 24 h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491 W/kg. Control samples were in the same conditions with MW-exposed samples but they were not exposed to MW radiation. The apoptotic activity of cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Moreover, mRNA levels of proliferative and cell cycle proteins were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The change in cell cycle progression was observed by using CycleTest-Plus DNA reagent. No significant change was observed in apoptotic activity of MW-exposed cells compared to control cells. The mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in MW group (p < 0.05). The percentage of MW-exposed cells in G1 phase was significantly higher than the percentage of control cells in G1 phase. MW radiation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. These results showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but changed cell cycle progression. PMID:27260669

  8. Impact of inhomogeneous static magnetic field (31.7-232.0 mT) exposure on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during cisplatin administration.

    PubMed

    Vergallo, Cristian; Ahmadi, Meysam; Mobasheri, Hamid; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial or adverse effects of Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) are a large concern for the scientific community. In particular, the effect of SMF exposure during anticancer therapies still needs to be fully elucidated. Here, we evaluate the effects of SMF at induction levels that cisPt-treated cancer patients experience during the imaging process conducted in Low field (200-500 mT), Open field (300-700 mT) and/or inhomogeneous High field (1.5-3 T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines. Human adrenergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with 0.1 µM cisPt (i.e. the lowest concentration capable of inducing apoptosis) were exposed to SMF and their response was studied in vitro. Exposure of 0.1 µM cisPt-treated cells to SMF for 2 h decreased cell viability (30%) and caused overexpression of the apoptosis-related cleaved caspase-3 protein (46%). Furthermore, increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production (23%) and reduction in the number of mitochondria vs controls were seen. The sole exposure of SMF for up to 24 h had no effect on cell viability but increased ROS production and modified cellular shape. On the other hand, the toxicity of cisPt was significantly prevented during 24 h exposure to SMF as shown by the levels of cell viability, cleaved caspase-3 and ROS production. In conclusion, due to the cytoprotective effect of 31.7-232.0 mT SMF on low-cisPt-concentration-treated SH-SY5Y cells, our data suggest that exposure to various sources of SMF in cancer patients under a cisPt regimen should be strictly controlled.

  9. Differential effects of "Advanced glycation endproducts" and beta-amyloid peptide on glucose utilization and ATP levels in the neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Loske, C; Garcia De Arriba, S; Schinzel, R; Huber, J; Münch, G

    2004-03-01

    Beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) and "Advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs) are components of the senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been proposed that both AGEs and Abeta exert many of their effects, which include the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, through RAGE ("receptor for advanced glycation endproducts"). To investigate whether Abeta and AGEs cause similar or identical effects on cell survival and energy metabolism, we have compared the effects of a model-AGE and Abeta on cell viability, ATP level, glucose consumption and lactate production in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The results show that AGEs and Abeta increase glucose consumption and decrease ATP levels in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, both compounds decrease mitochondrial activity measured by the MTT assay. However, only AGEs decrease the number of cells and significantly increase lactate production. These data indicate that both AGEs and Abeta can cause differential disturbances in neuronal metabolism, which may contribute to the pathophysiological findings in Alzheimer's disease. However, their signalling pathways are apparently quite distinct, a fact which should stimulate a more detailed investigation in this field, e.g. for the purpose of a rational design of potential "neuroprotective" RAGE antagonists. PMID:14991463

  10. Combination of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide and genistein increased apoptosis in neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y xenografts.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Choudhury, S Roy; Banik, N L; Ray, S K

    2009-09-29

    Neuroblastoma is the childhood malignancy that mainly occurs in adrenal glands and is found also in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for successful treatment of this pediatric cancer. In this investigation, we examined efficacy of the retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and the isoflavonoid genistein (GST) alone and also in combination for controlling the growth of human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y xenografts in nude mice. Combination of 4-HPR and GST significantly reduced tumor volume in vivo due to overwhelming apoptosis in both neuroblastoma xenografts. Time-dependently, combination of 4-HPR and GST caused reduction in body weight, tumor weight, and tumor volume. Combination of 4-HPR and GST increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of Smac, downregulation of baculovirus inhibitor-of-apoptosis repeat containing (BIRC) proteins including BIRC-2 and BIRC-3, and activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Further, downregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was also detected. In situ immunofluorescent labelings of tumor sections showed overexpression of calpain, caspase-12, and caspase-3, and also AIF in the course of apoptosis. Combination therapy increased apoptosis in the xenografts but did not induce kidney and liver toxicities in the animals. Results demonstrated that combination of 4-HPR and GST induced multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis and thus could be highly effective for inhibiting growth of malignant neuroblastoma in preclinical animal models.

  11. Overexpression of miR-7-1 increases efficacy of green tea polyphenols for induction of apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and SK-N-DZ cells.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ai, Walden; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2013-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an extracranial solid tumor that usually occurs in infants and children. Malignant neuroblastomas remain mostly refractory to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. So, new therapeutic agents and their molecular mechanisms for induction of cell death must be explored for successful treatment of human malignant neuroblastomas. Two polyphenolic compounds, which are abundant in green tea, are (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) that possess impressive anti-cancer properties. It is not known yet whether EGC and EGCG can modulate the levels of expression of specific microRNAs (miRs) for induction of apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastomas. In this investigation, we revealed that treatment with EGC or EGCG caused induction of apoptosis with significant changes in expression of specific oncogenic miRs (OGmiRs) and tumor suppressor miRs (TSmiRs) in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and SK-N-DZ cell lines. Treatment of both cell lines with either 50 μM EGC or 50 μM EGCG decreased expression of the OGmiRs (miR-92, miR-93, and miR-106b) and increased expression of the TSmiRs (miR-7-1, miR-34a, and miR-99a) leading to induction of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Our data also demonstrated that overexpression of miR-93 decreased efficacy while overexpression of miR-7-1 increased efficacy of the green tea polyphenols for induction of apoptosis in both cell lines. In conclusion, our current investigation clearly indicates that overexpression of miR-7-1 can highly potentiate efficacy of EGCG for induction of apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma cells.

  12. The Interactions Between Aligned Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Nanofibers and SH-SY5Y Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yadong; Meng, Dianhuai; Man, Lili; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Aligned nanofibers have been regarded as promising nanomaterials in facilitating nerve regeneration. Investigating the interactions between aligned nanofibers and neuronal cells will be critically important for the design and application of aligned nanofibers in nerve tissue engineering. In this study, we explored the effects of electrospun Poly(L-Lactic Acid) (PLLA) aligned nanofibers on SH-SY5Y cells (a type of human neuroblastoma cell line) and specifically focused on the role of integrin in the PLLA aligned nanofiber-SH-SY5Y cell interaction. We found that PLLA aligned nanofibers could significantly guide the neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cell, and promote the viability, proliferation, glucose and lactic acid metabolism of SH-SY5Y cell. This promotion effect could be alleviated when the functions of integrins on the SH-SY5Y cell membrane were hampered by pentapeptide GRGDS. Moreover, we found that PLLA aligned nanofibers could enhance the expression of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in the SH-SY5Y cells and blocking the integrins would decrease p-ERK1/2 expression. These results suggested that PLLA aligned nanofibers might affect many cellular behaviors of SH-SY5Y cells via integrin mediated ERK pathway. Our findings provided more insights for understanding the interaction between aligned nanofibers and neuronal cells. PMID:27427727

  13. The Interactions Between Aligned Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Nanofibers and SH-SY5Y Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yadong; Meng, Dianhuai; Man, Lili; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Aligned nanofibers have been regarded as promising nanomaterials in facilitating nerve regeneration. Investigating the interactions between aligned nanofibers and neuronal cells will be critically important for the design and application of aligned nanofibers in nerve tissue engineering. In this study, we explored the effects of electrospun Poly(L-Lactic Acid) (PLLA) aligned nanofibers on SH-SY5Y cells (a type of human neuroblastoma cell line) and specifically focused on the role of integrin in the PLLA aligned nanofiber-SH-SY5Y cell interaction. We found that PLLA aligned nanofibers could significantly guide the neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cell, and promote the viability, proliferation, glucose and lactic acid metabolism of SH-SY5Y cell. This promotion effect could be alleviated when the functions of integrins on the SH-SY5Y cell membrane were hampered by pentapeptide GRGDS. Moreover, we found that PLLA aligned nanofibers could enhance the expression of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in the SH-SY5Y cells and blocking the integrins would decrease p-ERK1/2 expression. These results suggested that PLLA aligned nanofibers might affect many cellular behaviors of SH-SY5Y cells via integrin mediated ERK pathway. Our findings provided more insights for understanding the interaction between aligned nanofibers and neuronal cells.

  14. Transglutaminase-2 Is Involved in All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Invasion and Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells via NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ja; Park, Mi Kyung; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Yoon, Hee Jung; Kim, Soo Youl; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is currently used in adjuvant differentiation-based treatment of residual or relapsed neuroblastoma (NB). It has been reported that short-term ATRA treatment induces migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y via transglutaminase-2 (Tgase-2). However, the detailed mechanism of Tgase-2's involvement in NB cell invasion remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the role of Tgase-2 in invasion of NB cells using SH-SY5Y cells. ATRA dose-dependently induced the invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. Cystamine (CTM), a well known tgase inhibitor suppressed the ATRA-induced invasion of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2, well known genes involved in invasion of cancer cells were induced in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. Treatment of CTM suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 enzyme activities in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells. To confirm the involvement of Tgase-2, gene silencing of Tgase-2 was performed in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. The siRNA of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity of the SH-SY5Y cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are well known target genes of NF-κB. Therefore the relationship of Tgase-2 and NF-κB in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells was examined using siRNA and CTM. ATRA induced the activation of NF-κB in the SH-SY5Y cells and CTM suppressed the activation of NF-κB. Gene silencing of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP expression by ATRA. These results suggested that Tgase-2 might be a new target for controlling the ATRA-induced invasion of NBs. PMID:24130925

  15. Transglutaminase-2 Is Involved in All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Invasion and Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells via NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ja; Park, Mi Kyung; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Yoon, Hee Jung; Kim, Soo Youl; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2012-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is currently used in adjuvant differentiation-based treatment of residual or relapsed neuroblastoma (NB). It has been reported that short-term ATRA treatment induces migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y via transglutaminase-2 (Tgase-2). However, the detailed mechanism of Tgase-2's involvement in NB cell invasion remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the role of Tgase-2 in invasion of NB cells using SH-SY5Y cells. ATRA dose-dependently induced the invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. Cystamine (CTM), a well known tgase inhibitor suppressed the ATRA-induced invasion of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2, well known genes involved in invasion of cancer cells were induced in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. Treatment of CTM suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 enzyme activities in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells. To confirm the involvement of Tgase-2, gene silencing of Tgase-2 was performed in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. The siRNA of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity of the SH-SY5Y cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are well known target genes of NF-κB. Therefore the relationship of Tgase-2 and NF-κB in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells was examined using siRNA and CTM. ATRA induced the activation of NF-κB in the SH-SY5Y cells and CTM suppressed the activation of NF-κB. Gene silencing of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP expression by ATRA. These results suggested that Tgase-2 might be a new target for controlling the ATRA-induced invasion of NBs.

  16. SIRB, sans iron oxide rhodamine B, a novel cross-linked dextran nanoparticle, labels human neuroprogenitor and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and serves as a USPIO cell labeling control.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Vaccaro, Dennis E; Fishman, Paul S; Groman, Ernest V; Yarowsky, Paul

    2016-05-01

    This is the first report of the synthesis of a new nanoparticle, sans iron oxide rhodamine B (SIRB), an example of a new class of nanoparticles. SIRB is designed to provide all of the cell labeling properties of the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB) without containing the iron oxide core. MIRB was developed to label cells and allow them to be tracked by MRI or to be manipulated by magnetic gradients. SIRB possesses a similar size, charge and cross-linked dextran coating as MIRB. Of great interest is understanding the biological and physiological changes in cells after they are labeled with a USPIO. Whether these effects are due to the iron oxide buried within the nanoparticle or to the surface coating surrounding the iron oxide core has not been considered previously. MIRB and SIRB represent an ideal pairing of nanoparticles to identify nanoparticle anatomy responsible for post-labeling cytotoxicity. Here we report the effects of SIRB labeling on the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and primary human neuroprogenitor cells (hNPCs). These effects are contrasted with the effects of labeling SH-SY5Y cells and hNPCs with MIRB. We find that SIRB labeling, like MIRB labeling, (i) occurs without the use of transfection reagents, (ii) is packaged within lysosomes distributed within cell cytoplasm, (iii) is retained within cells with no loss of label after cell storage, and (iv) does not alter cellular viability or proliferation, and (v) SIRB labeled hNPCs differentiate normally into neurons or astrocytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. SIRB, sans iron oxide rhodamine B, a novel cross-linked dextran nanoparticle, labels human neuroprogenitor and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and serves as a USPIO cell labeling control.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Vaccaro, Dennis E; Fishman, Paul S; Groman, Ernest V; Yarowsky, Paul

    2016-05-01

    This is the first report of the synthesis of a new nanoparticle, sans iron oxide rhodamine B (SIRB), an example of a new class of nanoparticles. SIRB is designed to provide all of the cell labeling properties of the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB) without containing the iron oxide core. MIRB was developed to label cells and allow them to be tracked by MRI or to be manipulated by magnetic gradients. SIRB possesses a similar size, charge and cross-linked dextran coating as MIRB. Of great interest is understanding the biological and physiological changes in cells after they are labeled with a USPIO. Whether these effects are due to the iron oxide buried within the nanoparticle or to the surface coating surrounding the iron oxide core has not been considered previously. MIRB and SIRB represent an ideal pairing of nanoparticles to identify nanoparticle anatomy responsible for post-labeling cytotoxicity. Here we report the effects of SIRB labeling on the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and primary human neuroprogenitor cells (hNPCs). These effects are contrasted with the effects of labeling SH-SY5Y cells and hNPCs with MIRB. We find that SIRB labeling, like MIRB labeling, (i) occurs without the use of transfection reagents, (ii) is packaged within lysosomes distributed within cell cytoplasm, (iii) is retained within cells with no loss of label after cell storage, and (iv) does not alter cellular viability or proliferation, and (v) SIRB labeled hNPCs differentiate normally into neurons or astrocytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26809657

  18. Protection of prenylated flavonoids from Mori Cortex Radicis (Moraceae) against nitric oxide-induced cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak Ju; Lyu, Da Hyun; Koo, Uk; Nam, Kung-Woo; Hong, Seong Su; Kim, Kem Ok; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Dongho; Mar, Woongchon

    2012-01-01

    Seven prenylated flavanoids, licoflavone C (1), cyclomulberrin (2), neocyclomorusin (3), sanggenon I (4), morusin (5), kuwanon U (6) and kuwanon E (7), and three 2-arylbenzofurans, moracin P (8), moracin O (9), and mulberrofuran Q (10) were isolated from the MeOH extract of Mori Cortex Radicis. Among these, compounds 2-7 enhanced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner against sodium nitroprusside-induced cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which was measured by MTT reduction assay (EC(50) values of 4.4, 5.6, 8.0, 6.4, 8.7, and 11.9 μg/mL, respectively). Among 10 compounds, C-3 prenylated flavones (2, 3, and 5) and prenylated flavanones (4, 6, and 7) showed cell protection. However, compound 1 which lacks the prenyl group at C-3 and three 2-arylbenzofurans (8-10) did not show protective effect. The order of cell protection was as follow: C-3 prenylated flavones (2, 3, and 5) > prenylated flavanones (4, 6, and 7) > 2-arylbenzofurans (8-10) and flavone (1). From this result, we show that some prenylated flavones and flavanones might protect neuronal cells against nitrosative stress-mediated cell death. Even though further evaluations are necessary in vitro and in vivo study, we carefully suggest that some prenylated flavonoids from Mori Cortex Radicis might protect neuronal cells from neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP+-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Janhom, Prachya; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP+-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP+-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP+ on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP+. Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP+. The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP+ treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP+-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation. PMID:26357513

  20. Lycopene protects human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced death via inhibition of oxidative stress and mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    FENG, CHUNSHENG; LUO, TIANFEI; ZHANG, SHUYAN; LIU, KAI; ZHANG, YANHONG; LUO, YINAN; GE, PENGFEI

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a common pathway that results in neuronal injury or death due to various types of pathological stress. Although lycopene has been identified as a potent antioxidant, its effect on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage remains unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with lycopene was observed to protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced death via inhibition of apoptosis resulting from activation of caspase-3 and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus. Furthermore, the over-produced ROS, as well as the reduced activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were demonstrated to be alleviated by lycopene. Additionally, lycopene counteracted H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, which was evidenced by suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, attenuation of the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibition of the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 levels within the mitochondria. The release of cytochrome c and AIF from the mitochondria was also reduced. These results indicate that lycopene is a potent neuroprotectant against apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and could be administered to prevent neuronal injury or death. PMID:27035331

  1. Carnosic acid attenuates apoptosis induced by amyloid-β 1-42 or 1-43 in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Pengfei; Yoshida, Hidemi; Tanji, Kunikazu; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Xing, Fei; Hayakari, Ryo; Wang, Liang; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Mimura, Junsei; Kosaka, Kunio; Itoh, Ken; Takahashi, Ippei; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) and Aβ43 in particular, cause neurotoxicity and cell death in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at higher concentrations. Carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene compound in the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, serves as an activator for neuroprotective and neurotrophic functions in brain cells. We investigated the effect of CA on apoptosis induced by Aβ42 or Aβ43 in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of the cells with Aβ42 or Aβ43 (monomer, 10 μM each) induced apoptosis, which was confirmed by the cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Concurrently, the Aβ treatment induced the activation of caspase (Casp) cascades including an effector Casp (Casp3) and initiator Casps (Casp4, Casp8 and Casp9). Pretreatment of the cells with CA (10 μM) partially attenuated the apoptosis induced by Aβ42 or Aβ43. CA pretreatment also reduced the cellular oligomers of Aβ42 and Aβ43. These results suggest that CA suppressed the activation of Casp cascades by reducing the intracellular oligomerization of exogenous Aβ42/43 monomer. The ingestion of an adequate amount of CA may have a potential in the prevention of Aβ-mediated diseases, particularly AD. PMID:25510380

  2. Carnosic acid attenuates apoptosis induced by amyloid-β 1-42 or 1-43 in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Pengfei; Yoshida, Hidemi; Tanji, Kunikazu; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Xing, Fei; Hayakari, Ryo; Wang, Liang; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Mimura, Junsei; Kosaka, Kunio; Itoh, Ken; Takahashi, Ippei; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) and Aβ43 in particular, cause neurotoxicity and cell death in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at higher concentrations. Carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene compound in the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, serves as an activator for neuroprotective and neurotrophic functions in brain cells. We investigated the effect of CA on apoptosis induced by Aβ42 or Aβ43 in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of the cells with Aβ42 or Aβ43 (monomer, 10 μM each) induced apoptosis, which was confirmed by the cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Concurrently, the Aβ treatment induced the activation of caspase (Casp) cascades including an effector Casp (Casp3) and initiator Casps (Casp4, Casp8 and Casp9). Pretreatment of the cells with CA (10 μM) partially attenuated the apoptosis induced by Aβ42 or Aβ43. CA pretreatment also reduced the cellular oligomers of Aβ42 and Aβ43. These results suggest that CA suppressed the activation of Casp cascades by reducing the intracellular oligomerization of exogenous Aβ42/43 monomer. The ingestion of an adequate amount of CA may have a potential in the prevention of Aβ-mediated diseases, particularly AD.

  3. TIRFM and pH-sensitive GFP-probes to evaluate neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: cell imaging and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Federica; Di Cairano, Eliana S; Moretti, Stefania; Piccoli, Giovanni; Perego, Carla

    2015-01-29

    Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters at chemical synapses through a dynamic cycle of fusion and retrieval. Monitoring synaptic activity in real time and dissecting the different steps of exo-endocytosis at the single-vesicle level are crucial for understanding synaptic functions in health and disease. Genetically-encoded pH-sensitive probes directly targeted to synaptic vesicles and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) provide the spatio-temporal resolution necessary to follow vesicle dynamics. The evanescent field generated by total internal reflection can only excite fluorophores placed in a thin layer (<150 nm) above the glass cover on which cells adhere, exactly where the processes of exo-endocytosis take place. The resulting high-contrast images are ideally suited for vesicles tracking and quantitative analysis of fusion events. In this protocol, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells are proposed as a valuable model for studying neurotransmitter release at the single-vesicle level by TIRFM, because of their flat surface and the presence of dispersed vesicles. The methods for growing SH-SY5Y as adherent cells and for transfecting them with synapto-pHluorin are provided, as well as the technique to perform TIRFM and imaging. Finally, a strategy aiming to select, count, and analyze fusion events at whole-cell and single-vesicle levels is presented. To validate the imaging procedure and data analysis approach, the dynamics of pHluorin-tagged vesicles are analyzed under resting and stimulated (depolarizing potassium concentrations) conditions. Membrane depolarization increases the frequency of fusion events and causes a parallel raise of the net fluorescence signal recorded in whole cell. Single-vesicle analysis reveals modifications of fusion-event behavior (increased peak height and width). These data suggest that potassium depolarization not only induces a massive neurotransmitter release but also modifies the mechanism of vesicle

  4. Aluminum Activates PERK-EIF2α Signaling and Inflammatory Proteins in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Parveen, Arshiya; Ahmad, Israr; Ahmad, Iqbal; Verma, Anoop K; Arshad, Md; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum is the third most abundant element present in the earth's crust and human exposure to it is possible due to industrialization, utensils, medicines, antiperspirants, etc. Evidences suggest involvement of aluminum in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in various neurological disorders. ER stress may be a result of impaired calcium homeostasis due to perturbed redox balance and is known to elicit inflammation through the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of aluminum in ER stress-mediated activation of inflammatory responses in neuroblastoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay revealed that aluminum compromised the membrane integrity of neuroblastoma cells, probably due to membrane damage, as indicated by enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Besides this, our results clearly demonstrated elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and a weakened antioxidant defence system manifested by decrease in catalase (CAT) activity and cellular glutathione (GSH). Moreover, we studied the expression of key apoptosis-related proteins, ER stress-mediated activation of UPR, and its downstream inflammatory pathway. It was observed that aluminum potentially enhanced protein levels of PERK, EIF2α, caspase 9, caspase 3, and inflammatory markers like NF-κB, NLRP3, HMGB1, and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, aluminum altered TNFα, IL1β, IL6, and IL10 mRNA levels as well. The overall findings indicated that aluminum mediates UPR activation through ER stress, which results in induction of inflammatory pathway and apoptotic proteins in neuronal cells. PMID:26546554

  5. Characterization of Differentiated SH-SY5Y as Neuronal Screening Model Reveals Increased Oxidative Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Forster, J I; Köglsberger, S; Trefois, C; Boyd, O; Baumuratov, A S; Buck, L; Balling, R; Antony, P M A

    2016-06-01

    The immortalized and proliferative cell line SH-SY5Y is one of the most commonly used cell lines in neuroscience and neuroblastoma research. However, undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells share few properties with mature neurons. In this study, we present an optimized neuronal differentiation protocol for SH-SY5Y that requires only two work steps and 6 days. After differentiation, the cells present increased levels of ATP and plasma membrane activity but reduced expression of energetic stress response genes. Differentiation results in reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased robustness toward perturbations with 6-hydroxydopamine. We are convinced that the presented differentiation method will leverage genetic and chemical high-throughput screening projects targeting pathways that are involved in the selective vulnerability of neurons with high energetic stress levels.

  6. Characterization of Differentiated SH-SY5Y as Neuronal Screening Model Reveals Increased Oxidative Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Forster, J. I.; Köglsberger, S.; Trefois, C.; Boyd, O.; Baumuratov, A. S.; Buck, L.; Balling, R.; Antony, P. M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The immortalized and proliferative cell line SH-SY5Y is one of the most commonly used cell lines in neuroscience and neuroblastoma research. However, undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells share few properties with mature neurons. In this study, we present an optimized neuronal differentiation protocol for SH-SY5Y that requires only two work steps and 6 days. After differentiation, the cells present increased levels of ATP and plasma membrane activity but reduced expression of energetic stress response genes. Differentiation results in reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased robustness toward perturbations with 6-hydroxydopamine. We are convinced that the presented differentiation method will leverage genetic and chemical high-throughput screening projects targeting pathways that are involved in the selective vulnerability of neurons with high energetic stress levels. PMID:26738520

  7. Synergistic neuroprotective effect of combined low concentrations of galantamine and melatonin against oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; García, Antonio G; López, Manuela G

    2010-09-01

    Melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger, antioxidant and neuroprotective drug. On the other hand, galantamine is a cholinergic drug with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties linked to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and allosteric modulation of nicotinic receptors. This investigation evaluated a possible synergistic neuroprotective effect of subeffective concentrations of combined galantamine and melatonin. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were subjected to a mitochondrial oxidative stress, by blockade of mitochondrial complexes I and V with rotenone and oligomycin-A (R/O); cells were treated for 24 hr with R/O. This caused 40% of the cell to die as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Cell incubation with increasing concentrations of galantamine (10-300 nm) or melatonin (0.3-10 nm) for 24 hr, followed by a 24-hr period with R/O, caused a concentration-dependent protection; maximum protection was achieved with 300 nm galantamine (56% protection) and 10 nm melatonin (50% protection). Combination of subeffective concentrations of melatonin (0.3 nm) and galantamine (30 nm) caused a synergistic and significant protection that was similar to the maximum protection afforded by effective concentrations of melatonin or galantamine alone. This protective effect was completely reversed when nicotinic and melatonin receptors were blocked respectively by mecamylamine and luzindole. The neuroprotective effect was prevented by chelerythrine, LY294002, and Sn (IV) protoporphyrin IX dichloride (SnPP), indicating the participation of the PKC/PI3K/Akt activation and induction of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1. The synthesis of novel multitarget compounds having in a single molecule the combined neuroprotective properties of galantamine and melatonin could be a new strategy for potential therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. The cytotoxic effect of unconjugated bilirubin in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells is modulated by the expression level of MRP1 but not MDR1.

    PubMed

    Corich, Lucia; Aranda, Alejandro; Carrassa, Laura; Bellarosa, Cristina; Ostrow, J Donald; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that UCB (unconjugated bilirubin) is neurotoxic. Although previous studies suggested that both MRP1 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 1) and MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1) may protect cells against accumulation of UCB, direct comparison of their role in UCB transport was never performed. To this end, we used an inducible siRNA (small interfering RNA) expression system to silence the expression of MRP1 and MDR1 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of in vitro exposure to clinically-relevant levels of unbound UCB were compared between unsilenced (control) cells and cells with similar reductions in the expression of MRP1 or MDR1, documented by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) (mRNA), immunoblotting (protein), and for MDR1, the enhanced net uptake of a specific fluorescent substrate. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] test. MRP1-deficient cells accumulated significantly more UCB and suffered greater cytotoxicity than controls. By contrast, MDR1-deficient cells exhibited UCB uptake and cytotoxicity comparable with controls. At intermediate levels of silencing, the increased susceptibility to UCB toxicity closely correlated with the decrease in the expression of MRP1, but not of MDR1. These data support the concept that limitation of cellular UCB accumulation, due to UCB export mediated by MRP1, but not MDR1, plays an important role in preventing bilirubin encephalopathy in the newborn.

  9. Inhibition of glycolysis attenuates 4-hydroxynonenal-dependent autophagy and exacerbates apoptosis in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Matthew; Liang, Qiuli; Johnson, Michelle S; Redmann, Matthew; Fineberg, Naomi; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    How cellular metabolic activities regulate autophagy and determine the susceptibility to oxidative stress and ultimately cell death in neuronal cells is not well understood. An important example of oxidative stress is 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), which is a lipid peroxidation product that is formed during oxidative stress, and accumulates in neurodegenerative diseases causing damage. The accumulation of toxic oxidation products such as HNE, is a prevalent feature of neurodegenerative diseases, and can promote organelle and protein damage leading to induction of autophagy. In this study, we used differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to investigate the mechanisms and regulation of cellular susceptibility to HNE toxicity and the relationship to cellular metabolism. We found that autophagy is immediately stimulated by HNE at a sublethal concentration. Within the same time frame, HNE induces concentration dependent CASP3/caspase 3 activation and cell death. Interestingly, both basal and HNE-activated autophagy, were regulated by glucose metabolism. Inhibition of glucose metabolism by 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), at a concentration that inhibited autophagic flux, further exacerbated CASP3 activation and cell death in response to HNE. Cell death was attenuated by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Specific inhibition of glycolysis using koningic acid, a GAPDH inhibitor, inhibited autophagic flux and exacerbated HNE-induced cell death similarly to 2DG. The effects of 2DG on autophagy and HNE-induced cell death could not be reversed by addition of mannose, suggesting an ER stress-independent mechanism. 2DG decreased LAMP1 and increased BCL2 levels suggesting that its effects on autophagy may be mediated by more than one mechanism. Furthermore, 2DG decreased cellular ATP, and 2DG and HNE combined treatment decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that glucose-dependent autophagy serves as a protective mechanism in response to HNE. PMID:24145463

  10. Gas1 Knockdown Increases the Neuroprotective Effect of Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Against Glutamate-Induced Cell Injury in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) protein acts as an inhibitor of cell growth and a mediator of cell death in nervous system during development and is also re-expressed in adult neurons during excitotoxic insult. Due to its structural similarity to the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family receptors α (GFRα), Gas1 is likely to interfere with the neuroprotective effect of GDNF. In the present study, we investigated the expression profile of Gas1 during glutamate insults in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as the influence of Gas1 inhibition on the protective effect of GDNF against glutamate-induced cell injury. Our data showed that Gas1 expression was significantly increased with the treatment of glutamate in SH-SY5Y cells. The silencing of Gas1 by small interfering RNA promoted the protective effect of GDNF against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity as well as cell apoptosis, which effect was likely mediated through activating Akt/PI3 K-dependent cell survival signaling pathway and inhibiting mitochondrial-dependent cell apoptosis signaling pathway via Bad dephosphorylation blockade. In summary, this study showed the synergistic effect of Gas1 inhibition and GDNF against glutamate-induced cell injury in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which information might significantly contribute to better understanding the function of Gas1 in neuronal cells and form the basis of the therapeutic development of GDNF in treating human neurodegenerative diseases in the future.

  11. The attenuating effect of memantine on staurosporine-, salsolinol- and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Pytel, M; Mozrzymas, J W; Leskiewicz, M; Regulska, M; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, L; Lason, W

    2008-01-01

    Memantine, a clinically used N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist, has been shown to prevent apoptotic neuronal damage connected with the over-activity of NMDA receptors. In the present study, we examined the effect of memantine on staurosporine-, salsolinol- and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in the SH-SY5Y cell line which does not possess functional NMDA receptors. Electrophysiological recordings and toxicity studies showed no response to NMDA-evoked currents in this cell line, irrespective of the stage of its neuronal differentiation. Memantine (0.1-2 microM) attenuated staurosporine-induced apoptosis as evidenced by reversal of the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and decreased caspase-3 activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and DNA fragmentation. Wortmannin (10 nM) and LY 294002 (10 microM) (inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, PI3-K) reversed the inhibitory effect of memantine on the staurosporine-induced LDH release, suggesting that the PI3-K/Akt prosurvival pathway is a possible target for antiapoptotic action of memantine. Memantine at low micromolar concentrations also attenuated salsolinol- and doxorubicin-induced LDH release and DNA fragmentation, but only in the case of salsolinol was this effect accompanied by a decrease in caspase-3 activity. The present data indicate that memantine attenuates the toxic effects of various proapoptotic agents and the cytoprotective effect of memantine does not seem to be connected with its action on NMDA receptor but rather with its influence on intracellular pathways engaged in cellular survival/apoptotic processes.

  12. BAG2 Is Repressed by NF-κB Signaling, and Its Overexpression Is Sufficient to Shift Aβ1-42 from Neurotrophic to Neurotoxic in Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Fernando E; Almeida, Maria Camila; Carrettiero, Daniel C

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) binds to various neuronal receptors and elicits a context- and dose-dependent toxic or trophic response from neurons. The molecular mechanisms for this phenomenon are presently unknown. The cochaperone BAG2 has been shown to mediate important cellular responses to stress, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Here, we use SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to characterize BAG2 expression and regulation and investigate the involvement of BAG2 in Aβ1-42-mediated neurotrophism or neurotoxicity in the context of differentiation. We report that BAG2 is upregulated on differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells into neuron-like cells. This increase in BAG2 expression is accompanied by a change in response to treatment with Aβ1-42 from neurotrophic to neurotoxic. Further, overexpression of BAG2 in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells was sufficient to induce the change from neurotrophic to neurotoxic response. Of several transcription factors queried, the putative BAG2 promoter had a higher-than-expected occurrence of response elements (RE) for nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Treatment with JSH-23, a potent inhibitor of NF-κB, caused a marked increase in BAG2 mRNA expression, suggesting that NF-κB is a repressor of BAG2 transcription in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Together, these data suggest that NF-κB-mediated modulation of BAG2 expression constitutes a "switch" that regulates the shift between the neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects of Aβ1-42.

  13. Melatonin regulates the transcription of βAPP-cleaving secretases mediated through melatonin receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Panmanee, Jiraporn; Nopparat, Chutikorn; Chavanich, Napapit; Shukla, Mayuri; Mukda, Sujira; Song, Weihong; Vincent, Bruno; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in the control of various physiological functions, such as sleep, cell growth and free radical scavenging. The ability of melatonin to behave as an antioxidant, together with the fact that the Alzheimer-related amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) triggers oxidative stress through hydroxyl radical-induced cell death, suggests that melatonin could reduce Alzheimer's pathology. Although the exact etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be established, excess Aβ is believed to be the primary contributor to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in AD. Aβ peptides are produced via the sequential cleavage of β-secretase β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase (PS1/PS2), while α-secretase (ADAM10) prevents the production of Aβ peptides. We hypothesized that melatonin could inhibit BACE1 and PS1/PS2 and enhance ADAM10 expression. Using the human neuronal SH-SY5Y cell line, we found that melatonin inhibited BACE1 and PS1 and activated ADAM10 mRNA level and protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner and mediated via melatonin G protein-coupled receptors. Melatonin inhibits BACE1 and PS1 protein expressions through the attenuation of nuclear factor-κB phosphorylation (pNF-κB). Moreover, melatonin reduced BACE1 promoter transactivation and consequently downregulated β-secretase catalytic activity. The present data show that melatonin is not only a potential regulator of β/γ-secretase but also an activator of α-secretase expression through the activation of protein kinase C, thereby favoring the nonamyloidogenic pathway over the amyloidogenic pathway. Altogether, our findings suggest that melatonin may be a potential therapeutic agent for reducing the risk of AD in humans. PMID:26123100

  14. TRPC1 protects human SH-SY5Y cells against salsolinol-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bollimuntha, Sunitha; Ebadi, Manuchair; Singh, Brij B

    2006-07-12

    Salsolinol, an endogenous neurotoxin, may be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we sought to determine whether salsolinol-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cloned cell line which expresses dopaminergic activity, could be prevented by overexpressing a Ca(2+) channel, transient receptor potential (TRPC1) protein. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to 500 microM salsolinol for 12 h resulted in a significant decrease in thapsigargin or carbachol-mediated Ca(2+) influx. Consistent with these results, SH-SY5Y cells treated with salsolinol showed approximately 60% reduction in TRPC1 protein levels. Confocal microscopy also showed that SH-SY5Y cells treated with salsolinol had a significant decrease in the plasma membrane staining of the TRPC1 protein. Interestingly, overexpression of TRPC1 increases TRPC1 protein levels and also protected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against salsolinol-mediated cytotoxicity as determined by 3,[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The protective effect of TRPC1 was blocked by the addition of TRPC1 blockers lanthanum, or 2APB. Activation of TRPC1 protein by either thapsigargin or carbachol further protected SH-SY5Y cells from salsolinol treatments. Staining of SH-SY5Y cells with an apoptotic marker (YO-PRO-1) showed that TRPC1 protein protects against apoptosis. Furthermore, TRPC1 overexpression also inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased BAX protein levels required for apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the reduction in cell surface TRPC1 protein expression in response to salsolinol may be a contributory factor in cellular toxicity of the dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, overexpression of TRPC1 could inhibit apoptotic complex thereby increasing neuronal cell survivability in Parkinson's disease.

  15. P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 Nanoparticle Composite Films Mediate Piezoelectric Stimulation and Promote Differentiation of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Ceseracciu, Luca; Marino, Attilio; Labardi, Massimiliano; Marras, Sergio; Pignatelli, Francesca; Bruschini, Luca; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE)) and P(VDF-TrFE)/barium titanate nanoparticle (BTNP) films are prepared and tested as substrates for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. Films are characterized in terms of surface, mechanical, and piezoelectric features before in vitro testing on SH-SY5Y cells. In particular, BTNPs significantly improve piezoelectric properties of the films (4.5-fold increased d31 ). Both kinds of films support good SH-SY5Y viability and differentiation. Ultrasound (US) stimulation is proven to elicit Ca(2+) transients and to enhance differentiation in cells grown on the piezoelectric substrates. For the first time in the literature, this study demonstrates the suitability of polymer/ceramic composite films and US for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect.

  16. P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 Nanoparticle Composite Films Mediate Piezoelectric Stimulation and Promote Differentiation of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Ceseracciu, Luca; Marino, Attilio; Labardi, Massimiliano; Marras, Sergio; Pignatelli, Francesca; Bruschini, Luca; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE)) and P(VDF-TrFE)/barium titanate nanoparticle (BTNP) films are prepared and tested as substrates for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. Films are characterized in terms of surface, mechanical, and piezoelectric features before in vitro testing on SH-SY5Y cells. In particular, BTNPs significantly improve piezoelectric properties of the films (4.5-fold increased d31 ). Both kinds of films support good SH-SY5Y viability and differentiation. Ultrasound (US) stimulation is proven to elicit Ca(2+) transients and to enhance differentiation in cells grown on the piezoelectric substrates. For the first time in the literature, this study demonstrates the suitability of polymer/ceramic composite films and US for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. PMID:27283784

  17. The Secretome of Bone Marrow and Wharton Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Pires, Ana O; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Sousa, Nuno; Salgado, António J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine and compare the effects of the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human bone-marrow (BMSCs) and the Wharton jelly surrounding the vein and arteries of the umbilical cord (human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs)) on the survival and differentiation of a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). For this purpose, SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated with conditioned media (CM) from the MSCs populations referred above. Retinoic acid cultured cells were used as control for neuronal differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells viability assessment revealed that the secretome of BMSCs and HUCPVCs, in the form of CM, was able to induce their survival. Moreover, immunocytochemical experiments showed that CM from both MSCs was capable of inducing neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Finally, neurite lengths assessment and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that CM from BMSCs and HUCPVCs differently induced neurite outgrowth and mRNA levels of neuronal markers exhibited by SH-SY5Y cells. Overall, our results show that the secretome of both BMSCs and HUCPVCs was capable of supporting SH-SY5Y cells survival and promoting their differentiation towards a neuronal phenotype.

  18. Phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein at Threonine 668 Is Essential for Its Copper-responsive Trafficking in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Karla M.; Opazo, Carlos M.; Norrish, David; Challis, Leesa M.; Li, Qiao-Xin; White, Anthony R.; Bush, Ashley I.; Camakaris, James

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes post-translational modification, including O- and N-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation as it traffics through the secretory pathway. We have previously reported that copper promotes a change in the cellular localization of APP. We now report that copper increases the phosphorylation of endogenous APP at threonine 668 (Thr-668) in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. The level of APPT668-p (detected using a phospho-site-specific antibody) exhibited a copper-dependent increase. Using confocal microscopy imaging we demonstrate that the phospho-deficient mutant, Thr-668 to alanine (T668A), does not exhibit detectable copper-responsive APP trafficking. In contrast, mutating a serine to an alanine at residue 655 does not affect copper-responsive trafficking. We further investigated the importance of the Thr-668 residue in copper-responsive trafficking by treating SH-SY5Y cells with inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk), the main kinases that phosphorylate APP at Thr-668 in neurons. Our results show that the GSK3β kinase inhibitors LiCl, SB 216763, and SB 415286 prevent copper-responsive APP trafficking. In contrast, the Cdk inhibitors Purvalanol A and B had no significant effect on copper-responsive trafficking in SH-SY5Y cells. In cultured primary hippocampal neurons, copper promoted APP re-localization to the axon, and this effect was inhibited by the addition of LiCl, indicating that a lithium-sensitive kinase(s) is involved in copper-responsive trafficking in hippocampal neurons. This is consistent with APP axonal transport to the synapse, where APP is involved in a number of functions. We conclude that copper promotes APP trafficking by promoting a GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:24610780

  19. Phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein at threonine 668 is essential for its copper-responsive trafficking in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Karla M; Opazo, Carlos M; Norrish, David; Challis, Leesa M; Li, Qiao-Xin; White, Anthony R; Bush, Ashley I; Camakaris, James

    2014-04-18

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes post-translational modification, including O- and N-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation as it traffics through the secretory pathway. We have previously reported that copper promotes a change in the cellular localization of APP. We now report that copper increases the phosphorylation of endogenous APP at threonine 668 (Thr-668) in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. The level of APPT668-p (detected using a phospho-site-specific antibody) exhibited a copper-dependent increase. Using confocal microscopy imaging we demonstrate that the phospho-deficient mutant, Thr-668 to alanine (T668A), does not exhibit detectable copper-responsive APP trafficking. In contrast, mutating a serine to an alanine at residue 655 does not affect copper-responsive trafficking. We further investigated the importance of the Thr-668 residue in copper-responsive trafficking by treating SH-SY5Y cells with inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk), the main kinases that phosphorylate APP at Thr-668 in neurons. Our results show that the GSK3β kinase inhibitors LiCl, SB 216763, and SB 415286 prevent copper-responsive APP trafficking. In contrast, the Cdk inhibitors Purvalanol A and B had no significant effect on copper-responsive trafficking in SH-SY5Y cells. In cultured primary hippocampal neurons, copper promoted APP re-localization to the axon, and this effect was inhibited by the addition of LiCl, indicating that a lithium-sensitive kinase(s) is involved in copper-responsive trafficking in hippocampal neurons. This is consistent with APP axonal transport to the synapse, where APP is involved in a number of functions. We conclude that copper promotes APP trafficking by promoting a GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells.

  20. An apolar Pistacia lentiscus L. leaf extract: GC-MS metabolic profiling and evaluation of cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing effects on SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)C cell lines.

    PubMed

    Piccolella, Simona; Nocera, Paola; Carillo, Petronia; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Greco, Vincenza; Manti, Lorenzo; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina

    2016-09-01

    In the course of a cytotoxicity screening of Mediterranean plants vs. neuroblastoma cells, Pistacia lentiscus was of interest. Pl-C extract, prepared from dried leaves by ultrasound assisted maceration (UAM) in chloroform, was profiled through using GC-MS techniques. To evaluate Pl-C cytotoxicity towards SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines, MTT, SRB and LDH assays were performed. The caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, as well as micronucleation, were also evaluated. The Pl-C oxidant/antioxidant ability was estimated using different methods. The extract, rich in pentacyclic triterpenes, inhibited mitochondrial redox activity and cell viability of the tested cell lines. LDH assay established that Pl-C did not affect the cell membrane integrity. Indeed, it was able to activate caspase-3 and to cause a ladder pattern of DNA. Western blotting analysis showed that Pl-C processed caspase-3 providing two cleavage products of approximately 20 and 17-kDa, whose densitometric evaluation highlighted that Pl-C was more effective than vinblastine by 3-fold. The pro-apoptotic effect could be related to a disturbance in cell redox balance. In fact, it increased intracellular ROS production, GSSG/GSH ratio and the formation of lipoperoxidation products. The data obtained prompted to further investigate and assess the in vivo efficacy of Pl-C to prevent and/or treat neuroblastoma. PMID:27375189

  1. Lithium/Valproic acid combination and L-glutamate induce similar pattern of changes in the expression of miR-30a-5p in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Angelucci, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that Lithium (Li) and valproic acid (VPA) may be useful to treat neurodegenerative disorders because they protect neurons against excitotoxic insults both in vitro and in vivo models. Moreover, these two drugs may exert their effects by regulating microRNAs (miRNAs), single-stranded and non-coding RNAs able to control gene expression. A subset of the miR-30a family (miR-30a-5p) is involved in the fine-tuning of neuroprotective molecules such as the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, there is the possibility that Li and VPA may alter miR-30a-5p and in turn affect BDNF production. However, data on miR-30a-5p levels in presence of Li and VPA and/or a neurotoxic insult are not yet available. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to Li and VPA may influence miR-30a-5p expression in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration generated by the exposure of a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) to neurotoxic concentration of L-glutamate. The results showed that both L-glutamate and Li-VPA caused an increase in miR-30a-5p expression at 24 h of incubation and a decrease at 48 h. Moreover, Li-VPA alone caused a decrease in miR-30a-5p expression also in cells not exposed to the toxic effect of glutamate. These data indicate that changes in miR-30a-5p expression induced by Li-VPA are not related to the cytoprotective action of BDNF and suggest alternative function for this miR. These findings also indicate that miRNA changes are present in in vitro models of neurodegeneration, although the significance of these changes warrants further investigation.

  2. Apoptosis induced by trimethyltin chloride in human neuroblastoma cells SY5Y is regulated by a balance and cross-talk between NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Qing, Yan; Liang, Yanfang; Du, Qingqing; Fan, Pan; Xu, Hangong; Xu, Yiping; Shi, Nian

    2013-07-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) has been known as a classic neurotoxicant which can cause serious neuronal degeneration diseases. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways play pivotal role in the central nerves system. In the present study, the intracellular pathways involved in TMT-induced apoptosis on human neuroblastoma cells SY5Y (SH-SY5Y) were investigated. We observed high level of nuclear NF-κB p65 submit, activated JNK, ERK, and p38 by TMT exposure. In contrast, low level of Bcl-2 and XIAP (two known NF-κB-regulated endogenous anti-apoptotic molecules) was present. To further investigate the role of these pathways and the relationship between them, specific inhibitors were used and the alteration of each pathway was evaluated. Pretreatment with MG132, an inhibitor of proteasome activity, and BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation, both inhibited NF-κB p65 translocation and significantly promoted apoptosis. NF-κB inhibition also induced down-expression of Bcl-2 and XIAP, exaggerated JNK phosphorylation, and ERK inhibition. SP600125 and U0126, by blocking the phosphorylation of c-Jun and MEK1/2, inhibited JNK and ERK phosphorylation, respectively, and attenuated apoptosis significantly. JNK and ERK inhibition also induced IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 translocation, leading to expression of Bcl-2 and XIAP. The detrimental role of MG132 and BAY11-7082 appears related to the exaggerated JNK phosphorylation. The SP600125 and U0126 neuroprotection appears related to NF-κB-regulated transcriptional control of Bcl-2 and XIAP. These results suggest that the cross-talk and a balance between NF-κB and MAPKs may be involved in TMT-induced apoptosis on SH-SY5Y cells.

  3. Palmitic Acid-Induced Neuron Cell Cycle G2/M Arrest and Endoplasmic Reticular Stress through Protein Palmitoylation in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Lin, Ching-I; Liao, Hsiang; Chen, Yue-Hua; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with elevated saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in the brain. An increase in SFAs, especially palmitic acid (PA), triggers neuron cell apoptosis, causing cognitive function to deteriorate. In the present study, we focused on the specific mechanism by which PA triggers SH-SY5Y neuron cell apoptosis. We found that PA induces significant neuron cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data further showed that G2/M arrest is involved in elevation of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress according to an increase in p-eukaryotic translation inhibition factor 2α, an ER stress marker. Chronic exposure to PA also accelerates beta-amyloid accumulation, a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, SFA-induced ER stress, G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis were reversed by treatment with 2-bromopalmitate, a protein palmitoylation inhibitor. These findings suggest that protein palmitoylation plays a crucial role in SFA-induced neuron cell cycle G2/M arrest, ER stress and apoptosis; this provides a novel strategy for preventing SFA-induced neuron cell dysfunction. PMID:25402647

  4. Induction of endogenous glutathione by the chemoprotective agent, 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells affords protection against peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhuoxiao; Hallur, Seema; Qiu, Harry Z; Peng, Xingxiang; Li, Yunbo

    2004-04-16

    Substantial evidence suggests that peroxynitrite generated from the bi-radical reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide is critically involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Reaction with sulfhydryl (SH)-containing molecules has been proposed to be a major detoxification pathway of peroxynitrite in biological systems. This study was undertaken to determine if chemically elevated intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), a major SH-containing biomolecule, affords protection against peroxynitrite-mediated toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. Incubation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with the unique chemoprotectant, 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), led to a significant elevation of cellular GSH in a concentration-dependent fashion. To examine the protective effects of D3T-induced GSH on peroxynitrite-mediated toxicity, SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with D3T and then exposed to either the peroxynitrite generator, 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), or the authentic peroxynitrite. We observed that D3T-pretreated cells showed a markedly increased resistance to SIN-1- or authentic peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity, as assessed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium reduction assay. Conversely, depletion of cellular GSH by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) caused a marked potentiation of SIN-1- or authentic peroxynitrite-mediated cytotoxicity. To further demonstrate the causal role for GSH induction in D3T-mediated cytoprotection, SH-SY5Y cells were co-treated with BSO to abolish D3T-induced GSH elevation. Co-treatment of the cells with BSO was found to significantly reverse the protective effects of D3T on SIN-1- or authentic peroxynitrite-elicited cytotoxicity. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that D3T can induce GSH in cultured SH-SY5Y cells, and that the D3T-augmented cellular GSH defense affords a marked protection against peroxynitrite-induced toxicity in cultured human neuronal

  5. The thiol proteinase inhibitor E-64-d ameliorates amyloid-β-induced reduction of sAPPα secretion by reversing ceramide-induced protein kinase C down-regulation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Fuminori; Nakajima, Tomoko; Ito, Masahiko

    2013-11-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), enhancing α-secretase processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an important pathway to decrease neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) secretion. The α-secretase is reported to be regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) and various endogenous proteins or cell surface receptors. In this report, we first examined whether Aβ reduces α-secretase activity, and showed that Aβ peptide 1-40 (0.001 and 0.01 μM) reduced the secretion of soluble amyloid precursor protein α (sAPPα) in carbachol-stimulated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. E-64-d (3 μM), which is a potent calpain inhibitor that prevents PKC degradation, ameliorated the Aβ-induced reduction of sAPPα secretion. In addition, we observed that Aβ significantly enhanced ceramide production by activating neutral sphingomyelinase. The cell-permeable ceramide analog, C2-ceramide (1 μg/mL), also reduced sAPPα secretion, and in addition, E-64-d eliminated the observed decrease of sAPPα secretion. C2-ceramide induced down-regulation of PKC-α, -β1, and -β2 isozymes in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest that ceramide may play an important role in sAPPα processing by modulating PKC activity.

  6. Inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channel currents in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells by muscarine via stimulation of M3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Reeve, H L; Vaughan, P F; Peers, C

    1995-03-01

    The effects of muscarine on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in SH-SY5Y cells were studied using conventional and perforated-patch-clamp techniques, with 10 mM Ba2+ as charge carrier. Muscarine (10-300 microM) caused concentration-dependent inhibitions of Ca2+ channel currents which were only reversible when perforated-patch recordings were used. Inhibition of currents was associated with slowing of activation kinetics in approximately 50% of cells. In the presence of 5 microM nifedipine, muscarine was still able to inhibit currents, but after pre-exposure of cells to 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA the inhibitory effects of muscarine were almost completely lost. In the presence of 100 microM muscarine, Bay K 8644 (5 microM) was still able to enhance current amplitudes. Pre-treatment of cells with pertussis toxin (250 ng/ml for 16-24 hr) or inclusion of 1 mM GDP-beta-S in the patch-pipette prevented the inhibitory actions of muscarine. Hexahydrosiladifenidol (0.1-1 microM) antagonized the actions of muscarine (calculated pA2 7.1) but the presence of 10 microM pirenzipine or 0.1 microM methoctramine in the bath solution did not alter the degree of current inhibition caused by 100 microM muscarine. In summary, these results indicate that muscarine in SH-SY5Y cells causes inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels via a M3 receptor coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. PMID:7630487

  7. Curcumin I protects the dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity through attenuation of p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jaisin, Yamaratee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Meesarapee, Benjawan; Ratanachamnong, Piyanee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Phumala-Morales, Noppawan; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Sanvarinda, Yupin

    2011-02-11

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin used to induce oxidative cell death of dopaminergic neurons in experimental models of PD. Curcumin I, or diferuloylmethane is a pure compound isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. that has been reported to have neuroprotective properties. The precise mechanism, however, remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which curcumin I exerts its effects, using 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y. In our experiments, pretreatment with curcumin I improved cell viability, and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further investigations revealed a reduction of p53 phosphorylation and decrease of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as measured by mRNA expression and protein level. Taken together, these findings indicate that curcumin I protects dopaminergic neurons from 6-OHDA-induced toxicity via the reduction of ROS production, and subsequent attenuation of p53 phosphorylation and reduction of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. PMID:21167259

  8. Impact of Inhomogeneous Static Magnetic Field (31.7–232.0 mT) Exposure on Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells during Cisplatin Administration

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Hamid; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial or adverse effects of Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) are a large concern for the scientific community. In particular, the effect of SMF exposure during anticancer therapies still needs to be fully elucidated. Here, we evaluate the effects of SMF at induction levels that cisPt-treated cancer patients experience during the imaging process conducted in Low field (200–500 mT), Open field (300–700 mT) and/or inhomogeneous High field (1.5–3 T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines. Human adrenergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with 0.1 µM cisPt (i.e. the lowest concentration capable of inducing apoptosis) were exposed to SMF and their response was studied in vitro. Exposure of 0.1 µM cisPt-treated cells to SMF for 2 h decreased cell viability (30%) and caused overexpression of the apoptosis-related cleaved caspase-3 protein (46%). Furthermore, increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production (23%) and reduction in the number of mitochondria vs controls were seen. The sole exposure of SMF for up to 24 h had no effect on cell viability but increased ROS production and modified cellular shape. On the other hand, the toxicity of cisPt was significantly prevented during 24 h exposure to SMF as shown by the levels of cell viability, cleaved caspase-3 and ROS production. In conclusion, due to the cytoprotective effect of 31.7–232.0 mT SMF on low-cisPt-concentration-treated SH-SY5Y cells, our data suggest that exposure to various sources of SMF in cancer patients under a cisPt regimen should be strictly controlled. PMID:25423171

  9. Akt/GSK3β signaling is involved in fipronil-induced apoptotic cell death of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Kang, Jin Sun; Ki, Yeo-Woon; Lee, Sang-Hun; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Kyung Suk; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2011-04-25

    Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide acted on insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Although action of FPN is restricted on insect neuronal or muscular transmitter system, a few studies have assessed the effects of this neurotoxicant on neuronal cell death. To determine the mechanisms underlying FPN-induced neuronal cell death, we investigated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a role in FPN-induced apoptosis, using an in vitro model of human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. FPN was cytotoxic to these cells and its cytotoxicity showed a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, FPN treatment significantly decreased the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression without change of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) expression. FPN-induced dopaminergic cell death involved in increase of ROS generation since pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant, reduced cell death. After FPN treatment, dopamine (DA) levels decreased significantly in both cell and culture media, and oxidative effects of DA were blocked by NAC pretreatment. We showed that cell death in response to FPN was due to apoptosis since FPN increased cytochrome c release into the cytosol and activated caspase-3. It also led to nuclear accumulation of p53 and reduced the level of Bcl-2 protein in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, FPN altered the level of Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3β) phosphorylation. FPN reduced the Akt phosphorylation on Ser473, and in parallel with the inactivation of Akt, phosphorylation of GSK3β on Ser9 which inactivates GSK3β, decreased after treatment with FPN. Furthermore, inhibition of the GSK3β signal protected the cell against FPN-induced cell death. These results suggest that regulation of GSK3β activity may control the apoptosis induced by FPN-induced oxidative stress associated with neuronal cell death.

  10. Protective effects of flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by simulated microgravity in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lina; Chen, Hailong; Liu, Xinmin; Bi, Lei; Xiong, Jianghui; Mao, Zebin; Li, Yinghui

    2010-09-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that microgravity results in increased oxidative stress in the nervous system. In order to protect neuronal cells from oxidative damage induced by microgravity, we selected some flavonoids that might prevent oxidative stress because of their antioxidant activities. Among the 20 flavonoids we examined, we found that isorhamnetin and luteolin had the best protective effects against H(2)O(2) or SIN-1-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Using a clinostat to simulate microgravity, we found that isorhamnetin and luteolin treatment protected SH-SY5Y cells by preventing microgravity-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, and a decrease in antioxidant power (AP). Moreover, isorhamnetin and luteolin treatment downregulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and oxidative stress was significantly inhibited by an iNOS inhibitor in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to simulated microgravity (SMG). These results indicate that isorhamnetin and luteolin could protect against microgravity-induced oxidative stress in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting the ROS-NO pathway. These two flavonoids may have potential for preventing oxidative stress induced by space flight or microgravity.

  11. Chikusetsu saponin V attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells through Sirt1/PGC-1α/Mn-SOD signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingzhi; Deng, Lili; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Qin; Liu, Jing; Dun, Yaoyan; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haixia; Liu, Chaoqi; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Chikusetsu saponin V (CsV), the most abundant member of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ), has attracted increasing attention for its potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms are unclear. Our study intended to investigate the antioxidative effects of CsV in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our data showed that CsV attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, inhibited ROS accumulation, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH, and increased mitochondrial membrane potential dose-dependently. Further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CsV exhibited these effects through increasing the activation of oxidative-stress-associated factors including Sirt1, PGC-1α, and Mn-SOD. Moreover, CsV inhibited H2O2-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax in a dose-dependent manner and, thus, increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that CsV exhibited neuroprotective effects possibly through Sirt1/PGC-1α/Mn-SOD signaling pathways. PMID:27332950

  12. Chikusetsu saponin V attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells through Sirt1/PGC-1α/Mn-SOD signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingzhi; Deng, Lili; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Qin; Liu, Jing; Dun, Yaoyan; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haixia; Liu, Chaoqi; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Chikusetsu saponin V (CsV), the most abundant member of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ), has attracted increasing attention for its potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms are unclear. Our study intended to investigate the antioxidative effects of CsV in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our data showed that CsV attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, inhibited ROS accumulation, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH, and increased mitochondrial membrane potential dose-dependently. Further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CsV exhibited these effects through increasing the activation of oxidative-stress-associated factors including Sirt1, PGC-1α, and Mn-SOD. Moreover, CsV inhibited H2O2-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax in a dose-dependent manner and, thus, increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that CsV exhibited neuroprotective effects possibly through Sirt1/PGC-1α/Mn-SOD signaling pathways.

  13. Identification of ULK1 as a novel biomarker involved in miR-4487 and miR-595 regulation in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Shuya; Zhang, Lan; Xie, Tao; Song, Sicheng; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Yonghui; Ouyang, Liang; Liu, Bo

    2015-07-17

    Autophagy, referring to an evolutionarily conserved, multi-step lysosomal degradation process, has been well-known to be initiated by Unc-51 like kinase 1 (ULK1) with some links to Parkinson's disease (PD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small and non-coding endogenous RNAs 22 ~ 24 nucleotides (nt) in length, have been demonstrated to play an essential role for modulating autophagy. Recently, the relationships between miRNAs and autophagy have been widely reported in PD; however, how microRNAs regulate autophagy still remains in its infancy. Thus, in this study, we computationally constructed the ULK1-regulated autophagic kinase subnetwork in PD and further identified ULK1 able to negatively regulate p70(S6K) in starvation-induced autophagy of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Combination of in silico prediction and microarray analyses, we identified that miR-4487 and miR-595 could target ULK1 and experimentally verified they could negatively or positively regulate ULK1-mediated autophagy. In conclusion, these results may uncover the novel ULK1-p70(S6K) autophagic pathway, as well as miR-4487 and miR-595 as new ULK1 target miRNAs. Thus, these findings would provide a clue to explore ULK1 and its target miRNAs as potential biomarkers in the future PD therapy.

  14. Melatonin prevents cytosolic calcium overload, mitochondrial damage and cell death due to toxically high doses of dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Abramov, Andrey Y; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Chetsawang, Banthit

    2016-07-01

    Stressor exposure activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and causes elevations in the levels of glucocorticoids (GC) from the adrenal glands. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that prolonged exposure to high GC levels can lead to oxidative stress, calcium deregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in a number of cell types. However, melatonin, via its antioxidant activity, exhibits a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the protective effect of melatonin in GC-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cellular treatment with the toxically high doses of the synthetic GC receptor agonist, dexamethasone (DEX) elicited marked decreases in the levels of glutathione and increases in ROS production, lipid peroxidation and cell death. DEX toxicity also induced increases in the levels of cytosolic calcium and mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mfn1 and Opa1) but decreases in the levels of mitochondrial fission proteins (Fis1 and Drp1). Mitochondrial damage was observed in large proportions of the DEX-treated cells. Pretreatment of the cells with melatonin substantially prevented the DEX-induced toxicity. These results suggest that melatonin might exert protective effects against oxidative stress, cytosolic calcium overload and mitochondrial damage in DEX-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27155536

  15. Cholesterol overload induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells through the up regulation of flotillin-2 in the lipid raft and the activation of BDNF/Trkb signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Ning; Lin, Ching-I; Liao, Hsiang; Liu, Chin-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hua; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-07-22

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. It has been indicated that the cholesterol concentration in the brain of AD patients is higher than that in normal people. In this study, we investigated the effects of cholesterol concentrations, 0, as the control, 3.125, 12.5, and 25μM, on cholesterol metabolism, neuron survival, AD-related protein expressions, and cell morphology and apoptosis using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expressions of cholesterol hydroxylase (Cyp46), flotillin-2 (a marker of lipid raft content), and truncated tyrosine kinase B (TrkBtc) increased, while expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and full-length TrkB (TrkBfl) decreased as the concentration of cholesterol loading increased. Down-regulation of the PI3K-Akt-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β cascade and cell apoptosis were also observed at higher concentrations of cholesterol, along with elevated levels of β-amyloid (Aβ), β-secretase (BACE), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, we found that cholesterol overload in neuronal cells imbalanced the cholesterol homeostasis and increased the protein expressions causing cell apoptosis, which illustrates the neurodegenerative pathology of abnormally elevated cholesterol concentrations found in AD patients.

  16. Long-term morphine treatment enhances proteasome-dependent degradation of G beta in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: correlation with onset of adenylate cyclase sensitization.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Neasta, Jérémie; Uttenweiler-Joseph, Sandrine; Stella, Alexandre; Matondo, Mariette; Corbani, Maïthé; Monsarrat, Bernard; Meunier, Jean-Claude

    2005-08-01

    The initial aim of this study was to identify protein changes associated with long-term morphine treatment in a recombinant human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y clone (sc2) stably overexpressing the human mu-opioid (MOP) receptor. In MOP receptor-overexpressing sc2 cells, short-term morphine exposure was found to be much more potent and efficacious in inhibiting forskolin-elicited production of cAMP, and long-term morphine exposure was shown to induce a substantially higher degree of opiate dependence, as reflected by adenylate cyclase sensitization, than it did in wild-type neuroblastoma cells. Differential proteomic analysis of detergent-resistant membrane rafts isolated from untreated and chronically morphine-treated sc2 cells revealed long-term morphine exposure to have reliably induced a 30 to 40% decrease in the abundance of five proteins, subsequently identified by mass spectrometry as G protein subunits alphai(2), alphai(3), beta(1), and beta(2), and prohibitin. Quantitative Western blot analyses of whole-cell extracts showed that long-term morphine treatment-induced down-regulation of Gbeta but not of the other proteins is highly correlated (r(2) = 0.96) with sensitization of adenylate cyclase. Down-regulation of Gbeta and adenylate cyclase sensitization elicited by long-term morphine treatment were suppressed in the presence of carbobenzoxy-l-leucyl-l-leucyl-l-norvalinal (MG-115) or lactacystin. Thus, sustained activation of the MOP receptor by morphine in sc2 cells seems to promote proteasomal degradation of Gbeta to sensitize adenylate cyclase. Together, our data suggest that the long-term administration of opiates may elicit dependence by altering the neuronal balance of heterotrimeric G proteins and adenylate cyclases, with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway playing a pivotal role. PMID:15901846

  17. microRNA-7 Protects Against 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Iodide-Induced Cell Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Cells by Directly Targeting Krüpple-Like Factor 4.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bin; Wu, Peng-Chang; Chen, Lin; Yang, Tao; Yuan, Yu-Qing; Kuang, Yong-Qin; Cheng, Lin; Zhou, Hu-Tian; Gu, Jian-Wen

    2016-05-01

    This study intended to investigate the role and underling mechanism of microRNA-7 (miR-7) on neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y was employed and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide [MPP(+)] was used to generate PD model in vitro. Furthermore, an upregulation of miR-7 was performed in SH-SY5Y by transfection with miR-7 mimics. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were determined. Moreover, the target and the mechanism of miR-7 in MPP(+)-induced cell death were also investigated. The upregulation of miR-7 promoted cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis in MPP(+)-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, miR-7 could directly bind to the 3'-untranslated region of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4, positions 574-580). Moreover, knockdown of KLF4 by the specific siRNA inhibited SH-SY5Y apoptosis under MPP(+) treatment. In addition, KLF4 overexpression apparently attenuated the protective effect of miR-7 in MPP(+)-induced SH-SY5Y apoptosis. This study indicated that miR-7 protects from MPP(+)-induced cell apoptosis in SH-SY5Y by directly targeting KLF4.

  18. microRNA-7 Protects Against 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Iodide-Induced Cell Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Cells by Directly Targeting Krüpple-Like Factor 4.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bin; Wu, Peng-Chang; Chen, Lin; Yang, Tao; Yuan, Yu-Qing; Kuang, Yong-Qin; Cheng, Lin; Zhou, Hu-Tian; Gu, Jian-Wen

    2016-05-01

    This study intended to investigate the role and underling mechanism of microRNA-7 (miR-7) on neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y was employed and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide [MPP(+)] was used to generate PD model in vitro. Furthermore, an upregulation of miR-7 was performed in SH-SY5Y by transfection with miR-7 mimics. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were determined. Moreover, the target and the mechanism of miR-7 in MPP(+)-induced cell death were also investigated. The upregulation of miR-7 promoted cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis in MPP(+)-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, miR-7 could directly bind to the 3'-untranslated region of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4, positions 574-580). Moreover, knockdown of KLF4 by the specific siRNA inhibited SH-SY5Y apoptosis under MPP(+) treatment. In addition, KLF4 overexpression apparently attenuated the protective effect of miR-7 in MPP(+)-induced SH-SY5Y apoptosis. This study indicated that miR-7 protects from MPP(+)-induced cell apoptosis in SH-SY5Y by directly targeting KLF4. PMID:27003614

  19. Capacitative Ca2+ entry is involved in regulating soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) release mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Sinkyu; Jung, Ji-Eun; Roh, Eun-Jihn; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of phospholipase C-linked G-protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors, increases the release of the soluble form of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) by alpha-secretase cleavage. In this study, we examined the involvement of capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) in the regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-dependent sAPPalpha release in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing abundant M3 mAChRs. The sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation was abolished by EGTA, an extracellular Ca2+ chelator, which abolished mAChR-mediated Ca2+ influx without affecting Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. However, mAChR-mediated sAPPalpha release was not inhibited by thapsigargin, which increases basal [Ca2+]i by depletion of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. While these results indicate that the mAChR-mediated increase in sAPPalpha release is regulated largely by Ca2+ influx rather than by Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores, we further investigated the Ca2+ entry mechanisms regulating this phenomenon. CCE inhibitors such as Gd3+, SKF96365, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), dose dependently reduced both Ca2+ influx and sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation, whereas inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, or Na+-pumps was without effect. These results indicate that CCE plays an important role in the mAChR-mediated release of sAPPalpha. PMID:16524374

  20. Muscarine enhances soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y by a pathway dependent on protein kinase C(alpha), src-tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Canet-Aviles, Rosa-Maria; Anderton, Mark; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J; Vaughan, Peter F T

    2002-06-15

    The signalling pathways by which muscarine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate the secretion of the alpha-secretase cleavage product (sAPPalpha) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were examined in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. Using specific inhibitors it was found that over 80% of sAPPalpha secretion, enhanced by muscarine, occurred via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and was dependent on protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and a member of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src-TK). In contrast the stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion by EGF was not affected by inhibitors of PKC nor Src-TK but was dependent on ERK1/2. In addition muscarine-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion and ERK1/2 activation were inhibited 60 and 80%, respectively, by micromolar concentrations of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin. In comparison wortmannin decreased EGF stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion and ERK 1/2 activation by approximately 40%. Unexpectedly, U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, did not inhibit muscarine enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion. These data are discussed in relation to a pathway for the enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion by muscarine which involves the activation of a Src-TK by G-protein beta/gamma-subunits leading to activation of PKCalpha, and ERK1/2 by a mechanism not involving phospholipase C. PMID:12191495

  1. Gene Expression Profile of NF-κB, Nrf2, Glycolytic, and p53 Pathways During the SH-SY5Y Neuronal Differentiation Mediated by Retinoic Acid.

    PubMed

    de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; de Ramos, Vitor Miranda; Albanus, Ricardo D Oliveira; Kunzler, Alice; de Souza, Luis Henrinque Trentin; Dalmolin, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Ribeiro, Leila; Carro, Luigi; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    SH-SY5Y cells, a neuroblastoma cell line that is a well-established model system to study the initial phases of neuronal differentiation, have been used in studies to elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated alterations of gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells during neuronal differentiation mediated by retinoic acid (RA) treatment. We evaluated important pathways involving nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glycolytic, and p53 during neuronal differentiation. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulating the gene expression profile of those pathways by antioxidant co-treatment with Trolox®, a hydrophilic analogue of α-tocopherol. We found that RA treatment increases levels of gene expression of NF-κB, glycolytic, and antioxidant pathway genes during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. We also found that ROS production induced by RA treatment in SH-SY5Y cells is involved in gene expression profile alterations, chiefly in NF-κB, and glycolytic pathways. Antioxidant co-treatment with Trolox® reversed the effects mediated by RA NF-κB, and glycolytic pathways gene expression. Interestingly, co-treatment with Trolox® did not reverse the effects in antioxidant gene expression mediated by RA in SH-SY5Y. To confirm neuronal differentiation, we quantified endogenous levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, a recognized marker of neuronal differentiation. Our data suggest that during neuronal differentiation mediated by RA, changes in profile gene expression of important pathways occur. These alterations are in part mediated by ROS production. Therefore, our results reinforce the importance in understanding the mechanism by which RA induces neuronal differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, principally due this model being commonly used as a neuronal cell model in studies of neuronal pathologies.

  2. Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to the increase in vesicular release from SH-SY5Y cells stimulated by extracellular protons.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-Ju; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Wu, Peng-Fei; Ni, Lan; Deng, Zhi-Fang; Wu, Wen-Ning; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2012-08-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have been reported to play a role in the neuronal dopamine pathway, but the exact role in neurotransmitter release remains elusive. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y is a dopaminergic neuronal cell line, which can release monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study, the expression of ASICs was identified in SH-SY5Y cells to further explore the role of ASICs in vesicular release stimulated by acid. We gathered evidence that ASICs could be detected in SH-SY5Y cells. In whole cell patch-clamp recording, a rapid decrease in extracellular pH evoked inward currents, which were reversibly inhibited by 100 μM amiloride. The currents were pH dependent, with a pH of half-maximal activation (pH(0.5)) of 6.01 ± 0.04. Furthermore, in calcium imaging and FM 1-43 dye labeling, it was shown that extracellular protons increased intracellular calcium levels and vesicular release in SH-SY5Y cells, which was attenuated by PcTx1 and amiloride. Interestingly, N-type calcium channel blockers inhibited the vesicular release induced by acidification. In conclusion, ASICs are functionally expressed in SH-SY5Y cells and involved in vesicular release stimulated by acidification. N-type calcium channels may be involved in the increase in vesicular release induced by acid. Our results provide a preliminary study on ASICs in SH-SY5Y cells and neurotransmitter release, which helps to further investigate the relationship between ASICs and dopaminergic neurons.

  3. Gadd153 and NF-κB Crosstalk Regulates 27-Hydroxycholesterol-Induced Increase in BACE1 and β-Amyloid Production in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marwarha, Gurdeep; Raza, Shaneabbas; Prasanthi, Jaya R. P.; Ghribi, Othman

    2013-01-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, accumulation of which is a culprit for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is derived from the initial cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by the aspartyl protease BACE1. Identification of cellular mechanisms that regulate BACE1 production is of high relevance to the search for potential disease-modifying therapies that inhibit BACE1 to reduce Aβ accumulation and AD progression. In the present study, we show that the cholesterol oxidation product 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) increases BACE1 and Aβ levels in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This increase in BACE1 involves a crosstalk between the two transcription factors NF-κB and the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, the growth arrest and DNA damage induced gene-153 (gadd153, also called CHOP). We specifically show that 27-OHC induces a substantial increase in NF-κB binding to the BACE1 promoter and subsequent increase in BACE1 transcription and Aβ production. The NF-κB inhibitor, sc514, significantly attenuated the 27-OHC-induced increase in NF-κB-mediated BACE1 expression and Aβ genesis. We further show that the 27-OHC-induced NF-κB activation and increased NF-κB-mediated BACE1 expression is contingent on the increased activation of gadd153. Silencing gadd153 expression with siRNA alleviated the 27-OHC-induced increase in NF-κB activation, NF-κB binding to the BACE1 promoter, and subsequent increase in BACE1 transcription and Aβ production. We also show that increased levels of BACE1 in the triple transgenic mouse model for AD is preceded by gadd153 and NF-κB activation. In summary, our study demonstrates that gadd153 and NF-κB work in concert to regulate BACE1 expression. Agents that inhibit gadd153 activation and subsequent interaction with NF-κB might be promising targets to reduce BACE1 and Aβ overproduction and may ultimately serve as disease-modifying treatments for AD. PMID:23951005

  4. Opioid agonists binding and responses in SH-SY5Y cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, E. M.; Hoffmann, B. B.; Loew, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma) cultured cells, known to have mu-opioid receptors, have been used to assess and compare the ability of eight representative mu-selective compounds from diverse opioid families to recognize and activate these receptors. A wide range of receptor affinities spanning a factor of 10,000 was found between the highest affinity fentanyl analogs (Ki = 0.1nM) and the lowest affinity analog, meperidine (Ki = 1 microM). A similar range was found for inhibition of PGE1-stimulated cAMP accumulation with a rank order of activities that closely paralleled binding affinities. Maximum inhibition of cAMP accumulation by each compound was about 80%. Maximum stimulation of GTPase activity (approximately 50%) was also similar for all compounds except the lowest affinity meperidine. Both effects were naloxone reversible. These results provide further evidence that mu-receptors are coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and that the SH-SY5Y cell line is a good system for assessment of mu-agonists functional responses.

  5. Arctigenin Confers Neuroprotection Against Mechanical Trauma Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells by Regulating miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a Expression to Alleviate Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Wang, Yue; Meng, Ya-Kun; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical trauma injury is a severe insult to neural cells. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory factors that have dramatic consequences for undamaged cells, leading to normal cell death after the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary effects and evaluated the mechanism underlying the action of microRNA (miRNA)-199a and miRNA-16 in a mechanical trauma injury (MTI) model using SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells are often applied to in vitro models of neuronal function and differentiation. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in NF-κB and cholinergic signaling, which can regulate inflammation. The cell model was established by scratch-induced injury of human SH-SY5Y cells, which mimics the characteristics of MTI. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunocytochemistry were used to measure cell viability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine and cholinesterase (CHE) content. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content was measured to assess the degree of cell injury. The mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR to analyze ARC's mechanism of action. miRNA inhibitors and mimics were used to inhibit and strengthen the expression of miRNAs. Protein expression was detected by western blotting analysis. ARC treatment reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels as well as the number of TUNEL+ apoptotic SH-SY5Y cells surrounding the scratch and increased the IL-10 level compared to the controls. ARC attenuated the increase of the cell damage degree and LDH content induced by scratching, indicating increased cell survival. Mechanistic studies showed that ARC upregulated the miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a levels to reduce upstream protein (IKKα and IKKβ) expression and inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway activity; moreover, the increased miRNA-199a suppresses

  6. Arctigenin Confers Neuroprotection Against Mechanical Trauma Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells by Regulating miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a Expression to Alleviate Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Wang, Yue; Meng, Ya-Kun; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical trauma injury is a severe insult to neural cells. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory factors that have dramatic consequences for undamaged cells, leading to normal cell death after the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary effects and evaluated the mechanism underlying the action of microRNA (miRNA)-199a and miRNA-16 in a mechanical trauma injury (MTI) model using SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells are often applied to in vitro models of neuronal function and differentiation. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in NF-κB and cholinergic signaling, which can regulate inflammation. The cell model was established by scratch-induced injury of human SH-SY5Y cells, which mimics the characteristics of MTI. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunocytochemistry were used to measure cell viability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine and cholinesterase (CHE) content. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content was measured to assess the degree of cell injury. The mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR to analyze ARC's mechanism of action. miRNA inhibitors and mimics were used to inhibit and strengthen the expression of miRNAs. Protein expression was detected by western blotting analysis. ARC treatment reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels as well as the number of TUNEL+ apoptotic SH-SY5Y cells surrounding the scratch and increased the IL-10 level compared to the controls. ARC attenuated the increase of the cell damage degree and LDH content induced by scratching, indicating increased cell survival. Mechanistic studies showed that ARC upregulated the miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a levels to reduce upstream protein (IKKα and IKKβ) expression and inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway activity; moreover, the increased miRNA-199a suppresses

  7. Gold nanostars coated with neutral and charged polyethylene glycols: A comparative study of in-vitro biocompatibility and of their interaction with SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pallavicini, Piersandro; Cabrini, Elisa; Cavallaro, Gennara; Chirico, Giuseppe; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Dacarro, Giacomo; Donà, Alice; Marchesi, Nicoletta; Milanese, Chiara; Pascale, Alessia; Sironi, Laura; Taglietti, Angelo

    2015-10-01

    Gold nanostars (GNS) have been coated with four different polyethylene glycols (PEGs) equipped with a -SH function for grafting on the gold surface. These PEGs have different chain lengths with average MW=2000, 3000, 5000 and average number of -O-CH2-CH2 - units 44, 66, and 111, respectively. Two are neutral and two are terminated with -COOH and -NH2 functions, thus bearing negative and positive charges at physiological pH, thanks to the formation of carboxylate and ammonium groups. The negative charge of the GNS coated with PEG carboxylate has also been exploited to further coat the GNS with the PAH (polyallylamine hydrochloride) cationic polymer. Vitality tests have been carried out on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the five differently coated GNS for 4, 24, and 48 h, at Au concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 100 μg/mL. The same tests have been repeated with the pure PEGs and PAH. Excellent biocompatibility was found for all PEGs, independently on charge and chain length, both for coated GNS and for the pure polymers. On the contrary, poor biocompatibility was found for PAH overcoated GNS and for pure PAH, although the latter only at high concentrations. Exploiting the two-photon luminescence of GNS, we have found by confocal laser scanning microscopy that when GNS are coated with PEGs they do not enter SH-SY5Y cells, while when overcoated with PAH they massively penetrate into the cytoplasm. This causes cell death by dramatically changing cell morphology, as demonstrated also by atomic force microscopy.

  8. Antidepressants attenuate the dexamethasone-induced decrease in viability and proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: a involvement of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2).

    PubMed

    Leskiewicz, M; Jantas, D; Regulska, M; Kaczanowska, J; Basta-Kaim, A; Budziszewska, B; Kubera, M; Lason, W

    2013-11-01

    Excessive glucocorticoid levels in depressed patients have been associated with atrophic changes in some brain regions, but only few studies suggest that some antidepressants can interfere with deleterious effect of glucocorticoids on neuronal cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid and some antidepressants from different chemical groups (imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, fluoxetine, reboxetine and tianeptine) on SH-SY5Y cells cultured in the medium containing steroid-free serum. DEX in concentrations from 1 to 100 μM did not change LDH release but exposure to 10 μM and 100 μM DEX for 24, 48 and 72 h caused a significant reduction in cell viability and proliferation as confirmed by MTT reduction and BrdU ELISA assays, respectively. Twenty four-hour incubation of cells with antidepressants (0.05-10 μM) and DEX (10 μM) showed that imipramine, amitriptyline, desipramine, citalopram and fluoxetine at concentrations from 0.1 up to 1 μM, reboxetine (0.1 μM) and tianeptine (0.05 μM) prevented the DEX-induced decreases in cell viability and proliferation rate. The protective effects of antidepressants were ameliorated by inhibitors of MAPK/ERK1/2, but not PI3-K/Akt pathway as shown for imipramine, fluoxetine and reboxetine. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed the decrease in the activated form of ERK1/2 (p-ERK) after DEX treatment and this effect was inhibited by imipramine. Thus, the reduction in SH-SY5Y cell viability caused by DEX appears to be related to its antiproliferative activity and some antidepressant drugs in low concentrations attenuate this effect by mechanism which involves the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:23906970

  9. Potential autophagy enhancers protect against fipronil-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Lee, Soo-Jin; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Kyung Hun; Jeong, Mihye; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2013-10-23

    Oxidative stress created by environmental toxicants activates several signaling pathways. Autophagy is one of the first lines of defense against oxidative stress damage. The autophagy pathway can be induced and up-regulated in response to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, we reported that fipronil (FPN)-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is mediated through ROS in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we explored the role of autophagy to prevent FPN neurotoxicity. We investigated the modulation of FPN-induced apoptosis according to autophagy regulation. FPN activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and induced nuclear fragmentation and condensation, all of which indicate that FPN-induced cell death was due to apoptosis. In addition, we observed FPN-induced autophagic cell death by monitoring the expression of LC3-II and Beclin-1. Exposure to FPN in SH-SY5Y cells led to the production of ROS. Treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) effectively blocked both apoptosis and autophagy. Interestingly, pretreatment with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, significantly enhanced the viability of FPN-exposed cells; the enhancement of cell viability was partially due to alleviation of FPN-induced apoptosis via a decrease in levels of cleaved caspase-3. However, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA) a specific inhibitor for autophagy, remarkably strengthened FPN toxicity and further induced activation of caspase-3 in these cells. Our studies suggest that FPN-induced cytotoxicity is modified by autophagy regulation and that rapamycin is neuroprotective against FPN-induced apoptosis through enhancing autophagy.

  10. Interaction of SH-SY5Y cells with nanogratings during neuronal differentiation: comparison with primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Tonazzini, Ilaria; Cecchini, Alessandra; Elgersma, Ype; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Controlling neuronal cell adhesion, migration, and axonal outgrowth via contact interactions with biomaterials is a critical element for tissue engineering applications and for developing artificial neuronal interfaces. One promising approach relies on the exploitation of nanostructured surfaces. Here, the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y is interfaced with plastic nanogratings (NGs; anisotropic topographies composed by alternating lines of grooves and ridges with sub-micrometer lateral dimension). The SH-SY5Y cells' (SHs) contact guidance is investigated under proliferating conditions and upon differentiation after treatment with retinoic acid (RA) and brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), and compared with mouse primary hippocampal neurons (HNs). Quantitative readouts are obtained by measuring changes in tubulin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology induced by mechanotransduction. Results demonstrate that SHs effectively retrieve substrate topographical signals, in particular during differentiation. Remarkably, RA/BDNF improves SH responsiveness to NG directional cues, and significantly enhances the alignment to the NG lines. HNs behave similarly, showing a marked change in network organization if cultured on NGs. These results might help the rational engineering of neuro-regenerative scaffolds to improve peripheral nerve wound healing, as well as to investigate the basic mechanisms of neuronal wiring.

  11. Neurotoxin-induced DNA damage is persistentin SH-SY5Y cells and LC neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Musich, Phillip R.; Cui, Kui; Zou, Yue; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of the noradrenergic neurons has been reported in the brain of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. However, their pathologic characteristics during the neurodegenerative course and underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we used the neurotoxincamptothecin (CPT)to induce the DNA damage response in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, normal fibroblast cells, and primarily cultured LC and raphe neurons to examine cellular responses and repair capabilities after neurotoxin exposure. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that noradrenergic SH-SY5Y cells are more sensitive to CPT-induced DNA damage and deficientin DNA repair, as compared to fibroblast cells. Furthermore, similar to SH-SY5Y cells, primarily cultured LC neurons are more sensitive to CPT-induced DNA damage and show a deficiency in repairing this damage. Moreover, while N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) exposure also results in DNA damage in cultured LC neurons, neither CPT nor DSP4 induce DNA damage in neuronal cultures from the raphe nuclei. Taken together, noradrenergic SH-SY5Y cells and LC neurons are sensitive to CPT-induced DNA damage and exhibit a repair deficiency, providing a mechanistic explanation for the pathologic characteristics of LC degeneration when facing endogenous and environmental DNA-damaging insultsin vivo. PMID:25724887

  12. Cathepsin X promotes 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis of PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Pišlar, Anja Hafner; Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kos, Janko

    2014-07-01

    The cysteine carboxypeptidase cathepsin X is an important player in degenerative processes under normal ageing and pathological conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of cathepsin X in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in the pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 and neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Cells exposed to 6-OHDA demonstrated alterations in the protein level of cathepsin X and activity of cathepsin X. Downregulation of cathepsin X expression by siRNA attenuated the neuronal death caused by 6-OHDA. Treatment with specific cathepsin X inhibitor AMS36 protected cells against 6-OHDA mediated cytotoxicity, resulting in reduced cell death and apoptosis. Furthermore, AMS36 reversed 6-OHDA-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase and attenuated 6-OHDA-induced activation of caspase-3, triggering apoptosis, intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction, including the release of cytochrome c and an imbalanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, AMS36 interfered with NF-κB activation by blocking degradation of IκBα, preventing NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Our data provide the first evidence that inhibition of cathepsin X protects both, PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA toxicity and indicate that cathepsin X may be responsible for dopamine neuron death, involved in the pathogenic cascade event for the neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.

  13. [Comparative study of therapy targeted genes expression in neuroblastoma cell lines].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, T D; Spirin, P V; Orlova, N N; Prokofjeva, M M; Prassolov, V S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluated c-kit, VEGFA, and MYC gene expression level in seven neuroblastoma stable cell lines: SK-N-SH, SK-N-BE, SK-N-AS, SH-SY5Y, Kelly, IMR-32, and LAN-1. Expression levels of these genes can serve as diagnostic factors of cancer progression, and proteins encoded by these genes are promising targets for neuroblastoma treatment. SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS cells have highest MYC expression and the same VEGFA expression, although SH-SY5Y has 10 times higher c-kit expression than SK-N-AS cells. Both IMR-32 and LAN-1 cells have low MYC expression level, but differ in c-kit expression, IMR-32 has significantly higher c-kit expression, than any other neuroblastoma cell line. LAN-1 on the other hand has the highest VEGFA expression. These data suggest that MYC, c-kit, and VEGFA genes can play different roles in development and progression of neuroblastoma depending on other activated molecular mechanisms in malignant cells.

  14. Novel protein pp3501 mediates the inhibitory effect of sodium butyrate on SH-SY5Y cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Haitao; Wu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Sodium butyrate, a new potential therapeutic drug, improves the efficacy of chemo- and immunotherapy of cancer under unknown mechanisms. A novel gene pp3501 is significantly induced in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upon sodium butyrate treatment. Therefore, this study has cloned pp3501 cDNA by RT-PCR and generated its recombinant fusion protein and anti-serum subsequently. The pp3501 protein localized mainly in the nucleus, as detected by immunocytochemistry and the expression of pp3501-EGFP fusion protein. pp3501 inhibited the proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells, arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase, and sensitized the SH-SY5Y cells to sodium butyrate treatment. These results provide a new mechanism of sodium butyrate inhibiting cancer cell proliferation as well as a new avenue for the future research on the functions of pp3501.

  15. Acetaminophen potentiates staurosporine-induced death in a human neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Posadas, I; Vellecco, V; Santos, P; Prieto-Lloret, J; Ceña, V

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumour in infants characterized by a high resistance to apoptosis. Recently, the cyclo-oxygenase pathway has been considered a potential target in the treatment of different kinds of tumours. The aim of the present work was to investigate a possible relationship between cyclo-oxygenase pathway and stauroporine-induced apoptosis in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Experimental approach: Cellular viability was measured by release of LDH. DNA fragmentation was visualized by electrophoresis on agarose gel containing ethidium bromide. Cyclo-oxygenase activity was measured in microsomal fractions obtained from cells by quantification of its final product PGE2 by RIA. Caspase-3 activity was measured fluorimetrically and Western blot analysis was performed to assess cytochrome c expression. Key results: We have found that staurosporine (500 nM) induced cellular death in a time-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cyclo-oxygenase enzymatic activity was present in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells under basal conditions and pharmacological experiments using COX inhibitors indicate that cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-3 are the active isoforms in these cells. Co-incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with staurosporine (500 nM) and acetaminophen for 24 h potentiated staurosporine-mediated cellular death in a concentration-dependent manner. This process is mediated by an increase in cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation and is prevented by N-acetylcysteine or the superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP. Conclusions and implications: Acetaminophen potentiates staurosporine-mediated neuroblastoma cell death. The mechanism of action of acetaminophen seems to be related to production of reactive oxygen species and decreased intracellular glutathione levels. PMID:17245372

  16. AMPK Inhibition Enhances the Neurotoxicity of Cu(II) in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ai-Ping; Xiong, Xian-Jia; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xi; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Hu, Yi

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of copper in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders has been documented but remains poorly understood. This study aimed at investigating the molecular mechanism underlying copper-induced neurotoxicity. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of Cu(II) (25-800 μM). The relative levels of AMPKα, phosphorylated (p)-AMPKα were examined by western blotting. The results showed that copper reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a common ROS scavenger, decreased copper-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the levels of p-AMPKα in SH-SY5Y cells were increased by a relatively low concentration of copper and decreased by a relatively high concentration of copper at 24 h. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK with compound C or RNA interference aggravated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of Cu(II). Taken together, these results indicated that AMPK activity might be important for the neurotoxicity of Cu(II).

  17. Particulate matter cytotoxicity in cultured SH-SY5Y cells is modulated by simvastatin: Toxicological assessment for oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, S A; Astort, F; Yakisich, J S; Tasat, D R

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive correlation between environmental particulate matter and adverse health effects. In particular, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) induces inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), exerting not only local, but also systemic adverse effects. Previously, in an experimental animal model, we found that simvastatin (Sv) pretreatment was effective in preventing ROFA induced lung inflammation. Herein, using the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as a neurotoxicity in vitro model, we studied the potential Sv protective effect on ROFA cytotoxicity. We evaluated cell viability by the MTT assay, superoxide anion generation by NBT test, Nrf2 activation by immunofluorescence, apoptosis by cleaved-PARP and active-caspase 3 expressions, and senescence by β-galactosidase activity. SH-SY5Y cells exposed to ROFA (10 and 50μg/ml) for 24h showed decreased cell viability, increased superoxide anion generation, apoptosis and senescence. Pretreatment with Sv (1μM) for 6 days, restored cell viability to basal levels, reduced ROFA-induced O2(-) generation as well as the number of apoptotic and senescent cells. Sv pretreatment stimulated the basal and ROFA-induced levels of Nrf2 nuclear translocation suggesting that activation of the cellular antioxidant defense system prevented particle-induced oxidative stress. In parallel, rescue experiments with mevalonate did not modify the effects of SV pretreatment in any of the parameters evaluated in this study. We conclude that simvastatin may provide neuroprotection against air particulate matter-induced neurotoxicity independently of its ability to inhibit cholesterol synthesis.

  18. Reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase induce apoptotic death of SH-SY5Y cells in response to fipronil.

    PubMed

    Ki, Yeo-Woon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2012-05-20

    There are multiple lines of evidence showing that environmental toxicants including pesticides may contribute to neuronal cell death. Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that acts on insect GABA receptors. Although the action of FPN is restricted to insect neuronal or muscular transmitter systems, a few studies have assessed the effects of this neurotoxicant on neuronal cell death distinct from an insect. To determine the mechanisms underlying FPN-induced neuronal cell death, we evaluated the ability of this chemical to induce oxidative stress and studied the involvement of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in FPN-induced apoptosis stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y (SH-SY5Y) cells. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to FPN led to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Interestingly, the antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) attenuated apoptotic cell death and ROS production induced by FPN. These results indicated that oxidative stress plays a central role in FPN-induced cytotoxicity. Mitochondrial complex I activity was also inhibited by FPN treatment. These finding indicate that FPN triggers intrinsic apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway that is initiated by the generation of ROS. Furthermore, FPN treatment induced phosphorylation of MAPK members. Activation of these protein kinases by FPN was involved in the onset of apoptosis as inhibitors specific to these kinases protect against FPN-induced cell death as well as ROS generation. Our data indicate that FPN-induced apoptosis is mediated primarily by the generation of ROS and activation of MAPK members followed by activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22949825

  20. Neurotoxin-induced DNA damage is persistent in SH-SY5Y cells and LC neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Musich, Phillip R; Cui, Kui; Zou, Yue; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2015-05-01

    Degeneration of the noradrenergic neurons has been reported in the brain of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. However, their pathological characteristics during the neurodegenerative course and underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we used the neurotoxin camptothecin (CPT) to induce the DNA damage response in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, normal fibroblast cells, and primarily cultured locus coeruleus (LC) and raphe neurons to examine cellular responses and repair capabilities after neurotoxin exposure. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that noradrenergic SH-SY5Y cells are more sensitive to CPT-induced DNA damage and deficient in DNA repair, as compared to fibroblast cells. Furthermore, similar to SH-SY5Y cells, primarily cultured LC neurons are more sensitive to CPT-induced DNA damage and show a deficiency in repairing this damage. Moreover, while N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) exposure also results in DNA damage in cultured LC neurons, neither CPT nor DSP4 induce DNA damage in neuronal cultures from the raphe nuclei. Taken together, noradrenergic SH-SY5Y cells and LC neurons are sensitive to CPT-induced DNA damage and exhibit a repair deficiency, providing a mechanistic explanation for the pathological characteristics of LC degeneration when facing endogenous and environmental DNA-damaging insults in vivo.

  1. The Neuroprotective Role of Insulin Against MPP(+) -Induced Parkinson's Disease in Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disorder associated with aging that primarily caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y+RA) have been broadly utilized in studies of mechanisms of the pathogenesis underlying 1-Methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+))-induced PD models. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanisms of insulin on MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity on SH-SY5Y+RA cells. Recent studies suggest that insulin has a protective effect against oxidative stress but not been elucidated for PD. In this study, pretreatment of insulin prevented the cell death in a dose dependent manner and lowered nitric oxide (NO) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx induced by MPP(+). Insulin also elevated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and insulin signaling pathways in dopaminergic neuron through activating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 survival pathways which in turn inhibits MPP(+)-induced iNOS and ERK activation, and Bax to Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that insulin has a protective effect on MPP(+)-neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y+RA cells.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor and their effects on gene expression of RAGE during oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Amornrit, W; Santiyanont, R

    2016-04-26

    Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used as food sources worldwide. Amaranthus leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, which act as free radical scavengers. Oxidative stress caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an important mechanism for neuronal dysfunction and cell loss in different neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective effects of antioxidant-containing plants have been extensively demonstrated in different models of neurotoxicity. However, few studies have investigated the antioxidant properties of Amaranthus extracts and their effect on the nervous system. In the present study, the leaves of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor were extracted using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and methanol. Results indicated that antioxidant activities were the highest in methanol extracts from both kinds of Amaranthus leaves. In addition, oxidative stress was induced in human neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y) by using H2O2. Intracellular oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and gene expression of RAGE were then determined. In vitro results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts can significantly decrease cell toxicity and intracellular ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, the extracts also significantly downregulated the expression of oxidative stress genes such as HMOX-1, RAGE, and RelA/ NF-κB. Our results suggested that Amaranthus leaves may be useful for reducing oxidative stress and may be beneficial for age-related diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor and their effects on gene expression of RAGE during oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Amornrit, W; Santiyanont, R

    2016-01-01

    Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used as food sources worldwide. Amaranthus leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, which act as free radical scavengers. Oxidative stress caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an important mechanism for neuronal dysfunction and cell loss in different neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective effects of antioxidant-containing plants have been extensively demonstrated in different models of neurotoxicity. However, few studies have investigated the antioxidant properties of Amaranthus extracts and their effect on the nervous system. In the present study, the leaves of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor were extracted using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and methanol. Results indicated that antioxidant activities were the highest in methanol extracts from both kinds of Amaranthus leaves. In addition, oxidative stress was induced in human neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y) by using H2O2. Intracellular oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and gene expression of RAGE were then determined. In vitro results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts can significantly decrease cell toxicity and intracellular ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, the extracts also significantly downregulated the expression of oxidative stress genes such as HMOX-1, RAGE, and RelA/ NF-κB. Our results suggested that Amaranthus leaves may be useful for reducing oxidative stress and may be beneficial for age-related diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27173239

  4. Carnosic Acid Affords Mitochondrial Protection in Chlorpyrifos-Treated Sh-Sy5y Cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Peres, Alessandra; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Bosco, Simone Morelo Dal

    2016-10-01

    Carnosic acid (CA; C20H28O4) is a phenolic diterpene found in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and exhibits protective properties, e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antimicrobial activities. In this context, CA has been viewed as a neuroprotective agent due to its ability in rescuing neuronal cells from pro-oxidant and pro-apoptotic challenges. In the present work, we found that CA pretreatment at 1 µM for 12 h suppressed the mitochondria-related pro-oxidant and mitochondria-dependent pro-apoptotic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. CA prevented mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in mitochondrial membranes obtained from cells exposed to CPF. CA also inhibited cytochrome c release and activation of the caspases-9 and -3, as well as decreased DNA fragmentation, in CPF-treated cells. CA upregulated the content of glutathione (GSH) in mitochondria by a mechanism involving the activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, since inhibition of PI3K/Akt or silencing of Nrf2 using siRNA strategy abolished the protection exerted by CA in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, CA protected mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 axis, causing upregulation of the mitochondrial GSH content and consequent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. PMID:27083155

  5. XAV939 promotes apoptosis in a neuroblastoma cell line via telomere shortening.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaohong; Hou, Weijian; Bai, Shuling; Fan, Jun; Tong, Hao; Bai, Yu

    2014-11-01

    Telomeres, telomerase and tankyrase (TNKS) have an extremely important and special association with human cell aging and cancer. Telomerase activity is abnormally high in cancer cells and is accompanied by the overexpression of tankyrase 1 (TNKS1). TNKS1 is a positive regulator of telomerase activation and telomere extension in the human body, indicating that TNKS1 may be a possible therapeutic target for cancer. XAV939 is a small-molecule inhibitor of TNKS1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the apoptotic effect of XAV939 on the neuroblastoma (NB) SH-SY5Y cell line, as well as the change in telomere length and telomerase activity and elucidate the mechanism from this perspective. In the present study, we initially treated SH-SY5Y cells with XAV939 and RNA interference (RNAi)-TNKS1, and subsequently chose the optimal sequence for RNAi-TNKS1. We then measured the telomere length using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay, detected the telomerase activity using the ELISA kit, observed apoptotic morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and detected the percentages of apoptotic cells using flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. We also determined the invasive ability by a cell invasion assay. The results showed that short hairpin RNA-2 (shRNA-2) was the optimal sequence for RNAi-TNKS1. Treatment with both XAV939 and RNAi-TNKS1 shortened the telomere length, promoted apoptosis and reduced the invasive ability of the SH-SY5Y cells, yet had no effect on telomerase activity. XAV939 promoted apoptosis and reduced the invasiveness of SH-SY5Y cells dependent on telomere shortening, and further research should be conducted to clarify the exact mechanisms. This research may contribute to the cure of malignant NB using multi-targeted therapy with small-molecule agents.

  6. Comparative study of the neurotoxicological effects of tramadol and tapentadol in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Faria, Juliana; Barbosa, Joana; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Opioid therapy and abuse are increasing, justifying the need to study their toxicity and underlying mechanisms. Given opioid pharmacodynamics at the central nervous system, the analysis of toxic effects in neuronal models gains particular relevance. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicological effects of acute exposure to tramadol and tapentadol in the undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Upon exposure to tramadol and tapentadol concentrations up to 600μM, cell toxicity was assessed through evaluation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial and metabolic alterations, as well as cell viability and death mechanisms through necrosis or apoptosis, and related signalling. Tapentadol was observed to trigger much more prominent toxic effects than tramadol, ultimately leading to energy deficit and cell death. Cell death was shown to predominantly occur through necrosis, with no alterations in membrane potential or in cytochrome c release. Both drugs were shown to stimulate glucose uptake and to cause ATP depletion, due to changes in the expression of energy metabolism enzymes. The toxicity mechanisms in such a neuronal model are relevant to understand adverse reactions to these opioids and to contribute to dose adjustment in order to avoid neurological damage.

  7. Comparative study of the neurotoxicological effects of tramadol and tapentadol in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Faria, Juliana; Barbosa, Joana; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Opioid therapy and abuse are increasing, justifying the need to study their toxicity and underlying mechanisms. Given opioid pharmacodynamics at the central nervous system, the analysis of toxic effects in neuronal models gains particular relevance. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicological effects of acute exposure to tramadol and tapentadol in the undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Upon exposure to tramadol and tapentadol concentrations up to 600μM, cell toxicity was assessed through evaluation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial and metabolic alterations, as well as cell viability and death mechanisms through necrosis or apoptosis, and related signalling. Tapentadol was observed to trigger much more prominent toxic effects than tramadol, ultimately leading to energy deficit and cell death. Cell death was shown to predominantly occur through necrosis, with no alterations in membrane potential or in cytochrome c release. Both drugs were shown to stimulate glucose uptake and to cause ATP depletion, due to changes in the expression of energy metabolism enzymes. The toxicity mechanisms in such a neuronal model are relevant to understand adverse reactions to these opioids and to contribute to dose adjustment in order to avoid neurological damage. PMID:27317026

  8. Neuropeptide FF activates ERK and NF kappa B signal pathways in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-long; Zhang, Xiao-yuan; He, Ning; Sun, Tao; Zhuang, Yan; Fang, Quan; Wang, Kai-rong; Wang, Rui

    2012-11-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has been reported to play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes. However, little attention has been focused on the downstream signal transduction pathway of NPFF. Here, we used the differentiated neuroblastoma cell line, dSH-SY5Y, which endogenously expresses hNPFF2 receptor, to investigate the signal transduction downstream of NPFF. In particular we investigated the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways by NPFF in these cells. NPFF rapidly and transiently stimulated ERK. H89, a selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), inhibited the NPFF-activated ERK pathway, indicating the involvement of PKA in the NPFF-induced ERK activation. Down-regulation of nitric oxide synthases also attenuated NPFF-induced ERK activation, suggesting that a nitric oxide synthase-dependent pathway is involved. Moreover, the core upstream components of the NF-κB pathway were also significantly activated in response to NPFF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is involved in the signal transduction pathway of NPFF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that nitric oxide synthases are involved in the signal transduction pathway of NPFF, and provide the first evidence for the interaction between NPFF and the NF-κB pathway. These advances in our interpretation of the NPFF pathway mechanism will aid the comprehensive understanding of its function and provide novel molecular insight for further study of the NPFF system.

  9. SOD3 Ameliorates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Wei, Li; Fu, Qing-Qing; Wang, Hua; You, Hua; Yu, Hua-Rong

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this beneficial effect. SOD3-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells were generated by adenoviral vector-mediated infection, and H2O2 was then added into the cell culture system to establish an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Cell viability, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, the levels of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, and calcium imaging were examined. Following H2O2 exposure, the over-expression of SOD3 promoted the survival of SH-SY5Y cells; decreased the production of ROS, MDA levels, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax gene expression, and calcium levels; and increased the expression and activity of antioxidant enzyme genes and the expression level of Bcl-2. Together, our data demonstrate that SOD3 ameliorates H2O2-induced oxidative damage in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway and provide new insights into the functional actions of SOD3 on oxidative stress-induced cell damage.

  10. Mechanisms of prodigiosin cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Roser; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gimènez-Bonafé, Pepita; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Ambrosio, Santiago

    2007-10-31

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial red pigment with cytotoxic properties and potential antitumor activity that has been tested against different cancerous cells. In this study we report the effect and mechanisms of action of prodigiosin against different human neuroblastoma cell lines: SH-SY5Y, LAN-1, IMR-32 (N-type) and SK-N-AS (S-type). We compare the anticancerous effect of prodigiosin with that of cisplatin at different concentrations during 24 h of exposure. Prodigiosin is more potent, with IC50 values lower than 1.5 microM in N-type neuroblastoma cells and around 7 microM in the S-type neuroblastoma cell line. We describe prodigiosin as a proton sequestering agent that destroys the intracellular pH gradient, and propose that its main cytotoxic effect could be related to its action on mitochondria, where it exerts an uncoupling effect on the electronic chain transport of protons to mitochondrial ATP synthase. As a result of this action, ATP production is reduced but without decreasing in oxygen consumption. This mechanism of action differs from those induced by conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, suggesting a possible role for prodigiosin to enhance the effect of antitumor agents in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  11. Cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme neuroprotects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Amandeep; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2010-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is an enzyme that is expressed in liver and brain. It can inactivate neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and beta-carbolines. Genetically slow CYP2D6 metabolizers are at higher risk for developing Parkinson's disease, a risk that increases with exposure to pesticides. The goal of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of CYP2D6 in an in-vitro neurotoxicity model. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells express CYP2D6 as determined by western blotting, immunocytochemistry and enzymatic activity. CYP2D6 metabolized 3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin and the CYP2D6-specific inhibitor quinidine (1 microM) blocked 96 +/- 1% of this metabolism, indicating that CYP2D6 is functional in this cell line. Treatment of cells with CYP2D6 inhibitors (quinidine, propanolol, metoprolol or timolol) at varying concentrations significantly increased the neurotoxicity caused by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) at 10 and 25 microM by between 9 +/- 1 and 22 +/- 5% (P < 0.01). We found that CYP3A is also expressed in SH-SY5Y cells and inhibiting CYP3A with ketoconazole significantly increased the cell death caused by 10 and 25 microM of MPP+ by between 8 +/- 1 and 30 +/- 3% (P < 0.001). Inhibiting both CYP2D6 and CYP3A showed an additive effect on MPP+ neurotoxicity. These data further support a possible role for CYP2D6 in neuroprotection from Parkinson's disease-causing neurotoxins, especially in the human brain where expression of CYP2D6 is high in some regions (e.g. substantia nigra). PMID:20345925

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Methyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate against TBHP-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liang; Wang, Li-Fang; Pan, Jun-Ping; Mi, Xiang-Nan; Zhang, Zheng; Geng, Hai-Ju; Wang, Jia-Hui; Hu, Song-Hui; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Qin; Wu, Wu-Tian; Luo, Huan-Min

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDHB) against t-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cells) and the underlying mechanisms. SH-SY5Y were cultured in DMEM + 10% FBS for 24 h and pretreated with different concentrations of MDHB or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) for 4 h prior to the addition of 40 μM TBHP for 24 h. Cell viability was analyzed using the methylthiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. An annexin V-FITC assay was used to detect cell apoptosis rates. The 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to determine intracellular ROS levels. The activities of antioxidative enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) were measured using commercially available kits. The oxidative DNA damage marker 8-OHdG was detected using ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-Akt and Akt proteins in treated SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that MDHB is an effective neuroprotective compound that can mitigate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:27556437

  13. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles induce neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells via modulation of reactive oxygen species, phosphatases, and kinase signaling pathwayss.

    PubMed

    Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kim, Bongwoo; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Choi, Hye Yeon; Yang, Gwangmo; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Han, Dawoon; Han, Jihae; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2014-04-22

    The relevant in vitro cellular model resembling functional neurons is important for the mechanistic research on various neuronal diseases. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells may be considered one of the ideal in vitro models for studying neuroscience, as they can be maintained in an undifferentiated state or be induced to differentiate into neuron-like phenotypes in vitro by several differentiation-inducing agents. In this study, we prepared spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an average size of about 30 nm and tested their potency to induce neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells by biologically synthesized AgNPs led to cell morphological changes and significant increase in neurite length and enhanced the expression of neuronal differentiation markers such as Map-2, β-tubulin III, synaptophysin, neurogenin-1, Gap-43, and Drd-2. Furthermore, we observed an increase in generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of several kinases such as ERK and AKT, and down-regulation of expression of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) in AgNPs-exposed SH-SY5Y cells. Our results suggest that AgNPs could modulate the intracellular signaling pathways to lead to neuronal differentiation, and could be applied as promising nanomaterials for stem cell research and therapy.

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Methyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate against TBHP-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liang; Wang, Li-Fang; Pan, Jun-Ping; Mi, Xiang-Nan; Zhang, Zheng; Geng, Hai-Ju; Wang, Jia-Hui; Hu, Song-Hui; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Qin; Wu, Wu-Tian; Luo, Huan-Min

    2016-08-22

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDHB) against t-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cells) and the underlying mechanisms. SH-SY5Y were cultured in DMEM + 10% FBS for 24 h and pretreated with different concentrations of MDHB or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) for 4 h prior to the addition of 40 μM TBHP for 24 h. Cell viability was analyzed using the methylthiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. An annexin V-FITC assay was used to detect cell apoptosis rates. The 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to determine intracellular ROS levels. The activities of antioxidative enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) were measured using commercially available kits. The oxidative DNA damage marker 8-OHdG was detected using ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-Akt and Akt proteins in treated SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that MDHB is an effective neuroprotective compound that can mitigate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

  15. Fluoxetine Increases the Expression of miR-572 and miR-663a in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mundalil Vasu, Mahesh; Anitha, Ayyappan; Takahashi, Taro; Thanseem, Ismail; Iwata, Keiko; Asakawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on the developed neurons in the adult brain. In contrast, the drug may be deleterious to immature or undifferentiated neural cells, although the mechanism is unclear. Recent investigations have suggested that microRNAs (miRNA) may be critical for effectiveness of psychotropic drugs including SSRI. We investigated whether fluoxetine could modulate expressions of neurologically relevant miRNAs in two neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cell lines. Initial screening results revealed that three (miR-489, miR-572 and miR-663a) and four (miR-320a, miR-489, miR-572 and miR-663a) miRNAs were up-regulated in SK-N-SH cells and SH-SY5Y cells, respectively, after 24 hours treatment of fluoxetine (1–25 μM). Cell viability was reduced according to the dose of fluoxetine. The upregulation of miR-572 and miR-663a was consistent in both the SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells, confirmed by a larger scale culture condition. Our data is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine could increase the expression of miRNAs in undifferentiated neural cells, and that putative target genes of those miRNAs have been shown to be involved in fundamental neurodevelopmental processes. PMID:27716787

  16. Neuroprotective Effect of JZL184 in MPP(+)-Treated SH-SY5Y Cells Through CB2 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, María S; Rojo-Bustamante, Estefanía; Molina, Carmen; Celorrio, Marta; Sánchez-Arias, Juan A; Franco, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Recently, we have shown the neuroprotective effect of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition with JZL184 in the chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model. However, further investigation is needed to determine the neuroprotective mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system on the nigrostriatal pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the neuroprotective effect of JZL184 in mice could be extended to an in vitro cellular model to further understand the mechanism of action of the drug. The SH-SY5Y cell line was selected based on its dopaminergic-like phenotype and its susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP(+)) toxicity. Furthermore, SH-SY5Y cells express both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The present study describes the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP(+). The effect of JZL184 in cell survival was blocked by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist, and it was mimicked with JWH133, a CB2 receptor agonist. Rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not affect JZL184-induced cell survival. These results demonstrate that the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 described in animal models of Parkinson's disease could be extended to in vitro models such as SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP(+). This represents a useful tool to study mechanisms of neuroprotection mediated by MAGL inhibition, and we provide evidence for the possible involvement of CB2 receptors in the improvement of cell survival.

  17. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation increases the rate of oxygen consumption and enhances the spare respiratory capacity of mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Xun, Zhiyin; Lee, Do-Yup; Lim, James; Canaria, Christie A; Barnebey, Adam; Yanonne, Steven M; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2012-04-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is used in differentiation therapy to treat a variety of cancers including neuroblastoma. The contributing factors for its therapeutic efficacy are poorly understood. However, mitochondria (MT) have been implicated as key effectors in RA-mediated differentiation process. Here we utilize the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line as a model to examine how RA influences MT during the differentiation process. We find that RA confers an approximately sixfold increase in the oxygen consumption rate while the rate of glycolysis modestly increases. RA treatment does not increase the number of MT or cause measurable changes in the composition of the electron transport chain. Rather, RA treatment significantly increases the mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We propose a competition model for the therapeutic effects of RA. Specifically, the high metabolic rate in differentiated cells limits the availability of metabolic nutrients for use by the undifferentiated cells and suppresses their growth. Thus, RA treatment provides a selective advantage for the differentiated state.

  18. Estrogen-related receptor gamma regulates dopaminergic neuronal phenotype by activating GSK3β/NFAT signaling in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juhee; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2015-05-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) is highly expressed in the nervous system during embryogenesis and in adult brains, but its physiological role in neuronal development remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the relevance of ERRγ in regulating dopaminergic (DAergic) phenotype and the corresponding signaling pathway. We used retinoic acid (RA) to differentiate human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. RA induced neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells with an increase in DAergic neuron-like properties, including up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2. ERRγ, but not ERRα, was up-regulated by RA, and participated in RA effect on SH-SY5Y cells. ERRγ over-expression enhanced mature DAergic neuronal phenotype with neurite outgrowth as with RA treatment; and RA-induced increase in DAergic phenotype was attenuated by silencing ERRγ expression. ERRγ appears to have a crucial role in morphological and functional regulation of cells that is selective for DAergic neurons. Polo-like kinase 2 was up-regulated in ERRγ-over-expressing SH-SY5Y cells, which was involved in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and resulting downstream activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. The likely involvement of ERRγ in regulating the DAergic neuronal phenotype makes this orphan nuclear receptor a novel target for understanding DAergic neuronal differentiation. We propose the relevance of estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) in regulating dopaminergic neuronal phenotype: ERRγ is up-regulated by retinoic acid in SH-SY5Y cells, and enhances dopaminergic phenotypes and induces neurite outgrowth; Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta/nuclear factor of activated T cells (GSK3β/NFAT) signaling are responsible for the ERRγ effect. Our findings provide the first insights into the role of ERRγ in the brain, as a novel approach toward understanding

  19. Sodium L-lactate differently affects brain-derived neurothrophic factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and heat shock protein 70 kDa production in human astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cultures.

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Caggia, Silvia; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Graziano, Adriana C E; Pannuzzo, Giovanna; Cardile, Venera

    2013-02-01

    The present study analyzed the in vitro effects induced by sodium L-lactate on human astrocytes and the SH-SY5Y cell line, when added at concentrations of 5, 10, and 25 mmol/liter. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Cell viability with MTT, release of nitric oxide (NO) through the Griess reaction, and production of BDNF by enzyme-linked immunoassay was determined. Data indicate that, in SH-SY5Y as well as in cortical astrocytes, after 4 hr sodium L-lactate increases the expression and release of BDNF, iNOS, and NO; after 24 hr, it turns is ineffective for the production of the neurotrophin in SH-SY5Y and not in astrocytes, but the expression of iNOS and release of NO appear to be further increased compared with those after 4 hr. Sodium L-lactate influences differently the expression of HSP70 in SH-SY5Y compared with astrocytes. We propose, based on these findings, that sodium L-lactate affects the expression of BDNF in SH-SY5Y and astrocytes in a different manner: high levels of iNOS and NO expressed in SH-SY5Y have a profound inhibitory effect on the release of BDNF related to a more limited production of HSP70 by SH-SY5Y. In conclusion, the results demonstrate differences in the responses of SH-SY5Y and astrocytes to stimulation by high levels of sodium L-lactate. Sodium L-lactate differently and dose and time dependently influences the expression and release of BDNF, iNOS, NO, and HSP70 depending on the cell type.

  20. A new method to effectively and rapidly generate neurons from SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongNa; Wang, Jing; Sun, JinHua; Liu, XiaoDun; Duan, Wei-Ming; Qu, TingYu

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that neurons differentiated from SH-SY5Y cells can serve as cell models for neuroscience research; i.e., neurotoxicity and tolerance to morphine in vitro. To differentiate SH-SY5Y cells into neurons, RA (retinoic acid) is commonly used to produce the inductive effect. However, the percentage of neuronal cells produced from SH-SY5Y cells is low, either from the use of RA treatment alone or from the combined application of RA and other chemicals. In the current study, we used CM-hNSCs (conditioned medium of human neural stem cells) as the combinational inducer with RA to prompt neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. We found that neuronal differentiation was improved and that neurons were greatly increased in the differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using a combined treatment of CM-hNSCs and RA compared to RA treatment alone. The neuronal percentage was higher than 80% (about 88%) on the 3rd day and about 91% on the 7th day examined after a combined treatment with CM-hNSCs and RA. Cell maturation and neurite growth of these neuronal cells were also improved. In addition, the use of CM-hNSCs inhibited the apoptosis of RA-treated SH-SY5Y cells in culture. We are the first to report the use of CM-hNSCs in combination with RA to induce neuronal differentiation of RA-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Our method can rapidly and effectively promote the neuronal production of SH-SY5Y cells in culture conditions.

  1. A new method to effectively and rapidly generate neurons from SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongNa; Wang, Jing; Sun, JinHua; Liu, XiaoDun; Duan, Wei-Ming; Qu, TingYu

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that neurons differentiated from SH-SY5Y cells can serve as cell models for neuroscience research; i.e., neurotoxicity and tolerance to morphine in vitro. To differentiate SH-SY5Y cells into neurons, RA (retinoic acid) is commonly used to produce the inductive effect. However, the percentage of neuronal cells produced from SH-SY5Y cells is low, either from the use of RA treatment alone or from the combined application of RA and other chemicals. In the current study, we used CM-hNSCs (conditioned medium of human neural stem cells) as the combinational inducer with RA to prompt neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. We found that neuronal differentiation was improved and that neurons were greatly increased in the differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using a combined treatment of CM-hNSCs and RA compared to RA treatment alone. The neuronal percentage was higher than 80% (about 88%) on the 3rd day and about 91% on the 7th day examined after a combined treatment with CM-hNSCs and RA. Cell maturation and neurite growth of these neuronal cells were also improved. In addition, the use of CM-hNSCs inhibited the apoptosis of RA-treated SH-SY5Y cells in culture. We are the first to report the use of CM-hNSCs in combination with RA to induce neuronal differentiation of RA-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Our method can rapidly and effectively promote the neuronal production of SH-SY5Y cells in culture conditions. PMID:26497914

  2. Short Chemical Ischemia Triggers Phosphorylation of eIF2α and Death of SH-SY5Y Cells but not Proteasome Stress and Heat Shock Protein Response in both SH-SY5Y and T98G Cells.

    PubMed

    Klacanova, Katarina; Pilchova, Ivana; Klikova, Katarina; Racay, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Both translation arrest and proteasome stress associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated protein aggregates were considered as a cause of delayed neuronal death after transient global brain ischemia; however, exact mechanisms as well as possible relationships are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chemical ischemia and proteasome stress on cellular stress responses and viability of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma T98G cells. Chemical ischemia was induced by transient treatment of the cells with sodium azide in combination with 2-deoxyglucose. Proteasome stress was induced by treatment of the cells with bortezomib. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with sodium azide/2-deoxyglucose for 15 min was associated with cell death observed 24 h after treatment, while glioblastoma T98G cells were resistant to the same treatment. Treatment of both SH-SY5Y and T98G cells with bortezomib was associated with cell death, accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, and increased expression of Hsp70. These typical cellular responses to proteasome stress, observed also after transient global brain ischemia, were not observed after chemical ischemia. Finally, chemical ischemia, but not proteasome stress, was in SH-SY5Y cells associated with increased phosphorylation of eIF2α, another typical cellular response triggered after transient global brain ischemia. Our results showed that short chemical ischemia of SH-SY5Y cells is not sufficient to induce both proteasome stress associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and stress response at the level of heat shock proteins despite induction of cell death and eIF2α phosphorylation. PMID:26585989

  3. Short Chemical Ischemia Triggers Phosphorylation of eIF2α and Death of SH-SY5Y Cells but not Proteasome Stress and Heat Shock Protein Response in both SH-SY5Y and T98G Cells.

    PubMed

    Klacanova, Katarina; Pilchova, Ivana; Klikova, Katarina; Racay, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Both translation arrest and proteasome stress associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated protein aggregates were considered as a cause of delayed neuronal death after transient global brain ischemia; however, exact mechanisms as well as possible relationships are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chemical ischemia and proteasome stress on cellular stress responses and viability of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma T98G cells. Chemical ischemia was induced by transient treatment of the cells with sodium azide in combination with 2-deoxyglucose. Proteasome stress was induced by treatment of the cells with bortezomib. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with sodium azide/2-deoxyglucose for 15 min was associated with cell death observed 24 h after treatment, while glioblastoma T98G cells were resistant to the same treatment. Treatment of both SH-SY5Y and T98G cells with bortezomib was associated with cell death, accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, and increased expression of Hsp70. These typical cellular responses to proteasome stress, observed also after transient global brain ischemia, were not observed after chemical ischemia. Finally, chemical ischemia, but not proteasome stress, was in SH-SY5Y cells associated with increased phosphorylation of eIF2α, another typical cellular response triggered after transient global brain ischemia. Our results showed that short chemical ischemia of SH-SY5Y cells is not sufficient to induce both proteasome stress associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and stress response at the level of heat shock proteins despite induction of cell death and eIF2α phosphorylation.

  4. Effect of long-term exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to morphine: a whole cell proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neasta, Jérémie; Uttenweiler-Joseph, Sandrine; Chaoui, Karima; Monsarrat, Bernard; Meunier, Jean-Claude; Moulédous, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    Background Opiate addiction reflects plastic changes that endurably alter synaptic transmission within relevant neuronal circuits. The biochemical mechanisms of these adaptations remain largely unknown and proteomics-based approaches could lead to a broad characterization of the molecular events underlying adaptations to chronic drug exposure. Results Thus, we have started proteomic analyses of the effects of chronic morphine exposure in a recombinant human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y clone that stably overexpresses the μ-opioid receptor. Cells were treated with morphine for 6, 24 and 72 hours, the proteins were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie blue, and the protein map was compared with that obtained from untreated cells. Spots showing a statistically significant variation were selected for identification using mass spectrometric analyses. Conclusion A total of 45 proteins were identified, including proteins involved in cellular metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, vesicular trafficking, transcriptional and translational regulation, and cell signaling. PMID:17184524

  5. Reference genes identified in SH-SY5Y cells using custom-made gene arrays with validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Toigo, Marco; Schild, Andreas; Götz, Jürgen; Day, Philip J

    2004-12-01

    Transcriptomic methods are widely used as an initial approach to gain a mechanistic insight into physiological and pathological processes. Because differences in gene regulation to be assessed by RNA screening methods (e.g., SAGE, Affymetrix GeneChips) can be very subtle, these techniques require stable reference genes for accurate normalization. It is widely known that housekeeping genes, which are routinely used for normalization, can vary significantly depending on the tissue, and experimental test. In this study, we aimed at identifying stable reference genes for a fibrillar Abeta(42) peptide-treated, human tau-expressing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line derived to model aspects of Alzheimer's disease in tissue culture. We selected genes exhibiting potential normalization characteristics from public databases to create a custom-made microarray allowing the identification of reference genes for low, intermediate, and abundant mRNAs. A subset of these candidates was subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and was analyzed with geNorm software. By doing so, we were able to identify GAPD, M-RIP, and POLR2F as stable and usable reference genes irrespective of differentiation status and Abeta(42) treatment. PMID:15519568

  6. Novel incretin analogues improve autophagy and protect from mitochondrial stress induced by rotenone in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Jalewa, Jaishree; Sharma, Mohit Kumar; Hölscher, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Currently, there is no viable treatment available for Parkinson's disease (PD) that stops or reverses disease progression. Interestingly, studies testing the glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic Exendin-4 have shown neuroprotective/neurorestorative properties in pre-clinical tests and in a pilot clinical study of PD. Incretin analogues were originally developed to treat type 2 diabetes and several are currently on the market. In this study, we tested novel incretin analogues on the dopaminergic SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against a toxic mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, Rotenone. Here, we investigate for the first time the effects of six different incretin receptor agonists - Liraglutide, D-Ser2-Oxyntomodulin, a GLP-1/GIP Dual receptor agonist, dAla(2)-GIP-GluPal, Val(8)GLP-1-GluPal and exendin-4. Post-treatment with doses of 1, 10 or 100 nM of incretin analogues for 12 h increased the survival of SH-SY5Y cells treated with 1 μM Rotenone for 12 h. Furthermore, we studied the post-treatment effect of 100 nM incretin analogues against 1 μM Rotenone stress on apoptosis, mitochondrial stress and autophagy markers. We found significant protective effects of the analogues against Rotenone stress on cell survival and on mitochondrial and autophagy-associated markers. The novel GLP-1/GIP Dual receptor agonist was superior and effective at a tenfold lower concentration compared to the other analogues. Using the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, we further show that the neuroprotective effects are partially PI3K-independent. Our data suggest that the neuroprotective properties exhibited by incretin analogues against Rotenone stress involve enhanced autophagy, increased Akt-mediated cell survival and amelioration of mitochondrial dysfunction. These mechanisms can explain the neuroprotective effects of incretin analogues reported in clinical trials. GLP-1, GIP and dual incretin receptor agonists showed protective effects in SH-SY5Y cells

  7. Action of HMGB1 on miR-221/222 cluster in neuroblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Emanuela; Zicari, Alessandra; Fico, Flavia; Massimi, Isabella; Martina, Lolli; Mardente, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    microRNA (miR/miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in different types of cancer. Specific miRNAs function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes and interfere with various aspects of carcinogenesis, including differentiation, proliferation and invasion. Upregulation of miRNAs 221 and 222 has been shown to induce a malignant phenotype in numerous human cancers via inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression. Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid malignancy in children, which is characterized by cellular heterogeneity that corresponds to different clinical outcomes. The different cellular phenotypes are associated with different gene mutations and miRs that control genetic and epigenetic factors. For this reason miRs are considered a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms by which extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) promotes cell growth in neuroblastoma. SK-N-BE(2) and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma derived cell lines were transfected with the antisense oligonucleotides, anti-miR-221 and −222, followed by treatment with HMGB1 to investigate the expression of the oncosuppressor PTEN. In this study, it was demonstrated that HMGB1, which is released by damaged cells and tumor cells, upregulates miR-221/222 oncogenic clusters in the two human neuroblastoma derived cell lines. The results revealed that the oncogenic cluster miRs 221/222 were more highly expressed by the most undifferentiated cell line [SK-N-BE(2)] compared with the the less tumorigenic cell line (SH-SY5Y) and that exogenous HMGB1 increases this expression. In addition, HMGB1 modulates PTEN expression via miR-221/222, as demonstrated by transiently blocking miR-221/222 with anti-sense oligonucleotides. These results may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for

  8. Action of HMGB1 on miR-221/222 cluster in neuroblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Emanuela; Zicari, Alessandra; Fico, Flavia; Massimi, Isabella; Martina, Lolli; Mardente, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    microRNA (miR/miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in different types of cancer. Specific miRNAs function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes and interfere with various aspects of carcinogenesis, including differentiation, proliferation and invasion. Upregulation of miRNAs 221 and 222 has been shown to induce a malignant phenotype in numerous human cancers via inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression. Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid malignancy in children, which is characterized by cellular heterogeneity that corresponds to different clinical outcomes. The different cellular phenotypes are associated with different gene mutations and miRs that control genetic and epigenetic factors. For this reason miRs are considered a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms by which extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) promotes cell growth in neuroblastoma. SK-N-BE(2) and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma derived cell lines were transfected with the antisense oligonucleotides, anti-miR-221 and −222, followed by treatment with HMGB1 to investigate the expression of the oncosuppressor PTEN. In this study, it was demonstrated that HMGB1, which is released by damaged cells and tumor cells, upregulates miR-221/222 oncogenic clusters in the two human neuroblastoma derived cell lines. The results revealed that the oncogenic cluster miRs 221/222 were more highly expressed by the most undifferentiated cell line [SK-N-BE(2)] compared with the the less tumorigenic cell line (SH-SY5Y) and that exogenous HMGB1 increases this expression. In addition, HMGB1 modulates PTEN expression via miR-221/222, as demonstrated by transiently blocking miR-221/222 with anti-sense oligonucleotides. These results may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for

  9. MicroRNA-141 and its associated gene FUS modulate proliferation, migration and cisplatin chemosensitivity in neuroblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZIRAN; LEI, HONGYAN; SUN, QUANYU

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel signaling pathway of microRNA-141 (miR-141)/fused in sarcoma (FUS) was investigated in neuroblastoma (NB). Gene expression of miR-141 was evaluated in 6 NB cell lines. IMR-32 and SH-SY5Y cells were transduced with the miR-141 mimic lentivirus. The effects of miR-141 upregulation on cell proliferation, cell division, migration, chemosensitivity and in vivo explants were evaluated by MTT, cell cycle, wound-healing, cisplatin sensitivity and in vivo tumor growth assays, respectively. The correlation between miR-141 and the FUS gene was evaluated by luciferase assay and qRT-PCR. FUS was also downregulated in IMR-32 and SH-SY5Y cells to evaluate its impact on NB regulation. miR-141 was downregulated in both MYCN- and non-MYCN-amplified NB cell lines. In the IMR-32 and SH-SY5Y cells, lentivirus-induced miR-141 upregulation inhibited cancer proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and increased cisplatin chemosensitivity in vitro. In addition, miR-141 upregulation reduced the in vivo growth of IMR-32 tumor explants. FUS was found to be inversely regulated by miR-141 in NB. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced FUS downregulation had similar tumor-suppressive effects as miR-141 upregulation on NB cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and cisplatin chemosensitivity. Our data indicate that miR-141 and the FUS gene, which are inversely correlated, play significant functional roles in regulating human NB. PMID:26936280

  10. Dynamin-related protein 1 mediates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in chlorpyrifos-treated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Ko, Juyeon; Hwang, Jungwook; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, mediates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial division. However, little is known about the mechanism by which Drp1 modulates apoptosis in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced toxicity. In this study, we determined that CPF-induced mitochondrial apoptosis is mediated by Drp1 translocation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results showed that CPF treatment induced intrinsic apoptosis by activating caspase-9, caspase-3, and cytochrome c release in SH-SY5Y cells. Cytosolic Drp1 translocated to the mitochondria in CPF-treated cells and was phosphorylated at Ser616. Treating cells with CPF induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Inhibiting this ROS generation and MAPK activation abolished CPF-induced expression of phospho-Drp1. Furthermore, Drp1 was required for p53 to translocate to the mitochondria under CPF-induced oxidative stress. Treating cells with mitochondrial-division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1), which blocks Drp1 translocation, increased the viability of CPF-treated cells by abrogating Drp1 translocation and caspase-3 activation. Specifically, pretreating cells with mdivi-1 inhibited Bax translocation to the mitochondria by blocking p53 signaling. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism by which Drp1 activates mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and indicate that inhibiting Dpr1 function can protect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that inhibiting Drp1 is a possible therapeutic approach for pesticide-induced toxicity when hyperactivated Drp1 contributes to pathology.

  11. Discovery of a benzofuran derivative (MBPTA) as a novel ROCK inhibitor that protects against MPP⁺-induced oxidative stress and cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Shen, Mingyun; Zhou, Zhong-Yan; Pan, Peichen; Hoi, Pui-Man; Li, Shang; Liang, Wang; Ai, Nana; Zhang, Lun-Qing; Li, Cheuk-Wing; Yu, Huidong; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The discovery of drug candidates that act on new targets of PD is required to address the varied pathological aspects and modify the disease process. In this study, a small compound, 2-(5-methyl-1-benzofuran-3-yl)-N-(5-propylsulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) acetamide (MBPTA) was identified as a novel Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor with significant protective effects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced damage in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Further investigation showed that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with MBPTA significantly suppressed MPP(+)-induced cell death by restoring abnormal changes in nuclear morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, and numerous apoptotic regulators. MBPTA was able to inhibit MPP(+)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NO generation, overexpression of inducible NO synthase, and activation of NF-κB, indicating the critical role of MBPTA in regulating ROS/NO-mediated cell death. Furthermore, MBPTA was shown to activate PI3K/Akt survival signaling, and its cytoprotective effect was abolished by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. The structural comparison of a series of MBPTA analogs revealed that the benzofuran moiety probably plays a crucial role in the anti-oxidative stress action. Taken together, these results suggest that MBPTA protects against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in a neuronal cell line through inhibition of ROS/NO generation and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling.

  12. Differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells to a neuronal phenotype changes cellular bioenergetics and the response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lonnie; Giordano, Samantha; Zelickson, Blake R; S Johnson, Michelle; A Benavides, Gloria; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Fineberg, Naomi; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    Cell differentiation is associated with changes in metabolism and function. Understanding these changes during differentiation is important in the context of stem cell research, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. An early event in neurodegenerative diseases is the alteration of mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Studies using both undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells have shown distinct responses to cellular stressors; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that because the regulation of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation is modulated during cellular differentiation, this would change bioenergetic function and the response to oxidative stress. To test this, we used retinoic acid (RA) to induce differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells and assessed changes in cellular bioenergetics using extracellular flux analysis. After exposure to RA, the SH-SY5Y cells had an increased mitochondrial membrane potential, without changing mitochondrial number. Differentiated cells exhibited greater stimulation of mitochondrial respiration with uncoupling and an increased bioenergetic reserve capacity. The increased reserve capacity in the differentiated cells was suppressed by the inhibitor of glycolysis 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Furthermore, we found that differentiated cells were substantially more resistant to cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the reactive lipid species 4-hydroxynonenal or the reactive oxygen species generator 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. We then analyzed the levels of selected mitochondrial proteins and found an increase in complex IV subunits, which we propose contributes to the increase in reserve capacity in the differentiated cells. Furthermore, we found an increase in MnSOD that could, at least in part, account for the increased resistance to oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that profound changes in mitochondrial metabolism and antioxidant defenses occur upon

  13. Phenotypic Characterization of Retinoic Acid Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Korecka, Joanna A.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Blaas, Eva; Spitzer, Sonia O.; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Smit, August B.; Swaab, Dick F.; Verhaagen, Joost; Bossers, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The main neuropathological hallmark of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To study genetic and molecular contributors to the disease process, there is a great need for readily accessible cells with prominent DAergic features that can be used for reproducible in vitro cellular screening. Here, we investigated the molecular phenotype of retinoic acid (RA) differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using genome wide transcriptional profiling combined with gene ontology, transcription factor and molecular pathway analysis. We demonstrated that RA induces a general neuronal differentiation program in SH-SY5Y cells and that these cells develop a predominantly mature DAergic-like neurotransmitter phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by increased dopamine levels together with a substantial suppression of other neurotransmitter phenotypes, such as those for noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin and histamine. In addition, we show that RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells express the dopamine and noradrenalin neurotransmitter transporters that are responsible for uptake of MPP(+), a well known DAergic cell toxicant. MPP(+) treatment alters mitochondrial activity according to its proposed cytotoxic effect in DAergic neurons. Taken together, RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have a DAergic-like phenotype, and provide a good cellular screening tool to find novel genes or compounds that affect cytotoxic processes that are associated with PD. PMID:23724009

  14. Shuyusan-containing serum protects SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced impairment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Sun, Zhigao; Wang, Fawei; Xu, Chengyong; Geng, Miao; Chen, Hongyan; Duan, Dongmei

    2013-08-01

    The Chinese herb Shuyusan, whose main constituent is jasminoidin, has been shown to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced damage. SH-SY5Y cells injured by 400 μmol/L corticosterone were treated with 5 and 30 μg/mL Shuyusan-containing serum. Results revealed that Shuyusan-containing serum elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells, reduced Bax expression, increased Bcl-2 expression, markedly elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression, and blocked cell apoptosis. Moreover, the effect of high-dose (30 μg/mL) Shuyusan-containing serum was more remarkable. Therefore, Shuyusan-containing serum appears to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced impairment by adjusting the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Moreover, high-dose Shuyusan-containing serum has a protective effect on high-dose corticosterone-induced impairment.

  15. Shuyusan-containing serum protects SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liping; Sun, Zhigao; Wang, Fawei; Xu, Chengyong; Geng, Miao; Chen, Hongyan; Duan, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese herb Shuyusan, whose main constituent is jasminoidin, has been shown to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced damage. SH-SY5Y cells injured by 400 μmol/L corticosterone were treated with 5 and 30 μg/mL Shuyusan-containing serum. Results revealed that Shuyusan-containing serum elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells, reduced Bax expression, increased Bcl-2 expression, markedly elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression, and blocked cell apoptosis. Moreover, the effect of high-dose (30 μg/mL) Shuyusan-containing serum was more remarkable. Therefore, Shuyusan-containing serum appears to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced impairment by adjusting the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Moreover, high-dose Shuyusan-containing serum has a protective effect on high-dose corticosterone-induced impairment. PMID:25206514

  16. Luteolin induces apoptosis, G0/G1 cell cycle growth arrest and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in neuroblastoma brain tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Gao, F; Pan, S; Zhao, S; Xue, Y

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research work was to evaluate the anticancer properties of luteolin against SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma tumor cell line. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay after luteolin treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH) was used to evaluate the extent of cell death induced by luteolin. Flow-cytometry was used to examine the effect of luteolin on cell cycle progression and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) in SH-SY5Y cells. Phase-contrast microscopy detected the morphological changes in SH-SY5Y cells after luteolin treatment. Our results demonstrated that luteolin induced dose-dependent as well as time-dependent growth inhibition of SH-SY5Y cells with IC50 value of 27.1 µM after 12 h of incubation. Further, luteolin induced significant release of LDH from SH-SY5Y cell cultures following luteolin treatment significantly at 25 and 50 µM doses which corresponds to significant cell death. Phase-contrast microscopy revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis induced by luteolin. Flow-cytometry revealed that luteolin induced G0/G1 cell cycle growth arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Luteolin also induced a progressive and dose-dependent reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, our results revealed that luteolin significantly induces growth inhibition of SH-SY5Y tumor cells by inducing apoptosis accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle growth arrest and concomitant loss in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm). As such luteolin can be developed as a potent anticancer agent against brain tumor disorders.

  17. Autophagy potentially protects against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianmei; Tang, Cuiying; Nie, Xiaoke; Xi, Hanqing; Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Junkang; Liu, Suyi; Liu, Xipeng; Liang, Lingwei; Wan, Chunhua; Yang, Jianbin

    2016-09-01

    The environmental toxicant TCDD may elicit cytotoxic effects by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Autophagy is one of the first lines of defense against oxidative stress damage. Herein, we investigated whether autophagy played a regulatory role in TCDD-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we showed that TCDD exposure caused marked autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, whose dose range was close to that inducing apoptosis. Electron microscopic and Western blot analyses revealed that TCDD induced autophagy at a starting dose of approximate 100 nM. Interestingly, 100-200 nM TCDD exposure resulted in obviously decreased cell viability and evident apoptotic phenotype. Furthermore, the levels of pro-apoptotic molecules, Bax and cleaved-PARP, increased significantly, whereas Bcl2 declined after exposed to 100 nM TCDD. In addition, the apoptosis was verified using flow cytometrical analysis. These data strongly suggested that TCDD induced both autophagy and apoptosis at a similar dose range in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, pretreatment with ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), could effectively block both TCDD-induced apoptosis and autophagy. More surprisingly, inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA), remarkably augmented TCDD-induced apoptosis. The findings implicated that the onset of autophagy might serve as a protective mechanism to ameliorate ROS-triggered cytotoxic effects in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under TCDD exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1068-1079, 2016.

  18. 17β-estradiol-induced regulation of the novel 5-HT1A-related transcription factors NUDR and Freud-1 in SH SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Adeosun, Samuel O; Albert, Paul R; Austin, Mark C; Iyo, Abiye H

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (NUDR/Deaf-1) and five prime repressor element under dual repression (Freud-1) are novel transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT(1A) receptor, a receptor that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric illnesses. The antidepressant effect of 17β-Estradiol (17βE(2)) is purported to involve the downregulation of this receptor. We investigated the possible role of NUDR and Freud-1 in 17βE(2)-induced downregulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the neuroblastoma cell line SH SY5Y. Cells were treated with 10 nM of 17βE(2) for 3 or 48 h, followed by a 24-h withdrawal period. Proteins were isolated and analyzed by western blotting. 17βE(2) treatment increased NUDR immunoreactivity while Freud-1 and the 5-HT(1A) receptor showed significant decreases. Upon withdrawal of 17βE(2), protein expression returned to control levels, except for NUDR, which remained significantly elevated in the 3-h treatment. Taken together, these data support a non-genomic downregulation of 5-HT(1A) receptor protein by 17βE(2), which does not involve NUDR and Freud-1. Rather, changes in both transcription factors seem to be compensatory/homeostatic responses to changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor induced by 17βE(2). These observations further highlight the importance of NUDR and Freud-1 in regulating 5-HT(1A) receptor expression.

  19. Extreme sensitivity of gene expression in human SH-SY5Y neurocytes to ultra-low doses of Gelsemium sempervirens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium s.) is a traditional medicinal plant, employed as an anxiolytic at ultra-low doses and animal models recently confirmed this activity. However the mechanisms by which it might operate on the nervous system are largely unknown. This work investigates the gene expression of a human neurocyte cell line treated with increasing dilutions of Gelsemium s. extract. Methods Starting from the crude extract, six 100 × (centesimal, c) dilutions of Gelsemium s. (2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 9c and 30c) were prepared according to the French homeopathic pharmacopoeia. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed for 24 h to test dilutions, and their transcriptome compared by microarray to that of cells treated with control vehicle solutions. Results Exposure to the Gelsemium s. 2c dilution (the highest dose employed, corresponding to a gelsemine concentration of 6.5 × 10-9 M) significantly changed the expression of 56 genes, of which 49 were down-regulated and 7 were overexpressed. Several of the down-regulated genes belonged to G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, inflammatory response and neuropeptide receptors. Fisher exact test, applied to the group of 49 genes down-regulated by Gelsemium s. 2c, showed that the direction of effects was significantly maintained across the treatment with high homeopathic dilutions, even though the size of the differences was distributed in a small range. Conclusions The study shows that Gelsemium s., a medicinal plant used in traditional remedies and homeopathy, modulates a series of genes involved in neuronal function. A small, but statistically significant, response was detected even to very low doses/high dilutions (up to 30c), indicating that the human neurocyte genome is extremely sensitive to this regulation. PMID:24642002

  20. Effect of four medicinal plants on amyloid-β induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Adewusi, Emanuel A; Fouche, Gerda; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder. This study was designed to determine the effect of four medicinal plants used to treat neurodegenerative diseases on Aβ-induced cell death. Cytotoxicity of the ethanol extracts of the plants was determined against SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma) cells which were untreated, as well as toxically induced with Aβ, using the MTT and neutral red uptake assays. Cell viability was reduced to 16% when exposed to 20 µM Aβ25-35 for 72 h. The methanol extract of the roots of Ziziphus mucronata Willd., Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. and Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC., were the least toxic to the SH-SY5Ycells at the highest concentration tested (100 µg/ml). All four plants tested were observed to reduce the effects of Aβ-induced neuronal cell death, indicating that they may contain compounds which may be relevant in the prevention of AD progression.

  1. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction due to the conversion of substituted cathinones to methylbenzamides in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Bjørnar; Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Siltanen, Antti; Ojanperä, Ilkka; Mervaala, Eero; Korpi, Esa R.; Kankuri, Esko

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of cathinone-type designer drugs, known as legal highs, has led to concerns about their potential neurotoxicity due to their similarity to methamphetamine (METH). Therefore, closer investigations of their toxic effects are needed. We investigated the effects of the cathinones 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (MDMC) and the amphetamine METH on cytotoxicity and mitochondrial respiration in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We also investigated the contribution of reactive species, dopamine, Bcl-2 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) on toxicity. Finally, we investigated the effect of cathinone breakdown products using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and studied their involvement in toxicity. We observed dose-dependent increases in cytotoxicity and decreases in mitochondrial respiration following treatment with all cathinones and amphetamines. Glutathione depletion increases amphetamine, but not cathinone toxicity. Bcl-2 and TNFα pathways are involved in toxicity but dopamine levels are not. We also show that cathinones, but not amphetamines, spontaneously produce reactive species and cytotoxic methylbenzamide breakdown products when in aqueous solution. These results provide an important first insight into the mechanisms of cathinone cytotoxicity and pave the way for further studies on cathinone toxicity in vivo. PMID:26462443

  2. TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis is prevented by erythropoietin treatment on SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pregi, Nicolas Wenker, Shirley; Vittori, Daniela; Leiros, Claudia Perez; Nesse, Alcira

    2009-02-01

    The growth factor erythropoietin (Epo) has shown neuronal protective action in addition to its well known proerythroid activity. Furthermore, Epo has dealt with cellular inflammation by inhibiting the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 and TNF-{alpha}. The action of TNF can have both apoptotic and antiapoptotic consequences due to altered balance between different cell signalling pathways. This work has focused on the apoptotic effects of this cytokine and the potential protective action of Epo. The model we used was neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells cultured in the presence of 25 ng/ml TNF-{alpha} or pretreated with 25 U/ml Epo for 12 h before the addition of TNF-{alpha}. Apoptosis was evaluated by differential cell count after Hoechst staining, analysis of DNA ladder pattern, and measurement of caspase activity. Despite its ability to induce NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation, TNF-{alpha} induced cell death, which was found to be associated to upregulation of TNF Receptor 1 expression. On the other hand, cells activated by Epo became resistant to cell death. Prevention of death receptor upregulation and caspase activation may explain this antiapoptotic effect of Epo, which may be also favoured by the induction of a higher expression of protective factors, such as Bcl-2 and NF-{kappa}B, through mechanisms involving Jak/STAT and PI3K signalling pathways.

  3. Autophagy regulates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that up-regulation of autophagy may be a tractable therapeutic intervention for clearing disease-causing proteins, including α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and other misfolded or aggregated proteins in pesticide-induced neurodegeneration. In a previous study, we reported that chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is mediated through reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we explored a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to prevent CPF neurotoxicity involving the regulation of autophagy. We investigated the modulation of CPF-induced apoptosis according to autophagy regulation. We found that CPF induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, as demonstrated by the activation of caspase-3 and nuclear condensation. In addition, we observed that cells treated with CPF underwent autophagic cell death by monitoring the expression of LC3-II and p62. Pretreatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability of CPF-exposed cells, and the enhancement of cell viability was partially due to alleviation of CPF-induced apoptosis via a decrease in levels of cleaved caspase-3. Specifically, rapamycin pretreatment decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression in mitochondria. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased cytochrome c release in from mitochondria into the cytosol. However, pretreatment of cells with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), remarkably increased CPF toxicity in these cells; this with correlated with increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in mitochondria. Our results suggest that CPF-induced cytotoxicity is modified by autophagy regulation and that rapamycin protects against CPF-induced apoptosis by enhancing autophagy. Pharmacologic induction of autophagy by rapamycin may be a useful treatment strategy in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells ► CPF-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by

  4. Meloxicam inhibits fipronil-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Park, Youn Sun; Lee, Je-Bong; Park, Kyung-Hun; Paik, Min-kyoung; Jeong, Mihye; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses have been identified as key elements of neuronal cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which inflammatory responses contribute to apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with fipronil (FPN). Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of FPN, we examined the neuroprotective effects of meloxicam against FPN-induced neuronal cell death. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with FPN induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-9 and -3, leading to nuclear condensation. In addition, FPN induced oxidative stress and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) via inflammatory stimulation. Pretreatment of cells with meloxicam enhanced the viability of FPN-exposed cells through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response. FPN activated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inhibitors of MAPK abolished FPN-induced COX-2 expression. Meloxicam also attenuated FPN-induced cell death by reducing MAPK-mediated pro-inflammatory factors. Furthermore, we observed both nuclear accumulation of p53 and enhanced levels of cytosolic p53 in a concentration-dependent manner after FPN treatment. Pretreatment of cells with meloxicam blocked the translocation of p53 from the cytosol to the nucleus. Together, these data suggest that meloxicam may exert anti-apoptotic effects against FPN-induced cytotoxicity by both attenuating oxidative stress and inhibiting the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of MAPK and p53 signaling.

  5. PFOS Disturbs BDNF-ERK-CREB Signalling in Association with Increased MicroRNA-22 in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wu; He, Qing-zhi; Wu, Cheng-qiu; Pan, Xiao-yuan; Wang, Jing; Tan, Yan; Shan, Xiao-yun; Zeng, Huai-cai

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is neurotoxic to mammalian species. However, the underlying mechanism of its neurotoxicity was unclear. We hypothesized that PFOS suppresses BDNF expression to produce its neurotoxic effects by inhibiting the ERK-CREB pathway. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to various concentrations of PFOS to examine the role of the BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling pathway in PFOS-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, to ascertain the mechanism by which PFOS reduces BDNF signalling, we examined the expression levels of miR-16 and miR-22, which potentially regulate BDNF mRNA translation at the posttranscriptional level. Results indicated that PFOS significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, BDNF and pERK protein levels decreased after PFOS treatment; however, pCREB protein levels were significantly elevated in PFOS treated groups. TrkB protein expression increased in the 10 μM and 50 μM PFOS groups and significantly decreased in the 100 μM PFOS group. Our results demonstrated that PFOS exposure decreased miR-16 expression and increased miR-22 expression, which may represent a possible mechanism by which PFOS decreases BDNF protein levels. PFOS may inhibit BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling by increasing miR-22 levels, which may, in part, explain the mechanism of PFOS neurotoxicity. PMID:26649298

  6. Cisplatin regulates SH-SY5Y cell growth through downregulation of BDNF via miR-16.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun-Xiao; Yang, Jian; Wang, Ping-Yu; Li, You-Jie; Xie, Shu-Yang; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2013-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotropin family. High levels of BDNF are associated with more aggressive malignant behavior in human cancer. In the present study, we observed the effect of cisplatin on BDNF expression in SH-SY5Y cells and investigated the mechanism of cisplatin in inducing the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. Our results revealed that the expression of BDNF was obviously decreased in cisplatin-treated SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, the 3'-untranslated region of BDNF was found to be targeted by miR-16 using microRNA analysis software. After miR-16 was synthesized chemically, SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with miR-16 to investigate the regulatory role of miR-16 in regards to BDNF. The results showed that the expression of BDNF was markedly decreased in the miR‑16-transfected cells when compared with that in the control cultures as determined by western blotting. Moreover, miR-16 expression was obviously upregulated in the cisplatin-treated cells when compared with the untreated controls. Furthermore, SH-SY5Y cells were xenografted subcutaneously in nude mice to study the effect of cisplatin on the growth of SH-SY5Y cells in vivo. The results further showed that cisplatin inhibited the proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells in the cisplatin-treated mice when compared with the saline-treated control. The expression of miR-16 was increased, while the expression of BDNF was decreased in the cisplatin-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that cisplatin downregulated the expression of BDNF through miR-16 to inhibit SH-SY5Y cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide the basis for new targets for drug design or cancer therapy.

  7. Advanced glycation end products induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yu, Song; Wang, Chun-Yan; Wang, Yue; Liu, Hai-Xing; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Li-De

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the direct effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the mitochondrial structure and function of SH-SY5Y cells and the possible molecular mechanism(s) underlying mitochondria dysfunction by AGEs. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured in 400 μg/ml of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 24 h, and changes in the mitochondrial function of SH-SY5Y cells were analysed as follows. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate molecular probes. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was determined by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes. The expression of cytochrome c (Cyt c) protein level was assessed by Western blotting. Mitochondrial structures were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that AGE-BSA induced an increase in ROS levels, a decrease in mitochondrial ΔΨm, and the release of Cyt c from mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. The mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells showed remarkable swelling and vacuolisation, but these changes were recovered after pretreatment with neutralising anti-receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antibody. Our results suggested that AGE-BSA induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells through RAGE pathways. Thus, AGEs are potential mechanistic links between diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease.

  8. [Protective effects of crude polysaccharides from Chroogomphus rutilus on SH-SY5Y cells impaired by MPP(+)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wang, Li-An; Guan, Zhen-Lon

    2013-04-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of crude polysaccharides from Chroogomphus rutilus on dopaminergic neurons impaired by MPP(+). SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with crude polysaccharides (200, 400 and 800 μg/mL), and then MPP(+) was added to cell medium. After 48 h of incubation, MTT method was used to detect the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells damaged by MPP(+). Annexin V-FITC staining and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptotic rate. The results showed that pretreating SH-SY5Y cells with crude polysaccharides (400 and 800 μg/mL) increased the survival rates, and reduced the apoptotic rates of SH-SY5Y cells. To rule out the possibility that crude polysaccharides may decrease actual concentration of MPP(+) by direct binding, we washed off crude polysaccharides before MPP(+) addition. Under this experimental condition, MTT results showed the survival rates of the SH-SY5Y cells were still significantly increased by 800 μg/mL crude polysaccharides pretreatment. These results suggest a protective effect of polysaccharides on the SH-SY5Y cells. Most of this protection is contributed by direct action of polysaccharides on the cells, not by binding with MPP(+). It is indicated that the crude polysaccharides from Chroogomphus rutilus can be developed as a potential drug for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment in the future.

  9. Acetaminophen Induces Human Neuroblastoma Cell Death through NFKB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Posadas, Inmaculada; Santos, Pablo; Ceña, Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma resistance to apoptosis may contribute to the aggressive behavior of this tumor. Therefore, it would be relevant to activate endogenous cellular death mechanisms as a way to improve neuroblastoma therapy. We used the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as a model to study the mechanisms involved in acetaminophen (AAP)-mediated toxicity by measuring CYP2E1 enzymatic activity, NFkB p65 subunit activation and translocation to the nucleus, Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase activation. AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. AAP metabolism is partially responsible for this activation, because blockade of the cytochrome CYP2E1 significantly reduced but did not totally prevent, AAP-induced SH-SY5Y cell death. AAP also induced NFkB p65 activation by phosphorylation and its translocation to the nucleus, where NFkB p65 increased IL-1β production. This increase contributed to neuroblastoma cell death through a mechanism involving Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase3 activation. Blockade of NFkB translocation to the nucleus by the peptide SN50 prevented AAP-mediated cell death and IL-1β production. Moreover, overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL did not decrease AAP-mediated IL-1β production, but prevented both AAP and IL-1β-mediated cell death. We also confirmed the AAP toxic actions on SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma and U87MG glioblastoma cell lines. The results presented here suggest that AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in neuroblastoma cells through a mechanism involving NFkB and IL-1β. PMID:23166834

  10. Transportation of Berberine into HepG2, HeLa and SY5Y Cells: A Correlation to Its Anti-Cancer Effect

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yu-Nong; Liang, Yin-Wen; Feng, Tian-Shi; Zhao, Shuang; Wu, Hao; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Lei, Fan; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The anti-cancer activities of berberine (BBR) have been reported extensively in various cancer cell lines. However, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of BBR varied greatly among different cell lines and very few studies have been devoted to elucidate this aspect. In this study, we employed three cancer cell lines, HepG2, HeLa and SY5Y, to compare the transportation and distribution of BBR. HPLC results demonstrated that BBR was capable of penetrating all the cell lines whereas the cumulative concentrations were significantly different. HepG2 cells accumulated higher level of BBR for longer duration than the other two cell lines. Molecular docking studies revealed the BBR binding site on P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp). In addition, we elucidated that BBR regulated P-gp at both mRNA and protein levels. BBR induced the transcription and translation of P-gp in HeLa and SY5Y cells, whereas BBR inhibited P-gp expression in HepG2 cells. Further study showed that BBR regulates P-gp expression depending on different mechanisms (or affected by different factors) in different cell lines. To summarize, our study has revealed several mechanistic aspects of BBR regulation on P-gp in different cancer cell lines and might shed some useful insights into the use of BBR in the anti-cancer drug development. PMID:25402492

  11. Baicalin protects against thrombin induced cell injury in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiao-Ning; Mu, Wei-Na; Liu, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Mei-Hong; Kong, Feng; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Qing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin, an extract from the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, was shown to be neuroprotective. However, the precise mechanisms are incompletely known. In this study, we determined the effect of baicalin on thrombin induced cell injury in SH-SY5Y cells, and explored the possible mechanisms. SH-SY5Y cells was treated with thrombin alone or pre-treated with baicalin (5, 10, 20 μM) for 2 h followed by thrombin treatment. Cells without thrombin and baicalin treatment were used as controls. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Western blotting was conducted to determine the protein expression of PAR-1, Caspase-3 and NF-κB. Baicalin reduced cell death following thrombin treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with concomitant inhibition of NF-κB activation and suppression of PAR-1 expression. In addition, baicalin reduced Caspase-3 expression. The above findings indicated that baicalin prevents against cell injury after thrombin stimulation possibly through inhibition of PAR-1 expression and NF-κB activation. PMID:26823714

  12. The C1 domain-targeted isophthalate derivative HMI-1b11 promotes neurite outgrowth and GAP-43 expression through PKCα activation in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Talman, Virpi; Amadio, Marialaura; Osera, Cecilia; Sorvari, Salla; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Rossi, Daniela; Govoni, Stefano; Collina, Simona; Ekokoski, Elina; Tuominen, Raimo K; Pascale, Alessia

    2013-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine phosphotransferases ubiquitously expressed and involved in multiple cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. The C1 domain of PKC represents an attractive drug target, especially for developing PKC activators. Dialkyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalates are a novel group of synthetic C1 domain ligands that exhibit antiproliferative effect in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Here we selected two isophthalates, HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11, and characterized their effects in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Both of the active isophthalates exhibited significant antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects. Since HMI-1b11 did not impair cell survival even at the highest concentration tested (20μM), and supported neurite growth and differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells, we focused on studying its downstream signaling cascades and effects on gene expression. Consistently, genome-wide gene expression microarray and gene set enrichment analysis indicated that HMI-1b11 (10μM) induced changes in genes mainly related to cell differentiation. In particular, further studies revealed that HMI-1b11 exposure induced up-regulation of GAP-43, a marker for neurite sprouting and neuronal differentiation. These effects were induced by a 7-min HMI-1b11 treatment and specifically depended on PKCα activation, since pretreatment with the selective inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the up-regulation of GAP-43 protein observed at 12h. In parallel, we found that a 7-min exposure to HMI-1b11 induced PKCα accumulation to the cytoskeleton, an effect that was again prevented by pretreatment with Gö6976. Despite similar binding affinities to PKC, the isophthalates had different effects on PKC-dependent ERK1/2 signaling: HMI-1a3-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was transient, while HMI-1b11 induced a rapid but prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Overall our data are in accordance with previous studies showing that

  13. MTERF4 regulates the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+) in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaofei; Han, Yanyan; Zhang, Linbing; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2015-08-14

    Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 4, MTERF4, a member of the MTERF family, has been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial translation by targeting NSUN4 to the large mitochondrial ribosome. Here, we found a novel role for MTERF4 in regulating mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+). We observed that knockdown of MTERF4 in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in increased mitochondrial DNA transcription levels and decreased mitochondrial DNA translation levels. In addition, after treatment with 2 mM MPP(+) for 24 h, the expression levels of MTERF4 were decreased compared to wide-type SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, after exposure to 2 mM MPP(+) for 24 h, knockdown of MTERF4 in SH-SY5Y cells worsened the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+), including increased reactive oxygen species, accumulated cleaved PARP-1, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and depressed mitochondrial complexes. Furthermore, overexpression of MTERF4 in SH-SY5Y cells partially alleviated the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+). Based on these findings, we suggest that the main function of MTERF4 is regulating mtDNA expression, and it is the crucial factor in the mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells induced by MPP(+). MTERF4 probably is the triggering of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease induced by environmental toxin.

  14. MTERF4 regulates the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+) in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaofei; Han, Yanyan; Zhang, Linbing; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2015-08-14

    Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 4, MTERF4, a member of the MTERF family, has been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial translation by targeting NSUN4 to the large mitochondrial ribosome. Here, we found a novel role for MTERF4 in regulating mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+). We observed that knockdown of MTERF4 in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in increased mitochondrial DNA transcription levels and decreased mitochondrial DNA translation levels. In addition, after treatment with 2 mM MPP(+) for 24 h, the expression levels of MTERF4 were decreased compared to wide-type SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, after exposure to 2 mM MPP(+) for 24 h, knockdown of MTERF4 in SH-SY5Y cells worsened the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+), including increased reactive oxygen species, accumulated cleaved PARP-1, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and depressed mitochondrial complexes. Furthermore, overexpression of MTERF4 in SH-SY5Y cells partially alleviated the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP(+). Based on these findings, we suggest that the main function of MTERF4 is regulating mtDNA expression, and it is the crucial factor in the mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells induced by MPP(+). MTERF4 probably is the triggering of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease induced by environmental toxin. PMID:26102036

  15. Activation of Ras, Raf-1 and protein kinase C in differentiating human neuroblastoma cells after treatment with phorbolester and NGF.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, H; Olsson, A; Lavenius, E; Rönnstrand, L; Nånberg, E

    2001-02-01

    The human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y/TrkA differentiates in vitro and acquires a sympathetic phenotype in response to phorbolester (activator of protein kinase C, PKC) in the presence of serum or growth factors, or nerve growth factor (NGF). We have now investigated to what extent phorbolester and NGF cause activation of Ras and Raf-1 and the involvement of PKC in this response in differentiating SH-SY5Y/TrkA cells. NGF stimulated increased accumulation of Ras-GTP and a threefold activation of Raf-1. In contrast, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) had no effect on the amount of Ras-GTP but led to a smaller activation of Raf-1. NGF caused a limited increase in phosphorylation of Raf-1 compared with TPA, and NGF-induced Raf activity was independent of PKC. Analysis of phosphorylation of the endogenous PKC substrate myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and of subcellular distribution of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon revealed that NGF only caused a very small activation of PKC in SH-SY5Y/TrkA cells. The results identify Raf-1 as a target for both TPA- and NGF-induced signals in differentiating SH-SY5Y/TrkA cells and demonstrate that signalling to Raf-1 was mediated via distinct mechanisms.

  16. Tetramethylpyrazine induces SH-SY5Y cell differentiation toward the neuronal phenotype through activation of the PI3K/Akt/Sp1/TopoIIβ pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia; Han, Shuo; Zhou, Na-Jing; Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Cao, Cui-Li; Wang, Yan-Ling; Xu, Yan-Nan; Zhao, Juan; Yan, Yun-Li; Cui, Hui-Xian

    2015-12-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an active compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Chuanxiong. Previously, we have shown that TMP induces human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell differentiation toward the neuronal phenotype by targeting topoisomeraseIIβ (TopoIIβ), a protein implicated in neural development. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate whether the transcriptional factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), in addition to the upstream signaling pathways ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, are involved in modulating TopoIIβ expression in the neuronal differentiation process. We demonstrated that SH-SY5Y cells treated with TMP (80μM) terminally differentiated into neurons, characterized by increased neuronal markers, tubulin βIII and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), and increased neurite outgrowth, with no negative effect on cell survival. TMP also increased the expression of TopoIIβ, which was accompanied by increased expression of Sp1 in the differentiated neuron-like cells, whereas NF-Y protein levels remained unchanged following the differentiation progression. We also found that the phosphorylation level of Akt, but not ERK1/2, was significantly increased as a result of TMP stimulation. Furthermore, as established by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway increased Sp1 binding to the promoter of the TopoIIβ gene. Blockage of PI3K/Akt was shown to lead to subsequent inhibition of TopoIIβ expression and neuronal differentiation. Collectively, the results indicate that the PI3K/Akt/Sp1/TopoIIβ signaling pathway is necessary for TMP-induced neuronal differentiation. Our findings offer mechanistic insights into understanding the upstream regulation of TopoIIβ in neuronal differentiation, and suggest potential applications of TMP both in neuroscience research and clinical practice to treat relevant diseases of the nervous system. PMID:26518113

  17. Effect of Amaranthus on Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Amornrit, Warisa; Santiyanont, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used extensively as a vegetable and are known to possess medicinal properties. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) cause cell toxicity in the human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y, through an increase in oxidative stress, as shown by reducing cell viability and increasing cell toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. We found that preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells with either petroleum ether, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of A. lividus and A. tricolor dose-dependently attenuated the neuron toxicity caused by AGEs treatment. Moreover, the results showed that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts significantly downregulated the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 genes in AGEs-induced cells. We concluded that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts not only have a neuroprotective effect against AGEs toxicity, but also have anti-inflammatory activity by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. This suggests that Amaranthus may be useful for treating chronic inflammation associated with neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26393562

  18. Neuroprotective effects of mGluR II and III activators against staurosporine- and doxorubicin-induced cellular injury in SH-SY5Y cells: New evidence for a mechanism involving inhibition of AIF translocation.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Greda, A; Leskiewicz, M; Grygier, B; Pilc, A; Lason, W

    2015-09-01

    There are several experimental data sets demonstrating the neuroprotective effects of activation of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II/III), however, their effect on neuronal apoptotic processes has yet to be fully recognized. Thus, the comparison of the neuroprotective potency of the mGluR II agonist LY354740, mGluR III agonist ACPT-I, mGluR4 PAM VU0361737, mGluR8 PAM AZ12216052 and allosteric mGluR7 agonist AMN082 against staurosporine (St-) and doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cell death has been performed in undifferentiated (UN-) and retinoic acid differentiated (RA-) human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The highest neuroprotection in UN-SH-SY5Y cells was noted for AZ12216052 (0.01-1 µM) and VU0361737 (1-10 µM), with both agents partially attenuating the St- and Dox-evoked cell death. LY354740 (0.01-10 µM) and ACPT-I (10 µM) were protective only against the St-evoked cell damage, whereas AMN082 (0.001-0.01 µM) attenuated only the Dox-induced cell death. In RA-SH-SY5Y, a moderate neuroprotective response of mGluR II/III activators was observed for LY354740 (10 µM) and AZ12216052 (0.01 and 10 µM), which afforded protection only against the St-induced cell damage. The protection mediated by mGluR II/III activators against the St- and Dox-evoked cell death in UN-SH-SY5Y cells was not related to attenuation of caspase-3 activity, however, a decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei was found. Moreover, mGluR II/III activators attenuated the cytosolic level of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), which was increased after St and Dox exposure. Our data point to differential neuroprotective efficacy of various mGluR II/III activators in attenuating St- and Dox-evoked cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells, and dependence of the effects on the cellular differentiation state, as well on the type of the pro-apoptotic agent that is employed. Moreover, the neuroprotection mediated by mGluR II/III activators is accompanied by inhibition of

  19. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress. PMID:26649137

  20. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress.

  1. Potassium aspartate inhibits SH-SY5Y cell damage and apoptosis induced by ouabain and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Min, Dongyu; Wang, Yan; Hao, Liying

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of L-aspartic acid potassium salt (potassium aspartate, K-asp) on SH-SY5Y cells treated with ouabain and H2O2. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to investigate the effects of K-asp on SH-SY5Y cell death induced by ouabain. Nissl staining was used to demonstrate the morphological changes of the SH-SY5Y cells. Light microscopy and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining were performed to visualize apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with ouabain for 6, 24 and 48 h. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the effect of K-asp on ultrastructural changes of the SH-SY5Y cells following incubation with ouabain for 24 and 48 h. An annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium binding assay and flow cytometry were performed successively to investigate how K-asp affected the H2O2-induced cell apoptosis. The MTT assay demonstrated that K-asp attenuated the cytotoxicity of the SH-SY5Y cells following treatment with ouabain, in a dose-dependent manner. The cell survival rates following 48 h incubation in the K-asp (15 mM) and K-asp (25 mM) groups were higher compared with the KCl and MK801 groups. Nissl staining demonstrated that the severity of cell injury in the KCl and K-asp (25 mM) groups were alleviated. In the DAPI staining and transmission electron microscopy analyses, KCl and K-asp (25 mM) reduced the rate of ouabain-induced apoptosis. Flow cytometry revealed that K-asp (25 mM) reduced H2O2 -induced apoptosis. These results demonstrated that K-asp (25 mM) inhibited the ouabain and H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage and apoptosis, possibly by supplementing levels of intracellular K(+).

  2. Analysis of subcellular [57Co] cobalamin distribution in SH-SY5Y neurons and brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Ruberu, Kalani; Li, Hongyun; Garner, Brett

    2013-07-15

    Cobalamin (Cbl) utilization as a cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase is dependent on the transport of Cbl through lysosomes and its subsequent delivery to the cytosol and mitochondria. We speculated that neuropathological conditions that impair lysosomal function (e.g., age-related lipofuscinosis and specific neurodegenerative diseases) might impair lysosomal Cbl transport. To address this question, an appropriate method to quantify intracellular Cbl transport in neuronal cell types and brain tissue is required. Thus, we developed methods to measure [57Co] Cbl levels in lysosomes, mitochondria and cytosol obtained from in vitro and in vivo sources. Human SH-SY5Y neurons or HT1080 fibroblasts were labeled with [57Co] Cbl and homogenized using a ball-bearing homogenizer, and the lysates were separated into 10 fractions using ultracentrifugation in an OptiPrep density gradient. Lysosomes were recovered from the top of the gradient (fractions 1-5), which were clearly separated from mitochondria (fractions 7-9) on the basis of the expression of the marker proteins, LAMP2 and VDAC1. The isolated lysosomes were intact based on their colocalization with acid phosphatase activity. The lysosomal and mitochondrial fractions were free of the cytosolic markers beta-actin and methionine synthase. The relative distribution of [57Co] Cbl in both neurons and fibroblasts was as follows: 6% in the lysosomes, 14% in the mitochondria and 80% in the cytosol. This technique was also used to fractionate organelles from mouse brain, where marker proteins were detected in the gradient at positions similar to those observed for the cell lines, and the relative distribution of [57Co] Cbl was as follows: 12% in the lysosomes, 15% in the mitochondria and 73% in the cytosol. These methods provide a useful tool for the investigation of intracellular Cbl trafficking in a neurobiological setting. PMID:23608310

  3. Ginsenoside Rd Protects SH-SY5Y Cells against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ren-Yu; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Zheng; Feng, Dong-Yun; Wu, Rui; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active monomer compounds from the medical plant Panax ginseng, has been shown to promote neuronal survival in models of ischemic cerebral damage. As an extending study, here we examined whether GSRd could exert a beneficial effect in an experimental Parkinson disease (PD) model in vitro, in which SH-SY5Y cells were injured by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an active metabolic product of the classical Parkinsonian toxin1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our results, from the addition of different concentrations of GSRd (1, 10 and 50 μM), showed that GSRd at 1 and 10 μM could significantly attenuate MPP+-induced cell death. This protective effect may be ascribed to its ability to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, enhance antioxidant enzymatic activities, preserve the activity of respiratory complex I, stabilize the mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ATP levels. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt survival-signaling pathway was also involved in the protective effect of GSRd. Finally, using a mouse PD model in vivo, we also found that GSRd obviously reversed the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in substanitia nigra induced by MPTP. Thus, our findings demonstrated that GSRd showed a significant neuro-protective effect against experimental PD models, which may involve its antioxidant effects and mitochondrial function preservation. PMID:26114390

  4. Ginsenoside Rd Protects SH-SY5Y Cells against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ren-Yu; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Zheng; Feng, Dong-Yun; Wu, Rui; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active monomer compounds from the medical plant Panax ginseng, has been shown to promote neuronal survival in models of ischemic cerebral damage. As an extending study, here we examined whether GSRd could exert a beneficial effect in an experimental Parkinson disease (PD) model in vitro, in which SH-SY5Y cells were injured by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an active metabolic product of the classical Parkinsonian toxin1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our results, from the addition of different concentrations of GSRd (1, 10 and 50 μM), showed that GSRd at 1 and 10 μM could significantly attenuate MPP+-induced cell death. This protective effect may be ascribed to its ability to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, enhance antioxidant enzymatic activities, preserve the activity of respiratory complex I, stabilize the mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ATP levels. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt survival-signaling pathway was also involved in the protective effect of GSRd. Finally, using a mouse PD model in vivo, we also found that GSRd obviously reversed the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in substanitia nigra induced by MPTP. Thus, our findings demonstrated that GSRd showed a significant neuro-protective effect against experimental PD models, which may involve its antioxidant effects and mitochondrial function preservation. PMID:26114390

  5. Expression and precursor processing of neuropeptide Y in human and murine neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, M M; Schwartz, T W

    1989-12-15

    The synthesis and processing of the precursor for neuropeptide Y (NPY) were studied in 16 human and murine neuroendocrine cell lines. Eight of the cell lines, NS-20Y, PC12, LA-N-5, CHP-234, SMS-KCNR, SH-SY5Y, SMS-KCN, and BE(2)-M17, produced sufficient quantities to permit chromatographic characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity. Although the cell lines varied in the amount of NPY they produced, both within and between cell lines, they displayed a relatively constant pattern of posttranslational modifications. In contrast to observations in tumor extracts (M. M. T. O'Hare and T. W. Schwartz, Cancer Res., 49: 7010-7014, 1989), all cell lines studied contained a substantial amount of the intracellular NPY in the form of the unprocessed propeptide, 57% (range, 33-72%) as characterized by both gel filtrations (32 experiments in 8 cell lines) and "in vitro conversion" with endoproteinase Lys-C. In the majority, 4 of 6 cell lines studied, almost all of the NPY, which by size corresponded to the mature 36-amino acid form, was amidated as assessed by isoelectric focusing and by a radioimmunoassay specific for the COOH-terminal amide group of the peptide. Both the propeptide and smaller molecular forms of NPY were secreted from the cell cultures; however, proteolytic degradation in the tissue culture medium prevented a detailed, meaningful characterization of these peptides. It is concluded that many neuroendocrine cell lines, especially those derived from human neuroblastomas, express the NPY gene; the cells display a partly impaired dibasic processing capacity but they generally amidate the products efficiently.

  6. Differential expression of alpha-subunits of G-proteins in human neuroblastoma-derived cell clones.

    PubMed

    Klinz, F J; Yu, V C; Sadée, W; Costa, T

    1987-11-16

    The distribution of alpha- and beta-subunits of G-proteins was analyzed in membranes of three cell clones which are derived from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y shows a pattern of G-proteins very similar to that of human brain cortex with high levels of Gi alpha and Go alpha but low levels of G40 alpha. The intermediate clone SH-IN contains high levels of Go alpha and Gi alpha and moderate levels of G40 alpha. The non-neuronal clone SH-EP shows high levels of G40 alpha but lacks Go alpha. Differentiation of the neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y by retinoic acid or nerve growth factor does not change the amount of Gi alpha or Go alpha in the membrane. PMID:3119368

  7. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor reduces cell apoptosis via upregulating GRP78 in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Chen, Changyan; Gu, Hua; Li, Chen; Fu, Xing; Jiang, Ming; Sun, Hui; Xu, Jun; Fang, Jianmin; Jin, Lingjing

    2016-07-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects dopaminergic neurons from damage. In this study, we used MTT, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining to investigate the protective effect of MANF in SH-SY5Y cells treated with 6-OHDA or overexpressed α-synuclein. Cleaved caspase-3 levels significantly increased in cells treated with 6-OHDA or overexpressed α-synuclein. 6-OHDA or α-synuclein overexpression that induced cleaved caspase-3 levels to increase was reduced by MANF treatment. In addition, MANF treatment upregulated GRP78 expressions in cells treated with 6-OHDA or overexpressed α-synuclein, and RNAi knockdown for GRP78 could block the MANF induced cell survival from 6-OHDA treatment. Furthermore, GRP78 overexpression inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that MANF inhibits apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA and overexpressed α-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells via upregulating GRP78 in the transcriptional pattern.

  8. Curcumin Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Via Activation of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, You-Ling; Li, Heng-Chang; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Hui-Hua; Huang, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Hang; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Bupivacaine is widely used for regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and pain management. However, bupivacaine could cause neuronal injury. Curcumin, a low molecular weight polyphenol, has a variety of bioactivities and may exert neuroprotective effects against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study, we tested whether curcumin could attenuate bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell injury was evaluated by examining cell viability, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. We also investigated the levels of activation of the Akt signaling pathway and the effect of Akt inhibition by triciribine on cell injury following bupivacaine and curcumin treatment. Our findings showed that the bupivacaine treatment could induce neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of the SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin significantly attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the curcumin treatment increased the levels of Akt phosphorylation. More significantly, the pharmacological inhibition of Akt abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against bupivacaine-induced cell injury. Our data suggest that pretreating SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin provides a protective effect on bupivacaine-induced neuronal injury via activation of the Akt signaling pathway.

  9. Neuroprotection against Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis by Salvia miltiorrhiza extract in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huimin; Yao, Lihua; Zhou, Hongzu; Qu, Sichang; Zeng, Xianghai; Zhou, Delong; Zhou, Yulian; Li, Xinglin; Liu, Zhicheng

    2014-09-01

    The neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and hence the attractive therapeutic strategies focusing on the modulation of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity are warranted. The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotection and underlying mechanisms by which Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) extract (SME) protects against Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. 2h Pre-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with SME (0.01, 0.1 or 0.2mg raw herb/ml) concentration-dependently attenuated Aβ25-35-induced cell death, as evidenced by the increase in cell viability and decrease in neuronal apoptosis. In addition, SME suppressed the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, decreased the protein expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytosolic cytochrome c, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings taken together suggest that SME provides substantial neuroprotection against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, at least in part, via inhibiting oxidative stress and attenuating the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. The approach used in this study may also be useful for the screening of therapeutic agents for AD and other related neurodegenerative disease.

  10. The role of insulin against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damages in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can easily penetrate into biological membranes and enhance the formation of other reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of insulin on H2O2-induced toxicity of retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. To measure the changes in the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells at different concentrations of H2O2 for 24 h, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based assay was used and a 100 µM H2O2 was selected to establish a model of H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Further assays showed that 24 h of 100 µM H2O2-induced significant changes in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), nitric oxide (NO), ROS, and calcium ion (Ca2+) in neuronal cells, but insulin can effectively diminish the H2O2-induced oxidative damages to these cells. Moreover, cells treated with insulin increased H2O2-induced suppression of glutathione levels and exerted an apparent suppressive effect on oxidative products. The results of insulin treatment with SH-SY5Y cells increased the Bcl-2 levels and decreased the Akt levels. The treatment of insulin had played a protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative stress related to the Akt/Bcl-2 pathways.

  11. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. roots against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury and potential mechanisms in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Long; Huang, Jin; Fan, Yan-Hua; Ren, Tian-Shu; Zhao, Qing-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in neuronal cell death related with various chronic neurodegenerative disorders. This study was designed to explore neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of Arctium lappa L. roots (EAL) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability was significantly decreased after exposure to 200 μM H2O2, whereas pretreatment with different concentrations of EAL attenuated the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that EAL reversed nuclear condensation in H2O2-treated cells. Meanwhile, TUNEL assay with DAPI staining showed that EAL attenuated apoptosis was induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with EAL also markedly elevated activities of antioxidant enzyme (GSH-Px and SOD), reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA) production, prevented ROS formation, and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, EAL showed strong radical scavenging ability in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. Furthermore, EAL inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis by increases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreases in cytochrome c release, and attenuation of caspase-3, caspase-9 activities, and expressions. These findings suggest that EAL may be regarded as a potential antioxidant agent and possess potent neuroprotective activity against H2O2-induced injury.

  12. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. roots against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury and potential mechanisms in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Long; Huang, Jin; Fan, Yan-Hua; Ren, Tian-Shu; Zhao, Qing-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in neuronal cell death related with various chronic neurodegenerative disorders. This study was designed to explore neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of Arctium lappa L. roots (EAL) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability was significantly decreased after exposure to 200 μM H2O2, whereas pretreatment with different concentrations of EAL attenuated the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that EAL reversed nuclear condensation in H2O2-treated cells. Meanwhile, TUNEL assay with DAPI staining showed that EAL attenuated apoptosis was induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with EAL also markedly elevated activities of antioxidant enzyme (GSH-Px and SOD), reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA) production, prevented ROS formation, and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, EAL showed strong radical scavenging ability in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. Furthermore, EAL inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis by increases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreases in cytochrome c release, and attenuation of caspase-3, caspase-9 activities, and expressions. These findings suggest that EAL may be regarded as a potential antioxidant agent and possess potent neuroprotective activity against H2O2-induced injury. PMID:25352420

  13. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as “S-mercuration”, potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  14. Diquat causes caspase-independent cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by production of ROS independently of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Nisar, R; Hanson, P S; He, L; Taylor, R W; Blain, P G; Morris, C M

    2015-10-01

    Evidence indicates that Parkinson's disease (PD), in addition to having a genetic aetiology, has an environmental component that contributes to disease onset and progression. The exact nature of any environmental agent contributing to PD is unknown in most cases. Given its similarity to paraquat, an agrochemical removed from registration in the EU for its suspected potential to cause PD, we have investigated the in vitro capacity of the related herbicide Diquat to cause PD-like cell death. Diquat showed greater toxicity towards SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and human midbrain neural cells than paraquat and also MPTP, which was independent of dopamine transporter-mediated uptake. Diquat caused cell death independently of caspase activation, potentially via RIP1 kinase, with only a minor contribution from apoptosis, which was accompanied by enhanced reactive oxygen species production in the absence of major inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. No changes in α-synuclein expression were observed following 24-h or 4-week exposure. Diquat may, therefore, kill neural tissue by programmed necrosis rather than apoptosis, reflecting the pathological changes seen following high-level exposure, although its ability to promote PD is unclear.

  15. Participation of protein kinases in cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of ethylene glycol ethers and their metabolites in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Pomierny, Bartosz; Fuxe, Kjell; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Regulska, Magdalena; Broniowska, Żaneta; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-10-01

    Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are compounds widely used in many branches of industry. Their toxicological profile in the peripheral tissues is relatively well described, but little is known about their action on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we evaluated the effect of 2-ethoxyethanol (EE), 2-butoxyethanol (BE), 2-phenoxyethanol (PHE) and their metabolites on necrotic (estimated by cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase release) and apoptotic (caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial membrane potential) processes and reactive oxygen species' (ROS) production in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. We have shown that, similar to the peripheral tissues, EGE metabolites in most of the performed assays revealed greater potential to damage than the parent compounds in the CNS cells. Subsequently, we investigated the participation of some selected protein kinases in the degenerative activity of PHE and its main metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid (PHA). It has been found that a GSK3β inhibitor weakened the damaging effects of PHE and PHA in each of the performed assays. Furthermore, the kinases, p38-MAPK, JNK-MAPK and PKC, had a significant role in the cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of PHA. These results indicate that the neurotoxic effect of EGEs may stem from their impact on many intracellular signal transduction pathways.

  16. Clinacanthus nutans Extracts Modulate Epigenetic Link to Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells and Primary Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Charlene Siew-Hon; Ho, Christabel Fung-Yih; Heng, Swan-Ser; Wu, Jui-Sheng; Tan, Benny Kwong-Huat; Ng, Yee-Kong; Sun, Grace Y; Lin, Teng-Nan; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2016-09-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (C. nutans), commonly known as Sabah Snake Grass in southeast Asia, is widely used in folk medicine due to its analgesic, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. Our recent study provided evidence for the regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) mRNA expression by epigenetic factors (Tan et al. in Mol Neurobiol. doi: 10.1007/s12035-015-9314-z , 2015). This enzyme catalyzes the release of arachidonic acid from glycerophospholipids, and formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids or toxic lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxynonenal. In this study, we examined the effects of C. nutans ethanol leaf extracts on epigenetic regulation of cPLA2 mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and mouse primary cortical neurons. C. nutans modulated induction of cPLA2 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, MS-275, MC-1568, and TSA. C. nutans extracts also inhibited histone acetylase (HAT) activity. Levels of cPLA2 mRNA expression were increased in primary cortical neurons subjected to 0.5-h oxygen-glucose deprivation injury (OGD). This increase was significantly inhibited by C. nutans treatment. Treatment of primary neurons with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 augmented OGD-induced cPLA2 mRNA expression, and this increase was modulated by C. nutans extracts. OGD-stimulated increase in cPLA2 mRNA expression was also reduced by a Tip60 HAT inhibitor, NU9056. In view of a key role of cPLA2 in the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and free radical damage, and the fact that epigenetic effects on genes are often long-lasting, results suggest a role for C. nutans and phytochemicals to inhibit the production of arachidonic acid-derived pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and chronic inflammation, through epigenetic regulation of cPLA2 expression. PMID:27319010

  17. "Ecstasy"-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y differentiated cells: role of hyperthermia and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Daniel José; Capela, João Paulo; Silva, Renata; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix

    2014-02-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a recreational hallucinogenic drug of abuse known to elicit neurotoxic properties. Hepatic formation of neurotoxic metabolites is thought to play a major role in MDMA-related neurotoxicity, though the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, we studied the neurotoxicity mechanisms and stability of MDMA and 6 of its major human metabolites, namely α-methyldopamine (α-MeDA) and N-methyl-α-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA) and their correspondent glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) conjugates, under normothermic (37 °C) or hyperthermic conditions (40 °C), using cultured SH-SY5Y differentiated cells. We showed that MDMA metabolites exhibited toxicity to SH-SY5Y differentiated cells, being the GSH and NAC conjugates more toxic than their catecholic precursors and MDMA. Furthermore, whereas the toxicity of the catechol metabolites was potentiated by hyperthermia, NAC-conjugated metabolites revealed higher toxicity under normothermia and GSH-conjugated metabolites-induced toxicity was temperature-independent. Moreover, a time-dependent decrease in extracellular concentration of MDMA metabolites was observed, which was potentiated by hyperthermia. The antioxidant NAC significantly protected against the neurotoxic effects of MDMA metabolites. MDMA metabolites increased intracellular glutathione levels, though depletion in thiol content was observed in MDMA-exposed cells. Finally, the neurotoxic effects induced by the MDMA metabolite N-Me-α-MeDA involved caspase 3 activation. In conclusion, this study evaluated the stability of MDMA metabolites in vitro, and demonstrated that the catechol MDMA metabolites and their GSH and NAC conjugates, rather than MDMA itself, exhibited neurotoxic actions in SH-SY5Y differentiated cells, which were differently affected by hyperthermia, thus highlighting a major role for reactive metabolites and hyperthermia in MDMA's neurotoxicity.

  18. Tetramethylpyrazine promotes SH-SY5Y cell differentiation into neurons through epigenetic regulation of Topoisomerase IIβ.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Zhao, J; Cao, C; Jia, Z; Zhou, N; Han, S; Wang, Y; Xu, Y; Zhao, J; Yan, Y; Cui, H

    2014-10-10

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an active compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Chuanxiong. Recently, it has been reported that TMP enhances neurogenesis, and promotes neural stem cell differentiation toward neurons. However, its molecular basis remains unknown. Topoisomerase IIβ (TopoIIβ) is a nuclear enzyme with an essential role in neuronal development. This study aimed to investigate whether TopoIIβ is involved in TMP-induced neuronal differentiation. We examined the effect of TMP on neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that TMP inhibited cell proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. TMP promoted SH-SY5Y cells to differentiate toward post-mitotic neurons characterized by long, out-branched neurites and up-regulated neuronal markers, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and tau. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that TopoIIβ was highly expressed following TMP treatment. To unravel how TMP affects TopoIIβ expression, two chromatin active markers, acetylated histone H3 (Ac-H3) and acetylated histone H4 (Ac-H4) were examined in this study. Our data showed that the levels of Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 were positively correlated with TopoIIβ expression in the processes of neuronal differentiation. We further performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and identified that TMP enhanced the recruitment of Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 to the TopoIIβ gene promoter region. Therefore, we concluded that TMP may stimulate neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells through epigenetic regulation of TopoIIβ. These results suggest a novel molecular mechanism underlying TMP-promoted neuronal differentiation.

  19. Regulatory factor X1-induced down-regulation of transforming growth factor β2 transcription in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chenzhuo; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2012-06-29

    Regulatory factor X (RFX) proteins are transcription factors. Seven mammalian RFX proteins have been identified. RFX1 is the prototype RFX. However, its biological functions are not known. Here, RFX1 overexpression reduced fetal bovine serum-stimulated proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line. This inhibition is associated with decreased transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Exogenous TGFβ2 increased cell proliferation and phospho-ERK in cells overexpressing RFX1. An anti-TGFβ2 antibody and PD98059, an ERK activation inhibitor, inhibited SH-SY5Y cell proliferation. TGFβ2 promoter activity was decreased in cells overexpressing RFX1. Chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that RFX1 bound the TGFβ2 promoter. RFX1 down-regulation increased TGFβ2 in SH-SY5Y and HCN-1A cells, a normal human neuronal cell line. More importantly, TGFβ2 concentrations were negatively correlated with RFX1 levels in human medulloblastoma tissues with a R(2) of 0.464. These results suggest that RFX1 reduces cell proliferation through inhibiting the TGFβ2-ERK signaling pathway. RFX1 blocks TGFβ2 expression through its direct action on TGFβ2 transcription. This effect also appears in human brain tumor tissues. Because TGFβ is known to be involved in cancer development, our results provide initial evidence to suggest that RFX1 may play an important role in human tumor biology.

  20. Carbon monoxide derived from heme oxygenase-2 mediates reduction of methylmercury toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Toyama, Takashi; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Sumi, Daigo; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2010-11-15

    We examined the contribution of carbon monoxide (CO), an enzymatic product of heme oxygenase (HO), to methylmercury (MeHg) cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, because this gas molecule is reported to activate Nrf2, which plays a protective role against MeHg-mediated cell damage. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to CO gas resulted in protection against MeHg cytotoxicity, with activation of Nrf2. Interestingly, pretreatment with tin-protoporphyrin IX, a specific inhibitor of HO, caused a reduction in basal Nrf2 activity and thus enhanced sensitivity to MeHg. No induction of isoform 1 of HO (HO-1) was seen during MeHg exposure, but constitutive expression of isoform 2 (HO-2) occurred, suggesting that CO produced by HO-2 is the main participant in the protection against MeHg toxicity. Studies of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of HO-2 in the cells supported this possibility. Our results suggest that CO gas and its producing enzyme HO-2 are key molecules in cellular protection against MeHg, presumably through basal activation of Nrf2.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of ginkgolide B on bupivacaine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Zhang, Qing-guo; Lai, Lu-ying; Wen, Xian-jie; Zheng, Ting; Cheung, Chi-wai; Zhou, Shu-qin; Xu, Shi-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Local anesthetics are used routinely and effectively. However, many are also known to activate neurotoxic pathways. We tested the neuroprotective efficacy of ginkgolide B (GB), an active component of Ginkgo biloba, against ROS-mediated neurotoxicity caused by the local anesthetic bupivacaine. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of bupivacaine alone or following preincubation with GB. Pretreatment with GB increased SH-SY5Y cell viability and attenuated intracellular ROS accumulation, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress. GB suppressed bupivacaine-induced mitochondrial depolarization and mitochondria complex I and III inhibition and increased cleaved caspase-3 and Htra2 expression, which was strongly indicative of activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with concomitantly enhanced expressions of Grp78, caspase-12 mRNA, protein, and ER stress. GB also improved ultrastructural changes indicative of mitochondrial and ER damage induced by bupivacaine. These results implicate bupivacaine-induced ROS-dependent mitochondria, ER dysfunction, and apoptosis, which can be attenuated by GB through its antioxidant property.

  2. Lithium protects against paraquat neurotoxicity by NRF2 activation and miR-34a inhibition in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Alural, Begum; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Allmer, Jens; Genc, Kursad; Genc, Sermin

    2015-01-01

    Lithium is a mood stabilizing agent commonly used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Here, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of lithium against paraquat toxicity and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with paraquat (PQ) 0.5 mM concentration after lithium pretreatment to test lithium's capability in preventing cell toxicity. Cell death was evaluated by LDH, WST-8, and tryphan blue assays. Apoptosis was analyzed using DNA fragmentation, Annexin V immunostaining, Sub G1 cell cycle analysis, and caspase-3 activity assays. BCL2, BAX, and NRF2 protein expression were evaluated by Western-blotting and the BDNF protein level was determined with ELISA. mRNA levels of BCL2, BAX, BDNF, and NRF2 target genes (HO-1, GCS, NQO1), as well as miR-34a expression were analyzed by qPCR assay. Functional experiments were done via transfection with NRF2 siRNA and miR-34a mimic. Lithium treatment prevented paraquat induced cell death and apoptosis. Lithium treated cells showed increased anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 and decreased pro-apoptotic protein BAX expression. Lithium exerted a neurotrophic effect by increasing BDNF protein expression. It also diminished reactive oxygen species production and activated the redox sensitive transcription factor NRF2 and increased its target genes expression. Knockdown of NRF2 abolished neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects of lithium. Furthermore, lithium significantly decreased both basal and PQ-induced expression of miR-34a. Transfection of miR-34a specific mimic reversed neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects of lithium against PQ-toxicity. Our results revealed two novel mechanisms of lithium neuroprotection, namely NRF2 activation and miR-34a suppression.

  3. Dopamine down-regulation of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is dependent on reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ouazia, D; Levros, L-C; Rassart, E; Desrosiers, R R

    2014-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine, via the oxidative stress that it generates in the cytosol, could contribute to the selective loss of neurons observed in PD. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is an enzyme that repairs L-isoaspartyl-containing proteins and possesses anti-apoptotic properties. PIMT expression has been shown to decrease with age. Together, these observations prompted us to investigate whether dopamine can regulate PIMT expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Here, we report that dopamine down-regulated PIMT at both gene and protein levels. The same inhibition of PIMT protein level was caused by the electron transport chain inhibitor, rotenone, which was accompanied, in both cases, by an increase in cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In fact, pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked PIMT dopamine-associated down-regulation. PCMT1 promoter mapping experiments allowed the identification of two regions that showed different sensitivity to DA action. A first region localized between 61 and 94bp upstream of transcription start site was very sensitive to dopamine inhibition while a second region between 41 and 61bp appeared more resistant to dopamine inhibitory effect. The inhibition of PCMT1 promoter activity was mediated by dopamine-induced ROS since it was prevented by the hydroxyl radical scavenger N,N'-dimethylthiourea. Conversely, H2O2 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the transcriptional activity of PCMT1 promoter. Therefore, our findings identified new molecular mechanisms, cytosolic dopamine and its resulting ROS, as inhibitors of PIMT expression. This suggests that ROS generated from cytosolic dopamine could reduce both the PCMT1 gene promoter activity and the PIMT protein level thus decreasing its capacity to repair proteins involved in apoptosis and

  4. Mu-opioid receptor activation prevents apoptosis following serum withdrawal in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, M; Segura, M F; Comella, J X; Olmos, G

    2003-03-01

    Opioid peptides and alkaloids exert their effects via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It has been shown that, in addition to trophic factors, some GPCRs are able to activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI 3-K/Akt) signal transduction pathway, thus leading to cell survival. The aim of this study was to test whether activation of mu-opioid receptors has protective effects on serum withdrawal-induced cell death and to study the possible implication of PI 3-K in this process. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells fully differentiated by exposure to retinoic acid for five days, the enkephalin derivative selective mu-agonist DAMGO (0.1-2 microM) and the alkaloid morphine (0.1-10 microM) promoted cell survival after serum deprivation (MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays), without inducing cell proliferation. These effects were fully reversed by naloxone, by the selective mu-antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) and also by the specific PI 3-K inhibitor LY294002. The two agonists stimulated Akt phosphorylation and the effect was also abolished by beta-FNA and by LY294002. In mouse primary cortical neurons, DAMGO reduced the percentage of apoptosis after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of serum withdrawal; as determined by Hoechst staining. This effect was blocked by beta-FNA, by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin and by LY294002. DAMGO also stimulated Akt phosphorylation via PI 3-K in this primary neuronal culture. Together, these results indicate that stimulation of the mu-opioid receptor promotes neuronal survival in a G(i/o)-linked, PI 3-K-dependent signaling cascade and suggest that Akt may be a key downstream kinase involved in this anti-apoptotic effect. PMID:12646285

  5. Tissue kallikrein induces SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhengyu; Yang, Qi; Cui, Mei; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hong; Dong, Qiang

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TK promotes EGFR phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK activates ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK mediates SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway. - Abstract: Tissue kallikrein (TK) is well known to take most of its biological functions through bradykinin receptors. In the present study, we found a novel signaling pathway mediated by TK through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human SH-SY5Y cells. We discovered that TK facilitated the activation of EGFR, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 cascade. Interestingly, not p38 but ERK1/2 phosphorylation was severely compromised in cells depleted of EGFR. Nevertheless, impairment of signaling of ERK1/2 seemed not to be restricted to EGFR phosphorylation. We also observed that TK stimulation could induce SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, which was reduced by EGFR down-regulation or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Overall, our findings provided convincing evidence that TK could mediate cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway in vitro.

  6. Involvement of ERK1/2 pathway in neuroprotective effects of pyrroloquinoline quinine against rotenone-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Zhang, J; Jiang, C; Qin, J; Ke, K; Ding, F

    2014-06-13

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a redox cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, has been shown to protect neurons against glutamate-induced damage both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, specific inhibitors to each of the mitochondrial complexes were used to find out which reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating sites could be affected by PQQ. Then we established an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD) by exposing cultured SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells to rotenone, a complex I inhibitor. The neuroprotective effects of PQQ were observed by pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PQQ before rotenone injury, and the possible involvement of certain signaling pathways were investigated. PQQ pretreatment prevented SH-SY5Y cells from rotenone-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. PQQ neuroprotection was associated with inhibition of intracellular ROS production, modulation of the expression of apoptosis-related Bcl-2 and Bax, and regulation of the level of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, PQQ up-regulated the gene expression of Ndufs 1, 2, and 4 (complex I subunits), and increased mitochondrial viability and mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, PQQ pretreatment activated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rotenone-injured SH-SY5Y cells, while ERK1/2 inhibition suppressed PQQ neuroprotection. All the results suggested that PQQ could protect SH-SY5Y cells against rotenone injury by reducing ROS production and maintaining mitochondrial functions through activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  7. L- and D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP) inhibit neurite outgrowth from SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Hynds, D L; Takehana, A; Inokuchi, J; Snow, D M

    2002-01-01

    Gangliosides and extracellular matrix molecules influence neurite outgrowth, but the combinatorial effects of these endogenous agents on outgrowth are unclear. Exogenous gangliosides inhibit neurite outgrowth from SH-SY5Y cells stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and different isoforms of the ceramide analog threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP) stimulate (L-PDMP) or inhibit (D-PDMP) glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. In this study, we determined whether altering the endogenous ganglioside levels with PDMP in SH-SY5Y cells regulates neurite outgrowth on the outgrowth-supporting extracellular matrix molecule, laminin. In cells stimulated with 20 ng/ml platelet-derived growth factor-BB to promote outgrowth, we used image analysis to evaluate neurite outgrowth from SH-SY5Y cells grown on endogenous matrix or laminin and exposed to L- or D-PDMP. Both L- and D-PDMP decreased neurite initiation (the number of neurites/cell, the percent of neurite-bearing cells), elongation (the length of the longest neurite/cell, the total neurite length/cell), and branching (the number of branch points/neurite) from SH-SY5Y cells on endogenous matrix or laminin in a dose-dependent manner in serum-free or serum-containing medium. The inhibitory effects of each PDMP isoform were reversible. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth by L-PDMP could be mimicked by addition of exogenous gangliosides or C2-ceramide. Our analyses of neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells, a model of developing or regenerating noradrenergic neurons, demonstrate that increasing or decreasing endogenous ganglioside levels decreases neurite outgrowth. These results may indicate that SH-SY5Y cells undergo tight regulation by gangliosides, possibly through modulation of growth/trophic factor- and/or extracellular matrix-activated signaling cascades.

  8. Glutathione transferase-M2-2 secreted from glioblastoma cell protects SH-SY5Y cells from aminochrome neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Carlos; Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Villa, Monica; Paris, Irmgard; Mannervik, Bengt; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2015-04-01

    U373MG cells are able to take up aminochrome that induces glutathione transferase M2-2 (GSTM2) expression in a concentration-dependent manner where 100 µM aminochrome increases GSTM2 expression by 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) at 3 h. The uptake of (3)H-aminochrome into U373MG cells was significantly reduced in the presence of 2 µM nomifensine (P < 0.001) 100 µM imipramine (P < 0.001) and 50 mM dopamine (P < 0.001). Interestingly, U373MG cells excrete GSTM2 into the conditioned medium and the excretion was significantly increased (2.7-fold; P < 0.001) when the cells were pretreated with 50 µM aminochrome for 3 h. The U373MG-conditioned medium containing GSTM2 protects SH-SY5Y cells incubated with 10 µM aminochrome. The significant protection provided by U373MG-conditioned medium in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with aminochrome was dependent on GSTM2 internalization into SH-SY5Y cells as evidenced by (i) uptake of (14)C-GSTM2 released from U373MG cells into SH-SY5Y cells, a process inhibited by anti-GSTM2 antiserum; (ii) lack of protection of U373MG-conditioned medium in the presence of anti-GSTM2 antiserum on SH-SY5Y cells treated with aminochrome; and (iii) lack of protection of conditioned medium from U373MGsiGST6 that expresses an siRNA directed against GSTM2 on SH-SY5Y cells treated with aminochrome. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that U373MG cells protect SH-SY5Y cells against aminochrome neurotoxicity by releasing GSTM2 into the conditioned medium and subsequent internalization of GSTM2 into SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest a new mechanism of protection of dopaminergic neurons mediated by astrocytes by releasing GSTM2 into the intersynaptic space and subsequent internalization into dopaminergic neuron in order to protect these cells against aminochrome neurotoxicity.

  9. Raman micro-spectroscopy study of living SH-SY5Y cells adhering on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Caponi, S; Mattana, S; Ricci, M; Sagini, K; Urbanelli, L; Sassi, P; Morresi, A; Emiliani, C; Dalla Serra, M; Iannotta, S; Musio, C; Fioretto, D

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we test the ability of Raman micro-spectroscopy and Raman mapping to investigate the status of cells grown in adhesion on different substrates. The spectra of immortalized SH-SY5Y cells, grown on silicon and on metallic substrates are compared with those obtained for the same type of cells adhering on organic polyaniline (PANI), a memristive substrate chosen to achieve a living bio-hybrid system. Raman spectra give information on the status of the single cell, its local biochemical composition, and on the modifications induced by the substrate interaction. The good agreement between Raman spectra collected from cells adhering on different substrates confirms that the PANI, besides allowing the cell growth, doesn't strongly affect the general biochemical properties of the cell. The investigation of the cellular state in a label free condition is challenging and the obtained results confirm the Raman ability to achieve this information. PMID:26256426

  10. Extracellular signal-related kinase 2/specificity protein 1/specificity protein 3/repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor pathway is involved in Aroclor 1254-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Luigi; Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Boscia, Francesca; Esposito, Alba; Secondo, Agnese; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause a wide spectrum of toxic effects in the brain through undefined mechanisms. Exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254) increases the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) expression, leading to neuronal death. This study sought to understand the sequence of some molecular mechanisms to determine whether A1254 could increase REST expression and the cytoprotective effect of the phorbol ester tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) on A1254-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. As shown by Western blot analysis, A1254 (10 µg/ml) downregulates extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner, thereby triggering the binding of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Sp3 to the REST gene promoter as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. This chain of events results in an increase in REST mRNA and cell death, as assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and dimethylthiazolyl-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide assay, respectively. Accordingly, TPA prevented both the A1254-induced decrease in ERK2 phosphorylation and the A1254-induced increase in Sp1, Sp3, and REST protein expression. After 48 hr, TPA prevented A1254-induced cell death. ERK2 overexpression counteracted the A1254-induced increase in Sp1 and Sp3 protein expression and prevented A1254-induced Sp1 and Sp3 binding to the REST gene promoter, thus counteracting the increase in REST mRNA expression induced by the toxicant. In neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, ERK2/Sp1/SP3/REST is a new pathway underlying the neurotoxic effect of PCB. The ERK2/Sp1/Sp3/REST pathway, which underlies A1254-induced neuronal death, might represent a new drug signaling cascade in PCB-induced neuronal toxicity. PMID:25093670

  11. Noscapine induced apoptosis via downregulation of survivin in human neuroblastoma cells having wild type or null p53.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiwang; He, Jing; Li, Shuai; Cao, Guoqing; Tang, Shaotao; Tong, Qiangsong; Joshi, Harish C

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein expression. The Noscapine treatment increased levels of total and Ser(15)-phosphorylated p53 protein in SK-SY5Y cells, but the proapoptotic response to this agent was maintained even after knockdown of the p53 protein level. Exposure of SK-SY5Y and LA1-5S cells to Noscapine resulted in a marked decrease in protein and mRNA level of survivin as early as 12 hours after treatment. Ectopic expression of survivin conferred statistically significant protection against Noscapine-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Also, the Noscapine-induced apoptosis was modestly but statistically significantly augmented by RNA interference of survivin in both cell lines. Furthermore, Noscapine-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of Noscapine-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of survivin expression as a critical mediator of this process.

  12. Noscapine Induced Apoptosis via Downregulation of Survivin in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Having Wild Type or Null p53

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiwang; He, Jing; Li, Shuai; Cao, Guoqing; Tang, Shaotao; Tong, Qiangsong; Joshi, Harish C.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein expression. The Noscapine treatment increased levels of total and Ser15-phosphorylated p53 protein in SK-SY5Y cells, but the proapoptotic response to this agent was maintained even after knockdown of the p53 protein level. Exposure of SK-SY5Y and LA1-5S cells to Noscapine resulted in a marked decrease in protein and mRNA level of survivin as early as 12 hours after treatment. Ectopic expression of survivin conferred statistically significant protection against Noscapine-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Also, the Noscapine-induced apoptosis was modestly but statistically significantly augmented by RNA interference of survivin in both cell lines. Furthermore, Noscapine-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of Noscapine-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of survivin expression as a critical mediator of this process. PMID:22848370

  13. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy play a protective role in manganese induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Mi, Lan; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Lan; Li, Xue-Hui; Dong, Li-Sha; Zhao, Peng; Fu, Juan-Ling; Yao, Bi-Yun; Zhou, Zong-Can

    2016-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) as an environmental risk factor of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to cause manganism. Mitophagy is thought to play a key role in elimination the injured mitochondria. The goal of this paper was to explore whether the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is activated and its role in Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Here, we investigated effects of MnCl2 on ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP/ΔΨm) and apoptosis by FACS and examined PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy by western-blotting and the co-localization of mitochondria and acidic lysosomes. Further, we explore the role of mitophagy in Mn-induced apoptosis by inhibition the mitophagy by knockdown Parkin level. Results show that MnCl2 dose-dependently caused ΔΨm decrease, ROS generation and apoptosis of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Mn could induce mitophagy and PINK1/Parkin-mediated pathway was activated in SH-SY5Y cells. Transient transfection of Parkin siRNA knockdown the expressing level of parkin inhibited Mn-induced mitophagy and aggravated apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Mn may induce PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which may exert significant neuro-protective effect against Mn-induced dopaminergic neuronal cells apoptosis.

  14. Antihypoxic effect of miR-24 in SH-SY5Y cells under hypoxia via downregulating expression of neurocan.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingyuan; Ren, Zhanjun; Pan, Yunzhi; Zhang, Chenxin

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxia-induced apoptosis-related mechanisms involved in the brain damage following cerebral ischemia injury. A subset of the small noncoding microRNA (miRNAs) is regulated by tissue oxygen levels, and miR-24 was found to be activated by hypoxic conditions. However, the roles of miR-24 and its target gene in neuron are not well understood. Here, we validated miRNA-24 is down-regulated in patients with cerebral infarction. Hypoxia suppressed the expression of miR-24, but increased the expression of neurocan in both mRNA and protein levels in SH-SY5Y cells. MiR-24 mimics reduced the expression of neurocan, suppressed cell apoptosis, induced cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells under hypoxia. By luciferase reporter assay, neurocan is validated a direct target gene of miR-24. Furthermore, knockdown of neurocan suppressed cell apoptosis, induced cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells under hypoxia. Taken together, miR-24 overexpression or silencing of neurocan shows an antihypoxic effect in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, miR-24 and neurocan play critical roles in neuron cell apoptosis and are potential therapeutic targets for ischemic brain disease.

  15. Propofol-induced protection of SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide is associated with the HO-1 via the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jing; Chi, Meng; Sun, Xuechao; Wang, Guonian; Li, Mingming; Liu, Li; Li, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol), is an anesthetic and routinely used for the humans sedation during surgery. The potent inducers of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant stress responsive to propofol were investigated. First, a dose of 25-100 µM propofol showed no significant cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y cells and pre-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with propofol (25-100 μM) for 8h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 1 mM hydrogen peroxide by MTT assays. Then, an increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8 h pre-treatment with propofol. Additionally, the potential roles of ERK, p 38 MAPK and JNK in the regulation of propofol-induced endogenous HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells were estimated by Western blotting assays. Results showed that propofol significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, p 38 MAPK and JNK and antioxidant stress responsive to propofol was attenuated by the inhibition of ERK signaling biochemical inhibitors. These results suggest that the ERK pathway plays an important role in the regulation of propofol-mediated antioxidant effects in SH-SY5Y cells.

  16. Generalized estimating equation model and long-term exposure effect of antipsychotics on SH-SY5Y cells against oxidative stressors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chang; Chen, Kun-Po; Lung, For-Wey

    2014-10-01

    A comparison of the neuroprotective effect of different antipsychotics (APDs) over time on naïve SH-SY5Y against oxidative stressor insults using the generalized estimating equation (GEE). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), and β-amyloid peptide were used to treat cells with or without APDs (paliperidone, risperidone, olanzapine and haloperidol); cell survival and oxidative stress markers were measured and analyzed. Only haloperidol had higher baseline cytotoxicity than paliperidone. GEE showed the proper exposure time for evaluating the neuroprotection of APDs was 24 h, rather than 48 or 72 h. Paliperidone was superior to other APDs in protecting naïve SH-SY5Y, had the best effect against H2O2-, MPP+-induced cell death, and caused a significantly higher GST, lower HNE and protein carbonyl productions of naïve SH-SY5Y after stressor insults, which may implicate a molecular mechanism underlying its neuroprotective action. Repeated GEE measurements can correct for the correlation among the clusters to obtain a more accurate result for evaluating drug outcome. The interaction between drugs and stressors should be taken into account when determining the neuroprotective effect of APDs against different stressors. Paliperidone might be useful in alleviating oxidative stress induced by Aβ25-35 and MPP+, and provide neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide in naïve SH-SY5Y. PMID:24956504

  17. Propofol-Induced Protection of SH-SY5Y Cells against Hydrogen Peroxide Is Associated with the HO-1 via the ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jing; Chi, Meng; Sun, Xuechao; Wang, Guonian; Li, Mingming; Liu, Li; Li, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol), is an anesthetic and routinely used for the humans sedation during surgery. The potent inducers of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant stress responsive to propofol were investigated. First, a dose of 25-100 µM propofol showed no significant cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y cells and pre-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with propofol (25-100 μM) for 8h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 1 mM hydrogen peroxide by MTT assays. Then, an increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8 h pre-treatment with propofol. Additionally, the potential roles of ERK, p 38 MAPK and JNK in the regulation of propofol-induced endogenous HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells were estimated by Western blotting assays. Results showed that propofol significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, p 38 MAPK and JNK and antioxidant stress responsive to propofol was attenuated by the inhibition of ERK signaling biochemical inhibitors. These results suggest that the ERK pathway plays an important role in the regulation of propofol-mediated antioxidant effects in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:23569422

  18. Transcription factor activity of estrogen receptor α activation upon nonylphenol or bisphenol A treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration of neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongda; Yao, Yao; Wang, Changli; Zhang, Liyu; Cheng, Long; Wang, Yiren; Wang, Tao; Liang, Erguang; Jia, Hui; Ye, Qinong; Hou, Mingxiao; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Many kinds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), for example, the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol, may regulate the activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and therefore induce potential disruption of normal endocrine function. However, the involvement of EDCs in human cancers, especially in endocrine-related cancer neuroblastoma regulation, is not very clear. In this work, results showed that upon bisphenol A or nonylphenol treatment, the transcription factor activity of ERα was significantly increased in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol could enhance ERα activity via recruiting it to the target gene promoter. Furthermore, treatment of bisphenol A and nonylphenol enhanced the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration ability of neuroblastoma cells. By investigating the role of EDC-induced ERα upregulation, our data extend the understanding of the function of EDCs and further suggest that ERα might be a potential therapeutic target in human neuroblastoma treatment. PMID:27366082

  19. Transcription factor activity of estrogen receptor α activation upon nonylphenol or bisphenol A treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongda; Yao, Yao; Wang, Changli; Zhang, Liyu; Cheng, Long; Wang, Yiren; Wang, Tao; Liang, Erguang; Jia, Hui; Ye, Qinong; Hou, Mingxiao; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Many kinds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), for example, the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol, may regulate the activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and therefore induce potential disruption of normal endocrine function. However, the involvement of EDCs in human cancers, especially in endocrine-related cancer neuroblastoma regulation, is not very clear. In this work, results showed that upon bisphenol A or nonylphenol treatment, the transcription factor activity of ERα was significantly increased in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol could enhance ERα activity via recruiting it to the target gene promoter. Furthermore, treatment of bisphenol A and nonylphenol enhanced the in vitro proliferation, invasion, and migration ability of neuroblastoma cells. By investigating the role of EDC-induced ERα upregulation, our data extend the understanding of the function of EDCs and further suggest that ERα might be a potential therapeutic target in human neuroblastoma treatment.

  20. Increased level of apoptosis in rat brains and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to excessive fluoride--a mechanism connected with activating JNK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jie; Guan, Zhi-Zhong; Gao, Qin; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2011-07-28

    In order to reveal the mechanism of the brain injury induced by chronic fluorosis, the levels of apoptosis and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in brains of rats and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) were detected. The dental fluorosis and fluoride contents in blood, urine and bones of rats were measured to evaluate the exhibition of fluorosis. The apoptotic death rate was measured by flow cytometry and the expression of JNK at protein level by Western blotting. The results showed that as compared with controls, the apoptotic death rate was obviously increased in brains of the rats exposed to high-fluoride (50ppm) for 6 months with a concentration dependent manner, but no significant change for 3 months. In SH-SY5Y cells treated with high concentration (50ppm) of fluoride, the increased apoptotic death rate was obviously observed as compared to controls. In addition, the expressions of phospho-JNK at protein level were raised by 20.5% and 107.6%, respectively, in brains of the rats exposed to low-fluoride (5ppm) and high-fluoride for 6 months; while no significant changes were found between the rats exposed to fluoride and the controls for 3 months. The protein level of phospho-JNK was also increased in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high-fluoride. There were no changes of total-JNK both in the rats and in the SH-SY5Y cells exposed to excessive fluoride as compared to controls. When SH-SY5Y cells were singly treated with SP600125, an inhibitor of phospho-JNK, the decreased expression of phospho-JNK, but no apoptosis, was detected. Interestingly, after JNK phosphorylation in the cultured cells was inhibited by SP600125, the treatment with high-fluoride did not induce the increase of apoptosis. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the expression of phospho-JNK and the apoptotic death rate in rat brains or SH-SY5Y cells treated with high-fluoride. The results indicated that exposure to excessive fluoride resulted in

  1. Synergistic efficacy of a novel combination therapy controls growth of Bcl-x(L) bountiful neuroblastoma cells by increasing differentiation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Nishant; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2011-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most prevalent extracranial solid tumor mainly in pediatric patients. We explored the efficacy of the combination of 2[(3-[2,3-dichlorophenoxy]propyl)amino]ethanol (2,3-DCPE, a small molecule inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L)) and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR, a synthetic retinoid) in inducing differentiation and apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma cells. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry showed that the highest level of Bcl-x(L) expression occurred in SK-N-DZ cells followed by SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells. Combination of 20 μM 2,3-DCPE and 1 μM 4-HPR acted synergistically in decreasing viability of SK-N-DZ and SH-SY5Y cells. In situ methylene blue staining and protein gel blotting showed the efficacy of this combination of drugs in inducing neuronal differentiation morphologically and also biochemically with upregulation of the neuronal markers such as neurofilament protein (NFP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) and downregulation of the differentiation inhibiting molecules such as N-Myc and Notch-1 in SK-N-DZ and SH-SY5Y cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed the synergistic action of this combination therapy in increasing apoptosis in both cell lines. Protein gel blotting manifested that combination therapy increased apoptosis with downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-x(L), Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and upregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, p53, Puma (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), and Noxa, ultimately causing activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, our results appeared highly encouraging in advocating the use of 2,3-DCPE and 4-HPR as a novel combination therapy for increasing both differentiation and apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having Bcl-x(L) overexpression.

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Geniposide in SH-SY5Y Cells and Primary Hippocampal Neurons Exposed to Aβ42

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haimin; Liang, Mi; Li, Xiaojing; Mo, Weichuan; Wang, Xu; He, Rongqiao; Hua, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Our former studies have suggested that TongLuoJiuNao (TLJN) is clinically efficacious in the treatment of dementia and improving learning and memory in AD models. When Aβ aggregated with oligomer, it is known to be able to induce cellular toxicity as well as cognitive impairment. We tested the possibility that TLJN affects the formation of Aβ oligomers. In our experiment, TLJN improved cell viability, inhibited LDH release, and promoted the outgrowth of neurites of neurons treated with Aβ. Geniposide, the main component of TLJN, could increase the cell viability of SY5Y-APP695sw cells. The cytotoxicity of pretreated Aβ with geniposide was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed that geniposide and TLJN stimulated Aβ oligomer assembly. Compared with the control, more and longer fibrils of Aβ in the presence of geniposide were observed under electron microscope though the fibrils became less sensitive to thioflavin T staining. In sum, geniposide is able to protect neurons from Aβ-induced damage by remodeling Aβ. PMID:25506055

  3. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits Aβ Generation by Modulating BACE1 Activity in SH-SY5Y-APPsw Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying; Huang, Dan; Zhang, Mei-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Sheng; Tang, Yu-Xin; Shi, Zheng-Xiang; Deng, Li; Zhou, Dai-Han; Lu, Xin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in humans. The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Previous studies indicated that Salvianolic acid B (SalB) could ameliorate Aβ-induced memory impairment. However, whether SalB could influence the generation of Aβ is unclear. Here, we show that SalB (25, 50, or 100 µM) reduces the generation of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in culture media by decreasing the protein expressions of BACE1 and sAPPβ in SH-SY5Y-APPsw cells. Meanwhile, SalB increases the levels of ADAM10 and sAPPα in the cells. However, SalB has no impact on the protein expressions of APP and PS1. Moreover, SalB attenuates oxidative stress and inhibits the activity of GSK3β, which might be related to the suppression of BACE1 expression and amyloidogenesis. Our study suggests that SalB is a promising therapeutic agent for AD by targeting Aβ generation. PMID:27258307

  4. Overexpression of the dependence receptor UNC5H4 inhibits cell migration and invasion, and triggers apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Bin; Gu, Min; Li, Shuang; Chi, Zuofei; Hao, Liangchun

    2014-06-01

    UNC5H4 is a newly identified member of the UNC5H receptor family. Previously, we have demonstrated that UNC5H4 expression is significantly higher in favorable neuroblastomas than in unfavorable ones, and higher UNC5H4 level is correlated with longer survival time. However, the function of UNC5H4 in the tumorigenesis of neuroblastoma still remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of UNC5H4 overexpression on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. We showed that enforced expression of UNC5H4 receptor significantly inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth of SH-SY5Y cells. Cell migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y cells transfected with UNC5H4-expressing plasmid were obviously suppressed as compared to those transfected with emptor vector or non-transfected cells. Moreover, overexpression of UNC5H4 resulted in apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. The induction of apoptosis by UNC5H4 was completely abolished in the presence of its ligand, netrin-1. Finally, caspase cleavage and the presence of death domain were required for UNC5H4 to induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. These data suggest that the dependence receptor UNC5H4 may act as a putative tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma.

  5. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and in animal model of Parkinson's disease by enhancing Nrf2 activity.

    PubMed

    Jing, X; Shi, H; Zhang, C; Ren, M; Han, M; Wei, X; Zhang, X; Lou, H

    2015-02-12

    Oxidative stress is central to the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and therapeutics designed to enhance antioxidant potential could have clinical value. In this study, we investigated whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has therapeutic effects in cellular and animal model of PD, and explore the role of nuclear transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf2) in this process. Treatment of animals and dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells with DMF resulted in increased nuclear levels of active Nrf2, with subsequent upregulation of antioxidant target genes. The cytotoxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was reduced by pre-treatment with DMF in SH-SY5Y cells. The increase in the reactive oxygen species caused by 6-OHDA treatment was also attenuated by DMF in SH-SY5Y cells. The neuroprotective effects of DMF against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity were dependent on Nrf2, since treatment with Nrf2 siRNA failed to block against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and induce Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes in SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo, DMF oral administration was shown to upregulate mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective genes, attenuate 6-OHDA induced striatal oxidative stress and inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, DMF ameliorated dopaminergic neurotoxicity in 6-OHDA-induced PD animal models as evidenced by amelioration of locomotor dysfunction, loss in striatal dopamine, and reductions in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that DMF may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like PD. PMID:25449120

  6. Glial U87 cells protect neuronal SH-SY5Y cells from indirect effect of radiation by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Yasmeen; Xie, Bingjie; Xu, Jin; Rehman, Abdur; Hong, Ma; Hong, Qing; Deng, Yulin

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the role of indirect effect of radiation in neurodegeneration. However, the role of glial cells in neuroprotection against indirect effect of radiation is still not clear, although they are known to protect neurons under stress conditions in central nervous system. Our study showed that indirect effect of radiation increased the oxidative stress that further enhances the expression of key apoptotic proteins and leads to neuronal cell death. We also investigated the indirect effect of radiation on neuronal cells in the presence of glial cells in a transwell co-culture system, while our analysis was focused on neuronal cells. Irradiated cell-conditioned medium (ICCM) was used as source of indirect radiation and neuroprotective effect was analyzed by various endpoints. It was observed that ICCM-induced reactive oxidative species level was significantly reduced in SH-SY5Y cells co-cultured with glial U87 cells, which might help to maintain the integrity of mitochondrial membrane potential. Increased levels of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and antioxidant glutathione were observed in SH-SY5Y cells co-cultured with glial U87 cells. Moreover, it was also observed that co-culture with glial cells inhibits the expression of ICCM-induced apoptotic proteins, i.e. Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 in SH-SY5Y cells. Hence, it can be speculated that in co-culture system glial cells may protect the neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by reducing the ICCM-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic death.

  7. Regulatory effects of costunolide on dopamine metabolism-associated genes inhibit dopamine-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ahrom; Lee, Sung-Jin; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Mar, Woongchon

    2012-01-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra and the subsequent depletion of dopamine (DA). This study assessed the protective effects of costunolide on DA-induced apoptosis in human DAergic SH-SY5Y cells, and its regulation of DA metabolism-associated gene and protein expression. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining using flow cytometric analysis (FACS) revealed that costunolide significantly protected human DAergic SH-SY5Y cells against DA-induced apoptosis. In addition, co-treatment of costunolide with DA in SH-SY5Y cells regulated DA metabolism-associated gene expression, as we observed an increase in both mRNA and protein levels of nuclear receptor related-1 (Nurr1), DA transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2). In contrast, α-synuclein (ASYN) protein levels were decreased. Our findings suggest that costunolide has anti-apoptotic activity, presumably due to its regulatory effects on DA metabolism-associated genes. Therefore, costunolide could be considered as a candidate therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:22040670

  8. Neuroblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Neuroblastoma KidsHealth > For Parents > Neuroblastoma Print A A A ... infancy, the chance of recovery is good. About Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma is a rare disease in which a ...

  9. Chikusetsu saponin V attenuates MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells via regulation of Sirt1/Mn-SOD and GRP78/caspase-12 pathways.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ding; Wan, Jing-Zhi; Deng, Li-Li; Zhang, Chang-Cheng; Dun, Yao-Yan; Dai, Yan-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Chao-Qi; Wang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) possess neuroprotective effects. However, whether Chikusetsu saponin V (CsV), the most abundant member of SPJ, can exert neuroprotective effects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced cytotoxicity is not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of CsV on MPP+-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and explore its possible mechanisms. Our results show that CsV attenuates MPP+-induced cytotoxicity, inhibits ROS accumulation, and increases mitochondrial membrane potential dose-dependently. We also found that levels of Sirt1 protein and Mn-SOD mRNA significantly decreased in MPP+-treated group but were restored with CsV treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GRP78 protein and Caspase-12 mRNA levels were elevated by MPP+ exposure but reversed by CsV treatment. CsV inhibited the MPP+-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax in a dose-dependent manner and, thus, increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Overall, these results suggest that Sirt1/Mn-SOD and GRP78/Caspase-12 pathways might be involved in the CsV-mediated neuroprotective effects. PMID:25073091

  10. Tolfenamic acid inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation and induces apoptosis: a novel therapeutic agent for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Eslin, Don; Sankpal, Umesh T; Lee, Chris; Sutphin, Robert M; Maliakal, Pius; Currier, Erika; Sholler, Giselle; Khan, Moeez; Basha, Riyaz

    2013-05-01

    Current therapeutic options for recurrent neuroblastoma have poor outcomes that warrant the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors regulate several genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. Sp1 regulates genes believed to be important determinants of the biological behavior of neuroblastoma. Tolfenamic acid (TA), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to induce the degradation of Sp proteins and may serve as a novel anti-cancer agent. The objective of this investigation was to examine the anti-cancer activity of TA using established human neuroblastoma cell lines. We tested the anti-proliferative effect of TA using SH-SY5Y, CHLA90, LA1 55n, SHEP, Be2c, CMP 13Y, and SMS KCNR cell lines. Cells were treated with TA (0/25/50/100 µM) and cell viability was measured at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment. Selected neuroblastoma cell lines were treated with 50 µM TA for 24 and 48 h and tested for cell apoptosis using Annexin-V staining. Caspase activity was measured with caspase 3/7 Glo kit. Cell lysates were prepared and the expression of Sp1, survivin, and c-PARP were evaluated through Western blot analysis. TA significantly inhibited the growth of neuroblastoma cells in a dose/time-dependent manner and significantly decreased Sp1 and survivin expression. Apart from cell cycle (G0/G1) arrest, TA caused significant increase in the apoptotic cell population, caspase 3/7 activity, and c-PARP expression. These results show that TA effectively inhibits neuroblastoma cell growth potentially through suppressing mitosis, Sp1, and survivin expression, and inducing apoptosis. These results show TA as a novel therapeutic agent for neuroblastoma.

  11. The mixture of "ecstasy" and its metabolites is toxic to human SH-SY5Y differentiated cells at in vivo relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Daniel José; Capela, João Paulo; Silva, Renata; Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix

    2014-02-01

    The neurotoxicity of "ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is thought to involve hepatic metabolism, though its real contribution is not completely understood. Most in vitro neurotoxicity studies concern isolated exposures of MDMA or its metabolites, at high concentrations, not considering their mixture, as expected in vivo. Therefore, our postulate is that combined deleterious effects of MDMA and its metabolites, at low micromolar concentrations that may be attained into the brain, may elicit neurotoxicity. Using human SH-SY5Y differentiated cells as dopaminergic neuronal model, we studied the neurotoxicity of MDMA and its MDMA metabolites α-methyldopamine and N-methyl-α-methyldopamine and their correspondent glutathione and N-acetylcysteine monoconjugates, under isolated exposure and as a mixture, at normothermic or hyperthermic conditions. The results showed that the mixture of MDMA and its metabolites was toxic to SH-SY5Y differentiated cells, an effect potentiated by hyperthermia and prevented by N-acetylcysteine. As a mixture, MDMA and its metabolites presented a different toxicity profile, compared to each compound alone, even at equimolar concentrations. Caspase 3 activation, increased reactive oxygen species production, and intracellular Ca(2+) raises were implicated in the toxic effect. The mixture increased intracellular glutathione levels by increasing its de novo synthesis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated, for the first time, that the mixture of MDMA and its metabolites, at low micromolar concentrations, which represents a more realistic approach of the in vivo scenario, elicited toxicity to human SH-SY5Y differentiated cells, thus constituting a new insight into the context of MDMA-related neurotoxicity.

  12. Inhibition of beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity by pinocembrin through Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumin; Miao, Yingchun; Mir, Aamina Zia; Cheng, Long; Wang, Lina; Zhao, Linan; Cui, Qifu; Zhao, Weili; Wang, Hongquan

    2016-09-15

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) can cause neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It evokes a cascade of oxidative damage to neurons. Pinocembrin (PCB), the most abundant flavonoid in propolis, has been proven to have neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of PCB on Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to 25μM Aβ25-35 for 24h caused viability loss, apoptotic increase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase, pre-treatment with PCB for 4h significantly reduced the viability loss, apoptotic rate and attenuated Aβ-mediated ROS production. PCB strikingly inhibited Aβ25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, PCB suppressed the release of cytochrome c and the cleavage of caspase-3. PCB treatment also resulted in an increase in Nrf2 protein levels and subsequent induction of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) expression in SH-SY5Y cells. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression suppressed the PCB-induced HO-1 expression. Notably, we found that the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) markedly diminished the neuroprotective effect of PCB against Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results indicated that PCB protects SH-SY5Y cells from Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. Thus, activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathways and inhibition of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis together may protect cells from Aβ25-35-induceded neurotoxicity. PMID:27538638

  13. Differential effects of amisulpride and haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Woo; Seo, Mi Kyoung; Cho, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju; Seol, Wongi; Kim, Young Hoon

    2011-09-01

    Dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2)R) are the primary target of antipsychotic drugs and have been shown to regulate Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling through scaffolding protein β-arrestin 2. Amisulpride, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic drug, are both potent D(2)R antagonists, but their therapeutic effects differ. In the present study, we compared the effects of amisulpride and haloperidol on the β-arrestin 2-mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. To determine whether these drugs affected neuronal morphology in SH-SY5Y cells, we investigated the effects of amisulpride and haloperidol on neurite outgrowth using immunostaining. We examined the effects of these drugs on Akt and GSK-3β and its well-known downstream regulators, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Bcl-2 levels using Western blot analysis. Amisulpride, but not haloperidol, was found to enhance neurite outgrowth. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for β-arrestin 2 knockdown blocked the increase in amisulpride-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, amisulpride increased the levels of Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, while haloperidol had no effect. The elevation of Akt phosphorylation induced by amisulpride was reduced by β-arrestin 2 siRNA. Moreover, amisulpride effectively increased the levels of phospho-CREB, BDNF, and Bcl-2. However, haloperidol had no effect on the levels of these proteins. Additionally, wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor, blocked the stimulatory effect of amisulpride on phosphorylated Akt. Together, these results suggest that regulation of the β-arrestin 2-dependent pathway via blockade of the D(2)R in SH-SY5Y cells is one mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of amisulpride, but not haloperidol.

  14. The Neuroprotective Effect of Erythropoietin on Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Through the Induction of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Hee Ju; Li, Huan; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2016-08-01

    Currently, the autophagy pathway is thought to be important for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the modulation of autophagy may be a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been reported to have neuroprotective effects through anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and it has also been shown to modulate autophagy signaling in an oxygen toxicity model. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EPO on autophagy markers and evaluated its neuroprotective effect on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. We adapted the rotenone-induced neurotoxicity model to SH-SY5Y cells as an in vitro model of PD. We measured cell viability using MTT and annexin V/propidium iodide assays and measured intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Immunofluorescence analysis was performed to measure the expression of LC3 and α-synuclein. Intracellular signaling proteins associated with autophagy were examined by immunoblot analysis. EPO mono-treatment increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent/upstream autophagy markers, including Beclin-1, AMPK, and ULK-1. Rotenone treatment of SH-SY5Y cells reduced their viability, increased reactive oxygen species levels, and induced apoptosis and α-synuclein expression, and simultaneous exposure to EPO significantly reduced these effects. Rotenone enhanced mTOR expression and suppressed Beclin-1 expression, indicating suppression of the autophagy system. However, combined treatment with EPO restored Beclin-1 expression and decreased mTOR expression. EPO protects against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by enhancing autophagy-related signaling pathways. The experimental evidence for the EPO-induced neuroprotection against rotenone-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity may significantly impact the development of future PD treatment strategies. PMID:26156288

  15. Oxidized LDL lipids increase β-amyloid production by SH-SY5Y cells through glutathione depletion and lipid raft formation.

    PubMed

    Dias, Irundika H K; Mistry, Jayna; Fell, Shaun; Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M; Polidori, Maria C; Lip, Gregory Y H; Griffiths, Helen R

    2014-10-01

    Elevated total cholesterol in midlife has been associated with increased risk of dementia in later life. We have previously shown that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is more oxidized in the plasma of dementia patients, although total cholesterol levels are not different from those of age-matched controls. β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which accumulates in Alzheimer disease (AD), arises from the initial cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase-1 (BACE1). BACE1 activity is regulated by membrane lipids and raft formation. Given the evidence for altered lipid metabolism in AD, we have investigated a mechanism for enhanced Aβ production by SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells exposed to oxidized LDL (oxLDL). The viability of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 4μg oxLDL and 25µM 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OH-C) was decreased significantly. Lipids, but not proteins, extracted from oxLDL were more cytotoxic than oxLDL. In parallel, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione was decreased at sublethal concentrations of lipids extracted from native and oxLDL. GSH loss was associated with an increase in acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity and lipid raft formation, which could be inhibited by the ASMase inhibitor desipramine. 27OH-C and total lipids from LDL and oxLDL independently increased Aβ production by SH-SY5Y cells, and Aβ accumulation could be inhibited by desipramine and by N-acetylcysteine. These data suggest a mechanism whereby oxLDL lipids and 27OH-C can drive Aβ production by GSH depletion, ASMase-driven membrane remodeling, and BACE1 activation in neuronal cells.

  16. Altered sensitivity to ellagic acid in neuroblastoma cells undergoing differentiation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Alfredsson, Christina Fjæraa; Rendel, Filip; Liang, Qui-Li; Sundström, Birgitta E; Nånberg, Eewa

    2015-12-01

    Ellagic acid has previously been reported to induce reduced proliferation and activation of apoptosis in several tumor cell lines including our own previous data from non-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The aim of this study was now to investigate if in vitro differentiation with the phorbol ester 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or the vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid altered the sensitivity to ellagic acid in SH-SY5Y cells. The methods used were cell counting and LDH-assay for evaluation of cell number and cell death, flow cytometric analysis of SubG1- and TUNEL-analysis for apoptosis and western blot for expression of apoptosis-associated proteins. In vitro differentiation was shown to reduce the sensitivity to ellagic acid with respect to cell detachment, loss of viability and activation of apoptosis. The protective effect was phenotype-specific and most prominent in all-trans retinoic acid-differentiated cultures. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of Bcl-2 and integrin expression is introduced as possible protective mechanisms. The presented data also point to a positive correlation between proliferative activity and sensitivity to ellagic-acid-induced cell detachment. In conclusion, the presented data emphasize the need to consider degree of neuronal differentiation and phenotype of neuroblastoma cells when discussing a potential pharmaceutical application of ellagic acid in tumor treatment.

  17. Interleukin-18 alters protein expressions of neurodegenerative diseases-linked proteins in human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutinen, Elina M.; Korolainen, Minna A.; Häyrinen, Jukka; Alafuzoff, Irina; Petratos, Steven; Salminen, Antero; Soininen, Hilkka; Pirttilä, Tuula; Ojala, Johanna O.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are present in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains in addition to neuronal loss, Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-protein neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Previously we showed that levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18), are elevated in post-mortem AD brains. IL-18 can modulate the tau kinases, Cdk5 and GSK3β, as well as Aβ-production. IL-18 levels are also increased in AD risk diseases, including type-2 diabetes and obesity. Here, we explored other IL-18 regulated proteins in neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, incubated with IL-18 for 24, 48, or 72 h, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Specific altered protein spots were chosen and identified with mass spectrometry (MS) and verified by western immunoblotting (WIB). IL-18 had time-dependent effects on the SH-SY5Y proteome, modulating numerous protein levels/modifications. We concentrated on those related to OS (DDAH2, peroxiredoxins 2, 3, and 6, DJ-1, BLVRA), Aβ-degradation (MMP14, TIMP2), Aβ-aggregation (Septin-2), and modifications of axon growth and guidance associated, collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2). IL-18 significantly increased antioxidative enzymes, indicative of OS, and altered levels of glycolytic α- and γ-enolase and multifunctional 14-3-3γ and -ε, commonly affected in neurodegenerative diseases. MMP14, TIMP2, α-enolase and 14-3-3ε, indirectly involved in Aβ metabolism, as well as Septin-2 showed changes that increase Aβ levels. Increased 14-3-3γ may contribute to GSK3β driven tau hyperphosphorylation and CRMP2 Thr514 and Ser522 phosphorylation with the Thr555-site, a target for Rho kinase, showing time-dependent changes. IL-18 also increased caspase-1 levels and vacuolization of the cells. Although our SH-SY5Y cells were not aged, as neurons in AD, our work suggests that heightened or prolonged IL-18 levels can drive protein changes of

  18. Shielding of the Geomagnetic Field Alters Actin Assembly and Inhibits Cell Motility in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Wei-Chuan; Zhang, Zi-Jian; Wang, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ying; Bartlett, Perry F.; He, Rong-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that absence of the geomagnetic field (GMF), the so-called hypomagnetic field (HMF) environment, alters the biological functions in seemingly non-magnetosensitive cells and organisms, which indicates that the GMF could be sensed by non-iron-rich and non-photo-sensing cells. The underlying mechanisms of the HMF effects on those cells are closely related to their GMF sensation but remain poorly understood so far. Previously, we found that the HMF represses expressions of genes associated with cell migration and cytoskeleton assembly in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cell line). Here, we measured the HMF-induced changes on cell morphology, adhesion, motility and actin cytoskeleton in SH-SY5Y cells. The HMF inhibited cell adhesion and migration accompanied with a reduction in cellular F-actin amount. Moreover, following exposure to the HMF, the number of cell processes was reduced and cells were smaller in size and more round in shape. Furthermore, disordered kinetics of actin assembly in vitro were observed during exposure to the HMF, as evidenced by the presence of granule and meshed products. These results indicate that elimination of the GMF affects assembly of the motility-related actin cytoskeleton, and suggest that F-actin is a target of HMF exposure and probably a mediator of GMF sensation. PMID:27029216

  19. Functional characterization of a new p53 mutant generated by homozygous deletion in a neuroblastoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Yohko; Ozaki, Toshinori; Niizuma, Hidetaka; Ohira, Miki; Kamijo, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Akira . E-mail: akiranak@chiba-cc.jp

    2007-03-23

    p53 is a key modulator of a variety of cellular stresses. In human neuroblastomas, p53 is rarely mutated and aberrantly expressed in cytoplasm. In this study, we have identified a novel p53 mutant lacking its COOH-terminal region in neuroblastoma SK-N-AS cells. p53 accumulated in response to cisplatin (CDDP) and thereby promoting apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells bearing wild-type p53, whereas SK-N-AS cells did not undergo apoptosis. We found another p53 (p53{delta}C) lacking a part of oligomerization domain and nuclear localization signals in SK-N-AS cells. p53{delta}C was expressed largely in cytoplasm and lost the transactivation function. Furthermore, a 3'-part of the p53 locus was homozygously deleted in SK-N-AS cells. Thus, our present findings suggest that p53 plays an important role in the DNA-damage response in certain neuroblastoma cells and it seems to be important to search for p53 mutations outside DNA-binding domain.

  20. Chronic neuroprotective effects of low concentration lithium on SH-SY5Y cells: possible involvement of stress proteins and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Riadh; Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jbahi, Samira; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Vincent, Christian; Croute, Françoise

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of lithium on cells, in this study, we exposed SH-SY5Y cells to 0.5 mmol/L lithium carbonate (Li2CO2) for 25-50 weeks and then detected the expression levels of some neurobiology related genes and post-translational modifications of stress proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. cDNA arrays showed that pyruvate kinase 2 (PKM2) and calmodulin 3 (CaM 3) expression levels were significantly down-regulated, phosphatase protein PP2A expression was lightly down-regulated, and casein kinase II (CK2), threonine/tyrosine phosphatase 7 (PYST2), and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) expression levels were significantly up-regulated. Besides, western blot analysis of stress proteins (HSP27, HSP70, GRP78 and GRP94) showed an over-expression of two proteins: a 105 kDa protein which is a hyper-phosphorylated isoform of GRP94, and a 108 kDa protein which is a phosphorylated tetramer of HSP27. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of lithium are likely related to gene expressions and post-translational modifications of proteins cited above.

  1. S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase Plays Opposite Roles in SH-SY5Y Models of Parkinson's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rizza, Salvatore; Cirotti, Claudia; Montagna, Costanza; Cardaci, Simone; Consales, Claudia; Cozzolino, Mauro; Carrì, Maria Teresa; Cecconi, Francesco; Filomeni, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stresses have been reported as detrimental phenomena concurring to the onset of several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we reported that the ectopic modulation of the denitrosylating enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) differently impinges on the phenotype of two SH-SY5Y-based in vitro models of neurodegeneration, namely, Parkinson's disease (PD) and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). In particular, we provide evidence that GSNOR-knocking down protects SH-SY5Y against PD toxins, while, by contrast, its upregulation is required for G93A-SOD1 expressing cells resistance to NO-releasing drugs. Although completely opposite, both conditions are characterized by Nrf2 localization in the nuclear compartment: in the first case induced by GSNOR silencing, while in the second one underlying the antinitrosative response. Overall, our results demonstrate that GSNOR expression has different effect on neuronal viability in dependence on the stimulus applied and suggest that GSNOR could be a responsive gene downstream of Nrf2 activation. PMID:26491229

  2. Carnosic acid protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death through upregulation of parkin pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2016-11-01

    Parkin is a Parkinson's disease (PD)-linked gene that plays an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). This study explored whether carnosic acid (CA) from rosemary protects against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity via upregulation of parkin in vivo and in vitro. We found that the reduction in proteasomal activity by 6-OHDA was attenuated in SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with 1 μM CA. Immunoblots showed that CA reversed the induction of ubiquitinated protein and the reduction of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin protein in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells and rats. Moreover, in a transgenic OW13 Caenorhabditis elegans model of PD that expresses human α-synuclein in muscle cells, CA reduced α-synuclein accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. In cells pretreated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, CA no longer reversed the 6-OHDA-mediated induction of cleavage of caspase 3 and poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase and no longer reversed the suppression of proteasome activity. When parkin expression was silenced by use of small interfering RNA, the ability of CA to inhibit apoptosis and induce proteasomal activity was significantly reduced. The reduction in 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by CA was associated with the induction of parkin, which in turn upregulated the UPS and then decreased cell death. PMID:27091487

  3. Chronic neuroprotective effects of low concentration lithium on SH-SY5Y cells: possible involvement of stress proteins and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Riadh; Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jbahi, Samira; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Vincent, Christian; Croute, Françoise

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of lithium on cells, in this study, we exposed SH-SY5Y cells to 0.5 mmol/L lithium carbonate (Li2CO2) for 25-50 weeks and then detected the expression levels of some neurobiology related genes and post-translational modifications of stress proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. cDNA arrays showed that pyruvate kinase 2 (PKM2) and calmodulin 3 (CaM 3) expression levels were significantly down-regulated, phosphatase protein PP2A expression was lightly down-regulated, and casein kinase II (CK2), threonine/tyrosine phosphatase 7 (PYST2), and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) expression levels were significantly up-regulated. Besides, western blot analysis of stress proteins (HSP27, HSP70, GRP78 and GRP94) showed an over-expression of two proteins: a 105 kDa protein which is a hyper-phosphorylated isoform of GRP94, and a 108 kDa protein which is a phosphorylated tetramer of HSP27. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of lithium are likely related to gene expressions and post-translational modifications of proteins cited above. PMID:25206881

  4. Mechanisms of CDDO-imidazolide-mediated cytoprotection against acrolein-induced neurocytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and primary human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Speen, Adam; Jones, Colton; Patel, Ruby; Shah, Halley; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous unsaturated aldehyde has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders. However, limited study has been conducted into potential therapeutic protection and underlying mechanism against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity via upregulation of cellular aldehyde-detoxification defenses. In this study we have utilized RA-differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells and primary human astrocytes to investigate the induction of glutathione (GSH) by the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dixooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) and the protective effects CDDO-Im-mediated antioxidant defenses on acrolein toxicity. Acrolein exposure to RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant time dependent depletion of cellular GSH preceding a reduction in cell viability and LDH release. Further, we demonstrated the predominance of cellular GSH in protection against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) at 25μM dramatically depleted GSH and significantly potentiated acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of the cells with 100nM CDDO-Im afforded a dramatic protection against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of BSO and CDDO was found to prevent the CDDO-Im-mediated GSH induction and partially reversed the cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im against acrolein cytotoxicity. Overall, this study represents for the first time the CDDO-Im mediated upregulation of GSH is a predominant mechanism against acrolein-induced neurotoxicity.

  5. Polysulfides protect SH-SY5Y cells from methylglyoxal-induced toxicity by suppressing protein carbonylation: A possible physiological scavenger for carbonyl stress in the brain.

    PubMed

    Koike, Shin; Kayama, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi; Komine, Daisuke; Tanaka, Ryo; Nishimoto, Shoichi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kishida, Atsushi; Ogasawara, Yuki

    2016-07-01

    The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with various neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, is known to be a major precursor for AGEs in modified proteins. Thus, a scavenger of MG might provide beneficial effects by suppressing the accumulation of AGEs and the occurrence of diseases induced by carbonyl stress. Meanwhile, polysulfides, one of the typical bound sulfur species, are oxidized forms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and may play a variety of roles in the brain. Herein, we assessed the scavenging ability of polysulfides against neuronal carbonyl stress induced by MG. First, we showed that polysulfides could protect differentiated (df)-SH-SY5Y cells from MG-induced cytotoxicity. When cells were pretreated with polysulfides, MG-induced cytotoxicity was attenuated with a rapid decrease in intracellular MG levels. Moreover, we found that polysulfides significantly suppressed the formation of MG-modified proteins in df-SH-SY5Y cells. Although polysulfide treatment increased endogenous GSH levels in the neuronal cells, its effects on MG-induced cytotoxicity were not affected by GSH concentration. Our results demonstrated that polysulfides had the direct potentials to protect neuronal cells against MG separate to the enzymatic detoxification system that required GSH. PMID:27163164

  6. Chronic neuroprotective effects of low concentration lithium on SH-SY5Y cells: possible involvement of stress proteins and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Nciri, Riadh; Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jbahi, Samira; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Vincent, Christian; Croute, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of lithium on cells, in this study, we exposed SH-SY5Y cells to 0.5 mmol/L lithium carbonate (Li2CO2) for 25–50 weeks and then detected the expression levels of some neurobiology related genes and post-translational modifications of stress proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. cDNA arrays showed that pyruvate kinase 2 (PKM2) and calmodulin 3 (CaM 3) expression levels were significantly down-regulated, phosphatase protein PP2A expression was lightly down-regulated, and casein kinase II (CK2), threonine/tyrosine phosphatase 7 (PYST2), and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) expression levels were significantly up-regulated. Besides, western blot analysis of stress proteins (HSP27, HSP70, GRP78 and GRP94) showed an over-expression of two proteins: a 105 kDa protein which is a hyper-phosphorylated isoform of GRP94, and a 108 kDa protein which is a phosphorylated tetramer of HSP27. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of lithium are likely related to gene expressions and post-translational modifications of proteins cited above. PMID:25206881

  7. Quantitative proteomics study of the neuroprotective effects of B12 on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lijun; Zhou, Juntuo; Chen, Xi; Lou, Yaxin; Liu, Dan; Zou, Xiajuan; Yang, Bin; Yin, Yuxin; Pan, Yan

    2016-01-01

    B12 belongs to the coumarin class of compounds that have been shown to have various physiological and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant. In the present study, we characterised the neuroprotective effects of B12 against H2O2-induced neuronal cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells. Protein expression profiling in combination with pathway analysis was deployed to investigate the molecular events associated with the neuroprotective effects in human neuronal cells using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. A total of 22 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in H2O2-damaged cells with or without B12 treatment. Bioinformatics analysis using the Cytoscape platform indicated that poly pyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) was highly associated with the protective effect, and western blotting verified that PTBP1 was up-regulated in H2O2 + B12 treatment group, compared with the H2O2 treated group. PTBP RNAi experiments knocked down PTBP expression, which cancelled out the protective effect of B12 on cell viability. Thus, we infer that B12 neuroprotective activity involves up-regulation of PTBP1 and its associated signalling networks following H2O2-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. B12 or related compounds may prove to be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. PMID:26951766

  8. The link between mitochondrial complex I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in SH-SY5Y cells--The potential of JNX1001 as a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helena K; Mendonça, Karina M; Howson, Patrick A; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Andreazza, Ana C

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial complex I, which is the first member of the electron transport chain responsible for producing ATP, can produce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress when it becomes dysfunctional. Complex I dysfunction and oxidative stress are strongly implicated in bipolar disorder (BD), a debilitating psychiatric disease, as is decreased levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) found in patients with BD, which is related to complex I activity. JNX1001, a clinical trial ready brain penetrant sapogenin, increases BDNF levels in animal models. Hence, we aimed to examine if JNX1001 can prevent complex I dysfunction-induced alterations produced by rotenone treatment in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Complex I dysfunction decreased cell viability and increased protein carbonylation and nitration, confirming previous findings. Complex I dysfunction also decreased intracellular and extracellular BDNF levels. JNX1001 pre-treatment prevented complex I dysfunction-induced protein carbonylation and nitration and improved cell viability at concentrations of 30 nM and 300 nM, but more robustly at 300 nM. JNX1001 was also able to prevent decreased intracellular and extracellular BDNF levels, where it produced a ten-fold increase in intracellular BDNF levels at a concentration of 300 nM. While further studies are required to examine the neuroprotective ability of JNX1001 against alterations produced by complex I defect in more complex systems, such as in animal models, the findings of this study demonstrate the potential of JNX1001 to be used as a therapeutic agent to protect against complex I dysfunction-induced alterations that may be highly relevant to BD.

  9. 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid inhibits amyloid β-mediated cellular toxicity on SH-SY5Y cells through the upregulation of PGAM1 and G3PDH.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yusaku; Han, Junkyu; Sasaki, Kazunori; Terakawa, Mika; Isoda, Hiroko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2011-03-01

    Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) is one of the phenylpropanoids found in a variety of natural resources and foods, such as sweet potatoes, propolis, and coffee. Previously, we reported that 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-di-CQA) has a neuroprotective effect against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced cell death through the overexpression of glycolytic enzyme. Additionally, 3,5-di-CQA administration induced the improvement of spatial learning and memory on senescence accelerated-prone mice (SAMP8). The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-tri-CQA), isolated from propolis, shows a neuroprotective effect against Aβ-induced cell death on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. To clarify the possible mechanism, we performed proteomics and real-time RT-PCR as well as a measurement of the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level. These results showed that 3,4,5-tri-CQA attenuated the cytotoxicity and prevented Aβ-mediated apoptosis. Glycolytic enzymes, phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) were overexpressed in co-treated cells with both 3,4,5-tri-CQA and Aβ. The mRNA expression of PGAM1, G3PDH, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), and intracellular ATP level were also increased in 3,4,5-tri-CQA treated cells. Taken together the findings in our study suggests that 3,4,5-tri-CQA shows a neuroprotective effect against Aβ-induced cell death through the upregulation of glycolytic enzyme mRNA as well as ATP production activation.

  10. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna; Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M.T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  11. Synergistic efficacy of sorafenib and genistein in growth inhibition by down regulating angiogenic and survival factors and increasing apoptosis through upregulation of p53 and p21 in malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification or non-amplification.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Subhasree; Karmakar, Surajit; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2010-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is an extracranial, solid, and heterogeneous malignancy in children. The conventional therapeutic modalities are mostly ineffective and thus new therapeutic strategies for malignant neuroblastoma are urgently warranted. We examined the synergistic efficacy of combination of sorafenib (SF) and genistein (GST) in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ (N-Myc amplified) and SH-SY5Y (N-Myc non-amplified) cell lines. MTT assay showed dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and the combination therapy more prominently inhibited the cell proliferation in both cell lines than either treatment alone. Apoptosis was confirmed morphologically by Wright staining. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle phase distribution and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed increase in subG1 DNA content and early apoptosis, respectively, after treatment with the combination of drugs. Apoptosis was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Combination therapy showed activation of caspase-8, cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in p53 and p21 expression, down regulation of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1, and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio to trigger apoptosis. Down regulation of MDR, hTERT, N-Myc, VEGF, FGF-2, NF-κB, p-Akt, and c-IAP2 indicated suppression of angiogenic and survival pathways. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac into cytosol indicated involvement of mitochondia in apoptosis. Increases in proteolytic activities of calpain and caspase-3 were also confirmed. Our results suggested that combination of SF and GST inhibited angiogenic and survival factors and increased apoptosis via receptor and mitochondria mediated pathways in both neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and SH-SY5Y cell lines. Thus, this combination of drugs could be a potential therapeutic strategy against human malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification or non-amplification. PMID:19777160

  12. Synergistic efficacy of sorafenib and genistein in growth inhibition by down regulating angiogenic and survival factors and increasing apoptosis through upregulation of p53 and p21 in malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification or non-amplification.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Subhasree; Karmakar, Surajit; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2010-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is an extracranial, solid, and heterogeneous malignancy in children. The conventional therapeutic modalities are mostly ineffective and thus new therapeutic strategies for malignant neuroblastoma are urgently warranted. We examined the synergistic efficacy of combination of sorafenib (SF) and genistein (GST) in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ (N-Myc amplified) and SH-SY5Y (N-Myc non-amplified) cell lines. MTT assay showed dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and the combination therapy more prominently inhibited the cell proliferation in both cell lines than either treatment alone. Apoptosis was confirmed morphologically by Wright staining. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle phase distribution and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed increase in subG1 DNA content and early apoptosis, respectively, after treatment with the combination of drugs. Apoptosis was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Combination therapy showed activation of caspase-8, cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in p53 and p21 expression, down regulation of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1, and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio to trigger apoptosis. Down regulation of MDR, hTERT, N-Myc, VEGF, FGF-2, NF-κB, p-Akt, and c-IAP2 indicated suppression of angiogenic and survival pathways. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac into cytosol indicated involvement of mitochondia in apoptosis. Increases in proteolytic activities of calpain and caspase-3 were also confirmed. Our results suggested that combination of SF and GST inhibited angiogenic and survival factors and increased apoptosis via receptor and mitochondria mediated pathways in both neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and SH-SY5Y cell lines. Thus, this combination of drugs could be a potential therapeutic strategy against human malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification or non-amplification.

  13. Curcumin inhibits apoptosis by regulating intracellular calcium release, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial depolarization levels in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Öz, Ahmi; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are incurable progressive neurological disorders caused by the degeneration of neuronal cells and characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Curcumin, a turmeric product, is an anti-inflammatory agent and an effective reactive oxygen and nitrogen species scavenging molecule. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the main source of oxidative stress, which is claimed to be the major source of neurological disorders. Hence, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on Ca(2+) signaling, oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial depolarization levels and caspase-3 and -9 activities that are induced by the H2O2 model of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were divided into four groups namely, the control, curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups. The dose and duration of curcumin and H2O2 were determined from published data. The cells in the curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups were incubated for 24 h with 5 µM curcumin and 100 µM H2O2. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentrations were higher in the H2O2 group than in the control group; however, their levels were lower in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group alone. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were lower in the H2O2 group although they were higher in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group. Caspase-3 activity was lower in the curcumin group than in the H2O2 group. In conclusion, curcumin strongly induced modulator effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and the caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in SH-SY5Y cells.

  14. Contactin‑associated protein‑like 2 expression in SH‑SY5Y cells is upregulated by a FOXP2 mutant with a shortened poly‑glutamine tract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunjing; Liu, Xiaoliang; Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Yueping; Yang, Wenzhu; Ma, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    The forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) gene encodes an important transcription factor that contains a polyglutamine (poly‑Q) tract and a forkhead DNA binding domain. It has been observed that FOXP2 is associated with speech sound disorder (SSD), and mutations that decrease the length of the poly‑Q tract were identified in the FOXP2 gene of SSD patients. However, the exact role of poly‑Q reduction is not well understood. In the present study, constructs expressing wild‑type and poly‑Q reduction mutants of FOXP2 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lentiviral vectors and transfected into the SH‑SY5Y neuronal cell line. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)‑PCR and western blotting indicated that infected cells stably expressed high levels of FOXP2. Using this cell model, the impact of FOXP2 on the expression of contactin‑associated protein‑like 2 (CNTNAP2) were investigated, and CNTNAP2 mRNA expression levels were observed to be significantly higher in cells expressing poly‑Q‑reduced FOXP2. In addition, the expression level of CASPR2, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Neurexin IV, was increased in cells expressing the FOXP2 mutant. Demonstration of regulation by FOXP2 indicates that CNTNAP2 may also be involved in SSD.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of chronic exposure of SH-SY5Y to low lithium concentration involve glycolysis stimulation, extracellular pyruvate accumulation and resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Riadh; Desmoulin, Frank; Allagui, Mohamed Saleh; Murat, Jean-Claude; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Vincent, Christian; Croute, Françoise

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that lithium protects neurons from death induced by a wide array of neurotoxic insults, stimulates neurogenesis and could be used to prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells were cultured in the absence (Con) or in the presence (Li+) of a low lithium concentration (0.5 mm Li2CO3, i.e. 1 mm lithium ion) for 25-50 wk. In the course of treatment, growth rate of Con and Li+ cells was regularly analysed using Alamar Blue dye. Resistance to oxidative stress was investigated by evaluating: (1) the adverse effects of high concentrations of lithium (4-8 mm) or glutamate (20-90 mm) on cell growth rate; (2) the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and total glutathione; (3) the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. In addition, glucose metabolism was investigated by analysing selected metabolites in culture media and cell extracts by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As compared to Con, Li+ cells multiplied faster and were more resistant to stress, as evidenced by a lower dose-dependent decrease of Alamar Blue reduction and dose-dependent increase of TBARS levels induced by toxic doses of lithium and glutamate. Total glutathione content and Bcl-2 level were increased in Li+ cells. Glucose consumption and glycolytic activity were enhanced in Li+ cells and an important release of pyruvate was observed. We conclude that chronic exposure to lithium induces adaptive changes in metabolism of SH-SY5Y cells involving a higher cell growth rate and a better resistance to oxidative stress.

  16. Rosiglitazone inhibits chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Jang, Sea Jeong; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2014-07-15

    Oxidative stress can lead to expression of inflammatory transcription factors, which are important regulatory elements in the induction of inflammatory responses. One of the transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) plays a significant role in the inflammation regulatory process. Inflammatory cell death has been implicated in neuronal cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis initiated by chlorpyrifos (CPF)-mediated oxidative stress. Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of CPF, we examined the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, against CPF-induced neuronal cell death. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CPF induced oxidative stress. In addition, CPF activated the p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and induced increases in the inflammatory genes such as COX-2 and TNF-α. CPF also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibitors of NF-κB abolished the CPF-induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with RGZ significantly reduced ROS generation and enhanced HO-1 expression in CPF-exposed cells. RGZ blocked the activation of both p38 and JNK signaling, while ERK activation was strengthened. RGZ also attenuated CPF-induced cell death through the reduction of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory factors. Results from this study suggest that RGZ may exert an anti-apoptotic effect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity by attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inhibition of the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of signaling by p38 and JNK, and NF-κB. - Highlights: • CPF induces apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells • ROS involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Inflammation involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Rosiglitazone modulates ROS and inflammatory response in CPF-treated cells.

  17. Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Xiaotong

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, mediates the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, the effect of astaxanthin, a marine bioactive compound, on acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that astaxanthin protected cells from apoptosis by ameliorating the effect of acetaldehyde on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, preventing the reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak induced by acetaldehyde. Further analyses showed that astaxanthin treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced reduction of the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Astaxanthin treatment also prevented acetaldehyde-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and decrease of the level of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Activation of Akt/CREB pathway promotes cell survival and is involved in the upregulation of Bcl-2 gene. P38MAPK plays a critical role in apoptotic events while ERKs mediates the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, astaxanthin may inhibit acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis through promoting the activation of Akt/CREB and ERKs and blocking the activation of p38MAPK. In addition, astaxanthin treatment suppressed the oxidative stress induced by acetaldehyde and restored the antioxidative capacity of SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, astaxanthin may protect cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity through maintaining redox balance and modulating apoptotic and survival signals. The results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:26978376

  18. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field (ELF-MF) Exposure Sensitizes SH-SY5Y Cells to the Pro-Parkinson's Disease Toxin MPP(.).

    PubMed

    Benassi, Barbara; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Montagna, Costanza; Merla, Caterina; Lopresto, Vanni; Pinto, Rosanna; Marino, Carmela; Consales, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss, with an etiopathogenesis involving both genetic and environmental factors. The occupational/residential exposure to the electromagnetic fields has been recently associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases; it has been thus proposed that the extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may contribute to neurodegenerative etiopathogenesis, as its interaction with biological systems directly impairs redox homeostasis in specific areas of the brain. The molecular mechanisms elicited by ELF-MF, and their potential involvement in PD onset, still remain unclear. To this end, we set up a generator of ELF-MF able to stably and homogeneously reproduce environmental prolonged exposure to ELF-MF (50 Hz, 1 mT). Results obtained indicate that ELF-MF exposure alters cell response of SH-SY5Y cells to MPP(+). We demonstrate that ELF-MF does not affect per se survival, shape, and morphology of both proliferating and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells but significantly impairs redox homeostasis and thiol content, triggering an increase in protein carbonylation. As a result, toxicity of MPP(+), even at low doses, is highly enhanced in ELF-MF-exposed cells due to a significant increase in ROS levels, potentiation of oxidative damage, and induction of a caspase-dependent apoptosis. Pre-incubation with the thiol antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine and GSH ethyl-ester significantly reduces the extent of oxidative damage and protects cells from death induced by the combined treatment ELF-MF/MPP(+). Taken overall, our results demonstrate the redox-based molecular interaction between ELF-MF and PD neurotoxins in vitro, and open a new scenario for defining the synergy of environmental factors in PD onset.

  19. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field (ELF-MF) Exposure Sensitizes SH-SY5Y Cells to the Pro-Parkinson's Disease Toxin MPP(.).

    PubMed

    Benassi, Barbara; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Montagna, Costanza; Merla, Caterina; Lopresto, Vanni; Pinto, Rosanna; Marino, Carmela; Consales, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss, with an etiopathogenesis involving both genetic and environmental factors. The occupational/residential exposure to the electromagnetic fields has been recently associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases; it has been thus proposed that the extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may contribute to neurodegenerative etiopathogenesis, as its interaction with biological systems directly impairs redox homeostasis in specific areas of the brain. The molecular mechanisms elicited by ELF-MF, and their potential involvement in PD onset, still remain unclear. To this end, we set up a generator of ELF-MF able to stably and homogeneously reproduce environmental prolonged exposure to ELF-MF (50 Hz, 1 mT). Results obtained indicate that ELF-MF exposure alters cell response of SH-SY5Y cells to MPP(+). We demonstrate that ELF-MF does not affect per se survival, shape, and morphology of both proliferating and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells but significantly impairs redox homeostasis and thiol content, triggering an increase in protein carbonylation. As a result, toxicity of MPP(+), even at low doses, is highly enhanced in ELF-MF-exposed cells due to a significant increase in ROS levels, potentiation of oxidative damage, and induction of a caspase-dependent apoptosis. Pre-incubation with the thiol antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine and GSH ethyl-ester significantly reduces the extent of oxidative damage and protects cells from death induced by the combined treatment ELF-MF/MPP(+). Taken overall, our results demonstrate the redox-based molecular interaction between ELF-MF and PD neurotoxins in vitro, and open a new scenario for defining the synergy of environmental factors in PD onset. PMID:26223801

  20. Changes in the NMR Metabolic Profile of Live Human Neuron-Like SH-SY5Y Cells Exposed to Interferon-α2.

    PubMed

    Valeria, Righi; Luisa, Schenetti; Adele, Mucci; Stefania, Benatti; Fabio, Tascedda; Nicoletta, Brunello; Carmine, Pariante M; Silvia, Alboni

    2016-03-01

    Interferon (IFN)-α2 is an extensively therapeutically used pro-inflammatory cytokine. Though its efficacy in controlling viral replication and tumor cells proliferation, administration of IFN-α2 is often associated with the development of central side effects. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have demonstrated that IFN-α2 administration affects brain metabolism, however the exact nature of this effect is not completely known. We hypothesized that IFN-α2 can affect metabolic activity of human neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells which possess many characteristics of neurons and represent one of the most used models for studying mechanisms involved in neurotoxicity or neuroprotection. To test our hypothesis we have characterized the metabolic signature of live SH-SY5Y, and their conditioned media, after 24 and 72 h of exposure to vehicle or IFN-α2 (100 ng/ml) by using High Resolution-Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Our results revealed that 1) the use of HR-MAS NMR is ideally suitable for the characterization of the metabolic profile of live cells and their conditioned media without extraction procedures; and 2) a 72 h exposure to IFN-α2 increases the level of metabolites involved in maintaining energetic (including creatine and lactate) and osmotic (such as myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, taurine and glycerophosphorylcholine) balances in neuron-like cells and of metabolic waste products (namely lactate, ethanol and acetate), glycine and glutamine in their growth media. These results may contribute to gain more knowledge about the IFN-α2 induced effect on the brain and support the interpretation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies performed in humans. PMID:26541470

  1. Upregulation of HIF-1α by hypoxia protect neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis by promoting survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Yin, Cui-Ping; Zhao, Qian; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of main types of neural cell death and is reversible and is a major target of therapeutic interventions. However, detailed apoptotic cascades still need to be recognized. In present study, we determined the promotion of HIF-1α and survivin in brain samples of a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemia and in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells post hypoxia treatment. Then gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies were adopted to manipulate the HIF-1α in SH-SY5Y cells, and hypoxia-induced survivin upregulation and cell apoptosis were determined. Results demonstrated that the HIF-1α and survivin were significantly promoted in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemia or in SH-SY5Y cells post hypoxia in vitro. Manually upregulated HIF-1α could promote the hypoxia-induced survivin upregulation and improve the hypoxia-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. On the other hand, the HIF-1α knockdown by RNAi reduced the hypoxia-induced survivin upregulation and cell apoptosis. Therefore, the present study confirmed the protective role of HIF-1α and survivin in the hypoxia-induced SH- SY5Y cell apoptosis, and the survivin upregulation by hypoxia is HIF-1α-dependent. Promotion of HIF-1α and survivin might be a valuable stragegy for therapeutic intervention for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  2. Reversible effects of sphingomyelin degradation on cholesterol distribution and metabolism in fibroblasts and transformed neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Slotte, J P

    1990-10-01

    Plasma-membrane sphingomyelin appears to be one of the major determinants of the preferential allocation of cell cholesterol into the plasma-membrane compartment, since removal of sphingomyelin leads to a dramatic redistribution of cholesterol within the cell [Slotte & Bierman (1988) Biochem. J. 250, 653-658]. In the present study we examined the long-term effects of sphingomyelin degradation on cholesterol redistribution in cells and determined the reversibility of the process. In a human lung fibroblast-cell line, removal of 80% of the sphingomyelin led to a rapid and transient up-regulation (3-fold) of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, and also, within 30 h, to the translocation of about 50% of the cell non-esterified cholesterol from a cholesterol oxidase-susceptible compartment (i.e. the cell surface) to oxidase-resistant compartments. At 49 h after the initial sphingomyelin degradation, the cell sphingomyelin level was back to 45% of the control level, and the direction of cell cholesterol flow was toward the cell surface, although the original distribution was not achieved. In a transformed neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), the depletion of sphingomyelin led to a similarly rapid and transient up-regulation of ACAT activity, and to the translocation of about 25% of cell-surface cholesterol into internal membranes (within 3 h). The flow of cholesterol back to the cholesterol oxidase-susceptible pool was rapid, and a pretreatment cholesterol distribution was reached within 20-49 h. Also, the resynthesis of sphingomyelin was faster in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and reached control levels within 24 h. The findings of the present study show that the cellular redistribution of cholesterol, as induced by sphingomyelin degradation, is reversible and suggest that the normalization of cellular cholesterol distribution is linked to the re-synthesis of sphingomyelin.

  3. Astroglial U87 Cells Protect Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells from Indirect Effect of Radiation by Reducing DNA Damage and Inhibiting Fas Mediated Apoptotic Pathway in Coculture System.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Yasmeen; Rehman, Abdul; Xie, Bingjie; Xu, Jin; Hong, Ma; Hong, Qing; Deng, Yulin

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies provide the evidence that indirect effects of radiation could lead to neuronal cells death but underlying mechanism is not completely understood. On the other hand astroglial cells are known to protect neuronal cells against stress conditions in vivo and invitro. Yet, the fate of neuronal cells and the neuroprotective effect of coculture system (with glial cells) in response to indirect radiation exposure remain rarely discussed. Here, we purpose that the indirect effect of radiation may induce DNA damage by cell cycle arrest and receptor mediated apoptotic cascade which lead to apoptotic death of neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We also hypothesized that coculture (with glial U87) may relieved the neuronal SH-SY5Y cells from toxicity of indirect effects radiation by reducing DNA damage and expression of apoptotic proteins in vitro. In the present study irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) was used as source of indirect effect of radiation. Neuronal SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to ICCM with and without coculture with (glial U87) in transwell coculture system respectively. Various endpoints such as, cell survival number assay, Annexin V/PI assay, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometer, mRNA level of Fas receptor by q RT-PCR, expression of key apoptotic proteins by western blot and estimation of neurotrophic factors by ELISA method were analyzed into neuronal SH-SY5Y cells with and without co culture after ICCM exposure respectively. We found that ICCM induced DNA damage in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by significant increase in cell cycle arrest at S-phase (***P < 0.001) which was further supported by over expression of P53 protein (**P < 0.01). While coculture (with glial U87), significantly reduced the ICCM induced cell cycle arrest and expression of P53 ((###) P < 0.001) neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Further investigation of the underlying apoptotic mechanism revealed that in coculture system; ICCM induced elevated level of FAS mRNA level was significantly reduced

  4. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 differentially regulates proliferation, morphology, and extracellular matrix expression by three neural crest-derived neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S L; Cutts, J L; Gegick, P J; McGuire, P G; Rosenberger, C; Krisinski, S

    1994-04-01

    We reported previously (S. L. Rogers, P. J. Gegick, S. M. Alexander, and P. G. McGuire, Dev. Biol. 151, 191-203, 1992) that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) inhibited proliferation, up-regulated fibronectin synthesis, and suppressed melanogenesis in a population of quail neural crest cells in vitro. Here, we report that cell lines derived from the parent SK-N-SH neuroblastoma line (R. A. Ross, B. A. Spengler, and J. L. Biedler, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71, 741-747, 1983) respond differentially to TGF beta 1, and their responses provide further insights into the actions of this growth factor on neural crest subpopulations. The SH-EP cell line exhibits primarily nonneuronal traits and responded to TGF beta 1 with increased thymidine uptake after 6 days of culture, increased expression of fibronectin mRNA and protein, and decreased laminin synthesis. Many SH-EP cells also acquired a dramatically elongated morphology, reminiscent of Schwann cells in culture. Thymidine uptake by the neuronal SY5Y cell line was not substantially altered. Neither fibronectin mRNA nor protein was detectable in either TGF beta 1-treated or untreated cultures, although laminin synthesis was upregulated by the growth factor. In TGF beta 1-treated cultures of the intermediate SH-IN cell line, which has been reported to display both neuronal and nonneuronal characteristics, there was marked flattening of many cells, a steady decrease in thymidine uptake, and increased expression of both fibronectin and laminin. The observed responses of SH-IN cells mimic those observed in primary neural crest cultures and appear to represent similar differentiation toward a mesenchymal phenotype. These results substantiate the idea that closely related but diverging neural crest-derived cell types respond selectively to TGF beta 1 and demonstrate that these SK-N-SH-derived cell lines will be useful in experimental approaches that will allow us to infer mechanisms underlying regulation of neural crest

  5. Toxicological impact of JWH-018 and its phase I metabolite N-(3-hydroxypentyl) on human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Joana; Bandarra, Susana; Sultan, Haider; Bell, Suzanne; Constantino, Susana; Quintas, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    The emergence and abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasing as an alternative to cannabis, mainly among youth. As their appearance on the drug market has been recent, the pharmacological and toxicological profiles of these psychoactive substances are poorly understood. Current studies suggest that they have stronger effects compared to their natural alternatives and their metabolites retain affinity towards CB1 receptors in CNS. Since studies on its toxicological properties are scarce, the effects of the drug in human derived cell lines were investigated. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological impact of parent drug versus phase I metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids on human cells with and without CB1 receptor. The human cell line of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and human kidney cell line HEK-293T were exposed to JWH-018 and to its N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite. Cell toxicity was evaluated using the MTT and LDH assay. Additionally, a dual staining methodology with fluorescent Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide was performed to address the question of whether JWH-018 N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite is inducing cell death through apoptosis or necrosis, in HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cell lines. The obtained results show that JWH-018 does not cause a statistically significant decrease in cell viability, in contrast to its N-(3-hydroxypentyl) metabolite, which at ≥25μM causes a significant decrease in cell viability. Both cell lines are affected by JWH-018 metabolite. Our results point to higher toxicity of JWH-018 metabolite when compared to its parent drug, suggesting a non-CB1 receptor mediated toxicological mechanism. Comparing the results from Annexin V/PI with MTT and LDH assays of SH-SY5Y and HEK293T in the presence of the synthetic cannabinoid metabolite, emerges the picture that cellular viability decreases and associated death is occurring through necrosis.

  6. Immunoproteomic studies on paediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus associated with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Durán-Moreno, María; Sánchez Del Pino, Manuel; Yáñez, Yania; Cañete, Adela; Castel, Victoria; López-Cuevas, Rogelio; Vílchez, Juan Jesús; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc; García Verdugo, José Manuel; Bataller, Luis

    2016-08-15

    We aimed to identify new cell-membrane antigens implicated in opsoclonus-myoclonus with neuroblastoma. The sera of 3 out of 14 patients showed IgG electron-microscopy immunogold reactivity on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments using rat brain synaptosomes and SH-SY5Y cells led to the identification of: (1) thirty-one nuclear/cytoplasmic proteins (including antigens HuB, HuC); (2) seven neuronal membrane proteins, including the Shaw-potassium channel Kv3.3 (KCNC3), whose genetic disruption in mice causes ataxia and generalized muscle twitching. Although cell-based assays did not demonstrate direct antigenicity, our findings point to Shaw-related subfamily of the potassium voltage-gated channels complexed proteins as hypothetical antigenic targets. PMID:27397082

  7. Neuroblastoma cell lines showing smooth muscle cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, T; Mine, H; Horii, Y; Takahashi, K; Nagai, R; Morishita, R; Komada, M; Asada, Y; Sawada, T

    2000-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is a tumor that is derived from the neural crest. Recent studies demonstrated that several human neuroblastoma cell lines exhibit at least three morphologic types: neuroblastic (N)-type, substrate-adhesive (S)-type and intermediate (I)-type cells. However, the origin of the S-type cells has not been clearly identified. In this study, the expressions of smooth muscle-specific proteins (desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, basic calponin and the smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms of SM1 and SM2) in three parent and four cloned neuroblastoma cell lines, composed of S-type cells, were examined by indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot and/or by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Desmin was found in two of the seven cell lines, and alpha-smooth muscle actin and basic calponin were detected in all of seven of the cell lines. In three parent cell lines and one cloned cell line composed of N-type cells, none of three smooth muscle-specific proteins were detected. In smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms, SM1 was detected in two parent cell lines composed of S-type cells (MP-N-MS and KP-N-YS) by immunofluorescence, Western blot and/or by RT-PCR, whereas the SM2 isoform was detected in one parent cell line (MP-N-MS) by RT-PCR. These findings indicate that S-type cells have either the immature or mature smooth muscle cell phenotype, and neural crest cells very likely have the ability of to differentiate into smooth muscle cells in the human system.

  8. PDGF-mediated protection of SH-SY5Y cells against Tat toxin involves regulation of extracellular glutamate and intracellular calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Xuhui; Yao Honghong; Peng Fuwang; Callen, Shannon; Buch, Shilpa

    2009-10-15

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protein Tat has been implicated in mediating neuronal apoptosis, one of the hallmark features of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Mitigation of the toxic effects of Tat could thus be a potential mechanism for reducing HIV toxicity in the brain. In this study we demonstrated that Tat-induced neurotoxicity was abolished by NMDA antagonist-MK801, suggesting the role of glutamate in this process. Furthermore, we also found that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PDGF exerted protection against Tat toxicity by decreasing extracellular glutamate levels. We also demonstrated that extracellular calcium chelator EGTA was able to abolish PDGF-mediated neuroprotection, thereby underscoring the role of calcium signaling in PDGF-mediated neuroprotection. We also showed that Erk signaling pathway was critical for PDGF-mediated protection of cells. Additionally, blocking calcium entry with EGTA resulted in suppression of PDGF-induced Erk activation. These findings thus underscore the role of PDGF-mediated calcium signaling and Erk phosphorylation in the protection of cells against HIV Tat toxicity.

  9. OGG1 Involvement in High Glucose-Mediated Enhancement of Bupivacaine-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Jie; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Guo; Li, Le; Lai, Lu-Ying; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia can inhibit expression of the 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) which is one of the key repair enzymes for DNA oxidative damage. The effect of hyperglycemia on OGG1 expression in response to local anesthetics-induced DNA damage is unknown. This study was designed to determine whether high glucose inhibits OGG1 expression and aggravates bupivacaine-induced DNA damage via reactive oxygen species (ROS). SH-SY5Y cells were cultured with or without 50 mM glucose for 8 days before they were treated with 1.5 mM bupivacaine for 24 h. OGG1 expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. ROS was estimated using the redox-sensitive fluorescent dye DCFH-DA. DNA damage was investigated with immunostaining for 8-oxodG and comet assays. OGG1 expression was inhibited in cells exposed to high glucose with concomitant increase in ROS production and more severe DNA damage as compared to control culture conditions, and these changes were further exacerbated by bupivacaine. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevented high glucose and bupivacaine mediated increase in ROS production and restored functional expression of OGG1, which lead to attenuated high glucose-mediated exacerbation of bupivacaine neurotoxicity. Our findings indicate that subjects with diabetes may experience more detrimental effects following bupivacaine use.

  10. The Role of Neurotransmitters in Protection against Amyloid-β Toxicity by KiSS-1 Overexpression in SH-SY5Y Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Nathaniel G. N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin (KP) and kissorphin (KSO) peptides have neuroprotective actions against the Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Overexpression of the human KiSS-1 gene that codes for KP and KSO peptides in SH-SY5Y neurons has also been shown to inhibit Aβ neurotoxicity. The in vivo actions of KP include activation of neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter systems. The present study used antagonists of KP, neuropeptide FF (NPFF), opioids, oxytocin, estrogen, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors plus inhibitors of catalase, cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, and the mitogen activated protein kinase cascade to characterize the KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against Aβ cell model. The results showed that KiSS-1 overexpression is neuroprotective against Aβ and the action appears to involve the KP or KSO peptide products of KiSS-1 processing. The mechanism of neuroprotection does not involve the activation of the KP or NPFF receptors. Opioids play a role in the toxicity of Aβ in the KiSS-1 overexpression system and opioid antagonists naloxone or naltrexone inhibited Aβ toxicity. The mechanism of KiSS-1 overexpression induced protection against Aβ appears to have an oxytocin plus a cyclooxygenase dependent component, with the oxytocin antagonist atosiban and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC-560 both enhancing the toxicity of Aβ. PMID:24967306

  11. N-Acetylcysteine in Combination with IGF-1 Enhances Neuroprotection against Proteasome Dysfunction-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pinki; Kuang, Anxiu; Akhtar, Feroz; Scofield, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in the development of many neuronal disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies focused on individual neuroprotective agents and their respective abilities to prevent neurotoxicity following a variety of toxic insults. However, the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on proteasome impairment-induced apoptosis have not been well characterized in human neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether cotreatment of NAC and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) efficiently protected against proteasome inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrate that the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, initiates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase 3 activation, and nuclear condensation and fragmentation. In addition, MG132 treatment leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy-mediated cell death. All of these events can be attenuated without obvious reduction of MG132 induced protein ubiquitination by first treating the cells with NAC and IGF-1 separately or simultaneously prior to exposure to MG132. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the combination of the two proved to be significantly more effective for neuronal protection. Therefore, we conclude that the simultaneous use of growth/neurotrophic factors and a free radical scavenger may increase overall protection against UPS dysfunction-mediated cytotoxicity and neurodegeneration. PMID:27774335

  12. Identification of proteins sensitive to thermal stress in human neuroblastoma and glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guilian; Stevens, Stanley M; Kobeissy, Firas; Kobiessy, Firas; Brown, Hilda; McClung, Scott; Gold, Mark S; Borchelt, David R

    2012-01-01

    Heat-shock is an acute insult to the mammalian proteome. The sudden elevation in temperature has far-reaching effects on protein metabolism, leads to a rapid inhibition of most protein synthesis, and the induction of protein chaperones. Using heat-shock in cells of neuronal (SH-SY5Y) and glial (CCF-STTG1) lineage, in conjunction with detergent extraction and sedimentation followed by LC-MS/MS proteomic approaches, we sought to identify human proteins that lose solubility upon heat-shock. The two cell lines showed largely overlapping profiles of proteins detected by LC-MS/MS. We identified 58 proteins in detergent insoluble fractions as losing solubility in after heat shock; 10 were common between the 2 cell lines. A subset of the proteins identified by LC-MS/MS was validated by immunoblotting of similarly prepared fractions. Ultimately, we were able to definitively identify 3 proteins as putatively metastable neural proteins; FEN1, CDK1, and TDP-43. We also determined that after heat-shock these cells accumulate insoluble polyubiquitin chains largely linked via lysine 48 (K-48) residues. Collectively, this study identifies human neural proteins that lose solubility upon heat-shock. These proteins may represent components of the human proteome that are vulnerable to misfolding in settings of proteostasis stress. PMID:23145051

  13. LGR5 regulates pro-survival MEK/ERK and proliferative Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Melegh, Zsombor; Greenhough, Alexander; Malik, Sally; Szemes, Marianna; Park, Ji Hyun; Kaidi, Abderrahmane; Zhou, Li; Catchpoole, Daniel; Morgan, Rhys; Bates, David O.; Gabb, Peter J.; Malik, Karim

    2015-01-01

    LGR5 is a marker of normal and cancer stem cells in various tissues where it functions as a receptor for R-spondins and increases canonical Wnt signalling amplitude. Here we report that LGR5 is also highly expressed in a subset of high grade neuroblastomas. Neuroblastoma is a clinically heterogenous paediatric cancer comprising a high proportion of poor prognosis cases (~40%) which are frequently lethal. Unlike many cancers, Wnt pathway mutations are not apparent in neuroblastoma, although previous microarray analyses have implicated deregulated Wnt signalling in high-risk neuroblastoma. We demonstrate that LGR5 facilitates high Wnt signalling in neuroblastoma cell lines treated with Wnt3a and R-spondins, with SK-N-BE(2)-C, SK-N-NAS and SH-SY5Y cell-lines all displaying strong Wnt induction. These lines represent MYCN-amplified, NRAS and ALK mutant neuroblastoma subtypes respectively. Wnt3a/R-Spondin treatment also promoted nuclear translocation of β-catenin, increased proliferation and activation of Wnt target genes. Strikingly, short-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of LGR5 induces dramatic Wnt-independent apoptosis in all three cell-lines, accompanied by greatly diminished phosphorylation of mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MEK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and an increase of BimEL, an apoptosis facilitator downstream of ERK. Akt signalling is also decreased by a Rictor dependent, PDK1-independent mechanism. LGR5 expression is cell cycle regulated and LGR5 depletion triggers G1 cell-cycle arrest, increased p27 and decreased phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein. Our study therefore characterises new cancer-associated pathways regulated by LGR5, and suggest that targeting of LGR5 may be of therapeutic benefit for neuroblastomas with diverse etiologies, as well as other cancers expressing high LGR5. PMID:26517508

  14. Sparstolonin B, a novel plant derived compound, arrests cell cycle and induces apoptosis in N-myc amplified and N-myc nonamplified neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ambrish; Fan, Daping; Dipette, Donald J; Singh, Ugra S

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors and accounts for ∼ 15% of all the cancer related deaths in the children. Despite the standard therapy for advanced disease including chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation, the mortality rate remains high for these patients. Hence, novel therapeutic agents are desperately needed. Here we examined the anticancer activity of a novel plant-derived compound, sparstolonin B (SsnB; 8,5'-dihydroxy-4-phenyl-5,2'-oxidoisocoumarin) using neuroblastoma cell lines of different genetics. SsnB was recently isolated from an aquatic Chinese herb, Sparganium stoloniferum, and tubers of this herb have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of several inflammatory diseases and cancers. Our cell viability and morphological analysis indicated that SsnB at 10 µM concentration significantly inhibited the growth of both N-myc amplified (SK-N-BE(2), NGP, and IMR-32 cells) and N-myc nonamplified (SH-SY5Y and SKNF-1 cells) neuroblastoma cells. The flow cytometric analyses suggested that SsnB arrests the cell cycle progression at G2-M phase in all neuroblastoma cell lines tested. Exposure of SsnB inhibited the compact spheroid formation and reduced the tumorigenicity of SH-SY5Y cells and SK-N-BE(2) cells in in vitro 3-D cell culture assays (anchorage-independent colony formation assay and hanging drop assay). SsnB lowers the cellular level of glutathione (GSH), increases generation of reactive oxygen species and activates the cleavage of caspase-3 whereas co-incubation of a GSH precursor, N-acetylcysteine, along with SsnB attenuates the inhibitory effects of SsnB and increases the neuroblastoma cell viability. Our results for the first time demonstrate that SsnB possesses anticancer activity indicating that SsnB-induced reactive oxygen species generation promotes apoptotic cell death in neuroblastoma cells of different genetic background. Thus these data suggest that SsnB can be a promising drug candidate in

  15. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer’s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Results Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Conclusions Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting

  16. β-Ecdysterone Protects SH-SY5Y Cells Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis via Mitochondria-Dependent Mechanism: Involvement of p38(MAPK)-p53 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi; Niu, Yingcai; Liang, Yini; Zhang, Xiaojie; Dong, Miaoxian

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder pathologically characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. No curative therapy is available for PD. We recently found that phytoestrogen β-ecdysterone (β-Ecd) is able to reduce MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. This study investigated the potential of β-Ecd to protect against SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis induced by the PD-related neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the underlying mechanism for this cytoprotection. In the present study, pretreatment with β-Ecd significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by a mitochondria-dependent pathway, as indicated by downregulation of Bax and PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression, suppressing ΔΨm loss, inhibiting cytochrome c release, and attenuating caspase-9 activation. Furthermore, we showed that the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK))-dependent p53 promoter activity contributed to the protection of SH-SY5Y cells from apoptosis, which was validated by the use of SB203580 or p38β dominant negative (DN) mutants. Additionally, knock-down apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) by specific shRNA and blockade reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pharmacological inhibitor competently prevented β-Ecd-mediated inhibition of p38(MAPK) and ASK1 phosphorylation, respectively. These data provide the first evidence that β-Ecd protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, possibly through mitochondria protection and p53 modulation via ROS-dependent ASK1-p38(MAPK) pathways. The neuroprotective effects of β-Ecd make it a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent for PD.

  17. Neuronal SH-SY5Y cells use the C-dystrophin promoter coupled with exon 78 skipping and display multiple patterns of alternative splicing including two intronic insertion events.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Minegishi, Maki; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. One-third of DMD cases are complicated by mental retardation. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR to analyze the pattern of dystrophin transcripts in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Among the three alternative promoters/first exons at the 5'-end, only transcripts containing the brain cortex-specific C1 exon could be amplified. The C-transcript appeared as two products: a major product of the expected size and a minor larger product that contained the cryptic exon 1a between exons C1 and 2. At the 3'-end there was complete exon 78 skipping. Together, these findings indicate that SH-SY5Y cells have neuron-specific characteristics with regard to both promoter activation and alternative splicing. We also revealed partial skipping of exons 9 and 71. Four amplified products were obtained from a fragment covering exons 36-41: a strong expected product, two weak products lacking either exon 37 or exon 38, and a second strong larger product with a 568-bp insertion between exons 40 and 41. The inserted sequence matched the 3'-end of intron 40 perfectly. We concluded that a cryptic splice site was activated in SH-SY5Y cells to create the novel, unusually large, exon 41e (751 bp). In total, we identified seven alternative splicing events in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, and calculated that 32 dystrophin transcripts could be produced. Our results may provide clues in the analysis of transcriptype-phenotype correlations as regards mental retardation in DMD.

  18. β-Ecdysterone Protects SH-SY5Y Cells Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis via Mitochondria-Dependent Mechanism: Involvement of p38(MAPK)-p53 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi; Niu, Yingcai; Liang, Yini; Zhang, Xiaojie; Dong, Miaoxian

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder pathologically characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. No curative therapy is available for PD. We recently found that phytoestrogen β-ecdysterone (β-Ecd) is able to reduce MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. This study investigated the potential of β-Ecd to protect against SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis induced by the PD-related neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the underlying mechanism for this cytoprotection. In the present study, pretreatment with β-Ecd significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by a mitochondria-dependent pathway, as indicated by downregulation of Bax and PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression, suppressing ΔΨm loss, inhibiting cytochrome c release, and attenuating caspase-9 activation. Furthermore, we showed that the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK))-dependent p53 promoter activity contributed to the protection of SH-SY5Y cells from apoptosis, which was validated by the use of SB203580 or p38β dominant negative (DN) mutants. Additionally, knock-down apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) by specific shRNA and blockade reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pharmacological inhibitor competently prevented β-Ecd-mediated inhibition of p38(MAPK) and ASK1 phosphorylation, respectively. These data provide the first evidence that β-Ecd protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, possibly through mitochondria protection and p53 modulation via ROS-dependent ASK1-p38(MAPK) pathways. The neuroprotective effects of β-Ecd make it a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent for PD. PMID:27229883

  19. β-Arrestin1 and distinct CXCR4 structures are required for stromal derived factor-1 to downregulate CXCR4 cell-surface levels in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Clift, Ian C; Bamidele, Adebowale O; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Christie; Kremer, Kimberly N; Hedin, Karen E

    2014-04-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) located on the cell surface that signals upon binding the chemokine stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1; also called CXCL 12). CXCR4 promotes neuroblastoma proliferation and chemotaxis. CXCR4 expression negatively correlates with prognosis and drives neuroblastoma growth and metastasis in mouse models. All functions of CXCR4 require its expression on the cell surface, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate CXCR4 cell-surface levels in neuroblastoma are poorly understood. We characterized CXCR4 cell-surface regulation in the related SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell lines. SDF-1 treatment caused rapid down-modulation of CXCR4 in SH-SY5Y cells. Pharmacologic activation of protein kinase C similarly reduced CXCR4, but via a distinct mechanism. Analysis of CXCR4 mutants delineated two CXCR4 regions required for SDF-1 treatment to decrease cell-surface CXCR4 in neuroblastoma cells: the isoleucine-leucine motif at residues 328 and 329 and residues 343-352. In contrast, and unlike CXCR4 regulation in other cell types, serines 324, 325, 338, and 339 were not required. Arrestin proteins can bind and regulate GPCR cell-surface expression, often functioning together with kinases such as G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Using SK-N-SH cells which are naturally deficient in β-arrestin1, we showed that β-arrestin1 is required for the CXCR4 343-352 region to modulate CXCR4 cell-surface expression following treatment with SDF-1. Moreover, GRK2 overexpression enhanced CXCR4 internalization, via a mechanism requiring both β-arrestin1 expression and the 343-352 region. Together, these results characterize CXCR4 structural domains and β-arrestin1 as critical regulators of CXCR4 cell-surface expression in neuroblastoma. β-Arrestin1 levels may therefore influence the CXCR4-driven metastasis of neuroblastoma as well as prognosis. PMID:24452472

  20. Major Components of Energy Drinks (Caffeine, Taurine, and Guarana) Exert Cytotoxic Effects on Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Ambrosi, Priscilla; Resende Terra, Silvia; Pires, André Simões; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Antônio Behr, Guilherme; Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio

    2013-01-01

    Scope. To elucidate the morphological and biochemical in vitro effects exerted by caffeine, taurine, and guarana, alone or in combination, since they are major components in energy drinks (EDs). Methods and Results. On human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, caffeine (0.125–2 mg/mL), taurine (1–16 mg/mL), and guarana (3.125–50 mg/mL) showed concentration-dependent nonenzymatic antioxidant potential, decreased the basal levels of free radical generation, and reduced both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, especially when combined together. However, guarana-treated cells developed signs of neurite degeneration in the form of swellings at various segments in a beaded or pearl chain-like appearance and fragmentation of such neurites at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/mL. Swellings, but not neuritic fragmentation, were detected when cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL (or higher doses) of caffeine, concentrations that are present in EDs. Cells treated with guarana also showed qualitative signs of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, and cleaved caspase-3 positivity. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cells treated with 12.5–50 mg/mL of guarana and its combinations with caffeine and/or taurine underwent apoptosis. Conclusion. Excessive removal of intracellular reactive oxygen species, to nonphysiological levels (or “antioxidative stress”), could be a cause of in vitro toxicity induced by these drugs. PMID:23766861

  1. Cytoskeleton involvement in lithium-induced SH-SY5Y neuritogenesis and the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3β.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Riadh; Boujbiha, Mohamed Ali; Jbahi, Samira; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Vincent, Christian; Croute, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    Lithium modulates signals impacting on the cytoskeleton, a dynamic system contributing to neural plasticity at multiple levels. In this study, SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells were cultured in the absence (C) or in presence (Li) of a 0.5 mM Li2CO3 (i.e. 1 mM lithium ion) for 25-50 weeks. We investigated the effect of this treatment on (1) morphological changes of cells observed using Hemalun eosin staining assay, (2) cytoskeletal changes by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) staining of microtubules (α-tubulin) and heavy neurofilaments subunits (NF-H) and by measuring the expression rate changes of genes coding for receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), casein kinase2 (CK2) and thymosine beta-10 using cDNA arrays technology, (3) cell adhesion properties by IIF staining of β-catenin protein. Besides, we have tried to understand the molecular mechanism of lithium action that triggers changes in cytoskeleton and neurites outgrowth. Thus, we examined the effect of this treatment on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) expression and activity using western blotting of GSK3 and phosphorylated β-catenin, a downstream GSK3 target protein. Our results showed that lithium treatment reduces axon length, increases axonal spreading, enhances neurites growth and neurites branching with an increase of growth cone size. Moreover, genes coding for CK2 and thymosine beta-10 were significantly up-regulated, however, that coding for RACK1 was down-regulated. The most interesting result in this work is that mechanism underlying lithium action was not related to the inhibition of GSK3 activity. In fact, neither expression rate nor activity of this protein was changed.

  2. Protective Effect of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhang, B.; Guo, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration. PMID:26009648

  3. Gi/o-Coupled Receptors Compete for Signaling to Adenylyl Cyclase in SH-SY5Y Cells and Reduce Opioid-Mediated cAMP Overshoot

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Erica S.; Purington, Lauren C.

    2011-01-01

    Organization of G protein-coupled receptors and cognate signaling partners at the plasma membrane has been proposed to occur via multiple mechanisms, including membrane microdomains, receptor oligomerization, and protein scaffolding. Here, we investigate the organization of six types of Gi/o-coupled receptors endogenously expressed in SH-SY5Y cells. The most abundant receptor in these cells was the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), the activation of which occluded acute inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) by agonists to δ-opioid (DOR), nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOPr), α2-adrenergic (α2AR), cannabinoid 1, and serotonin 1A receptors. We further demonstrate that all receptor pairs share a common pool of AC. The MOR agonist [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) also occluded the ability of DOR agonist to stimulate G proteins. However, at lower agonist concentrations and at shorter incubation times when G proteins were not limiting, the relationship between MOR and DOR agonists was additive. The additive relationship was confirmed by isobolographic analysis. Long-term coadministration of MOR and DOR agonists caused cAMP overshoot that was not additive, suggesting that sensitization of AC mediated by these two receptors occurs by a common pathway. Furthermore, heterologous inhibition of AC by agonists to DOR, NOPr, and α2AR reduced the expression of cAMP overshoot in DAMGO-dependent cells. However, this cross-talk did not lead to heterologous tolerance. These results indicate that multiple receptors could be tethered into complexes with cognate signaling proteins and that access to shared AC by multiple receptor types may provide a means to prevent opioid withdrawal. PMID:21098043

  4. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase esterifies cerebrosterol and limits the toxic effect of this oxysterol on SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Cigliano, Luisa; Marasco, Daniela; Abrescia, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Cholesterol is mostly removed from the CNS by its conversion to cerebrosterol (24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)OH-C), which is transported to the circulation for bile formation in liver. A neurotoxic role of this oxysterol was previously demonstrated in cell culture. Here, we provide evidence that the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, long known to esterify cholesterol, also produces monoesters of 24(S)OH-C. Proteoliposomes containing apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E were used to stimulate the enzyme activity and entrap the formed esters. Proteoliposomes with apolipoprotein A-I were found to be more active than those with apolipoprotein E in stimulating the production of oxysteryl esters. Cholesterol and 24(S)OH-C were found to compete for enzyme activity. High levels of haptoglobin, as those circulating during the acute inflammatory phase, inhibited 24(S)OH-C esterification. When highly neurotoxic 24(S)OH-C was treated with enzyme and proteoliposomes before incubation with differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, the neuron survival improved. The esters of 24(S)OH-C, embedded into proteoliposomes by the enzyme and isolated from unesterified 24(S)OH-C by gel filtration chromatography, did not enter the neurons in culture. These results suggest that the enzyme, in the presence of the apolipoproteins, converts 24(S)OH-C into esters restricted to the extracellular environment, thus preventing or limiting oxysterol-induced neurotoxic injuries to neurons in culture. 24-hydroxycholesterol (24(S)OH-C) is neurotoxic. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) synthesizes monoesters of 24(S)OH-C in reaction mixtures with proteoliposomes containing phospholipids and apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E. The esters, also produced by incubation of cerebrospinal fluid only with tritiated 24(S)OH-C, are embedded into lipoproteins that do not enter neurons in culture. The enzyme activity limits the toxicity of 24-hydroxycholesterol in neuron culture. PMID

  5. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase esterifies cerebrosterol and limits the toxic effect of this oxysterol on SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Cigliano, Luisa; Marasco, Daniela; Abrescia, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Cholesterol is mostly removed from the CNS by its conversion to cerebrosterol (24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)OH-C), which is transported to the circulation for bile formation in liver. A neurotoxic role of this oxysterol was previously demonstrated in cell culture. Here, we provide evidence that the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, long known to esterify cholesterol, also produces monoesters of 24(S)OH-C. Proteoliposomes containing apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E were used to stimulate the enzyme activity and entrap the formed esters. Proteoliposomes with apolipoprotein A-I were found to be more active than those with apolipoprotein E in stimulating the production of oxysteryl esters. Cholesterol and 24(S)OH-C were found to compete for enzyme activity. High levels of haptoglobin, as those circulating during the acute inflammatory phase, inhibited 24(S)OH-C esterification. When highly neurotoxic 24(S)OH-C was treated with enzyme and proteoliposomes before incubation with differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, the neuron survival improved. The esters of 24(S)OH-C, embedded into proteoliposomes by the enzyme and isolated from unesterified 24(S)OH-C by gel filtration chromatography, did not enter the neurons in culture. These results suggest that the enzyme, in the presence of the apolipoproteins, converts 24(S)OH-C into esters restricted to the extracellular environment, thus preventing or limiting oxysterol-induced neurotoxic injuries to neurons in culture. 24-hydroxycholesterol (24(S)OH-C) is neurotoxic. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) synthesizes monoesters of 24(S)OH-C in reaction mixtures with proteoliposomes containing phospholipids and apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E. The esters, also produced by incubation of cerebrospinal fluid only with tritiated 24(S)OH-C, are embedded into lipoproteins that do not enter neurons in culture. The enzyme activity limits the toxicity of 24-hydroxycholesterol in neuron culture.

  6. [Neuroblastoma].

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Komatsu, H; Shirai, C; Yamamoto, S; Ishiwari, K; Ishida, H; Ohmizono, Y; Matsumura, T

    1995-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common and highly malignant tumor. The 2-year survival rate for NB patients for 1970s was 32% in US and 29% in Japan. But, improvement of prognosis was observed by recent advances in surgery, chemotherapy and numerous other supportive therapies. We introduce the some treatment regimens to patients with neuroblastoma which should be selected by the age and the stage at diagnosis and other prognostic factors such as N-myc amplification, trk overexpression, chromosome anomalies (lp-. double minutes, homogeneous staining region) of neuroblastoma cells and histological pathology. As a general rules, patients under 1 year of age without unfavorable prognostic factors should be treated less intensive regimen, even their tumors are progressive stages. Conversely, patients with progressive stages over 1 year of age without unfavorable factors, it is necessary to treat with intensive protocol. Furthermore, to patients of all age group with unfavorable factors, they are given a very strong intensive treatment through advances in supportive therapies such as the new antiemetics, G-CSF, antibiotics, or IVH etc.. Recent treatment regimens to the patients with neuroblastoma are presented.

  7. Baicalein prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells via inhibition of mitochondrial oxidation and up-regulation of DJ-1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Hua; Yu, Hai-Tao; Pu, Xiao-Ping; Du, Guan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanism of cell damage in Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a dopamine analog which specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Baicalein has been previously reported to have potential in the treatment of PD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of baicalein against 6-OHDA injury in SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that baicalein significantly alleviated alterations of mitochondrial redox activity and mitochondrial membrane potential induced by 6-OHDA in a dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y cells compared with vehicle group. Futhermore, baicalein decreased the production of ROS and upregulated the DJ-1 protein expression in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, baicalein also inhibited ROS production and lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 6.32 ± 0.03 μM) in rat brain mitochondia. In summary, the underlying mechanisms of baicalein against 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may involve inhibition of mitochondrial oxidation and upregulation of DJ-1 protein expression. PMID:24288000

  8. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, David M.; Cheel, Jose; Areche, Carlos; San-Martin, Aurelio; Rovirosa, Juana; Silva, Luis R.; Valentao, Patricia; Andrade, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol) isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3), murine macrophages (RAW.267) and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79). Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents. PMID:21673894

  9. Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Duckett, J W; Koop, C E

    1977-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid malignant tumor in children. The prognosis is poor, and despite varying chemotherapy and radiation regimens, its status has not been altered much in the past 20 years. Seventy per cent of the patients have abdominal neuroblastomas, which carry the worst prognosis of all the possible sites for the disease. Seventy per cent of the patients have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Survival is best in children under one year of age and in those patients (8 per cent) who are fortunate enough to have only stage I disease. Stage IV disease has only a 3 per cent survival rate. Surgical removal of the tumor is still the primary therapy; irradiation is of significant benefit in patients with stage III disease. Immunotherapy offers an optimistic modality for future improvement in survival rates.

  10. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in 2-methoxyestradiol-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Ma, Yan; Cheng, Yue-Fang; Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Chen, Shao-Yu

    2011-12-27

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children. Despite advances in the treatment of childhood cancer, outcomes for children with advanced-stage neuroblastoma remain poor. Here we reported that 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cells. 2-ME treatment also resulted in the generation of ROS and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y, indicating that 2-ME-induced apoptosis is mediated by ROS. This is supported by the results that have shown that co-treatment with antioxidants, VC, L-GSH and MitoQ(10), decreased 2-ME-induced generation of ROS and the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased 2-ME-induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and the up-regulation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and prevented 2-ME-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in 2-ME-induced apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma cells.

  11. Lymphokine-activated killer cytotoxicity in neonatal mononuclear cells: in vitro responses to tumor cell lines from pediatric solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Chin, T; Toy, C; Vandeven, C; Cairo, M S

    1989-02-01

    The presence of neonatal (cord) lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activity toward natural killer cell resistant Raji and Daudi cell lines has recently been reported from our laboratory. We investigated the future therapeutic use of LAK adoptive immunotherapy by examining LAK in vitro cytotoxicity from both neonatal and adult mononuclear cells against solid tumor cell lines of relevance to pediatric oncology: SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma), SK-NM-C (neuroblastoma-neuroepithelioma), NEP-1 (Wilms' tumor), SK-ES-1 (Ewing's sarcoma), and A-204 (rhabdomyosarcoma). Cord and adult mononuclear cells were activated by recombinant IL-2 (100 mu/ml) for 5-7 days and added in an effector:target ratio of 40:1 to 51Cr-labeled target cells. Specific cell lysis was determined after a 4-h incubation. There was a significantly high level of cord and adult LAK cytotoxicity against Wilms' (76.4 +/- 9.8 versus 77.3 +/- 6.8%) and Ewing's (84.2 +/- 5.5 versus 71.1 +/- 6.5%) cell lines and significant but moderate LAK activity against neuroepithelioma (52.0 +/- 6.6 versus 55.4 +/- 4.5%) and rhabdomyosarcoma (46.6 +/- 5.7 versus 43.9 +/- 5.2%) cell lines. There was no difference between cord and adult LAK activity toward these targets. However, a differential response toward the more classical neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, was noted with significantly more LAK cytotoxicity from cord mononuclear cells than adult mononuclear cells (51.2 +/- 6.9 versus 28.5 +/- 8.2%) (p less than or equal to 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Molecular mechanism of action of opioids in human neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, V.C.K.

    1987-01-01

    A series of human neuroblastoma cell lines was screened for the presence of opioid receptor sites. Of these cell lines, SK-N-SH was found to express approximately 50,000 ..mu.. and 10,000 delta opioid receptor sites/cell. In vitro characterization revealed that the binding properties of these receptor sites closely resembled those of human and rodent brain. Phosphatidylinositol turnover as a potential second messenger system for the ..mu.. receptor was examined in SK-N-SH cells. Neurotransmitter receptor systems were determined in the three sub-clones of SK-N-SH cells. Cells of the SH-SY5Y line, a phenotypically stable subclone of SK-N-SH cells, were induced to differentiate by treatment with various inducing agents, and changes of several neurotransmitter receptor systems were determined. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and retinoic acid (RA) up-regulated, while dBcAMP down-regulated opioid receptor sites. (/sup 3/H)Dopamine uptake was slightly enhanced only in RA-treated cells. Strikingly, the efficacy of PGE/sub 1/-stimulated accumulation of cAMP was enhanced by 15- to 30-fold upon RA treatment.

  13. Method for measuring neurotoxicity of aggregating polypeptides with the MTT assay on differentiated neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Datki, Zsolt; Juhász, Anna; Gálfi, Márta; Soós, Katalin; Papp, Rita; Zádori, Dénes; Penke, Botond

    2003-12-30

    Reliable in vitro assays are essential for study of the effects of neurotoxic compounds such as beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta). The MTT assay has been used in cultures of different cells, e.g. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, for the quantitative measurement of Abeta toxicity. In our laboratory differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were used in the MTT assay. Cell differentiation with 10 microM all-trans-retinoic acid resulted in a constant cell number. The cells possess highly developed neurites and exhibit high sensitivity against Abeta. Owing to the constant cell number in differentiated SH-SY5Y cultures the decrease of the redox activity is directly proportional to the neurotoxicity of the substances, no correction is needed. The results of the MTT assay of Abeta peptides on differentiated SH-SY5Y cells displayed a good correlation also with the in vivo results. The present experiments reveal an effective assay for the study of potentially neurotoxic compounds. PMID:14698355

  14. Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide.

    PubMed

    Rösner, H; Williams, L A; Jung, A; Kraus, W

    2001-08-22

    Dibenzyl trisulphide (DTS), a main lipophilic compound in Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae), was identified as one of the active immunomodulatory compounds in extracts of the plant. To learn more about its biological activities and molecular mechanisms, we conducted one-dimensional NMR interaction studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tested DTS and related compounds in two well-established neuronal cell-and-tissue culture systems. We found that DTS preferentially binds to an aromatic region of BSA which is rich in tyrosyl residues. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, DTS attenuates the dephosphorylation of tyrosyl residues of MAP kinase (erk1/erk2). In the same neuroblastoma cell line and in Wistar 38 human lung fibroblasts, DTS causes a reversible disassembly of microtubules, but it did not affect actin dynamics. Probably due to the disruption of the microtubule dynamics, DTS also inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth from spinal cord explants. Related dibenzyl compounds with none, one, or two sulphur atoms were found to be significantly less effective. These data confirmed that the natural compound DTS has a diverse spectrum of biological properties, including cytostatic and neurotoxic actions in addition to immunomodulatory activities.

  15. Mercury specifically induces LINE-1 activity in a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Laleh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    L1 retro-elements comprise 17% of the human genome. Approximately 100 copies of these autonomous mobile elements are active in our DNA and can cause mutations, gene disruptions, and genomic instability. Therefore, human cells control the activities of L1 elements, in order to prevent their deleterious effects through different mechanisms. However, some toxic agents increase the retrotransposition activity of L1 elements in somatic cells. In order to identify specific effects of neurotoxic metals on L1 activity in neuronal cells, we studied the effects of mercury and cobalt on L1-retroelement activity by measuring levels of cellular transcription, protein expression, and genomic retrotransposition in a neuroblastoma cell line compared with the effects in three non-neuronal cell lines. Our results show that mercury increased the expression of L1 RNA, the activity of the L1 5'UTR, and L1 retrotransposition exclusively in the neuroblastoma cell line but not in non-neuronal cell lines. However, cobalt increased the expression of L1 RNA in neuroblastoma cells, HeLa cells, and wild-type human fibroblasts, and also increased the activity of the L1 5'UTR as well as the SV40 promoter in HeLa cells but not in neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to cobalt did not result in increased retrotransposition activity in HeLa cells or neuroblastoma cells. We conclude that non-toxic levels of the neurotoxic agent mercury could influence DNA by increasing L1 activities, specifically in neuronal cells, and may make these cells susceptible to neurodegeneration over time.

  16. The Neuroprotective Effects of Justicidin A on Amyloid Beta25-35-Induced Neuronal Cell Death Through Inhibition of Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Induction of Autophagy in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ming-Yao; Kim, Joonki; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2016-06-01

    Justicidin A is a structurally defined arylnaphthalide lignan, which has been shown anti-cancer activity; however, the neuroprotective effect of justicidin A is still untested. In this study, we investigated the action of justicidin A on amyloid beta (Aβ)25-35-induced neuronal cell death via inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of tau and induction of autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with justicidin A significantly elevated cell viability in cells treated with Aβ25-35. Western blot data demonstrated that justicidin A inhibited the Aβ25-35-induced up-regulation the levels of hyperphosphorylation of tau in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, treatment with justicidin A significantly induced autophagy as measured by the increasing LC3 II/I ratio, an important autophagy marker. These studies showed that justicidin A inhibited activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β), which is an important kinase in up-stream signaling pathways; inhibited hyperphosphorylation of tau in AD; and enhanced activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is the key molecule for both hyperphosphorylation of tau and induction of autophagy. These data provide the first evidence that justicidin A protects SH-SY5Y cells from Aβ25-35-induced neuronal cell death through inhibition of hyperphosphorylation of tau and induction of autophagy via regulation the activity of GSK-3β and AMPK, and they also provide some insights into the relationship between tau protein hyperphosphorylation and autophagy. Thus, we conclude that justicidin A may have a potential role for neuroprotection and, therefore, may be used as a therapeutic agent for AD. PMID:26887582

  17. The LRRK2 inhibitor GSK2578215A induces protective autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells: involvement of Drp-1-mediated mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial-derived ROS signaling.

    PubMed

    Saez-Atienzar, S; Bonet-Ponce, L; Blesa, J R; Romero, F J; Murphy, M P; Jordan, J; Galindo, M F

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been associated with Parkinson's disease, and its inhibition opens potential new therapeutic options. Among the drug inhibitors of both wild-type and mutant LRRK2 forms is the 2-arylmethyloxy-5-subtitutent-N-arylbenzamide GSK257815A. Using the well-established dopaminergic cell culture model SH-SY5Y, we have investigated the effects of GSK2578215A on crucial neurodegenerative features such as mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. GSK2578215A induces mitochondrial fragmentation of an early step preceding autophagy. This increase in autophagosome results from inhibition of fusion rather than increases in synthesis. The observed effects were shared with LRRK2-IN-1, a well-described, structurally distinct kinase inhibitor compound or when knocking down LRRK2 expression using siRNA. Studies using the drug mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 indicated that translocation of the dynamin-related protein-1 has a relevant role in this process. In addition, autophagic inhibitors revealed the participation of autophagy as a cytoprotective response by removing damaged mitochondria. GSK2578215A induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in SH-SY5Y cells. The mitochondrial-targeted reactive oxygen species scavenger MitoQ positioned these species as second messengers between mitochondrial morphologic alterations and autophagy. Altogether, our results demonstrated the relevance of LRRK2 in mitochondrial-activated pathways mediating in autophagy and cell fate, crucial features in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Curcumin I mediates neuroprotective effect through attenuation of quinoprotein formation, p-p38 MAPK expression, and caspase-3 activation in 6-hydroxydopamine treated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Meesarapee, Benjawan; Thampithak, Anusorn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Sanvarinda, Pimtip; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Sanvarinda, Yupin

    2014-04-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively enters dopaminergic neurons and undergoes auto-oxidation resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and dopamine quinones, subsequently leading to apoptosis. This mechanism mimics the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and has been used to induce experimental Parkinsonism in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin I (diferuloylmethane) purified from Curcuma longa on quinoprotein production, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (p-p38), and caspase-3 activation in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y with curcumin I at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, and 20 μM, significantly decreased the formation of quinoprotein and reduced the levels of p-p38 and cleaved caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the levels of the dopaminergic neuron marker, phospho-tyrosine hydroxylase (p-TH), were also dose-dependently increased upon treatment with curcumin I. Our results clearly demonstrated that curcumin I protects neurons against oxidative damage, as shown by attenuation of p-p38 expression, caspase-3-activation, and toxic quinoprotein formation, together with the restoration of p-TH levels. This study provides evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin I in the chemoprevention of oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration.

  19. The LRRK2 inhibitor GSK2578215A induces protective autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells: involvement of Drp-1-mediated mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial-derived ROS signaling

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Atienzar, S; Bonet-Ponce, L; Blesa, J R; Romero, F J; Murphy, M P; Jordan, J; Galindo, M F

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been associated with Parkinson's disease, and its inhibition opens potential new therapeutic options. Among the drug inhibitors of both wild-type and mutant LRRK2 forms is the 2-arylmethyloxy-5-subtitutent-N-arylbenzamide GSK257815A. Using the well-established dopaminergic cell culture model SH-SY5Y, we have investigated the effects of GSK2578215A on crucial neurodegenerative features such as mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. GSK2578215A induces mitochondrial fragmentation of an early step preceding autophagy. This increase in autophagosome results from inhibition of fusion rather than increases in synthesis. The observed effects were shared with LRRK2-IN-1, a well-described, structurally distinct kinase inhibitor compound or when knocking down LRRK2 expression using siRNA. Studies using the drug mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 indicated that translocation of the dynamin-related protein-1 has a relevant role in this process. In addition, autophagic inhibitors revealed the participation of autophagy as a cytoprotective response by removing damaged mitochondria. GSK2578215A induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in SH-SY5Y cells. The mitochondrial-targeted reactive oxygen species scavenger MitoQ positioned these species as second messengers between mitochondrial morphologic alterations and autophagy. Altogether, our results demonstrated the relevance of LRRK2 in mitochondrial-activated pathways mediating in autophagy and cell fate, crucial features in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25118928

  20. Acrylamide inhibits cellular differentiation of human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    This study explores human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human glioblastoma (U-1240 MG) cellular differentiation changes under exposure to acrylamide (ACR). Differentiation of SH-SY5Y and U-1240 MG cells were induced by retinoic acid (RA) and butyric acid (BA), respectively. Morphological observations and MTT assay showed that the induced cellular differentiation and cell proliferation were inhibited by ACR in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ACR co-treatment with RA attenuated SH-SY5Y expressions of neurofilament protein-L (NF-L), microtubule-associated protein 1b (MAP1b; 1.2 to 0.7, p < 0.001), MAP2c (2.2 to 0.8, p < 0.05), and Janus kinase1 (JAK1; 1.9 to 0.6, p < 0.001), while ACR co-treatment with BA attenuated U-1240 MG expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MAP1b (1.2 to 0.6, p < 0.001), MAP2c (1.5 to 0.7, p < 0.01), and JAK1 (2.1 to 0.5, p < 0.001), respectively. ACR also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in U-1240 MG cells, while caffeine reversed this suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation caused by ACR treatment. These results showed that RA-induced neurogenesis of SH-SY5Y and BA-induced astrogliogenesis of U-1240 MG cells were attenuated by ACR and were associated with down-regulation of MAPs expression and JAK-STAT signaling.

  1. Sequential hTERT knockdown and apigenin treatment inhibited invasion and proliferation and induced apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and SK-N-BE2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2013-09-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a key role in conferring immortality to human malignant neuroblastomas. We first determined differential expression of hTERT in four human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, SK-N-BE2, and IMR-32 cell lines. We then used SK-N-DZ and SK-N-BE2 cell lines, which showed the highest expression of hTERT, to investigate the therapeutic effects of sequential hTERT knockdown and apigenin (APG) treatment. We performed cell invasion assay and studied alterations in expression of matrix metalloproteinases and cell cycle regulatory molecules after this combination therapy. We also investigated induction of apoptosis by using in situ Wright staining, Annexin V staining, and Western blotting. Sequential hTERT knockdown and APG treatment significantly downregulated expression of hTERT so as to cause over 90 % inhibition of cell invasion and 70 % induction of apoptosis in both SK-N-DZ and SK-N-BE2 cell lines. Western blotting demonstrated downregulation of the molecules involved in cell invasion and proliferation, but upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor and apoptosis-inducing molecules. In conclusion, our current results clearly showed that sequential hTERT knockdown and APG treatment could be a promising therapeutic strategy for effective inhibition of invasion and proliferation and induction of apoptosis in hTERT overexpressing malignant neuroblastoma cells.

  2. EPO Mediates Neurotrophic, Neuroprotective, Anti-Oxidant, and Anti-Apoptotic Effects via Downregulation of miR-451 and miR-885-5p in SH-SY5Y Neuron-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Alural, Begum; Duran, Gizem Ayna; Tufekci, Kemal Ugur; Allmer, Jens; Onkal, Zeynep; Tunali, Dogan; Genc, Kursad; Genc, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotective cytokine, which has been applied in several animal models presenting neurological disorders. One of the proposed modes of action resulting in neuroprotection is post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. This directly brings to mind microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. It has not yet been evaluated whether miRNAs participate in the biological effects of EPO or whether it, inversely, modulates specific miRNAs in neuronal cells. In this study, we employed miRNA and mRNA arrays to identify how EPO exerts its biological function. Notably, miR-451 and miR-885-5p are downregulated in EPO-treated SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. Accordingly, target prediction and transcriptome analysis of cells treated with EPO revealed an alteration of the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Low expression of miRNAs in SH-SY5Y was correlated with high expression of their target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor A, matrix metallo peptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), erythropoietin receptor, Mini chromosome maintenance complex 5 (MCM5), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and Galanin (GAL). Cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, and migration assays were carried out for functional analysis after transfection with miRNA mimics, which inhibited some biological actions of EPO such as neuroprotection, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and migratory effects. In this study, we report for the first time that EPO downregulates the expression of miRNAs (miR-451 and miR-885-5p) in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. The correlation between the over-expression of miRNAs and the decrease in EPO-mediated biological effects suggests that miR-451 and miR-885-5p may play a key role in the mediation of biological function. PMID:25324845

  3. Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, A; Samways, D S; Fowler, C E; Gunn-Moore, F; Henderson, G

    2001-03-01

    In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of delta-opioid receptors with [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM) did not alter the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). However, when DPDPE was applied during concomitant Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by carbachol or oxotremorine-M, it produced an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The DPDPE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was abolished when the carbachol-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store was emptied. There was a marked difference between the concentration-response relationship for the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) by carbachol (EC(50) 13 microM, Hill slope 1) and the concentration-response relationship for carbachol's permissive action in revealing the delta-opioid receptor-mediated elevation of [Ca(2+)] (EC(50) 0.7 mM; Hill slope 1.8). Sequestration of free G protein beta gamma dimers by transient transfection of cells with a beta gamma binding protein (residues 495-689 of the C terminal tail of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) reduced the ability of delta opioid receptor activation to elevate [Ca(2+)](i). However, DPDPE did not elevate either basal or oxotremorine-M-evoked inositol phosphate production indicating that delta-opioid receptor activation did not stimulate phospholipase C. Furthermore, delta-opioid receptor activation did not result in the reversal of muscarinic receptor desensitization, membrane hyperpolarization or stimulation of sphingosine kinase. There was no coincident signalling between the delta-opioid receptor and the lysophosphatidic acid receptor which couples to elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in SH-SY5Y cells by a PLC-independent mechanism. In SH-SY5Y cells the coincident signalling between the endogenously expressed delta-opioid and m3 muscarinic receptors appears to occur in the receptor activation-Ca(2+) release signalling pathway at a step after the activation of phospholipase C. PMID:11259487

  4. Erythropoietin modulates intracellular calcium in a human neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Assandri, Roberta; Egger, Marcel; Gassmann, Max; Niggli, Ernst; Bauer, Christian; Forster, Ian; Görlach, Agnes

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that the glycoprotein erythropoietin (Epo) and its specific receptor (EpoR) are present in the mammalian brain including human, monkey and mouse. These findings suggest a local action of Epo in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible functional interaction of Epo with neuronal cells. To examine the influence of externally applied Epo on Ca2+ homeostasis the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC was chosen as a suitable in vitro model for undifferentiated neuronal cells. Expression of the EpoR in SK-N-MC cells was detected by reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Patch-clamp studies of SK-N-MC cells confirmed the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels, whose peak macroscopic current was increased by the addition of recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) to the bathing medium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of SK-N-MC cells confirmed a transient increase in intracellular free [Ca2+] in response to externally applied rhEpo. The transient response to Epo was dependent on external Ca2+ and remained even after depletion of internal Ca2+ stores by caffeine or thapsigargin. However, after depletion the response to Epo was absent when cells were superfused with the T-type Ca2+ channel blocker flunarizine. This study demonstrates that Epo can interact with neuronal cells by affecting Ca2+ homeostasis through an increase in Ca2+ influx via plasma membrane T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. PMID:10087335

  5. Neuroprotective effect of 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid on SH-SY5Y cells and senescence-accelerated-prone mice 8 through the up-regulation of phosphoglycerate kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Miyamae, Y; Shigemori, H; Isoda, H

    2010-09-01

    As aged population dramatically increases in these decades, efforts should be made on the intervention for curing age-associated neurologic degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), an antioxidant component and its derivatives are natural functional compounds isolated from a variety of plants. In this study, we determined the neuroprotective effect of 3,5-di-O-CQA on Abeta(1-42) treated SH-SY5Y cells using MTT assay. To investigate the possible neuroprotective mechanism of 3,5-di-O-CQA, we performed proteomics analysis, real-time PCR analysis and measurement of the intracellular ATP level. In addition, we carried out the measurement of escape latency time to find the hidden platform in Morris water maze (MWM), real-time PCR using senescence-accelerated-prone mice (SAMP) 8 and senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR) 1 mice. Results showed that 3,5-di-O-CQA had neuroprotective effect on Abeta (1-42) treated cells. The mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme (phosphoglycerate kinase-1; PGK1) and intracellular ATP level were increased in 3,5-di-O-CQA treated SH-SY5Y cells. We also found that 3,5-di-O-CQA administration induced the improvement of spatial learning and memory on SAMP8 mice, and the overexpression of PGK1 mRNA. These findings suggest that 3,5-di-O-CQA has a neuroprotective effect on neuron through the upregulation of PGK1 expression and ATP production activation.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid on SH-SY5Y cells and senescence-accelerated-prone mice 8 through the up-regulation of phosphoglycerate kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Miyamae, Y; Shigemori, H; Isoda, H

    2010-09-01

    As aged population dramatically increases in these decades, efforts should be made on the intervention for curing age-associated neurologic degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), an antioxidant component and its derivatives are natural functional compounds isolated from a variety of plants. In this study, we determined the neuroprotective effect of 3,5-di-O-CQA on Abeta(1-42) treated SH-SY5Y cells using MTT assay. To investigate the possible neuroprotective mechanism of 3,5-di-O-CQA, we performed proteomics analysis, real-time PCR analysis and measurement of the intracellular ATP level. In addition, we carried out the measurement of escape latency time to find the hidden platform in Morris water maze (MWM), real-time PCR using senescence-accelerated-prone mice (SAMP) 8 and senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR) 1 mice. Results showed that 3,5-di-O-CQA had neuroprotective effect on Abeta (1-42) treated cells. The mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme (phosphoglycerate kinase-1; PGK1) and intracellular ATP level were increased in 3,5-di-O-CQA treated SH-SY5Y cells. We also found that 3,5-di-O-CQA administration induced the improvement of spatial learning and memory on SAMP8 mice, and the overexpression of PGK1 mRNA. These findings suggest that 3,5-di-O-CQA has a neuroprotective effect on neuron through the upregulation of PGK1 expression and ATP production activation. PMID:20570715

  7. Cell lines from MYCN transgenic murine tumours reflect the molecular and biological characteristics of human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy J; Cheng, Ngan Ching; Ford, Jette; Smith, Janice; Murray, Jayne E; Flemming, Claudia; Lastowska, Maria; Jackson, Michael S; Hackett, Christopher S; Weiss, William A; Marshall, Glenn M; Kees, Ursula R; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    Overexpression of the human MYCN oncogene driven by a tyrosine hydroxylase promoter causes tumours in transgenic mice that recapitulate the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. To establish an in vitro model to study this process, a series of isogenic cell lines were developed from these MYCN-driven murine tumours. Lines were established from tumours arising in homozygous and hemizygous MYCN transgenic mice. Hemizygous tumours gave rise to cell lines growing only in suspension. Homozygous tumours gave rise to similar suspension lines as well as morphologically distinct substrate-adherent lines characteristic of human S-type neuroblastoma cells. FISH analysis demonstrated selective MYCN transgene amplification in cell lines derived from hemizygous mice. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis confirmed a range of neuroblastoma-associated genetic changes in the various lines, in particular, gain of regions syntenic with human 17q. These isogenic lines together with the transgenic mice thus represent valuable models for investigating the biological characteristics of aggressive neuroblastoma.

  8. Epigenetic alterations differ in phenotypically distinct human neuroblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and apoptosis were analyzed to investigate the role epigenetic alterations play in determining NB phenotype. Methods Two NB cell lines (tumorigenic LA1-55n and non-tumorigenic LA1-5s) that differ in their ability to form colonies in soft agar and tumors in nude mice were used. Quantitative RNA expression analyses were performed on seven genes in LA1-5s, LA1-55n and 5-Aza-dC treated LA1-55n NB cell lines. The methylation status around THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1 and CASP8 promoters was examined using methylation specific PCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to examine histone modifications along the THBS-1 promoter. Luciferase assay was used to determine THBS-1 promoter activity. Cell proliferation assay was used to examine the effect of 5-Aza-dC on NB cell growth. The soft agar assay was used to determine the tumorigenicity. Results Promoter methylation values for THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1, and CASP8 were higher in LA1-55n cells compared to LA1-5s cells. Consistent with the promoter methylation status, lower levels of gene expression were detected in the LA1-55n cells. Histone marks associated with repressive chromatin states (H3K9Me3, H3K27Me3, and H3K4Me3) were identified in the THBS-1 promoter region in the LA1-55n cells, but not the LA1-5s cells. In contrast, the three histone codes associated with an active chromatin state (acetyl H3, acetyl H4, and H3K4Me3) were present in the THBS-1 promoter region in LA1-5s cells, but not the LA1-55n cells, suggesting that an accessible chromatin structure is important for THBS-1 expression. We also show that 5-Aza-dC treatment of LA1-55n cells

  9. Neuroprotective effect of sulfated polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus on 6-OHDA-induced death in SH-SY5Y through inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Cui, Ningshan; Wang, Peng; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect and molecular mechanism of the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that SJP could protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cell injury. We found that SJP effectively improves cell viability, decreases LDH leakage, and reverses morphological damage. Moreover, SJP significantly increases SOD activity but decreases MDA levels and ROS generation. Effect of SJP on 6-OHDA-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells is associated with an arrest in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle and inhibits the expression of Cyclin D3. 6-OHDA-induced intracellular generation of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunctions, release of cytochrome c, imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-9/caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio, and p-p53 activation were strikingly attenuated by SJP pretreatment. Meanwhile, SJP counteracted NF-κB activation, thereby preventing up-regulation of iNOS and intracellular NO release. The data provide the first evidence that SJP protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA toxicity possibly by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB and activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Thus, SJP is a candidate for further evaluation of its protective effects against neurodegeneration in PD.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of sulfated polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus on 6-OHDA-induced death in SH-SY5Y through inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Cui, Ningshan; Wang, Peng; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect and molecular mechanism of the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that SJP could protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cell injury. We found that SJP effectively improves cell viability, decreases LDH leakage, and reverses morphological damage. Moreover, SJP significantly increases SOD activity but decreases MDA levels and ROS generation. Effect of SJP on 6-OHDA-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells is associated with an arrest in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle and inhibits the expression of Cyclin D3. 6-OHDA-induced intracellular generation of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunctions, release of cytochrome c, imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-9/caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio, and p-p53 activation were strikingly attenuated by SJP pretreatment. Meanwhile, SJP counteracted NF-κB activation, thereby preventing up-regulation of iNOS and intracellular NO release. The data provide the first evidence that SJP protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA toxicity possibly by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB and activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Thus, SJP is a candidate for further evaluation of its protective effects against neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:26773499

  11. Impact of differently modified nanocrystalline diamond on the growth of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vaitkuviene, Aida; McDonald, Matthew; Vahidpour, Farnoosh; Noben, Jean-Paul; Sanen, Kathleen; Ameloot, Marcel; Ratautaite, Vilma; Kaseta, Vytautas; Biziuleviciene, Gene; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Nesladek, Milos; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2015-01-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin coatings on neural cell adhesion and proliferation. NCD was fabricated on fused silica substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. Different surface terminations were performed through exposure to reactive hydrogen and by UV induced oxidation during ozone treatment. Boron doped NCD coatings were also prepared and investigated. NCD surface wettability was determined by contact angle measurement. To assess biocompatibility of the NCD coatings, the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was used. Cells were plated directly onto diamond surfaces and cultured in medium with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS), in order to evaluate the ability of cells to adhere and to proliferate. The obtained results showed that these cells adhered and proliferated better on NCD surfaces than on the bare fused silica. The cell proliferation on NCD in medium with and without FBS after 48h from plating was on average, respectively, 20 and 58% higher than that on fused silica, irrespective of NCD surface modification. Our results showed that the hydrogenated, oxygenated and boron-doped NCD coatings can be used for biomedical purposes, especially where good optical transparency is required.

  12. Vitis labrusca extract effects on cellular dynamics and redox modulations in a SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model: a similar role to lithium.

    PubMed

    Scola, Gustavo; Laliberte, Victoria Louise Marina; Kim, Helena Kyunghee; Pinguelo, Arsene; Salvador, Mirian; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and calcium imbalance are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Polymorphism of voltage-dependent calcium channel, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1c), which is responsible for the regulation of calcium influx, was also shown to have a strong association with BD. These alterations can lead to a number of different consequences in the cell including production of reactive species causing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Lithium is the most frequent medication used for the treatment of BD. Despite lithium's effects, long-term use can result in many negative side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of drugs that may have similar biological effects as lithium without the negative consequences. Moreover, polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that present multi-faceted molecular abilities, such as regulation of cellular responses. Vitis labrusca extract (VLE), a complex mixture of polyphenols obtained from seeds of winery wastes of V. labrusca, was previously characterized by our group. This extract presented powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, the ability of VLE to ameliorate the consequences of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced redox alterations to cell viability, intracellular calcium levels and the relative levels of the calcium channel CACNA1c in comparison to lithium's effects were evaluated using a neuroblastoma cell model. H2O2 treatment increased cell mortality through apoptotic and necrotic pathways leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and alterations to relative CACNA1c levels. VLE and lithium were found to similarly ameliorate cell mortality through regulation of the apoptotic/necrotic pathways, decreasing intracellular calcium levels and preventing alterations to the relative levels of CACNA1c. The findings of this study suggest that VLE exhibits protective properties against oxidative stress-induced alterations similar to that of lithium

  13. Vitis labrusca extract effects on cellular dynamics and redox modulations in a SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model: a similar role to lithium.

    PubMed

    Scola, Gustavo; Laliberte, Victoria Louise Marina; Kim, Helena Kyunghee; Pinguelo, Arsene; Salvador, Mirian; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and calcium imbalance are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Polymorphism of voltage-dependent calcium channel, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1c), which is responsible for the regulation of calcium influx, was also shown to have a strong association with BD. These alterations can lead to a number of different consequences in the cell including production of reactive species causing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Lithium is the most frequent medication used for the treatment of BD. Despite lithium's effects, long-term use can result in many negative side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of drugs that may have similar biological effects as lithium without the negative consequences. Moreover, polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that present multi-faceted molecular abilities, such as regulation of cellular responses. Vitis labrusca extract (VLE), a complex mixture of polyphenols obtained from seeds of winery wastes of V. labrusca, was previously characterized by our group. This extract presented powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, the ability of VLE to ameliorate the consequences of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced redox alterations to cell viability, intracellular calcium levels and the relative levels of the calcium channel CACNA1c in comparison to lithium's effects were evaluated using a neuroblastoma cell model. H2O2 treatment increased cell mortality through apoptotic and necrotic pathways leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and alterations to relative CACNA1c levels. VLE and lithium were found to similarly ameliorate cell mortality through regulation of the apoptotic/necrotic pathways, decreasing intracellular calcium levels and preventing alterations to the relative levels of CACNA1c. The findings of this study suggest that VLE exhibits protective properties against oxidative stress-induced alterations similar to that of lithium

  14. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Gao; Chen, Li-Ping; Wang, Fa-Wei; Xu, Cheng-Yong; Geng, Miao

    2016-07-01

    The active ingredient of ginseng, ginsenosides Rg1, has been shown to scavenge free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity. This study hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 has a protective role in human neuroblastoma cells injured by H2O2. Ginsenosides Rg1 at different concentrations (50 and 100 μM) was used to treat H2O2 (150 μM)-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2, diminished the amount of leaked lactate dehydrogenase, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively suppressed caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and contributed to heat shock protein 70 gene expression, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2 and that its mechanism of action is associated with anti-oxidation and the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:27630703

  15. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-gao; Chen, Li-ping; Wang, Fa-wei; Xu, Cheng-yong; Geng, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The active ingredient of ginseng, ginsenosides Rg1, has been shown to scavenge free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity. This study hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 has a protective role in human neuroblastoma cells injured by H2O2. Ginsenosides Rg1 at different concentrations (50 and 100 μM) was used to treat H2O2 (150 μM)-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2, diminished the amount of leaked lactate dehydrogenase, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively suppressed caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and contributed to heat shock protein 70 gene expression, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2 and that its mechanism of action is associated with anti-oxidation and the inhibition of apoptosis.

  16. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-gao; Chen, Li-ping; Wang, Fa-wei; Xu, Cheng-yong; Geng, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The active ingredient of ginseng, ginsenosides Rg1, has been shown to scavenge free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity. This study hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 has a protective role in human neuroblastoma cells injured by H2O2. Ginsenosides Rg1 at different concentrations (50 and 100 μM) was used to treat H2O2 (150 μM)-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2, diminished the amount of leaked lactate dehydrogenase, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively suppressed caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and contributed to heat shock protein 70 gene expression, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2 and that its mechanism of action is associated with anti-oxidation and the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:27630703

  17. Multi-omic profiling of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell-lines

    PubMed Central

    Dassi, Erik; Greco, Valentina; Sidarovich, Viktoryia; Zuccotti, Paola; Arseni, Natalia; Scaruffi, Paola; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Quattrone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric cancer, arising from the neural crest cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Its most aggressive subtype, characterized by the amplification of the MYCN oncogene, has a dismal prognosis and no effective treatment is available. Understanding the alterations induced by the tumor on the various layers of gene expression is therefore important for a complete characterization of this neuroblastoma subtype and for the discovery of new therapeutic opportunities. Here we describe the profiling of 13 MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines at the genome (copy number), transcriptome, translatome and miRome levels (GEO series GSE56654, GSE56552 and GSE56655). We provide detailed experimental and data analysis procedures by means of which we derived the results described in [1]. PMID:26697401

  18. Anti-autophagic and anti-apoptotic effects of memantine in a SH-SY5Y cell model of Alzheimer's disease via mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    SONG, GUIJUN; LI, YU; LIN, LULU; CAO, YUNPENG

    2015-01-01

    Memantine non-competitively blocks the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in order to inhibit beta-amyloid (Aβ) secretion, and has been used to treat moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of memantine in the autophagy and apoptosis of neuronal cells in AD, as well as the association between neuronal autophagy and apoptosis have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to establish an AD cell model overexpressing the 695-amino-acid Swedish mutant of Aβ precursor protein (APP695swe) in order to observe the effects of memantine on the cell viability, autophagy and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells in the AD model, and to investigate the associated underlying mechanisms. A pcDNA3.1-APP695 plasmid was transfected into the SH-SY5Y cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses demonstrated that the AD cell model was successfully established. MTT assays demonstrated that memantine was able to upregulate neuronal cell survival, and acridine orange staining and flow cytometry demonstrated that memantine (5 µM) was able to inhibit neuronal autophagy and apoptosis. Following neuronal autophagy induction by rapamycin, cell apoptosis rates increased significantly. Further experiments revealed that memantine was able to upregulate the expression of signaling molecules phosphorylated (p)-phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-Akt and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and also inhibited the phosphorylation of the B-cell lymphoma 2/Beclin-1 complex via mitogen-activated protein kinase 8. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that in the AD cell model, autophagy was able to promote apoptosis. Memantine exerted anti-autophagic and anti-apoptotic functions, and mTOR-dependent as well as-independent autophagic signaling pathways were involved in this process. Therefore, these results of the present study strongly supported the use of memantine as a potential therapeutic

  19. Anti-autophagic and anti-apoptotic effects of memantine in a SH-SY5Y cell model of Alzheimer's disease via mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Song, Guijun; Li, Yu; Lin, Lulu; Cao, Yunpeng

    2015-11-01

    Memantine non-competitively blocks the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in order to inhibit beta-amyloid (Aβ) secretion, and has been used to treat moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of memantine in the autophagy and apoptosis of neuronal cells in AD, as well as the association between neuronal autophagy and apoptosis have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to establish an AD cell model overexpressing the 695‑amino‑acid Swedish mutant of Aβ precursor protein (APP695swe) in order to observe the effects of memantine on the cell viability, autophagy and apoptosis of SH‑SY5Y cells in the AD model, and to investigate the associated underlying mechanisms. A pcDNA3.1‑APP695 plasmid was transfected into the SH‑SY5Y cells. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses demonstrated that the AD cell model was successfully established. MTT assays demonstrated that memantine was able to upregulate neuronal cell survival, and acridine orange staining and flow cytometry demonstrated that memantine (5 µM) was able to inhibit neuronal autophagy and apoptosis. Following neuronal autophagy induction by rapamycin, cell apoptosis rates increased significantly. Further experiments revealed that memantine was able to upregulate the expression of signaling molecules phosphorylated (p)-phosphoinositide 3‑kinase, p‑Akt and p‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and also inhibited the phosphorylation of the B‑cell lymphoma 2/Beclin‑1 complex via mitogen‑activated protein kinase 8. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that in the AD cell model, autophagy was able to promote apoptosis. Memantine exerted anti‑autophagic and anti‑apoptotic functions, and mTOR‑dependent as well as ‑independent autophagic signaling pathways were involved in this process. Therefore, these results of the present study strongly supported the use of

  20. Phospholipids block nuclear factor-kappa B and tau phosphorylation and inhibit amyloid-beta secretion in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pandey, N R; Sultan, K; Twomey, E; Sparks, D L

    2009-12-29

    Inflammation and oxidative stress have been shown to play a critical role in the pathophysiology that leads to neurodegeneration. Omega-6 phospholipids, e.g. dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and therefore experiments were undertaken to determine whether DLPC can prevent inflammatory neurodegenerative events in the model neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and H(2)O(2) activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in SH-SY5Y cells within 5 min and this activation is completely blocked by DLPC (12 microM). DLPC blocks IkappaBalpha phosphorylation in the SH-SY5Y cells and prevents the phosphorylation and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). The phospholipid inhibits induction of MAPK and NF-kappaB in similar fashion to the MEK1/2-inhibitor, U0126 (10 microM). DLPC completely abolishes TNF-alpha, H(2)O(2) and lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced neuronal tau phosphorylation. Cellular amyloid precursor protein levels are reduced by DLPC and LPS-induced amyloid-beta expression and secretion in SH-SY5Y cells are completely blocked by DLPC. Taken together, these data suggest that DLPC can act through MAPK to block neuronal inflammatory cascades and prevent potential pathological consequences in the neuronal metabolism of amyloid and tau proteins. PMID:19788916

  1. Neuroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum against H2O2 induced neuronal cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells via its antioxidative defence mechanism.

    PubMed

    Venuprasad, M P; Hemanth Kumar, Kandikattu; Khanum, Farhath

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress mediates the cell damage in several ailments including neurodegenerative conditions. Ocimum sanctum is widely used in Indian ayurvedic medications to cure various ailments. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of O. sanctum (OSE) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative challenge in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity against DPPH, 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radicals with IC50 values of 395 ± 16.2, 241 ± 11.5 and 188.6 ± 12.2 μg/ml respectively, which could be due to high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids. The observed data demonstrates 41.5% cell survival with 100 μM H2O2 challenge for 24 h, which was restored to 73% by pre-treatment with OSE for 2 h. It also decreased the lactate dehydrogenase leakage and preserved the cellular morphology. Similarly OSE inhibited lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, reactive oxygen species generation and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane. The extract restored superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme/protein levels and further downregulated HSP-70 over-expression. These findings suggest that OSE ameliorates H2O2 induced neuronal damage via its antioxidant defence mechanism and might be used to treat oxidative stress mediated neuronal disorders. PMID:23996399

  2. Orexin a phosphorylates the γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor β2 subunit on a serine residue and changes the surface expression of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to propofol.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Henrik; Björnström, Karin; Eintrei, Christina; Sundqvist, Tommy

    2015-11-01

    Propofol activates the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R) and causes a reversible neurite retraction, leaving a thin, thread-like structure behind; it also reverses the transport of vesicles in rat cortical neurons. The awakening peptide orexin A (OA) inhibits this retraction via phospholipase D (PLD) and protein kinase Cɛ (PKCɛ). The human SH-SY5Y cells express both GABAA Rs and orexin 1 and 2 receptors. These cells are used to examine the interaction between OA and the GABAA R. The effects of OA are studied with flow cytometry and immunoblotting. This study shows that OA stimulates phosphorylation on the serine residues of the GABAA R β2 subunit and that the phosphorylation is caused by the activation of PLD and PKCɛ. OA administration followed by propofol reduces the cell surface expression of the GABAA R, whereas propofol stimulation before OA increases the surface expression. The GABAA R β2 subunit is important for receptor recirculation, and the effect of OA on propofol-stimulated cells may be due to a disturbed recirculation of the GABAA R.

  3. Neuronal cell lines as model dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kathleen; Baillie, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Background Dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived immortal cell lines including ND7/23 and F-11 cells have been used extensively as in vitro model systems of native peripheral sensory neurons. However, while it is clear that some sensory neuron-specific receptors and ion channels are present in these cell lines, a systematic comparison of the molecular targets expressed by these cell lines with those expressed in intact peripheral neurons is lacking. Results In this study, we examined the expression of RNA transcripts in the human neuroblastoma-derived cell line, SH-SY5Y, and two dorsal root ganglion hybridoma cell lines, F-11 and ND7/23, using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared the results with native whole murine dorsal root ganglions. The gene expression profiles of these three cell lines did not resemble any specific defined dorsal root ganglion subclass. The cell lines lacked many markers for nociceptive sensory neurons, such as the Transient receptor potential V1 gene, but expressed markers for both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. Global gene ontology analysis on whole dorsal root ganglions and cell lines showed similar enrichment of biological process terms across all samples. Conclusions This paper provides insights into the receptor repertoire expressed in common dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived cell lines compared with whole murine dorsal root ganglions, and illustrates the limits and potentials of these cell lines as tools for neuropharmacological exploration. PMID:27130590

  4. Hydrochloric acid alters the effect of L-glutamic acid on cell viability in human neuroblastoma cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Di Cecca, Stefano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Angelucci, Francesco

    2013-07-15

    l-Glutamic acid (l-glutamate) is used to induce excitotoxicity and test neuroprotective compounds in cell cultures. However, because l-glutamate powder is nearly insoluble in water, many manufacturers recommend reconstituting l-glutamate in hydrochloric acid (HCl) prior to successive dilutions. Nevertheless, HCl, even at low concentrations, may alter the pH of the cell culture medium and interfere with cell activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the reconstitution of l-glutamate powder in HCl alters its capacity to induce neurotoxicity in different human neuroblastoma cell lines. SH-SY5Y, IMR-32 and SK-N-BE(2) cells were exposed to various concentrations of l-glutamate, which was either reconstituted in HCl (1M) or post re-equilibrated to the pH of the culture medium (7.5). After 24 and 48h of incubation, changes in the cell viability of treated versus untreated cells were evaluated. The effect of an identical amount of HCl present in the l-glutamate dilutions on neuroblastoma cell survival was also investigated. Our data showed that the neurotoxicity of glutamate reconstituted in HCl was comparable to that of HCl alone. Moreover, the pH variations induced by glutamate or HCl in the culture medium were similar. When the pH of the glutamate stock solution was re-equilibrated, l-glutamate induced variation in cell viability to a lower extent and after a longer incubation time. This study demonstrated that HCl used to reconstitute l-glutamate powder might alter the effect of glutamate itself in neuroblastoma cell cultures. Thus, this information might be useful to scientists who use l-glutamate to induce excitotoxicity or to test neuroprotective agents.

  5. Early Targets of miR-34a in Neuroblastoma*

    PubMed Central

    De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Carotenuto, Marianeve; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; De Vita, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Veronica; Medaglia, Chiara; Boffa, Iolanda; Galiero, Alessandra; Di Somma, Sarah; Magliulo, Daniela; Aiese, Nadia; Alonzi, Alessandro; Spano, Daniela; Liguori, Lucia; Chiarolla, Cristina; Verrico, Antonio; Schulte, Johannes H.; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo; Gevaert, Kris; Zollo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Several genes encoding for proteins involved in proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis are known to be direct miR-34a targets. Here, we used proteomics to screen for targets of miR-34a in neuroblastoma (NBL), a childhood cancer that originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. We examined the effect of miR-34a overexpression using a tetracycline inducible system in two NBL cell lines (SHEP and SH-SY5Y) at early time points of expression (6, 12, and 24 h). Proteome analysis using post-metabolic labeling led to the identification of 2,082 proteins, and among these 186 were regulated (112 proteins down-regulated and 74 up-regulated). Prediction of miR-34a targets via bioinformatics showed that 32 transcripts held miR-34a seed sequences in their 3′-UTR. By combining the proteomics data with Kaplan Meier gene-expression studies, we identified seven new gene products (ALG13, TIMM13, TGM2, ABCF2, CTCF, Ki67, and LYAR) that were correlated with worse clinical outcomes. These were further validated in vitro by 3′-UTR seed sequence regulation. In addition, Michigan Molecular Interactions searches indicated that together these proteins affect signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle and proliferation, focal adhesions, and other cellular properties that overall enhance tumor progression (including signaling pathways such as TGF-β, WNT, MAPK, and FAK). In conclusion, proteome analysis has here identified early targets of miR-34a with relevance to NBL tumorigenesis. Along with the results of previous studies, our data strongly suggest miR-34a as a useful tool for improving the chance of therapeutic success with NBL. PMID:24912852

  6. Retinoic acid induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells show increased expression of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease and an altered splicing pattern.

    PubMed

    König, G; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1990-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is associated with more than a tenfold induction of total Alzheimer's disease beta A4 amyloid protein precursor (APP) mRNA as analyzed by Northern blot hybridisation. S1 nuclease protection experiments reveal that the splicing pattern of these differentiated cells is altered in favor of APP695 mRNA, coding for the shortest amyloidogenic beta A4 amyloid precursor protein. Induction of differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells with NGF leads to a fivefold increase of total APP mRNA without change in the splicing pattern. This suggests that RA but not NGF induces factor(s) which are responsible for an APP hnRNA splicing favoring APP695 mRNA.

  7. HIV-Tat Induces the Nrf2/ARE Pathway through NMDA Receptor-Elicited Spermine Oxidase Activation in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mastrantonio, Roberta; Cervelli, Manuela; Pietropaoli, Stefano; Mariottini, Paolo; Colasanti, Marco; Persichini, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that HIV-Tat elicits spermine oxidase (SMO) activity upregulation through NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, thus increasing ROS generation, which in turn leads to GSH depletion, oxidative stress, and reduced cell viability. In several cell types, ROS can trigger an antioxidant cell response through the transcriptional induction of oxidative stress-responsive genes regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Here, we demonstrate that Tat induces both antioxidant gene expression and Nrf2 activation in SH-SY5Y cells, mediated by SMO activity. Furthermore, NMDAR is involved in Tat-induced Nrf2 activation. These findings suggest that the NMDAR/SMO/Nrf2 pathway is an important target for protection against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26895301

  8. Distinct regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression at mRNA and peptide levels in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Agoston, D V; Colburn, S; Krajniak, K G; Waschek, J A

    1992-05-25

    Neuronal differentiation was induced in cultures of the human neuroblastoma cell line subclone SH-SY5Y by 14-day treatment with dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP), retinoic acid, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). An approximate 4-fold increase in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mRNA concentration was observed after differentiation with retinoic acid, whereas no change in VIP mRNA concentration was observed after differentiation with dBcAMP or PMA. A short-term treatment of cells with PMA did however result in a 5-fold transient increase in VIP mRNA; prior differentiation with retinoic acid or dBcAMP diminished this effect. Observed increases in VIP mRNA were in all cases accompanied by increases in VIP immunoreactivity. Remarkably, however, long-term treatment of cells with dBcAMP, which caused no change in mRNA levels, resulted in a six-fold increase in VIP immunoreactivity. Acute (36-h) treatment with carbachol also caused an increase in VIP immunoreactivity (about 2-fold, and blocked by atropine) without an increase in VIP mRNA level. Thus, a quantitative change in gene transcription or mRNA stability appears not to be a prerequisite for increased VIP expression, indicating that regulation can occur at translational or post-translational steps.

  9. Over-expression of an inactive mutant cathepsin D increases endogenous alpha-synuclein and cathepsin B activity in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Donna; Dodson, Matthew; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël; Liang, Qiuli; Ballestas, Mary E; Fineberg, Naomi; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder. The histopathology of Parkinson's disease comprises proteinaceous inclusions known as Lewy bodies, which contains aggregated α-synuclein. Cathepsin D (CD) is a lysosomal protease previously demonstrated to cleave α-synuclein and decrease its toxicity in both cell lines and mouse brains in vivo. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of CD, or introduction of catalytically inactive mutant CD, resulted in decreased CD activity and increased cathepsin B activity, suggesting a possible compensatory response to inhibition of CD activity. However, this increased cathepsin B activity was not sufficient to maintain α-synuclein degradation, as evidenced by the accumulation of endogenous α-synuclein. Interestingly, the levels of LC3, LAMP1, and LAMP2, proteins involved in autophagy-lysosomal activities, as well as total lysosomal mass as assessed by LysoTracker flow cytometry, were unchanged. Neither autophagic flux nor proteasomal activities differs between cells over-expressing wild-type versus mutant CD. These observations point to a critical regulatory role for that endogenous CD activity in dopaminergic cells in α-synuclein homeostasis which cannot be compensated for by increased Cathepsin B. These data support the potential need to enhance CD function in order to attenuate α-synuclein accumulation as a therapeutic strategy against development of synucleinopathy.

  10. HO-1 up-regulation: a key point in high-risk neuroblastoma resistance to bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Furfaro, Anna Lisa; Piras, Sabrina; Passalacqua, Mario; Domenicotti, Cinzia; Parodi, Alessia; Fenoglio, Daniela; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Marinari, Umberto Maria; Moretta, Lorenzo; Traverso, Nicola; Nitti, Mariapaola

    2014-04-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma (NB) is characterized by the development of chemoresistance, and bortezomib (BTZ), a selective inhibitor of proteasome, has been proposed in order to overcome drug resistance. Considering the involvement of the nuclear factor-erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the antioxidant and detoxifying ability of cancer cells, in this study we have investigated their role in differently aggressive NB cell lines treated with BTZ, focusing on the modulation of HO-1 to improve sensitivity to therapy. We have shown that MYCN amplified HTLA-230 cells were slightly sensitive to BTZ treatment, due to the activation of Nrf2 that led to an impressive up-regulation of HO-1. BTZ-treated HTLA-230 cells down-regulated p53 and up-regulated p21, favoring cell survival. The inhibition of HO-1 activity obtained by Zinc (II) protoprophyrin IX (ZnPPIX) was able to significantly increase the pro-apoptotic effect of BTZ in a p53- and p21-independent way. However, MYCN non-amplified SH-SY5Y cells showed a greater sensitivity to BTZ in relation to their inability to up-regulate HO-1. Therefore, we have shown that HO-1 inhibition improves the sensitivity of aggressive NB to proteasome inhibition-based therapy, suggesting that HO-1 up-regulation can be used as a marker of chemoresistance in NB. These results open up a new scenario in developing a combined therapy to overcome chemoresistance in high-risk neuroblastoma.

  11. Lupiwighteone induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Yang, Jie; Xu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qianhui; Yang, Meng; Hu, Kun

    2015-02-01

    Lupiwighteone (Lup) is a kind of natural isoflavone, but its pharmacological effect and active mechanism are rarely reported. This study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive effects of Lup on human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. We found that Lup could inhibit SH-SY5Y cells growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies suggested that Lup could induce G2/M phase arrest associated with an evident decrease in cyclin B1/D1 and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 1/2/4/6 protein expressions. Moreover, Lup could regulate the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. After the cells were treated with Lup, topical morphological characteristics were observed; apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 were increased; and protein expressions, such as Bcl-2, procaspase-9, PARP-1 and P-Akt were decreased. These changes were observed simultaneously. In addition, Nrf2 transcription factor activation was detected by an ARE-GFP reporter assay. Nrf2 nuclear localization was then investigated using a fluorescence microscope. Furthermore, Nrf2 and Keap1 protein levels were determined by western blot. Our results may provide a scientific basis for the application of the anticancer and cancer preventive effects of Lup on SH-SY5Y cells.

  12. Full cytogenetic characterization of a new neuroblastoma cell line with a complex 17q translocation.

    PubMed

    Panarello, C; Morerio, C; Russo, I; Pasquali, F; Rapella, A; Corrias, M V; Morando, A; Rosanda, C

    2000-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that structural abnormalities of chromosome 17 resulting in gain of material are the most frequent genetic changes in neuroblastoma. We have established a new neuroblastoma cell line from a patient whose disease had evolved from stage 4s to 4, without evidence of deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and MYCN amplification, which are considered the most typical genetic indicators of aggressive disease. The cytogenetic study allowed a full characterization of the chromosome changes, and revealed a complex translocation of chromosome 17 leading to a derivative marker which may be described as follows: der(11)t(11;17)(p15;q12)t(11;17) (q22;q12). This resulted in a gain of part of the long arms of chromosome 17, which was recently associated with poor prognosis.

  13. Nitro-oxidative Stress Is Involved in Anticancer Activity of 17β-Estradiol Derivative in Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gorska, Magdalena; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Milczarek, Ryszard; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common childhood malignancies and the primary cause of death from pediatric cancer. Derivatives of 17β-estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, as well as selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as fulvestrant, are novel potentially active anticancer agents. In particular, 2-methoxyestradiol is effective in treatment of numerous malignancies, including breast and prostate cancer, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Herein, we treated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with physiologically and pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 2-methoxyestradiol. We used flow cytometry in order to determine cell viability, cell death, level of nitric oxide and mitochondrial membrane potential. We demonstrated that at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, 2-methoxyestradiol results in induction of apoptosis of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via nitric oxide generation and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Based on the obtained data, we propose that 2-methoxyestradiol may be a natural modulator of cancer cell death and survival through nitro-oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the results confirm the efficiency of 2-methoxyestradiol in treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:27069147

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects male and female hippocampal neurons and neuroblastoma cells from glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Marques, Claudia;